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Sample records for egcg show reduced

  1. EGCG-targeted p57/KIP2 reduces tumorigenicity of oral carcinoma cells: Role of c-Jun N-terminal kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Digumarthi, Hari; Aranbayeva, Zina; Wataha, John; Lewis, Jill; Messer, Regina; Qin, Haiyan; Dickinson, Douglas; Osaki, Tokio; Schuster, George S.; Hsu, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    The green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) regulates gene expression differentially in tumor and normal cells. In normal human primary epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK), one of the key mediators of EGCG action is p57/KIP2, a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor. EGCG potently induces p57 in NHEK, but not in epithelial cancer cells. In humans, reduced expression of p57 often is associated with advanced tumors, and tumor cells with inactivated p57 undergo apoptosis when exposed to EGCG. The mechanism of p57 induction by EGCG is not well understood. Here, we show that in NHEK, EGCG-induces p57 via the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. In p57-negative tumor cells, JNK signaling mediates EGCG-induced apoptosis, and exogenous expression of p57 suppresses EGCG-induced apoptosis via inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). We also found that restoration of p57 expression in tumor cells significantly reduced tumorigenicity in athymic mice. These results suggest that p57 expression may be an useful indicator for the clinical course of cancers, and could be potentially useful as a target for cancer therapies

  2. Effect of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) extracted from green tea in reducing the formation of acrylamide during the bread baking process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhengjie; Yoo, Michelle J Y; Zhou, Weibiao; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Yutao; Lu, Jun

    2018-03-01

    This is the first study to investigate the extent of reduction in acrylamide formation during baking with the addition of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) extracted from green tea, and to determine whether EGCG influences the texture and colour attributes of bread, or interacts with other ingredients. EGCG powders were added to white bread formulations at the concentrations of 3.3, 6.6 and 9.9g·kg -1 . The amount of acrylamide in the bread was analysed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. EGCG addition significantly reduced the acrylamide formation by 37% compared to the control and decreased the moisture content of the bread by 6%. It did not affect its texture attribute, but increased the lightness and the yellowness and decreased the redness of bread crust (with contrasting results in crumb). It also decreased granule size and porosity. In conclusion, EGCG fortification is a feasible method to decrease acrylamide formation in baked bread. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) protects skin cells from ionizing radiation via heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) overexpression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Wei; Xu Jing; Ge Yangyang

    2014-01-01

    Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major polyphenolic constituent of green tea, is a potent antioxidant and free radical scavenger that may have therapeutic applications for the treatment of many disorders. Radiation therapy is widely used for the treatment of various types of cancers; however, radiation-induced skin injury remains a serious concern. EGCG has not yet been reported as protecting skin cells against ionizing radiation. In the present study, we investigated whether EGCG confers cytoprotection against ionizing radiation. We found that, compared with the control, pretreatment with EGCG significantly enhanced the viability of human skin cells that were irradiated with X-rays, and decreased apoptosis induced by X-ray irradiation. Mito-Tracker assay showed that EGCG suppressed the damage to mitochondria induced by ionizing radiation via upregulation of SOD2. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) in HaCaT cells were significantly reduced when pretreated with EGCG before irradiation. Radiation-induced γH2AX foci, which are representative of DNA double-strand breaks, were decreased by pretreatment with EGCG. Furthermore, EGCG induced the expression of the cytoprotective molecule heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in a dose-dependent manner via transcriptional activation. HO-1 knockdown or treatment with the HO-1 inhibitor tin protoporphyrin (SnPPIX) reversed the protective role of EGCG, indicating an important role for HO-1. These results suggest that EGCG offers a new strategy for protecting skin against ionizing radiation. (author)

  4. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) protects against chromate-induced toxicity in vitro

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    Wu, Fen; Sun, Hong; Kluz, Thomas; Clancy, Hailey A.; Kiok, Kathrin; Costa, Max, E-mail: Max.Costa@nyumc.org

    2012-01-15

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a human carcinogen that results in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a variety of DNA lesions leading to cell death. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major polyphenol present in green tea, possesses potent antioxidative activity capable of protecting normal cells from various stimuli-induced oxidative stress and cell death. Here we demonstrated that co-treatment with EGCG protected human normal bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells from Cr(VI)-induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner. Cr(VI) induces apoptosis as the primary mode of cell death. Co-treatment of BEAS-2B cells with EGCG dose-dependently suppressed Cr(VI)-induced apoptosis. Fluorescence microscopic analyses and quantitative measurement revealed that EGCG significantly decreased intracellular levels of ROS induced by Cr(VI) exposure. Using a well-established K{sup +}/SDS precipitation assay, we further showed that EGCG was able to dose-dependently reduce DNA–protein cross-links (DPC), lesions that could be partially attributed to Cr(VI)-induced oxidative stress. Finally, analyses of Affymetrix microarray containing 28,869 well-annotated genes revealed that, among the 3412 genes changed more than 1.5-fold by Cr(VI) treatment, changes of 2404 genes (70%) were inhibited by pretreatment of EGCG. Real-time PCR confirmed the induction of 3 genes involved in cell death and apoptosis by Cr(VI), which was eliminated by EGCG. In contrast, Cr(VI) reduced the expression of 3 genes related to cellular defense, and this reduction was inhibited by EGCG. Our results indicate that EGCG protects BEAS-2B cells from Cr(VI)-induced cytotoxicity presumably by scavenging ROS and modulating a subset of genes. EGCG, therefore, might serve as a potential chemopreventive agent against Cr(VI) carcinogenesis. -- Highlights: ► EGCG protected human normal bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells from Cr(VI)-induced cell death and apoptosis. ► EGCG significantly decreased

  5. [The effect of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on the surface properties of nickel-chromium dental casting alloys after electrochemical corrosion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Guang-yan; Zhang, Li-xia; Wang, Jue; Shen, Qing-ping; Su, Jian-sheng

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the effect of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on the surface properties of nickel-chromium dental alloys after electrochemical corrosion. The surface morphology and surface structure of nickel-chromium dental alloys were examined by stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscopy before and after electrochemical tests in 0 g/L and 1.0 g/L EGCG artificial saliva. The surface element component and chemical states of nickel-chromium dental alloys were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectrograph after electrochemical tests in 0 g/L and 1.0 g/L EGCG artificial saliva. More serious corrosion happened on the surface of nickel-chromium alloy in 1.0 g/L EGCG artificial saliva than in 0 g/L EGCG. The diameters of corrosion pits were smaller, and the dendrite structure of the alloy surface was not affected in 0 g/L EGCG. While the diameters of corrosion pits were larger, the dendritic interval of the alloy surface began to merge, and the dendrite structure was fuzzy in 1.0 g/L EGCG. In addition, the O, Ni, Cr, Be, C and Mo elements were detected on the surface of nickel-chromium alloys after sputtered for 120 s in 0 g/L EGCG and 1.0 g/L EGCG artificial saliva after electrochemical corrosion, and the surface oxides were mainly NiO and Cr(2)O(3). Compared with 0 g/L EGCG artificial saliva, the content of O, NiO and Cr(2)O(3) were lower in 1.0 g/L EGCG. The results of surface morphology and the corrosion products both show that the corrosion resistance of nickel-chromium alloys become worse and the oxide content of corrosion products on the surface reduce in 1.0 g/L EGCG artificial saliva.

  6. Protective effect of green tea polyphenol EGCG against neuronal damage and brain edema after unilateral cerebral ischemia in gerbils.

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    Lee, Hyung; Bae, Jae Hoon; Lee, Seong-Ryong

    2004-09-15

    Previous studies have demonstrated that a green tea polyphenol, (-)-epigallocatechine gallate (EGCG), has a potent free radical scavenging and antioxidant effect. Glutamate leads to excitotoxicity and oxidative stress, which are important pathophysiologic responses to cerebral ischemia resulting in brain edema and neuronal damage. We investigated the effect of EGCG on excitotoxic neuronal damage in a culture system and the effect on brain edema formation and lesion after unilateral cerebral ischemia in gerbils. In vitro, excitotoxicity was induced by 24-hr incubation with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA; 10 microM), AMPA (10 microM), or kainate (20 microM). EGCG (5 microM) was added to the culture media alone or with excitotoxins. We examined malondialdehyde (MDA) level and neuronal viability to evaluate the effect of EGCG. In vivo, unilateral cerebral ischemia was induced by occlusion of the right common carotid artery for 30, 60, or 90 min and followed by reperfusion of 24 hr. Brain edema, MDA, and infarction were examined to evaluate the protective effect of EGCG. EGCG (25 or 50 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) was administered twice, at 30 min before and immediately after ischemia. EGCG reduced excitotoxin-induced MDA production and neuronal damage in the culture system. In the in vivo study, treatment of gerbils with the lower EGCG dose failed to show neuroprotective effects; however, the higher EGCG dose attenuated the increase in MDA level caused by cerebral ischemia. EGCG also reduced the formation of postischemic brain edema and infarct volume. These results demonstrate EGCG may have future possibilities as a neuroprotective agent against excitotoxicity-related neurologic disorders such as brain ischemia.

  7. Epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCG) regulates autophagy in human retinal pigment epithelial cells: A potential role for reducing UVB light-induced retinal damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chao-Peng; Yao, Jin; Tao, Zhi-Fu; Li, Xiu-Miao; Jiang, Qin; Yan, Biao

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •UVB irradiation induces RPE autophagy. •EGCG treatment represses UVB-mediated autophagy. •EGCG regulates UVB-mediated autophagy through mTOR signaling pathway. •EGCG sensitizes RPE cells to UVB-induced damage in an autophagy-dependent manner. -- Abstract: Autophagy is an intracellular catabolic process involved in protein and organelle degradation via the lysosomal pathway that has been linked in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). UVB irradiation-mediated degeneration of the macular retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells is an important hallmark of AMD, which is along with the change in RPE autophagy. Thus, pharmacological manipulation of RPE autophagy may offer an alternative therapeutic target in AMD. Here, we found that epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a polyphenolic compound from green tea, plays a regulatory role in UVB irradiation-induced autophagy in RPE cells. UVB irradiation results in a marked increase in the amount of LC3-II protein in a dose-dependent manner. EGCG administration leads to a significant reduction in the formation of LC3-II and autophagosomes. mTOR signaling activation is required for EGCG-induced LC3-II formation, as evidenced by the fact that EGCG-induced LC3-II formation is significantly impaired by rapamycin administration. Moreover, EGCG significantly alleviates the toxic effects of UVB irradiation on RPE cells in an autophagy-dependent manner. Collectively, our study reveals a novel role of EGCG in RPE autophagy. EGCG may be exploited as a potential therapeutic reagent for the treatment of pathological conditions associated with abnormal autophagy

  8. Epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCG) regulates autophagy in human retinal pigment epithelial cells: A potential role for reducing UVB light-induced retinal damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chao-Peng; Yao, Jin; Tao, Zhi-Fu; Li, Xiu-Miao; Jiang, Qin, E-mail: jqin710@vip.sina.com; Yan, Biao, E-mail: yanbiao1982@hotmail.com

    2013-09-06

    Highlights: •UVB irradiation induces RPE autophagy. •EGCG treatment represses UVB-mediated autophagy. •EGCG regulates UVB-mediated autophagy through mTOR signaling pathway. •EGCG sensitizes RPE cells to UVB-induced damage in an autophagy-dependent manner. -- Abstract: Autophagy is an intracellular catabolic process involved in protein and organelle degradation via the lysosomal pathway that has been linked in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). UVB irradiation-mediated degeneration of the macular retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells is an important hallmark of AMD, which is along with the change in RPE autophagy. Thus, pharmacological manipulation of RPE autophagy may offer an alternative therapeutic target in AMD. Here, we found that epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a polyphenolic compound from green tea, plays a regulatory role in UVB irradiation-induced autophagy in RPE cells. UVB irradiation results in a marked increase in the amount of LC3-II protein in a dose-dependent manner. EGCG administration leads to a significant reduction in the formation of LC3-II and autophagosomes. mTOR signaling activation is required for EGCG-induced LC3-II formation, as evidenced by the fact that EGCG-induced LC3-II formation is significantly impaired by rapamycin administration. Moreover, EGCG significantly alleviates the toxic effects of UVB irradiation on RPE cells in an autophagy-dependent manner. Collectively, our study reveals a novel role of EGCG in RPE autophagy. EGCG may be exploited as a potential therapeutic reagent for the treatment of pathological conditions associated with abnormal autophagy.

  9. EGCG protects against homocysteine-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells apoptosis by modulating mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic signaling and PI3K/Akt/eNOS signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shumin; Sun, Zhengwu; Chu, Peng; Li, Hailong; Ahsan, Anil; Zhou, Ziru; Zhang, Zonghui; Sun, Bin; Wu, Jingjun; Xi, Yalin; Han, Guozhu; Lin, Yuan; Peng, Jinyong; Tang, Zeyao

    2017-05-01

    Homocysteine (Hcy) induced vascular endothelial injury leads to the progression of endothelial dysfunction in atherosclerosis. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a natural dietary antioxidant, has been applied to protect against atherosclerosis. However, the underlying protective mechanism of EGCG has not been clarified. The present study investigated the mechanism of EGCG protected against Hcy-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) apoptosis. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay (MTT), transmission electron microscope, fluorescent staining, flow cytometry, western blot were used in this study. The study has demonstrated that EGCG suppressed Hcy-induced endothelial cell morphological changes and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Moreover, EGCG dose-dependently prevented Hcy-induced HUVECs cytotoxicity and apoptotic biochemical changes such as reducing mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), decreasing Bcl-2/Bax protein ratio and activating caspase-9 and 3. In addition, EGCG enhanced the protein ratio of p-Akt/Akt, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation and nitric oxide (NO) formation in injured cells. In conclusion, the present study shows that EGCG prevents Hcy-induced HUVECs apoptosis via modulating mitochondrial apoptotic and PI3K/Akt/eNOS signaling pathways. Furthermore, the results indicate that EGCG is likely to represent a potential therapeutic strategy for atherosclerosis associated with Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy).

  10. Effects of topical application of EGCG on testosterone-induced hair loss in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon Young; Up No, Sun; Kim, Min Ho; Kim, Hei Sung; Kang, Hoon; Kim, Hyung Ok; Park, Young Min

    2011-12-01

    We investigated the effect of topical epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on testosterone (T)-induced hair loss in mice. Marked hair loss was observed at the T-injected site, and topical EGCG significantly reduced the hair loss (P hair loss by apoptosis of the hair follicles rather than through the androgen metabolic pathway and also saw that T-induced apoptosis of hair follicles was reduced by topical EGCG. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Computational and Biochemical Discovery of RSK2 as a Novel Target for Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG.

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    Hanyong Chen

    Full Text Available The most active anticancer component in green tea is epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG. Protein interaction with EGCG is a critical step for mediating the effects of EGCG on the regulation of various key molecules involved in signal transduction. By using computational docking screening methods for protein identification, we identified a serine/threonine kinase, 90-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK2, as a novel molecular target of EGCG. RSK2 includes two kinase catalytic domains in the N-terminal (NTD and the C-terminal (CTD and RSK2 full activation requires phosphorylation of both terminals. The computer prediction was confirmed by an in vitro kinase assay in which EGCG inhibited RSK2 activity in a dose-dependent manner. Pull-down assay results showed that EGCG could bind with RSK2 at both kinase catalytic domains in vitro and ex vivo. Furthermore, results of an ATP competition assay and a computer-docking model showed that EGCG binds with RSK2 in an ATP-dependent manner. In RSK2+/+ and RSK2-/- murine embryonic fibroblasts, EGCG decreased viability only in the presence of RSK2. EGCG also suppressed epidermal growth factor-induced neoplastic cell transformation by inhibiting phosphorylation of histone H3 at Ser10. Overall, these results indicate that RSK2 is a novel molecular target of EGCG.

  12. EGCG Protects against 6-OHDA-Induced Neurotoxicity in a Cell Culture Model

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    Dan Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Parkinson’s disease (PD is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that causes severe brain dopamine depletion. Disruption of iron metabolism may be involved in the PD progression. Objective. To test the protective effect of (−-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG against 6-hydroxydopamine- (6-OHDA- induced neurotoxicity by regulating iron metabolism in N27 cells. Methods. Protection by EGCG in N27 cells was assessed by SYTOX green assay, MTT, and caspase-3 activity. Iron regulatory gene and protein expression were measured by RT-PCR and Western blotting. Intracellular iron uptake was measured using 55Fe. The EGCG protection was further tested in primary mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons by immunocytochemistry. Results. EGCG protected against 6-OHDA-induced cell toxicity. 6-OHDA treatment significantly (p<0.05 increased divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1 and hepcidin and decreased ferroportin 1 (Fpn1 level, whereas pretreatment with EGCG counteracted the effects. The increased 55Fe (by 96%, p<0.01 cell uptake confirmed the iron burden by 6-OHDA and was reduced by EGCG by 27% (p<0.05, supporting the DMT1 results. Pretreatment with EGCG and 6-OHDA significantly increased (p<0.0001 TH+ cell count (~3-fold and neurite length (~12-fold compared to 6-OHDA alone in primary mesencephalic neurons. Conclusions. Pretreatment with EGCG protected against 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity by regulating genes and proteins involved in brain iron homeostasis, especially modulating hepcidin levels.

  13. Cluster analysis of the biochemical composition in 53 Sichuan EGCG3"Me tea resources

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    Li, J. H.; Chen, S. X.; Zhu, M. Z.; Meng, X. L.

    2017-09-01

    The EGCG3"Me contents in the young tea leaves of 102 tea resources in sichuan were analyzed accurately using HPLC-DAD. The results revealed that there was a wide variation in EGCG3"Me levels among different tea resources. The EGCG3"Me content in different tea resources was in a range from 0 to 11.04 mg/g, mean was 2.33 mg/g.53 tea resources contained EGCG3"Me, accounting for 51.96% of the total number of resources survey. Shucha5, Jinguanyin, Chengxi11, Fenghuang-dancong, Chongpi 71-1 were found to contain higher EGCG3"Me content (>10mg/g).Cluster analysis showed that: 53 Sichuan EGCG3"Me tea resources were divided into six groups and the difference was obvious between their biochemical composition; tea resources rich in EGCG3"Me were mainly distributed in Sichuan, Chongqing and Fujian Province, mostly were shrub and mid-leaf, mainly existed in tea resources which were suitable to make green tea, oolong tea. The morphological and biochemical distribution provided a good theoretical basis for selecting and utilizing higher EGCG3"Me resources.

  14. Keratinocyte proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis-Differential mechanisms of regulation by curcumin, EGCG and apigenin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramanian, Sivaprakasam; Eckert, Richard L.

    2007-01-01

    We have proposed that it is important to examine the impact of chemopreventive agents on the function of normal human epidermal keratinocytes since these cells comprise the barrier that protects the body from a range of environmental insults. In this context, it is widely appreciated that cancer may be retarded by consumption or topical application of naturally occurring food-derived chemopreventive agents. Our studies show that (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a green tea-derived polyphenol, acts to enhance the differentiation of normal human keratinocytes as evidenced by its ability to increase involucrin (hINV), transglutaminase type 1 (TG1) and caspase-14 gene expression. EGCG also stimulates keratinocyte morphological differentiation. These actions of EGCG are mediated via activation of a nPKC, Ras, MEKK1, MEK3, p38δ-ERK1/2 signaling cascade which leads to increased activator protein 1 (AP1) and CAATT enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) transcription factor expression, increased binding of these factors to DNA, and increased gene transcription. In contrast, apigenin, a dietary flavonoid derived from plants and vegetables, and curcumin, an agent derived from turmeric, inhibit differentiation by suppressing MAPK signal transduction and reducing API transcription factor level. Curcumin also acts to enhance apoptosis, although EGCG and apigenin do not stimulate apoptosis. In addition, all of these agents inhibit keratinocyte proliferation. These findings indicate that each of these diet-derived chemopreventive agents has a profound impact on normal human keratinocyte function and that they operate via distinct and sometimes opposing mechanisms. However, all are expected to act as chemopreventive agents

  15. Skin delivery of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and hyaluronic acid loaded nano-transfersomes for antioxidant and anti-aging effects in UV radiation induced skin damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avadhani, Kiran S; Manikkath, Jyothsna; Tiwari, Mradul; Chandrasekhar, Misra; Godavarthi, Ashok; Vidya, Shimoga M; Hariharapura, Raghu C; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Udupa, Nayanabhirama; Mutalik, Srinivas

    2017-11-01

    The present work attempts to develop and statistically optimize transfersomes containing EGCG and hyaluronic acid to synergize the UV radiation-protective ability of both compounds, along with imparting antioxidant and anti-aging effects. Transfersomes were prepared by thin film hydration technique, using soy phosphatidylcholine and sodium cholate, combined with high-pressure homogenization. They were characterized with respect to size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, morphology, entrapment efficiency, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), in vitro antioxidant activity and ex vivo skin permeation studies. Cell viability, lipid peroxidation, intracellular ROS levels and expression of MMPs (2 and 9) were determined in human keratinocyte cell lines (HaCaT). The composition of the transfersomes was statistically optimized by Design of Experiments using Box-Behnken design with four factors at three levels. The optimized transfersome formulation showed vesicle size, polydispersity index and zeta potential of 101.2 ± 6.0 nm, 0.245 ± 0.069 and -44.8 ± 5.24 mV, respectively. FTIR and DSC showed no interaction between EGCG and the selected excipients. XRD results revealed no form conversion of EGCG in its transfersomal form. The optimized transfersomes were found to increase the cell viability and reduce the lipid peroxidation, intracellular ROS and expression of MMPs in HaCaT cells. The optimized transfersomal formulation of EGCG and HA exhibited considerably higher skin permeation and deposition of EGCG than that observed with plain EGCG. The results underline the potential application of the developed transfersomes in sunscreen cream/lotions for improvement of UV radiation-protection along with deriving antioxidant and anti-aging effects.

  16. Difference of EGCg adhesion on cell surface between Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli visualized by electron microscopy after novel indirect staining with cerium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Motokazu; Shigemune, Naofumi; Tsugukuni, Takashi; Tokuda, Hajime; Miyamoto, Takahisa

    2011-07-01

    We developed a novel method using indirect staining with cerium chloride for visualization of the catechin derivative epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) on the surface of particles, i.e., polystyrene beads and bacterial cells, by electron microscopy. The staining method is based on the fact that in an alkaline environment, EGCg produces hydrogen peroxide, and then hydrogen peroxide reacts with cerium, resulting in a cerium hydroperoxide precipitate. This precipitate subsequently reacts with EGCg to produce larger deposits. The amount of precipitate is proportional to the amount of EGCg. Highly EGCg-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus and EGCg-resistant Escherichia coli were treated with EGCg under various pH conditions. Transmission electron microscopy observation showed that the amount of deposits on S. aureus increased with an increase in EGCg concentration. After treating bacterial cells with 0.5mg/mL EGCg (pH 6.0), attachment of EGCg was significantly lower to E. coli than to S. aureus. This is the first report that shows differences in affinity of EGCg to the cell surfaces of Gram-positive and -negative bacteria by electron microscopy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Ferritin glycosylated by chitosan as a novel EGCG nano-carrier: Structure, stability, and absorption analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui; Liu, Yuqian; Gao, Yunjing; Wang, Yongjin; Blanchard, Chris; Zhou, Zhongkai

    2017-12-01

    Ferritin is a shell-like carrier protein with an 8nm diameter cavity which endows a natural space to encapsulate food and drug components. In this work, phytoferritin was unprecedentedly glycosylated by chitosan to fabricate ferritin-chitosan Maillard reaction products (FCMPs) (grafting degree of 26.17%, 24h, 55°C). Results indicated that the amide I and II bands of ferritin were altered due to the chitosan grafting, whereas the ferritin spherical structure were retained. Simulated digestion analysis showed that the FCMPs were more resistant to pepsin and trypsin digestion as compared with ferritin alone. Furthermore, FCMPs were employed as carrier to encapsulate epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) molecules with an encapsulation ratio of 12.87% (w/w), and the resulting FCMPs-EGCG complexes showed a slow release of EGCG in simulated gastrointestinal tract. Interestingly, different types of food components displayed different effects in EGCG release behavior from the FCMPs, wherein proanthocyanidin, milk and soy protein inhibited the EGCG release. In addition, the absorption of EGCG encapsulated in FCMPs in Caco-2 monolayer model was significantly improved as compared with free EGCG. This work provides a novel nano-vehicle for fabricating core-shell systems in food and drug delivery domain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) cross-linked collagen membranes and concerns on osteoblasts

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    Chu, Chenyu; Deng, Jia [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Xiang, Lin; Wu, Yingying [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Department of Oral Implantology, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Wei, Xiawei [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Laboratory for Aging Research, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, and Collaborative Innovation Center for Biotherapy, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Qu, Yili [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Department of Oral Implantology, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Man, Yi, E-mail: manyi780203@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Department of Oral Implantology, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2016-10-01

    Collagen membranes have ideal biological and mechanical properties for supporting infiltration and proliferation of osteoblasts and play a vital role in guided bone regeneration (GBR). However, pure collagen can lead to inflammation, resulting in progressive bone resorption. Therefore, a method for regulating the level of inflammatory cytokines at surgical sites is paramount for the healing process. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is a component extracted from green tea with numerous biological activities including an anti-inflammatory effect. Herein, we present a novel cross-linked collagen membrane containing different concentrations of EGCG (0.0064%, 0.064%, and 0.64%) to regulate the level of inflammatory factors secreted by pre-osteoblast cells; improve cell proliferation; and increase the tensile strength, wettability, and thermal stability of collagen membranes. Scanning electron microscope images show that the surfaces of collagen membranes became smoother and the collagen fiber diameters became larger with EGCG treatment. Measurement of the water contact angle demonstrated that introducing EGCG improved membrane wettability. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses indicated that the backbone of collagen was intact, and the thermal stability was significant improved in differential scanning calorimetry. The mechanical properties of 0.064% and 0.64% EGCG-treated collagen membranes were 1.5-fold greater than those of the control. The extent of cross-linking was significantly increased, as determined by a 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid solution assay. The Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) and live/dead assays revealed that collagen membrane cross-linked by 0.0064% EGCG induced greater cell proliferation than pure collagen membranes. Additionally, real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay results showed that EGCG significantly affected the production of inflammatory factors secreted by MC3T3-E1 cells. Taken together, our

  19. Effects of EGCG and Chlorpyrifos on the Mortality, AChE and GSH of Adult Zebrafish: Independent and Combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong; Zhang, Jian; Gao, Qian; Guo, Nichun

    2018-01-01

    Chlorpyrifos is a neurotoxic agent and also causes oxidative stress in the body. EGCG is a typical strong antioxidant and has been reported to be neuroprotective. Our study investigated the mortality, the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the brain and glutathione (GSH) in the liver of the adult Zebrafish in present of Chlorpyrifos and EGCG independent and combination. The results indicated that after the addition of EGCG, the mortality of zebrafish induced by Chlorpyrifos was reduced and the activity of AChE and glutathione (GSH) inhibited by Chlorpyrifos in zebrafish was significantly increased, which demonstrated that EGCG inhibited the toxicity Chlorpyrifos to zebrafish. The inhibition was dependent on the concentration of EGCG and Chlorpyrifos, which was not shown a gradual change trend but a complex situation.

  20. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major component of green tea, is a dual phosphoinositide-3-kinase/mTOR inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Aller, Glenn S.; Carson, Jeff D.; Tang, Wei; Peng, Hao; Zhao, Lin; Copeland, Robert A.; Tummino, Peter J.; Luo, Lusong

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is an ATP-competitive inhibitor of PI3K and mTOR with Ki values around 300 nM. → EGCG inhibits cell proliferation and AKT phosphorylation at Ser473 in MDA-MB-231and A549 cells. → Molecular docking studies show that EGCG binds well to the PI3K kinase domain active site. → These results suggest another important molecular mechanism for the anticancer activities of EGCG. -- Abstract: The PI3K signaling pathway is activated in a broad spectrum of human cancers, either directly by genetic mutation or indirectly via activation of receptor tyrosine kinases or inactivation of the PTEN tumor suppressor. The key nodes of this pathway have emerged as important therapeutic targets for the treatment of cancer. In this study, we show that (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major component of green tea, is an ATP-competitive inhibitor of both phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) with K i values of 380 and 320 nM respectively. The potency of EGCG against PI3K and mTOR is within physiologically relevant concentrations. In addition, EGCG inhibits cell proliferation and AKT phosphorylation at Ser473 in MDA-MB-231 and A549 cells. Molecular docking studies show that EGCG binds well to the PI3K kinase domain active site, agreeing with the finding that EGCG competes for ATP binding. Our results suggest another important molecular mechanism for the anticancer activities of EGCG.

  1. Antibacterial activity of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and its synergism with β-lactam antibiotics sensitizing carbapenem-associated multidrug resistant clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Spencer; Razqan, Ghaida Saleh Al; Kwon, Dong H

    2017-01-15

    Infections caused by Acinetobacter baumannii were responsive to conventional antibiotic therapy. However, recently, carbapenem-associated multidrug resistant isolates have been reported worldwide and present a major therapeutic challenge. Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate (EGCG) extracted from green tea exhibits antibacterial activity. We evaluated the antibacterial activity of EGCG and possible synergism with antibiotics in carbapenem-associated multidrug resistant A. baumannii. A potential mechanism for synergism was also explored. Seventy clinical isolates of A. baumannii collected from geographically different areas were analyzed by minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of EGCG. Checkerboard and time-killing assays were performed to exam the synergism between EGCG and antibiotics. The effects of EGCG on a multidrug efflux pump inhibitor (1-[1-naphthylmethyl] piperazine; NMP) and β-lactamase production were also examined in A. baumannii. Sixty-three of 70 clinical isolates of A. baumannii carried carbapenemase-encoding genes with carbapenem-associated multidrug resistance. Levels of MIC and MBC of EGCG ranged from 64 to 512µg/ml and from 128 to ≥1024µg/ml, respectively among the clinical isolates. MIC 90 and MBC 86 levels were 256µg/ml and 512µg/ml of EGCG, respectively. Subinhibitory concentration of EGCG in combination with all antibiotics tested, including carbapenem, sensitized (MICs fall≤1.0µg/ml) all carbapenem-associated multidrug resistant isolates. Checkerboard and time-killing assays showed synergism between EGCG and meropenem (or carbenicillin) counted as fractional inhibitory concentration of 2log10 within 12h, respectively. EGCG significantly increased the effect of NMP but was unrelated to β-lactamase production in A. baumannii, suggesting EGCG may be associated with inhibition of efflux pumps. Overall we suggest that EGCG-antibiotic combinations might provide an alternative approach to treat

  2. Radioiodine-labeling of EGCG and its biodistribution in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diao Yao; Zhao Wenjin; Liu Jie; Zhao Xun; Yu Chengguo; Cui Zeshi; Liu Xinning; Lan Zhenhe; Ma Jing

    2013-01-01

    To establish the 125 I-EGCG labeling method and investigate the biodistribution of 125 I-EGCG in mice, 125 I-EGCG was prepared by Iodogen solid labeling method, and were isolated and purified by Sephadex-G25 agarose. The labeling yield and radiochemical purity of 125 I-EGCG was analyzed by polyamide TLC. The labeling yield of 125 I-EGCG was 89.4% and its radiochemical purity (RCP) were 96.4%. The Biodistribution of 125 I-EGCG in mice was measured at different times after caudal vein injection with 185 kBq for each mice. The biodistribution in mice demonstrated that 125 I-EGCG was distributed into broad organs and tissues, especially in the Stomach, Small intestine and Submaxillay gland, and the biggest uptake of 125 I-EGCG in there organs was 15.92, 5.83 and 11.56 %ID · g -1 respectively at 15 min post injection. In addition, 125 I-EGCG was cleared out from blood quickly, and the uptake of 131 I-EGCG in blood was 11.95 at 5 min, and decreased to 1.25 at 4 h post injection. Therefore, 125 I-EGCG was stable and it was metabolized mainly in Stomach, Small intestine, Submaxillay gland, worthy of further investigation to trace the compound in vivo and in vitro. (authors)

  3. Skin Delivery of EGCG and Silibinin: Potential of Peptide Dendrimers for Enhanced Skin Permeation and Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Pallavi Krishna; Manikkath, Jyothsna; Tupally, Karnaker; Kokil, Ganesh; Hegde, Aswathi R; Raut, Sushil Y; Parekh, Harendra S; Mutalik, Srinivas

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the ability of the peptide dendrimers to facilitate transdermal delivery of antioxidants, silibinin, and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). Drug-peptide dendrimer complexes were prepared and evaluated for their ability to permeate across the skin. The data revealed the ready formation of complexes between drug and peptide dendrimer in a molar ratio of 1:1. In vitro permeation studies using excised rat skin and drug-peptide dendrimer complexes showed highest values for cumulative drug permeation at the end of 12 h (Q 12 ), with corresponding permeability coefficient (Kp) and enhancement ratio values also determined at this time point. With silibinin, 3.96-, 1.81-, and 1.06-fold increase in skin permeation was observed from silibinin-peptide dendrimer complex, simultaneous application of silibinin + peptide dendrimer, and pretreatment of skin with peptide dendrimer, respectively, in comparison with passive diffusion. With EGCG, 9.82-, 2.04-, and 1.72-fold increase in skin permeation was observed from EGCG-peptide dendrimer complex, simultaneous application of EGCG + peptide dendrimer, and pretreatment of skin with peptide dendrimer, respectively, in comparison with passive diffusion. The present study demonstrates the application of peptide dendrimers in effectively delivering antioxidants such as EGCG and silibinin into the skin, thus offering the potential to provide antioxidant effects when delivered via appropriately formulated topical preparations.

  4. Synthesis and Biological Testing of Novel Glucosylated Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG Derivatives

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    Xin Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG is the most abundant component of green tea catechins and has strong physiological activities. In this study, two novel EGCG glycosides (EGCG-G1 and EGCG-G2 were chemoselectively synthesized by a chemical modification strategy. Each of these EGCG glycosides underwent structure identification, and the structures were assigned as follows: epigallocatechin gallate-4′′-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (EGCG-G1, 2 and epigallocatechin gallate-4′,4′′-O-β-d-gluco-pyranoside (EGCG-G2, 3. The EGCG glycosides were evaluated for their anticancer activity in vitro against two human breast cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 using MTT assays. The inhibition rate of EGCG glycosides (EGCG-G1 and EGCG-G2 is not obvious. The EGCG glycosides are more stable than EGCG in aqueous solutions, but exhibited decreasing antioxidant activity in the DPPH radical-scavenging assay (EGCG > EGCG-G2 > EGCG-G1. Additionally, the EGCG glycosides exhibited increased water solubility: EGCG-G2 and EGCG-G1 were 15 and 31 times as soluble EGCG, respectively. The EGCG glycosides appear to be useful, and further studies regarding their biological activity are in progress.

  5. EGCG Inhibits Proliferation, Invasiveness and Tumor Growth by Up-Regulation of Adhesion Molecules, Suppression of Gelatinases Activity, and Induction of Apoptosis in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cells

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    Chih-Yeu Fang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available (−-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, a major green tea polyphenol, has been shown to inhibit the proliferation of a variety of tumor cells. Epidemiological studies have shown that drinking green tea can reduce the incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC, yet the underlying mechanism is not well understood. In this study, the inhibitory effect of EGCG was tested on a set of Epstein Barr virus-negative and -positive NPC cell lines. Treatment with EGCG inhibited the proliferation of NPC cells but did not affect the growth of a non-malignant nasopharyngeal cell line, NP460hTert. Moreover, EGCG treated cells had reduced migration and invasive properties. The expression of the cell adhesion molecules E-cadherin and β-catenin was found to be up-regulated by EGCG treatment, while the down-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9 were found to be mediated by suppression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK phosphorylation and AP-1 and Sp1 transactivation. Spheroid formation by NPC cells in suspension was significantly inhibited by EGCG. Oral administration of EGCG was capable of suppressing tumor growth in xenografted mice bearing NPC tumors. Treatment with EGCG was found to elevate the expression of p53 and p21, and eventually led to apoptosis of NPC cells via caspase 3 activation. The nuclear translocation of NF-κB and β-catenin was also suppressed by EGCG treatment. These results indicate that EGCG can inhibit the proliferation and invasiveness, and induce apoptosis, of NPC cells, making it a promising agent for chemoprevention or adjuvant therapy of NPC.

  6. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) consumption in the Ts65Dn model of Down syndrome fails to improve behavioral deficits and is detrimental to skeletal phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, Megan; Abeysekera, Irushi; Thomas, Jared; LaCombe, Jonathan; Stancombe, Kailey; Stewart, Robert J; Dria, Karl J; Wallace, Joseph M; Goodlett, Charles R; Roper, Randall J

    2017-08-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is caused by three copies of human chromosome 21 (Hsa21) and results in phenotypes including intellectual disability and skeletal deficits. Ts65Dn mice have three copies of ~50% of the genes homologous to Hsa21 and display phenotypes associated with DS, including cognitive deficits and skeletal abnormalities. DYRK1A is found in three copies in humans with Trisomy 21 and in Ts65Dn mice, and is involved in a number of critical pathways including neurological development and osteoclastogenesis. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the main polyphenol in green tea, inhibits Dyrk1a activity. We have previously shown that EGCG treatment (~10mg/kg/day) improves skeletal abnormalities in Ts65Dn mice, yet the same dose, as well as ~20mg/kg/day did not rescue deficits in the Morris water maze spatial learning task (MWM), novel object recognition (NOR) or balance beam task (BB). In contrast, a recent study reported that an EGCG-containing supplement with a dose of 2-3mg per day (~40-60mg/kg/day) improved hippocampal-dependent task deficits in Ts65Dn mice. The current study investigated if an EGCG dosage similar to that study would yield similar improvements in either cognitive or skeletal deficits. Ts65Dn mice and euploid littermates were given EGCG [0.4mg/mL] or a water control, with treatments yielding average daily intakes of ~50mg/kg/day EGCG, and tested on the multivariate concentric square field (MCSF)-which assesses activity, exploratory behavior, risk assessment, risk taking, and shelter seeking-and NOR, BB, and MWM. EGCG treatment failed to improve cognitive deficits; EGCG also produced several detrimental effects on skeleton in both genotypes. In a refined HPLC-based assay, its first application in Ts65Dn mice, EGCG treatment significantly reduced kinase activity in femora but not in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, or hippocampus. Counter to expectation, 9-week-old Ts65Dn mice exhibited a decrease in Dyrk1a protein levels in Western blot analysis

  7. Oxygen partial pressure modulates 67-kDa laminin receptor expression, leading to altered activity of the green tea polyphenol, EGCG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Shuntaro; Yamashita, Shuya; Kim, Yoon Hee; Kumazoe, Motofumi; Huang, Yuhui; Yamada, Koji; Tachibana, Hirofumi

    2012-09-21

    (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) exhibits anti-tumor activity mediated via the 67-kDa laminin receptor (67LR). In this study, we found that 67LR protein levels are reduced by exposure to low O(2) levels (5%), without affecting the expression of HIF-1α. We also found that EGCG-induced anti-cancer activity is abrogated under low O(2) levels (5%) in various cancer cells. Notably, treatment with the proteasome inhibitor, prevented down-regulation of 67LR and restored sensitivity to EGCG under 5% O(2). In summary, 67LR expression is highly sensitive to O(2) partial pressure, and the activity of EGCG can be regulated in cancer cells by O(2) partial pressure. Copyright © 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Enhancement of radiation induced oxidative stress in tumour cells by EGCG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, U.; Das, T.; Sengupta, A.; Biswas, S.; Dey, S.; Chakraborty, A.

    2017-01-01

    In view of the fact that radiotherapy fails in the later stages of cancer due to the radioresistant tumor cells, it is most important in radiobiology to enhance the oxidative damage of the tumor cells by using a tumor selective cytotoxic agent. The increase in radiosensitivity is important both for optimizing radiation dose for tumors and for designing strategies to improve the therapeutic ratio. Amount and time of treatment of radiation (IR), epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and epicatechin (EC) were determined using MTT assay. Biochemical assay, Flow cytometry and immune blots were employed to elucidate the enhanced sensitization of EC and EGCG along with IR in hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2). The effects were more effective in killing the HepG2 cells compared to only irradiation. It was observed that the ROS generation was significantly increased in combination group (IR+EGCG/EC) over the IR group. Lower reduced glutathione content, higher TBARS and decreased catalase activity in combination group provided additive support. Combination treatment caused cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase. Mitochondrial membrane potential was greatly reduced and the percentage of apoptotic population increased in combination group compared to IR alone. Moreover, the higher expression of p53 and activation of caspase 3 in combination group over the IR alone indicated EC and EGCG along with ionizing radiation increase the oxidative stressed condition in HepG2 cell that leads the apoptosis of the cells. The novel use of this combination of radiation and tea polyphenol will remain an effective radiotherapeutic strategy. (author)

  9. A prospective phase II trial of EGCG in treatment of acute radiation-induced esophagitis for stage III lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Hanxi; Xie, Peng; Li, Xiaolin; Zhu, Wanqi; Sun, Xindong; Sun, Xiaorong; Chen, Xiaoting; Xing, Ligang; Yu, Jinming

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acute radiation-induced esophagitis (ARIE) is one of main toxicities complicated by thoracic radiotherapy, influencing patients’ quality of life and radiotherapy proceeding seriously. It is difficult to be cured rapidly so far. Our phase I trial preliminarily showed that EGCG may be a promising strategy in the treatment of ARIE. Materials and methods: We prospectively enrolled patients with stage III lung cancer from the Shandong Tumor Hospital & Institute in China from January 2013 to September 2014. All patients received concurrent or sequential chemo-radiotherapy, or radiotherapy only. EGCG was administrated once ARIE appeared. EGCG was given with the concentration of 440 μmol/L during radiotherapy and additionally two weeks after radiotherapy. RTOG score, dysphagia and pain related to esophagitis were recorded every week. Results: Thirty-seven patients with stage IIIA and IIIB lung cancer were enrolled in this trial. In comparison to the original, the RTOG score in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th week after EGCG prescription and the 1st, 2nd week after radiotherapy decreased significantly (P = 0.002, 0.000, 0.000, 0.001, 0.102, 0.000, 0.000, respectively). The pain score of each week was significantly lower than the baseline (P = 0.000, 0.000, 0.000, 0.000, 0.006, 0.000, 0.000, respectively). Conclusion: This trial confirmed that the oral administration of EGCG is an effective and safe method to deal with ARIE. A phase III randomized controlled trial is expected to further corroborate the consequence of EGCG in ARIE treatment

  10. Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate (EGCG Promotes Autophagy-Dependent Survival via Influencing the Balance of mTOR-AMPK Pathways upon Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

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    Marianna Holczer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance of cellular homeostasis is largely dependent on the ability of cells to give an adequate response to various internal and external stimuli. We have recently proposed that the life-and-death decision in endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress response is defined by a crosstalk between autophagy, apoptosis, and mTOR-AMPK pathways, where the transient switch from autophagy-dependent survival to apoptotic cell death is controlled by GADD34. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, the major polyphenol of green tea, in promoting autophagy-dependent survival and to verify the key role in connecting GADD34 with mTOR-AMPK pathways upon prolonged ER stress. Our findings, obtained by using HEK293T cells, revealed that EGCG treatment is able to extend cell viability by inducing autophagy. We confirmed that EGCG-induced autophagy is mTOR-dependent and PKA-independent; furthermore, it also required ULK1. We show that pretreatment of cells with EGCG diminishes the negative effect of GADD34 inhibition (by guanabenz or siGADD34 treatment on autophagy. EGCG was able to delay apoptotic cell death by upregulating autophagy-dependent survival even in the absence of GADD34. Our data suggest a novel role for EGCG in promoting cell survival via shifting the balance of mTOR-AMPK pathways in ER stress.

  11. Targeting of histamine producing cells by EGCG: a green dart against inflammation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgarejo, Esther; Medina, Miguel Angel; Sánchez-Jiménez, Francisca; Urdiales, José Luis

    2010-09-01

    The human body is made of some 250 different cell types. From them, only a small subset of cell types is able to produce histamine. They include some neurons, enterochromaffin-like cells, gastrin-containing cells, mast cells, basophils, and monocytes/macrophages, among others. In spite of the reduced number of these histamine-producing cell types, they are involved in very different physiological processes. Their deregulation is related with many highly prevalent, as well as emergent and rare diseases, mainly those described as inflammation-dependent pathologies, including mastocytosis, basophilic leukemia, gastric ulcer, Crohn disease, and other inflammatory bowel diseases. Furthermore, oncogenic transformation switches some non-histamine-producing cells to a histamine producing phenotype. This is the case of melanoma, small cell lung carcinoma, and several types of neuroendocrine tumors. The bioactive compound epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major component of green tea, has been shown to target histamine-producing cells producing great alterations in their behavior, with relevant effects on their proliferative potential, as well as their adhesion, migration, and invasion potentials. In fact, EGCG has been shown to have potent anti-inflammatory, anti-tumoral, and anti-angiogenic effects and to be a potent inhibitor of the histamine-producing enzyme, histidine decarboxylase. Herein, we review the many specific effects of EGCG on concrete molecular targets of histamine-producing cells and discuss the relevance of these data to support the potential therapeutic interest of this compound to treat inflammation-dependent diseases.

  12. Physicochemical characterization of epigallocatechin gallate lipid nanoparticles (EGCG-LNs) for ocular instillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fangueiro, Joana F; Andreani, Tatiana; Fernandes, Lisete; Garcia, Maria L; Egea, Maria A; Silva, Amélia M; Souto, Eliana B

    2014-11-01

    The encapsulation of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) in lipid nanoparticles (LNs) could be a suitable approach to avoid drug oxidation and epimerization, which are common processes that lead to low bioavailability of the drug limiting its therapeutic efficacy. The human health benefits of EGCG gained much interest in the pharmaceutical field, and so far there are no studies reporting its encapsulation in LNs. The purpose of this study has been the development of an innovative system for the ocular delivery of EGCG using LNs as carrier for the future treatment of several diseases, such as dry eye, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy and macular oedema. LNs dispersions have been produced by multiple emulsion technique and previously optimized by a factorial design. In order to increase ocular retention time and mucoadhesion by electrostatic attraction, two distinct cationic lipids were used, namely, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide (DDAB). EGCG has been successfully loaded in the LNs dispersions and the nanoparticles analysis over 30 days of storage time predicted a good physicochemical stability. The particles were found to be in the nanometer range (<300 nm) and all the evaluated parameters, namely pH, osmolarity and viscosity, were compatible to the ocular administration. The evaluation of the cationic lipid used was compared regarding physical and chemical parameters, lipid crystallization and polymorphism, and stability of dispersion during storage. The results show that different lipids lead to different characteristics mainly associated with the acyl chain composition, i.e. double lipid shows to have influence in the crystallization and stability. Despite the recorded differences between DTAB and DDAB, both cationic LNs seem to fit the parameters for ocular drug delivery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Reducing no-show behavior at a community mental health center

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieren, Q van; Rijckmans, M.J.N.; Mathijssen, J.J.P.; Lobbestael, J.; Arntz, A.R.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine whether an easy to apply no-show policy can substantially reduce no-show behavior of 16–25-year-old clients undergoing individual outpatient treatment at a community mental health center. After introduction of the new no-show policy, the no-show percentage

  14. Exploring the influence of EGCG on the β-sheet-rich oligomers of human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP1-37 and identifying its possible binding sites from molecular dynamics simulation.

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    Qianqian Wang

    Full Text Available EGCG possesses the ability of disaggregating the existing amyloid fibrils which were associated with many age-related degenerative diseases. However, the molecular mechanism of EGCG to disaggregate these fibrils is poorly known. In this work, to study the influence of EGCG on the full-length human islet amyloid polypeptide 1-37 (hIAPP1-37 oligomers, molecular dynamics simulations of hIAPP1-37 pentamer and decamer with EGCG were performed, respectively. The obtained results indicate that EGCG indeed destabilized the hIAPP1-37 oligomers. The nematic order parameter and secondary structure calculations coupled with the free-energy landscape indicate that EGCG broke the initial ordered pattern of two polymers, greatly reduced their β-sheet content and enlarged their conformational space. On this basis, three possible target sites were identified with the binding capacity order of S1>S2>S3. After a deeper analysis of each site, we found that S1 was the most possible site on which residues B-Ile26/Ala25, A-Phe23, B/C-Leu27 and E-Tyr37 played an important role for their binding. The proposal of this molecular mechanism can not only provide a prospective interaction figure between EGCG and β-sheet-rich fibrils of hIAPP1-37, but also is useful for further discovering other potential inhibitors.

  15. Tea polyphenols EGCG and TF restrict tongue and liver carcinogenesis simultaneously induced by N-nitrosodiethylamine in mice

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    Sur, Subhayan, E-mail: subhayansur18@gmail.com [Dept. of Oncogene Regulation, Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute, 37, S.P. Mukherjee Road, Kolkata 700 026, West Bengal (India); Pal, Debolina; Roy, Rituparna; Barua, Atish [Dept. of Oncogene Regulation, Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute, 37, S.P. Mukherjee Road, Kolkata 700 026, West Bengal (India); Roy, Anup [North Bengal Medical College and Hospital, West Bengal (India); Saha, Prosenjit [Dept. of Oncogene Regulation, Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute, 37, S.P. Mukherjee Road, Kolkata 700 026, West Bengal (India); Panda, Chinmay Kumar, E-mail: ckpanda.cnci@gmail.com [Dept. of Oncogene Regulation, Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute, 37, S.P. Mukherjee Road, Kolkata 700 026, West Bengal (India)

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to understand the molecular mechanisms of N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) induced multi-organ carcinogenesis in tongue and liver of the same mouse and restriction of carcinogenesis by Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and Theaflavin (TF), if any. For that purpose, cellular proliferation/apoptosis, prevalence of CD44 positive stem cell population and expressions of some key regulatory genes of self renewal Wnt and Hedgehog (Hh) pathways and some of their associated genes were analyzed in the NDEA induced tongue and liver lesions in absence or presence of EGCG/TF. Chronic NDEA exposure in oral cavity could decrease mice body weights and induce tongue and liver carcinogenesis with similar histological stages (severe dysplasia up to 30th weeks of NDEA administration). Increasing mice body weights were seen in continuous and post EGCG/TF treated groups. EGCG/TF treatment could restrict both the carcinogenesis at similar histological stages showing potential chemopreventive effect in continuous treated groups (mild dysplasia) followed by pre treatment (moderate dysplasia) and therapeutic efficacy in post treated groups (mild dysplasia) up to 30th week. The mechanism of carcinogenesis by NDEA and restriction by the EGCG/TF in both tongue and liver were similar and found to be associated with modulation in cellular proliferation/apoptosis and prevalence of CD44 positive population. The up-regulation of self renewal Wnt/β-catenin, Hh/Gli1 pathways and their associated genes Cyclin D1, cMyc and EGFR along with down regulation of E-cadherin seen during the carcinogenesis processes were found to be modulated during the restriction processes by EGCG/TF. - Highlights: • Simultaneous tongue and liver carcinogenesis in mice by oral NDEA administration • Restriction of both carcinogenesis by EGCG and TF at early pre-malignant stages • The mechanisms of carcinogenesis and restriction were similar in both the organs. • Changes in proliferation

  16. Tea polyphenols EGCG and TF restrict tongue and liver carcinogenesis simultaneously induced by N-nitrosodiethylamine in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sur, Subhayan; Pal, Debolina; Roy, Rituparna; Barua, Atish; Roy, Anup; Saha, Prosenjit; Panda, Chinmay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to understand the molecular mechanisms of N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) induced multi-organ carcinogenesis in tongue and liver of the same mouse and restriction of carcinogenesis by Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and Theaflavin (TF), if any. For that purpose, cellular proliferation/apoptosis, prevalence of CD44 positive stem cell population and expressions of some key regulatory genes of self renewal Wnt and Hedgehog (Hh) pathways and some of their associated genes were analyzed in the NDEA induced tongue and liver lesions in absence or presence of EGCG/TF. Chronic NDEA exposure in oral cavity could decrease mice body weights and induce tongue and liver carcinogenesis with similar histological stages (severe dysplasia up to 30th weeks of NDEA administration). Increasing mice body weights were seen in continuous and post EGCG/TF treated groups. EGCG/TF treatment could restrict both the carcinogenesis at similar histological stages showing potential chemopreventive effect in continuous treated groups (mild dysplasia) followed by pre treatment (moderate dysplasia) and therapeutic efficacy in post treated groups (mild dysplasia) up to 30th week. The mechanism of carcinogenesis by NDEA and restriction by the EGCG/TF in both tongue and liver were similar and found to be associated with modulation in cellular proliferation/apoptosis and prevalence of CD44 positive population. The up-regulation of self renewal Wnt/β-catenin, Hh/Gli1 pathways and their associated genes Cyclin D1, cMyc and EGFR along with down regulation of E-cadherin seen during the carcinogenesis processes were found to be modulated during the restriction processes by EGCG/TF. - Highlights: • Simultaneous tongue and liver carcinogenesis in mice by oral NDEA administration • Restriction of both carcinogenesis by EGCG and TF at early pre-malignant stages • The mechanisms of carcinogenesis and restriction were similar in both the organs. • Changes in proliferation

  17. Anti-proliferative and differentiation-inducing activities of the green tea catechin epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on the human eosinophilic leukemia EoL-1 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, H L; Ip, W K; Wong, C K; Mak, N K; Chen, Z Y; Leung, K N

    2002-12-06

    A novel approach for the treatment of leukemia is the differentiation therapy in which immature leukemia cells are induced to attain a mature phenotype when exposed to differentiation inducers, either alone or in combinations with other chemotherapeutic or chemopreventive drugs. Over the past decade, numerous studies indicated that green tea catechins (GTC) could suppress the growth and induce apoptosis on a number of human cancer cell lines. However, the differentiation-inducing activity of GTC on human tumors remains poorly understood. In the present study, the effect of the major GTC epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on the proliferation and differentiation of a human eosinophilc leukemic cell line, EoL-1, was examined. Our results showed that EGCG suppressed the proliferation of the EoL-1 cells in a dose-dependent manner, with an estimated IC(50) value of 31.5 microM. On the other hand, EGCG at a concentration of 40 microM could trigger the EoL-1 cells to undergo morphological differentiation into mature eosinophil-like cells. Using RT-PCR and flow cytometry, it was found that EGCG upregulated the gene and protein expression of two eosinophil-specific granule proteins, the major basic protein (MBP) and eosinophil peroxidase (EPO), in EoL-1 cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that EGCG can exhibit anti-leukemic activity on a human eosinophilic cell line EoL-1 by suppressing the proliferation and by inducing the differentiation of the leukemia cells.

  18. Microglia show altered morphology and reduced arborization in human brain during aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Danielle S; Ma, Jolande; Jegathees, Thuvarahan; Goldsbury, Claire

    2017-11-01

    Changes in microglia function are involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD) for which ageing is the major risk factor. We evaluated microglial cell process morphologies and their gray matter coverage (arborized area) during ageing and in the presence and absence of AD pathology in autopsied human neocortex. Microglial cell processes were reduced in length, showed less branching and reduced arborized area with aging (case range 52-98 years). This occurred during normal ageing and without microglia dystrophy or changes in cell density. There was a larger reduction in process length and arborized area in AD compared to aged-matched control microglia. In AD cases, on average, 49%-64% of microglia had discontinuous and/or punctate Iba1 labeled processes instead of continuous Iba1 distribution. Up to 16% of aged-matched control microglia displayed discontinuous or punctate features. There was no change in the density of microglial cell bodies in gray matter during ageing or AD. This demonstrates that human microglia show progressive cell process retraction without cell loss during ageing. Additional changes in microglia occur with AD including Iba1 protein puncta and discontinuity. We suggest that reduced microglial arborized area may be an aging-related correlate of AD in humans. These variations in microglial cells during ageing and in AD could reflect changes in neural-glial interactions which are emerging as key to mechanisms involved in ageing and neurodegenerative disease. © 2016 International Society of Neuropathology.

  19. EGCG Inhibited Lipofuscin Formation Based on Intercepting Amyloidogenic β-Sheet-Rich Structure Conversion.

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    Shuxian Cai

    Full Text Available Lipofuscin (LF is formed during lipid peroxidation and sugar glycosylation by carbonyl-amino crosslinks with biomacrolecules, and accumulates slowly within postmitotic cells. The environmental pollution, modern dietary culture and lifestyle changes have been found to be the major sources of reactive carbonyl compounds in vivo. Irreversible carbonyl-amino crosslinks induced by carbonyl stress are essentially toxiferous for aging-related functional losses in modern society. Results show that (--epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG, the main polyphenol in green tea, can neutralize the carbonyl-amino cross-linking reaction and inhibit LF formation, but the underlying mechanism is unknown.We explored the mechanism of the neutralization process from protein, cell, and animal levels using spectrofluorometry, infrared spectroscopy, conformation antibodies, and electron microscopy. LF demonstrated an amyloidogenic β-sheet-rich with antiparallel structure, which accelerated the carbonyl-amino crosslinks formation and disrupted proteolysis in both PC12 cells and D-galactose (D-gal-induced brain aging mice models. Additionally, EGCG effectively inhibited the formation of the amyloidogenic β-sheet-rich structure of LF, and prevented its conversion into toxic and on-pathway aggregation intermediates, thereby cutting off the carbonyl-amino crosslinks.Our study indicated that the amyloidogenic β-sheet structure of LF may be the core driving force for carbonyl-amino crosslinks further formation, which mediates the formation of amyloid fibrils from native state of biomacrolecules. That EGCG exhibits anti-amyloidogenic β-sheet-rich structure properties to prevent the LF formation represents a novel strategy to impede the development of degenerative processes caused by ageing or stress-induced premature senescence in modern environments.

  20. Ghrelin knockout mice show decreased voluntary alcohol consumption and reduced ethanol-induced conditioned place preference.

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    Bahi, Amine; Tolle, Virginie; Fehrentz, Jean-Alain; Brunel, Luc; Martinez, Jean; Tomasetto, Catherine-Laure; Karam, Sherif M

    2013-05-01

    Recent work suggests that stomach-derived hormone ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1A) antagonism may reduce motivational aspects of ethanol intake. In the current study we hypothesized that the endogenous GHS-R1A agonist ghrelin modulates alcohol reward mechanisms. For this purpose ethanol-induced conditioned place preference (CPP), ethanol-induced locomotor stimulation and voluntary ethanol consumption in a two-bottle choice drinking paradigm were examined under conditions where ghrelin and its receptor were blocked, either using ghrelin knockout (KO) mice or the specific ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1A) antagonist "JMV2959". We showed that ghrelin KO mice displayed lower ethanol-induced CPP than their wild-type (WT) littermates. Consistently, when injected during CPP-acquisition, JMV2959 reduced CPP-expression in C57BL/6 mice. In addition, ethanol-induced locomotor stimulation was lower in ghrelin KO mice. Moreover, GHS-R1A blockade, using JMV2959, reduced alcohol-stimulated locomotion only in WT but not in ghrelin KO mice. When alcohol consumption and preference were assessed using the two-bottle choice test, both genetic deletion of ghrelin and pharmacological antagonism of the GHS-R1A (JMV2959) reduced voluntary alcohol consumption and preference. Finally, JMV2959-induced reduction of alcohol intake was only observed in WT but not in ghrelin KO mice. Taken together, these results suggest that ghrelin neurotransmission is necessary for the stimulatory effect of ethanol to occur, whereas lack of ghrelin leads to changes that reduce the voluntary intake as well as conditioned reward by ethanol. Our findings reveal a major, novel role for ghrelin in mediating ethanol behavior, and add to growing evidence that ghrelin is a key mediator of the effects of multiple abused drugs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Y-27632 Increases Sensitivity of PANC-1 Cells to EGCG in Regulating Cell Proliferation and Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xing; Bi, Yongyi

    2016-10-03

    BACKGROUND The study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effect of (1R,4r)-4-((R)-1-aminoethyl)-N-(pyridin-4-yl) cyclohexanecarboxamide (Y-27632) and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on the proliferation and migration of PANC-1 cells. EGCG, found in green tea, has been previously shown to be one of the most abundant and powerful catechins in cancer prevention and treatment. Y-27632, a selective inhibitor of rho-associated protein kinase 1, is widely used in treating cardiovascular disease, inflammation, and cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS PANC-1 cells, maintained in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium, were treated with dimethyl sulfoxide (control) as well as different concentrations (20, 40, 60, and 80 μg/mL) of EGCG for 48 h. In addition, PANC-1 cells were treated separately with 60 μg/mL EGCG, 20 μM Y-27632, and EGCG combined with Y-27632 (60 μg/mL EGCG + 20 μM Y-27632) for 48 h. The effect of EGCG and Y-27632 on the proliferation and migration of PANC-1 cells was evaluated using Cell Counting Kit-8 and transwell migration assays. The expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) and Caspase-3 mRNA was determined by Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). RESULTS EGCG (20-80 μg/mL) inhibited cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Y-27632 enhanced the sensitivity of PANC-1 cells to EGCG (by increasing the expression of PPARa and Caspase-3 mRNA) and suppressed cell proliferation. PANC-1 cell migration was inhibited by treatment with a combination of EGCG and Y-27632. CONCLUSIONS Y-27632 increases the sensitivity of PANC-1 cells to EGCG in regulating cell proliferation and migration, which is likely to be related to the expression of PPARa mRNA and Caspase-3 mRNA.

  2. Ab Initio Modeling Of Friction Reducing Agents Shows Quantum Mechanical Interactions Can Have Macroscopic Manifestation.

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    Hernández Velázquez, J D; Barroso-Flores, J; Gama Goicochea, A

    2016-11-23

    Two of the most commonly encountered friction-reducing agents used in plastic sheet production are the amides known as erucamide and behenamide, which despite being almost identical chemically, lead to markedly different values of the friction coefficient. To understand the origin of this contrasting behavior, in this work we model brushes made of these two types of linear-chain molecules using quantum mechanical numerical simulations under the density functional theory at the B97D/6-31G(d,p) level of theory. Four chains of erucamide and behenamide were linked to a 2 × 10 zigzag graphene sheet and optimized both in vacuum and in continuous solvent using the SMD implicit solvation model. We find that erucamide chains tend to remain closer together through π-π stacking interactions arising from the double bonds located at C13-C14, a feature behenamide lacks, and thus a more spread configuration is obtained with the latter. It is argued that this arrangement of the erucamide chains is responsible for the lower friction coefficient of erucamide brushes, compared with behenamide brushes, which is a macroscopic consequence of cooperative quantum mechanical interactions. While only quantum level interactions are modeled here, we show that behenamide chains are more spread out in the brush than erucamide chains as a consequence of those interactions. The spread-out configuration allows more solvent particles to penetrate the brush, leading in turn to more friction, in agreement with macroscopic measurements and mesoscale simulations of the friction coefficient reported in the literature.

  3. Is there evidence showing that salt intake reduction reduces cardiovascular morbidity and mortality risk?

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    Fernando Lanas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A recent systematic review of Cochrane collaboration about the effect of reducing dietary salt concluded that “there is still insufficient power to exclude clinically important effects of reduced dietary salt on mortality or cardiovascular morbidity in normotensive or hypertensive populations”. This conclusion has generated an important debate, because the estimation that salt reduction can prevent 24% of strokes and 18% of myocardial infarctions has decided the health authorities of several nations to implement salt consumption reduction programs. The review of ecological studies and clinical trials allow to conclude that a reduction in salt consumption reduces blood pressure and methodological well conducted cohort studies has shown that cardiovascular events risk decreases progressively with lower levels of blood pressure. Combining this two finding we can assume that population should benefice from a decrease on salt consumption although there are no studies that shown a reduction in cardiovascular events in population with high sodium intake when dietary salt is reduced.

  4. Study Shows Aspirin Reduces Colorectal Cancer in Those at High Risk

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    Findings from the first large clinical trial of its kind indicate that taking high doses of aspirin daily for at least 2 years substantially reduces the risk of colorectal cancer among people at increased risk of the disease.

  5. Influence of Aluminium and EGCG on Fibrillation and Aggregation of Human Islet Amyloid Polypeptide

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    Zhi-Xue Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The abnormal fibrillation of human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP has been implicated in the development of type II diabetes. Aluminum is known to trigger the structural transformation of many amyloid proteins and induce the formation of toxic aggregate species. The (−-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG is considered capable of binding both metal ions and amyloid proteins with inhibitory effect on the fibrillation of amyloid proteins. However, the effect of Al(III/EGCG complex on hIAPP fibrillation is unclear. In the present work, we sought to view insight into the structures and properties of Al(III and EGCG complex by using spectroscopic experiments and quantum chemical calculations and also investigated the influence of Al(III and EGCG on hIAPP fibrillation and aggregation as well as their combined interference on this process. Our studies demonstrated that Al(III could promote fibrillation and aggregation of hIAPP, while EGCG could inhibit the fibrillation of hIAPP and lead to the formation of hIAPP amorphous aggregates instead of the ordered fibrils. Furthermore, we proved that the Al(III/EGCG complex in molar ratio of 1 : 1 as Al(EGCG(H2O2 could inhibit the hIAPP fibrillation more effectively than EGCG alone. The results provide the invaluable reference for the new drug development to treat type II diabetes.

  6. Serotonin Transporter Knockout Rats Show Improved Strategy Set-Shifting and Reduced Latent Inhibition

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    Nonkes, Lourens J. P.; van de Vondervoort, Ilse I. G. M.; de Leeuw, Mark J. C.; Wijlaars, Linda P.; Maes, Joseph H. R.; Homberg, Judith R.

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral flexibility is a cognitive process depending on prefrontal areas allowing adaptive responses to environmental changes. Serotonin transporter knockout (5-HTT[superscript -/-]) rodents show improved reversal learning in addition to orbitofrontal cortex changes. Another form of behavioral flexibility, extradimensional strategy set-shifting…

  7. Tactile motion adaptation reduces perceived speed but shows no evidence of direction sensitivity.

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    Sarah McIntyre

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: While the directionality of tactile motion processing has been studied extensively, tactile speed processing and its relationship to direction is little-researched and poorly understood. We investigated this relationship in humans using the 'tactile speed aftereffect' (tSAE, in which the speed of motion appears slower following prolonged exposure to a moving surface. METHOD: We used psychophysical methods to test whether the tSAE is direction sensitive. After adapting to a ridged moving surface with one hand, participants compared the speed of test stimuli on the adapted and unadapted hands. We varied the direction of the adapting stimulus relative to the test stimulus. RESULTS: Perceived speed of the surface moving at 81 mms(-1 was reduced by about 30% regardless of the direction of the adapting stimulus (when adapted in the same direction, Mean reduction = 23 mms(-1, SD = 11; with opposite direction, Mean reduction = 26 mms(-1, SD = 9. In addition to a large reduction in perceived speed due to adaptation, we also report that this effect is not direction sensitive. CONCLUSIONS: Tactile motion is susceptible to speed adaptation. This result complements previous reports of reliable direction aftereffects when using a dynamic test stimulus as together they describe how perception of a moving stimulus in touch depends on the immediate history of stimulation. Given that the tSAE is not direction sensitive, we argue that peripheral adaptation does not explain it, because primary afferents are direction sensitive with friction-creating stimuli like ours (thus motion in their preferred direction should result in greater adaptation, and if perceived speed were critically dependent on these afferents' response intensity, the tSAE should be direction sensitive. The adaptation that reduces perceived speed therefore seems to be of central origin.

  8. Signalling changes to individuals who show resistance to change can reduce challenging behaviour.

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    Bull, Leah E; Oliver, Chris; Woodcock, Kate A

    2017-03-01

    Several neurodevelopmental disorders are associated with resistance to change and challenging behaviours - including temper outbursts - that ensue following changes to routines, plans or expectations (here, collectively: expectations). Here, a change signalling intervention was tested for proof of concept and potential practical effectiveness. Twelve individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome participated in researcher- and caregiver-led pairing of a distinctive visual-verbal signal with subsequent changes to expectations. Specific expectations for a planned subset of five participants were systematically observed in minimally manipulated natural environments. Nine caregivers completed a temper outburst diary during a four week baseline period and a two week signalling evaluation period. Participants demonstrated consistently less temper outburst behaviour in the systematic observations when changes imposed to expectations were signalled, compared to when changes were not signalled. Four of the nine participants whose caregivers completed the behaviour diary demonstrated reliable reductions in temper outbursts between baseline and signalling evaluation. An active control group for the present initial evaluation of the signalling strategy using evidence from caregiver behaviour diaries was outside the scope of the present pilot study. Thus, findings cannot support the clinical efficacy of the present signalling approach. Proof of concept evidence that reliable pairing of a distinctive cue with a subsequent change to expectation can reduce associated challenging behaviour is provided. Data provide additional support for the importance of specific practical steps in further evaluations of the change signalling approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Kalanchoe blossfeldiana plants expressing the Arabidopsis etr1-1 allele show reduced ethylene sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanikhani, Mohsen; Mibus, Heiko; Stummann, Bjarne M; Serek, Margrethe

    2008-04-01

    Transgenic Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Poelln. with reduced ethylene sensitivity in flowers was obtained by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation using the plasmid pBEO210 containing the mutant ethylene receptor gene etr1-1 from Arabidopsis thaliana under the control of the flower-specific fbp1-promoter from Petunia. Three ethylene-resistent T0 lines, 300, 324 and 331, were selected and analyzed for postharvest-performance and morphological characteristics. Line 324 was found to be infertile and only slightly less ethylene-sensitive than control-plants, but lines 300 and 331 had significantly increased ethylene-resistance and were fertile. These two lines were analyzed for copy-number of the etr1-1 gene by Southern blotting and were crossed with the ethylene-sensitive cultivar 'Celine' to create T1 progeny. Line 300 contains two T-DNA copies per nucleus, one of which is rearranged, and these are unlinked according to segregation data from the crossing to 'Celine' and PCR-analysis of progeny plants. For control plants all flowers were closed after 2 days at 2 microl l(-1 )ethylene, but for line 300 only 33% were closed after 10 days. Line 331 contains three T-DNA copies per nucleus and is more sensitive to ethylene than line 300. In the line 300 the etr1-1 gene was found by RT-PCR to be expressed in petals and stamens but not in carpels and sepals. Both lines 300 and 331, and their progeny, appear morphologically and physiologically identical to control plants except for the higher ethylene resistance. Line 300 and its progeny with only one T-DNA copy have very low ethylene sensitivity and may be useful in future breeding.

  10. Smooth criminal: convicted rule-breakers show reduced cognitive conflict during deliberate rule violations.

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    Jusyte, Aiste; Pfister, Roland; Mayer, Sarah V; Schwarz, Katharina A; Wirth, Robert; Kunde, Wilfried; Schönenberg, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Classic findings on conformity and obedience document a strong and automatic drive of human agents to follow any type of rule or social norm. At the same time, most individuals tend to violate rules on occasion, and such deliberate rule violations have recently been shown to yield cognitive conflict for the rule-breaker. These findings indicate persistent difficulty to suppress the rule representation, even though rule violations were studied in a controlled experimental setting with neither gains nor possible sanctions for violators. In the current study, we validate these findings by showing that convicted criminals, i.e., individuals with a history of habitual and severe forms of rule violations, can free themselves from such cognitive conflict in a similarly controlled laboratory task. These findings support an emerging view that aims at understanding rule violations from the perspective of the violating agent rather than from the perspective of outside observer.

  11. Absorption, metabolism, anti-cancer effect and molecular targets of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG): An updated review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Ren-You; Li, Hua-Bin; Sui, Zhong-Quan; Corke, Harold

    2018-04-13

    Green tea is one of the most popular beverages in the world, especially in Asian countries. Consumption of green tea has been demonstrated to possess many health benefits, which mainly attributed to the main bioactive compound epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a flavone-3-ol polyphenol, in green tea. EGCG is mainly absorbed in the intestine, and gut microbiota play a critical role in its metabolism prior to absorption. EGCG exhibits versatile bioactivities, with its anti-cancer effect most attracting due to the cancer preventive effect of green tea consumption, and a great number of studies intensively investigated its anti-cancer effect. In this review, we therefore, first stated the absorption and metabolism process of EGCG, and then summarized its anti-cancer effect in vitro and in vivo, including its manifold anti-cancer actions and mechanisms, especially its anti-cancer stem cell effect, and next highlighted its various molecular targets involved in cancer inhibition. Finally, the anti-cancer effect of EGCG analogs and nanoparticles, as well as the potential cancer promoting effect of EGCG were also discussed. Understanding of the absorption, metabolism, anti-cancer effect and molecular targets of EGCG can be of importance to better utilize it as a chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agent.

  12. BDNF-Deficient Mice Show Reduced Psychosis-Related Behaviors Following Chronic Methamphetamine.

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    Manning, Elizabeth E; Halberstadt, Adam L; van den Buuse, Maarten

    2016-04-01

    One of the most devastating consequences of methamphetamine abuse is increased risk of psychosis. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor has been implicated in both psychosis and neuronal responses to methamphetamine. We therefore examined persistent psychosis-like behavioral effects of methamphetamine in brain-derived neurotrophic factor heterozygous mice. Mice were chronically treated with methamphetamine from 6 to 9 weeks of age, and locomotor hyperactivity to an acute D-amphetamine challenge was tested in photocell cages after a 2-week withdrawal period. Methamphetamine-treated wild-type mice, but not brain-derived neurotrophic factor heterozygous mice, showed locomotor sensitization to acute 3mg/kg D-amphetamine. Qualitative analysis of exploration revealed tolerance to D-amphetamine effects on entropy in methamphetamine-treated brain-derived neurotrophic factor heterozygous mice, but not wild-type mice. Chronic methamphetamine exposure induces contrasting profiles of behavioral changes in wild-type and brain-derived neurotrophic factor heterozygous mice, with attenuation of behaviors relevant to psychosis in methamphetamine-treated brain-derived neurotrophic factor heterozygous mice. This suggests that brain-derived neurotrophic factor signalling changes may contribute to development of psychosis in methamphetamine users. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  13. Acute EGCG supplementation reverses endothelial dysfunction in patients with coronary artery disease.

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    Widlansky, Michael E; Hamburg, Naomi M; Anter, Elad; Holbrook, Monika; Kahn, David F; Elliott, James G; Keaney, John F; Vita, Joseph A

    2007-04-01

    Epidemiological studies demonstrate an inverse relation between dietary flavonoid intake and cardiovascular risk. Recent studies with flavonoid-containing beverages suggest that the benefits of these nutrients may relate, in part, to improved endothelial function. We hypothesized that dietary supplementation with epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major catechin in tea, would improve endothelial function in humans. We examined the effects of EGCG on endothelial function in a double blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design study. We measured brachial artery flow-mediated dilation by vascular ultrasound at six time points: prior to treatment with EGCG or placebo, two hours after an initial dose of EGCG (300 mg) or placebo, and after two weeks of treatment with EGCG (150 mg twice daily) or placebo. The order of treatments (EGCG or placebo) was randomized and there was a one-week washout period between treatments. A total of 42 subjects completed the study, and brachial artery flow-mediated dilation improved from 7.1 +/- 4.1 to 8.6 +/- 4.7% two hours after the first dose of 300 mg of EGCG (P = 0.01), but was similar to baseline (7.8 +/- 4.2%, P = 0.12) after two weeks of treatment with the final measurements made approximately 14 hours after the last dose. Placebo treatment had no significant effect, and there were no changes in reactive hyperemia or the response to sublingual nitroglycerin. The changes in vascular function paralleled plasma EGCG concentrations, which increased from 2.6 +/- 10.9 to 92.8 +/- 78.7 ng/ml after acute EGCG (P effects of flavonoid-rich food on endothelial function.

  14. EGCG, a major green tea catechin suppresses breast tumor angiogenesis and growth via inhibiting the activation of HIF-1α and NFκB, and VEGF expression.

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    Gu, Jian-Wei; Makey, Kristina L; Tucker, Kevan B; Chinchar, Edmund; Mao, Xiaowen; Pei, Ivy; Thomas, Emily Y; Miele, Lucio

    2013-05-02

    The role of EGCG, a major green tea catechin in breast cancer therapy is poorly understood. The present study tests the hypothesis that EGCG can inhibit the activation of HIF-1α and NFκB, and VEGF expression, thereby suppressing tumor angiogenesis and breast cancer progression. Sixteen eight-wk-old female mice (C57BL/6 J) were inoculated with 10^6 E0771 (mouse breast cancer) cells in the left fourth mammary gland fat pad. Eight mice received EGCG at 50-100 mg/kg/d in drinking water for 4 weeks. 8 control mice received drinking water only. Tumor size was monitored using dial calipers. At the end of the experiment, blood samples, tumors, heart and limb muscles were collected for measuring VEGF expression using ELISA and capillary density (CD) using CD31 immunohistochemistry. EGCG treatment significantly reduced tumor weight over the control (0.37 ± 0.15 vs. 1.16 ± 0.30 g; P < 0.01), tumor CD (109 ± 20 vs. 156 ± 12 capillary #/mm^2; P < 0.01), tumor VEGF expression (45.72 ± 1.4 vs. 59.03 ± 3.8 pg/mg; P < 0.01), respectively. But, it has no effects on the body weight, heart weight, angiogenesis and VEGF expression in the heart and skeletal muscle of mice. EGCG at 50 μg/ml significantly inhibited the activation of HIF-1α and NFκB as well as VEGF expression in cultured E0771 cells, compared to the control, respectively. These findings support the hypothesis that EGCG, a major green tea catechin, directly targets both tumor cells and tumor vasculature, thereby inhibiting tumor growth, proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis of breast cancer, which is mediated by the inhibition of HIF-1α and NFκB activation as well as VEGF expression.

  15. The spectral properties of (--epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate (EGCG fluorescence in different solvents: dependence on solvent polarity.

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    Vladislav Snitsarev

    Full Text Available (--Epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate (EGCG a molecule found in green tea and known for a plethora of bioactive properties is an inhibitor of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90, a protein of interest as a target for cancer and neuroprotection. Determination of the spectral properties of EGCG fluorescence in environments similar to those of binding sites found in proteins provides an important tool to directly study protein-EGCG interactions. The goal of this study is to examine the spectral properties of EGCG fluorescence in an aqueous buffer (AB at pH=7.0, acetonitrile (AN (a polar aprotic solvent, dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO (a polar aprotic solvent, and ethanol (EtOH (a polar protic solvent. We demonstrate that EGCG is a highly fluorescent molecule when excited at approximately 275 nm with emission maxima between 350 and 400 nm depending on solvent. Another smaller excitation peak was found when EGCG is excited at approximately 235 nm with maximum emission between 340 and 400 nm. We found that the fluorescence intensity (FI of EGCG in AB at pH=7.0 is significantly quenched, and that it is about 85 times higher in an aprotic solvent DMSO. The Stokes shifts of EGCG fluorescence were determined by solvent polarity. In addition, while the emission maxima of EGCG fluorescence in AB, DMSO, and EtOH follow the Lippert-Mataga equation, its fluorescence in AN points to non-specific solvent effects on EGCG fluorescence. We conclude that significant solvent-dependent changes in both fluorescence intensity and fluorescence emission shifts can be effectively used to distinguish EGCG in aqueous solutions from EGCG in environments of different polarity, and, thus, can be used to study specific EGCG binding to protein binding sites where the environment is often different from aqueous in terms of polarity.

  16. EGCG Protects against 6-OHDA-Induced Neurotoxicity in a Cell Culture Model

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    Chen, Dan; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G.; Reddy, Manju B.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that causes severe brain dopamine depletion. Disruption of iron metabolism may be involved in the PD progression. Objective. To test the protective effect of (?)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) against 6-hydroxydopamine- (6-OHDA-) induced neurotoxicity by regulating iron metabolism in N27 cells. Methods. Protection by EGCG in N27 cells was assessed by SYTOX green assay, MTT, and caspase-3 activity. Iron regulato...

  17. Evaluation of nanohydroxyapaptite (nano-HA) coated epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) cross-linked collagen membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chenyu; Deng, Jia; Man, Yi; Qu, Yili

    2017-09-01

    Collagen is the main component of extracellular matrix (ECM) with desirable biological activities and low antigenicity. Collagen materials have been widely utilized in guided bone regeneration (GBR) surgery due to its abilities to maintain space for hard tissue growth. However, pure collagen lacks optimal mechanical properties. In our previous study, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) cross-linked collagen membranes, with better biological activities and enhanced mechanical properties, may promote osteoblast proliferation, but their effect on osteoblast differentiation is not very significant. Nanohydroxyapatite (nano-HA) is the main component of mineral bone, which possesses exceptional bioactivity properties including good biocompatibility, high osteoconductivity and osteoinductivity, non-immunogenicity and non-inflammatory behavior. Herein, by analyzing the physical and chemical properties as well as the effects on promoting bone regeneration, we have attempted to present a novel EGCG-modified collagen membrane with nano-HA coating, and have found evidence that the novel collagen membrane may promote bone regeneration with a better surface morphology, without destroying collagen backbone. To evaluate the surface morphologies, chemical and mechanical properties of pure collagen membranes, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) cross-linked collagen membranes, nano-HA coated collagen membranes, nano-HA coated EGCG-collagen membranes, (ii) to evaluate the bone regeneration promoted by theses membranes. In the present study, collagen membranes were divided into 4 groups: (1) untreated collagen membranes (2) EGCG cross-linked collagen membranes (3) nano-HA modified collagen membranes (4) nano-HA modified EGCG-collagen membranes. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to evaluate surface morphologies and chemical properties, respectively. Mechanical properties were determined by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC

  18. EGCG Suppresses ERK5 Activation to Reverse Tobacco Smoke-Triggered Gastric Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in BALB/c Mice

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    Ling Lu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoke is an important risk factor of gastric cancer. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition is a crucial pathophysiological process in cancer development. ERK5 regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition may be sensitive to cell types and/or the cellular microenvironment and its role in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition process remain elusive. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG is a promising chemopreventive agent for several types of cancers. In the present study we investigated the regulatory role of ERK5 in tobacco smoke-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in the stomach of mice and the preventive effect of EGCG. Exposure of mice to tobacco smoke for 12 weeks reduced expression of epithelial markers E-cadherin, ZO-1, and CK5, while the expression of mesenchymal markers Snail-1, Vimentin, and N-cadherin were increased. Importantly, we demonstrated that ERK5 modulated tobacco smoke-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition in mice stomach, as evidenced by the findings that tobacco smoke elevated ERK5 activation, and that tobacco smoke-triggered epithelial-mesenchymal transition was reversed by ERK5 inhibition. Treatment of EGCG (100 mg/kg BW effectively attenuated tobacco smoke-triggered activation of ERK5 and epithelial-mesenchymal transition alterations in mice stomach. Collectively, these data suggested that ERK5 was required for tobacco smoke-triggered gastric epithelial-mesenchymal transition and that EGCG suppressed ERK5 activation to reverse tobacco smoke-triggered gastric epithelial-mesenchymal transition in BALB/c mice. These findings provide new insights into the mechanism of tobacco smoke-associated gastric tumorigenesis and the chemoprevention of tobacco smoke-associated gastric cancer.

  19. Application of non-invasive low strength pulsed electric field to EGCG treatment synergistically enhanced the inhibition effect on PANC-1 cells.

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    Hsieh, Chih-Hsiung; Lu, Chueh-Hsuan; Chen, Wei-Ting; Ma, Bo-Lun; Chao, Chih-Yu

    2017-01-01

    Traditional therapies for pancreatic cancer are usually expensive and likely to cause side effects, and most patients have the risk of recurrence and suffering pain. Here, we investigated combination treatment of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and non-invasive low strength pulsed electric field (PEF) on the human pancreatic cell line PANC-1. Cells were cultured in various concentrations of EGCG and exposed to trains of PEF. The results showed that the low strength PEF alone or single treatment with low concentration of EGCG did not obviously affect the cell proliferation and migration in PANC-1. However, the EGCG-induced inhibitions of cell viability and migration ability in PANC-1 were dramatically enhanced by the further exposure of low strength PEF (60 V/cm). In particular, the same combination treatment caused less inhibition of cell viability in non-malignant HEK293 cells. We also found the combination treatment significantly decreased the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax protein and increased caspase activity in PANC-1 cells, resulting in the promotion of apoptotic responses, evidenced by chromatin condensation. The findings of the present study reveal the synergistic reactions in the combination treatment may severely disturb mitochondria, enhance the intrinsic pathway transduction, and effectively induce apoptosis; moreover, the migration and invasion of PANC-1 cancer cells were also significantly suppressed. Since normal cells are less sensitive to this combination treatment, and the non-invasive PEF could be modified to focus on a specific location, this treatment may serve as a promising method for anti-cancer therapy.

  20. Y-27632 Increases Sensitivity of PANC-1 Cells to Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG) in Regulating Cell Proliferation and Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xing; Bi, Yongyi

    2016-01-01

    Background The study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effect of (1R,4r)-4-((R)-1-aminoethyl)-N-(pyridin-4-yl) cyclohexanecarboxamide (Y-27632) and (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on the proliferation and migration of PANC-1 cells. EGCG, found in green tea, has been previously shown to be one of the most abundant and powerful catechins in cancer prevention and treatment. Y-27632, a selective inhibitor of rho-associated protein kinase 1, is widely used in treating cardiovascular disease, inflammation, and cancer. Material/Methods PANC-1 cells, maintained in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium, were treated with dimethyl sulfoxide (control) as well as different concentrations (20, 40, 60, and 80 μg/mL) of EGCG for 48 h. In addition, PANC-1 cells were treated separately with 60 μg/mL EGCG, 20 μM Y-27632, and EGCG combined with Y-27632 (60 μg/mL EGCG + 20 μM Y-27632) for 48 h. The effect of EGCG and Y-27632 on the proliferation and migration of PANC-1 cells was evaluated using Cell Counting Kit-8 and transwell migration assays. The expression of peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor alpha (PPARα) and Caspase-3 mRNA was determined by Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Results EGCG (20–80 μg/mL) inhibited cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Y-27632 enhanced the sensitivity of PANC-1 cells to EGCG (by increasing the expression of PPARα and Caspase-3 mRNA) and suppressed cell proliferation. PANC-1 cell migration was inhibited by treatment with a combination of EGCG and Y-27632. Conclusions Y-27632 increases the sensitivity of PANC-1 cells to EGCG in regulating cell proliferation and migration, which is likely to be related to the expression of PPARα mRNA and Caspase-3 mRNA. PMID:27694793

  1. EGCG Maintains Th1/Th2 Balance and Mitigates Ulcerative Colitis Induced by Dextran Sulfate Sodium through TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB Signaling Pathway in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Bing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To observe the protective effect of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG on dextran sulfate sodium- (DSS- induced ulcerative colitis in rats and to explore the roles of TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway. Methods. Rat models of ulcerative colitis were established by giving DSS. EGCG (50 mg/kg/d was given to assess disease activity index. HE staining was applied to observe histological changes. ELISA and qPCR detected the expression of inflammatory factors. Flow cytometry was used to measure the percentage of CD4+IFN-γ+ and CD4+IL-4+ in the spleen and colon. TLR4 antagonist E5564 was given in each group. Flow cytometry was utilized to detect CD4+IFN-γ+ and CD4+IL-4+ cells. Immunohistochemistry, qPCR, and western blot assay were applied to measure the expression of TLR4, MyD88, and NF-κB. Results. EGCG improved the intestinal mucosal injury in rats, inhibited production of inflammatory factors, maintained the balance of Th1/Th2, and reduced the expression of TLR4, MyD88, and NF-κB. After TLR4 antagonism, the protective effect of EGCG on intestinal mucosal injury was weakened in rats with ulcerative colitis, and the expressions of inflammatory factors were upregulated. Conclusion. EGCG can inhibit the intestinal inflammatory response by reducing the severity of ulcerative colitis and maintaining the Th1/Th2 balance through the TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway.

  2. EGCG evokes Nrf2 nuclear translocation and dampens PTP1B expression to ameliorate metabolic misalignment under insulin resistance condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Yashi; Zhang, Wentong; Tian, Haoyu; Li, Runnan; Huang, Shuxian; Li, Xingyu; Qi, Guoyuan; Liu, Xuebo

    2018-03-01

    As a major nutraceutical component of green tea (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) has attracted interest from scientists due to its well-documented antioxidant and antiobesity bioactivities. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the protective effect of EGCG on metabolic misalignment and in balancing the redox status in mice liver and HepG2 cells under insulin resistance condition. Our results indicated that EGCG accelerates the glucose uptake and evokes IRS-1/Akt/GLUT2 signaling pathway via dampening the expression of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B). Consistently, ectopic expression of PTP1B by Ad-PTP1B substantially impaired EGCG-elicited IRS-1/Akt/GLUT2 signaling pathway. Moreover, EGCG co-treatment stimulated nuclear translocation of Nrf2 by provoking P13K/AKT signaling pathway and thus modulated the downstream expressions of antioxidant enzymes such as HO-1 and NQO-1 in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, knockdown Nrf2 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) notably enhanced the expression of PTP1B and blunt EGCG-stimulated glucose uptake. Consistent with these results, in vivo study revealed that EGCG supplement significantly ameliorated high-fat and high-fructose diet (HFFD)-triggered insulin resistance and oxidative stress by up-regulating the IRS-1/AKT and Keap1/Nrf2 transcriptional pathways. Administration of an appropriate chemopreventive agent, such as EGCG, could potentially serve as an additional therapeutic intervention in the arsenal against obesity.

  3. Metagenomics shows that low-energy anaerobic-aerobic treatment reactors reduce antibiotic resistance gene levels from domestic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christgen, Beate; Yang, Ying; Ahammad, S Z; Li, Bing; Rodriquez, D Catalina; Zhang, Tong; Graham, David W

    2015-02-17

    Effective domestic wastewater treatment is among our primary defenses against the dissemination of infectious waterborne disease. However, reducing the amount of energy used in treatment processes has become essential for the future. One low-energy treatment option is anaerobic-aerobic sequence (AAS) bioreactors, which use an anaerobic pretreatment step (e.g., anaerobic hybrid reactors) to reduce carbon levels, followed by some form of aerobic treatment. Although AAS is common in warm climates, it is not known how its compares to other treatment options relative to disease transmission, including its influence on antibiotic resistance (AR) in treated effluents. Here, we used metagenomic approaches to contrast the fate of antibiotic-resistant genes (ARG) in anaerobic, aerobic, and AAS bioreactors treating domestic wastewater. Five reactor configurations were monitored for 6 months, and treatment performance, energy use, and ARG abundance and diversity were compared in influents and effluents. AAS and aerobic reactors were superior to anaerobic units in reducing ARG-like sequence abundances, with effluent ARG levels of 29, 34, and 74 ppm (198 ppm influent), respectively. AAS and aerobic systems especially reduced aminoglycoside, tetracycline, and β-lactam ARG levels relative to anaerobic units, although 63 persistent ARG subtypes were detected in effluents from all systems (of 234 assessed). Sulfonamide and chloramphenicol ARG levels were largely unaffected by treatment, whereas a broad shift from target-specific ARGs to ARGs associated with multi-drug resistance was seen across influents and effluents. AAS reactors show promise for future applications because they can reduce more ARGs for less energy (32% less energy here), but all three treatment options have limitations and need further study.

  4. Abstinent adult daily smokers show reduced anticipatory but elevated saccade-related brain responses during a rewarded antisaccade task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, Charles F; Sweitzer, Maggie M; Denlinger, Rachel; Sparacino, Gina; Donny, Eric C

    2014-08-30

    Chronic smoking may result in reduced sensitivity to non-drug rewards (e.g., money), a phenomenon particularly salient during abstinence. During a quit attempt, this effect may contribute to biased decision-making (smoking>alternative reinforcers) and relapse. Although relevant for quitting, characterization of reduced reward function in abstinent smokers remains limited. Moreover, how attenuated reward function affects other brain systems supporting decision-making has not been established. Here, we use a rewarded antisaccade (rAS) task to characterize non-drug reward processing and its influence on inhibitory control, key elements underlying decision-making, in abstinent smokers vs. non-smokers. Abstinent (12-hours) adult daily smokers (N=23) and non-smokers (N=11) underwent fMRI while performing the rAS. Behavioral performances improved on reward vs. neutral trials. Smokers showed attenuated activation in ventral striatum during the reward cue and in superior precentral sulcus and posterior parietal cortex during response preparation, but greater responses during the saccade response in posterior cingulate and parietal cortices. Smokers' attenuated anticipatory responses suggest reduced motivation from monetary reward, while heightened activation during the saccade response suggests that additional circuitry may be engaged later to enhance inhibitory task performance. Overall, this preliminary study highlights group differences in decision-making components and the utility of the rAS to characterize these effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Case Reports Showing a Long-Term Effect of Subanesthetic Ketamine Infusion in Reducing L-DOPA-Induced Dyskinesias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott J. Sherman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ketamine is an FDA-approved drug with a known safety profile. Low-dose subanesthetic intravenous ketamine infusion treatment has led to long-term reduction of treatment-resistant depression and of chronic pain states. We report on low-dose subanesthetic intravenous ketamine infusion treatment in Parkinson's disease (PD patients by 5 case studies and show a long-lasting therapeutic benefit to reduce L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID, improve on time, and reduce depression. Based on the literature we hypothesize that low-dose ketamine may act as a ‘chemical deep brain stimulation', by desynchronizing hypersynchronous oscillatory brain activity, including in the basal ganglia and the motor cortex. The presented PD case reports indicate tolerability, safety and long-term beneficial effects of low-dose ketamine infusion that should be further investigated in a properly controlled prospective clinical trial for treatment of LID, as well as the prevalent nonmotor features pain and depression in PD patients.

  6. Glutamate Cysteine Ligase—Modulatory Subunit Knockout Mouse Shows Normal Insulin Sensitivity but Reduced Liver Glycogen Storage

    KAUST Repository

    Lavoie, Suzie

    2016-04-21

    Glutathione (GSH) deficits have been observed in several mental or degenerative illness, and so has the metabolic syndrome. The impact of a decreased glucose metabolism on the GSH system is well-known, but the effect of decreased GSH levels on the energy metabolism is unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the sensitivity to insulin in the mouse knockout (KO) for the modulatory subunit of the glutamate cysteine ligase (GCLM), the rate-limiting enzyme of GSH synthesis. Compared to wildtype (WT) mice, GCLM-KO mice presented with reduced basal plasma glucose and insulin levels. During an insulin tolerance test, GCLM-KO mice showed a normal fall in glycemia, indicating normal insulin secretion. However, during the recovery phase, plasma glucose levels remained lower for longer in KO mice despite normal plasma glucagon levels. This is consistent with a normal counterregulatory hormonal response but impaired mobilization of glucose from endogenous stores. Following a resident-intruder stress, during which stress hormones mobilize glucose from hepatic glycogen stores, KO mice showed a lower hyperglycemic level despite higher plasma cortisol levels when compared to WT mice. The lower hepatic glycogen levels observed in GCLM-KO mice could explain the impaired glycogen mobilization following induced hypoglycemia. Altogether, our results indicate that reduced liver glycogen availability, as observed in GCLM-KO mice, could be at the origin of their lower basal and challenged glycemia. Further studies will be necessary to understand how a GSH deficit, typically observed in GCLM-KO mice, leads to a deficit in liver glycogen storage.

  7. Children with dyslexia show a reduced processing benefit from bimodal speech information compared to their typically developing peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaadt, Gesa; van der Meer, Elke; Pannekamp, Ann; Oberecker, Regine; Männel, Claudia

    2018-01-17

    During information processing, individuals benefit from bimodally presented input, as has been demonstrated for speech perception (i.e., printed letters and speech sounds) or the perception of emotional expressions (i.e., facial expression and voice tuning). While typically developing individuals show this bimodal benefit, school children with dyslexia do not. Currently, it is unknown whether the bimodal processing deficit in dyslexia also occurs for visual-auditory speech processing that is independent of reading and spelling acquisition (i.e., no letter-sound knowledge is required). Here, we tested school children with and without spelling problems on their bimodal perception of video-recorded mouth movements pronouncing syllables. We analyzed the event-related potential Mismatch Response (MMR) to visual-auditory speech information and compared this response to the MMR to monomodal speech information (i.e., auditory-only, visual-only). We found a reduced MMR with later onset to visual-auditory speech information in children with spelling problems compared to children without spelling problems. Moreover, when comparing bimodal and monomodal speech perception, we found that children without spelling problems showed significantly larger responses in the visual-auditory experiment compared to the visual-only response, whereas children with spelling problems did not. Our results suggest that children with dyslexia exhibit general difficulties in bimodal speech perception independently of letter-speech sound knowledge, as apparent in altered bimodal speech perception and lacking benefit from bimodal information. This general deficit in children with dyslexia may underlie the previously reported reduced bimodal benefit for letter-speech sound combinations and similar findings in emotion perception. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Glutamate Cysteine Ligase—Modulatory Subunit Knockout Mouse Shows Normal Insulin Sensitivity but Reduced Liver Glycogen Storage

    KAUST Repository

    Lavoie, Suzie; Steullet, Pascal; Kulak, Anita; Preitner, Frederic; Do, Kim Q.; Magistretti, Pierre J.

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione (GSH) deficits have been observed in several mental or degenerative illness, and so has the metabolic syndrome. The impact of a decreased glucose metabolism on the GSH system is well-known, but the effect of decreased GSH levels on the energy metabolism is unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the sensitivity to insulin in the mouse knockout (KO) for the modulatory subunit of the glutamate cysteine ligase (GCLM), the rate-limiting enzyme of GSH synthesis. Compared to wildtype (WT) mice, GCLM-KO mice presented with reduced basal plasma glucose and insulin levels. During an insulin tolerance test, GCLM-KO mice showed a normal fall in glycemia, indicating normal insulin secretion. However, during the recovery phase, plasma glucose levels remained lower for longer in KO mice despite normal plasma glucagon levels. This is consistent with a normal counterregulatory hormonal response but impaired mobilization of glucose from endogenous stores. Following a resident-intruder stress, during which stress hormones mobilize glucose from hepatic glycogen stores, KO mice showed a lower hyperglycemic level despite higher plasma cortisol levels when compared to WT mice. The lower hepatic glycogen levels observed in GCLM-KO mice could explain the impaired glycogen mobilization following induced hypoglycemia. Altogether, our results indicate that reduced liver glycogen availability, as observed in GCLM-KO mice, could be at the origin of their lower basal and challenged glycemia. Further studies will be necessary to understand how a GSH deficit, typically observed in GCLM-KO mice, leads to a deficit in liver glycogen storage.

  9. Single-provenance mature conifers show higher non-structural carbohydrate storage and reduced growth in a drier location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Frida I; Fajardo, Alex; Hoch, Günter

    2017-08-01

    Since growth is more sensitive to drought than photosynthesis, trees inhabiting dry regions are expected to exhibit higher carbohydrate storage and less growth than their conspecifics from more humid regions. However, the same pattern can be the result of different genotypes inhabiting contrasting humidity conditions. To test if reduced growth and high carbohydrate storage are environmentally driven by drought, we examined the growth and non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) concentrations in single-provenance stands of mature trees of Pinus contorta Douglas and Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex C. Lawson planted at contrasting humidity conditions (900 versus 300 mm of annual precipitation) in Patagonia, Chile. Individual tree growth was measured for each species and at each location as mean basal area increment of the last 10 years (BAI10), annual shoot elongation for the period 2011-14, and needle length for 2013 and 2014 cohorts. Additionally, needle, branch, stem sapwood and roots were collected from each sampled tree to determine soluble sugars, starch and total NSC concentrations. The two species showed lower mean BAI10 and 2013 needle length in the dry site; P. ponderosa also had lower annual shoot extension for 2011 and 2014, and lower 2014 needle length, in the dry than in the mesic site. By contrast, NSC concentrations of all woody tissues for both species were either similar or higher in the dry site when compared with the mesic site. Patterns of starch and sugars were substantially different: starch concentrations were similar between sites except for roots of P. ponderosa, which were higher in the dry site, while sugar concentrations of all woody tissues in both species were higher in the dry site. Overall, our study provides evidence that reduced growth along with carbon (C) accumulation is an environmentally driven response to drought. Furthermore, the significant accumulation of low-molecular weight sugars in the dry site is compatible with a prioritized C

  10. Swedish and American studies show that initiatives to decrease maternal obesity could play a key role in reducing preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Jeffrey B; Mayo, Jonathan; Shaw, Gary M; Stevenson, David K

    2014-06-01

    Maternal obesity is a major source of preventable perinatal morbidity, but studies of the relationship between obesity and preterm birth have been inconsistent. This review looks at two major studies covering just under 3.5 million births, from California, USA, and Sweden. Inconsistent findings in previous studies appear to stem from the complex relationship between obesity and preterm birth. Initiatives to decrease maternal obesity represent an important strategy in reducing preterm birth. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. A cry in the dark: depressed mothers show reduced neural activation to their own infant’s cry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablow, Jennifer C.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated depression-related differences in primiparous mothers’ neural response to their own infant’s distress cues. Mothers diagnosed with major depressive disorder (n = 11) and comparison mothers with no diagnosable psychopathology (n = 11) were exposed to their own 18-months-old infant’s cry sound, as well as unfamiliar infant’s cry and control sound, during functional neuroimaging. Depressed mothers’ response to own infant cry greater than other sounds was compared to non-depressed mothers’ response in the whole brain [false discovery rate (FDR) corrected]. A continuous measure of self-reported depressive symptoms (CESD) was also tested as a predictor of maternal response. Non-depressed mothers activated to their own infant’s cry greater than control sound in a distributed network of para/limbic and prefrontal regions, whereas depressed mothers as a group failed to show activation. Non-depressed compared to depressed mothers showed significantly greater striatal (caudate, nucleus accumbens) and medial thalamic activation. Additionally, mothers with lower depressive symptoms activated more strongly in left orbitofrontal, dorsal anterior cingulate and medial superior frontal regions. Non-depressed compared to depressed mothers activated uniquely to own infant greater than other infant cry in occipital fusiform areas. Disturbance of these neural networks involved in emotional response and regulation may help to explain parenting deficits in depressed mothers. PMID:21208990

  12. Neonatal Gene Therapy for Hemophilia B by a Novel Adenovirus Vector Showing Reduced Leaky Expression of Viral Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizuka, Shunsuke; Sakurai, Fuminori; Tachibana, Masashi; Ohashi, Kazuo; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki

    2017-09-15

    Gene therapy during neonatal and infant stages is a promising approach for hemophilia B, a congenital disorder caused by deficiency of blood coagulation factor IX (FIX). An adenovirus (Ad) vector has high potential for use in neonatal or infant gene therapy for hemophilia B due to its superior transduction properties; however, leaky expression of Ad genes often reduces the transduction efficiencies by Ad protein-mediated tissue damage. Here, we used a novel Ad vector, Ad-E4-122aT, which exhibits a reduction in the leaky expression of Ad genes in liver, in gene therapy studies for neonatal hemophilia B mice. Ad-E4-122aT exhibited significantly higher transduction efficiencies than a conventional Ad vector in neonatal mice. In neonatal hemophilia B mice, a single neonatal injection of Ad-E4-122aT expressing human FIX (hFIX) (Ad-E4-122aT-AHAFIX) maintained more than 6% of the normal plasma hFIX activity levels for approximately 100 days. Sequential administration of Ad-E4-122aT-AHAFIX resulted in more than 100% of the plasma hFIX activity levels for more than 100 days and rescued the bleeding phenotypes of hemophilia B mice. In addition, immunotolerance to hFIX was induced by Ad-E4-122aT-AHAFIX administration in neonatal hemophilia B mice. These results indicated that Ad-E4-122aT is a promising gene delivery vector for neonatal or infant gene therapy for hemophilia B.

  13. HIV-1 Nef mutations abrogating downregulation of CD4 affect other Nef functions and show reduced pathogenicity in transgenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanna, Zaher; Priceputu, Elena; Hu, Chunyan; Vincent, Patrick; Jolicoeur, Paul

    2006-01-01

    HIV-1 Nef has the ability to downmodulate CD4 cell surface expression. Several studies have shown that CD4 downregulation is required for efficient virus replication and high infectivity. However, the pathophysiological relevance of this phenomenon in vivo, independently of its role in sustaining high virus loads, remains unclear. We studied the impact of the CD4 downregulation function of Nef on its pathogenesis in vivo, in the absence of viral replication, in the CD4C/HIV transgenic (Tg) mouse model. Two independent Nef mutants (RD35/36AA and D174K), known to abrogate CD4 downregulation, were tested in Tg mice. Flow cytometry analysis showed that downregulation of murine CD4 was severely decreased or abrogated on Tg T cells expressing respectively Nef RD35/36AA and Nef D174K . Similarly, the severe depletion of double-positive CD4 + CD8 + and of single-positive CD4 + CD8 - thymocytes, usually observed with Nef Wt , was not detected in Nef RD35/36AA and Nef D174K Tg mice. However, both mutant Tg mice showed a partial depletion of peripheral CD4 + T cells. This was accompanied, as previously reported for Net Wt Tg mice, by the presence of an activated/memory-like phenotype (CD69 + , CD25 + , CD44 + , CD45RB Low , CD62 Low ) of CD4 + T cells expressing Nef RD35/36AA and to a lesser extent Nef D174K . In addition, both mutants retained the ability to block CD4 + T cell proliferation in vitro after anti-CD3 stimulation, but not to enhance apoptosis/death of CD4 + T cells. Therefore, it appears that Nef-mediated CD4 downregulation is associated with thymic defects, but segregates independently of the activated/memory-like phenotype, of the partial depletion and of the impaired in vitro proliferation of peripheral CD4 + T cells. Histopathological assessment revealed the total absence of or decrease severity and frequency of organ AIDS-like diseases (lung, heart and kidney pathologies) in respectively Nef RD35/36AA and Nef D174K Tg mice, relative to those developing in

  14. Fourier transform infrared imaging showing reduced unsaturated lipid content in the hippocampus of a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leskovjan, Andreana C; Kretlow, Ariane; Miller, Lisa M

    2010-04-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential to brain functions such as membrane fluidity, signal transduction, and cell survival. It is also thought that low levels of unsaturated lipid in the brain may contribute to Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk or severity. However, it is not known how accumulation of unsaturated lipids is affected in different regions of the hippocampus, which is a central target of AD plaque pathology, during aging. In this study, we used Fourier transform infrared imaging (FTIRI) to visualize the unsaturated lipid content in specific regions of the hippocampus in the PSAPP mouse model of AD as a function of plaque formation. Specifically, the unsaturated lipid content was imaged using the olefinic =CH stretching mode at 3012 cm(-1). The axonal, dendritic, and somatic layers of the hippocampus were examined in the mice at 13, 24, 40, and 56 weeks old. Results showed that lipid unsaturation in the axonal layer was significantly increased with normal aging in control (CNT) mice (p avoiding progression of the disease.

  15. Combination of erlotinib and EGCG induces apoptosis of head and neck cancers through posttranscriptional regulation of Bim and Bcl-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Abedul; Rahman, Mohammad Aminur; Chen, Zhuo Georgia; Saba, Nabil F; Khuri, Fadlo R; Shin, Dong M; Ruhul Amin, A R M

    2015-07-01

    Combinatorial approaches using two or more compounds are gaining increasing attention for cancer therapy. We have previously reported that the combination of the EGFR-TKI erlotinib and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) exhibited synergistic chemopreventive effects in head and neck cancers by inducing the expression of Bim, p21, p27, and by inhibiting the phosphorylation of ERK and AKT and expression of Bcl-2. In the current study, we further investigated the mechanism of regulation of Bim, Bcl-2, p21 and p27, and their role in apoptosis. shRNA-mediated silencing of Bim significantly inhibited apoptosis induced by the combination of erlotinib and EGCG (p = 0.005). On the other hand, overexpression of Bcl-2 markedly protected cells from apoptosis (p = 0.003), whereas overexpression of constitutively active AKT only minimally protected cells from apoptosis induced by the combination of the two compounds. Analysis of mRNA expression by RT-PCR revealed that erlotinib, EGCG and their combination had no significant effects on the mRNA expression of Bim, p21, p27 or Bcl-2 suggesting the post-transcriptional regulation of these molecules. Furthermore, we found that erlotinib or the combination of EGCG and erlotinib inhibited the phosphorylation of Bim and stabilized Bim after inhibition of protein translation by cycloheximide. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that the combination of erlotinib and EGCG induces apoptosis of SCCHN cells by regulating Bim and Bcl-2 at the posttranscriptional level.

  16. EGCG Enhances Cisplatin Sensitivity by Regulating Expression of the Copper and Cisplatin Influx Transporter CTR1 in Ovary Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemin Wang

    Full Text Available Cisplatin is one of the first-line platinum-based chemotherapeutic agents for treatment of many types of cancer, including ovary cancer. CTR1 (copper transporter 1, a transmembrane solute carrier transporter, has previously been shown to increase the cellular uptake and sensitivity of cisplatin. It is hypothesized that increased CTR1 expression would enhance the sensitivity of cancer cells to cisplatin (cDDP. The present study demonstrates for the first time that (--epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, a major polyphenol from green tea, can enhance CTR1 mRNA and protein expression in ovarian cancer cells and xenograft mice. EGCG inhibits the rapid degradation of CTR1 induced by cDDP. The combination of EGCG and cDDP increases the accumulation of cDDP and DNA-Pt adducts, and subsequently enhances the sensitivity of ovarian cancer SKOV3 and OVCAR3 cells to the chemotherapeutic agent. In the OVCAR3 ovarian cancer xenograft nude mice model, the combination of the lower concentration of cDDP and EGCG strongly repressed the tumor growth and exhibited protective effect on the nephrotoxicity induced by cisplatin. Overall, these findings uncover a novel chemotherapy mechanism of EGCG as an adjuvant for the treatment of ovarian cancer.

  17. Green tea and its major polyphenol EGCG increase the activity of oral peroxidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narotzki, Baruch; Levy, Yishai; Aizenbud, Dror; Reznick, Abraham Z

    2013-01-01

    Oral peroxidases (OPO) consist mainly of salivary peroxidase and myeloperoxidase and are involved in oral defense mechanisms. Salivary peroxidase is synthesized and secreted by salivary glands, whereas myeloperoxidase is found in polymorphonuclear leukocytes, which migrate into the oral cavity at gingival crevices. Green tea is the world's second most popular drink after water. Polyphenols are the most biologically active group of tea components. The purpose of our study was to elucidate the interaction between green tea & EGCG (Epigallocatechin 3-gallate), its main polyphenol and OPO. In previous studies we have shown that elderly trained people who drink green tea for 3 months, have a higher level of OPO activity compared to non-drinkers. Thus, we decided to extend our project in order to understand the above observations by studying the interaction of green tea and OPO both in vitro and in vivo. Addition of green tea and black tea infusions (50 μl/ml) and EGCG (50 μM) to saliva, resulted in a sharp rise of OPO activity +280% (p = 0.009), 54% (p = 0.04) and 42% (p = 0.009), respectively. The elevation of OPO activity due to addition of green tea and EGCG was in a dose dependent manner: r = 0.91 (p = 0.001) and r = 0.637 (p = 0.019), respectively. Also, following green tea infusion mouth rinsing, a rise of OPO activity was observed: +268% (p = 0.159). These results may be of great clinical importance, as tea consumer's oral epithelium may have better protection against the deleterious effects of hydroxyl radicals, produced by not removed hydrogen peroxides in the presence of metal ions. Higher OPO activity upon green tea drinking may provide an extra protection against oxidative stress in the oral cavity.

  18. Data in support of the negative influence of divalent cations on (?)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG)-mediated inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2)

    OpenAIRE

    Deb, Gauri; Batra, Sahil; Limaye, Anil M.

    2015-01-01

    In this data article we have provided evidence for the negative influence of divalent cations on (−)‐epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG)-mediated inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) activity in cell-free experiments. Chelating agents, such as EDTA and sodium citrate alone, did not affect MMP-2 activity. While EDTA enhanced, excess of divalent cations interfered with EGCG-mediated inhibition of MMP-2.

  19. Pseudomonas putida growing at low temperature shows increased levels of CrcZ and CrcY sRNAs, leading to reduced Crc-dependent catabolite repression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Pilar; Moreno, Renata; Rojo, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    The Crc protein of Pseudomonas inhibits the expression of genes involved in the transport and assimilation of a number of non-preferred carbon sources when preferred substrates are available, thus coordinating carbon metabolism. Crc acts by binding to target mRNAs, inhibiting their translation. In Pseudomonas putida, the amount of free Crc available is controlled by two sRNAs, CrcY and CrcZ, which bind to and sequester Crc. The levels of these sRNAs vary according to metabolic conditions. Pseudomonas putida grows optimally at 30°C, but can also thrive at 10°C. The present work shows that when cells grow exponentially at 10°C, the repressive effect of Crc on many genes is significantly reduced compared with that seen at 30°C. Total Crc levels were similar at both temperatures, but those of CrcZ and CrcY were significantly higher at 10°C. Therefore, Crc-mediated repression may, at least in part, be reduced at 10°C because the fraction of Crc protein sequestered by CrcZ and CrcY is larger, reducing the amount of free Crc available to bind its targets. This may help P. putida to face cold stress. The results reported might help understanding the behaviour of this bacterium in bioremediation or rhizoremediation strategies at low temperatures. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Low dose EGCG treatment beginning in adolescence does not improve cognitive impairment in a Down syndrome mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, Megan; Abeysekera, Irushi; Dria, Karl J; Roper, Randall J; Goodlett, Charles R

    2015-11-01

    Down syndrome (DS) or Trisomy 21 causes intellectual disabilities in humans and the Ts65Dn DS mouse model is deficient in learning and memory tasks. DYRK1A is triplicated in DS and Ts65Dn mice. Ts65Dn mice were given up to ~20mg/kg/day epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a Dyrk1a inhibitor, or water beginning on postnatal day 24 and continuing for three or seven weeks, and were tested on a series of behavioral and learning tasks, including a novel balance beam test. Ts65Dn as compared to control mice exhibited higher locomotor activity, impaired novel object recognition, impaired balance beam and decreased spatial learning and memory. Neither EGCG treatment improved performance of the Ts65Dn mice on these tasks. Ts65Dn mice had a non-significant increase in Dyrk1a activity in the hippocampus and cerebellum. Given the translational value of the Ts65Dn mouse model, further studies will be needed to identify the EGCG doses (and mechanisms) that may improve cognitive function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Designing MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} decorated on green mediated reduced graphene oxide sheets showing photocatalytic performance and luminescence property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shetty, Krushitha [Department of Nanotechnology, PG Center, Bangalore Region, VIAT, VTU, Muddenahalli, Chikkaballapur 562101 (India); Dr. D. Premachandrasagar Centre for Advanced Materials, DSCE, Bangalore 560078 (India); Lokesh, S.V. [Department of Nanotechnology, PG Center, Bangalore Region, VIAT, VTU, Muddenahalli, Chikkaballapur 562101 (India); Rangappa, Dinesh, E-mail: dineshrangappa@gmail.com [Department of Nanotechnology, PG Center, Bangalore Region, VIAT, VTU, Muddenahalli, Chikkaballapur 562101 (India); Nagaswarupa, H.P., E-mail: nagaswarupa77@gmail.com [Research Center, Department of Science, East West Institute of Technology, Bangalore 560091 (India); Nagabhushana, H., E-mail: bhushanvlc@gmail.com [Prof. CNR Rao Centre for Advanced Materials, Tumkur University, Tumkur 572103 (India); Anantharaju, K.S., E-mail: iamananthkurupalya@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering, Shavige Malleshwara Hills, Kumaraswamy Layout, Bangalore 560078 (India); Dr. D. Premachandrasagar Centre for Advanced Materials, DSCE, Bangalore 560078 (India); Prashantha, S.C. [Research Center, Department of Science, East West Institute of Technology, Bangalore 560091 (India); Vidya, Y.S. [Department of Physics, Lal Bahadur Shastri Government First Grade College, Bangalore, 560032 (India); Sharma, S.C. [Dr. D. Premachandrasagar Centre for Advanced Materials, DSCE, Bangalore 560078 (India); Department of Mechanical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore-560078 (India)

    2017-02-15

    Here, a green route has been reported to convert Graphene Oxide (GO) to reduced graphene oxide (RGO) using clove extract. A modest and eco-accommodating sol-gel strategy has been employed to prepare MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles, MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}–RGO nanocomposite samples. The samples were analyzed by Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), UV–Visible Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microcopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Photoluminescence (PL) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). PXRD result revealed that the prepared samples were cubic spinel in nature. SEM results uncovered flake like surface morphology of the prepared nanomaterial. Better PL emission signature was observed when excited at 329 nm. PL studies demonstrated that the present samples were potential for the fabrication of white component of white light emitting diodes (WLEDs). Further, MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}–RGO nanocomposite showed enhanced photocatalytic movement (PCM) and photostability under Sunlight in the decomposition of Malachite Green (MG) compared to MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. This can be attributed to the interaction of MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} surface with RGO sheets which results in PL quenching, demonstrates that the recombination of photo-induced electrons and holes in MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}–RGO nanocomposite is more effectively inhibited. A possible mechanism for the enhanced properties of MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}–RGO nanocomposite was discussed. Moreover, MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}–RGO photocatalyst also showed easy magnetic separation with high reusability. These results unveil that the synthesized sample can be used in display applications and also as a potential photocatalyst. - Graphical abstract: Green mediated reduced graphene oxide with MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} for display applications and also as a potential photocatalyst. - Highlights: • Synthesized GO was reduced to RGO by green route using clove extract. • Mg

  2. A Drosophila model of dominant inclusion body myopathy type 3 shows diminished myosin kinetics that reduce muscle power and yield myofibrillar defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggs, Jennifer A; Melkani, Girish C; Glasheen, Bernadette M; Detor, Mia M; Melkani, Anju; Marsan, Nathan P; Swank, Douglas M; Bernstein, Sanford I

    2017-06-01

    Individuals with inclusion body myopathy type 3 (IBM3) display congenital joint contractures with early-onset muscle weakness that becomes more severe in adulthood. The disease arises from an autosomal dominant point mutation causing an E706K substitution in myosin heavy chain type IIa. We have previously expressed the corresponding myosin mutation (E701K) in homozygous Drosophila indirect flight muscles and recapitulated the myofibrillar degeneration and inclusion bodies observed in the human disease. We have also found that purified E701K myosin has dramatically reduced actin-sliding velocity and ATPase levels. Since IBM3 is a dominant condition, we now examine the disease state in heterozygote Drosophila in order to gain a mechanistic understanding of E701K pathogenicity. Myosin ATPase activities in heterozygotes suggest that approximately equimolar levels of myosin accumulate from each allele. In vitro actin sliding velocity rates for myosin isolated from the heterozygotes were lower than the control, but higher than for the pure mutant isoform. Although sarcomeric ultrastructure was nearly wild type in young adults, mechanical analysis of skinned indirect flight muscle fibers revealed a 59% decrease in maximum oscillatory power generation and an approximately 20% reduction in the frequency at which maximum power was produced. Rate constant analyses suggest a decrease in the rate of myosin attachment to actin, with myosin spending decreased time in the strongly bound state. These mechanical alterations result in a one-third decrease in wing beat frequency and marginal flight ability. With aging, muscle ultrastructure and function progressively declined. Aged myofibrils showed Z-line streaming, consistent with the human heterozygote phenotype. Based upon the mechanical studies, we hypothesize that the mutation decreases the probability of the power stroke occurring and/or alters the degree of movement of the myosin lever arm, resulting in decreased in vitro

  3. A Drosophila model of dominant inclusion body myopathy type 3 shows diminished myosin kinetics that reduce muscle power and yield myofibrillar defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A. Suggs

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with inclusion body myopathy type 3 (IBM3 display congenital joint contractures with early-onset muscle weakness that becomes more severe in adulthood. The disease arises from an autosomal dominant point mutation causing an E706K substitution in myosin heavy chain type IIa. We have previously expressed the corresponding myosin mutation (E701K in homozygous Drosophila indirect flight muscles and recapitulated the myofibrillar degeneration and inclusion bodies observed in the human disease. We have also found that purified E701K myosin has dramatically reduced actin-sliding velocity and ATPase levels. Since IBM3 is a dominant condition, we now examine the disease state in heterozygote Drosophila in order to gain a mechanistic understanding of E701K pathogenicity. Myosin ATPase activities in heterozygotes suggest that approximately equimolar levels of myosin accumulate from each allele. In vitro actin sliding velocity rates for myosin isolated from the heterozygotes were lower than the control, but higher than for the pure mutant isoform. Although sarcomeric ultrastructure was nearly wild type in young adults, mechanical analysis of skinned indirect flight muscle fibers revealed a 59% decrease in maximum oscillatory power generation and an approximately 20% reduction in the frequency at which maximum power was produced. Rate constant analyses suggest a decrease in the rate of myosin attachment to actin, with myosin spending decreased time in the strongly bound state. These mechanical alterations result in a one-third decrease in wing beat frequency and marginal flight ability. With aging, muscle ultrastructure and function progressively declined. Aged myofibrils showed Z-line streaming, consistent with the human heterozygote phenotype. Based upon the mechanical studies, we hypothesize that the mutation decreases the probability of the power stroke occurring and/or alters the degree of movement of the myosin lever arm, resulting in

  4. Nucleoside Analog-treated Chronic Hepatitis B Patients showed Reduced Expression of PECAM-1 Gene in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Shahina; Ullah Munshi, Saif; Hossain, Marufa; Imam, Akhter

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background and aim Assessment of therapeutic response is important for monitoring the prognosis and to take decision for cessation of nucleoside analogues therapy in chronic hepatitis B patients. In addition to serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), hepatitis B virus (HBV) deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) load and HBeAg status, identification of molecular markers associated with host immune response would be essential to assess therapeutic response. In this regard the current study was performed with the aim to detect expression of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM)-I gene in peripheral blood monocytes (PBMCs) of treated chronic hepatitis B patients and also to correlate expression of this gene with serum HBV DNA load and serum ALT levels. Materials and methods The study analyzed 60 chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients, including 30 untreated and 30 nucleoside analogs treated and 10 healthy controls. PECAM-1 gene expression/ transcripts were detected by conventional RT-PCR. Results The expression PECAM-1 mRNA in the PBMCs of CHB patients was significantly higher in untreated (3.17 ± 0.75) than the treated patients (1.64 ± 0.29) (p Tabassum S, Munshi SU, Hossain M, Imam A. Nucleoside Analog-treated Chronic Hepatitis B Patients showed Reduced Expression of PECAM-1 Gene in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells in Bangladesh. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2014;4(2):87-91. PMID:29699354

  5. Ghrelin is produced in taste cells and ghrelin receptor null mice show reduced taste responsivity to salty (NaCl and sour (citric acid tastants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Kyong Shin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The gustatory system plays a critical role in determining food preferences, food intake and energy balance. The exact mechanisms that fine tune taste sensitivity are currently poorly defined, but it is clear that numerous factors such as efferent input and specific signal transduction cascades are involved.Using immunohistochemical analyses, we show that ghrelin, a hormone classically considered to be an appetite-regulating hormone, is present within the taste buds of the tongue. Prepro-ghrelin, prohormone convertase 1/3 (PC 1/3, ghrelin, its cognate receptor (GHSR, and ghrelin-O-acyltransferase (GOAT , the enzyme that activates ghrelin are expressed in Type I, II, III and IV taste cells of mouse taste buds. In addition, ghrelin and GHSR co-localize in the same taste cells, suggesting that ghrelin works in an autocrine manner in taste cells. To determine a role for ghrelin in modifying taste perception, we performed taste behavioral tests using GHSR null mice. GHSR null mice exhibited significantly reduced taste responsivity to sour (citric acid and salty (sodium chloride tastants.These findings suggest that ghrelin plays a local modulatory role in determining taste bud signaling and function and could be a novel mechanism for the modulation of salty and sour taste responsivity.

  6. The antioxidant effect of Green Tea Mega EGCG against electromagnetic radiation-induced oxidative stress in the hippocampus and striatum of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nawal A; Radwan, Nasr M; Aboul Ezz, Heba S; Salama, Noha A

    2017-01-01

    Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) of cellular phones may affect biological systems by increasing free radicals and changing the antioxidant defense systems of tissues, eventually leading to oxidative stress. Green tea has recently attracted significant attention due to its health benefits in a variety of disorders, ranging from cancer to weight loss. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of EMR (frequency 900 MHz modulated at 217 Hz, power density 0.02 mW/cm 2 , SAR 1.245 W/kg) on different oxidative stress parameters in the hippocampus and striatum of adult rats. This study also extends to evaluate the therapeutic effect of green tea mega EGCG on the previous parameters in animals exposed to EMR after and during EMR exposure. The experimental animals were divided into four groups: EMR-exposed animals, animals treated with green tea mega EGCG after 2 months of EMR exposure, animals treated with green tea mega EGCG during EMR exposure and control animals. EMR exposure resulted in oxidative stress in the hippocampus and striatum as evident from the disturbances in oxidant and antioxidant parameters. Co-administration of green tea mega EGCG at the beginning of EMR exposure for 2 and 3 months had more beneficial effect against EMR-induced oxidative stress than oral administration of green tea mega EGCG after 2 months of exposure. This recommends the use of green tea before any stressor to attenuate the state of oxidative stress and stimulate the antioxidant mechanism of the brain.

  7. Adolescent C57BL/6J mice show elevated alcohol intake, but reduced taste aversion, as compared to adult mice: a potential behavioral mechanism for binge drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstein, Sarah E; Spanos, Marina; Hodge, Clyde W

    2011-10-01

    Binge alcohol drinking during adolescence is a serious health problem that may increase future risk of an alcohol use disorder. Although there are several different procedures by which to preclinically model binge-like alcohol intake, limited-access procedures offer the advantage of achieving high voluntary alcohol intake and pharmacologically relevant blood alcohol concentrations (BACs). Therefore, in the current study, developmental differences in binge-like alcohol drinking using a limited-access cycling procedure were examined. In addition, as alcohol drinking has been negatively correlated with sensitivity to the aversive properties of alcohol, we examined developmental differences in sensitivity to an alcohol-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA). Binge-like alcohol consumption was investigated in adolescent (4 weeks) and adult (10 weeks) male C57BL/6J mice for 2 to 4 h/d for 16 days. Developmental differences in sensitivity to an alcohol-induced CTA were examined in adolescent and adult mice, with saline or alcohol (3 or 4 g/kg) repeatedly paired with the intake of a novel tastant (NaCl). Adolescent mice showed a significant increase in alcohol intake as compared to adults, with adolescents achieving higher BACs and increasing alcohol consumption over successive cycles of the binge procedure. Conversely, adolescent mice exhibited a dose-dependent reduction in sensitivity to the aversive properties of alcohol, as compared to adult mice, with adolescent mice failing to develop a CTA to 3 g/kg alcohol. Finally, extinction of an alcohol CTA was observed following conditioning with a higher dose of alcohol in adolescent, versus adult, mice. These results indicate that adolescent mice consume more alcohol, per kilogram body weight, than adults in a binge-like model of alcohol drinking and demonstrate a blunted sensitivity to the conditioned aversive effects of alcohol. Overall, this supports a behavioral framework by which heightened binge alcohol intake during

  8. A GPBAR1 (TGR5 small molecule agonist shows specific inhibitory effects on myeloid cell activation in vitro and reduces experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuruddeen D Lewis

    Full Text Available GPBAR1 is a G protein-coupled receptor that is activated by certain bile acids and plays an important role in the regulation of bile acid synthesis, lipid metabolism, and energy homeostasis. Recent evidence suggests that GPBAR1 may also have important effects in reducing the inflammatory response through its expression on monocytes and macrophages. To further understand the role of GPBAR1 in inflammation, we generated a novel, selective, proprietary GPBAR1 agonist and tested its effectiveness at reducing monocyte and macrophage activation in vitro and in vivo. We have used this agonist, together with previously described agonists to study agonism of GPBAR1, and shown that they can all induce cAMP and reduce TLR activation-induced cytokine production in human monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages in vitro. Additionally, through the usage of RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq, we identified a select set of genes that are regulated by GPBAR1 agonism during LPS activation. To further define the in vivo role of GPBAR1 in inflammation, we assessed GPBAR1 expression and found high levels on circulating mouse monocytes. Agonism of GPBAR1 reduced LPS-induced cytokine production in mouse monocytes ex vivo and serum cytokine levels in vivo. Agonism of GPBAR1 also had profound effects in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE mouse model of multiple sclerosis, where monocytes play an important role. Mice treated with the GPBAR1 agonist exhibited a significant reduction in the EAE clinical score which correlated with reduced monocyte and microglial activation and reduced trafficking of monocytes and T cells into the CNS. These data confirm the importance of GPBAR1 in controlling monocyte and macrophage activation in vivo and support the rationale for selective agonists of GPBAR1 in the treatment of inflammatory diseases.

  9. A water-soluble extract of chicken reduced plasma triacylglycerols, but showed no anti-atherosclerotic activity in apoE−/− mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Vik

    2015-08-01

    Conclusion: Chicken protein displayed a slight potential to increase mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and reduce plasma TAG. However, CP did not affect plasma cholesterol levels, inflammation status or atherosclerotic development in apoE−/− mice. Based on these results, dietary intervention with CP does not have sufficient capacity to influence atherosclerotic development in apoE−/− mice.

  10. Identification of epigallocatechin-3-O-(3-O-methyl)-gallate (EGCG3''Me) and amino acid profiles in various tea (Camellia sinensis L.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hyang-Gi; Lee, Yeong-Ran; Lee, Min-Seuk; Hwang, Kyeng Hwan; Kim, Eun-Hee; Park, Jun Seong; Hong, Young-Shick

    2017-10-01

    This article includes experimental data on the identification of epigallocatechin-3-O-(3-O-methyl)-gallate (EGCG3''Me) by 2-dimensional (2D) proton ( 1 H) NMR analysis and on the information of amino acid and catechin compound profiles by HPLC analysis in leaf extracts of various tea cultivars. These data are related to the research article " Metabolic phenotyping of various tea (Camellia sinensis L.) cultivars and understanding of their intrinsic metabolism " (Ji et al., 2017) [1]. The assignment for EGCG3x''Me by 1 H NMR analysis was also confirmed with spiking experiment of its pure chemical.

  11. Influence of prenatal EGCG treatment and Dyrk1a dosage reduction on craniofacial features associated with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElyea, Samantha D; Starbuck, John M; Tumbleson-Brink, Danika M; Harrington, Emily; Blazek, Joshua D; Ghoneima, Ahmed; Kula, Katherine; Roper, Randall J

    2016-11-15

    Trisomy 21 (Ts21) affects craniofacial precursors in individuals with Down syndrome (DS). The resultant craniofacial features in all individuals with Ts21 may significantly affect breathing, eating and speaking. Using mouse models of DS, we have traced the origin of DS-associated craniofacial abnormalities to deficiencies in neural crest cell (NCC) craniofacial precursors early in development. Hypothetically, three copies of Dyrk1a (dual-specificity tyrosine-(Y)-phosphorylation regulated kinase 1A), a trisomic gene found in most humans with DS and mouse models of DS, may significantly affect craniofacial structure. We hypothesized that we could improve DS-related craniofacial abnormalities in mouse models using a Dyrk1a inhibitor or by normalizing Dyrk1a gene dosage. In vitro and in vivo treatment with Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a Dyrk1a inhibitor, modulated trisomic NCC deficiencies at embryonic time points. Furthermore, prenatal EGCG treatment normalized some craniofacial phenotypes, including cranial vault in adult Ts65Dn mice. Normalization of Dyrk1a copy number in an otherwise trisomic Ts65Dn mice normalized many dimensions of the cranial vault, but did not correct all craniofacial anatomy. These data underscore the complexity of the gene–phenotype relationship in trisomy and suggest that changes in Dyrk1a expression play an important role in morphogenesis and growth of the cranial vault. These results suggest that a temporally specific prenatal therapy may be an effective way to ameliorate some craniofacial anatomical changes associated with DS.

  12. A Retrospective Cohort Analysis Shows that Coadministration of Minocycline with Colistin in Critically Ill Patients Is Associated with Reduced Frequency of Acute Renal Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodise, Thomas P; Fan, Weihong; Griffith, David C; Dudley, Michael N; Sulham, Katherine A

    2018-01-01

    Nonclinical studies have suggested that oxidative damage, caspase-mediated apoptosis, and inducible nitric oxide synthase levels may be involved in the pathogenesis of colistin (CST)-associated acute renal failure. MIN inhibits caspase 1, caspase 3, and inducible nitric oxide synthase, leading to the hypothesis that coadministration of CST with MIN (CST-MIN) may reduce the incidence of acute renal failure as well as produce additive or synergistic antimicrobial effects. A multicenter retrospective cohort study was conducted using the Premier Research database to examine the impact of CST-MIN on acute renal failure. Inclusion criteria were as follows: age of ≥18 years, intensive care unit admission at CST initiation, primary International Classification of Diseases 9 (ICD-9) diagnosis of pneumonia or sepsis, nondialysis at hospital admission, and discharge between January 2010 and December 2015. ICD-9 code 584.XX or ICD-10 code N17 was used to define acute renal failure. Baseline comparisons, 1:8 propensity score matching, and confirmatory logistic regression analyses were conducted. In total, 4,817 patients received CST and met inclusion criteria; 93 received CST-MIN. Unadjusted frequency of acute renal failure was significantly lower in patients receiving CST-MIN than CST (11.8% versus 23.7%, P = 0.007). Similar results were seen in propensity score matching (12.0% versus 22.3%, P = 0.031) and logistic regression analyses (odds ratio of 0.403, P = 0.006). Mortalities and 30-day readmission rates were similar between groups. The acute renal failure rate was not impacted by prevalence of baseline renal disease. CST-MIN in critically ill patients may reduce CST-associated acute renal failure. Further evaluation of this combination in prospective clinical studies is warranted. Copyright © 2017 Lodise et al.

  13. Biosurfactants produced by Bacillus subtilis A1 and Pseudomonas stutzeri NA3 reduce longevity and fecundity of Anopheles stephensi and show high toxicity against young instars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthipan, Punniyakotti; Sarankumar, Raja Kumaresan; Jaganathan, Anitha; Amuthavalli, Pandian; Babujanarthanam, Ranganathan; Rahman, Pattanathu K S M; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Higuchi, Akon; Benelli, Giovanni; Rajasekar, Aruliah

    2018-04-01

    Anopheles stephensi acts as vector of Plasmodium parasites, which are responsible for malaria in tropical and subtropical areas worldwide. Currently, malaria management is a big challenge due to the presence of insecticide-resistant strains as well as to the development of Plasmodium species highly resistant to major antimalarial drugs. Therefore, the present study focused on biosurfactant produced by two bacteria Bacillus subtilis A1 and Pseudomonas stutzeri NA3, evaluating them for insecticidal applications against malaria mosquitoes. The produced biosurfactants were characterized using FT-IR spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), which confirmed that biosurfactants had a lipopeptidic nature. Both biosurfactants were tested against larvae and pupae of A. stephensi. LC 50 values were 3.58 (larva I), 4.92 (II), 5.73 (III), 7.10 (IV), and 7.99 (pupae) and 2.61 (I), 3.68 (II), 4.48 (III), 5.55 (IV), and 6.99 (pupa) for biosurfactants produced by B. subtilis A1 and P. stutzeri NA3, respectively. Treatments with bacterial surfactants led to various physiological changes including longer pupal duration, shorter adult oviposition period, and reduced longevity and fecundity. To the best of our knowledge, there are really limited reports on the mosquitocidal and physiological effects due to biosurfactant produced by bacterial strains. Overall, the toxic activity of these biosurfactant on all young instars of A. stephensi, as well as their major impact on adult longevity and fecundity, allows their further consideration for the development of insecticides in the fight against malaria mosquitoes.

  14. Extensive proteomic screening identifies the obesity-related NYGGF4 protein as a novel LRP1-interactor, showing reduced expression in early Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taddei Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The low-density lipoprotein receptor related protein 1 (LRP1 has been implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD but its signalling has not been fully evaluated. There is good evidence that the cytoplasmic domain of LRP1 is involved in protein-protein interactions, important in the cell biology of LRP1. Results We carried out three yeast two-hybrid screens to identify proteins that interact with the cytoplasmic domain of LRP1. The screens included both conventional screens as well as a novel, split-ubiquitin-based screen in which an LRP1 construct was expressed and screened as a transmembrane protein. The split-ubiquitin screen was validated in a screen using full-length amyloid protein precursor (APP, which successfully identified FE65 and FE65L2, as well as novel interactors (Rab3a, Napg, and ubiquitin b. Using both a conventional screen as well as the split-ubiquitin screen, we identified NYGGF4 as a novel LRP1 interactor. The interaction between LRP1 and NYGGF4 was validated using two-hybrid assays, coprecipitation and colocalization in mammalian cells. Mutation analysis demonstrated a specific interaction of NYGGF4 with an NPXY motif that required an intact tyrosine residue. Interestingly, while we confirmed that other LRP1 interactors we identified, including JIP1B and EB-1, were also able to bind to APP, NYGGF4 was unique in that it showed specific binding with LRP1. Expression of NYGGF4 decreased significantly in patients with AD as compared to age-matched controls, and showed decreasing expression with AD disease progression. Examination of Nyggf4 expression in mice with different alleles of the human APOE4 gene showed significant differences in Nyggf4 expression. Conclusions These results implicate NYGGF4 as a novel and specific interactor of LRP1. Decreased expression of LRP1 and NYGGF4 over disease, evident with the presence of even moderate numbers of neuritic plaques, suggests that LRP1-NYGGF4 is a system altered

  15. Healthy co-twins of patients with affective disorders show reduced risk-related activation of the insula during a monetary gambling task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macoveanu, Julian; Miskowiak, Kamilla; Kessing, Lars V

    2015-01-01

    -risk individuals. METHODS: We investigated healthy monozygotic and dizygotic twins with or without a co-twin history of affective disorders (high-risk and low-risk groups, respectively) using functional MRI during a gambling task. We assessed group differences in activity related to gambling risk over the entire...... brain. RESULTS: We included 30 monozygotic and 37 dizygotic twins in our analysis. Neural activity in the anterior insula and ventral striatum increased linearly with the amount of gambling risk in the entire cohort. Individual neuroticism scores were positively correlated with the neural response...... in the ventral striatum to increasing gambling risk and negatively correlated with individual risk-taking behaviour. Compared with low-risk twins, the high-risk twins showed a bilateral reduction of risk-related activity in the middle insula extending into the temporal cortex with increasing gambling risk. Post...

  16. Randomised study showed that recorded maternal voices reduced pain in preterm infants undergoing heel lance procedures in a neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, G; Cabano, R; Villa, G; Bigogno, A; Ardesi, M; Dioni, E

    2017-10-01

    Alleviating pain in neonates should be the goal of all caregivers. We evaluated whether recorded maternal voices were safe and effective in limiting pain in preterm infants undergoing heel lance procedures in the neonatal intensive care unit of an Italian children's hospital. This prospective, controlled study took place from December 2013 to December 2015. We enrolled 40 preterm infants, born at a 26-34 weeks of gestation, at a corrected gestational age 29-36 weeks and randomised them to listen or not listen to a recording of their mother's voice during a painful, routine heel lance for blood collection. Changes in the infants' Premature Infant Pain Profile, heart rate, oxygen saturation and blood pressure during the procedure were compared by analysis of variance. Possible side effects, of apnoea, bradycardia, seizures and vomiting, were also recorded. Both groups showed a marked increase in PIPP scores and decrease in oxygen saturation during the procedure, but infants in the treatment group had significantly lower PIPP scores (p = 0.00002) and lower decreases in oxygen saturation (p = 0.0283). No significant side effects were observed. Using recorded maternal voices to limit pain in preterm infants undergoing heel lance procedures appeared safe and effective. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Empty polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages in anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion (ACDF) show slow radiographic fusion that reduces clinical improvement: results from the prospective multicenter "PIERCE-PEEK" study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suess, Olaf; Schomaker, Martin; Cabraja, Mario; Danne, Marco; Kombos, Theodoros; Hanna, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion (ACDF) is a well-established surgical treatment for radiculopathy and myelopathy. Previous studies showed that empty PEEK cages have lower radiographic fusion rates, but the clinical relevance remains unclear. This paper's aim is to provide high-quality evidence on the outcomes of ACDF with empty PEEK cages and on the relevance of radiographic fusion for clinical outcomes. This large prospective multicenter clinical trial performed single-level ACDF with empty PEEK cages on patients with cervical radiculopathy or myelopathy. The main clinical outcomes were VAS (0-10) for pain and NDI (0-100) for functioning. Radiographic fusion was evaluated by two investigators for three different aspects. The median (range) improvement of the VAS pain score was: 3 (1-6) at 6 months, 3 (2-8) at 12 months, and 4 (2-8) at 18 months. The median (range) improvement of the NDI score was: 12 (2-34) at 6 months, 18 (4-46) at 12 months, and 22 (2-44) at 18 months. Complete radiographic fusion was reached by 126 patients (43%) at 6 months, 214 patients (73%) at 12 months, and 241 patients (83%) at 18 months. Radiographic fusion was a highly significant ( p  PEEK cages is slow and insufficient. Lack of complete radiographic fusion leads to less improvement of pain and disability. We recommend against using empty uncoated pure PEEK cages in ACDF. ISRCTN42774128. Retrospectively registered 14 April 2009.

  18. EGCG Prevents High Fat Diet-Induced Changes in Gut Microbiota, Decreases of DNA Strand Breaks, and Changes in Expression and DNA Methylation of Dnmt1 and MLH1 in C57BL/6J Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Remely

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity as a multifactorial disorder involves low-grade inflammation, increased reactive oxygen species incidence, gut microbiota aberrations, and epigenetic consequences. Thus, prevention and therapies with epigenetic active antioxidants, (--Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, are of increasing interest. DNA damage, DNA methylation and gene expression of DNA methyltransferase 1, interleukin 6, and MutL homologue 1 were analyzed in C57BL/6J male mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD or a control diet (CD with and without EGCG supplementation. Gut microbiota was analyzed with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. An induction of DNA damage was observed, as a consequence of HFD-feeding, whereas EGCG supplementation decreased DNA damage. HFD-feeding induced a higher inflammatory status. Supplementation reversed these effects, resulting in tissue specific gene expression and methylation patterns of DNA methyltransferase 1 and MutL homologue 1. HFD feeding caused a significant lower bacterial abundance. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio is significantly lower in HFD + EGCG but higher in CD + EGCG compared to control groups. The results demonstrate the impact of EGCG on the one hand on gut microbiota which together with dietary components affects host health. On the other hand effects may derive from antioxidative activities as well as epigenetic modifications observed on CpG methylation but also likely to include other epigenetic elements.

  19. Assessment of Extraction Parameters on Antioxidant Capacity, Polyphenol Content, Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG, Epicatechin Gallate (ECG and Iriflophenone 3-C-β-Glucoside of Agarwood (Aquilaria crassna Young Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Yin Tay

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of ethanol concentration (0%–100%, v/v, solid-to-solvent ratio (1:10–1:60, w/v and extraction time (30–180 min on the extraction of polyphenols from agarwood (Aquilaria crassna were examined. Total phenolic content (TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC and total flavanol (TF assays and HPLC-DAD were used for the determination and quantification of polyphenols, flavanol gallates (epigallocatechin gallate—EGCG and epicatechin gallate—ECG and a benzophenone (iriflophenone 3-C-β-glucoside from the crude polyphenol extract (CPE of A. crassna. 2,2'-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity was used to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of the CPE. Experimental results concluded that ethanol concentration and solid-to-solvent ratio had significant effects (p < 0.05 on the yields of polyphenol and antioxidant capacity. Extraction time had an insignificant influence on the recovery of EGCG, ECG and iriflophenone 3-C-β-glucoside, as well as radical scavenging capacity from the CPE. The extraction parameters that exhibited maximum yields were 40% (v/v ethanol, 1:60 (w/v for 30 min where the TPC, TFC, TF, DPPH, EGCG, ECG and iriflophenone 3-C-β-glucoside levels achieved were 183.5 mg GAE/g DW, 249.0 mg QE/g DW, 4.9 mg CE/g DW, 93.7%, 29.1 mg EGCG/g DW, 44.3 mg ECG/g DW and 39.9 mg iriflophenone 3-C-β-glucoside/g DW respectively. The IC50 of the CPE was 24.6 mg/L.

  20. Curcumin and EGCG Suppress Apurinic/Apyrimidinic Endonuclease 1 and Induce Complete Remission in B-cell Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashem M. Neenaa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:Background: Follicular lymphoma (FL is the most common subtype of indolent lymphoma. FL is still considered to be an incurable disease and palliation of symptoms is an acceptable approach to the expected pattern of repeated relapses due to developing resistance to chemotherapy agents. Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease/redox factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1 is a multifunctional protein involved in DNA base excision repair (BER of oxidative DNA damage and in redox regulation of a number of transcription factors. It was observed that cytoplasmic APE1 induced COX-2 expression through NF-êB activation. It has been shown that chemopreventive agents potentiate the efficacy of chemotherapy through the regulation of multiple signaling pathways, including NF-êB, c-Myc, cyclooxygenase-2, apoptosis, and others, suggesting a multitargeted nature of chemopreventive agents. We hypothesized that curcumin, a polyphenolic antioxidant derived from the spice turmeric, and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG from green tea would potentiate the effect of chemotherapy in B-cell lymphoma.Objective: We examined the role of human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1 in resistance and prognosis in patients with FL. Our major objective was to update the safety and efficacy results of the antitumor effect of combination of curcumin and EGCG therapy in relapsed or resistant indolent or transformed non-Hodgkin follicular lymphoma patients and their peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs compared with healthy donors’ controls.Methods: Thirty patients with FL with over-expression of constitutive active NF-êB in their PBMCs received regular CHOP and consumed capsules compatible with curcumin doses between 0.9 and 5.4 g daily for up to 9 months and 9.0 g/day green tea whole extract "1000 mg tablets of green tea whole extract containing 200 mg EGCG. We designed a dose-escalation Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2011, 1(12:525-544 study to explore the efficacy of CHOP

  1. Molecular interactions between (--epigallocatechin gallate analogs and pancreatic lipase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihui Wang

    Full Text Available The molecular interactions between pancreatic lipase (PL and four tea polyphenols (EGCG analogs, like (--epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG, (--gallocatechin gallate (GCG, (--epicatechin gallate (ECG, and (--epigallocatechin (EC, were studied from PL activity, conformation, kinetics and thermodynamics. It was observed that EGCG analogs inhibited PL activity, and their inhibitory rates decreased by the order of EGCG>GCG>ECG>EC. PL activity at first decreased rapidly and then slowly with the increase of EGCG analogs concentrations. α-Helix content of PL secondary structure decreased dependent on EGCG analogs concentration by the order of EGCG>GCG>ECG>EC. EGCG, ECG, and EC could quench PL fluorescence both dynamically and statically, while GCG only quenched statically. EGCG analogs would induce PL self-assembly into complexes and the hydrodynamic radii of the complexes possessed a close relationship with the inhibitory rates. Kinetics analysis showed that EGCG analogs non-competitively inhibited PL activity and did not bind to PL catalytic site. DSC measurement revealed that EGCG analogs decreased the transition midpoint temperature of PL enzyme, suggesting that these compounds reduced PL enzyme thermostability. In vitro renaturation through urea solution indicated that interactions between PL and EGCG analogs were weak and non-covalent.

  2. Biophysical characteristics of proteins and living cells exposed to the green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCg): review of recent advances from molecular mechanisms to nanomedicine and clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Beatrix; Bosze, Szilvia; Horvath, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Herbs and traditional medicines have been applied for thousands of years, but researchers started to study their mode of action at the molecular, cellular and tissue levels only recently. Nowadays, just like in ancient times, natural compounds are still determining factors in remedies. To support this statement, the recently won Nobel Prize for an anti-malaria agent from the plant sweet wormwood, which had been used to effectively treat the disease, could be mentioned. Among natural compounds and traditional Chinese medicines, the green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) is one of the most studied active substances. In the present review, we summarize the molecular scale interactions of proteins and EGCg with special focus on its limited stability and antioxidant properties. We outline the observed biophysical effects of EGCg on various cell lines and cultures. The alteration of cell adhesion, motility, migration, stiffness, apoptosis, proliferation as well as the different impacts on normal and cancer cells are all reviewed. We also handle the works performed using animal models, microbes and clinical trials. Novel ways to develop its utilization for therapeutic purposes in the future are discussed too, for instance, using nanoparticles and green tea polyphenols together to cure illnesses and the combination of EGCg and anticancer compounds to intensify their effects. The limitations of the employed experimental models and criticisms of the interpretation of the obtained experimental data are summarized as well.

  3. Show-Bix &

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The anti-reenactment 'Show-Bix &' consists of 5 dias projectors, a dial phone, quintophonic sound, and interactive elements. A responsive interface will enable the Dias projectors to show copies of original dias slides from the Show-Bix piece ”March på Stedet”, 265 images in total. The copies are...

  4. Talking with TV shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Laursen, Ditte

    2014-01-01

    User interaction with radio and television programmes is not a new thing. However, with new cross-media production concepts such as X Factor and Voice, this is changing dramatically. The second-screen logic of these productions encourages viewers, along with TV’s traditional one-way communication...... mode, to communicate on interactive (dialogue-enabling) devices such as laptops, smartphones and tablets. Using the TV show Voice as our example, this article shows how the technological and situational set-up of the production invites viewers to engage in new ways of interaction and communication...

  5. Talk Show Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mitzi Ruth

    1992-01-01

    Proposes having students perform skits in which they play the roles of the science concepts they are trying to understand. Provides the dialog for a skit in which hot and cold gas molecules are interviewed on a talk show to study how these properties affect wind, rain, and other weather phenomena. (MDH)

  6. Obesity in show cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbee, R J

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  8. The energy show

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Energy Show is a new look at the problems of world energy, where our supplies come from, now and in the future. The programme looks at how we need energy to maintain our standards of living. Energy supply is shown as the complicated set of problems it is - that Fossil Fuels are both raw materials and energy sources, that some 'alternatives' so readily suggested as practical options are in reality a long way from being effective. (author)

  9. APPswe/PS1dE9 mice with cortical amyloid pathology show a reduced NAA/Cr ratio without apparent brain atrophy: A MRS and MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhla, Angela; Rühlmann, Claire; Lindner, Tobias; Polei, Stefan; Hadlich, Stefan; Krause, Bernd J; Vollmar, Brigitte; Teipel, Stefan J

    2017-01-01

    Transgenic animal models of Aβ pathology provide mechanistic insight into some aspects of Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology related to Aβ accumulation. Quantitative neuroimaging is a possible aid to improve translation of mechanistic findings in transgenic models to human end phenotypes of brain morphology or function. Therefore, we combined MRI-based morphometry, MRS-based NAA-assessment and quantitative histology of neurons and amyloid plaque load in the APPswe/PS1dE9 mouse model to determine the interrelationship between morphological changes, changes in neuron numbers and amyloid plaque load with reductions of NAA levels as marker of neuronal functional viability. The APPswe/PS1dE9 mouse showed an increase of Aβ plaques, loss of neurons and an impairment of NAA/Cr ratio, which however was not accompanied with brain atrophy. As brain atrophy is one main characteristic in human AD, conclusions from murine to human AD pathology should be drawn with caution.

  10. A method for fast determination of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG, epicatechin (EC, catechin (C and caffeine (CAF in green tea using HPLC Método rápido para determinação de galato de epigalocatequina (EGCG, epicatequina (EC, catequina (C e cafeína (CAF em chá verde usando CLAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel T. Saito

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Tea has been considered a medicine and a healthy beverage since ancient times, but recently it has received a great deal of attention because of its antioxidant properties. Green tea polyphenols have demonstrated to be an effective chemopreventive agent. Recently, investigators have found that EGCG, one of the green tea catechins, could have anti-HIV effects when bound to CD4 receptor. Many factors can constitute important influences on the composition of tea, such as species, season, age of the leaf, climate, and horticultural practices (soil, water, minerals, fertilizers. This paper presents an HPLC analytical methodology development, using column RP-18 and mobile phase composed by water, acetonitrile, methanol, ethyl acetate, glacial acetic acid (89:6:1:3:1 v/v/v/v/v for simultaneous determination and quantification of caffeine (CAF, catechin (C, epicatechin (EC and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG in samples of Camellia sinensis (green tea grown in Brazil and harvested in spring, in summer and in autumn, in comparison to Brazilian black tea, to samples of Japanese and Chinese green tea and to two standardized dry extracts of green tea. The method has been statistically evaluated and has proved to be adequate to qualitative and quantitative determination of the samples.O chá vem sendo considerado uma bebida saudável e com propriedades medicinais desde tempos bem remotos, mas recentemente tem ganhado grande interesse no meio científico devido a suas atividades como antioxidante. Os polifenóis do chá verde vêm demonstrando possuir atividades quimiopreventivas. Recentemente, pesquisadores descobriram que o EGCG, a principal catequina do chá verde, poderia ter efeito anti-HIV quando acoplado ao receptor CD4. Muitos fatores podem influenciar de forma significativa na composição do chá, como sua espécie, estação que foi colhida, idade da folha, clima e técnicas de cultura (solo, irrigação e fertilizantes. Este artigo vem apresentar

  11. Showing Value (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available When Su Cleyle and I first decided to start Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, one of the things we agreed upon immediately was that the journal be open access. We knew that a major obstacle to librarians using the research literature was that they did not have access to the research literature. Although Su and I are both academic librarians who can access a wide variety of library and information literature from our institutions, we belong to a profession where not everyone has equal access to the research in our field. Without such access to our own body of literature, how can we ever hope for practitioners to use research evidence in their decision making? It would have been contradictory to the principles of evidence based library and information practice to do otherwise.One of the specific groups we thought could use such an open access venue for discovering research literature was school librarians. School librarians are often isolated and lacking access to the research literature that may help them prove to stakeholders the importance of their libraries and their role within schools. Certainly, school libraries have been in decline and the use of evidence to show value is needed. As Ken Haycock noted in his 2003 report, The Crisis in Canada’s School Libraries: The Case for Reform and Reinvestment, “Across the country, teacher-librarians are losing their jobs or being reassigned. Collections are becoming depleted owing to budget cuts. Some principals believe that in the age of the Internet and the classroom workstation, the school library is an artifact” (9. Within this context, school librarians are looking to our research literature for evidence of the impact that school library programs have on learning outcomes and student success. They are integrating that evidence into their practice, and reflecting upon what can be improved locally. They are focusing on students and showing the impact of school libraries and

  12. Bioactivity of Epigallocatechin Gallate Nanoemulsions Evaluated in Mice Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutelidakis, Antonios E; Argyri, Konstantina; Sevastou, Zoi; Lamprinaki, Dimitra; Panagopoulou, Elli; Paximada, Evi; Sali, Aggeliki; Papalazarou, Vassilis; Mallouchos, Athanasios; Evageliou, Vasiliki; Kostourou, Vasiliki; Mantala, Ioanna; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2017-09-01

    The hypothesis that incorporation of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) into nanoemulsions may increase its bioactivity compared with EGCG aqueous solutions was examined in mice. After an in vitro study in a model system with stimulated gastrointestinal conditions, the following EGCG nanoemulsions were used in a mice experiment: Emulsion I: emulsion water in oil (W/O), which contained 0.23 mg/mL EGCG in aqueous phase; Emulsion II: emulsion oil in water (O/W), which contained 10% olive oil and 0.23 mg/mL esterified EGCG in fatty phase; and Emulsion III: emulsion O/W in water (W1/O/W2; 8:32:60), which contained 32% olive oil and 0.23 mg/mL EGCG in aqueous phase. After 2 h of mice administration by gavage with 0.1 mL of EGCG nanoemulsions, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of plasma and some tissues (especially colon, jejunum, heart, spleen) was measured with Ferric-Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) assays. No toxic effects were observed after administration of 0.23 mg/mL esterified EGCG in CD1 mouse strain. The study concluded that administration of mice with the three EGCG nanoemulsions did not increase their TAC in specific tissues, compared with an aqueous EGCG solution at the same concentration. Nevertheless, the esterified EGCG emulsion (Emulsion II) exerted an increase in mice plasma compared with aqueous EGCG and showed higher values of TAC in several tissues, compared with Emulsions I and III. EGCG nanoemulsions could be considered a useful method in plethora functional food applications, but further research is required for safer results.

  13. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate protects Kuruma shrimp Marsupeneaus japonicus from white spot syndrome virus and Vibrio alginolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Sun, Baozhen; Zhu, Fei

    2018-07-01

    Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant catechin in green tea and exhibits potential antibacterial and anticancer activities. In this study, EGCG was used in pathogen-challenge experiments in shrimp to discover its effect on the innate immune system of an invertebrate. Kuruma shrimp Marsupeneaus japonicus was used as an experimental model and challenged with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and the Gram-negative bacterium Vibrio alginolyticus. Pathogen-challenge experiments showed that EGCG pretreatment significantly delayed and reduced mortality upon WSSV and V. alginolyticus infection, with VP-28 copies of WSSV also reduced. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction revealed the positive influence of EGCG on several innate immune-related genes, including IMD, proPO, QM, myosin, Rho, Rab7, p53, TNF-alpha, MAPK, and NOS, and we observed positive influences on three immune parameters, including total hemocyte count and phenoloxidase and superoxide dismutase activities, by EGCG treatment. Additionally, results showed that EGCG treatment significantly reduced apoptosis upon V. alginolyticus challenge. These results indicated the positive role of EGCG in the shrimp innate immune system as an enhancer of immune parameters and an inhibitor of apoptosis, thereby delaying and reducing mortality upon pathogen challenge. Our findings provide insight into potential therapeutic or preventive functions associated with EGCG to enhance shrimp immunity and protect shrimp from pathogen infection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Phenolic promiscuity in the cell nucleus--epigallocatechingallate (EGCG) and theaflavin-3,3'-digallate from green and black tea bind to model cell nuclear structures including histone proteins, double stranded DNA and telomeric quadruplex DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikutis, Gediminas; Karaköse, Hande; Jaiswal, Rakesh; LeGresley, Adam; Islam, Tuhidul; Fernandez-Lahore, Marcelo; Kuhnert, Nikolai

    2013-02-01

    Flavanols from tea have been reported to accumulate in the cell nucleus in considerable concentrations. The nature of this phenomenon, which could provide novel approaches in understanding the well-known beneficial health effects of tea phenols, is investigated in this contribution. The interaction between epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) from green tea and a selection of theaflavins from black tea with selected cell nuclear structures such as model histone proteins, double stranded DNA and quadruplex DNA was investigated using mass spectrometry, Circular Dichroism spectroscopy and fluorescent assays. The selected polyphenols were shown to display affinity to all of the selected cell nuclear structures, thereby demonstrating a degree of unexpected molecular promiscuity. Most interestingly theaflavin-digallate was shown to display the highest affinity to quadruplex DNA reported for any naturally occurring molecule reported so far. This finding has immediate implications in rationalising the chemopreventive effect of the tea beverage against cancer and possibly the role of tea phenolics as "life span essentials".

  15. Skin Protective Effect of Epigallocatechin Gallate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunji Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG is a catechin and an abundant polyphenol in green tea. Although several papers have evaluated EGCG as a cosmetic constituent, the skin hydration effect of EGCG is poorly understood. We aimed to investigate the mechanism by which EGCG promotes skin hydration by measuring hyaluronic acid synthase (HAS and hyaluronidase (HYAL gene expression and antioxidant and anti-pigmentation properties using cell proliferation assay, Western blotting analysis, luciferase assay, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR analysis. RT-PCR showed that EGCG increased the expression of natural moisturizing factor-related genes filaggrin (FLG, transglutaminase-1, HAS-1, and HAS-2. Under UVB irradiation conditions, the expression level of HYAL was decreased in HaCaT cells. Furthermore, we confirmed the antioxidant activity of EGCG and also showed a preventive effect against radical-evoked apoptosis by downregulation of caspase-8 and -3 in HaCaT cells. EGCG reduced melanin secretion and production in melanoma cells. Together, these results suggest that EGCG might be used as a cosmetic ingredient with positive effects on skin hydration, moisture retention, and wrinkle formation, in addition to radical scavenging activity and reduction of melanin generation.

  16. Potential benefit of (--epigallocatechin-3-gallate for macrovascular complications in diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Tang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Vascular problems are the most common complications in diabetes. Substantial evidence from epidemiological and pathophysiological studies show that hyperglycemia is a major risk factor for macrovascular complications in patients with diabetes. (--Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, the major catechin derived from green tea, is known to exert a variety of cardiovascular beneficial effects. The protective effects of EGCG in diabetes are also evident. However, whether EGCG is beneficial against macrovascular complications that occur in diabetes remains unknown. Our previous studies demonstrated that treatment of EGCG inhibits high glucose-induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and suppresses high glucose-mediated vascular inflammation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Therefore, we hypothesize that EGCG might be an effective potential candidate to reduce the macrovascular complications in diabetes.

  17. Risk Aversion in Game Shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten I.

    2008-01-01

    We review the use of behavior from television game shows to infer risk attitudes. These shows provide evidence when contestants are making decisions over very large stakes, and in a replicated, structured way. Inferences are generally confounded by the subjective assessment of skill in some games......, and the dynamic nature of the task in most games. We consider the game shows Card Sharks, Jeopardy!, Lingo, and finally Deal Or No Deal. We provide a detailed case study of the analyses of Deal Or No Deal, since it is suitable for inference about risk attitudes and has attracted considerable attention....

  18. Measuring performance at trade shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2004-01-01

    Trade shows is an increasingly important marketing activity to many companies, but current measures of trade show performance do not adequately capture dimensions important to exhibitors. Based on the marketing literature's outcome and behavior-based control system taxonomy, a model is built...... that captures a outcome-based sales dimension and four behavior-based dimensions (i.e. information-gathering, relationship building, image building, and motivation activities). A 16-item instrument is developed for assessing exhibitors perceptions of their trade show performance. The paper presents evidence...

  19. Tokyo Motor Show 2003; Tokyo Motor Show 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joly, E.

    2004-01-01

    The text which follows present the different techniques exposed during the 37. Tokyo Motor Show. The report points out the great tendencies of developments of the Japanese automobile industry. The hybrid electric-powered vehicles or those equipped with fuel cells have been highlighted by the Japanese manufacturers which allow considerable budgets in the research of less polluting vehicles. The exposed models, although being all different according to the manufacturer, use always a hybrid system: fuel cell/battery. The manufacturers have stressed too on the intelligent systems for navigation and safety as well as on the design and comfort. (O.M.)

  20. Reality show: um paradoxo nietzschiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Feldman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    O fenômeno dos reality shows - e a subseqüente relação entre imagem e verdade - assenta-se sobre uma série de paradoxos. Tais paradoxos podem ser compreendidos à luz do pensamento do filósofo alemão Friedrich Nietzsche, que, através dos usos de formulações paradoxais, concebia a realidade como um mundo de pura aparência e a verdade como um acréscimo ficcional, como um efeito. A ficção é então tomada, na filosofia de Nietzsche, não em seu aspecto falsificante e desrealizador - como sempre pleiteou nossa tradição metafísica -, mas como condição necessária para que certa espécie de invenção possa operar como verdade. Sendo assim, a própria expressão reality show, através de sua formulação paradoxal, engendra explicitamente um mundo de pura aparência, em que a verdade, a parte reality da proposição, é da ordem do suplemento, daquilo que se acrescenta ficcionalmente - como um adjetivo - a show. O ornamento, nesse caso, passa a ocupar o lugar central, apontando para o efeito produzido: o efeito-de-verdade. Seguindo, então, o pensamento nietzschiano e sua atualização na contemporaneidade, investigaremos de que forma os televisivos “shows de realidade” operam paradoxalmente, em consonância com nossas paradoxais práticas culturais.

  1. Effects of epigallocatechin gallate on lipid metabolism and its underlying molecular mechanism in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J B; Zhang, Y; Zhou, Y B; Wan, X C; Zhang, J S

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on fat metabolism and to establish the molecular mechanism of these effects in broilers. Seventy-two 28-day-old male Ross 308 broiler chickens were divided into three groups with different levels of EGCG supplementation for 4 weeks: normal control (NC) group, L-EGCG (a low-level supplement of EGCG, 40 mg/kg body weight daily) and H-EGCG (a high-level supplement of EGCG, 80 mg/kg body weight daily). After 4 weeks of oral administration, EGCG significantly reduced the level of abdominal fat deposition in broilers. The serum triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol of chickens in H-EGCG group were also significantly decreased compared with the NC group, and the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was notably increased at the same time. Moreover, the vital role of the liver and abdominal adipose tissue in lipid metabolism of poultry animals was examined through gene expression and enzyme activities related to fat anabolism and catabolism in these organs. Our data show that EGCG supplementation for 2 weeks significantly downregulated the expression of fatty acid synthesis and fat deposition-related genes, and upregulated the expression of genes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation and lipolysis genes. Simultaneously, the activities of hepatic fatty acid synthesis enzymes (fatty acid synthase and acetyl CoA carboxylase) were significantly decreased, and the activity of carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 was notably elevated. The results suggest that EGCG could alleviate fat deposition in broilers through inhibiting fat anabolism and stimulating lipid catabolism in broilers. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Inhibitory effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate on cell proliferation and the expression of HIF-1α and P-gp in the human pancreatic carcinoma cell line PANC-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhenni; Wang, Yu; Liu, Zhiqing; Wang, Fan; Zhao, Qiu

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the inhibitory effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on cell proliferation and the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1α) and multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1/P-gp) in the human pancreatic carcinoma cell line PANC-1, thereby, reversing drug resistance of pancreatic carcinoma and improving its sensitivity to cancer chemotherapy. The human pancreatic carcinoma cell line PANC-1 was incubated under hypoxic conditions with different concentrations of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) for indicated hours. The effects of EGCG on the mRNA or protein expression of HIF-1α and MDR1 were determined by RT-PCR or western blotting. Cellular proliferation and viability assays were measured using Cell Counting Kit-8. Western blotting revealed that EGCG inhibits the expression of the HIF-1α protein in a dose-dependent manner, while RT-PCR showed that it does not have any effects on HIF-1α mRNA. In addition, EGCG attenuated the mRNA and protein levels of P-gp in a dose-dependent manner, reaching a peak at the highest concentration. Furthermore, EGCG inhibited the proliferation of PANC-1 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The attenuation of HIF-1α and the consequently reduced P-gp could contribute to the inhibitory effects of EGCG on the proliferation of PANC-1 cells.

  3. Biological and Mechanistic Characterization of Novel Prodrugs of Green Tea Polyphenol Epigallocatechin Gallate Analogs in Human Leiomyoma Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Reda Saber Ibrahim; Liu, Gang; Renzetti, Andrea; Farshi, Pershang; Yang, Huanjie; Soave, Claire; Saed, Ghassan; El-Ghoneimy, Ashraf Ahmed; El-Banna, Hossny Awad; Foldes, Robert; Chan, Tak-Hang; Dou, Q Ping

    2016-10-01

    Uterine fibroids (leiomyomas) are very common benign tumors grown on the smooth muscle layer of the uterus, present in up to 75% of reproductive-age women and causing significant morbidity in a subset of this population. Although the etiology and biology of uterine fibroids are unclear, strong evidence supports that cell proliferation, angiogenesis and fibrosis are involved in their formation and growth. Currently the only cure for uterine fibroids is hysterectomy; the available alternative therapies have limitations. Thus, there is an urgent need for developing a novel strategy for treating this condition. The green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) inhibits the growth of uterine leiomyoma cells in vitro and in vivo, and the use of a green tea extract (containing 45% EGCG) has demonstrated clinical activity without side effects in women with symptomatic uterine fibroids. However, EGCG has a number of shortcomings, including low stability, poor bioavailability, and high metabolic transformations under physiological conditions, presenting challenges for its development as a therapeutic agent. We developed a prodrug of EGCG (Pro-EGCG or 1) which shows increased stability, bioavailability and biological activity in vivo as compared to EGCG. We also synthesized prodrugs of EGCG analogs, compounds 2a and 4a, in order to potentially reduce their susceptibility to methylation/inhibition by catechol-O-methyltransferase. Here, we determined the effect of EGCG, Pro-EGCG, and 2a and 4a on cultured human uterine leiomyoma cells, and found that 2a and 4a have potent antiproliferative, antiangiogenic, and antifibrotic activities. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2357-2369, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate Ameliorates Seawater Aspiration-Induced Acute Lung Injury via Regulating Inflammatory Cytokines and Inhibiting JAK/STAT1 Pathway in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Dong, Mingqing; Bo, Liyan; Li, Congcong; Liu, Qingqing; Li, Yanyan; Ma, Lijie; Xie, Yonghong; Fu, Enqing; Mu, Deguang; Pan, Lei; Jin, Faguang; Li, Zhichao

    2014-01-01

    Signal transducers and activators of transcriptions 1 (STAT1) play an important role in the inflammation process of acute lung injury (ALI). Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) exhibits a specific and strong anti-STAT1 activity. Therefore, our study is to explore whether EGCG pretreatment can ameliorate seawater aspiration-induced ALI and its possible mechanisms. We detected the arterial partial pressure of oxygen, lung wet/dry weight ratios, protein content in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and the histopathologic and ultrastructure staining of the lung. The levels of IL-1, TNF-α, and IL-10 and the total and the phosphorylated protein level of STAT1, JAK1, and JAK2 were assessed in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that EGCG pretreatment significantly improved hypoxemia and histopathologic changes, alleviated pulmonary edema and lung vascular leak, reduced the production of TNF-α and IL-1, and increased the production of IL-10 in seawater aspiration-induced ALI rats. EGCG also prevented the seawater aspiration-induced increase of TNF-α and IL-1 and decrease of IL-10 in NR8383 cell line. Moreover, EGCG pretreatment reduced the total and the phosphorylated protein level of STAT1 in vivo and in vitro and reduced the phosphorylated protein level of JAK1 and JAK2. The present study demonstrates that EGCG ameliorates seawater aspiration-induced ALI via regulating inflammatory cytokines and inhibiting JAK/STAT1 pathway in rats. PMID:24692852

  5. Shyer and larger bird species show more reduced fear of humans when living in urban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    delBarco-Trillo, Javier

    2018-04-01

    As the natural habitats of many species are degraded or disappear, there is scope for these species to be established in urban habitats. To ease the establishment and maintenance of urban populations of more species we need to better understand what degree of phenotypical change to expect as different species transition into urban environments. During the first stages of urban colonization, behavioural changes such as an increase in boldness are particularly important. A consistent response in urban populations is to decrease the distance at which individuals flee from an approaching human (flight initiation distance, or FID). Performing a phylogenetic generalized least-squares (PGLS) analysis on 130 avian species, I found that the largest changes in FID between rural and urban populations occur in species that are larger-bodied and naturally shy (higher rural FID), two phenotypic traits that are not normally associated with urban colonizers. More unlikely species may thus be able to colonize urban environments, especially if we design cities in ways that promote such urban colonizations. © 2018 The Author(s).

  6. Interleukin-18 gene-deficient mice show enhanced defense and reduced inflammation during pneumococcal meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwijnenburg, Petra J. G.; van der Poll, Tom; Florquin, Sandrine; Akira, Shizuo; Takeda, Kiyoshi; Roord, John J.; van Furth, A. Marceline

    2003-01-01

    To determine the role of endogenous interleukin-18 (IL-18) in pneumococcal meningitis, meningitis was induced in IL-18 gene-deficient (IL-18(-/-)) and wild-type (WT) mice by intranasal inoculation of Streptococcus pneumoniae with hyaluronidase. Induction of meningitis resulted in an upregulation of

  7. Daphnia magna shows reduced infection upon secondary exposure to a pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTaggart, Seanna J; Wilson, Philip J; Little, Tom J

    2012-12-23

    Previous pathogen exposure is an important predictor of the probability of becoming infected. This is deeply understood for vertebrate hosts, and increasingly so for invertebrate hosts. Here, we test if an initial pathogen exposure changes the infection outcome to a secondary pathogen exposure in the natural host-pathogen system Daphnia magna and Pasteuria ramosa. Hosts were initially exposed to an infective pathogen strain, a non-infective pathogen strain or a control. The same hosts underwent a second exposure, this time to an infective pathogen strain, either immediately after the initial encounter or 48 h later. We observed that an initial encounter with a pathogen always conferred protection against infection compared with controls.

  8. Important mitochondrial proteins in human omental adipose tissue show reduced expression in obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter W. Lindinger

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with impaired mitochondrial function. This study compares mitochondrial protein expression in omental fat in obese and non-obese humans. Omental adipose tissue was obtained by surgical biopsy, adipocytes were purified and mitochondria isolated. Using anion-exchange chromatography, SDS-PAGE and mass-spectrometry, 128 proteins with potentially different abundances in patient groups were identified, 62 of the 128 proteins are mainly localized in the mitochondria. Further quantification of 12 of these 62 proteins by immune dot blot analysis revealed four proteins citrate synthase, HADHA, LETM1 and mitofilin being inversely associated with BMI, and mitofilin being inversely correlated with gender.

  9. South Korean energy scenarios show how nuclear power can reduce future energy and environmental costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Sanghyun; Bradshaw, Corey J.A.; Brook, Barry W.

    2014-01-01

    South Korea is an important case study for understanding the future role of nuclear power in countries with on-going economic growth, and limited renewable energy resources. We compared quantitatively the sustainability of two ‘future-mapping’ exercises (the ‘Governmental’ scenario, which relies on fossil fuels, and the Greenpeace scenario, which emphasises renewable energy and excludes nuclear power). The comparison was based on a range of environmental and technological perspectives, and contrasted against two additional nuclear scenarios that instead envisage a dominant role for nuclear energy. Sustainability metrics included energy costs, external costs (greenhouse-gas emissions, air pollutants, land transformation, water consumption and discharge, and safety) and additional costs. The nuclear-centred scenarios yielded the lowest total cost per unit of final energy consumption by 2050 ($14.37 GJ −1 ), whereas the Greenpeace scenario has the highest ($25.36 GJ −1 ). We used probabilistic simulations based on multi-factor distributional sampling of impact and cost metrics to estimate the overlapping likelihoods among scenarios to understand the effect of parameter uncertainty on the integrated recommendations. Our simulation modelling implies that, despite inherent uncertainties, pursuing a large-scale expansion of nuclear-power capacity offers the most sustainable pathway for South Korea, and that adopting a nuclear-free pathway will be more costly and produce more greenhouse-gas emissions. - Highlights: • Nuclear power has a key role to play in mitigating greenhouse-gas emissions. • The Greenpeace scenario has higher total external cost than the nuclear scenarios. • The nuclear-centred scenarios offer the most sustainable option for South Korea. • The similar conclusions are likely to apply to other Asian countries

  10. Children with a History of SLI Show Reduced Sensitivity to Audiovisual Temporal Asynchrony: An ERP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaganovich, Natalya; Schumaker, Jennifer; Leonard, Laurence B.; Gustafson, Dana; Macias, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The authors examined whether school-age children with a history of specific language impairment (H-SLI), their peers with typical development (TD), and adults differ in sensitivity to audiovisual temporal asynchrony and whether such difference stems from the sensory encoding of audiovisual information. Method: Fifteen H-SLI children, 15…

  11. Important mitochondrial proteins in human omental adipose tissue show reduced expression in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindinger, Peter W; Christe, Martine; Eberle, Alex N; Kern, Beatrice; Peterli, Ralph; Peters, Thomas; Jayawardene, Kamburapola J I; Fearnley, Ian M; Walker, John E

    2015-09-01

    Obesity is associated with impaired mitochondrial function. This study compares mitochondrial protein expression in omental fat in obese and non-obese humans. Omental adipose tissue was obtained by surgical biopsy, adipocytes were purified and mitochondria isolated. Using anion-exchange chromatography, SDS-PAGE and mass-spectrometry, 128 proteins with potentially different abundances in patient groups were identified, 62 of the 128 proteins are mainly localized in the mitochondria. Further quantification of 12 of these 62 proteins by immune dot blot analysis revealed four proteins citrate synthase, HADHA, LETM1 and mitofilin being inversely associated with BMI, and mitofilin being inversely correlated with gender.

  12. Transgenic poplars with reduced lignin show impaired xylem conductivity, growth efficiency and survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven L. Voelker; Barbara Lachenbruch; Frederick C. Meinzer; Peter Kitin; Steven H. Strauss

    2011-01-01

    We studied xylem anatomy and hydraulic architecture in 14 transgenic insertion events and a control line of hybrid poplar (Populus spp.) that varied in lignin content. Transgenic events had different levels of down-regulation of two genes encoding 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL). Two-year-old trees were characterized after...

  13. Interleukin-18 gene-deficient mice show enhanced defense and reduced inflammation during pneumococcal meningitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwijnenburg, P.J.G.; Poll, van der T.; Florquin, S; Akira, S; Takeda, K; Roord, J.J.; Furth, van A.M.

    2003-01-01

    To determine the role of endogenous interleukin-18 (IL-18) in pneumococcal meningitis, meningitis was induced in IL-18 gene-deficient (IL-18(-/-)) and wild-type (WT) mice by intranasal inoculation of Streptococcus pneumoniae with hyaluronidase. Induction of meningitis resulted in an upregulation of

  14. Reducing Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindell, Johanna

    care may influence decisions on antibiotic use. Based on video-and audio recordings of physician-patient consultations it is investigated how treatment recommendations are presented, can be changed, are forecast and explained, and finally, how they seemingly meet resistance and how this resistance......Antibiotic resistance is a growing public health problem both nationally and internationally, and efficient strategies are needed to reduce unnecessary use. This dissertation presents four research studies, which examine how communication between general practitioners and patients in Danish primary...... is responded to.The first study in the dissertation suggests that treatment recommendations on antibiotics are often done in a way that encourages patient acceptance. In extension of this, the second study of the dissertation examines a case, where acceptance of such a recommendation is changed into a shared...

  15. Effects of dicarbonyl trapping agents, antioxidants, and reducing agents on the formation of furan and other volatile components in canned-coffee model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Li Wei; Chung, Hyun; Kim, Young-Suk

    2015-09-01

    The formation of furan and certain volatiles related to furan formation mechanisms was studied using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry combined with solid-phase micro extraction after adding dicarbonyl trapping agents [epicatechin (EC), epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), and catechin], water-soluble antioxidants (Trolox, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and chlorogenic acid), fat-soluble antioxidants (α-tocopherol, BHT, and β-carotene), and reducing agents (glutathione and sodium sulfite) to canned-coffee model systems (CMS). The level of furan formation decreased significantly following the addition of EC (by 65.3%), EGCG (by 60.0%), and catechin (by 44.7%). In addition, the formation of Maillard reaction products, including furan derivatives (furfural and 5-methylfurfural), Strecker aldehyde (2-methylbutanal), pyrazines (2,6-dimethylpyrazine), and lipid oxidation products (including hexanal and 2-pentylfuran) was suppressed when any of the dicarbonyl trapping agents was added. Among the water-soluble antioxidants studied, chlorogenic acid most significantly decreased the furan level, by 67.0%, followed by ferulic acid (57.6%), Trolox (50.1%), and caffeic acid (48.2%) in the CMS. Chlorogenic acid also reduced the formation of furfural and lipid oxidation products. However, the addition of caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and chlorogenic acid decreased the generation of key coffee aroma components, such as Strecker aldehydes (2-methylpropanal and 2-methylbutanal), 5-methylfurfural, and pyrazines (2,6-dimethylpyrazine and 2-ethyl-5-methylpyrazine). Among the fat-soluble antioxidants, BHT and α-tocopherol decreased the furan level by 49.3% and 39.3%, respectively, while β-carotene increased the furan level by 34.8%. The addition of sodium sulfite and glutathione to CMS also led to considerable reductions in furan, of 64.1% and 44.9%, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. (−-Epigallocatechin 3-Gallate Synthetic Analogues Inhibit Fatty Acid Synthase and Show Anticancer Activity in Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Crous-Masó

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available (−-Epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG is a natural polyphenol from green tea with reported anticancer activity and capacity to inhibit the lipogenic enzyme fatty acid synthase (FASN, which is overexpressed in several human carcinomas. To improve the pharmacological profile of EGCG, we previously developed a family of EGCG derivatives and the lead compounds G28, G37 and G56 were characterized in HER2-positive breast cancer cells overexpressing FASN. Here, diesters G28, G37 and G56 and two G28 derivatives, monoesters M1 and M2, were synthesized and assessed in vitro for their cytotoxic, FASN inhibition and apoptotic activities in MDA-MB-231 triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC cells. All compounds displayed moderate to high cytotoxicity and significantly blocked FASN activity, monoesters M1 and M2 being more potent inhibitors than diesters. Interestingly, G28, M1, and M2 also diminished FASN protein expression levels, but only monoesters M1 and M2 induced apoptosis. Our results indicate that FASN inhibition by such polyphenolic compounds could be a new strategy in TNBC treatment, and highlight the potential anticancer activities of monoesters. Thus, G28, G37, G56, and most importantly M1 and M2, are anticancer candidates (alone or in combination to be further characterized in vitro and in vivo.

  17. (-)-Epigallocatechin 3-Gallate Synthetic Analogues Inhibit Fatty Acid Synthase and Show Anticancer Activity in Triple Negative Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crous-Masó, Joan; Palomeras, Sònia; Relat, Joana; Camó, Cristina; Martínez-Garza, Úrsula; Planas, Marta; Feliu, Lidia; Puig, Teresa

    2018-05-11

    (-)-Epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG) is a natural polyphenol from green tea with reported anticancer activity and capacity to inhibit the lipogenic enzyme fatty acid synthase (FASN), which is overexpressed in several human carcinomas. To improve the pharmacological profile of EGCG, we previously developed a family of EGCG derivatives and the lead compounds G28, G37 and G56 were characterized in HER2-positive breast cancer cells overexpressing FASN. Here, diesters G28, G37 and G56 and two G28 derivatives, monoesters M1 and M2, were synthesized and assessed in vitro for their cytotoxic, FASN inhibition and apoptotic activities in MDA-MB-231 triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. All compounds displayed moderate to high cytotoxicity and significantly blocked FASN activity, monoesters M1 and M2 being more potent inhibitors than diesters. Interestingly, G28, M1, and M2 also diminished FASN protein expression levels, but only monoesters M1 and M2 induced apoptosis. Our results indicate that FASN inhibition by such polyphenolic compounds could be a new strategy in TNBC treatment, and highlight the potential anticancer activities of monoesters. Thus, G28, G37, G56, and most importantly M1 and M2, are anticancer candidates (alone or in combination) to be further characterized in vitro and in vivo.

  18. UV Photography Shows Hidden Sun Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c UV photography shows hidden sun damage A UV photograph gives ... developing skin cancer and prematurely aged skin. Normal photography UV photography 18 months of age: This boy's ...

  19. Educational Outreach: The Space Science Road Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, N. L. J.

    2002-01-01

    The poster presented will give an overview of a study towards a "Space Road Show". The topic of this show is space science. The target group is adolescents, aged 12 to 15, at Dutch high schools. The show and its accompanying experiments would be supported with suitable educational material. Science teachers at schools can decide for themselves if they want to use this material in advance, afterwards or not at all. The aims of this outreach effort are: to motivate students for space science and engineering, to help them understand the importance of (space) research, to give them a positive feeling about the possibilities offered by space and in the process give them useful knowledge on space basics. The show revolves around three main themes: applications, science and society. First the students will get some historical background on the importance of space/astronomy to civilization. Secondly they will learn more about novel uses of space. On the one hand they will learn of "Views on Earth" involving technologies like Remote Sensing (or Spying), Communication, Broadcasting, GPS and Telemedicine. On the other hand they will experience "Views on Space" illustrated by past, present and future space research missions, like the space exploration missions (Cassini/Huygens, Mars Express and Rosetta) and the astronomy missions (Soho and XMM). Meanwhile, the students will learn more about the technology of launchers and satellites needed to accomplish these space missions. Throughout the show and especially towards the end attention will be paid to the third theme "Why go to space"? Other reasons for people to get into space will be explored. An important question in this is the commercial (manned) exploration of space. Thus, the questions of benefit of space to society are integrated in the entire show. It raises some fundamental questions about the effects of space travel on our environment, poverty and other moral issues. The show attempts to connect scientific with

  20. Reducing costs by reducing size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayns, M.R.; Shepherd, J.

    1991-01-01

    The present paper discusses briefly the many factors, including capital cost, which have to be taken into account in determining whether a series of power stations based on a small nuclear plant can be competitive with a series based on traditional large unit sizes giving the guaranteed level of supply. The 320 MWe UK/US Safe Integral Reactor is described as a good example of how the factors discussed can be beneficially incorporated into a design using proven technology. Finally it goes on to illustrate how the overall costs of a generating system can indeed by reduced by use of the 320 MWe Safe Integral Reactor rather than conventional units of around 1200 MWe. (author). 9 figs

  1. 2008 LHC Open Days Physics: the show

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    A host of events and activities await visitors to the LHC Open Days on 5 and 6 April. A highlight will be the physics shows funded by the European Physical Society (EPS), which are set to surprise and challenge children and adults alike! School children use their experience of riding a bicycle to understand how planets move around the sun (Copyright : Circus Naturally) Participating in the Circus Naturally show could leave a strange taste in your mouth! (Copyright : Circus Naturally) The Rino Foundation’s experiments with liquid nitrogen can be pretty exciting! (Copyright: The Rino Foundation)What does a bicycle have in common with the solar system? Have you ever tried to weigh air or visualise sound? Ever heard of a vacuum bazooka? If you want to discover the answers to these questions and more then come to the Physics Shows taking place at the CERN O...

  2. Online Italian fandoms of American TV shows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Benecchi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has changed media fandom in two main ways: it helps fans connect with each other despite physical distance, leading to the formation of international fan communities; and it helps fans connect with the creators of the TV show, deepening the relationship between TV producers and international fandoms. To assess whether Italian fan communities active online are indeed part of transnational online communities and whether the Internet has actually altered their relationship with the creators of the original text they are devoted to, qualitative analysis and narrative interviews of 26 Italian fans of American TV shows were conducted to explore the fan-producer relationship. Results indicated that the online Italian fans surveyed preferred to stay local, rather than using geography-leveling online tools. Further, the sampled Italian fans' relationships with the show runners were mediated or even absent.

  3. Duchenne muscular dystrophy models show their age

    OpenAIRE

    Chamberlain, Jeffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    The lack of appropriate animal models has hampered efforts to develop therapies for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). A new mouse model lacking both dystrophin and telomerase (Sacco et al., 2010) closely mimics the pathological progression of human DMD and shows that muscle stem cell activity is a key determinant of disease severity.

  4. Show Them You Really Want the Job

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlmutter, David D.

    2012-01-01

    Showing that one really "wants" the job entails more than just really wanting the job. An interview is part Broadway casting call, part intellectual dating game, part personality test, and part, well, job interview. When there are 300 applicants for a position, many of them will "fit" the required (and even the preferred) skills listed in the job…

  5. A Talk Show from the Past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Arlene F.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a two-day activity in which elementary students examine voting rights, the right to assemble, and women's suffrage. Explains the game, "Assemble, Reassemble," and a student-produced talk show with five students playing the roles of leaders of the women's suffrage movement. Profiles Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, Susan…

  6. Laser entertainment and light shows in education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaratnam, Andrew T.; Symons, Charles

    2002-05-01

    Laser shows and beam effects have been a source of entertainment since its first public performance May 9, 1969, at Mills College in Oakland, California. Since 1997, the Photonics Center, NgeeAnn Polytechnic, Singapore, has been using laser shows as a teaching tool. Students are able to exhibit their creative skills and learn at the same time how lasers are used in the entertainment industry. Students will acquire a number of skills including handling three- phase power supply, operation of cooling system, and laser alignment. Students also acquire an appreciation of the arts, learning about shapes and contours as they develop graphics for the shows. After holography, laser show animation provides a combination of the arts and technology. This paper aims to briefly describe how a krypton-argon laser, galvanometer scanners, a polychromatic acousto-optic modulator and related electronics are put together to develop a laser projector. The paper also describes how students are trained to make their own laser animation and beam effects with music, and at the same time have an appreciation of the operation of a Class IV laser and the handling of optical components.

  7. The Last Great American Picture Show

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas; King, Noel; Horwath, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    The Last Great American Picture Show brings together essays by scholars and writers who chart the changing evaluations of the American cinema of the 1970s, sometimes referred to as the decade of the lost generation, but now more and more recognized as the first New Hollywood, without which the

  8. Reducing sedentarism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Wendy; Andersen, Lars Bo; Sigmund, Anderssen

    has manipulated sedentary behaviour with small breaks to improve health without changing physical activity substantially. Many studies have adjusted the analysis between sedentary behaviour and health for physical activity level, but is the information on physical activity level sufficiently good...... between 7 and 10 hours each day sitting, with about half this time spent sitting at work. This paper will examine the hypothesis that too much sitting is a risk factor for poor health, even in those who meet the current physical activity guidelines. First, the biological plausibility of too much sitting...... of sitting, TV-viewing or other sedentary behaviours and different health outcomes. A meta-analysis recently showed that TV-viewing was associated with type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. However, measures of sedentary behaviour may be surrogate measures for lack of physical...

  9. Reality, ficción o show

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ruíz Moreno

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Para tener un punto de vista claro y objetivo frente a la polémica establecida en torno al programa “Protagonistas de novela” y la tendiente proliferación de los reality show en las parrillas de programación de la televisión colombiana, se realizó un análisis de texto y contenido de dicho programa, intentando definirlo desde sus posibilidades de realidad, ficción y show. Las unidades de análisis y el estudio de su tratamiento arrojaron un alto contenido que gira en torno a las emociones del ser humano relacionadas con la convivencia, tratadas a manera de show y con algunos aportes textuales de ficción, pero sin su elemento mediador básico, el actor, quitándole toda la posibilidad de tener un tratamiento con la profundidad, distancia y ética que requieren los temas de esta índole. El resultado es un formato que sólo busca altos índices de sintonía y que pertenece más a la denominada televisión “trash”, que a una búsqueda de realidad del hombre y mucho menos de sociedad.

  10. Dietary constituents reduce lipid accumulation in murine C3H10 T1/2 adipocytes: A novel fluorescent method to quantify fat droplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuhrer Erna

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adipocyte volume (fat accumulation and cell number (adipogenesis is increased in obese individuals. Our objective was the identification of dietary constituents with inhibitory effects on triglyceride formation during adipogenesis. Therefore an in vitro adipose cell assay in murine C3H10 T1/2 cells was developed, which enabled rapid quantification of intracellular fat droplet accumulation during adipocyte differentiation. Results were corroborated by expression levels of several specific adipogenic and lipogenic genes which are known to regulate triglyceride accumulation. Methods C3H10 T1/2 adipocyte differentiation was conducted with rosiglitazone in the presence of test compounds for 7 days. Accumulation of intracellular lipid droplets was measured using the Cellomics® ArrayScan® VTI HCS reader and SpotDetector® BioApplication from ThermoFisher. Fluorescent images were automatically acquired and analysed employing the fluorescent dyes BODIPY® 493/503 and Hoechst 33342, for staining neutral lipids and localisation of nuclei, respectively. The expression levels of adipogenic and lipogenic genes, such as PPARα and PPARγ, C/EBPα, aP2, adiponectin, LPL and HSL, CPT-1β, ACC1, Glut4 and FAS, were determined by quantitative RT-PCR. Dietary ingredients including PUFAs, carotenoids, polyphenols and catechins were tested for their effect on lipid accumulation. Results The ω-3 PUFAs docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, the carotenoid β-carotene and hydroxytyrosol exhibited the strongest inhibitory effects on the rosiglitazone-stimulated lipid formation. (all-E-lycopene and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG showed a moderate inhibition, whereas resveratrol did not reduce fat droplet formation. Additionally, it was demonstrated that adipogenic and lipogenic gene expression was attenuated. DHA, β-carotene and hydroxytyrosol inhibited the gene expression of PPARγ, C/EBPα, aP2 and CPT-1β. Conclusion This in

  11. Myopes show increased susceptibility to nearwork aftereffects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuffreda, K J; Wallis, D M

    1998-09-01

    Some aspects of accommodation may be slightly abnormal (or different) in myopes, compared with accommodation in emmetropes and hyperopes. For example, the initial magnitude of accommodative adaptation in the dark after nearwork is greatest in myopes. However, the critical test is to assess this initial accommodative aftereffect and its subsequent decay in the light under more natural viewing conditions with blur-related visual feedback present, if a possible link between this phenomenon and clinical myopia is to be considered. Subjects consisted of adult late- (n = 11) and early-onset (n = 13) myopes, emmetropes (n = 11), and hyperopes (n = 9). The distance-refractive state was assessed objectively using an autorefractor immediately before and after a 10-minute binocular near task at 20 cm (5 diopters [D]). Group results showed that myopes were most susceptible to the nearwork aftereffect. It averaged 0.35 D in initial magnitude, with considerably faster posttask decay to baseline in the early-onset (35 seconds) versus late-onset (63 seconds) myopes. There was no myopic aftereffect in the remaining two refractive groups. The myopes showed particularly striking accommodatively related nearwork aftereffect susceptibility. As has been speculated and found by many others, transient pseudomyopia may cause or be a precursor to permanent myopia or myopic progression. Time-integrated increased retinal defocus causing axial elongation is proposed as a possible mechanism.

  12. Mining by-products show potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, Grant

    2013-01-01

    , transition metals, metalloids and anions such as arsenate have been effectively removed from wastewater. This process purifies the wastewater from mines in a faster, more effective way that does not require large amounts of infrastructure or difficult chemistry to achieve it. The advantages don't stop there. The hydrotalcites themselves are easily removed using centrifugation, leaving behind a much cleaner sludge and a lot less of it. Initial results have shown the treatment produces around 80 to 90% less sludge than that of lime-based treatments — so it does not present the same scale of handling and final disposal problems. The hydrotalcite-treated water can be recycled back into the plant to lower the total cost of water used in the mining operations, ultimately helping to reduce water consumption as there will be less water drawn from the environment such as from the groundwater near to the mine. This would be particularly valuable for mining operations in arid regions with limited water supply such as in Australia and Chile. Around the world the minerals industry is keen to find more efficient ways to treat their wastewaters and reduce their environmental footprint. With the inherent technical advantages and added benefits of using hydrotalcites, there's a high likelihood of the mining industry adopting this technology on a global scale. The steps to making this a reality have already been made, with commercialisation of the technology underway via Australian company Virtual Curtain. There is also the potential use the treatment to reprocess and recover valuable commodities and produce 'ore- grade' material out of the contaminants. The material can be fed back into the recovery process to recover a greater proportion of the contained metals. This is a very real example of extracting 'wealth from waste', opening up the possibility of partially offsetting wastewater treatment costs for the mining industry.

  13. Ancient bacteria show evidence of DNA repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Sarah Stewart; Hebsgaard, Martin B; Christensen, Torben R

    2007-01-01

    -term survival of bacteria sealed in frozen conditions for up to one million years. Our results show evidence of bacterial survival in samples up to half a million years in age, making this the oldest independently authenticated DNA to date obtained from viable cells. Additionally, we find strong evidence...... geological timescales. There has been no direct evidence in ancient microbes for the most likely mechanism, active DNA repair, or for the metabolic activity necessary to sustain it. In this paper, we couple PCR and enzymatic treatment of DNA with direct respiration measurements to investigate long...... that this long-term survival is closely tied to cellular metabolic activity and DNA repair that over time proves to be superior to dormancy as a mechanism in sustaining bacteria viability....

  14. Microbiological and environmental issues in show caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2012-07-01

    Cultural tourism expanded in the last half of the twentieth century, and the interest of visitors has come to include caves containing archaeological remains. Some show caves attracted mass tourism, and economical interests prevailed over conservation, which led to a deterioration of the subterranean environment and the rock art. The presence and the role of microorganisms in caves is a topic that is often ignored in cave management. Knowledge of the colonisation patterns, the dispersion mechanisms, and the effect on human health and, when present, over rock art paintings of these microorganisms is of the utmost importance. In this review the most recent advances in the study of microorganisms in caves are presented, together with the environmental implications of the findings.

  15. NASA GIBS Use in Live Planetarium Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmart, C. B.

    2015-12-01

    The American Museum of Natural History's Hayden Planetarium was rebuilt in year 2000 as an immersive theater for scientific data visualization to show the universe in context to our planet. Specific astrophysical movie productions provide the main daily programming, but interactive control software, developed at AMNH allows immersive presentation within a data aggregation of astronomical catalogs called the Digital Universe 3D Atlas. Since 2006, WMS globe browsing capabilities have been built into a software development collaboration with Sweden's Linkoping University (LiU). The resulting Uniview software, now a product of the company SCISS, is operated by about fifty planetariums around that world with ability to network amongst the sites for global presentations. Public presentation of NASA GIBS has allowed authoritative narratives to be presented within the range of data available in context to other sources such as Science on a Sphere, NASA Earth Observatory and Google Earth KML resources. Specifically, the NOAA supported World Views Network conducted a series of presentations across the US that focused on local ecological issues that could then be expanded in the course of presentation to national and global scales of examination. NASA support of for GIBS resources in an easy access multi scale streaming format like WMS has tremendously enabled particularly facile presentations of global monitoring like never before. Global networking of theaters for distributed presentations broadens out the potential for impact of this medium. Archiving and refinement of these presentations has already begun to inform new types of documentary productions that examine pertinent, global interdependency topics.

  16. Diet supplementation with green tea extract epigallocatechin gallate prevents progression to glucose intolerance in db/db mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortsäter Henrik

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Green tea was suggested as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of diabetes more than 70 years ago, but the mechanisms behind its antidiabetic effect remains elusive. In this work, we address this issue by feeding a green tea extract (TEAVIGO™ with a high content of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG or the thiazolidinedione PPAR-γ agonist rosiglitazone, as positive control, to db/db mice, an animal model for diabetes. Methods Young (7 week-old db/db mice were randomized and assigned to receive diets supplemented with or without EGCG or rosiglitazone for 10 weeks. Fasting blood glucose, body weight and food intake was measured along the treatment. Glucose and insulin levels were determined during an oral glucose tolerance test after 10 weeks of treatment. Pancreata were sampled at the end of the study for blinded histomorphometric analysis. Islets were isolated and their mRNA expression analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. Results The results show that, in db/db mice, EGCG improves glucose tolerance and increases glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. EGCG supplementation reduces the number of pathologically changed islets of Langerhans, increases the number and the size of islets, and heightens pancreatic endocrine area. These effects occurred in parallel with a reduction in islet endoplasmic reticulum stress markers, possibly linked to the antioxidative capacity of EGCG. Conclusions This study shows that the green tea extract EGCG markedly preserves islet structure and enhances glucose tolerance in genetically diabetic mice. Dietary supplementation with EGCG could potentially contribute to nutritional strategies for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  17. Geoscience is Important? Show Me Why

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    "The public" is not homogenous and no single message or form of messaging will connect the entire public with the geosciences. One approach to promoting trust in, and engagement with, the geosciences is to identify specific sectors of the public and then develop interactions and communication products that are immediately relevant to that sector's interests. If the content and delivery are appropriate, this approach empowers people to connect with the geosciences on their own terms and to understand the relevance of the geosciences to their own situation. Federal policy makers are a distinct and influential subgroup of the general public. In preparation for the 2016 presidential election, the American Geosciences Institute (AGI) in collaboration with its 51 member societies prepared Geoscience for America's Critical Needs: Invitation to a National Dialogue, a document that identified major geoscience policy issues that should be addressed in a national policy platform. Following the election, AGI worked with eight other geoscience societies to develop Geoscience Policy Recommendations for the New Administration and the 115th Congress, which outlines specific policy actions to address national issues. State and local decision makers are another important subgroup of the public. AGI has developed online content, factsheets, and case studies with different levels of technical complexity so people can explore societally-relevant geoscience topics at their level of technical proficiency. A related webinar series is attracting a growing worldwide audience from many employment sectors. Partnering with government agencies and other scientific and professional societies has increased the visibility and credibility of these information products with our target audience. Surveys and other feedback show that these products are raising awareness of the geosciences and helping to build reciprocal relationships between geoscientists and decision makers. The core message of all

  18. Bacteriophages show promise as antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alisky, J; Iczkowski, K; Rapoport, A; Troitsky, N

    1998-01-01

    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has prompted interest in alternatives to conventional drugs. One possible option is to use bacteriophages (phage) as antimicrobial agents. We have conducted a literature review of all Medline citations from 1966-1996 that dealt with the therapeutic use of phage. There were 27 papers from Poland, the Soviet Union, Britain and the U.S.A. The Polish and Soviets administered phage orally, topically or systemically to treat a wide variety of antibiotic-resistant pathogens in both adults and children. Infections included suppurative wound infections, gastroenteritis, sepsis, osteomyelitis, dermatitis, empyemas and pneumonia; pathogens included Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Klebsiella, Escherichia, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Shigella and Salmonella spp. Overall, the Polish and Soviets reported success rates of 80-95% for phage therapy, with rare, reversible gastrointestinal or allergic side effects. However, efficacy of phage was determined almost exclusively by qualitative clinical assessment of patients, and details of dosages and clinical criteria were very sketchy. There were also six British reports describing controlled trials of phage in animal models (mice, guinea pigs and livestock), measuring survival rates and other objective criteria. All of the British studies raised phage against specific pathogens then used to create experimental infections. Demonstrable efficacy against Escherichia, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus spp. was noted in these model systems. Two U.S. papers dealt with improving the bioavailability of phage. Phage is sequestered in the spleen and removed from circulation. This can be overcome by serial passage of phage through mice to isolate mutants that resist sequestration. In conclusion, bacteriophages may show promise for treating antibiotic resistant pathogens. To facilitate further progress, directions for future research are discussed and a directory of authors from the reviewed

  19. Direct interaction of natural and synthetic catechins with signal transducer activator of transcription 1 affects both its phosphorylation and activity

    KAUST Repository

    Menegazzi, Marta; Mariotto, Sofia; Dal Bosco, Martina; Darra, Elena; Vaiana, Nadia; Shoji, Kazuo; Safwat, Abdel Azeim; Marechal, Jean Didier; Perahia, David; Suzuki, Hisanori; Romeo, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Our previous studies showed that (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) inhibits signal transducer activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) activation. Since EGCG may be a promising lead compound for new anti-STAT1 drug design, 15 synthetic catechins

  20. Time dependent patient no-show predictive modelling development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Li; Hanauer, David A

    2016-05-09

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to develop evident-based predictive no-show models considering patients' each past appointment status, a time-dependent component, as an independent predictor to improve predictability. Design/methodology/approach - A ten-year retrospective data set was extracted from a pediatric clinic. It consisted of 7,291 distinct patients who had at least two visits along with their appointment characteristics, patient demographics, and insurance information. Logistic regression was adopted to develop no-show models using two-thirds of the data for training and the remaining data for validation. The no-show threshold was then determined based on minimizing the misclassification of show/no-show assignments. There were a total of 26 predictive model developed based on the number of available past appointments. Simulation was employed to test the effective of each model on costs of patient wait time, physician idle time, and overtime. Findings - The results demonstrated the misclassification rate and the area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic gradually improved as more appointment history was included until around the 20th predictive model. The overbooking method with no-show predictive models suggested incorporating up to the 16th model and outperformed other overbooking methods by as much as 9.4 per cent in the cost per patient while allowing two additional patients in a clinic day. Research limitations/implications - The challenge now is to actually implement the no-show predictive model systematically to further demonstrate its robustness and simplicity in various scheduling systems. Originality/value - This paper provides examples of how to build the no-show predictive models with time-dependent components to improve the overbooking policy. Accurately identifying scheduled patients' show/no-show status allows clinics to proactively schedule patients to reduce the negative impact of patient no-shows.

  1. Model shows future cut in U.S. ozone levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    A joint U.S. auto-oil industry research program says modeling shows that changing gasoline composition can reduce ozone levels for Los Angeles in 2010 and for New York City and Dallas-Fort Worth in 2005. The air quality modeling was based on vehicle emissions research data released late last year (OGJ, Dec. 24, 1990, p. 20). The effort is sponsored by the big three auto manufacturers and 14 oil companies. Sponsors the cars and small trucks account for about one third of ozone generated in the three cities studied but by 2005-10 will account for only 5-9%

  2. Show Horse Welfare: Horse Show Competitors' Understanding, Awareness, and Perceptions of Equine Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Melissa A; Hiney, Kristina; Richardson, Jennifer C; Waite, Karen; Borron, Abigail; Brady, Colleen M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of stock-type horse show competitors' understanding of welfare and level of concern for stock-type show horses' welfare. Data were collected through an online questionnaire that included questions relating to (a) interest and general understanding of horse welfare, (b) welfare concerns of the horse show industry and specifically the stock-type horse show industry, (c) decision-making influences, and (d) level of empathic characteristics. The majority of respondents indicated they agree or strongly agree that physical metrics should be a factor when assessing horse welfare, while fewer agreed that behavioral and mental metrics should be a factor. Respondent empathy levels were moderate to high and were positively correlated with the belief that mental and behavioral metrics should be a factor in assessing horse welfare. Respondents indicated the inhumane practices that most often occur at stock-type shows include excessive jerking on reins, excessive spurring, and induced excessive unnatural movement. Additionally, respondents indicated association rules, hired trainers, and hired riding instructors are the most influential regarding the decisions they make related to their horses' care and treatment.

  3. Best in show but not best shape: a photographic assessment of show dog body condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Such, Z R; German, A J

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies suggest that owners often wrongly perceive overweight dogs to be in normal condition. The body shape of dogs attending shows might influence owners' perceptions, with online images of overweight show winners having a negative effect. This was an observational in silico study of canine body condition. 14 obese-prone breeds and 14 matched non-obese-probe breeds were first selected, and one operator then used an online search engine to identify 40 images, per breed, of dogs that had appeared at a major national UK show (Crufts). After images were anonymised and coded, a second observer subjectively assessed body condition, in a single sitting, using a previously validated method. Of 1120 photographs initially identified, 960 were suitable for assessing body condition, with all unsuitable images being from longhaired breeds. None of the dogs (0 per cent) were underweight, 708 (74 per cent) were in ideal condition and 252 (26 per cent) were overweight. Pugs, basset hounds and Labrador retrievers were most likely to be overweight, while standard poodles, Rhodesian ridgebacks, Hungarian vizslas and Dobermanns were least likely to be overweight. Given the proportion of show dogs from some breeds that are overweight, breed standards should be redefined to be consistent with a dog in optimal body condition. British Veterinary Association.

  4. Double polymer sheathed carbon nanotube supercapacitors show enhanced cycling stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenqi; Wang, Shanshan; Wang, Chunhui; Wu, Shiting; Xu, Wenjing; Zou, Mingchu; Ouyang, An; Cao, Anyuan; Li, Yibin

    2015-12-01

    Pseudo-materials are effective in boosting the specific capacitance of supercapacitors, but during service their degradation may also be very strong, causing reduced cycling stability. Here, we show that a carbon nanotube sponge grafted by two conventional pseudo-polymer layers in sequence can serve as a porous supercapacitor electrode with significantly enhanced cycling stability compared with single polymer grafting. Creating conformal polymer coatings on the nanotube surface and the resulting double-sheath configuration are important structural factors leading to the enhanced performance. Combining different polymers as double sheaths as reported here might be a potential route to circumvent the dilemma of pseudo-materials, and to simultaneously improve the capacitance and stability for various energy storage devices.Pseudo-materials are effective in boosting the specific capacitance of supercapacitors, but during service their degradation may also be very strong, causing reduced cycling stability. Here, we show that a carbon nanotube sponge grafted by two conventional pseudo-polymer layers in sequence can serve as a porous supercapacitor electrode with significantly enhanced cycling stability compared with single polymer grafting. Creating conformal polymer coatings on the nanotube surface and the resulting double-sheath configuration are important structural factors leading to the enhanced performance. Combining different polymers as double sheaths as reported here might be a potential route to circumvent the dilemma of pseudo-materials, and to simultaneously improve the capacitance and stability for various energy storage devices. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05978j

  5. Reducing rotor weight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheney, M.C. [PS Enterprises, Inc., Glastonbury, CT (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The cost of energy for renewables has gained greater significance in recent years due to the drop in price in some competing energy sources, particularly natural gas. In pursuit of lower manufacturing costs for wind turbine systems, work was conducted to explore an innovative rotor designed to reduce weight and cost over conventional rotor systems. Trade-off studies were conducted to measure the influence of number of blades, stiffness, and manufacturing method on COE. The study showed that increasing number of blades at constant solidity significantly reduced rotor weight and that manufacturing the blades using pultrusion technology produced the lowest cost per pound. Under contracts with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the California Energy Commission, a 400 kW (33m diameter) turbine was designed employing this technology. The project included tests of an 80 kW (15.5m diameter) dynamically scaled rotor which demonstrated the viability of the design.

  6. Tomato Fruits Show Wide Phenomic Diversity but Fruit Developmental Genes Show Low Genomic Diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijee Mohan

    Full Text Available Domestication of tomato has resulted in large diversity in fruit phenotypes. An intensive phenotyping of 127 tomato accessions from 20 countries revealed extensive morphological diversity in fruit traits. The diversity in fruit traits clustered the accessions into nine classes and identified certain promising lines having desirable traits pertaining to total soluble salts (TSS, carotenoids, ripening index, weight and shape. Factor analysis of the morphometric data from Tomato Analyzer showed that the fruit shape is a complex trait shared by several factors. The 100% variance between round and flat fruit shapes was explained by one discriminant function having a canonical correlation of 0.874 by stepwise discriminant analysis. A set of 10 genes (ACS2, COP1, CYC-B, RIN, MSH2, NAC-NOR, PHOT1, PHYA, PHYB and PSY1 involved in various plant developmental processes were screened for SNP polymorphism by EcoTILLING. The genetic diversity in these genes revealed a total of 36 non-synonymous and 18 synonymous changes leading to the identification of 28 haplotypes. The average frequency of polymorphism across the genes was 0.038/Kb. Significant negative Tajima'D statistic in two of the genes, ACS2 and PHOT1 indicated the presence of rare alleles in low frequency. Our study indicates that while there is low polymorphic diversity in the genes regulating plant development, the population shows wider phenotype diversity. Nonetheless, morphological and genetic diversity of the present collection can be further exploited as potential resources in future.

  7. A Novel Approach for Preventing HIV Infection and Reducing Risk to U.S. Military Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    individual human semen specimen and the range of inhibition by EGCG. AIDS research and therapy 9:2. 12. Greco G, Pal S, Pasqualini R, Schnapp LM...Sabatté, J., Rodrı́guez Rodrı́gues, C., Cabrini, M., Jancic, C., Raiden, S., Donaldson, M., Agustı́n Pasqualini , R., Jr., Marin- Briggiler, C., et al

  8. Effects of Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate on Autophagic Lipolysis in Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Nam Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies demonstrated effects of green tea on weight loss; however, green tea-induced modulation of adipocyte function is not fully understood. Here, we investigated effects of the major green tea phytochemical, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG on triglyceride contents, lipolysis, mitochondrial function, and autophagy, in adipocytes differentiated from C3H10T1/2 cells and immortalized pre-adipocytes in vitro. EGCG reduced the triglycerol content significantly in adipocytes by 25%, comparable to the nutrient starvation state. EGCG did not affect protein kinase A signaling or brown adipocyte marker expression in adipocytes; however, EGCG increased autophagy, as measured by autophagy flux analysis and immunoblot analysis of LC3B, ATG7, and Beclin1. EGCG treatment reduced mitochondrial membrane potential by 56.8% and intracellular ATP levels by 49.1% compared to controls. Although mammalian target of rapamycin signaling was not upregulated by EGCG treatment, EGCG treatment induced AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, indicating an energy-depleted state. In addition, EGCG increased the association between RAB7 and lipid droplets, suggesting that lipophagy was activated. Finally, knockdown of Rab7 attenuated the EGCG-dependent reduction in lipid contents. Collectively, these results indicated that EGCG upregulated autophagic lipolysis in adipocytes, supporting the therapeutic potential of EGCG as a caloric restriction mimetic to prevent obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases.

  9. Study shows aspirin reduces the risk and recurrence of prostate cancer in African-American men | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    African-American men who take a daily dose of aspirin experience a significantly lower risk of developing advanced prostate cancer – the aggressive and deadly form of the disease – than African-American men who do not regularly use aspirin, according to a study from the Center for Cancer Research (CCR) Laboratory of Human Carcinogenesis. Learn more...

  10. Algebraic connectivity of brain networks shows patterns of segregation leading to reduced network robustness in Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daianu, Madelaine; Jahanshad, Neda; Nir, Talia M.; Leonardo, Cassandra D.; Jack, Clifford R.; Weiner, Michael W.; Bernstein, Matthew A.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Measures of network topology and connectivity aid the understanding of network breakdown as the brain degenerates in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We analyzed 3-Tesla diffusion-weighted images from 202 patients scanned by the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative – 50 healthy controls, 72 with early- and 38 with late-stage mild cognitive impairment (eMCI/lMCI) and 42 with AD. Using whole-brain tractography, we reconstructed structural connectivity networks representing connections between pairs of cortical regions. We examined, for the first time in this context, the network's Laplacian matrix and its Fiedler value, describing the network's algebraic connectivity, and the Fiedler vector, used to partition a graph. We assessed algebraic connectivity and four additional supporting metrics, revealing a decrease in network robustness and increasing disarray among nodes as dementia progressed. Network components became more disconnected and segregated, and their modularity increased. These measures are sensitive to diagnostic group differences, and may help understand the complex changes in AD. PMID:26640830

  11. Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Program Shows Potential in Reducing Symptoms of Depression and Stress among Young People with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillivray, J. A.; Evert, H. T.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the efficacy of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) delivered in groups on the reduction of symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress in young people on the autism spectrum. Utilising a quasi-experimental design, comparisons were made between individuals allocated to a group intervention program and individuals allocated to a…

  12. Inertia may limit efficiency of slow flapping flight, but mayflies show a strategy for reducing the power requirements of loiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usherwood, James R

    2009-01-01

    Predictions from aerodynamic theory often match biological observations very poorly. Many insects and several bird species habitually hover, frequently flying at low advance ratios. Taking helicopter-based aerodynamic theory, wings functioning predominantly for hovering, even for quite small insects, should operate at low angles of attack. However, insect wings operate at very high angles of attack during hovering; reduction in angle of attack should result in considerable energetic savings. Here, I consider the possibility that selection of kinematics is constrained from being aerodynamically optimal due to the inertial power requirements of flapping. Potential increases in aerodynamic efficiency with lower angles of attack during hovering may be outweighed by increases in inertial power due to the associated increases in flapping frequency. For simple hovering, traditional rotary-winged helicopter-like micro air vehicles would be more efficient than their flapping biomimetic counterparts. However, flapping may confer advantages in terms of top speed and manoeuvrability. If flapping-winged micro air vehicles are required to hover or loiter more efficiently, dragonflies and mayflies suggest biomimetic solutions

  13. Two visual targets for the price of one? : Pupil dilation shows reduced mental effort through temporal integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolff, Michael J; Scholz, Sabine; Akyürek, Elkan G; van Rijn, Hedderik

    In dynamic sensory environments, successive stimuli may be combined perceptually and represented as a single, comprehensive event by means of temporal integration. Such perceptual segmentation across time is intuitively plausible. However, the possible costs and benefits of temporal integration in

  14. Reduced Rank Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren

    2008-01-01

    The reduced rank regression model is a multivariate regression model with a coefficient matrix with reduced rank. The reduced rank regression algorithm is an estimation procedure, which estimates the reduced rank regression model. It is related to canonical correlations and involves calculating...

  15. Management in a neotropical show cave: planning for invertebrates conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Giovannini Pellegrini

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Lapa Nova is a dolomitic cave about 4.5 km long located in northwestern Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The cave experiences intense tourism, concentrated over a single period of the year, during the Feast of Our Lady of Lapa. In order to evaluate the impacts felt by the invertebrate community from this tourism, a new methodology was proposed. Four types of areas (intense visitation area, outlying visitation areas, moderate visitation areas and no-visitation areas were sampled for invertebrates. There was one sampling prior and another on the last day of the 128th feast, to evaluate the effects of visitation on cave-dwelling invertebrates. Results show that invertebrate populations residing in more intensely visited areas of the cave undergo changes in distribution following the event. As a consequence of tourism, invertebrates shift to outlying locations from the visited area, which serve as refuges to the communities. Apparently, the fact that there are places inside Lapa Nova inaccessible to tourists reduces the impact suffered by the invertebrate community, as those sites serve as refuges for cave-dwelling organisms during the pilgrimage. A proper management plan was devised for the tourism/religious use of the cave. It consists basically of delimiting marked pathways for tourists, allowing invertebrates to seek shelter at locations outside visited areas and keeping no-visitation areas off-limits to tourism based on the results of the visitation effects on cave-dwelling invertebrates.

  16. The Oral Antimalarial Drug Tafenoquine Shows Activity against Trypanosoma brucei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Luis; Martínez-García, Marta; Pérez-Victoria, Ignacio; Manzano, José Ignacio; Yardley, Vanessa; Gamarro, Francisco; Pérez-Victoria, José M

    2015-10-01

    The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei causes human African trypanosomiasis, or sleeping sickness, a neglected tropical disease that requires new, safer, and more effective treatments. Repurposing oral drugs could reduce both the time and cost involved in sleeping sickness drug discovery. Tafenoquine (TFQ) is an oral antimalarial drug belonging to the 8-aminoquinoline family which is currently in clinical phase III. We show here that TFQ efficiently kills different T. brucei spp. in the submicromolar concentration range. Our results suggest that TFQ accumulates into acidic compartments and induces a necrotic process involving cell membrane disintegration and loss of cytoplasmic content, leading to parasite death. Cell lysis is preceded by a wide and multitarget drug action, affecting the lysosome, mitochondria, and acidocalcisomes and inducing a depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential, elevation of intracellular Ca(2+), and production of reactive oxygen species. This is the first report of an 8-aminoquinoline demonstrating significant in vitro activity against T. brucei. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate suppresses the expression of HSP70 and HSP90 and exhibits anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, Phan LCHB; Kim, Soo-A; Choi, Hong Seok; Yoon, Jung-Hoon; Ahn, Sang-Gun

    2010-01-01

    Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), one of the major catechins in green tea, is a potential chemopreventive agent for various cancers. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of EGCG on the expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs) and tumor suppression. Cell colony formation was evaluated by a soft agar assay. Transcriptional activity of HSP70 and HSP90 was determined by luciferase reporter assay. An EGCG-HSPs complex was prepared using EGCG attached to the cyanogen bromide (CNBr)-activated Sepharose 4B. In vivo effect of EGCG on tumor growth was examined in a xenograft model. Treatment with EGCG decreased cell proliferation and colony formation of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. EGCG specifically inhibited the expression of HSP70 and HSP90 by inhibiting the promoter activity of HSP70 and HSP90. Pretreatment with EGCG increased the stress sensitivity of MCF-7 cells upon heat shock (44°C for 1 h) or oxidative stress (H 2 O 2 , 500 μM for 24 h). Moreover, treatment with EGCG (10 mg/kg) in a xenograft model resulted in delayed tumor incidence and reduced tumor size, as well as the inhibition of HSP70 and HSP90 expression. Overall, these findings demonstrate that HSP70 and HSP90 are potent molecular targets of EGCG and suggest EGCG as a drug candidate for the treatment of human cancer

  18. Pumilio2-deficient mice show a predisposition for epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Follwaczny

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a neurological disease that is caused by abnormal hypersynchronous activities of neuronal ensembles leading to recurrent and spontaneous seizures in human patients. Enhanced neuronal excitability and a high level of synchrony between neurons seem to trigger these spontaneous seizures. The molecular mechanisms, however, regarding the development of neuronal hyperexcitability and maintenance of epilepsy are still poorly understood. Here, we show that pumilio RNA-binding family member 2 (Pumilio2; Pum2 plays a role in the regulation of excitability in hippocampal neurons of weaned and 5-month-old male mice. Almost complete deficiency of Pum2 in adult Pum2 gene-trap mice (Pum2 GT causes misregulation of genes involved in neuronal excitability control. Interestingly, this finding is accompanied by the development of spontaneous epileptic seizures in Pum2 GT mice. Furthermore, we detect an age-dependent increase in Scn1a (Nav1.1 and Scn8a (Nav1.6 mRNA levels together with a decrease in Scn2a (Nav1.2 transcript levels in weaned Pum2 GT that is absent in older mice. Moreover, field recordings of CA1 pyramidal neurons show a tendency towards a reduced paired-pulse inhibition after stimulation of the Schaffer-collateral-commissural pathway in Pum2 GT mice, indicating a predisposition to the development of spontaneous seizures at later stages. With the onset of spontaneous seizures at the age of 5 months, we detect increased protein levels of Nav1.1 and Nav1.2 as well as decreased protein levels of Nav1.6 in those mice. In addition, GABA receptor subunit alpha-2 (Gabra2 mRNA levels are increased in weaned and adult mice. Furthermore, we observe an enhanced GABRA2 protein level in the dendritic field of the CA1 subregion in the Pum2 GT hippocampus. We conclude that altered expression levels of known epileptic risk factors such as Nav1.1, Nav1.2, Nav1.6 and GABRA2 result in enhanced seizure susceptibility and manifestation of epilepsy in the

  19. Reduced abrasion drilling fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    A reduced abrasion drilling fluid system and method of drilling a borehole by circulating the reduced abrasion drilling fluid through the borehole is disclosed. The reduced abrasion drilling fluid comprises a drilling fluid, a first additive and a weighting agent, wherein the weighting agent has a

  20. Reduced abrasion drilling fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    A reduced abrasion drilling fluid system and method of drilling a borehole by circulating the reduced abrasion drilling fluid through the borehole is disclosed. The reduced abrasion drilling fluid comprises a drilling fluid, a first additive and a weighting agent, wherein the weighting agent has a

  1. Reduced False Memory after Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenn, Kimberly M.; Gallo, David A.; Margoliash, Daniel; Roediger, Henry L., III; Nusbaum, Howard C.

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have shown that sleep contributes to the successful maintenance of previously encoded information. This research has focused exclusively on memory for studied events, as opposed to false memories. Here we report three experiments showing that sleep reduces false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) memory illusion. False…

  2. Does Microfinance Reduce Income Inequality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, Niels

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses the question whether participation of the poor in microfinance contributes to reducing a country’s level of income inequality. Using data from 70 developing countries, we show that higher levels of microfinance participation are indeed associated with a reduction of the income

  3. The Bmi-1 helix–turn and ring finger domains are required for Bmi-1 antagonism of (–) epigallocatechin-3-gallate suppression of skin cancer cell survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Sivaprakasam; Scharadin, Tiffany M.; Han, Bingshe; Xu, Wen; Eckert, Richard L.

    2016-01-01

    The Bmi-1 Polycomb group (PcG) protein is an important epigenetic regulator of chromatin status. Elevated Bmi-1 expression is observed in skin cancer and contributes to cancer cell survival. (–) Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), an important green tea-derived cancer prevention agent, reduces Bmi-1 level resulting in reduced skin cancer cell survival. This is associated with increased p21Cip1 and p27Kip1 expression, reduced cyclin, and cyclin dependent kinase expression, and increased cleavage of apoptotic markers. These EGCG-dependent changes are attenuated by vector-mediated maintenance of Bmi-1 expression. In the present study, we identify Bmi-1 functional domains that are required for this response. Bmi-1 expression reverses the EGCG-dependent reduction in SCC-13 cell survival, but Bmi-1 mutants lacking the helix–turn–helix–turn–helix–turn (Bmi-1ΔHT) or ring finger (Bmi-1ΔRF) domains do not reverse the EGCG impact. The reduction in Ring1B ubiquitin ligase activity, observed in the presence of mutant Bmi-1, is associated with reduced ability of these mutants to interact with and activate Ring1B ubiquitin ligase, the major ligase responsible for the ubiquitination of histone H2A during chromatin condensation. This results in less chromatin condensation leading to increased tumor suppressor gene expression and reduced cell survival; thereby making the cells more susceptible to the anti-survival action of EGCG. We further show that these mutants act in a dominant-negative manner to inhibit the action of endogenous Bmi-1. Our results suggest that the HT and RF domains are required for Bmi-1 ability to maintain skin cancer cell survival in response to cancer preventive agents. PMID:25843776

  4. Molecular dynamics modelling of EGCG clusters on ceramide bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeo, Jingjie; Cheng, Yuan; Li, Weifeng; Zhang, Yong-Wei [Institute of High Performance Computing, A*STAR, 138632 (Singapore)

    2015-12-31

    A novel method of atomistic modelling and characterization of both pure ceramide and mixed lipid bilayers is being developed, using only the General Amber ForceField. Lipid bilayers modelled as pure ceramides adopt hexagonal packing after equilibration, and the area per lipid and bilayer thickness are consistent with previously reported theoretical results. Mixed lipid bilayers are modelled as a combination of ceramides, cholesterol, and free fatty acids. This model is shown to be stable after equilibration. Green tea extract, also known as epigallocatechin-3-gallate, is introduced as a spherical cluster on the surface of the mixed lipid bilayer. It is demonstrated that the cluster is able to bind to the bilayers as a cluster without diffusing into the surrounding water.

  5. Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer show evidence of previous blood sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer shows evidence of previous blood sampling while Wubbo J. Ockels, Dutch payload specialist (only partially visible), extends his right arm after a sample has been taken. Both men show bruises on their arms.

  6. Reducible oxide based catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Levi T.; Kim, Chang Hwan; Bej, Shyamal K.

    2010-04-06

    A catalyst is disclosed herein. The catalyst includes a reducible oxide support and at least one noble metal fixed on the reducible oxide support. The noble metal(s) is loaded on the support at a substantially constant temperature and pH.

  7. Direct oxide reducing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokiwai, Moriyasu.

    1995-01-01

    Calcium oxides and magnetic oxides as wastes generated upon direct reduction are subjected to molten salt electrolysis, and reduced metallic calcium and magnesium are separated and recovered. Then calcium and magnesium are used recyclically as the reducing agent upon conducting direct oxide reduction. Even calcium oxides and magnesium oxides, which have high melting points and difficult to be melted usually, can be melted in molten salts of mixed fluorides or chlorides by molten-salt electrolysis. Oxides are decomposed by electrolysis, and oxygen is removed in the form of carbon monoxide, while the reduced metallic calcium and magnesium rise above the molten salts on the side of a cathode, and then separated. Since only carbon monoxide is generated as radioactive wastes upon molten salt electrolysis, the amount of radioactive wastes can be greatly reduced, and the amount of the reducing agent used can also be decreased remarkably. (N.H.)

  8. Reasoning with Children about Violent Television Shows and Related Toys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ni

    2000-01-01

    Examines three prevalent parental recommendations for reducing children's exposure to violence, noting that if delivered in an authoritarian manner, anticipated outcomes may not occur. Argues that child involvement in setting up family rules encourages self-awareness for children to monitor their own behaviors. Includes five examples of suggested…

  9. Pipeline Drag Reducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marawan, H.

    2004-01-01

    Pipeline drag reducers have proven to be an extremely powerful tool in fluid transportation. High molecular weight polymers are used to reduce the frictional pressure loss ratio in crude oil pipelines, refined fuel and aqueous pipelines. Chemical structure of the main used pipeline drag reducers is one of the following polymers and copolymers classified according to the type of fluid to ; low density polyethylene, copolymer of I-hexane cross linked with divinyl benzene, polyacrylamide, polyalkylene oxide polymers and their copolymers, fluorocarbons, polyalkyl methacrylates and terpolymer of styrene, alkyl acrylate and acrylic acid. Drag reduction is the increase in pump ability of a fluid caused by the addition of small amounts of an additive to the fluid. The effectiveness of a drag reducer is normally expressed in terms of percent drag reduction. Frictional pressure loss in a pipeline system is a waste of energy and it costly. The drag reducing additive minimizes the flow turbulence, increases throughput and reduces the energy costs. The Flow can be increased by more than 80 % with existing assets. The effectiveness of the injected drag reducer in Mostorod to Tanta crude oil pipeline achieved 35.4 % drag reduction and 23.2 % flow increase of the actual performance The experimental application of DRA on Arab Petroleum Pipeline Company (Summed) achieved a flow increase ranging from 9-32 %

  10. Uudised : Otsman taas Riias show'l. Rokkstaarist ministriks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Drag-kabareeartist Erkki Otsman esineb detsembris Riias "Sapnu Fabrikas" toimuval jõulu-show'l. Austraalia rokkansambli Midnight Oil endine laulja Peter Garrett nimetati valitsuse keskkonnaministriks

  11. Reducing Pesticide Drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides information about pesticide spray drift, including problems associated with drift, managing risks from drift and the voluntary Drift Reduction Technology program that seeks to reduce spray drift through improved spray equipment design.

  12. Reducing Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Reducing Childhood Obesity Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents For ... Ga. were the first three We Can! cities. Obesity Research: A New Approach The percentage of children ...

  13. Numbers for reducible cubic scrolls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Vainsencher

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available We show how to compute the number of reducible cubic scrolls of codimension 2 in (math blackboard symbol Pn incident to the appropriate number of linear spaces.Mostramos como calcular o número de rolos cúbicos redutíveis de codimensão 2 em (math blackboard symbol Pn incidentes a espaços lineares apropriados.

  14. Reducing The Nuclear Danger

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-01

    off convention • Eliminate the civil use of HEU (includes RERTR ) • Reduce stockpiles of civil HEU and plutonium • Promote alternatives to the...these countries. ANL supports the Department’s Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor ( RERTR ) Program by providing the technical means to...scientists and engineers at 60 institutes in Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Belarus. The United States and Russia have agreed to pursue a joint RERTR

  15. Using reduce in supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, R.P. dos.

    1987-01-01

    A procedure which allows one to do Supersymmetry calculus in REDUCE is described. Using the concept of an eight-dimensional 'superspace' (spanned by four space-time and four anticommuting coordinates) and of 'superfields' (which represent an entire supermultiplet of particles that transform among themselves), covariant derivatives with respect to supersymmetry are defined. Then, combining the vector facility and LET statement in REDUCE, spinors are simulated in a way to control the algebraic manipulation. (G.D.F.) [pt

  16. Entertaining politics, seriously?! : How talk show formats blur conceptual boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schohaus, Birte

    2017-01-01

    What happens behind the scenes of a talk show? Why do some politicians seem to appear on every show while others are hardly ever seen? Birte Schohaus conducted a multi-layered research in which she conducted interviews with journalists, producers, PR advisors and (former) politicians and combined

  17. Effects of TV Crime Shows on Behavioural Development of Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Mudassar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Television crime dramas and shows are very popular all over the world. This popularity is not bound to a certain age group, rather all the TV viewers like these shows very much. Like other countries, dozens of TV channels are telecasting these crime shows in Pakistan. Furthermore, few of the channels telecast crime shows at prime time which attests the popularity of such genre. Some of the media contents behave in morally disputed ways. The crime depictions as re-enactments of TV crime shows are questionable in the field of research signifying diverse cultural contexts. A large number of people are habitual to watch these shows, which may probably come out with negative behavioural outcomes. Especially the children who are at their behavioural developmental phase; are more susceptible to adopt negative behavioural leanings. In this research effort, introduction and detail of TV crime shows in Pakistan are provided, the literature concerning “media as risk factor“ in children development is discussed, and relevant theories inferences are deliberated.it was found that media has powerful role in behaviour formulating of children and violence media portrayal (TV crime shows may appear with grave concerns. Previous scientific literature was reviewed to find and discuss the problem in hand. In the research effort, the literature review provides research propositions to explore further dimensions to TV crime shows’ effects and possible negative or positive behavioural outcomes in children behaviour.

  18. The Presentation of Science in Everyday Life: The Science Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watermeyer, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This paper constitutes a case-study of the "science show" model of public engagement employed by a company of science communicators focused on the popularization of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) subject disciplines with learner constituencies. It examines the potential of the science show to foster the interest…

  19. "The Daily Show with Jon Stewart": Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trier, James

    2008-01-01

    Comedy Central's popular program "The Daily Show With Jon Stewart" is the best critical media literacy program on television, and it can be used in valuable ways in the classroom as part of a media literacy pedagogy. This Media Literacy column provides an overview of the show and its accompanying website and considers ways it might be used in the…

  20. The Daily Show with Jon Stewart: Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trier, James

    2008-01-01

    "The Daily Show With Jon Stewart" is one of the best critical literacy programs on television, and in this Media Literacy column the author suggests ways that teachers can use video clips from the show in their classrooms. (For Part 1, see EJ784683.)

  1. 16 CFR 5.57 - Order to show cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Order to show cause. 5.57 Section 5.57 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Disciplinary Actions Concerning Postemployment Conflict of Interest § 5.57 Order to show cause. (a...

  2. Synergistic Effect of Artificial Tears Containing Epigallocatechin Gallate and Hyaluronic Acid for the Treatment of Rabbits with Dry Eye Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Ching-Li; Hung, Ya-Jung; Chen, Zhi-Yu; Fang, Hsu-Wei; Chen, Ko-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Dry eye syndrome (DES) is a common eye disease. Artificial tears (AT) are used to treat DES, but they are not effective. In this study, we assessed the anti-inflammatory effect of AT containing epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and hyaluronic acid (HA) on DES. Human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) were used in the WST-8 assay to determine the safe dose of EGCG. Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated HCECs showing inflammation were treated with EGCG/HA. The expression of IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α was assessed by real-time PCR and AT physical properties such as the viscosity, osmolarity, and pH were examined. AT containing EGCG and HA were topically administered in a rabbit DES model established by treatment with 0.1% benzalkonium chloride (BAC). Tear secretion was assessed and fluorescein, H&E, and TUNEL staining were performed. Inflammatory cytokine levels in the corneas were also examined. The non-toxic optimal concentration of EGCG used for the treatment of HCECs in vitro was 10 μg/mL. The expression of several inflammatory genes, including IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α, was significantly inhibited in inflamed HCECs treated with 10 μg/mL EGCG and 0.1% (w/v) HA (E10/HA) compared to that in inflamed HCECs treated with either EGCG or HA alone. AT containing E10/HA mimic human tears, with similar osmolarity and viscosity and a neutral pH. Fluorescence examination of the ocular surface of mouse eyes showed that HA increased drug retention on the ocular surface. Topical treatment of DES rabbits with AT plus E10/HA increased tear secretion, reduced corneal epithelial damage, and maintained the epithelial layers and stromal structure. Moreover, the corneas of the E10/HA-treated rabbits showed fewer apoptotic cells, lower inflammation, and decreased IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α levels. In conclusion, we showed that AT plus E10/HA had anti-inflammatory and mucoadhesive properties when used as topical eye drops and were effective for treating DES in rabbits.

  3. Synergistic Effect of Artificial Tears Containing Epigallocatechin Gallate and Hyaluronic Acid for the Treatment of Rabbits with Dry Eye Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Li Tseng

    Full Text Available Dry eye syndrome (DES is a common eye disease. Artificial tears (AT are used to treat DES, but they are not effective. In this study, we assessed the anti-inflammatory effect of AT containing epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG and hyaluronic acid (HA on DES. Human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs were used in the WST-8 assay to determine the safe dose of EGCG. Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated HCECs showing inflammation were treated with EGCG/HA. The expression of IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α was assessed by real-time PCR and AT physical properties such as the viscosity, osmolarity, and pH were examined. AT containing EGCG and HA were topically administered in a rabbit DES model established by treatment with 0.1% benzalkonium chloride (BAC. Tear secretion was assessed and fluorescein, H&E, and TUNEL staining were performed. Inflammatory cytokine levels in the corneas were also examined. The non-toxic optimal concentration of EGCG used for the treatment of HCECs in vitro was 10 μg/mL. The expression of several inflammatory genes, including IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α, was significantly inhibited in inflamed HCECs treated with 10 μg/mL EGCG and 0.1% (w/v HA (E10/HA compared to that in inflamed HCECs treated with either EGCG or HA alone. AT containing E10/HA mimic human tears, with similar osmolarity and viscosity and a neutral pH. Fluorescence examination of the ocular surface of mouse eyes showed that HA increased drug retention on the ocular surface. Topical treatment of DES rabbits with AT plus E10/HA increased tear secretion, reduced corneal epithelial damage, and maintained the epithelial layers and stromal structure. Moreover, the corneas of the E10/HA-treated rabbits showed fewer apoptotic cells, lower inflammation, and decreased IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α levels. In conclusion, we showed that AT plus E10/HA had anti-inflammatory and mucoadhesive properties when used as topical eye drops and were effective for treating DES in rabbits.

  4. Davedan Show Di Amphi Theatre Nusa Dua Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made Ruastiti

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Artikel ini disusun dari hasil penelitian yang bertujuan untuk dapat memahami pertunjukan Davedan Show di Amphi Theatre Nusa Dua Bali. Penelitian ini dilakukan karena adanya ketimpangan antara asumsi dan kenyataan di lapangan. Pada umumnya wisatawan yang datang ke Bali hanya senang dan antusias menonton seni pertunjukan pariwisata berbasis seni budaya lokal saja. Tetapi kenyataan ini berbeda. Walaupun Davedan Show tidak dibangun dari seni budaya lokal saja, tetapi kenyataannya wisatawan sangat senang menonton pertunjukan tersebut. Pertanyaannya: bagaimanakah bentuk pertunjukan Davedan Show tersebut?; mengapa wisatawan senang menonton pertunjukan itu?; apa implikasinya bagi pelaku, masyarakat, dan industri pariwisata di Nusa Dua, Bali?. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode penelitian kualitatif, khususnya implementatif partisipatoris yang mengutamakan kerjasama antara periset dengan para informan terkait. Sumber data penelitian ini adalah pertunjukan Davedan itu sendiri, pihak manajemen, para penari, penonton, hasil-hasil penelitian yang telah ada sebelumnya. Seluruh data yang telah dikumpulkan dengan teknik observasi, wawancara, FGD, dan studi kepustakaan itu dianalisis secara kritis dengan menggunakan teori estetika postmodern, teori praktik, dan teori relasi kuasa pengetahuan. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa: (1 Davedan Show disajikan dalam bentuk oratorium. Hal itu dapat dilihat dari cara penyajian, koreografi, dan iringan pertunjukannya. Davedan Show yang menampilkan tema Treasure of The Archipelago, membuka gerbang petualangan baru itu diiringi musik rekaman etnik Nusantara secara medley, berkelanjutan dengan struktur pertunjukan: seni budaya Bali, Sumatra, Sunda, Solo, Kalimantan, dan seni budaya Papua; (2 Davedan Show banyak diminati wisatawan manca negara karena penciptaan pertunjukan itu dilatari oleh ideologi pasar, ideologi estetika, dan ideologi budaya Nusantara; (3 Hingga kini Davedan Show berkembang secara berkelanjutan di Nusa Dua

  5. QLab 3 show control projects for live performances & installations

    CERN Document Server

    Hopgood, Jeromy

    2013-01-01

    Used from Broadway to Britain's West End, QLab software is the tool of choice for many of the world's most prominent sound, projection, and integrated media designers. QLab 3 Show Control: Projects for Live Performances & Installations is a project-based book on QLab software covering sound, video, and show control. With information on both sound and video system basics and the more advanced functions of QLab such as MIDI show control, new OSC capabilities, networking, video effects, and microphone integration, each chapter's specific projects will allow you to learn the software's capabilitie

  6. marker development for two novel rice genes showing differential ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-08-19

    Aug 19, 2014 ... School of Crop Improvement, College of PostGraduate Studies, Central Agricultural University, ... from the root transcriptome data for tolerance to low P. .... Values show a representative result of three independent experiments ...

  7. Do men and women show love differently in marriage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Elizabeth A; Bredow, Carrie A; Huston, Ted L

    2012-11-01

    In Western societies, women are considered more adept than men at expressing love in romantic relationships. Although scholars have argued that this view of love gives short shrift to men's ways of showing love (e.g., Cancian, 1986; Noller, 1996), the widely embraced premise that men and women "love differently" has rarely been examined empirically. Using data collected at four time points over 13 years of marriage, the authors examined whether love is associated with different behaviors for husbands and wives. Multilevel analyses revealed that, counter to theoretical expectations, both genders were equally likely to show love through affection. But whereas wives expressed love by enacting fewer negative or antagonistic behaviors, husbands showed love by initiating sex, sharing leisure activities, and doing household work together with their wives. Overall, the findings indicate that men and women show their love in more nuanced ways than cultural stereotypes suggest.

  8. Army Study Shows Decline In Behavioral Health Stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Army Study Shows Decline in Behavioral Health Stigma By Rob McIlvaine Army News Service WASHINGTON, Jan. 20, 2012 - A newly released Army study on...conference yesterday. The three-year study outlines the problem of suicide in the Army and related issues of substance abuse, spouse abuse and child abuse...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Army Study Shows Decline In Behavioral Health Stigma 5a. CONTRACT

  9. Fusion machine shows first inclination to act as a reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brever, R.

    1980-01-01

    The author reports recent work by the Max-Planck Institut fur Plasmaphysik (IPP) in Garching (West Germany) on their series of Stellarator-type experiments. In the latest (Wendelstein VII-A) the tokamak principle is used only for the initial heating of the plasma, energy being supplied subsequently by neutral particle injection. It has proved to be possible to reduce the tokamak heating current to almost zero while achieving a particle density of 10 14 /cm 3 and peak temperatures of 10 7 degrees. The prospect of a continuously operating Stellarator-type reactor appears therefore to be opened up. (C.J.O.G.)

  10. A regime showing anomalous triton burnup in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conroy, S.; Jarvis, O.N.; Sadler, G.; Pillon, M.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of triton burnup made at JET in 1989 are in good agreement with a simple classical model of the triton slowing down, for the majority of discharges. For discharges with a long slowing down time (greater than 2 seconds), a much reduced burnup has been observed, suggesting that the tritons undergo diffusion with a diffusion constant of 0.10 m 2 s -1 . Also, the experimental 14 MeV neutron yield is 30% lower than expected for Beryllium limiter discharges. (author) 4 refs., 3 figs

  11. Tank closure reducing grout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, T.B.

    1997-01-01

    A reducing grout has been developed for closing high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. The grout has a low redox potential, which minimizes the mobility of Sr 90 , the radionuclide with the highest dose potential after closure. The grout also has a high pH which reduces the solubility of the plutonium isotopes. The grout has a high compressive strength and low permeability, which enhances its ability to limit the migration of contaminants after closure. The grout was designed and tested by Construction Technology Laboratories, Inc. Placement methods were developed by the Savannah River Site personnel

  12. Dolphin shows and interaction programs: benefits for conservation education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, L J; Zeigler-Hill, V; Mellen, J; Koeppel, J; Greer, T; Kuczaj, S

    2013-01-01

    Dolphin shows and dolphin interaction programs are two types of education programs within zoological institutions used to educate visitors about dolphins and the marine environment. The current study examined the short- and long-term effects of these programs on visitors' conservation-related knowledge, attitude, and behavior. Participants of both dolphin shows and interaction programs demonstrated a significant short-term increase in knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intentions. Three months following the experience, participants of both dolphin shows and interaction programs retained the knowledge learned during their experience and reported engaging in more conservation-related behaviors. Additionally, the number of dolphin shows attended in the past was a significant predictor of recent conservation-related behavior suggesting that repetition of these types of experiences may be important in inspiring people to conservation action. These results suggest that both dolphin shows and dolphin interaction programs can be an important part of a conservation education program for visitors of zoological facilities. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Pedagogical Techniques Employed by the Television Show "MythBusters"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavrel, Erik

    2016-11-01

    "MythBusters," the long-running though recently discontinued Discovery Channel science entertainment television program, has proven itself to be far more than just a highly rated show. While its focus is on entertainment, the show employs an array of pedagogical techniques to communicate scientific concepts to its audience. These techniques include: achieving active learning, avoiding jargon, employing repetition to ensure comprehension, using captivating demonstrations, cultivating an enthusiastic disposition, and increasing intrinsic motivation to learn. In this content analysis, episodes from the show's 10-year history were examined for these techniques. "MythBusters" represents an untapped source of pedagogical techniques, which science educators may consider availing themselves of in their tireless effort to better reach their students. Physics educators in particular may look to "MythBusters" for inspiration and guidance in how to incorporate these techniques into their own teaching and help their students in the learning process.

  14. Implications of the Goal Theory on air show programs planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewald Venter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Events have long played an important role in human society (Shone & Parry, 2010: 3. The toils and efforts of daily lives have often been broken up by events of all kinds as humans seek an escape from the harsh reality of existence and events provide the outlet. Events are classified into four categories according to Shone and Parry (2010: 5 namely leisure (sport, recreation, personal (weddings, birthdays, cultural (art, folklore and organizational (politics, commercial. Successful events either match or exceed visitor motives and goals. It is critical that data be collected from visitors to determine their motives and goals in order to satisfy them and thereby encouraging repeat visits. One such event is the annual air show held at the Zwartkop Air Force Base (AFB in Pretoria, South Africa. Zwartkop AFB is also home to the South African Air Force (SAAF museum that also the hosts of the air show. Much of the museum‟s funds are generated through hosting the air show and sponsor contributions. Visitor goal satisfaction should therefore be of critically importance to the program planners. Military hardware has long held a fascination for those who used them and inspired the imagination of young and old. Such hardware often serves as a remembrance of times passed and as a testament to those who perished. For many visiting museums and air shows, curiosity plays a big role. The particular focus of this article will be on how the goal theory of leisure travel can be utilized by the air show organizers to enhance visitor experience to an air show.

  15. CERN cars drive by the Geneva Motor Show

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    One of CERN's new gas-fuelled cars was a special guest at the press days of the Geneva motor show this year. The car enjoyed a prominent position on the Gazmobil stand, right next to the latest Mazeratis and Ferraris. Journalists previewing the motor show could discover CERN's support for green technologies and also find out more about the lab - home to the fastest racetrack on the planet, with protons in the LHC running at 99.9999991% of the speed of light.    

  16. The Biochemistry Show: a new and fun tool for learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H Ono

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The traditional methods to teach biochemistry in most universities are based on the memorization of chemical structures,  biochemical  pathways  and  reagent  names,  which  is  many  times  dismotivating  for  the  students.  We presently describe an innovative, interactive and alternative method for teaching biochemistry to medical and nutrition undergraduate students, called the Biochemistry Show (BioBio Show.The Biobio show is based on active participation of the students. They are divided in groups and the groups face each other. One group faces another one group at a time, in a game based on true or false questions that involve subjects of applied biochemistry (exercise, obesity, diabetes, cholesterol, free radicals, among others. The questions of the Show are previously elaborated by senior students. The Biobio Show has four phases, the first one is a selection exam, and from the second to the fourth phase, eliminatory confrontations happen. On a confrontation, the first group must select a certain quantity of questions for the opponent to answer.  The group who choses the questions must know how to answer and justify the selected questions. This procedure is repeated on all phases of the show. On the last phase, the questions used are taken from an exam previously performed by the students: either the 9-hour biochemistry exam (Sé et al. A 9-hour biochemistry exam. An iron man competition or a good way of evaluating undergraduate students? SBBq 2005, abstract K-6 or the True-or-False exam (TFE (Sé et al. Are tutor-students capable of writing good biochemistry exams? SBBq 2004, abstract K-18. The winner group receives an extra 0,5 point on the final grade. Over 70% of the students informed on a questionnaire that the Biobio Show is a valuable tool for learning biochemistry.    That is a new way to enrich the discussion of biochemistry in the classroom without the students getting bored. Moreover, learning

  17. Reduced Braginskii equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagi, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Horton, W. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies

    1993-11-01

    A set of reduced Braginskii equations is derived without assuming flute ordering and the Boussinesq approximation. These model equations conserve the physical energy. It is crucial at finite {beta} that we solve the perpendicular component of Ohm`s law to conserve the physical energy while ensuring the relation {del} {center_dot} j = 0.

  18. Reduced Braginskii equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, M.; Horton, W.

    1993-11-01

    A set of reduced Braginskii equations is derived without assuming flute ordering and the Boussinesq approximation. These model equations conserve the physical energy. It is crucial at finite β that we solve the perpendicular component of Ohm's law to conserve the physical energy while ensuring the relation ∇ · j = 0

  19. Reuse, Reduce, Recycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, Georgia

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of recycling paper in law libraries is also applicable to other types of libraries. Results of surveys of law libraries that investigated recycling practices in 1987 and again in 1990 are reported, and suggestions for reducing the amount of paper used and reusing as much as possible are offered. (LRW)

  20. Reduced multiplication modules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    if M is a von Neumann regular module (VNM); i.e., every principal submodule of M is a summand submodule. Also if M is an injective R-module, then M is a VNM. Keywords. Multiplication module; reduced module; minimal prime submodule;. Zariski topology; extremally disconnected. 1. Introduction. In this paper all rings are ...

  1. Reduced Braginskii equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, M.; Horton, W.

    1994-01-01

    A set of reduced Braginskii equations is derived without assuming flute ordering and the Boussinesq approximation. These model equations conserve the physical energy. It is crucial at finite β that the perpendicular component of Ohm's law be solved to ensure ∇·j=0 for energy conservation

  2. Evaluation of unsaturated alkanoic acid amides as maskers of epigallocatechin gallate astringency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obst, Katja; Paetz, Susanne; Backes, Michael; Reichelt, Katharina V; Ley, Jakob P; Engel, Karl-Heinz

    2013-05-08

    Some foods, beverages, and food ingredients show characteristic long-lasting aftertastes. The sweet, lingering taste of high intensity sweeteners or the astringency of tea catechins are typical examples. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the most abundant catechin in green tea, causes a long-lasting astringency and bitterness. These sensations are mostly perceived as aversive and are only accepted in a few foods (e.g., tea and red wine). For the evaluation of the aftertaste of such constituents over a certain period of time, Intensity Variation Descriptive Methodology (IVDM) was used. The approach allows the measurement of different descriptors in parallel in one panel session. IVDM was evaluated concerning the inter- and intraindividual differences of panelists for bitterness and astringency of EGCG. Subsequently, the test method was used as a screening tool for the identification of potential modality-selective masking compounds. In particular, the intensity of the astringency of EGCG (750 mg kg(-1)) could be significantly lowered by 18-33% during the time course by adding the trigeminal-active compound trans-pellitorine (2E,4E-decadienoic acid N-isobutyl amide 1, 5 mg kg(-1)) without significantly affecting bitterness perception. Further, structurally related compounds were evaluated on EGCG to gain evidence for possible structure-activity relationships. A more polar derivative of 1, (2S)-2-[[(2E,4E)-deca-2,4-dienoyl]amino]propanoic acid 9, was also able to reduce the astringency of EGCG similar to trans-pellitorine but without showing the strong tingling effect.

  3. Reducing infant mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, T R

    1994-01-01

    Public health and social policies at the population level (e.g., oral rehydration therapy and immunization) are responsible for the major reduction in infant mortality worldwide. The gap in infant mortality rates between developing and developed regions is much less than that in maternal mortality rates. This indicates that maternal and child health (MCH) programs and women's health care should be combined. Since 1950, 66% of infant deaths occur in the 1st 28 days, indicating adverse prenatal and intrapartum events (e.g., congenital malformation and birth injuries). Infection, especially pneumonia and diarrhea, and low birth weight are the major causes of infant mortality worldwide. An estimated US$25 billion are needed to secure the resources to control major childhood diseases, reduce malnutrition 50%, reduce child deaths by 4 million/year, provide potable water and sanitation to all communities, provide basic education, and make family planning available to all. This cost for saving children's lives is lower than current expenditures for cigarettes (US$50 billion in Europe/year). Vitamin A supplementation, breast feeding, and prenatal diagnosis of congenital malformations are low-cost strategies that can significantly affect infant well-being and reduce child mortality in many developing countries. The US has a higher infant mortality rate than have other developed countries. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the US National Institutes of Health are focusing on prematurity, low birth weight, multiple pregnancy, violence, alcohol abuse, and poverty to reduce infant mortality. Obstetricians should be important members of MCH teams, which also include traditional birth attendants, community health workers, nurses, midwives, and medical officers. We have the financial resources to allocate resources to improve MCH care and to reduce infant mortality.

  4. An autopsied case of tuberculous meningitis showing interesting CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abiko, Takashi; Higuchi, Hiroshi; Imada, Ryuichi; Nagai, Kenichi

    1983-01-01

    A 61-year-old female patient died of a neurological disorder of unknown origin one month after the first visit and was found to have had tuberculous meningitis at autopsy. CT revealed a low density area showing an enlargement of the cerebral ventricle but did not reveal contrast enhancement in the basal cistern peculiar to tuberculous meningitis. (Namekawa, K.)

  5. Auditory temporal-order thresholds show no gender differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kesteren, Marlieke T. R.; Wierslnca-Post, J. Esther C.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Several studies on auditory temporal-order processing showed gender differences. Women needed longer inter-stimulus intervals than men when indicating the temporal order of two clicks presented to the left and right ear. In this study, we examined whether we could reproduce these results in

  6. Auditory temporal-order thresholds show no gender differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kesteren, Marlieke T R; Wiersinga-Post, J Esther C

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: Several studies on auditory temporal-order processing showed gender differences. Women needed longer inter-stimulus intervals than men when indicating the temporal order of two clicks presented to the left and right ear. In this study, we examined whether we could reproduce these results in

  7. An Easy Way to Show Memory Color Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes and evaluates a simple stimulus display that allows one to measure memory color effects (the effect of object knowledge and memory on color perception). The proposed approach is fast and easy and does not require running an extensive experiment. It shows that memory color effects are robust to minor variations due to a lack of color calibration.

  8. Polypyridyl iron(II) complexes showing remarkable photocytotoxicity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    aditya

    Polypyridyl iron(II) complexes showing remarkable photocytotoxicity in visible light. ADITYA GARAI a. , UTTARA BASU a. , ILA PANT b. , PATURU KONDAIAH*. ,b. AND. AKHIL R. CHAKRAVARTY*. ,a a. Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. 560012, India. E-mail: ...

  9. Manumycin from a new Streptomyces strain shows antagonistic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Manumycin from a new Streptomyces strain shows antagonistic effect against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)/vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) strains from Korean Hospitals. Yun Hee Choi, Seung Sik Cho, Jaya Ram Simkhada, Chi Nam Seong, Hyo Jeong Lee, Hong Seop Moon, Jin Cheol Yoo ...

  10. Five kepler target stars that show multiple transiting exoplanet candidates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffen..[], Jason H.; Batalha, N. M.; Broucki, W J.

    2010-01-01

    We present and discuss five candidate exoplanetary systems identified with the Kepler spacecraft. These five systems show transits from multiple exoplanet candidates. Should these objects prove to be planetary in nature, then these five systems open new opportunities for the field of exoplanets a...

  11. Your Town Television Show: SMART Program (Part 1) [video

    OpenAIRE

    Naval Postgraduate School, (U.S.); Sanders, John; Millsaps, Knox; Shifflett, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    From "Your Town" television show. SMART Scholarship Program featured on Your Town television program in Monterey, California. Host John Sanders, Special Collections Manager of the Naval Postgraduate School's Dudley Knox Library, interviews Dr. Knox Millsaps, Executive Agent for the SMART Program, and Deborah Shifflett, SMART Program Manager.

  12. Your Town Television Show: SMART Program (Part 3) [video

    OpenAIRE

    Naval Postgraduate School, (U.S.); Sanders, John; Millsaps, Knox; Shifflett, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    From "Your Town" television show. SMART Scholarship Program featured on Your Town television program in Monterey, California. Host John Sanders, Special Collections Manager of the Naval Postgraduate School's Dudley Knox Library, interviews Dr. Knox Millsaps, Executive Agent for the SMART Program, and Deborah Shifflett, SMART Program Manager.

  13. A Progress Evaluation of Four Bilingual Children's Television Shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Stephen P.; And Others

    An evaluation of a bilingual education TV series was conducted involving 6-year-old English speaking, Spanish speaking, and bilingual children at four sites. Children were assigned to control and experimental groups with the latter group seeing four 30 minute shows. A pretest-posttest design was employed with the pretest serving as the covariate…

  14. The neonicotinoid imidachloprid shows high chronic toxicity to mayfly nymphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roessink, I.; Merga, L.B.; Zweers, A.J.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the acute and chronic toxicity of imidacloprid to a range of freshwater arthropods. Mayfly and caddisfly species were most sensitive to short-term imidacloprid exposures (10 tests), whereas the mayflies showed by far the most sensitive response to long-term exposure of

  15. An Easy Way to Show Memory Color Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Witzel, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes and evaluates a simple stimulus display that allows one to measure memory color effects (the effect of object knowledge and memory on color perception). The proposed approach is fast and easy and does not require running an extensive experiment. It shows that memory color effects are robust to minor variations due to a lack of color calibration.

  16. 36 CFR 14.24 - Showing as to citizenship required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... INTERIOR RIGHTS-OF-WAY Procedures § 14.24 Showing as to citizenship required. (a) Individuals. An individual applicant applying for a right-of-way under any right-of-way act, except the Act of March 3, 1891... applicant resided in the United States thereafter while a minor, should be furnished. Where the husband and...

  17. Mice lacking neuropeptide Y show increased sensitivity to cocaine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Gunnar; Woldbye, David Paul Drucker

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing data implicating neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the neurobiology of addiction. This study explored the possible role of NPY in cocaine-induced behavior using NPY knockout mice. The transgenic mice showed a hypersensitive response to cocaine in three animal models of cocaine addiction...

  18. Television Judge Shows: Nordic and U.S. Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsdam, Helle

    2017-01-01

    Legal discourse is language that people use in a globalizing and multicultural society to negotiate acceptable behaviors and values. We see this played out in popular cultural forums such as judicial television dramas. In the American context, television judge shows are virtually synonymous...

  19. Mixed cultures of Kimchi lactic acid bacteria show increased cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ufuoma

    anaerobic organisms that are highly resistant to salts. Probiotic cultures for use in ... kimchi have a superior ability to decompose and utilize nutrients, and show ... citrate, 5 g sodium acetate, 1 g Tween, 2 g K2HPO4, 0.2 g. MgSO4•7H2O, 0.2 g ...

  20. Teaching Job Interviewing Skills with the Help of Television Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Janel

    2011-01-01

    Because of its potential for humor and drama, job interviewing is frequently portrayed on television. This article discusses how scenes from popular television series such as "Everybody Loves Raymond," "Friends," and "The Mary Tyler Moore Show" can be used to teach effective job interview skills in business communication courses. Television…

  1. Airline Overbooking Problem with Uncertain No-Shows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxiao Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers an airline overbooking problem of a new single-leg flight with discount fare. Due to the absence of historical data of no-shows for a new flight, and various uncertain human behaviors or unexpected events which causes that a few passengers cannot board their aircraft on time, we fail to obtain the probability distribution of no-shows. In this case, the airlines have to invite some domain experts to provide belief degree of no-shows to estimate its distribution. However, human beings often overestimate unlikely events, which makes the variance of belief degree much greater than that of the frequency. If we still regard the belief degree as a subjective probability, the derived results will exceed our expectations. In order to deal with this uncertainty, the number of no-shows of new flight is assumed to be an uncertain variable in this paper. Given the chance constraint of social reputation, an overbooking model with discount fares is developed to maximize the profit rate based on uncertain programming theory. Finally, the analytic expression of the optimal booking limit is obtained through a numerical example, and the results of sensitivity analysis indicate that the optimal booking limit is affected by flight capacity, discount, confidence level, and parameters of the uncertainty distribution significantly.

  2. Triphala, a formulation of traditional Ayurvedic medicine, shows

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Triphala, a formulation of traditional Ayurvedic medicine, shows protective effect against X-radiation in HeLa cells. YUKI TAKAUJI KENSUKE ... with the cellscultured in vitro. The simple bioassay system with human cultured cells would facilitate the understanding of themolecular basis for the beneficial effects of Triphala.

  3. Bilinguals Show Weaker Lexical Access during Spoken Sentence Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shook, Anthony; Goldrick, Matthew; Engstler, Caroline; Marian, Viorica

    2015-01-01

    When bilinguals process written language, they show delays in accessing lexical items relative to monolinguals. The present study investigated whether this effect extended to spoken language comprehension, examining the processing of sentences with either low or high semantic constraint in both first and second languages. English-German…

  4. Soil bacteria show different tolerance ranges to an unprecedented disturbance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nunes, Ines Marques; Jurburg, Stephanie; Jacquiod, Samuel Jehan Auguste

    2018-01-01

    stress doses. FRG1, the most sensitive group, was dominated by Actinobacteria. FRG2 and FRG3, with intermediate tolerance, displayed prevalence of Proteobacteria, while FRG4, the most resistant group, was driven by Firmicutes. While the most sensitive FRGs showed predictable responses linked to changes...

  5. Genoa Boat Show – Good Example of Event Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunja Demirović

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available International Boat Show, a business and tourist event, has been held annually in Italian city of Genoa since 1962. The fair is one of the oldest, largest and best known in the field of boating industry worldwide, primarily due to good management of the event and it can serve as case study for domestic fair organizers to improve the quality of their business and services. Since Belgrade is the city of fairs, but compared to Genoa still underdeveloped in terms of trade shows, the following tasks imposed naturally in this study: to determine the relationship of the organizers of Genoa Boat Show in the sector of preparation and fair offer, in the sector of selection and communication with specific target groups (especially visitors, services during the fair and functioning of the city during the fair. During the research the authors have mostly used historical method, comparison, synthesis and the interview method. The results of theoretical research, in addition, may help not only managers of fair shows and of exhibitions, but also to organizers of other events in our country

  6. Economics show CO2 EOR potential in central Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, M.K.; Byrnes, A.P.; Pancake, R.E.; Willhite, G.P.; Schoeling, L.G.

    2000-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) enhanced oil recovery (EOR) may be the key to recovering hundreds of millions of bbl of trapped oil from the mature fields in central Kansas. Preliminary economic analysis indicates that CO2 EOR should provide an internal rate of return (IRR) greater than 20%, before income tax, assuming oil sells for \\$20/bbl, CO2 costs \\$1/Mcf, and gross utilization is 10 Mcf of CO2/bbl of oil recovered. If the CO2 cost is reduced to \\$0.75/Mcf, an oil price of $17/bbl yields an IRR of 20%. Reservoir and economic modeling indicates that IRR is most sensitive to oil price and CO2 cost. A project requires a minimum recovery of 1,500 net bbl/acre (about 1 million net bbl/1-mile section) under a best-case scenario. Less important variables to the economics are capital costs and non-CO2 related lease operating expenses.

  7. Recurrent and multiple bladder tumors show conserved expression profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, David; Fioretos, Thoas; Månsson, Wiking; Höglund, Mattias; Gudjonsson, Sigurdur; Jee, Kowan Ja; Liedberg, Fredrik; Aits, Sonja; Andersson, Anna; Chebil, Gunilla; Borg, Åke; Knuutila, Sakari

    2008-01-01

    Urothelial carcinomas originate from the epithelial cells of the inner lining of the bladder and may appear as single or as multiple synchronous tumors. Patients with urothelial carcinomas frequently show recurrences after treatment making follow-up necessary. The leading hypothesis explaining the origin of meta- and synchronous tumors assumes a monoclonal origin. However, the genetic relationship among consecutive tumors has been shown to be complex in as much as the genetic evolution does not adhere to the chronological appearance of the metachronous tumors. Consequently, genetically less evolved tumors may appear chronologically later than genetically related but more evolved tumors. Forty-nine meta- or synchronous urothelial tumors from 22 patients were analyzed using expression profiling, conventional CGH, LOH, and mutation analyses. We show by CGH that partial chromosomal losses in the initial tumors may not be present in the recurring tumors, by LOH that different haplotypes may be lost and that detected regions of LOH may be smaller in recurring tumors, and that mutations present in the initial tumor may not be present in the recurring ones. In contrast we show that despite apparent genomic differences, the recurrent and multiple bladder tumors from the same patients display remarkably similar expression profiles. Our findings show that even though the vast majority of the analyzed meta- and synchronous tumors from the same patients are not likely to have originated directly from the preceding tumor they still show remarkably similar expressions profiles. The presented data suggests that an expression profile is established early in tumor development and that this profile is stable and maintained in recurring tumors

  8. Alcohol reduces aversion to ambiguity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz eTyszka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Several years ago, Cohen, Dearnaley, and Hansel [1] demonstrated that under the influence of alcohol drivers became more risk prone, although their risk perception remained unchanged. Research shows that ambiguity aversion is to some extent positively correlated with risk aversion, though not very highly [2]. The question addressed by the present research is whether alcohol reduces ambiguity aversion. Our research was conducted in a natural setting (a restaurant bar, where customers with differing levels of alcohol intoxication were offered a choice between a risky and an ambiguous lottery. We found that alcohol reduced ambiguity aversion and that the effect occurred in men but not women. We interpret these findings in terms of the risk-as-value hypothesis, according to which, people in Western culture tend to value risk, and suggest that alcohol consumption triggers adherence to socially and culturally valued patterns of conduct different for men and women.

  9. Alcohol reduces aversion to ambiguity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyszka, Tadeusz; Macko, Anna; Stańczak, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    Several years ago, Cohen et al. (1958) demonstrated that under the influence of alcohol drivers became more risk prone, although their risk perception remained unchanged. Research shows that ambiguity aversion is to some extent positively correlated with risk aversion, though not very highly (Camerer and Weber, 1992). The question addressed by the present research is whether alcohol reduces ambiguity aversion. Our research was conducted in a natural setting (a restaurant bar), where customers with differing levels of alcohol intoxication were offered a choice between a risky and an ambiguous lottery. We found that alcohol reduced ambiguity aversion and that the effect occurred in men but not women. We interpret these findings in terms of the risk-as-value hypothesis, according to which, people in Western culture tend to value risk, and suggest that alcohol consumption triggers adherence to socially and culturally valued patterns of conduct different for men and women.

  10. New Inspiring Planetarium Show Introduces ALMA to the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    As part of a wide range of education and public outreach activities for the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009), ESO, together with the Association of French Language Planetariums (APLF), has produced a 30-minute planetarium show, In Search of our Cosmic Origins. It is centred on the global ground-based astronomical Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) project and represents a unique chance for planetariums to be associated with the IYA2009. ESO PR Photo 09a/09 Logo of the ALMA Planetarium Show ESO PR Photo 09b/09 Galileo's first observations with a telescope ESO PR Photo 09c/09 The ALMA Observatory ESO PR Photo 09d/09 The Milky Way band ESO PR Video 09a/09 Trailer in English ALMA is the leading telescope for observing the cool Universe -- the relic radiation of the Big Bang, and the molecular gas and dust that constitute the building blocks of stars, planetary systems, galaxies and life itself. It is currently being built in the extremely arid environment of the Chajnantor plateau, at 5000 metres altitude in the Chilean Andes, and will start scientific observations around 2011. ALMA, the largest current astronomical project, is a revolutionary telescope, comprising a state-of-the-art array of 66 giant 12-metre and 7-metre diameter antennas observing at millimetre and submillimetre wavelengths. In Search of our Cosmic Origins highlights the unprecedented window on the Universe that this facility will open for astronomers. "The show gives viewers a fascinating tour of the highest observatory on Earth, and takes them from there out into our Milky Way, and beyond," says Douglas Pierce-Price, the ALMA Public Information Officer at ESO. Edited by world fulldome experts Mirage3D, the emphasis of the new planetarium show is on the incomparable scientific adventure of the ALMA project. A young female astronomer guides the audience through a story that includes unique animations and footage, leading the viewer from the first observations by Galileo

  11. Microprocessor Protection of Power Reducing Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Romanuk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains analysis of advantages and disadvantages of existing differential protection terminals of power reducing transformers. The paper shows that there are good reasons to develop microprocessor protection of power reducing transformer which contains required functions and settings and which is based on Belarusian principles of relay protection system construction. The paper presents functional structure of microprocessor terminal of power reducing transformer which is developed. 

  12. Microprocessor Protection of Power Reducing Transformers

    OpenAIRE

    F. A. Romanuk; S. P. Korolev; M. S. Loman

    2011-01-01

    The paper contains analysis of advantages and disadvantages of existing differential protection terminals of power reducing transformers. The paper shows that there are good reasons to develop microprocessor protection of power reducing transformer which contains required functions and settings and which is based on Belarusian principles of relay protection system construction. The paper presents functional structure of microprocessor terminal of power reducing transformer which is developed. 

  13. Reduced kinetic equations: An influence functional approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wio, H.S.

    1985-01-01

    The author discusses a scheme for obtaining reduced descriptions of multivariate kinetic equations based on the 'influence functional' method of Feynmann. It is applied to the case of Fokker-Planck equations showing the form that results for the reduced equation. The possibility of Markovian or non-Markovian reduced description is discussed. As a particular example, the reduction of the Kramers equation to the Smoluchwski equation in the limit of high friction is also discussed

  14. Why reduce health inequalities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, A; Kawachi, I

    2000-12-01

    It is well known that social, cultural and economic factors cause substantial inequalities in health. Should we strive to achieve a more even share of good health, beyond improving the average health status of the population? We examine four arguments for the reduction of health inequalities.1 Inequalities are unfair. Inequalities in health are undesirable to the extent that they are unfair, or unjust. Distinguishing between health inequalities and health inequities can be contentious. Our view is that inequalities become "unfair" when poor health is itself the consequence of an unjust distribution of the underlying social determinants of health (for example, unequal opportunities in education or employment).2 Inequalities affect everyone. Conditions that lead to marked health disparities are detrimental to all members of society. Some types of health inequalities have obvious spillover effects on the rest of society, for example, the spread of infectious diseases, the consequences of alcohol and drug misuse, or the occurrence of violence and crime.3 Inequalities are avoidable. Disparities in health are avoidable to the extent that they stem from identifiable policy options exercised by governments, such as tax policy, regulation of business and labour, welfare benefits and health care funding. It follows that health inequalities are, in principle, amenable to policy interventions. A government that cares about improving the health of the population ought therefore to incorporate considerations of the health impact of alternative options in its policy setting process.3 Interventions to reduce health inequalities are cost effective. Public health programmes that reduce health inequalities can also be cost effective. The case can be made to give priority to such programmes (for example, improving access to cervical cancer screening in low income women) on efficiency grounds. On the other hand, few programmes designed to reduce health inequalities have been formally

  15. HUBBLE VISION: A Planetarium Show About Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Carolyn Collins

    1995-05-01

    In 1991, a planetarium show called "Hubble: Report From Orbit" outlining the current achievements of the Hubble Space Telescope was produced by the independent planetarium production company Loch Ness Productions, for distribution to facilities around the world. The program was subsequently converted to video. In 1994, that program was updated and re-produced under the name "Hubble Vision" and offered to the planetarium community. It is periodically updated and remains a sought-after and valuable resource within the community. This paper describes the production of the program, and the role of the astronomical community in the show's production (and subsequent updates). The paper is accompanied by a video presentation of Hubble Vision.

  16. Political Show-Technology in the Post-Soviet Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Grishin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the modern political process of Russia actively used technology show. With their help, political actors can influence public opinion and shape the public interest in certain issues. In Russia, these technologies are relevant, and are especially well developed. The pressing of the problem is due to a new round of information war on the territory of Ukraine. Inclusion in the information space, and discuss the pressing issues of modern Ukraine by media people such as C. Shuster and V. Solovyov, suggests that the political show has entertainment figures, actuality, the ambiguity of the proposed conclusions. At the same time it becomes part of the information war and political reality of the normal state.

  17. Migraine patients consistently show abnormal vestibular bedside tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Teixeira Maranhão

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Migraine and vertigo are common disorders, with lifetime prevalences of 16% and 7% respectively, and co-morbidity around 3.2%. Vestibular syndromes and dizziness occur more frequently in migraine patients. We investigated bedside clinical signs indicative of vestibular dysfunction in migraineurs.Objective To test the hypothesis that vestibulo-ocular reflex, vestibulo-spinal reflex and fall risk (FR responses as measured by 14 bedside tests are abnormal in migraineurs without vertigo, as compared with controls.Method Cross-sectional study including sixty individuals – thirty migraineurs, 25 women, 19-60 y-o; and 30 gender/age healthy paired controls.Results Migraineurs showed a tendency to perform worse in almost all tests, albeit only the Romberg tandem test was statistically different from controls. A combination of four abnormal tests better discriminated the two groups (93.3% specificity.Conclusion Migraine patients consistently showed abnormal vestibular bedside tests when compared with controls.

  18. Migraine patients consistently show abnormal vestibular bedside tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranhão, Eliana Teixeira; Maranhão-Filho, Péricles; Luiz, Ronir Raggio; Vincent, Maurice Borges

    2016-01-01

    Migraine and vertigo are common disorders, with lifetime prevalences of 16% and 7% respectively, and co-morbidity around 3.2%. Vestibular syndromes and dizziness occur more frequently in migraine patients. We investigated bedside clinical signs indicative of vestibular dysfunction in migraineurs. To test the hypothesis that vestibulo-ocular reflex, vestibulo-spinal reflex and fall risk (FR) responses as measured by 14 bedside tests are abnormal in migraineurs without vertigo, as compared with controls. Cross-sectional study including sixty individuals - thirty migraineurs, 25 women, 19-60 y-o; and 30 gender/age healthy paired controls. Migraineurs showed a tendency to perform worse in almost all tests, albeit only the Romberg tandem test was statistically different from controls. A combination of four abnormal tests better discriminated the two groups (93.3% specificity). Migraine patients consistently showed abnormal vestibular bedside tests when compared with controls.

  19. CT findings of rectosigmoid carcinoma showing exophytic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohgi, Kazuyuki; Kohno, Atsushi; Higuchi, Mutsumi

    1987-01-01

    CT findings of 7 rectosigmoid carcinomas showing exophytic growth were evaluated. All cases had bulky masses, ranging from 6.0 to 11.5 cm in maximum diameter. All masses were difficult to differentiate from the other pelvic masses on CT, presumably due to their exophytic growth and/or invasion to the surrounding organs. However, 3 out of 7 cases showed diffuse rectosigmoidal wall thickening adjacent to the primary tumor, and it is considered to be valuable in the determination of primary site. All female cases had gynecological symptom such as genital bleeding, due to uterine and/or vaginal invasion. When indeterminate pelvic mass is revealed by CT, rectosigmoid carcinoma should be considered into differential diagnosis. (author)

  20. Preschoolers show less trust in physically disabled or obese informants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara eJaffer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research examined whether preschool-aged children show less trust in physically disabled or obese informants. In Study 1, when learning about novel physical activities and facts, 4- and 5-year-olds preferred to endorse the testimony of a physically abled, non-obese informant rather than a physically disabled or obese one. In Study 2, after seeing that the physically disabled or obese informant was previously reliable whereas the physically abled, non-obese one was unreliable, 4- and 5-year-olds did not show a significant preference for either informant. We conclude that in line with the literature on children’s negative stereotypes of physically disabled or obese others, preschoolers are biased against these individuals as potential sources of new knowledge. This bias is robust in that past reliability might undermine its effect on children, but cannot reverse it.

  1. El reality show a la hora de la merienda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Rosa María Ganga Ganga

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Los programas de testimonio, inscritos dentro del género televisivo del Reality Show, son una variante del más amplio subgénero del Talk Show y tienen ya una cierta tradición en nuestro país. El presente trabajo se centrará en este tipo de programas de testimonio que basan su estrategia discursiva en la presentación y representación del relato autobiográfico del hombre o la mujer anónimos, integrándose de esta forma en las corrientes más recientes de la sociología y la historiografía, y persigue esclarecer algunas de sus características y funciones, especialmente su función socializadora, a través del mecanismo biográfico y del concepto de habitus tomado de Pierre Bourdieu.

  2. High-frequency parameters of magnetic films showing magnetization dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorenkov, V.V.; Zimin, A.B.; Kornev, Yu.V.

    1988-01-01

    Magnetization dispersion leads to skewed resonance curves shifted towards higher magnetizing fields, together with considerable reduction in the resonant absorption, while the FMR line width is considerably increased. These effects increase considerably with frequency, in contrast to films showing magnetic-anisotropy dispersion, where they decrease. It is concluded that there may be anomalies in the frequency dependence of the resonance parameters for polycrystalline magnetic films

  3. Persistent cannabis users show neuropsychological decline from childhood to midlife

    OpenAIRE

    Meier, Madeline H.; Caspi, Avshalom; Ambler, Antony; Harrington, HonaLee; Houts, Renate; Keefe, Richard S. E.; McDonald, Kay; Ward, Aimee; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2012-01-01

    Recent reports show that fewer adolescents believe that regular cannabis use is harmful to health. Concomitantly, adolescents are initiating cannabis use at younger ages, and more adolescents are using cannabis on a daily basis. The purpose of the present study was to test the association between persistent cannabis use and neuropsychological decline and determine whether decline is concentrated among adolescent-onset cannabis users. Participants were members of the Dunedin Study, a prospecti...

  4. Bonobos (Pan paniscus) show an attentional bias toward conspecifics' emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kret, Mariska E; Jaasma, Linda; Bionda, Thomas; Wijnen, Jasper G

    2016-04-05

    In social animals, the fast detection of group members' emotional expressions promotes swift and adequate responses, which is crucial for the maintenance of social bonds and ultimately for group survival. The dot-probe task is a well-established paradigm in psychology, measuring emotional attention through reaction times. Humans tend to be biased toward emotional images, especially when the emotion is of a threatening nature. Bonobos have rich, social emotional lives and are known for their soft and friendly character. In the present study, we investigated (i) whether bonobos, similar to humans, have an attentional bias toward emotional scenes compared with conspecifics showing a neutral expression, and (ii) which emotional behaviors attract their attention the most. As predicted, results consistently showed that bonobos' attention was biased toward the location of the emotional versus neutral scene. Interestingly, their attention was grabbed most by images showing conspecifics such as sexual behavior, yawning, or grooming, and not as much-as is often observed in humans-by signs of distress or aggression. The results suggest that protective and affiliative behaviors are pivotal in bonobo society and therefore attract immediate attention in this species.

  5. An Undergraduate Endeavor: Assembling a Live Planetarium Show About Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Allison M.

    2016-10-01

    Viewing the mysterious red planet Mars goes back thousands of years with just the human eye but in more recent years the growth of telescopes, satellites and lander missions unveil unrivaled detail of the Martian surface that tells a story worth listening to. This planetarium show will go through the observations starting with the ancients to current understandings of the Martian surface, atmosphere and inner-workings through past and current Mars missions. Visual animations of its planetary motions, display of high resolution images from the Hi-RISE (High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment) and CTX (Context Camera) data imagery aboard the MRO (Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter) as well as other datasets will be used to display the terrain detail and imagery of the planet Mars with a digital projection system. Local planetary scientists and Mars specialists from the Lunar and Planetary Lab at the University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ) will be interviewed and used in the show to highlight current technology and understandings of the red planet. This is an undergraduate project that is looking for collaborations and insight in order gain structure in script writing that will teach about this planetary body to all ages in the format of a live planetarium show.

  6. AirShow 1.0 CFD Software Users' Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohler, Stanley R., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    AirShow is visualization post-processing software for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Upon reading binary PLOT3D grid and solution files into AirShow, the engineer can quickly see how hundreds of complex 3-D structured blocks are arranged and numbered. Additionally, chosen grid planes can be displayed and colored according to various aerodynamic flow quantities such as Mach number and pressure. The user may interactively rotate and translate the graphical objects using the mouse. The software source code was written in cross-platform Java, C++, and OpenGL, and runs on Unix, Linux, and Windows. The graphical user interface (GUI) was written using Java Swing. Java also provides multiple synchronized threads. The Java Native Interface (JNI) provides a bridge between the Java code and the C++ code where the PLOT3D files are read, the OpenGL graphics are rendered, and numerical calculations are performed. AirShow is easy to learn and simple to use. The source code is available for free from the NASA Technology Transfer and Partnership Office.

  7. Five Kepler target stars that show multiple transiting exoplanet candidates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffen, Jason H.; /Fermilab; Batalha, Natalie M.; /San Jose State U.; Borucki, William J.; /NASA, Ames; Buchhave, Lars A.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /Bohr Inst.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; /NASA, Ames /SETI Inst., Mtn. View; Cochran, William D.; /Texas U.; Endl, Michael; /Texas U.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Fressin, Francois; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Ford, Eric B.; /Florida U.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; /UC, Santa Cruz, Phys. Dept. /NASA, Ames

    2010-06-01

    We present and discuss five candidate exoplanetary systems identified with the Kepler spacecraft. These five systems show transits from multiple exoplanet candidates. Should these objects prove to be planetary in nature, then these five systems open new opportunities for the field of exoplanets and provide new insights into the formation and dynamical evolution of planetary systems. We discuss the methods used to identify multiple transiting objects from the Kepler photometry as well as the false-positive rejection methods that have been applied to these data. One system shows transits from three distinct objects while the remaining four systems show transits from two objects. Three systems have planet candidates that are near mean motion commensurabilities - two near 2:1 and one just outside 5:2. We discuss the implications that multitransiting systems have on the distribution of orbital inclinations in planetary systems, and hence their dynamical histories; as well as their likely masses and chemical compositions. A Monte Carlo study indicates that, with additional data, most of these systems should exhibit detectable transit timing variations (TTV) due to gravitational interactions - though none are apparent in these data. We also discuss new challenges that arise in TTV analyses due to the presence of more than two planets in a system.

  8. Compliance With Recommended Food Safety Practices in Television Cooking Shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Nancy L; Olson, Rita Brennan

    Examine compliance with recommended food safety practices in television cooking shows. Using a tool based on the Massachusetts Food Establishment Inspection Report, raters examined 39 episodes from 10 television cooking shows. Chefs demonstrated conformance with good retail practices for proper use and storage of utensils in 78% of episodes; preventing contamination (62%), and fingernail care (82%). However, 50% to 88% of episodes were found to be out of compliance with other personal hygiene practices, proper use of gloves and barriers (85% to 100%), and maintaining proper time and temperature controls (93%). Over 90% failed to conform to recommendations regarding preventing contamination through wiping cloths and washing produce. In only 13% of episodes were food safety practices mentioned. There appears to be little attention to food safety during most cooking shows. Celebrity and competing chefs have the opportunity to model and teach good food safety practices for millions of viewers. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Architectures for Quantum Simulation Showing a Quantum Speedup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo-Vega, Juan; Hangleiter, Dominik; Schwarz, Martin; Raussendorf, Robert; Eisert, Jens

    2018-04-01

    One of the main aims in the field of quantum simulation is to achieve a quantum speedup, often referred to as "quantum computational supremacy," referring to the experimental realization of a quantum device that computationally outperforms classical computers. In this work, we show that one can devise versatile and feasible schemes of two-dimensional, dynamical, quantum simulators showing such a quantum speedup, building on intermediate problems involving nonadaptive, measurement-based, quantum computation. In each of the schemes, an initial product state is prepared, potentially involving an element of randomness as in disordered models, followed by a short-time evolution under a basic translationally invariant Hamiltonian with simple nearest-neighbor interactions and a mere sampling measurement in a fixed basis. The correctness of the final-state preparation in each scheme is fully efficiently certifiable. We discuss experimental necessities and possible physical architectures, inspired by platforms of cold atoms in optical lattices and a number of others, as well as specific assumptions that enter the complexity-theoretic arguments. This work shows that benchmark settings exhibiting a quantum speedup may require little control, in contrast to universal quantum computing. Thus, our proposal puts a convincing experimental demonstration of a quantum speedup within reach in the near term.

  10. Eccentric muscle challenge shows osteopontin polymorphism modulation of muscle damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfield, Whitney L; Uaesoontrachoon, Kitipong; Wu, Chung-Sheih; Lin, Stephen; Chen, Yue; Wang, Paul C; Kanaan, Yasmine; Bond, Vernon; Hoffman, Eric P

    2014-08-01

    A promoter polymorphism of the osteopontin (OPN) gene (rs28357094) has been associated with multiple inflammatory states, severity of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and muscle size in healthy young adults. We sought to define the mechanism of action of the polymorphism, using allele-specific in vitro reporter assays in muscle cells, and a genotype-stratified intervention in healthy controls. In vitro reporter constructs showed the G allele to respond to estrogen treatment, whereas the T allele showed no transcriptional response. Young adult volunteers (n = 187) were enrolled into a baseline study, and subjects with specific rs28357094 genotypes enrolled into an eccentric muscle challenge intervention [n = 3 TT; n = 3 GG/GT (dominant inheritance model)]. Female volunteers carrying the G allele showed significantly greater inflammation and increased muscle volume change as determined by magnetic resonance imaging T1- and T2-weighted images after eccentric challenge, as well as greater decrement in biceps muscle force. Our data suggest a model where the G allele enables enhanced activities of upstream enhancer elements due to loss of Sp1 binding at the polymorphic site. This results in significantly greater expression of the pro-inflammatory OPN cytokine during tissue remodeling in response to challenge in G allele carriers, promoting muscle hypertrophy in normal females, but increased damage in DMD patients. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  11. Fat stigmatization in television shows and movies: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himes, Susan M; Thompson, J Kevin

    2007-03-01

    To examine the phenomenon of fat stigmatization messages presented in television shows and movies, a content analysis was used to quantify and categorize fat-specific commentary and humor. Fat stigmatization vignettes were identified using a targeted sampling procedure, and 135 scenes were excised from movies and television shows. The material was coded by trained raters. Reliability indices were uniformly high for the seven categories (percentage agreement ranged from 0.90 to 0.98; kappas ranged from 0.66 to 0.94). Results indicated that fat stigmatization commentary and fat humor were often verbal, directed toward another person, and often presented directly in the presence of the overweight target. Results also indicated that male characters were three times more likely to engage in fat stigmatization commentary or fat humor than female characters. To our knowledge, these findings provide the first information regarding the specific gender, age, and types of fat stigmatization that occur frequently in movies and television shows. The stimuli should prove useful in future research examining the role of individual difference factors (e.g., BMI) in the reaction to viewing such vignettes.

  12. Radon in Austrian tourist mines and show caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringer, W.; Graeser, J.

    2009-01-01

    The radon situation in tourist mines and show caves is barely investigated in Austria. This paper investigates the influence of its determining factors, such as climate, structure and geology. For this purpose, long-term time-resolved measurements over 6 to 12 months in 4 tourist mines and 2 show caves - with 5 to 9 measuring points each - have been carried out to obtain the course of radon concentration throughout the year. In addition, temperature and air-pressure were measured and compared to the data outside where available. Results suggest that the dominating factors of the average radon concentration are structure and location (geology) of the tunnel-system, whereas the diurnal and annual variation is mainly caused by the changing airflow, which is driven by the difference in temperature inside and outside. Downcast air is connected with very low radon concentrations, upcast air with high concentrations. In some locations the maximum values appear when the airflow ceases. But airflow can be different in different parts of mines and caves. Systems close to the surface show generally lower radon levels than the ones located deeper underground. Due to variation of structure, geology and local climate, the radon situation in mines and caves can only be described by simultaneous measurements at several measuring points. (orig.)

  13. Nonperturbative treatment of reduced model with fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, W.R.

    1983-01-01

    A nonperturbative method is presented to show that the reduced model produces the correct leading large-N contribution to the fermion Green's functions. A new form of the reduced model is introduced, which avoids the quenching procedure. Also the equation for the meson bound states is discussed. The method is illustrated in the case of two-dimensional QCD

  14. Reducing Employment Insecurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Lebert

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The perception of job insecurity is known to be a stressful condition for employees. Less is known about employment insecurity and the ways employees and their families deal with it. This study investigates whether participation in further training is a strategy that employees adopt to reduce perceived employment insecurity. As participation in further training is often costly and time-consuming, we assume that the family context is of importance for the decision to take part in further training. To take account of possible self-selection, we apply a propensity score matching procedure on longitudinal data from the Swiss Household Panel (2004-2013. Three main findings can be emphasized: first, participation in further training is not a strategy adopted particularly by employees who perceive high employment insecurity as they are less likely to train than their secure counterparts. Second, even though further training is not a strategy that is actively adopted, employees who train subsequently report lower levels of perceived employment insecurity. Third, the family context indeed influences the likelihood to train: partnered employees are more likely to train and preschool-aged children act as a constraint on women’s but enhance men’s participation in further training. Yet, in the context of high perceived employment insecurity, children generally reduce their parents’ likelihood to train as the parents may turn to other strategies that reduce perceived employment insecurity.

  15. OGJ group earnings show big gain for 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.J.; Sanders, V.

    1994-01-01

    Earnings for Oil and Gas Journal's group of 22 large US oil companies advanced sharply last year, increasing 70.9% from 1992. Group profits totaled $16.1 billion, with the gain stemming largely from lack of one time charges that depressed earnings in 1992. Adoption of new accounting rules associated with future postretirement costs caused the 1992 charges. US exploration and production earnings were mixed, tied in part to oil and gas production volumes. Higher gas prices and production helped boost earnings for a number of companies. But the earnings improvement from gas was offset by reduced oil production and prices. Results from non-U.S. E and P also were mixed. Average worldwide crude oil export prices were down from year earlier levels. However, for some companies this was offset by higher production levels and lower exploration costs. Earnings from refining and marketing were improved from 1992 levels, particularly for non-US operations. Lower feedstock costs, especially in the fourth quarter, helped boost earnings in this sector. Refining earnings gains also flowed from lower costs due to restructuring and an accompanying improvement in operating efficiency. The paper discusses world trends, operations and prices, US exploration and production, non-US E and P, US and non-US refining and marketing, petrochemicals, and the forecast for future demand

  16. Managing threats from emerging technologies: can safeguards show the way?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leffer, Teri N.

    2014-01-01

    The system of international nuclear safeguards implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is primarily a means of verification of states’ commitments under various legal instruments, principally the Nuclear Non‑Proliferation Treaty (NPT), to utilize controlled nuclear fission for peaceful purposes only. However, the safeguards system can also be seen as a mechanism through which states acted to reduce the threat posed by a new technology that had a transformative impact on existing national security paradigms when it emerged in the twentieth century. In the twenty‑first century, new technologies with equally profound national security implications are emerging. These include biotechnology and synthetic biology, nano technology, information technology, cognitive science, robotics and artificial intelligence. Throughout its history, the safeguards system has evolved to accommodate new technologies, new undertakings and new threats. Because multiple emerging technologies now constitute potential national security threats, it is appropriate to consider whether and how the lessons and successes of the safeguards system, including its capacity to evolve in response to changing requirements, could be leveraged to mitigate the threat posed by these new technologies. This paper addresses the possibility of re‑imagining safeguards in a way that makes them applicable to a broader range of technology‑based threats without compromising their effectiveness for their original purpose.

  17. Dementias show differential physiological responses to salient sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Phillip D; Nicholas, Jennifer M; Shakespeare, Timothy J; Downey, Laura E; Golden, Hannah L; Agustus, Jennifer L; Clark, Camilla N; Mummery, Catherine J; Schott, Jonathan M; Crutch, Sebastian J; Warren, Jason D

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal responsiveness to salient sensory signals is often a prominent feature of dementia diseases, particularly the frontotemporal lobar degenerations, but has been little studied. Here we assessed processing of one important class of salient signals, looming sounds, in canonical dementia syndromes. We manipulated tones using intensity cues to create percepts of salient approaching ("looming") or less salient withdrawing sounds. Pupil dilatation responses and behavioral rating responses to these stimuli were compared in patients fulfilling consensus criteria for dementia syndromes (semantic dementia, n = 10; behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia, n = 16, progressive nonfluent aphasia, n = 12; amnestic Alzheimer's disease, n = 10) and a cohort of 26 healthy age-matched individuals. Approaching sounds were rated as more salient than withdrawing sounds by healthy older individuals but this behavioral response to salience did not differentiate healthy individuals from patients with dementia syndromes. Pupil responses to approaching sounds were greater than responses to withdrawing sounds in healthy older individuals and in patients with semantic dementia: this differential pupil response was reduced in patients with progressive nonfluent aphasia and Alzheimer's disease relative both to the healthy control and semantic dementia groups, and did not correlate with nonverbal auditory semantic function. Autonomic responses to auditory salience are differentially affected by dementias and may constitute a novel biomarker of these diseases.

  18. Dementias show differential physiological responses to salient sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip David Fletcher

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal responsiveness to salient sensory signals is often a prominent feature of dementia diseases, particularly the frontotemporal lobar degenerations, but has been little studied. Here we assessed processing of one important class of salient signals, looming sounds, in canonical dementia syndromes. We manipulated tones using intensity cues to create percepts of salient approaching (‘looming’ or less salient withdrawing sounds. Pupil dilatation responses and behavioural rating responses to these stimuli were compared in patients fulfilling consensus criteria for dementia syndromes (semantic dementia, n=10; behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, n=16, progressive non-fluent aphasia, n=12; amnestic Alzheimer’s disease, n=10 and a cohort of 26 healthy age-matched individuals. Approaching sounds were rated as more salient than withdrawing sounds by healthy older individuals but this behavioural response to salience did not differentiate healthy individuals from patients with dementia syndromes. Pupil responses to approaching sounds were greater than responses to withdrawing sounds in healthy older individuals and in patients with semantic dementia: this differential pupil response was reduced in patients with progressive nonfluent aphasia and Alzheimer’s disease relative both to the healthy control and semantic dementia groups, and did not correlate with nonverbal auditory semantic function. Autonomic responses to auditory salience are differentially affected by dementias and may constitute a novel biomarker of these diseases.

  19. Oklahoma Cherokee formation study shows benefits of gas tax credits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley, B.J.; Cline, S.B.

    1994-01-01

    To no one's surprise, the administration's recently released energy initiative package does not advocate the use of tax incentives such as the Internal Revenue Code Sec. 29 (tight sand gas) credit that expired Dec. 31, 1992. This is unfortunate since tax credits do stimulate drilling, as the authors' recent study of Oklahoma's Pennsylvanian age Cherokee formation demonstrates. Within this 783,000 acre study area, more than 130 additional wells were drilled between 1991--92 because of tax credit incentives. And such tax credits also increase total federal tax revenues by causing wells to be drilled that would not have been drilled or accelerating the drilling of wells, thereby increasing taxable revenue. In short, tax credits create a win-win situation: they stimulate commerce, increase tax revenues, reduce the outflow of capital to foreign petroleum projects, and add to the nation's natural gas reserve, which is beneficial for national security, balance of payments, the environment, and gas market development. The paper discusses the study assumptions, study results, and the tax credit policy

  20. Dementias show differential physiological responses to salient sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Phillip D.; Nicholas, Jennifer M.; Shakespeare, Timothy J.; Downey, Laura E.; Golden, Hannah L.; Agustus, Jennifer L.; Clark, Camilla N.; Mummery, Catherine J.; Schott, Jonathan M.; Crutch, Sebastian J.; Warren, Jason D.

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal responsiveness to salient sensory signals is often a prominent feature of dementia diseases, particularly the frontotemporal lobar degenerations, but has been little studied. Here we assessed processing of one important class of salient signals, looming sounds, in canonical dementia syndromes. We manipulated tones using intensity cues to create percepts of salient approaching (“looming”) or less salient withdrawing sounds. Pupil dilatation responses and behavioral rating responses to these stimuli were compared in patients fulfilling consensus criteria for dementia syndromes (semantic dementia, n = 10; behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia, n = 16, progressive nonfluent aphasia, n = 12; amnestic Alzheimer's disease, n = 10) and a cohort of 26 healthy age-matched individuals. Approaching sounds were rated as more salient than withdrawing sounds by healthy older individuals but this behavioral response to salience did not differentiate healthy individuals from patients with dementia syndromes. Pupil responses to approaching sounds were greater than responses to withdrawing sounds in healthy older individuals and in patients with semantic dementia: this differential pupil response was reduced in patients with progressive nonfluent aphasia and Alzheimer's disease relative both to the healthy control and semantic dementia groups, and did not correlate with nonverbal auditory semantic function. Autonomic responses to auditory salience are differentially affected by dementias and may constitute a novel biomarker of these diseases. PMID:25859194

  1. Encapsulated nanoepigallocatechin-3-gallate and elemental selenium nanoparticles as paradigms for nanochemoprevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang D

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Dongxu Wang1, Ethan Will Taylor2, Yijun Wang1, Xiaochun Wan1, Jinsong Zhang11Key Laboratory of Tea Biochemistry and Biotechnology, School of Tea and Food Science, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei, Anhui, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Nanoscience, Joint School of Nanoscience and Nanoengineering, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, NC, USAAbstract: Chemoprevention that impedes one or more steps in carcinogenesis, via long-term administration of naturally occurring or synthetic compounds, is widely considered to be a crucial strategy for cancer control. Selenium (Se has chemopreventive effects, but its application is limited due to a low therapeutic index as shown in numerous animal experiments. In contrast to Se, which was known for its toxicity prior to the discovery of its beneficial effects, the natural compound epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG was originally considered to be nontoxic. Due to its preventive effects on many types of cancer in various animal models, EGCG has been regarded as a prime example of a promising chemopreventive agent without major toxicity concerns. However, very recently, evidence has accumulated showing that efficacious doses of EGCG used in health promotion may not be far from its toxic dose level. Therefore, both Se and EGCG need to be modified by novel pharmaceutical technologies to attain enhanced efficacy and/or reduced toxicity. Nanotechnology may be one of these technologies. In support of this hypothesis, the characteristics of polylactic acid and polyethylene glycol-encapsulated nano-EGCG and elemental Se nanoparticles dispersed by bovine serum albumin are reviewed in this article. Encapsulation of EGCG to form nano-EGCG leads to its enhanced stability in plasma and remarkably superior chemopreventive effects, with more than tenfold dose advantages in inducing apoptosis and inhibition of both angiogenesis and tumor growth. Se at nanoparticle size (“Nano-Se”, compared

  2. Remembering Operación Triunfo: a Latin Music Reality Show in the Era of Talent Shows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savini, Paola

    2016-01-01

    abstractThe music format Operación Triunfo (2001–2011), which aired on RTVE for the first time in 2001, started as a television (TV) and musical success in Spain and today is one of the most famous shows around the world as well as an incredible socio-economic phenomenon in Spanish TV. This paper

  3. Welfare-Reducing Trade Liberalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Jørgensen, Jan G.

    Recent literature on the workhorse model of intra-industry trade has explored heterogeneous cost structures at the firm level. These approaches have proven to add realism and predictive power. This note shows, however, that this added realism also implies that there may exist a positive bilateral...... tariff that maximizes national and world welfare. Applying one of the simplest specifications possible, namely a symmetric two-country intra-industry trade model with fixed export costs that are heterogeneous across firms, we find that the reciprocal reduction of small tariffs reduces welfare. We explore...

  4. Welfare-Reducing Trade Liberalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Jørgensen, Jan G.

    Recent literature on the workhorse model of intra-industry trade has explored heterogeneous cost structures at the firm level. These approaches have proven to add realism and predictive power. This paper shows, however, that this added realism also implies that there may exist a positive bilateral...... tariff that maximizes national and world welfare. Applying one of the simplest specifications possible, namely a symmetric two-country intra-industry trade model with fixed export costs that are heterogeneous across firms, we find that the reciprocal reduction of small tariffs reduces welfare....

  5. Perforating pilomatrixoma showing atypical presentation: A rare clinical variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevra Seyhan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Pilomatrixoma, also known as calcifying epithelioma of Malherbe, is a rare benign skin tumor arising from hair follicle stem cells. The most common localization is the head and neck region. Female/male ratio is 3/2. It shows deep subcutaneous placement and occurs in the first two decades of life. Its diameter ranges from 0.5 cm to 3 cm. Multiple lesions are rarely seen. Histopathologically it is characterized by basoloid and ghost cells. Perforating type is a rare clinical variant. Treatment is surgical excision. Our case is presented to draw attention to a rare clinical variant of pilomatrixioma.

  6. PROTOTIPE VIDEO EDITOR DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN DIRECT X DAN DIRECT SHOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoni Haryadi Setiabudi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Technology development had given people the chance to capture their memorable moments in video format. A high quality digital video is a result of a good editing process. Which in turn, arise the new need of an editor application. In accordance to the problem, here the process of making a simple application for video editing needs. The application development use the programming techniques often applied in multimedia applications, especially video. First part of the application will begin with the video file compression and decompression, then we'll step into the editing part of the digital video file. Furthermore, the application also equipped with the facilities needed for the editing processes. The application made with Microsoft Visual C++ with DirectX technology, particularly DirectShow. The application provides basic facilities that will help the editing process of a digital video file. The application will produce an AVI format file after the editing process is finished. Through the testing process of this application shows the ability of this application to do the 'cut' and 'insert' of video files in AVI, MPEG, MPG and DAT formats. The 'cut' and 'insert' process only can be done in static order. Further, the aplication also provide the effects facility for transition process in each clip. Lastly, the process of saving the new edited video file in AVI format from the application. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Perkembangan teknologi memberi kesempatan masyarakat untuk mengabadikan saat - saat yang penting menggunakan video. Pembentukan video digital yang baik membutuhkan proses editing yang baik pula. Untuk melakukan proses editing video digital dibutuhkan program editor. Berdasarkan permasalahan diatas maka pada penelitian ini dibuat prototipe editor sederhana untuk video digital. Pembuatan aplikasi memakai teknik pemrograman di bidang multimedia, khususnya video. Perencanaan dalam pembuatan aplikasi tersebut dimulai dengan pembentukan

  7. Pseudo Random Coins Show More Heads Than Tails

    OpenAIRE

    Bauke, Heiko; Mertens, Stephan

    2003-01-01

    Tossing a coin is the most elementary Monte Carlo experiment. In a computer the coin is replaced by a pseudo random number generator. It can be shown analytically and by exact enumerations that popular random number generators are not capable of imitating a fair coin: pseudo random coins show more heads than tails. This bias explains the empirically observed failure of some random number generators in random walk experiments. It can be traced down to the special role of the value zero in the ...

  8. The use of computerized tomography in patients showing tardive dyskinesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Themelis, I.

    1983-01-01

    29 patients showing moderate to markedly pronounced tardive dyskinesia (TD) and a further 29 control patients (C) under a similar long-term medication with neuroleptics that had been so chosen as to match the age and sex distributions of the former group were subjected to computered tomography, neurological examination and psychological testing. The results did not point to any correlations between the structural changes and duration of treatment and the clinical signs or symptoms of extrapyramidal disorder. This was taken as further evidence in support of the theory that the initial damage in tardive dyskinesia mainly is at the level of the basal ganglia. (orig./MG) [de

  9. DIME Students Show Off their Lego(TM) Challenge Creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Two students show the Lego (TM) Challenge device they designed and built to operate in the portable drop tower demonstrator as part of the second Dropping in a Microgravity Environment (DIME) competition held April 23-25, 2002, at NASA's Glenn Research Center. Competitors included two teams from Sycamore High School, Cincinnati, OH, and one each from Bay High School, Bay Village, OH, and COSI Academy, Columbus, OH. DIME is part of NASA's education and outreach activities. Details are on line at http://microgravity.grc.nasa.gov/DIME_2002.html.

  10. Intracerebral metastasis showing restricted diffusion: Correlation with histopathologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duygulu, G. [Radiology Department, Ege University Medicine School, Izmir (Turkey); Ovali, G. Yilmaz [Radiology Department, Celal Bayar University Medicine School, Manisa (Turkey)], E-mail: gulgun.yilmaz@bayar.edu.tr; Calli, C.; Kitis, O.; Yuenten, N. [Radiology Department, Ege University Medicine School, Izmir (Turkey); Akalin, T. [Pathology Department, Ege University Medicine School, Izmir (Turkey); Islekel, S. [Neurosurgery Department, Ege University Medicine School, Izmir (Turkey)

    2010-04-15

    Objective: We aimed to detect the frequency of restricted diffusion in intracerebral metastases and to find whether there is correlation between the primary tumor pathology and diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) findings of these metastases. Material and methods: 87 patients with intracerebral metastases were examined with routine MR imaging and DWI. 11 hemorrhagic metastatic lesions were excluded. The routine MR imaging included three plans before and after contrast enhancement. The DWI was performed with spin-echo EPI sequence with three b values (0, 500 and 1000), and ADC maps were calculated. 76 patients with metastases were grouped according to primary tumor histology and the ratios of restricted diffusion were calculated according to these groups. ADCmin values were measured within the solid components of the tumors and the ratio of metastases with restricted diffusion to that which do not show restricted diffusion were calculated. Fisher's exact and Mann-Whitney U tests were used for the statistical analysis. Results: Restricted diffusion was observed in a total of 15 metastatic lesions (19, 7%). Primary malignancy was lung carcinoma in 10 of these cases (66, 6%) (5 small cell carcinoma, 5 non-small cell carcinoma), and breast carcinoma in three cases (20%). Colon carcinoma and testicular teratocarcinoma were the other two primary tumors in which restricted diffusion in metastasis was detected. There was no statistical significant difference between the primary pathology groups which showed restricted diffusion (p > 0.05). ADCmin values of solid components of the metastasis with restricted diffusion and other metastasis without restricted diffusion also showed no significant statistical difference (0.72 {+-} 0.16 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s and 0.78 {+-} 21 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s respectively) (p = 0.325). Conclusion: Detection of restricted diffusion on DWI in intracerebral metastasis is not rare, particularly if the primary tumor is lung or breast

  11. Herbarium specimens show contrasting phenological responses to Himalayan climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Robbie; Salick, Jan; Ranjitkar, Sailesh; Xu, Jianchu

    2014-07-22

    Responses by flowering plants to climate change are complex and only beginning to be understood. Through analyses of 10,295 herbarium specimens of Himalayan Rhododendron collected by plant hunters and botanists since 1884, we were able to separate these responses into significant components. We found a lack of directional change in mean flowering time over the past 45 y of rapid warming. However, over the full 125 y of collections, mean flowering time shows a significant response to year-to-year changes in temperature, and this response varies with season of warming. Mean flowering advances with annual warming (2.27 d earlier per 1 °C warming), and also is delayed with fall warming (2.54 d later per 1 °C warming). Annual warming may advance flowering through positive effects on overwintering bud formation, whereas fall warming may delay flowering through an impact on chilling requirements. The lack of a directional response suggests that contrasting phenological responses to temperature changes may obscure temperature sensitivity in plants. By drawing on large collections from multiple herbaria, made over more than a century, we show how these data may inform studies even of remote localities, and we highlight the increasing value of these and other natural history collections in understanding long-term change.

  12. High-Resolution Observations of a Filament showing Activated Barb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Anand; Martin, Sara F.; Mathew, Shibu; Srivastava, Nandita

    2012-07-01

    Analysis of a filament showing an activated barb using observations from the Dutch Open Telescope (DOT) on 2010 August 20 are presented. The DOT takes Doppler images in Hα, among other wavelengths, in a region about 110 × 110 arcsec^{2} in area, at a cadence of 30~seconds. The offline image restoration technique of speckle reconstruction is applied to obtain diffraction limited images. The filament developed a new barb in 10~minutes, which disappeared within the next 35~minutes. Such a rapid formation and disappearance of a filament barb is unusual, and has not been reported earlier. Line-of-sight velocity maps were constructed from the Doppler images of the target filament. We observe flows in the filament spine towards the barb location prior to its formation, and flows in the barb towards the spine during its disappearance. Photospheric magnetograms from Heliospheric Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, at a cadence of 45~seconds, were used to determine the changes in magnetic flux in the region surrounding the barb location. The variation of magnetic flux in this duration supports the view that barbs are rooted in minor magnetic polarity. Our analysis shows that barbs can be short-lived and formation and disappearance of the barb was associated with cancellation of magnetic flux.

  13. [How children show positive and negative relationships on their drawings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramel, Sabine

    2005-01-01

    This study analyses, whether pictures of children showing a positive relationship are significantly different from those showing a negative one with respect to several criteria. The study involved a random selection of 45 children aged 4;6 to 11;6 years. The children painted a picture with themselves and a person they liked and a picture of themselves with someone they disliked. For the most part, the children drew pictures of themselves with peers both with respect to positive as well as negative images. In an interview afterwards, the children specified the criteria in their drawings by which the quality of the particular relationship can be identified. Positive and negative relationship paintings differ in the character of activity described. The sun as an element in children's paintings is painted not more frequent on positive compared to negative pictures. The colour black is used more often in the drawings signifying negative relationships. While girls used more colour in negative relationship drawings, boys used more colour in the positive ones. There was no significant difference in the use of favourite colours and decorative elements between the two groups. Only in negative relationship drawings people were looking away from each other. Smiling individuals were more common in the positive relationship pictures and in pictures painted by the 6 to 8 year olds. A greater distance between the individuals emerged on negative relationship drawings of the girls.

  14. Ovalbumin with Glycated Carboxyl Groups Shows Membrane-Damaging Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Chia Tang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate whether glycated ovalbumin (OVA showed novel activity at the lipid-water interface. Mannosylated OVA (Man-OVA was prepared by modification of the carboxyl groups with p-aminophenyl α-dextro (d-mannopyranoside. An increase in the number of modified carboxyl groups increased the membrane-damaging activity of Man-OVA on cell membrane-mimicking vesicles, whereas OVA did not induce membrane permeability in the tested phospholipid vesicles. The glycation of carboxyl groups caused a notable change in the gross conformation of OVA. Moreover, owing to their spatial positions, the Trp residues in Man-OVA were more exposed, unlike those in OVA. Fluorescence quenching studies suggested that the Trp residues in Man-OVA were located on the interface binds with the lipid vesicles, and their microenvironment was abundant in positively charged residues. Although OVA and Man-OVA showed a similar binding affinity for lipid vesicles, the lipid-interacting feature of Man-OVA was distinct from that of OVA. Chemical modification studies revealed that Lys and Arg residues, but not Trp residues, played a crucial role in the membrane-damaging activity of Man-OVA. Taken together, our data suggest that glycation of carboxyl groups causes changes in the structural properties and membrane-interacting features of OVA, generating OVA with membrane-perturbing activities at the lipid-water interface.

  15. Fish kidney cells show higher tolerance to hyperosmolality than amphibian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lang Gui

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to fish, amphibians inhabit both aquatic and terrestrial environments. To better understand osmoregulation in fish and amphibian, we have investigated the morphological changes in kidney cells to osmotic stress. To address this, kidney cell line isolated from the freshwater grass carp (CIK and Chinese giant salamander (GSK were challenged to different mediums with distinct osmotic pressures (100, 300 and 700 mOsm. Morphological alterations of the fish and amphibian cells were compared by optical and electron microscopy. Following hyposmotic treatment (100 mOsm, both CIK and GSK cells became unhealthy and show condensed chromatin, swollen mitochondria and cytoplasmic vacuole. Meanwhile, after hyperosmotic treatment (700 mOsm, shrunken CIK cells with multipolar shape, pale or lightly stained cytoplasm, condensed chromatin, vacuoles and swollen mitochondria were detected. GSK cells were seriously damaged and most were completely lysed. The results suggest that fish kidney cells show a higher degree of tolerance to hyperosmoticity by comparing to amphibians and provide novel insights on the osmoregulatory capacity and adaptability of kidney cells between the two animal groups.

  16. Phytoceramide Shows Neuroprotection and Ameliorates Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seikwan Oh

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The function and the role phytoceramide (PCER and phytosphingosine (PSO in the central nervous system has not been well studied. This study was aimed at investigating the possible roles of PCER and PSO in glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in cultured neuronal cells and memory function in mice. Phytoceramide showed neuro-protective activity in the glutamate-induced toxicity in cultured cortical neuronal cells. Neither phytosphingosine nor tetraacetylphytosphingosine (TAPS showed neuroproective effects in neuronal cells. PCER (50 mg/kg, p.o. recovered the scopolamine-induced reduction in step-through latency in the passive avoidance test; however, PSO did not modulate memory function on this task. The ameliorating effects of PCER on spatial memory were confirmed by the Morris water maze test. In conclusion, through behavioral and neurochemical experimental results, it was demonstrated that central administration of PCER produces amelioration of memory impairment. These results suggest that PCER plays an important role in neuroprotection and memory enhancement and PCER could be a potential new therapeutic agent for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease.

  17. Face and body recognition show similar improvement during childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, Samantha; Rhodes, Gillian; Read, Ainsley; Jeffery, Linda

    2015-09-01

    Adults are proficient in extracting identity cues from faces. This proficiency develops slowly during childhood, with performance not reaching adult levels until adolescence. Bodies are similar to faces in that they convey identity cues and rely on specialized perceptual mechanisms. However, it is currently unclear whether body recognition mirrors the slow development of face recognition during childhood. Recent evidence suggests that body recognition develops faster than face recognition. Here we measured body and face recognition in 6- and 10-year-old children and adults to determine whether these two skills show different amounts of improvement during childhood. We found no evidence that they do. Face and body recognition showed similar improvement with age, and children, like adults, were better at recognizing faces than bodies. These results suggest that the mechanisms of face and body memory mature at a similar rate or that improvement of more general cognitive and perceptual skills underlies improvement of both face and body recognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Radical chemistry of epigallocatechin gallate and its relevance to protein damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagerman, Ann E; Dean, Roger T; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    The radical chemistry of the plant polyphenolics epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and epigallocatechin (EGC) were investigated using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Radical species formed spontaneously in aqueous solutions at low pH without external oxidant and were spin stabilized...... redox potentials of EGCG and EGC varied from 1000 mV at pH 3 to 400 mV at pH 8. The polyphenolics did not produce hydroxyl radicals unless reduced metal ions such as iron(II) were added to the system. Zinc(II)-stabilized EGCG radicals were more effective protein-precipitating agents than unoxidized EGCG...

  19. Reduced embodied simulation in psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mier, Daniela; Haddad, Leila; Diers, Kersten; Dressing, Harald; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Kirsch, Peter

    2014-08-01

    Psychopathy is characterized by severe deficits in emotion processing and empathy. These emotional deficits might not only affect the feeling of own emotions, but also the understanding of others' emotional and mental states. The present study aims on identifying the neurobiological correlates of social-cognitive related alterations in psychopathy. We applied a social-cognitive paradigm for the investigation of face processing, emotion recognition, and affective Theory of Mind (ToM) to 11 imprisoned psychopaths and 18 healthy controls. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure task-related brain activation. While showing no overall behavioural deficit, psychopathy was associated with altered brain activation. Psychopaths had reduced fusiform activation related to face processing. Related to affective ToM, psychopaths had hypoactivation in amygdala, inferior prefrontal gyrus and superior temporal sulcus, areas associated with embodied simulation of emotions and intentions. Furthermore, psychopaths lacked connectivity between superior temporal sulcus and amygdala during affective ToM. These results replicate findings of alterations in basal face processing in psychopathy. In addition, they provide evidence for reduced embodied simulation in psychopathy in concert with a lack of communication between motor areas and amygdala which might provide the neural substrate of reduced feeling with others during social cognition.

  20. Reduced cost of ownership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyse, W.H.; Newton, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    There is common drive throughout industry towards reduced costs of ownership of plant and equipment. Rolls-Royce and Associates Ltd. has developed the systems and expertise necessary to achieve these objectives. This Paper outlines the methods being used on existing facilities, and describes a new all embracing process called Planned Lifetime Management. This process, based on the military standard Integrated Logistic Support, ensures that all aspects of support are clearly identified at the design stage and that support is monitored to allow through-life support costs to be optimized. (author)

  1. Bayesian analysis of repairable systems showing a bounded failure intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guida, Maurizio; Pulcini, Gianpaolo

    2006-01-01

    The failure pattern of repairable mechanical equipment subject to deterioration phenomena sometimes shows a finite bound for the increasing failure intensity. A non-homogeneous Poisson process with bounded increasing failure intensity is then illustrated and its characteristics are discussed. A Bayesian procedure, based on prior information on model-free quantities, is developed in order to allow technical information on the failure process to be incorporated into the inferential procedure and to improve the inference accuracy. Posterior estimation of the model-free quantities and of other quantities of interest (such as the optimal replacement interval) is provided, as well as prediction on the waiting time to the next failure and on the number of failures in a future time interval is given. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate the proposed inferential procedure

  2. Talk shows, fascinación o rechazo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Acevedo Rojas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Infidelidades, odio, violencia, alcoholismo, mentira y traiciones, entre otras debilidades humanas, han pasado a formar parte de las programaciones de televisión en América Latina, durante la década de los 90 a través de los programas de Talk Shows. Cristina, El Padre Alberto, Laura en América, Mary Tere, entre los más vistos. Da cuenta de lo que hay detrás de estos programas; por qué se muestra la vida íntima; por qué se los dirige a sectores socioeconómicos bajos; por qué los excesos y degradación humana. Será que esta televisión basura está al servicio del poder.

  3. Machine-Learning-Based No Show Prediction in Outpatient Visits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Elvira

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A recurring problem in healthcare is the high percentage of patients who miss their appointment, be it a consultation or a hospital test. The present study seeks patient’s behavioural patterns that allow predicting the probability of no- shows. We explore the convenience of using Big Data Machine Learning models to accomplish this task. To begin with, a predictive model based only on variables associated with the target appointment is built. Then the model is improved by considering the patient’s history of appointments. In both cases, the Gradient Boosting algorithm was the predictor of choice. Our numerical results are considered promising given the small amount of information available. However, there seems to be plenty of room to improve the model if we manage to collect additional data for both patients and appointments.

  4. Showing Off in Humans: Male Generosity as a Mating Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Iredale

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available We examined people's charity contributions while in the presence of an observer of the same sex, opposite sex, or no observer. Inspired by costly signaling theory, we hypothesized that men would be more generous in the presence of a potential mate. Men and women played a number of experimental games in which they could earn money. On completion of these games participants were asked what percentage of their earned money they would be willing to donate to charity. Our results show that men contribute more to charity when observed by a member of the opposite sex than by a member of the same sex or no observer. Conversely, female charity donations did not significantly vary across the three observer conditions. Findings support the notion that men's generosity might have evolved as a mating signal.

  5. KAKO PREDŠKOLSKA DJECA VIDE "BIG BROTHER" SHOW?

    OpenAIRE

    Janković, Andrea; Sindik, Joško; Jaman, Kamea

    2007-01-01

    Cilj istraživanja bio je ispitivanje nekih karakteristika gledanosti Big Brother show-a kod djece predškolske dobi, razloga gledanja te emisije, s aspekta preferiranih sadržaja emisije te ličnosti (kandidata) koje preferiraju djeca. Ispitan je prigodni uzorak djece srednje i starije vrtićke dobi iz 3 dječja vrtića iz Zagreba (Dječjeg vrtića Grigora Viteza i Dječjeg vrtića "Maksimir" i "Trnoružica", N = 142). Utvrđene su čestine razloga preferencije pojedinih sudionika show–a te pojedinih s...

  6. SuperFormLab: showing SuperFormLab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    bachelor program, followed by two years of master studies. The courses are offered equally to students from other design disciplines, e.g. industrial design. Teaching is mainly in English as the program is attended by a relatively large group of non-Danish students, who seek exactly this combination......3D-printing in clay and ceramic objects shaped by your own sounds and movements! Digital form transferred via CNC-milling to ornamental ceramic wall-cladding. Brave New World… Students and their teacher at SuperFormLab, the new ceramic workshop of the School of Design at the Royal Danish Academy...... of Fine Arts in Copenhagen, will be showing results of their investigations into the potential of combining digital technologies with ceramic materials. It is now possible to shape the most complex mathematical, virtual 3D objects through the use of advanced software-programs. And more than that – you can...

  7. Bex1 knock out mice show altered skeletal muscle regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Jae Hyung; Smiley, Mark A.; Lovering, Richard M.; Margolis, Frank L.

    2007-01-01

    Bex1 and Calmodulin (CaM) are upregulated during skeletal muscle regeneration. We confirm this finding and demonstrate the novel finding that they interact in a calcium-dependent manner. To study the role of Bex1 and its interaction with CaM in skeletal muscle regeneration, we generated Bex1 knock out (Bex1-KO) mice. These mice appeared to develop normally and are fertile, but displayed a functional deficit in exercise performance compared to wild type (WT) mice. After intramuscular injection of cardiotoxin, which causes extensive and reproducible myotrauma followed by recovery, regenerating muscles of Bex1-KO mice exhibited elevated and prolonged cell proliferation, as well as delayed cell differentiation, compared to WT mice. Thus, our results provide the first evidence that Bex1-KO mice show altered muscle regeneration, and allow us to propose that the interaction of Bex1 with Ca 2+ /CaM may be involved in skeletal muscle regeneration

  8. Measuring political polarization: Twitter shows the two sides of Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, A. J.; Borondo, J.; Losada, J. C.; Benito, R. M.

    2015-03-01

    We say that a population is perfectly polarized when divided in two groups of the same size and opposite opinions. In this paper, we propose a methodology to study and measure the emergence of polarization from social interactions. We begin by proposing a model to estimate opinions in which a minority of influential individuals propagate their opinions through a social network. The result of the model is an opinion probability density function. Next, we propose an index to quantify the extent to which the resulting distribution is polarized. Finally, we apply the proposed methodology to a Twitter conversation about the late Venezuelan president, Hugo Chávez, finding a good agreement between our results and offline data. Hence, we show that our methodology can detect different degrees of polarization, depending on the structure of the network.

  9. Validation of a high performance liquid chromatography method for the stabilization of epigallocatechin gallate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fangueiro, Joana F; Parra, Alexander; Silva, Amélia M; Egea, Maria A; Souto, Eliana B; Garcia, Maria L; Calpena, Ana C

    2014-11-20

    Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is a green tea catechin with potential health benefits, such as anti-oxidant, anti-carcinogenic and anti-inflammatory effects. In general, EGCG is highly susceptible to degradation, therefore presenting stability problems. The present paper was focused on the study of EGCG stability in HEPES (N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid) medium regarding the pH dependency, storage temperature and in the presence of ascorbic acid a reducing agent. The evaluation of EGCG in HEPES buffer has demonstrated that this molecule is not able of maintaining its physicochemical properties and potential beneficial effects, since it is partially or completely degraded, depending on the EGCG concentration. The storage temperature of EGCG most suitable to maintain its structure was shown to be the lower values (4 or -20 °C). The pH 3.5 was able to provide greater stability than pH 7.4. However, the presence of a reducing agent (i.e., ascorbic acid) was shown to provide greater protection against degradation of EGCG. A validation method based on RP-HPLC with UV-vis detection was carried out for two media: water and a biocompatible physiological medium composed of Transcutol®P, ethanol and ascorbic acid. The quantification of EGCG for purposes, using pure EGCG, requires a validated HPLC method which could be possible to apply in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics studies. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Prestin shows divergent evolution between constant frequency echolocating bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bin; Avila-Flores, Rafael; Liu, Yang; Rossiter, Stephen J; Zhang, Shuyi

    2011-10-01

    The gene Prestin encodes a motor protein that is thought to confer the high-frequency sensitivity and selectivity that characterizes the mammalian auditory system. Recent research shows that the Prestin gene has undergone a burst of positive selection on the ancestral branch of the Old World horseshoe and leaf-nosed bats (Rhinolophidae and Hipposideridae, respectively), and also on the branch leading to echolocating cetaceans. Moreover, these two groups share a large number of convergent amino acid sequence replacements. Horseshoe and leaf-nosed bats exhibit narrowband echolocation, in which the emitted calls are based on the second harmonic of a predominantly constant frequency (CF) component, the frequency of which is also over-represented in the cochlea. This highly specialized form of echolocation has also evolved independently in the neotropical Parnell's mustached bat (Pteronotus parnellii). To test whether the convergent evolution of CF echolocation between lineages has arisen from common changes in the Prestin gene, we sequenced the Prestin coding region (~2,212 bp, >99% coverage) in P. parnellii and several related species that use broadband echolocation calls. Our reconstructed Prestin gene tree and amino acid tree showed that P. parnellii did not group together with Old World horseshoe and leaf-nosed bats, but rather clustered within its true sister species. Comparisons of sequences confirmed that P. parnellii shared most amino acid changes with its congeners, and we found no evidence of positive selection in the branch leading to the genus of Pteronotus. Our result suggests that the adaptive changes seen in Prestin in horseshoe and leaf-nosed bats are not necessary for CF echolocation in P. parnellii.

  11. Patterned basal seismicity shows sub-ice stream bedforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcheck, C. G.; Tulaczyk, S. M.; Schwartz, S. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Patterns in seismicity emanating from the bottom of fast-moving ice streams and glaciers may indicate localized patches of higher basal resistance— sometimes called 'sticky spots', or otherwise varying basal properties. These seismogenic basal areas resist an unknown portion of the total driving stress of the Whillans Ice Plain (WIP), in West Antarctica, but may play an important role in the WIP stick-slip cycle and ice stream slowdown. To better understand the mechanism and importance of basal seismicity beneath the WIP, we analyze seismic data collected by a small aperture (micro-earthquakes in Dec 2014, and we compare the resulting map of seismicity to ice bottom depth measured by airborne radar. The number of basal earthquakes per area within the network is spatially heterogeneous, but a pattern of two 400m wide streaks of high seismicity rates is evident, with >50-500 earthquakes detected per 50x50m grid cell in 2 weeks. These seismically active streaks are elongated approximately in the ice flow direction with a spacing of 750m. Independent airborne radar measurements of ice bottom depth from Jan 2013 show a low-amplitude ( 5m) undulation in the basal topography superposed on a regional gradient in ice bottom depth. The flow-perpendicular wavelength of these low-amplitude undulations is comparable to the spacing of the high seismicity bands, and the streaks of high seismicity intersect local lows in the undulating basal topography. We interpret these seismic and radar observations as showing seismically active sub-ice stream bedforms that are low amplitude and elongated in the direction of ice flow, comparable to the morphology of mega scale glacial lineations (MSGLs), with high basal seismicity rates observed in the MSGL troughs. These results have implications for understanding the formation mechanism of MSGLS and well as understanding the interplay between basal topographic roughness, spatially varying basal till and hydrologic properties, basal

  12. Low LET protons focused to submicrometer shows enhanced radiobiological effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, T E; Zlobinskaya, O; Michalski, D; Molls, M; Multhoff, G; Greubel, C; Hable, V; Girst, S; Siebenwirth, C; Dollinger, G; Schmid, E

    2012-01-01

    This study shows that enhanced radiobiological effectiveness (RBE) values can be generated focusing low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation and thus changing the microdose distribution. 20 MeV protons (LET = 2.65 keV µm −1 ) are focused to submicrometer diameter at the ion microprobe superconducting nanoprobe for applied nuclear (Kern) physics experiments of the Munich tandem accelerator. The RBE values, as determined by measuring micronuclei (RBE MN = 1.48 ± 0.07) and dicentrics (RBE D = 1.92 ± 0.15), in human–hamster hybrid (A L ) cells are significantly higher when 117 protons were focused to a submicrometer irradiation field within a 5.4 × 5.4 µm 2 matrix compared to quasi homogeneous in a 1 × 1 µm 2 matrix applied protons (RBE MN = 1.28 ± 0.07; RBE D = 1.41 ± 0.14) at the same average dose of 1.7 Gy. The RBE values are normalized to standard 70 kV (dicentrics) or 200 kV (micronuclei) x-ray irradiation. The 117 protons applied per point deposit the same amount of energy like a 12 C ion with 55 MeV total energy (4.48 MeV u −1 ). The enhancements are about half of that obtained for 12 C ions (RBE MN = 2.20 ± 0.06 and RBE D = 3.21 ± 0.10) and they are attributed to intertrack interactions of the induced damages. The measured RBE values show differences from predictions of the local effect model (LEM III) that is used to calculate RBE values for irradiation plans to treat tumors with high LET particles. (paper)

  13. Low LET protons focused to submicrometer shows enhanced radiobiological effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, T. E.; Greubel, C.; Hable, V.; Zlobinskaya, O.; Michalski, D.; Girst, S.; Siebenwirth, C.; Schmid, E.; Molls, M.; Multhoff, G.; Dollinger, G.

    2012-10-01

    This study shows that enhanced radiobiological effectiveness (RBE) values can be generated focusing low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation and thus changing the microdose distribution. 20 MeV protons (LET = 2.65 keV µm-1) are focused to submicrometer diameter at the ion microprobe superconducting nanoprobe for applied nuclear (Kern) physics experiments of the Munich tandem accelerator. The RBE values, as determined by measuring micronuclei (RBEMN = 1.48 ± 0.07) and dicentrics (RBED = 1.92 ± 0.15), in human-hamster hybrid (AL) cells are significantly higher when 117 protons were focused to a submicrometer irradiation field within a 5.4 × 5.4 µm2 matrix compared to quasi homogeneous in a 1 × 1 µm2 matrix applied protons (RBEMN = 1.28 ± 0.07; RBED = 1.41 ± 0.14) at the same average dose of 1.7 Gy. The RBE values are normalized to standard 70 kV (dicentrics) or 200 kV (micronuclei) x-ray irradiation. The 117 protons applied per point deposit the same amount of energy like a 12C ion with 55 MeV total energy (4.48 MeV u-1). The enhancements are about half of that obtained for 12C ions (RBEMN = 2.20 ± 0.06 and RBED = 3.21 ± 0.10) and they are attributed to intertrack interactions of the induced damages. The measured RBE values show differences from predictions of the local effect model (LEM III) that is used to calculate RBE values for irradiation plans to treat tumors with high LET particles.

  14. Reduced prefrontal connectivity in psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motzkin, Julian C; Newman, Joseph P; Kiehl, Kent A; Koenigs, Michael

    2011-11-30

    Linking psychopathy to a specific brain abnormality could have significant clinical, legal, and scientific implications. Theories on the neurobiological basis of the disorder typically propose dysfunction in a circuit involving ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). However, to date there is limited brain imaging data to directly test whether psychopathy may indeed be associated with any structural or functional abnormality within this brain area. In this study, we employ two complementary imaging techniques to assess the structural and functional connectivity of vmPFC in psychopathic and non-psychopathic criminals. Using diffusion tensor imaging, we show that psychopathy is associated with reduced structural integrity in the right uncinate fasciculus, the primary white matter connection between vmPFC and anterior temporal lobe. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show that psychopathy is associated with reduced functional connectivity between vmPFC and amygdala as well as between vmPFC and medial parietal cortex. Together, these data converge to implicate diminished vmPFC connectivity as a characteristic neurobiological feature of psychopathy.

  15. Induction of apoptosis by epigallocatechin-3-gallate in human lymphoblastoid B cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda, Chiseko; He, Jinsong; Takano, Tomoko; Tanaka, Chisato; Kondo, Toshinori; Tohyama, Kaoru; Yamamura, Hirohei; Tohyama, Yumi

    2007-01-01

    (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major constituent of green tea polyphenols, has been shown to suppress cancer cell proliferation and induce apoptosis. In this study we investigated its efficacy and the mechanism underlying its effect using human B lymphoblastoid cell line Ramos, and effect of co-treatment with EGCG and a chemotherapeutic agent on apoptotic cell death. EGCG induced dose- and time-dependent apoptotic cell death accompanied by loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, release of cytochrome c into the cytosol, and cleavage of pro-caspase-9 to its active form. EGCG also enhanced production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Pretreatment with diphenylene iodonium chloride, an inhibitor of NAD(P)H oxidase and an antioxidant, partially suppressed both EGCG-induced apoptosis and production of ROS, implying that oxidative stress is involved in the apoptotic response. Furthermore, we showed that combined-treatment with EGCG and a chemotherapeutic agent, etoposide, synergistically induced apoptosis in Ramos cells

  16. Young children show representational flexibility when interpreting drawings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Melissa L; Nurmsoo, Erika; Freeman, Norman

    2016-02-01

    Drawings can be ambiguous and represent more than one entity. In three experiments, we examine whether young children show representational flexibility by allowing one picture to be called by a second name. We also evaluate the hypothesis that children who are representationally flexible see the artist's intention as binding, rather than changeable. In Experiment 1, an artist declared what she intended to draw (e.g. a balloon) but then produced an ambiguous drawing. Children were asked whether the drawings could be interpreted differently (e.g. 'could this be a lollipop?') in the presence of a perceptually similar or dissimilar distractor (e.g., lollipop or snake). Six-year-olds accepted two labels for drawings in both conditions, but four-year-olds only did so in the dissimilar condition. Experiment 2 probed each possible interpretation more deeply by asking property questions (e.g., 'does it float?, does it taste good?'). Preschoolers who understood that the ambiguous drawing could be given two interpretations nevertheless mostly endorsed only properties associated with the prior intent. Experiment 3 provided converging evidence that 4-year-olds were representationally flexible using a paradigm that did not rely upon modal questioning. Taken together, our results indicate that even 4-year-olds understand that pictures may denote more than one referent, they still think of the symbol as consistent with the artist's original intention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Benthic communities under anthropogenic pressure show resilience across the Quaternary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Julieta C; Soto, Luis P; González, Jorge; Rivadeneira, Marcelo M

    2017-09-01

    The Southeast Pacific is characterized by rich upwelling systems that have sustained and been impacted by human groups for at least 12 ka. Recent fishing and aquaculture practices have put a strain on productive coastal ecosystems from Tongoy Bay, in north-central Chile. We use a temporal baseline to determine whether potential changes to community structure and composition over time are due to anthropogenic factors, natural climatic variations or both. We compiled a database ( n  = 33 194) with mollusc species abundances from the Mid-Pleistocene, Late Pleistocene, Holocene, dead shell assemblages and live-sampled communities. Species richness was not significantly different, neither were diversity and evenness indices nor rank abundance distributions. There is, however, an increase in relative abundance for the cultured scallop Argopecten , while the previously dominant clam Mulinia is locally very rare. Results suggest that impacts from both natural and anthropogenic stressors need to be better understood if benthic resources are to be preserved. These findings provide the first Pleistocene temporal baseline for the south Pacific that shows that this highly productive system has had the ability to recover from past alterations, suggesting that if monitoring and management practices continue to be implemented, moderately exploited communities from today have hopes for recovery.

  18. Platelets from Asthmatic Individuals Show Less Reliance on Glycolysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiling Xu

    Full Text Available Asthma, a chronic inflammatory airway disease, is typified by high levels of TH2-cytokines and excessive generation of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species, which contribute to bronchial epithelial injury and airway remodeling. While immune function plays a major role in the pathogenesis of the disease, accumulating evidence suggests that altered cellular metabolism is a key determinant in the predisposition and disease progression of asthma. Further, several studies demonstrate altered mitochondrial function in asthmatic airways and suggest that these changes may be systemic. However, it is unknown whether systemic metabolic changes can be detected in circulating cells in asthmatic patients. Platelets are easily accessible blood cells that are known to propagate airway inflammation in asthma. Here we perform a bioenergetic screen of platelets from asthmatic and healthy individuals and demonstrate that asthmatic platelets show a decreased reliance on glycolytic processes and have increased tricarboxylic acid cycle activity. These data demonstrate a systemic alteration in asthma and are consistent with prior reports suggesting that oxidative phosphorylation is more efficient asthmatic individuals. The implications for this potential metabolic shift will be discussed in the context of increased oxidative stress and hypoxic adaptation of asthmatic patients. Further, these data suggest that platelets are potentially a good model for the monitoring of bioenergetic changes in asthma.

  19. Film showing - Higgs: into the heart of imagination

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    On 29 April at 7pm Dutch filmmakers, Hannie van den Bergh and Jan van den Berg, will introduce their directorial debut, Higgs: into the heart of imagination in CERN’s Main Auditorium.   This documentary is about the curiousity, passion and imaginative powers of science. Featuring physicists working at CERN, in particular in ATLAS, and filmed over four years, the film-makers have created a cinematic journey into the heart of imagination. They follow Stan Bentvelsen, head of the Dutch research group at CERN, and watch as he prepares his team for the start of the LHC, as well as the scientific competition to find the elusive Higgs particle. The film also features Peter Higgs as he discusses his work from 1964. The directors have created theatre productions and other multimedia projects under the title The Imagination of Invisible Dimensions, which allow for adventurous dialogues between art and science. All are welcome to attend this showing and afterwards there will be a short question...

  20. Variation in the peacock's train shows a genetic component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Marion; Cotgreave, Peter; Pike, Thomas W

    2009-01-01

    Female peafowl (Pavo cristatus) show a strong mating preference for males with elaborate trains. This, however, poses something of a paradox because intense directional selection should erode genetic variation in the males' trains, so that females will no longer benefit by discriminating among males on the basis of these traits. This situation is known as the 'lek paradox', and leads to the theoretical expectation of low heritability in the peacock's train. We used two independent breeding experiments, involving a total of 42 sires and 86 of their male offspring, to estimate the narrow sense heritabilities of male ornaments and other morphometric traits. Contrary to expectation, we found significant levels of heritability in a trait known to be used by females during mate choice (train length), while no significant heritabilities were evident for other, non-fitness related morphological traits (tarsus length, body weight or spur length). This study adds to the building body of evidence that high levels of additive genetic variance can exist in secondary sexual traits under directional selection, but further emphasizes the main problem of what maintains this variation.

  1. Active explorers show low learning performance in a social insect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eve UDINO; Margot PEREZ; Claudio CARERE; Patrizia d'ETTORRE

    2017-01-01

    An intriguing question in behavioral biology is whether consistent individual differences (called animal personalities) relate to variation in cognitive performance because commonly measured personality traits may be associated with risk-reward trade-offs.Social insects,whose learning abilities have been extensively characterized,show consistent behavioral variability,both at colony and at individual level.We investigated the possible link between personality traits and learning performance in the carpenter ant Camponotus aethiops.Exploratory activity,sociability,and aggression were assessed twice in ant foragers.Behaviors differed among individuals,they were partly repeatable across time and exploratory activity correlated positively with aggression.Learning abilities were quantified by differential conditioning of the maxilla-labium extension response,a task that requires cue perception and information storage.We found that exploratory activity of individual ants significantly predicted learning performance:"active-explorers" were slower in learning the task than "inactive-explorers".The results suggest for the first time a link between a personality trait and cognitive performance in eusocial insects,and that the underlying individual variability could affect colony performance and success.

  2. Show: Dr. H, the life and death of pancakes

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Dr. H, the life and death of pancakes, a comic theatrical creation, written and performed by Heiko Buchholz.   Monday 2 April 2012 in German Tuesday 3 April 2012 in English Wednesday 4 April 2012 in French 8:30 p.m. at the Globe of Science and Innovation. This production takes a comic look at scientific methods, as applied to a common object: the pancake. More specifically, Dr H. regales his audience with statistics, experiments and scientific data surrounding this egg-and-milk-based culinary delight. And although these zany sketches are nothing short of absurd, the audience is drawn in more often than you might expect… and taken on quite an unexpected journey into the behavioural disorders, personality quirks and psychoanalysis of the base pancake. This show playfully mocks scientific logic and discourse, forcing the audience to reflect on their gullibility in the face of science and its impenetrable jargon. It purports to be neither explanation nor illustration of scientific fact,...

  3. Insect immunity shows specificity in protection upon secondary pathogen exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadd, Ben M; Schmid-Hempel, Paul

    2006-06-20

    Immunological memory in vertebrates, conferring lasting specific protection after an initial pathogen exposure, has implications for a broad spectrum of evolutionary, epidemiological, and medical phenomena . However, the existence of specificity in protection upon secondary pathogen exposure in invertebrates remains controversial . To separate this functional phenomenon from a particular mechanism, we refer to it as specific immune priming. We investigate the presence of specific immune priming in workers of the social insect Bombus terrestris. Using three bacterial pathogens, we test whether a prior homologous pathogen exposure gives a benefit in terms of long-term protection against a later challenge, over and above a heterologous combination. With a reciprocally designed initial and second-exposure protocol (i.e., all combinations of bacteria were tested), we demonstrate, even several weeks after the clearance of a first exposure, increased protection and narrow specificity upon secondary exposure. This demonstrates that the invertebrate immune system is functionally capable of unexpectedly specific and durable induced protection. Ultimately, despite general broad differences between vertebrates and invertebrates, the ability of both immune systems to show specificity in protection suggests that their immune defenses have found comparable solutions to similar selective pressures over evolutionary time.

  4. Roadside soils show low plant available zinc and copper concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Natalie; Walter, M Todd; Osmond, Deanna; Hunt, William

    2016-02-01

    Vehicle combustion and component wear are a major source of metal contamination in the environment, which could be especially concerning where road ditches are actively farmed. The objective of this study was to assess how site variables, namely age, traffic (vehicles day(-1)), and percent carbon (%C) affect metal accumulation in roadside soils. A soil chronosequence was established with sites ranging from 3 to 37 years old and bioavailable, or mobile, concentrations of Zinc (Zn) and Copper (Cu) were measured along major highways in North Carolina using a Mehlich III extraction. Mobile Zn and Cu concentrations were low overall, and when results were scaled via literature values to "total metal", the results were still generally lower than previous roadside studies. This could indicate farming on lands near roads would pose a low plant toxicity risk. Zinc and Cu were not correlated with annual average traffic count, but were positively correlated with lifetime traffic load (the product of site age and traffic count). This study shows an often overlooked variable, site age, should be included when considering roadside pollution accumulation. Zinc and Cu were more strongly associated with %C, than traffic load. Because vehicle combustion is also a carbon source, it is not obvious whether the metals and carbon are simply co-accumulating or whether the soil carbon in roadside soils may facilitate previously overlooked roles in sequestering metals on-site. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Limonene hydroperoxide analogues show specific patch test reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensson, Johanna Bråred; Hellsén, Staffan; Börje, Anna; Karlberg, Ann-Therese

    2014-05-01

    The fragrance terpene R-limonene is a very weak sensitizer, but forms allergenic oxidation products upon contact with air. The primary oxidation products of oxidized limonene, the hydroperoxides, have an important impact on the sensitizing potency of the oxidation mixture. One analogue, limonene-1-hydroperoxide, was experimentally shown to be a significantly more potent sensitizer than limonene-2-hydroperoxide in the local lymph node assay with non-pooled lymph nodes. To investigate the pattern of reactivity among consecutive dermatitis patients to two structurally closely related limonene hydroperoxides, limonene-1-hydroperoxide and limonene-2-hydroperoxide. Limonene-1-hydroperoxide, limonene-2-hydroperoxide, at 0.5% in petrolatum, and oxidized limonene 3.0% pet. were tested in 763 consecutive dermatitis patients. Of the tested materials, limonene-1-hydroperoxide gave most reactions, with 2.4% of the patients showing positive patch test reactions. Limonene-2-hydroperoxide and oxidized R-limonene gave 1.7% and 1.2% positive patch test reactions, respectively. Concomitant positive patch test reactions to other fragrance markers in the baseline series were frequently noted. The results are in accordance with the experimental studies, as limonene-1-hydroperoxide gave more positive patch test reactions in the tested patients than limonene-2-hydroperoxide. Furthermore, the results support the specificity of the allergenic activity of the limonene hydroperoxide analogues and the importance of oxidized limonene as a cause of contact allergy. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Benthic communities under anthropogenic pressure show resilience across the Quaternary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Julieta C.; Soto, Luis P.; González, Jorge; Rivadeneira, Marcelo M.

    2017-09-01

    The Southeast Pacific is characterized by rich upwelling systems that have sustained and been impacted by human groups for at least 12 ka. Recent fishing and aquaculture practices have put a strain on productive coastal ecosystems from Tongoy Bay, in north-central Chile. We use a temporal baseline to determine whether potential changes to community structure and composition over time are due to anthropogenic factors, natural climatic variations or both. We compiled a database (n = 33 194) with mollusc species abundances from the Mid-Pleistocene, Late Pleistocene, Holocene, dead shell assemblages and live-sampled communities. Species richness was not significantly different, neither were diversity and evenness indices nor rank abundance distributions. There is, however, an increase in relative abundance for the cultured scallop Argopecten, while the previously dominant clam Mulinia is locally very rare. Results suggest that impacts from both natural and anthropogenic stressors need to be better understood if benthic resources are to be preserved. These findings provide the first Pleistocene temporal baseline for the south Pacific that shows that this highly productive system has had the ability to recover from past alterations, suggesting that if monitoring and management practices continue to be implemented, moderately exploited communities from today have hopes for recovery.

  7. Cold thyroid nodules show a marked increase in proliferation markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn, Knut; Stricker, Ingo; Emmrich, Peter; Paschke, Ralf

    2003-06-01

    Thyroid follicular adenomas and adenomatous thyroid nodules are a frequent finding in geographical areas with iodine deficiency. They occur as hypofunctioning (scintigraphically cold) or hyperfunctioning (scintigraphically hot) nodules. Their predominant clonal origin suggests that they result from clonal expansion of a single cell, which is very likely the result of a prolonged increase in proliferation compared with non-affected surrounding cells. To test whether increased cell proliferation is detectable in cold thyroid nodules, we studied paraffin-embedded tissue from 40 cold thyroid nodules and their surrounding normal thyroid tissue for the occurrence of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Ki-67 (MIB-1 antibody) epitopes as markers for cell proliferation. All 40 thyroid nodules were histologically well characterized and have been studied for molecular characteristics before. The labeling index (number of labeled cells versus total cell number) for nodular and surrounding tissue was calculated. In 33 cold thyroid nodules a significant (p thyroid nodules a significant (p thyroid epithelial cell proliferation is a uniform feature common to most cold nodules. However, the increase of proliferation markers shows a heterogeneity that is not correlated with histopathologic, molecular, or clinical characteristics.

  8. Apocrine hidradenocarcinoma showing Paget's disease and mucinous metaplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Carter E; Todd, Douglas H; Binder, Scott W; Cassarino, David S

    2009-05-01

    A 54-year-old man presented with a solitary, erythematous, rapidly growing 1-cm nodule on his scalp that had arisen over the previous 3 months. He had no history of skin cancer. An excisional biopsy of the lesion showed a fairly well-circumscribed but focally invasive tumor consisting of areas of typical-appearing clear cell hidradenoma as well as areas with mucinous goblet-type cells and cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm and decapitation-type secretion. There was marked cellular atypia, numerous atypical mitotic figures and focal necrosis. The tumor cells focally involved the overlying epidermis (Paget's disease). Large areas of mucin were identified throughout the lesion. The tumor cells stained with markers for cytokeratin 7 and focally for EMA and CEA, confirming ductal differentiation. The goblet cells and mucinous areas stained with mucicarmine and PASD. The patient was diagnosed with hidradenocarcinoma with mucinous differentiation. Associated Paget's disease has only rarely been reported, and mucinous metaplasia is a previously unreported feature in hidradenocarcinoma.

  9. Neighbouring chimpanzee communities show different preferences in social grooming behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Edwin J C; Cronin, Katherine A; Haun, Daniel B M; Mundry, Roger; Bodamer, Mark D

    2012-11-07

    Grooming handclasp (GHC) behaviour was originally advocated as the first evidence of social culture in chimpanzees owing to the finding that some populations engaged in the behaviour and others do not. To date, however, the validity of this claim and the extent to which this social behaviour varies between groups is unclear. Here, we measured (i) variation, (ii) durability and (iii) expansion of the GHC behaviour in four chimpanzee communities that do not systematically differ in their genetic backgrounds and live in similar ecological environments. Ninety chimpanzees were studied for a total of 1029 h; 1394 GHC bouts were observed between 2010 and 2012. Critically, GHC style (defined by points of bodily contact) could be systematically linked to the chimpanzee's group identity, showed temporal consistency both within and between groups, and could not be accounted for by the arm-length differential between partners. GHC has been part of the behavioural repertoire of the chimpanzees under study for more than 9 years (surpassing durability criterion) and spread across generations (surpassing expansion criterion). These results strongly indicate that chimpanzees' social behaviour is not only motivated by innate predispositions and individual inclinations, but may also be partly cultural in nature.

  10. Reducing Outdoor Advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice de Rendinger

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental concept is that public space is not a private property. So, a facade (the outer skin, the last millimeter belongs to the town, not to the owner of the building. Changing the rendering, a window, adding or removing anything from a facade requires a permission delivered by the town's authority.In places like Paris, Bordeaux, Marseilles, Lyon, Strasbourg… everywhere one can find a registrated building such as a cathedral, a castle, or a group of ancient buildings, a national administration is controlling this permission. This administration is called «historical monuments administration» and is locally lead by a specialized architect.In the late seventies, French government decided to reduce advertising on the roads and on the city walls. Advertising on the road was leading to a confusion reducing the efficacy of the roadsigns and direction signs, which is dangerous. The reduction was under control of a national administration: the ministry of equipment in charge of the roads design. Advertising on the walls with publicity boards was under control of the cities. Every city has a townplanning regulation. Many cities included forbidding advertisement boards on the walls in this regulation.A couple of firms, but mainly once (Decaux found clever to give a hand to the cities to control advertising. Decaux developed a line of bus stop shelters including advertisements and advertising panels and paid the cities the right to put rather smaller publicities on the public domain.Now Decaux is no more alone on this market and the cities are comparing offers.Marseille turned to a foreign advertising firm who pays three times the price Decaux paid… for half of the advertising surface. Freiburg erased totally the public domain advertisements, selling the tramways and bus coachwork as advertising spaces. Paris is reopening the advertising market before the end of Deacaux's contract and will pay Deacaux a huge amount

  11. Reduced NOX combustion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delano, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a method for combusting fuel and oxidant to achieve reduced formation of nitrogen oxides. It comprises: It comprises: heating a combustion zone to a temperature at least equal to 1500 degrees F.; injecting into the heated combustion zone a stream of oxidant at a velocity within the range of from 200 to 1070 feet per second; injecting into the combustion zone, spaced from the oxidant stream, a fuel stream at a velocity such that the ratio of oxidant stream velocity to fuel stream velocity does not exceed 20; aspirating combustion gases into the oxidant stream and thereafter intermixing the aspirated oxidant stream and fuel stream to form a combustible mixture; combusting the combustible mixture to produce combustion gases for the aspiration; and maintaining the fuel stream substantially free from contact with oxidant prior to the intermixture with aspirated oxidant

  12. Method of reducing zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megy, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    A method was developed for making nuclear-grade zirconium from a zirconium compound, which ismore economical than previous methods since it uses aluminum as the reductant metal rather than the more expensive magnesium. A fused salt phase containing the zirconium compound to be reduced is first prepared. The fused salt phase is then contacted with a molten metal phase which contains aluminum and zinc. The reduction is effected by mutual displacment. Aluminum is transported from the molten metal phase to the fused salt phase, replacing zirconium in the salt. Zirconium is transported from the fused salt phase to the molten metal phase. The fused salt phase and the molten metal phase are then separated, and the solvent metal and zirconium are separated by distillation or other means. (DN)

  13. Giant pandas failed to show mirror self-recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaozan; Jin, Yuan; Luo, Bo; Zhang, Guiquan; Wei, Rongping; Liu, Dingzhen

    2015-05-01

    Mirror self-recognition (MSR), i.e., the ability to recognize oneself in a mirror, is considered a potential index of self-recognition and the foundation of individual development. A wealth of literature on MSR is available for social animals, such as chimpanzees, Asian elephants and dolphins, yet little is known about MSR in solitary mammalian species. We aimed to evaluate whether the giant panda can recognize itself in the mirror, and whether this capacity varies with age. Thirty-four captive giant pandas (F:M = 18:16; juveniles, sub-adults and adults) were subjected to four mirror tests: covered mirror tests, open mirror tests, water mark control tests, and mark tests. The results showed that, though adult, sub-adult and juvenile pandas exposed to mirrors spent similar amounts of time in social mirror-directed behaviors (χ(2) = 0.719, P = 0.698), none of them used the mirror to touch the mark on their head, a self-directed behavior suggesting MSR. Individuals of all age groups initially displayed attacking, threatening, foot scraping and backwards walking behaviors when exposed to their self-images in the mirror. Our data indicate that, regardless of age, the giant pandas did not recognize their self-image in the mirror, but instead considered the image to be a conspecific. Our results add to the available information on mirror self-recognition in large mammals, provide new information on a solitary species, and will be useful for enclosure design and captive animal management.

  14. Non-asthmatic patients show increased exhaled nitric oxide concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz M. Saraiva-Romanholo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Evaluate whether exhaled nitric oxide may serve as a marker of intraoperative bronchospasm. INTRODUCTION: Intraoperative bronchospasm remains a challenging event during anesthesia. Previous studies in asthmatic patients suggest that exhaled nitric oxide may represent a noninvasive measure of airway inflammation. METHODS: A total of 146,358 anesthesia information forms, which were received during the period from 1999 to 2004, were reviewed. Bronchospasm was registered on 863 forms. From those, three groups were identified: 9 non-asthmatic patients (Bronchospasm group, 12 asthmatics (Asthma group and 10 subjects with no previous airway disease or symptoms (Control group. All subjects were submitted to exhaled nitric oxide measurements (parts/billion, spirometry and the induced sputum test. The data was compared by ANOVA followed by the Tukey test and Kruskal-Wallis followed by Dunn's test. RESULTS: The normal lung function test results for the Bronchospasm group were different from those of the asthma group (p <0.05. The median percentage of eosinophils in induced sputum was higher for the Asthma [2.46 (0.45-6.83] compared with either the Bronchospasm [0.55 (0-1.26] or the Control group [0.0 (0] (p <0.05; exhaled nitric oxide followed a similar pattern for the Asthma [81.55 (57.6-86.85], Bronchospasm [46.2 (42.0 -62.6] and Control group [18.7 (16.0-24.7] (p< 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Non-asthmatic patients with intraoperative bronchospasm detected during anesthesia and endotracheal intubation showed increased expired nitric oxide.

  15. Can recurrence networks show small-world property?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, Rinku; Harikrishnan, K.P.; Misra, R.; Ambika, G.

    2016-01-01

    Recurrence networks are complex networks, constructed from time series data, having several practical applications. Though their properties when constructed with the threshold value ϵ chosen at or just above the percolation threshold of the network are quite well understood, what happens as the threshold increases beyond the usual operational window is still not clear from a complex network perspective. The present Letter is focused mainly on the network properties at intermediate-to-large values of the recurrence threshold, for which no systematic study has been performed so far. We argue, with numerical support, that recurrence networks constructed from chaotic attractors with ϵ equal to the usual recurrence threshold or slightly above cannot, in general, show small-world property. However, if the threshold is further increased, the recurrence network topology initially changes to a small-world structure and finally to that of a classical random graph as the threshold approaches the size of the strange attractor. - Highlights: • Properties of recurrence networks at intermediate-to-large values of recurrence threshold are analyzed from a complex network perspective. • Using a combined plot of characteristic path length and clustering coefficient, it is shown that the recurrence network constructed with recurrence threshold equal to or just above the percolation threshold cannot, in general, display small-world property. • As the recurrence threshold is increased from its usual operational window, the resulting network makes a smooth transition initially to a small-world network for an intermediate range of thresholds and finally to the classical random graph as the threshold becomes comparable to the size of the attractor.

  16. Can recurrence networks show small-world property?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, Rinku, E-mail: rinku.jacob.vallanat@gmail.com [Department of Physics, The Cochin College, Cochin, 682002 (India); Harikrishnan, K.P., E-mail: kp_hk2002@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, The Cochin College, Cochin, 682002 (India); Misra, R., E-mail: rmisra@iucaa.in [Inter University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune, 411007 (India); Ambika, G., E-mail: g.ambika@iiserpune.ac.in [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Pune, 411008 (India)

    2016-08-12

    Recurrence networks are complex networks, constructed from time series data, having several practical applications. Though their properties when constructed with the threshold value ϵ chosen at or just above the percolation threshold of the network are quite well understood, what happens as the threshold increases beyond the usual operational window is still not clear from a complex network perspective. The present Letter is focused mainly on the network properties at intermediate-to-large values of the recurrence threshold, for which no systematic study has been performed so far. We argue, with numerical support, that recurrence networks constructed from chaotic attractors with ϵ equal to the usual recurrence threshold or slightly above cannot, in general, show small-world property. However, if the threshold is further increased, the recurrence network topology initially changes to a small-world structure and finally to that of a classical random graph as the threshold approaches the size of the strange attractor. - Highlights: • Properties of recurrence networks at intermediate-to-large values of recurrence threshold are analyzed from a complex network perspective. • Using a combined plot of characteristic path length and clustering coefficient, it is shown that the recurrence network constructed with recurrence threshold equal to or just above the percolation threshold cannot, in general, display small-world property. • As the recurrence threshold is increased from its usual operational window, the resulting network makes a smooth transition initially to a small-world network for an intermediate range of thresholds and finally to the classical random graph as the threshold becomes comparable to the size of the attractor.

  17. Human-directed social behaviour in dogs shows significant heritability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, M E; Roth, L S V; Johnsson, M; Wright, D; Jensen, P

    2015-04-01

    Through domestication and co-evolution with humans, dogs have developed abilities to attract human attention, e.g. in a manner of seeking assistance when faced with a problem solving task. The aims of this study were to investigate within breed variation in human-directed contact seeking in dogs and to estimate its genetic basis. To do this, 498 research beagles, bred and kept under standardized conditions, were tested in an unsolvable problem task. Contact seeking behaviours recorded included both eye contact and physical interactions. Behavioural data was summarized through a principal component analysis, resulting in four components: test interactions, social interactions, eye contact and physical contact. Females scored significantly higher on social interactions and physical contact and age had an effect on eye contact scores. Narrow sense heritabilities (h(2) ) of the two largest components were estimated at 0.32 and 0.23 but were not significant for the last two components. These results show that within the studied dog population, behavioural variation in human-directed social behaviours was sex dependent and that the utilization of eye contact seeking increased with age and experience. Hence, heritability estimates indicate a significant genetic contribution to the variation found in human-directed social interactions, suggesting that social skills in dogs have a genetic basis, but can also be shaped and enhanced through individual experiences. This research gives the opportunity to further investigate the genetics behind dogs' social skills, which could also play a significant part into research on human social disorders such as autism. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  18. Roadside soils show low plant available zinc and copper concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, Natalie; Walter, M. Todd; Osmond, Deanna; Hunt, William

    2016-01-01

    Vehicle combustion and component wear are a major source of metal contamination in the environment, which could be especially concerning where road ditches are actively farmed. The objective of this study was to assess how site variables, namely age, traffic (vehicles day"−"1), and percent carbon (%C) affect metal accumulation in roadside soils. A soil chronosequence was established with sites ranging from 3 to 37 years old and bioavailable, or mobile, concentrations of Zinc (Zn) and Copper (Cu) were measured along major highways in North Carolina using a Mehlich III extraction. Mobile Zn and Cu concentrations were low overall, and when results were scaled via literature values to “total metal”, the results were still generally lower than previous roadside studies. This could indicate farming on lands near roads would pose a low plant toxicity risk. Zinc and Cu were not correlated with annual average traffic count, but were positively correlated with lifetime traffic load (the product of site age and traffic count). This study shows an often overlooked variable, site age, should be included when considering roadside pollution accumulation. Zinc and Cu were more strongly associated with %C, than traffic load. Because vehicle combustion is also a carbon source, it is not obvious whether the metals and carbon are simply co-accumulating or whether the soil carbon in roadside soils may facilitate previously overlooked roles in sequestering metals on-site. - Highlights: • Low plant available zinc and copper concentrations in roadside soils of the southeast U.S. • Metals from vehicular traffic may not be adversely affecting plants in roadside environment. • Traffic volume and site age better predictor of metal pollution than traffic volume alone. - Mobile concentrations of Zn and Cu in roadside soils were below toxic levels. Zn and Cu concentrations were better correlated with lifetime vehicle load, as opposed to traffic volume.

  19. A case of osseous scintigraphy showing focuses of multifocal tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faurous-Vanaud, R.; Faurous, P.; Kalfa, G.; Collet, H.; Couty, H.; Artus, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    Incidence of tuberculosis in developed countries presents in the last years a spectacular boost. However, the osteo-articular system is afflicted by tuberculosis only in a few percent of cases and the multifocal character represents less than 5% of osseous tuberculosis. It is presented here a case of multifocal osseous tuberculosis only to stress its rarity. A woman 28 years old from Djibouti presents since 8 months an asthenia and dorsal pains long thought as psychalgia. The examination has shown a major vertebral stiffness and limitation of right haunch. The radiographs showed a scoliosis centered on D8 with modifications. The biologic data are VS = 90, CRP = 124 and the hemogram is normal. The intradermal reaction (10 U of tuberculin) is phlyctenular. The TDM indicates lytic vertebral extension on D7 - D8, the osseous scintigraphy with MDP - 99 mTc indicates no anomaly in the vascular arrival time; a few minutes after injection: dorsal and upper and of right femur hyperactivity; 2 h after injection: hyper-fixation of D7 to D9 and of the upper end of right femur. The IRM indicates para-vertebral abscess of D7 to D9 with epidural abscess; abscess in the upper part of the loge of right adductors with osseous affliction of the femur's upper end; a bacillary infectious process was a priori evoked. The patient was then placed under quadruple antibiotic-therapy anti-tuberculous care. In case of anomalous multifocal osseous scintigraphy the tuberculous affliction is part of the differential diagnosis, particularly in the immigrant populations or in HIV+ persons

  20. "The show must go on!" Beserings van dramastudente tydens opleiding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Deacon

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available "THE SHOW MUST GO ON!" LIABILITY WHEN IT COMES TO DRAMA STUDENTS WHEN INJURED WHILE IN TRAININGThis article emphasises the uncertainty in the relationship between a student undergoing practical training and his/her lecturer or university, if the student should be injured and wants to claim compensation. One must first establish whether the student can be described as an employee of the lecturer or university, or as a vocational worker or independent contractor. Once the status of the student has been established, the relevant legislation can be determined, whether it is the Labour Relations Act or the Basic Conditions of Employment. It is, however, not that simple and a person in the capacity of a student does not accord with the definition of an employee or an independent contractor or a vocational worker. One will have to rely on the assumption in section 83A in the Basic Conditions of Employment that a student is an employee when he does practical training for the benefit of the university. The Occupational Health and Safety Act requires employers to assure that the workplace is a safe environment for employees, with the minimum risks involved. The Compensation for Occupational Injuries and Diseases Act makes it possible for an employee to claim compensation when such a risk becomes a reality.This article also tries to compare the situation of a student sports person injured while participating in university sports, and a drama student injured during a performance or rehearsal of a play. It is stated that the relationship between the drama student and lecturer is similar to the relationship between a sports person and his/her coach, but the relationship differs in that a sports person’s risk of getting hurt is much greater than that of a drama student, The contracts between sports players and their authorities are also stipulated in much more detail than the contracts (if any between the drama students and the university. It is concluded

  1. Can competition reduce quality?

    OpenAIRE

    Brekke, Kurt; Siciliani, Luigi; Straume, Odd Rune

    2017-01-01

    In a spatial competition setting there is usually a non-negative relationship between competition and quality. In this paper we offer a novel mechanism whereby competition leads to lower quality. This mechanism relies on two key assumptions, namely that the providers are motivated and risk-averse. We show that the negative relationship between competition and quality is robust to any given number of firms in the market and whether quality and price decisions are simultaneous or sequential. We...

  2. Reducing Implicit Prejudice

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Calvin; Nosek, Brian; Hoffman, Kelly

    2017-01-01

    Implicit prejudice are social preferences that exist outside of conscious awareness or conscious control. We summarize evidence for three mechanisms that influence the expression of implicit prejudice: associative change, contextual change, and change in control over implicit prejudice. We then review the evidence (or lack thereof) for five open issues in implicit prejudice reduction research: 1) what shows effectiveness in real-world application; 2) what doesn’t work for implicit prejudice r...

  3. X-31 Kiel Probe Close-up Showing Inside

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    A close-up photograph of the Kiel air data probe on the noseboom on the X-31 aircraft shows the orifices used to collect air pressure measurements. Icing in the unheated Kiel probe on the first X-31 (Bu. No. 164584) caused that aircraft to crash. The aircraft obtained data that may apply to the design and development of highly-maneuverable aircraft of the future. Each has a three-axis thrust-vectoring system, coupled with advanced flight controls, to allow it to maneuver tightly at very high angles of attack. The X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) demonstrator flew at the Ames- Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California (redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1994) from February 1992 until 1995 and before that at the Air Force's Plant 42 in Palmdale, California. The goal of the project was to provide design information for the next generation of highly maneuverable fighter aircraft. This program demonstrated the value of using thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with an advanced flight control system to provide controlled flight to very high angles of attack. The result was a significant advantage over most conventional fighters in close-in combat situations. The X-31 flight program focused on agile flight within the post-stall regime, producing technical data to give aircraft designers a better understanding of aerodynamics, effectiveness of flight controls and thrust vectoring, and airflow phenomena at high angles of attack. Stall is a condition of an airplane or an airfoil in which lift decreases and drag increases due to the separation of airflow. Thrust vectoring compensates for the loss of control through normal aerodynamic surfaces that occurs during a stall. Post-stall refers to flying beyond the normal stall angle of attack, which in the X-31 was at a 30-degree angle of attack. During Dryden flight testing, the X-31 aircraft established several milestones. On November 6, 1992, the X-31 achieved controlled

  4. Global Uranium Supply Ensured for Long Term, New Report Shows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Uranium resources and production are on the rise with the security of uranium supply ensured for the long term, according to a new report by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Uranium 2011: Resources, Production and Demand, commonly referred to as the ''Red Book'', shows that total identified uranium resources have grown 12.5% since 2008. However, the costs of production have also increased, leading to reductions in lower cost category resources. These figures, which reflect the situation as of 1 January 2011, mean that total identified resources are sufficient for over 100 years of supply based on current requirements. Global uranium mine production increased by over 25% between 2008 and 2010 because of significantly increased production in Kazakhstan, currently the world's leading producer. The increased resource base has been achieved thanks to a 22% increase in uranium exploration and mine development expenditures between 2008 and 2010, which in 2010 totalled over $2 billion. Demand for uranium is expected to continue to rise for the foreseeable future. Although the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident has affected nuclear power projects and policies in some countries, nuclear power remains a key part of the global energy mix. Several governments have plans for new nuclear power plant construction, with the strongest expansion expected in China, India, the Republic of Korea and the Russian Federation. The speed and magnitude of growth in generating capacity elsewhere is still to be determined. By the year 2035, according to the joint NEA-IAEA Secretariat, world nuclear electricity generating capacity is projected to grow from 375 GWe net (at the end of 2010) to between 540 GWe net in the low demand case and 746 GWe net in the high demand case, increases of 44% and 99% respectively. Accordingly, world annual reactor-related uranium requirements are projected to rise from 63 875 tonnes of uranium metal

  5. Culture and script: dealing with the anthropological perspective in the reality show

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio de Vasconcellos Serelle

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article recovers the notion of a perspective considered as anthropologicalin reality show – which has begun in the 60’s –, and reflects on how thoseprogrammes nowadays serve to examine the human phenomenon, especially inregard to its interpersonal relationships. Reality shows, as semblances of the passionfor the real that characterized the 20th century, have already assumed theirfictional face and now articulate culture and invention. At this point, their scriptrefers to some aspects of historical realism, as the mise-en-scène of the ordinaryman, the reduced models, and the dynamics of game.

  6. Care package for anxiety disorders: no-show and dropout of standardised, time restricted treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranberg, Hanne; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Lau, Marianne Engelbrecht

    Background: Psychotherapy has shown to be efficacious but therapy effectiveness in mental health services is compromised by patients who fail to show up for assessment, treatment start and stay in treatment. Predictors for patient non-attendance (no-show and dropout) have been identified as patient...... or therapist characteristics. Organisational variables are sparsely studied although waiting time may affect no-show and dropout. In order to reduce waiting time the Mental Health Services in Denmark have introduced care packages in the treatment of non-psychotic disorders. Care packages are courses...... and if demographic and clinical variables were predictors for no-show and dropout. Methods: The study was a quasi-experimental pre-post study in a naturalistic setting in the Mental Health Services, Capital Region of Denmark. Two samples of patients, aged above 18 years and referred for treatment for anxiety...

  7. Milky Way Monster Stars in Cosmic Reality Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    faint streak of X-rays about 1 light-year long has been discovered 1.5 light years from Sgr A*. The streak points at Sgr A*, suggesting that it may be a jet of particles expelled at nearly the speed of light from just outside the event horizon of the black hole. The intensity and size of this jet indicate that the flaring activity has been occurring for many years. Labeled image of Sagittarius A* Jet Labeled image of Sagittarius A* Jet On a much larger scale, huge lobes of 20-million-degree-Centigrade gas extending over dozens of light years on either side of the black hole have also been discovered. "These lobes show that enormous explosions have occurred several times over the last ten thousand years," said Mark Morris of UCLA, lead author of a second paper on Sgr A*, who also participated in the press conference. Sangwook Park, of Penn State University in University Park, and Michael Muno, of MIT, were lead authors of two other papers presented at the meeting. These papers focused on the extraordinarily rich region around the central black hole, where they detected more than 2,000 X-ray sources. Other members of the team include Mark Bautz and George Ricker of MIT, Niel Brandt, Patrick Broos, George Chartas, Eric Feigelson, Gordon Garmire, and Leisa Townsley of Penn State, Yoshitomo Maeda of the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science in Japan, and Christian Howard of UCLA. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program, and TRW, Inc., Redondo Beach, Calif., is the prime contractor for the spacecraft. The Smithsonian's Chandra X-ray Center controls science and flight operations from Cambridge, Mass., for the Office of Space Science at NASA Headquarters, Washington. Images and additional information about this result are available at: http://chandra.harvard.edu and http://chandra.nasa.gov

  8. Latest data shows long-term security of uranium supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Full text: According to Uranium 2009: Resources, Production and Demand just published by the OECD Nuclear En ergy Agency (NEA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), uranium resources, production and demand are all on the rise. Exploration efforts have increased recently in line with the expected expansion of nuclear energy in the coming years. Total identified resources have grown but so too have costs of production. Worldwide exploration and mine development expenditures have more than doubled since the publication of the previous edition, Uranium 2007: Resources, Production and Demand. These expenditures have increased despite declining uranium market prices since mid- 2007. The uranium resources presented in this edition, reflecting the situation as of 1 January 2009, show that total identified resources amounted to 6 306 300 tU, an increase of about 15% compared to 2007, including those reported in the high-cost category (< USD 260/kgU or < USD 100/lbU O), reintroduced for the first time since the 1980s. This high-cost 3 8 category was used in the 2009 edition in response to the generally increased market prices for uranium in recent years, despite the decline since mid-2007, expectations of increasing demand as new nuclear power plants are being planned and built, and increased mining costs. Although total identified resources have increased overall, there has been a significant reduction in lower-cost resources owing to increased mining costs. At 2008 rates of consumption, total identified resources are sufficient for over 100 years of supply. The recognition by an increasing number of governments that nuclear power can produce competitively priced, baseload electricity that is essentially free of greenhouse gas emissions, coupled with the role that nuclear can play in enhancing security of energy supply, increases the prospects for growth in nuclear generating capacity, although the magnitude of that growth remains to be determined. According to

  9. Generalized reduced magnetohydrodynamic equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, S.E.

    1999-01-01

    A new derivation of reduced magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations is presented. A multiple-time-scale expansion is employed. It has the advantage of clearly separating the three time scales of the problem associated with (1) MHD equilibrium, (2) fluctuations whose wave vector is aligned perpendicular to the magnetic field, and (3) those aligned parallel to the magnetic field. The derivation is carried out without relying on a large aspect ratio assumption; therefore this model can be applied to any general configuration. By accounting for the MHD equilibrium and constraints to eliminate the fast perpendicular waves, equations are derived to evolve scalar potential quantities on a time scale associated with the parallel wave vector (shear-Alfven wave time scale), which is the time scale of interest for MHD instability studies. Careful attention is given in the derivation to satisfy energy conservation and to have manifestly divergence-free magnetic fields to all orders in the expansion parameter. Additionally, neoclassical closures and equilibrium shear flow effects are easily accounted for in this model. Equations for the inner resistive layer are derived which reproduce the linear ideal and resistive stability criterion of Glasser, Greene, and Johnson. The equations have been programmed into a spectral initial value code and run with shear flow that is consistent with the equilibrium input into the code. Linear results of tearing modes with shear flow are presented which differentiate the effects of shear flow gradients in the layer with the effects of the shear flow decoupling multiple harmonics

  10. Reducing maintenance costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaiss, W.; Reuschle, K.; Baier, B.

    2002-01-01

    The increasingly more expensive maintenance measures, cuts in the cost budget, and the loss of know-how on the part of vendors all require a change of policy with respect to maintenance concepts of the part of operators. This also applies to the existing valve concepts, the drives included. Under these aspects, the current drive, which is self-actuated and actuated by outside media, for a parallel-plate valve of a nomial width of 700 was reconsidered. The effort served to reduce maintenance costs and, at the same time, simplify the drive concept as well as cut back on the number of in-service inspections. Moreover, the number of active components were to be minimized and installation conditions in the plant were to be improved. When the boundary conditions to be observed with respect to process technology had been laid down, the competent technical department developed a concept of modification of the drive. A major constituent part was the demonstration of the functioning capability of the new drive under accident conditions. It was achieved mainly by an analytical approach. In the resultant drive concept, the same control valves are employed to actuate a driving cylinder by means of self-actuation or by an outside medium as a function of pressure. (orig.) [de

  11. Generalized reduced MHD equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, S.E.; Hegna, C.C.; Callen, J.D.

    1998-07-01

    A new derivation of reduced magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations is presented. A multiple-time-scale expansion is employed. It has the advantage of clearly separating the three time scales of the problem associated with (1) MHD equilibrium, (2) fluctuations whose wave vector is aligned perpendicular to the magnetic field, and (3) those aligned parallel to the magnetic field. The derivation is carried out without relying on a large aspect ratio assumption; therefore this model can be applied to any general toroidal configuration. By accounting for the MHD equilibrium and constraints to eliminate the fast perpendicular waves, equations are derived to evolve scalar potential quantities on a time scale associated with the parallel wave vector (shear-alfven wave time scale), which is the time scale of interest for MHD instability studies. Careful attention is given in the derivation to satisfy energy conservation and to have manifestly divergence-free magnetic fields to all orders in the expansion parameter. Additionally, neoclassical closures and equilibrium shear flow effects are easily accounted for in this model. Equations for the inner resistive layer are derived which reproduce the linear ideal and resistive stability criterion of Glasser, Greene, and Johnson

  12. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits stem-like inflammatory breast cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora D Mineva

    Full Text Available Inflammatory Breast Cancer (IBC is a highly aggressive form of cancer characterized by high rates of proliferation, lymphangiogenesis and metastasis, and an overall poor survival. As regular green tea consumption has been associated with improved prognosis of breast cancer patients, including decreased risk of recurrence, here the effects of the green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG were tested on two IBC lines: SUM-149 and SUM-190. EGCG decreased expression of genes that promote proliferation, migration, invasion, and survival. Consistently, growth, invasive properties, and survival of IBC cells were reduced by EGCG treatment. EGCG also reduced lymphangiogenesis-promoting genes, in particular VEGF-D. Conditioned media from EGCG-treated IBC cells displayed decreased VEGF-D secretion and reduced ability to promote lymphangiogenesis in vitro as measured by hTERT-HDLEC lymphatic endothelial cell migration and tube formation. Tumorsphere formation by SUM-149 cells was robustly inhibited by EGCG, suggesting effects on self-renewal ability. Stem-like SUM-149 cells with high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH activity, previously implicated in poor patient prognosis, were isolated. EGCG treatment reduced growth and induced apoptosis of the stem-like SUM-149 cells in culture. In an orthotopic mouse model, EGCG decreased growth of pre-existing tumors derived from ALDH-positive stem-like SUM-149 cells and their expression of VEGF-D, which correlated with a significant decrease in peritumoral lymphatic vessel density. Thus, EGCG inhibits the overall aggressive IBC phenotype. Reduction of the stem-like cell compartment by EGCG may explain the decreased risk of breast cancer recurrence among green tea drinkers. Recent clinical trials demonstrate the efficacy of green tea polyphenol extracts in treatment of prostate cancer and lymphocytic leukemia with low toxicity. Given the poor prognosis of IBC patients, our findings suggest further exploration

  13. Large-Scale No-Show Patterns and Distributions for Clinic Operational Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L. Davies

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Patient no-shows for scheduled primary care appointments are common. Unused appointment slots reduce patient quality of care, access to services and provider productivity while increasing loss to follow-up and medical costs. This paper describes patterns of no-show variation by patient age, gender, appointment age, and type of appointment request for six individual service lines in the United States Veterans Health Administration (VHA. This retrospective observational descriptive project examined 25,050,479 VHA appointments contained in individual-level records for eight years (FY07-FY14 for 555,183 patients. Multifactor analysis of variance (ANOVA was performed, with no-show rate as the dependent variable, and gender, age group, appointment age, new patient status, and service line as factors. The analyses revealed that males had higher no-show rates than females to age 65, at which point males and females exhibited similar rates. The average no-show rates decreased with age until 75–79, whereupon rates increased. As appointment age increased, males and new patients had increasing no-show rates. Younger patients are especially prone to no-show as appointment age increases. These findings provide novel information to healthcare practitioners and management scientists to more accurately characterize no-show and attendance rates and the impact of certain patient factors. Future general population data could determine whether findings from VHA data generalize to others.

  14. Large-Scale No-Show Patterns and Distributions for Clinic Operational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Michael L; Goffman, Rachel M; May, Jerrold H; Monte, Robert J; Rodriguez, Keri L; Tjader, Youxu C; Vargas, Dominic L

    2016-02-16

    Patient no-shows for scheduled primary care appointments are common. Unused appointment slots reduce patient quality of care, access to services and provider productivity while increasing loss to follow-up and medical costs. This paper describes patterns of no-show variation by patient age, gender, appointment age, and type of appointment request for six individual service lines in the United States Veterans Health Administration (VHA). This retrospective observational descriptive project examined 25,050,479 VHA appointments contained in individual-level records for eight years (FY07-FY14) for 555,183 patients. Multifactor analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed, with no-show rate as the dependent variable, and gender, age group, appointment age, new patient status, and service line as factors. The analyses revealed that males had higher no-show rates than females to age 65, at which point males and females exhibited similar rates. The average no-show rates decreased with age until 75-79, whereupon rates increased. As appointment age increased, males and new patients had increasing no-show rates. Younger patients are especially prone to no-show as appointment age increases. These findings provide novel information to healthcare practitioners and management scientists to more accurately characterize no-show and attendance rates and the impact of certain patient factors. Future general population data could determine whether findings from VHA data generalize to others.

  15. Exceptionally High Protection of Photocarcinogenesis by Topical Application of (--Epi gal locatechin-3-Gal late in Hydrophilic Cream in SKH-1 Hairless Mouse Model: Relationship to Inhibition of UVB-Induced Global DNA Hypomethylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshu Mittal

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available (--Epigallocatechin-3-gal late (EGCG has been shown to have potent antiphotocarcinogenic activity, but it was required to develop a cream-based formulation for topical application. For topical application, we tested hydrophilic cream as a vehicle for EGCG. Treatment with EGCG (≈ 1 mg/cm2 skin area in hydrophilic cream resulted in exceptionally high protection against photocarcinogenesis when determined in terms of tumor incidence, tumor multiplicity, and tumor size in a SKI-11-11 hairless mouse model. EGCG also inhibited malignant transformation of ultraviolet B (UVB-induced papillomas to carcinomas. In order to determine the mechanism of prevention of photocarcinogenesis, we determined the effect of EGCG on global DNA methylation pattern using monoclonal antibodies against 5-methyl cytosine and DNA methyltransferase in the long-term UV-irradiated skin because altered DNA methylation silencing is recognized as a molecular hallmark of human cancer. We found that treatment with EGCG resulted in significant inhibition of UVBinduced global DNA hypomethylation pattern. Longterm application of EGCG did not show any apparent sign of toxicity in mice when determined in terms of skin appearance, lean mass, total bone mineral content, and total bone mineral density but showed reduction in fat mass when analyzed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. These data suggest that hydrophilic cream could be a suitable vehicle for topical application of EGCG, and that EGCG is a promising candidate for future cancer therapies based on its influence on the epigenetic pathway.

  16. Will sex selection reduce fertility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, S F

    1994-01-01

    Population control is one of the primary policies applied against poverty in many low income countries. The widespread prevalence of son preference in some countries such as China and India, however, works against any reduction of fertility. This is so because parents often continue to have children until they obtain the number of sons which they desire. The bias against girls has also led to higher abortion and mortality rates of female children. It is frequently argued that if sex selection methods are made available to parents so that they can control the gender of their children, population growth would be lowered and women's welfare improved. The author investigates both theoretically and numerically the impact of sex selection on fertility. A static quantity-quality model of fertility is used to compare fertility choices when parents cannot choose the gender of children versus a situation in which parents can choose gender. Empirical data are drawn from the 1976 Malaysian Family Life Survey. Analysis found that whether sex selection reduces fertility depends upon the second and third derivatives of the utility function and the child expenditure function. A numerical dynamic analysis is also presented. The simulation shows, using empirical dynamic models of fertility and the Monte Carlo integration technique, that sex selection on the firstborn child among the Chinese in Malaysia could reduce fertility by about 3%.

  17. Reduced Mastication Impairs Memory Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima-Nakayama, Y; Ono, Takehito; Hayashi, M; Inoue, M; Wake, H; Ono, Takashi; Nakashima, T

    2017-08-01

    Mastication is an indispensable oral function related to physical, mental, and social health throughout life. The elderly tend to have a masticatory dysfunction due to tooth loss and fragility in the masticatory muscles with aging, potentially resulting in impaired cognitive function. Masticatory stimulation has influence on the development of the central nervous system (CNS) as well as the growth of maxillofacial tissue in children. Although the relationship between mastication and cognitive function is potentially important in the growth period, the cellular and molecular mechanisms have not been sufficiently elucidated. Here, we show that the reduced mastication resulted in impaired spatial memory and learning function owing to the morphological change and decreased activity in the hippocampus. We used an in vivo model for reduced masticatory stimuli, in which juvenile mice were fed with powder diet and found that masticatory stimulation during the growth period positively regulated long-term spatial memory to promote cognitive function. The functional linkage between mastication and brain was validated by the decrease in neurons, neurogenesis, neuronal activity, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the hippocampus. These findings taken together provide in vivo evidence for a functional linkage between mastication and cognitive function in the growth period, suggesting a need for novel therapeutic strategies in masticatory function-related cognitive dysfunction.

  18. Reducing the impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahathir, M

    1997-01-01

    In Asia, attempts to control HIV/AIDS through education have not achieved the necessary behavior changes. This is especially true for young women who are unable to apply their knowledge to their sex behavior because of inequalities in gender relations. Thus, the impact of AIDS on women is significantly greater in settings where the status of women is low. Women in developing countries are at greatest risk because the epidemic is fueled by poverty, lack of information, and lack of autonomy. Prosperity in a developing country, such as Malaysia, entails its own risks because it creates new social norms and values that exist in tandem with debilitating old norms, such as the patriarchy that disempowers women and a resurgence in polygamy and wife abandonment. Subservient gender roles not only increase women's chances of infection, they also target women as the primary caregivers for infected individuals. Young girls may have to abandon school to care for infected parents, and female health care providers are assigned to the lowest ranks of the profession. While most women have been infected by their husbands, they must also bear the stigma of being considered immoral infectors of their husbands. The futures of AIDS widows and orphans is jeopardized by the discrimination that attends the disease, and if the mother dies, her young children face a higher death rate. In settings new to the epidemic, it is difficult to convince men of the importance of addressing women's needs and of seeking the input of women in policy and program development. Only by empowering both sexes to work together to protect society will there be a reasonable chance of reducing the impact of HIV/AIDS.

  19. Moral Violations Reduce Oral Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Cindy; Van Boven, Leaf; Andrade, Eduardo B.; Ariely, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Consumers frequently encounter moral violations in everyday life. They watch movies and television shows about crime and deception, hear news reports of corporate fraud and tax evasion, and hear gossip about cheaters and thieves. How does exposure to moral violations influence consumption? Because moral violations arouse disgust and because disgust is an evolutionarily important signal of contamination that should provoke a multi-modal response, we hypothesize that moral violations affect a key behavioral response to disgust: reduced oral consumption. In three experiments, compared with those in control conditions, people drank less water and chocolate milk while (a) watching a film portraying the moral violations of incest, (b) writing about moral violations of cheating or theft, and (c) listening to a report about fraud and manipulation. These findings imply that “moral disgust” influences consumption in ways similar to core disgust, and thus provide evidence for the associations between moral violations, emotions, and consumer behavior. PMID:25125931

  20. Moral Violations Reduce Oral Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Cindy; Van Boven, Leaf; Andrade, Eduardo B; Ariely, Dan

    2014-07-01

    Consumers frequently encounter moral violations in everyday life. They watch movies and television shows about crime and deception, hear news reports of corporate fraud and tax evasion, and hear gossip about cheaters and thieves. How does exposure to moral violations influence consumption? Because moral violations arouse disgust and because disgust is an evolutionarily important signal of contamination that should provoke a multi-modal response, we hypothesize that moral violations affect a key behavioral response to disgust: reduced oral consumption. In three experiments, compared with those in control conditions, people drank less water and chocolate milk while (a) watching a film portraying the moral violations of incest, (b) writing about moral violations of cheating or theft, and (c) listening to a report about fraud and manipulation. These findings imply that "moral disgust" influences consumption in ways similar to core disgust, and thus provide evidence for the associations between moral violations, emotions, and consumer behavior.

  1. Breastfeeding Reduces Childhood Obesity Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Collins, Candice; Ratliff, Melanie; Xie, Bin; Wang, Youfa

    2017-06-01

    The present study examined the effects of breastfeeding and its duration on the development of childhood obesity from 24 months through grade 6. U.S. longitudinal data collected from 1234 children were analyzed using logistic regression models and generalized estimating equation (GEE). Child height and weight were measured six times at ages of 24 months, 36 months, 54 months, grade 1, grade 3, and grade 6. During the early 1990s, prevalence of breastfeeding was low in the United States, 60% and 48% at 1 and 6 months, respectively. Nonsmoking, white, married mothers with both parents in the household, and with income above the poverty line, were more likely to breastfeed at 1 month of age of their babies. Obesity rate of the children increased with age from 24 months to grade 6. Logistic regression showed that breastfeeding at month 1 was associated with 53% (odds ratio [OR]: 0.47, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.30-0.73) and 47% (OR: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.36-0.78) decreased risks for childhood obesity at grades 1 and 6, respectively. GEE analysis showed that breastfeeding at 1 month reduced risk for childhood obesity by 36% (95% CI: 0.47-0.88) from ages 24 months through grade 6. Regarding breastfeeding duration, more than 6 months (vs. never) was associated with a decreased risk for childhood obesity by 42% (OR: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.36-0.94). Breastfeeding at 1 month and more than 6 months reduced the risk of childhood obesity. Rate of breastfeeding was low in the United States in the 1990s, which may have had long-term implications on children.

  2. Selective Inhibitory Effect of Epigallocatechin-3-gallate on Migration of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Chul Park

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to prevent restenosis after angioplasty or stenting, one of the most popular targets is suppression of the abnormal growth and excess migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs with drugs. However, the drugs also adversely affect vascular endothelial cells (VECs, leading to the induction of late thrombosis. We have investigated the effect of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG on the proliferation and migration of VECs and VSMCs. Both cells showed dose-dependent decrease of viability in response to EGCG while they have different IC50 values of EGCG (VECs, 150 mM and VSMCs, 1050 mM. Incubating both cells with EGCG resulted in significant reduction in cell proliferation irrespective of cell type. The proliferation of VECs were greater affected than that of VSMCs at the same concentrations of EGCG. EGCG exerted differential migration-inhibitory activity in VECs vs. VSMCs. The migration of VECs was not attenuated by 200 mM EGCG, but that of VSMCs was significantly inhibited at the same concentration of EGCG. It is suggested that that EGCG can be effectively used as an efficient drug for vascular diseases or stents due to its selective activity, completely suppressing the proliferation and migration of VSMCs, but not adversely affecting VECs migration in blood vessels.

  3. Inhibitory effects of epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate on serum-stimulated rat aortic smooth muscle cells via nuclear factor-κB down-modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Dong-Wook; Lim, Hye Ryeon; Baek, Hyun Sook; Lee, Mi Hee; Lee, Seung Jin; Hyon, Suong-Hyu; Park, Jong-Chul

    2006-01-01

    The abnormal growth of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays an important role in vascular diseases, including atherosclerosis and restenosis after angioplasty. Although (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) has antiproliferative effects on various cells, relatively a little is known about precise mechanisms of the inhibitory effects of EGCG on SMCs. In this study, the inhibitory effects of EGCG on attachment, proliferation, migration, and cell cycle of rat aortic SMCs (RASMCs) with serum stimulation were investigated. Also, the involvement of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) during these inhibitions by EGCG was examined. EGCG treatment resulted in significant (p < 0.05) inhibition in attachment and proliferation of RASMCs induced by serum. While non-treated RASMCs migrated into denuded area in response to serum and showed essentially complete closure after 36 h, EGCG-treated cells covered only 31% of the area even after 48 h of incubation. Furthermore, EGCG treatment resulted in an appreciable cell cycle arrest at both G0/G1- and G2/M-phases. The immunoblot analysis revealed that the constitutive expression of NF-κB/p65 nuclear protein in RASMCs was lowered by EGCG in both the cytosol and the nucleus in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that the EGCG-caused inhibitory effects on RASMCs may be mediated through NF-κB down-modulation

  4. Cellular determinants involving mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and apoptosis correlate with the synergic cytotoxicity of epigallocatechin-3-gallate and menadione in human leukemia Jurkat T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofolean, Ioana Teodora; Ganea, Constanta; Ionescu, Diana; Filippi, Alexandru; Garaiman, Alexandru; Goicea, Alexandru; Gaman, Mihnea-Alexandru; Dimancea, Alexandru; Baran, Irina

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated the growth-suppressive action of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on human leukemia Jurkat T cells. Results show a strong correlation between the dose-dependent reduction of clonogenic survival following acute EGCG treatments and the EGCG-induced decline of the mitochondrial level of Ca(2+). The cell killing ability of EGCG was synergistically enhanced by menadione. In addition, the cytotoxic effect of EGCG applied alone or in combination with menadione was accompanied by apoptosis induction. We also observed that in acute treatments EGCG displays strong antioxidant properties in the intracellular milieu, but concurrently triggers some oxidative stress generating mechanisms that can fully develop on a longer timescale. In parallel, EGCG dose-dependently induced mitochondrial depolarization during exposure, but this condition was subsequently reversed to a persistent hyperpolarized mitochondrial state that was dependent on the activity of respiratory Complex I. Fluorimetric measurements suggest that EGCG is a mitochondrial Complex III inhibitor and indicate that EGCG evokes a specific cellular fluorescence with emission at 400nm and two main excitation bands (at 330nm and 350nm) that may originate from a mitochondrial supercomplex containing dimeric Complex III and dimeric ATP-synthase, and therefore could provide a valuable means to characterize the functional properties of the respiratory chain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Epigallocatechin gallate protects dopaminergic neurons against 1-methyl-4- phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced neurotoxicity by inhibiting microglial cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Peng, Ning; Du, Fang; Li, Xu-ping; Le, Wei-dong

    2006-04-01

    To observe whether the dopaminergic neuroprotective effect of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is associated with its inhibition of microglial cell activation in vivo. The effects of EGCG at different doses on dopaminergic neuronal survival were tested in a methyl-4-phenyl-pyridinium (MPP+)-induced dopaminergic neuronal injury model in the primary mesencephalic cell cultures. With unbiased stereological method, tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-ir) cells were counted in the A8, A9 and A10 regions of the substantia nigra (SN) in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated C57BL/6 mice. The effect of EGCG on microglial activation in the SN was also investigated. Pretreatment with EGCG (1 to 100 micromol/L) significantly attenuated MPP+-induced TH-ir cell loss by 22.2% to 80.5% in the mesencephalic cell cultures. In MPTP-treated C57BL/6 mice, EGCG at a low concentration (1 mg/kg) provided significant protection against MPTP-induced TH-ir cell loss by 50.9% in the whole nigral area and by 71.7% in the A9 region. EGCG at 5 mg/kg showed more prominent protective effect than at 1 or 10 mg/kg. EGCG pretreatment significantly inhibited microglial activation and CD11b expression induced by MPTP. EGCG exerts potent dopaminergic neuroprotective activity by means of microglial inhibition, which shed light on the potential use of EGCG in treatment of Parkinson's disease.

  6. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Trichomonas vaginalis Ferredoxin Show a Loop-Cap Transition.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weksberg, Tiffany E; Lynch, Gillian C; Krause, Kurt; Pettitt, Bernard M

    2007-05-01

    The crystal structure of the oxidized Trichomonas vaginalis ferredoxin (Tvfd) showed a unique crevice that exposed the redox center. Here we have examined the dynamics and solvation of the active site of Tvfd using molecular dynamics simulations of both the reduced and oxidized states. The oxidized simulation stays true to the crystal form with a heavy atom root mean-squared deviation of 2Å. However, within the reduced simulation of Tvfd a profound loop-cap transition into the redox center occurred within 6-ns of the start of the simulation and remained open throughout the rest of the 20-ns simulation. This large opening seen in the simulations supports the hypothesis that the exceptionally fast electron transfer rate between Tvfd and the drug metronidazole is due to the increased access of the antibiotic to the redox center of the protein and not due to the reduction potential.

  7. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Trichomonas vaginalis Ferredoxin Show a Loop-Cap Transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weksberg, Tiffany E; Lynch, Gillian C; Krause, Kurt; Pettitt, Bernard M

    2007-05-01

    The crystal structure of the oxidized Trichomonas vaginalis ferredoxin (Tvfd) showed a unique crevice that exposed the redox center. Here we have examined the dynamics and solvation of the active site of Tvfd using molecular dynamics simulations of both the reduced and oxidized states. The oxidized simulation stays true to the crystal form with a heavy atom root mean-squared deviation of 2Å . However, within the reduced simulation of Tvfd a profound loop-cap transition into the redox center occurred within 6-ns of the start of the simulation and remained open throughout the rest of the 20-ns simulation. This large opening seen in the simulations supports the hypothesis that the exceptionally fast electron transfer rate between Tvfd and the drug metronidazole is due to the increased access of the antibiotic to the redox center of the protein and not due to the reduction potential.

  8. Review of pump suction reducer selection: Eccentric or concentric reducers

    OpenAIRE

    Mahaffey, R M; van Vuuren, S J

    2014-01-01

    Eccentric reducers are traditionally recommended for the pump suction reducer fitting to allow for transportation of air through the fitting to the pump. The ability of a concentric reducer to provide an improved approach flow to the pump while still allowing air to be transported through the fitting is investigated. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) were utilised to analyse six concentric and six eccentric reducer geometries at four different inlet velocities to determine the flow velocity ...

  9. Prolonged hypoxia increases survival even in Zebrafish (Danio rerio showing cardiac arrhythmia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renate Kopp

    Full Text Available Tolerance towards hypoxia is highly pronounced in zebrafish. In this study even beneficial effects of hypoxia, specifically enhanced survival of zebrafish larvae, could be demonstrated. This effect was actually more pronounced in breakdance mutants, which phenotypically show cardiac arrhythmia. Breakdance mutants (bre are characterized by chronically reduced cardiac output. Despite an about 50% heart rate reduction, they become adults, but survival rate significantly drops to 40%. Normoxic bre animals demonstrate increased hypoxia inducible factor 1 a (Hif-1α expression, which indicates an activated hypoxic signaling pathway. Consequently, cardiovascular acclimation, like cardiac hypertrophy and increased erythrocyte concentration, occurs. Thus, it was hypothesized, that under hypoxic conditions survival might be even more reduced. When bre mutants were exposed to hypoxic conditions, they surprisingly showed higher survival rates than under normoxic conditions and even reached wildtype values. In hypoxic wildtype zebrafish, survival yet exceeded normoxic control values. To specify physiological acclimation, cardiovascular and metabolic parameters were measured before hypoxia started (3 dpf, when the first differences in survival rate occurred (7 dpf and when survival rate plateaued (15 dpf. Hypoxic animals expectedly demonstrated Hif-1α accumulation and consequently enhanced convective oxygen carrying capacity. Moreover, bre animals showed a significantly enhanced heart rate under hypoxic conditions, which reached normoxic wildtype values. This improvement in convective oxygen transport ensured a sufficient oxygen and nutrient supply and was also reflected in the significantly higher mitochondrial activity. The highly optimized energy metabolism observed in hypoxic zebrafish larvae might be decisive for periods of higher energy demand due to organ development, growth and increased activity. However, hypoxia increased survival only during a

  10. Excessive users of violent video games do not show emotional desensitization: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szycik, Gregor R; Mohammadi, Bahram; Hake, Maria; Kneer, Jonas; Samii, Amir; Münte, Thomas F; Te Wildt, Bert T

    2017-06-01

    Playing violent video games have been linked to long-term emotional desensitization. We hypothesized that desensitization effects in excessive users of violent video games should lead to decreased brain activations to highly salient emotional pictures in emotional sensitivity brain regions. Twenty-eight male adult subjects showing excessive long-term use of violent video games and age and education matched control participants were examined in two experiments using standardized emotional pictures of positive, negative and neutral valence. No group differences were revealed even at reduced statistical thresholds which speaks against desensitization of emotion sensitive brain regions as a result of excessive use of violent video games.

  11. Shrinkage Reducing Admixture for Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    Concrete shrinkage cracking is a common problem in all types of concrete structures, especially for structures and environments where the cracks are prevalent and the repercussions are most severe. A liquid shrinkage reducing admixture for concrete, developed by GRACE Construction Products and ARCO Chemical Company, that reduces significantly the shrinkage during concrete drying and potentially reduces overall cracking over time.

  12. A Girl with Idiopathic Epilepsy Showing Forced Normalization after Levetiracetam Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Yasuhiko; Okazaki, Tetsuya; Takase, Masato; Fujino, Osamu; Itoh, Yasuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Forced normalization has been reported in association with almost all anti-epileptic drugs. We report on a 9-year-old girl with idiopathic epilepsy who showed forced normalization after administration of levetiracetam (LEV). She initially presented with generalized tonic-clonic seizures when she was 4 years old. Diffuse sharp and slow wave complexes (SWCs) were observed on electroencephalography (EEG). We prescribed sodium valproate (VPA) and benzodiazepines, but the seizures and EEG findings worsened gradually. Although subsequent administration of LEV stopped the seizures, the patient became subject to episodes of rage and violent behavior. Forced normalization was confirmed by the disappearance of SWCs on EEG. We reduced the dose of LEV and tried in various ways to resolve the situation, but finally we had to abandon LEV. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a patient with idiopathic epilepsy but without disabilities in everyday life showing forced normalization associated with LEV administration.

  13. Using REDUCE in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grozin, A.G.

    1997-01-01

    This book describes the use of the symbolic manipulation language REDUCE in particle physics. There are several general purpose mathematics packages available to physicists, including Mathematica, Maple, and REDUCE. Each has advantages and disadvantages, but REDUCE has been found to be both powerful and convenient in solving a wide range of problems. This book introduces the reader to REDUCE and demonstrates its utility as a mathematical tool in physics. The first chapter of the book describes the REDUCE system, including some library packages. The following chapters show the use of REDUCE in examples from classical mechanics, hydrodynamics, general relativity, and quantum mechanics. The rest of the book systematically presents the Standard Model of particle physics (QED, weak interactions, QCD). A large number of scattering and decay processes are calculated with REDUCE. All example programs from the book can be downloaded via Internet. The emphasis throughout is on learning through worked examples. This will be an essential introduction and reference for high energy and theoretical physicists. (author)

  14. The use of chitosan-dextran gel shows anti-inflammatory, antibiofilm, and antiproliferative properties in fibroblast cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramasivan, Sathish; Jones, Damien; Baker, Leonie; Hanton, Lyall; Robinson, Simon; Wormald, Peter J; Tan, Lorwai

    2014-01-01

    Chitosan-dextran gel has been used as an antihemostatic agent and antiadhesive agent after endoscopic sinus surgery. Because Staphylococcus aureus biofilms have been implicated in recalcitrant chronic rhinosinusitis, this study aimed to further investigate the (i) anti-inflammatory, (ii) bacterial biofilm inhibition, (iii) antiproliferative effects, and (iv) wound-healing properties of chitosan and chitosan-dextran gel. Fibroblasts were isolated from human nasal tissue and were used to determine the effects of chitosan and chitosan-dextran gel on (i) cell proliferation, (ii) wound healing, (iii) inflammation in fibroblast cultures challenged with superantigens S. aureus enterotoxin B (SEB) and toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST), and (iv) on S. aureus biofilms. Chitosan was highly effective at reducing IL-8 expression after TSST and SEB challenge. Chitosan was also effective at reducing IL-8 expression of nonchallenged fibroblasts showing its anti-inflammatory effects on fibroblasts in a diseased state. Chitosan-dextran gel showed strong antibiofilm properties at 50% (v/v) concentration in vitro. Dextran, on its own, showed antibiofilm properties at 1.25% (w/v) concentration. Chitosan, on its own, reduced proliferation of fibroblasts to 82% of control proliferation and chitosan-dextran gel reduced proliferation of the fibroblasts to 0.04% of control proliferation. Relative to the no treatment controls, chitosan-dextran gel significantly delayed the wound-healing rate over the first 48 hours of the experiment. Chitosan-dextran gel reduced fibroblast proliferation and wound-healing time, showing a possible mechanism of reducing adhesions in the postsurgical period. Chitosan reduced IL-8 levels, showing its anti-inflammatory properties. Chitosan-dextran gel and dextran treatment showed antibiofilm properties in our model.

  15. Software system for reducing PAM-2 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepin, T. J.

    1982-01-01

    A software system for reducing PAM-II data was constructed. The data reduction process concatenates data tapes; determines ephemeris; and inverts full sun extinction data. Tests of this data reduction process show that PAM-II data can be compared with data from other, similar satellites.

  16. Different fatty acid metabolism effects of (−-Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate and C75 in Adenocarcinoma lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Relat Joana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatty acid synthase (FASN is overexpressed and hyperactivated in several human carcinomas, including lung cancer. We characterize and compare the anti-cancer effects of the FASN inhibitors C75 and (−-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG in a lung cancer model. Methods We evaluated in vitro the effects of C75 and EGCG on fatty acid metabolism (FASN and CPT enzymes, cellular proliferation, apoptosis and cell signaling (EGFR, ERK1/2, AKT and mTOR in human A549 lung carcinoma cells. In vivo, we evaluated their anti-tumour activity and their effect on body weight in a mice model of human adenocarcinoma xenograft. Results C75 and EGCG had comparable effects in blocking FASN activity (96,9% and 89,3% of inhibition, respectively. In contrast, EGCG had either no significant effect in CPT activity, the rate-limiting enzyme of fatty acid β-oxidation, while C75 stimulated CPT up to 130%. Treating lung cancer cells with EGCG or C75 induced apoptosis and affected EGFR-signaling. While EGCG abolished p-EGFR, p-AKT, p-ERK1/2 and p-mTOR, C75 was less active in decreasing the levels of EGFR and p-AKT. In vivo, EGCG and C75 blocked the growth of lung cancer xenografts but C75 treatment, not EGCG, caused a marked animal weight loss. Conclusions In lung cancer, inhibition of FASN using EGCG can be achieved without parallel stimulation of fatty acid oxidation and this effect is related mainly to EGFR signaling pathway. EGCG reduce the growth of adenocarcinoma human lung cancer xenografts without inducing body weight loss. Taken together, EGCG may be a candidate for future pre-clinical development.

  17. Tannic acid modified silver nanoparticles show antiviral activity in herpes simplex virus type 2 infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Orlowski

    Full Text Available The interaction between silver nanoparticles and herpesviruses is attracting great interest due to their antiviral activity and possibility to use as microbicides for oral and anogenital herpes. In this work, we demonstrate that tannic acid modified silver nanoparticles sized 13 nm, 33 nm and 46 nm are capable of reducing HSV-2 infectivity both in vitro and in vivo. The antiviral activity of tannic acid modified silver nanoparticles was size-related, required direct interaction and blocked virus attachment, penetration and further spread. All tested tannic acid modified silver nanoparticles reduced both infection and inflammatory reaction in the mouse model of HSV-2 infection when used at infection or for a post-infection treatment. Smaller-sized nanoparticles induced production of cytokines and chemokines important for anti-viral response. The corresponding control buffers with tannic acid showed inferior antiviral effects in vitro and were ineffective in blocking in vivo infection. Our results show that tannic acid modified silver nanoparticles are good candidates for microbicides used in treatment of herpesvirus infections.

  18. Ipomoea aquatica Extract Shows Protective Action Against Thioacetamide-Induced Hepatotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hamid A. Hadi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Indian system of traditional medicine (Ayurveda it is recommended to consume Ipomoea aquatica to mitigate disorders like jaundice. In this study, the protective effects of ethanol extract of I. aquatica against liver damage were evaluated in thioacetamide (TAA-induced chronic hepatotoxicity in rats. There was no sign of toxicity in the acute toxicity study, in which Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were orally fed with I. aquatica (250 and 500 mg/kg for two months along with administration of TAA (i.p injection 200 mg/kg three times a week for two months. The results showed that the treatment of I. aquatica significantly lowered the TAA-induced serum levels of hepatic enzyme markers (ALP, ALT, AST, protein, albumin, bilirubin and prothrombin time. The hepatic content of activities and expressions SOD and CAT that were reduced by TAA were brought back to control levels by the plant extract supplement. Meanwhile, the rise in MDA level in the TAA receiving groups also were significantly reduced by I. aquatica treatment. Histopathology of hepatic tissues by H&E and Masson trichrome stains displayed that I. aquatica has reduced the incidence of liver lesions, including hepatic cells cloudy swelling, infiltration, hepatic necrosis, and fibrous connective tissue proliferation induced by TAA in rats. Therefore, the results of this study show that the protective effect of I. aquatica in TAA-induced liver damage might be contributed to its modulation on detoxification enzymes and its antioxidant and free radical scavenger effects. Moreover, it confirms a scientific basis for the traditional use of I. aquatica for the treatment of liver disorders.

  19. Digestive and locomotor capacity show opposing responses to changing food availability in an ambush predatory fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shi-Jian; Peng, Jing; Killen, Shaun S

    2018-06-14

    Metabolic rates vary widely within species, but little is known about how variation in the 'floor' [i.e. standard metabolic rate (SMR) in ectotherms] and 'ceiling' [maximum metabolic rate (MMR)] for an individual's aerobic scope (AS) are linked with digestive and locomotor function. Any links among metabolic traits and aspects of physiological performance may also be modulated by fluctuations in food availability. This study followed changes in SMR, MMR, and digestive and locomotor capacity in southern catfish ( Silurus meridionalis ) throughout 15 days of food deprivation and 15 days of refeeding. Individuals downregulated SMR during food deprivation and showed only a 10% body mass decrease during this time. Whereas critical swim speed ( U crit ) was robust to food deprivation, digestive function decreased after fasting with a reduced peak oxygen uptake during specific dynamic action (SDA) and prolonged SDA duration. During refeeding, individuals displayed rapid growth and digestive function recovered to pre-fasting levels. However, refed fish showed a lower U crit than would be expected for their increased body length and in comparison to measures at the start of the study. Reduced swimming ability may be a consequence of compensatory growth: growth rate was negatively correlated with changes in U crit during refeeding. Southern catfish downregulate digestive function to reduce energy expenditure during food deprivation, but regain digestive capacity during refeeding, potentially at the cost of decreased swimming performance. The plasticity of maintenance requirements suggests that SMR is a key fitness trait for in this ambush predator. Shifts in trait correlations with food availability suggest that the potential for correlated selection may depend on context. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Green tea (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate counteracts daytime overeating induced by high-fat diet in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongyu; Kek, Huiling Calvina; Lim, Joy; Gelling, Richard Wayne; Han, Weiping

    2016-12-01

    High-fat diet (HFD) induces overeating and obesity. Green tea (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) reduces HFD-induced body weight and body fat gain mainly through increased lipid metabolism and fat oxidation. However, little is known about its effect on HFD-induced alterations in feeding behavior. Three diet groups of wildtype C57B/6j male mice at 5 months old were fed on normal chow diet, 1 week of HFD (60% of energy) and 3 months of HFD (diet-induced obesity (DIO)) prior to EGCG supplement in respective diet. EGCG had no effect on feeding behavior in normal chow diet group. Increased daytime feeding induced by HFD was selectively corrected by EGCG treatment in HFD groups, including reversed food intake, feeding frequency and meal size in HFD + EGCG group, and reduced food intake and feeding frequency in DIO + EGCG group. Moreover, EGCG treatment altered diurnally oscillating expression pattern of key appetite-regulating genes, including AGRP, POMC, and CART, and key circadian genes Clock and Bmal1 in hypothalamus of DIO mice, indicating its central effect on feeding regulation. Our study demonstrates that EGCG supplement specifically counteracts daytime overeating induced by HFD in mice, suggesting its central role in regulating feeding behavior and energy homeostasis. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Human cancer stem cells are a target for cancer prevention using (-)-epigallocatechin gallate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiki, Hirota; Sueoka, Eisaburo; Rawangkan, Anchalee; Suganuma, Masami

    2017-12-01

    Our previous experiments show that the main constituent of green-tea catechins, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), completely prevents tumor promotion on mouse skin initiated with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene followed by okadaic acid and that EGCG and green tea extract prevent cancer development in a wide range of target organs in rodents. Therefore, we focused our attention on human cancer stem cells (CSCs) as targets of cancer prevention and treatment with EGCG. The numerous reports concerning anticancer activity of EGCG against human CSCs enriched from cancer cell lines were gathered from a search of PubMed, and we hope our review of the literatures will provide a broad selection for the effects of EGCG on various human CSCs. Based on our theoretical study, we discuss the findings as follows: (1) Compared with the parental cells, human CSCs express increased levels of the stemness markers Nanog, Oct4, Sox2, CD44, CD133, as well as the EMT markers, Twist, Snail, vimentin, and also aldehyde dehydrogenase. They showed decreased levels of E-cadherin and cyclin D1. (2) EGCG inhibits the transcription and translation of genes encoding stemness markers, indicating that EGCG generally inhibits the self-renewal of CSCs. (3) EGCG inhibits the expression of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition phenotypes of human CSCs. (4) The inhibition of EGCG of the stemness of CSCs was weaker compared with parental cells. (5) The weak inhibitory activity of EGCG increased synergistically in combination with anticancer drugs. Green tea prevents human cancer, and the combination of EGCG and anticancer drugs confers cancer treatment with tissue-agnostic efficacy.

  2. Comparison of α-glucosyl hesperidin of citrus fruits and epigallocatechin gallate of green tea on the Loss of Rotavirus Infectivity in Cell Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipson, Steven M; Ozen, Fatma S; Louis, Samantha; Karthikeyan, Laina

    2015-01-01

    A number of secondary plant metabolites (e.g., flavonoids) possess antiviral/antimicrobial activity. Most flavonoids, however, are difficult to study, as they are immiscible in water-based systems. The relatively new semisynthetic α-glucosyl hesperitin (GH), and the natural plant product epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) are unique among most flavonoids, as these flavonoids are highly soluble. The antiviral activity of these plant metabolites were investigated using the rotavirus as a model enteric virus system. Direct loss of virus structural integrity in cell-free suspension and titration of amplified RTV in host cell cultures was measured by a quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (qEIA). After 30 min. 100 × 10(3) μg/ml GH reduced RTV antigen levels by ca. 90%. The same compound reduced infectivity (replication in cell culture) by a similar order of magnitude 3 to 4 days post inoculation. After 3 days in culture, EGCG concentrations of 80, 160, and 320 μg/ml reduced RTV infectivity titer levels to ca. 50, 20, and 15% of the control, respectively. Loss of RTV infectivity titers occurred following viral treatment by parallel testing of both GH and EGCG, with the latter, markedly more effective. Cytotoxicity testing showed no adverse effects by the phenolic concentrations used in this study. The unique chemical structure of each flavonoid rather than each phenolic's inherent solubility may be ascribed to those marked differences between each molecule's antiviral (anti-RTV) effects. The solubility of EGCG and GH obviated our need to use potentially confounding or obfuscating carrier molecules (e.g., methanol, ethanol, DMSO) denoting our use of a pure system environ. Our work further denotes the need to address the unique chemical nature of secondary plant metabolites before any broad generalizations in flavonoid (antiviral) activity may be proposed.

  3. Reducing stillbirths: interventions during labour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmstadt, Gary L; Yakoob, Mohammad Yawar; Haws, Rachel A; Menezes, Esme V; Soomro, Tanya; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2009-01-01

    Background Approximately one million stillbirths occur annually during labour; most of these stillbirths occur in low and middle-income countries and are associated with absent, inadequate, or delayed obstetric care. The low proportion of intrapartum stillbirths in high-income countries suggests that intrapartum stillbirths are largely preventable with quality intrapartum care, including prompt recognition and management of intrapartum complications. The evidence for impact of intrapartum interventions on stillbirth and perinatal mortality outcomes has not yet been systematically examined. Methods We undertook a systematic review of the published literature, searching PubMed and the Cochrane Library, of trials and reviews (N = 230) that reported stillbirth or perinatal mortality outcomes for eight interventions delivered during labour. Where eligible randomised controlled trials had been published after the most recent Cochrane review on any given intervention, we incorporated these new trial findings into a new meta-analysis with the Cochrane included studies. Results We found a paucity of studies reporting statistically significant evidence of impact on perinatal mortality, especially on stillbirths. Available evidence suggests that operative delivery, especially Caesarean section, contributes to decreased stillbirth rates. Induction of labour rather than expectant management in post-term pregnancies showed strong evidence of impact, though there was not enough evidence to suggest superior safety for the fetus of any given drug or drugs for induction of labour. Planned Caesarean section for term breech presentation has been shown in a large randomised trial to reduce stillbirths, but the feasibility and consequences of implementing this intervention routinely in low-/middle-income countries add caveats to recommending its use. Magnesium sulphate for pre-eclampsia and eclampsia is effective in preventing eclamptic seizures, but studies have not demonstrated impact

  4. Protective effect of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate on ultraviolet b ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... EGCg shows dose-dependent protective effect against UV-B-induced damage on hairless mouse skin. Thus, the plant compound can potentially be used as an alternative agent for photoprotection against UV-B exposure. Keywords: UV-B, Green tea EGCg, Photoprotection, Stratum corneum, Mitochondrion, Melanosome ...

  5. Oxygen-reducing catalyst layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Dennis P [Maplewood, MN; Schmoeckel, Alison K [Stillwater, MN; Vernstrom, George D [Cottage Grove, MN; Atanasoski, Radoslav [Edina, MN; Wood, Thomas E [Stillwater, MN; Yang, Ruizhi [Halifax, CA; Easton, E Bradley [Halifax, CA; Dahn, Jeffrey R [Hubley, CA; O'Neill, David G [Lake Elmo, MN

    2011-03-22

    An oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, and a method of making the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, where the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer includes a catalytic material film disposed on a substrate with the use of physical vapor deposition and thermal treatment. The catalytic material film includes a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

  6. Reducing dietary protein in pond production of hybrid striped bass - study shows a significant reduction is possible in digestible protein level in commercial diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    In previous work, we demonstrated that diets containing 40% digestible protein (DP) (45% crude protein) and 18 %lipid supplemented with Met and Lys resulted in superior performance and nutrient retentions in hybrid striped bass compared to less energy-dense diets when rearing hybrid striped bass at ...

  7. Healthy co-twins of patients with affective disorders show reduced risk-related activation of the insula during a monetary gambling task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macoveanu, Julian; Miskowiak, Kamilla; Kessing, Lars V

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Healthy first-degree relatives of patients with affective disorders are at increased risk for affective disorders and express discrete structural and functional abnormalities in the brain reward system. However, value-based decision making is not well understood in these at-risk indiv......BACKGROUND: Healthy first-degree relatives of patients with affective disorders are at increased risk for affective disorders and express discrete structural and functional abnormalities in the brain reward system. However, value-based decision making is not well understood in these at...

  8. Fourier Transform Infrared Imaging Shows Reduced Unsaturated Lipid Content in the Hippocampus of a Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Leskovjan, Andreana C.; Kretlow, Ariane; Miller, Lisa M.

    2010-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential to brain functions such as membrane fluidity, signal transduction, and cell survival. It is also thought that low levels of unsaturated lipid in the brain may contribute to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) risk or severity. However, it is not known how accumulation of unsaturated lipids is affected in different regions of the hippocampus, which is a central target of AD plaque pathology, during aging. In this study, we used Fourier Transform Infrared Imaging ...

  9. Children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia show high numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells which are reduced by conventional chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Labib Salem; Mohamed Ramadan El-Shanshory; Nabila Ibrahim El-Desouki; Said Hammad Abdou; Mohamed Attia Attia; Abdel-Aziz Awad Zidan; Shymaa Sobhy Mourad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is considered as one of the most common cancer in pediatric malignancies. Among ALL, B-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (B-ALL) represents 80% to 85% of the childhood ALL. Problem: Although anti B-ALL chemotherapy kill B-ALL, it associates with alteration in the numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, and thus impacts the overall immunity. Aim: To evaluate the impact of anti B-ALL on the numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells in correlation to the n...

  10. Preventive Effects of Epigallocatechin-3-O-Gallate against Replicative Senescence Associated with p53 Acetylation in Human Dermal Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Wook Han

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the various pharmacological activities of epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG including anticancer, and anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and so forth, relatively less attention has been paid to the antiaging effect of EGCG on primary cells. In this study, the preventive effects of EGCG against serial passage-induced senescence were investigated in primary cells including rat vascular smooth muscle cells (RVSMCs, human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs, and human articular chondrocytes (HACs. The involvement of Sirt1 and acetylated p53 was examined as an underlying mechanism for the senescence preventive activity of EGCG in HDFs. All cells were employed with the initial passage number (PN between 3 and 7. For inducing senescence, the cells were serially passaged at the predetermined times and intervals in the absence or presence of EGCG (50 or 100 μM. Serial passage-induced senescence in RVSMCs and HACs was able to be significantly prevented at 50 μM EGCG, while in HDFs, 100 μM EGCG could significantly prevent senescence and recover their cell cycle progression close to the normal level. Furthermore, EGCG was found to prevent serial passage- and H2O2-induced senescence in HDFs by suppressing p53 acetylation, but the Sirt1 activity was unaffected. In addition, proliferating HDFs showed similar cellular uptake of FITC-conjugated EGCG into the cytoplasm with their senescent counterparts but different nuclear translocation of it from them, which would partly account for the differential responses to EGCG in proliferating versus senescent cells. Taking these results into consideration, it is suggested that EGCG may be exploited to craft strategies for the development of an antiaging or age-delaying agent.

  11. Reduced chemical kinetic mechanisms for hydrocarbon fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, C.J.; Cremer, M.A.; Heap, M.P.; Chen, J-Y.; Westbrook, C.K.; Maurice, L.Q.

    1999-01-01

    Using CARM (Computer Aided Reduction Method), a computer program that automates the mechanism reduction process, a variety of different reduced chemical kinetic mechanisms for ethylene and n-heptane have been generated. The reduced mechanisms have been compared to detailed chemistry calculations in simple homogeneous reactors and experiments. Reduced mechanisms for combustion of ethylene having as few as 10 species were found to give reasonable agreement with detailed chemistry over a range of stoichiometries and showed significant improvement over currently used global mechanisms. The performance of reduced mechanisms derived from a large detailed mechanism for n-heptane was compared to results from a reduced mechanism derived from a smaller semi-empirical mechanism. The semi-empirical mechanism was advantageous as a starting point for reduction for ignition delay, but not for PSR calculations. Reduced mechanisms with as few as 12 species gave excellent results for n-heptane/air PSR calculations but 16-25 or more species are needed to simulate n-heptane ignition delay

  12. Reducing the capacitance of piezoelectric film sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González, Martín G., E-mail: mggonza@fi.uba.ar [Grupo de Láser, Óptica de Materiales y Aplicaciones Electromagnéticas (GLOMAE), Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Paseo Colón 850, C1063ACV Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), C1425FQB Buenos Aires (Argentina); Sorichetti, Patricio A.; Santiago, Guillermo D. [Grupo de Láser, Óptica de Materiales y Aplicaciones Electromagnéticas (GLOMAE), Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Paseo Colón 850, C1063ACV Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2016-04-15

    We present a novel design for large area, wideband, polymer piezoelectric sensor with low capacitance. The large area allows better spatial resolution in applications such as photoacoustic tomography and the reduced capacitance eases the design of fast transimpedance amplifiers. The metalized piezoelectric polymer thin film is segmented into N sections, electrically connected in series. In this way, the total capacitance is reduced by a factor 1/N{sup 2}, whereas the mechanical response and the active area of the sensor are not modified. We show the construction details for a two-section sensor, together with the impedance spectroscopy and impulse response experimental results that validate the design.

  13. Reducing the capacitance of piezoelectric film sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González, Martín G.; Sorichetti, Patricio A.; Santiago, Guillermo D.

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel design for large area, wideband, polymer piezoelectric sensor with low capacitance. The large area allows better spatial resolution in applications such as photoacoustic tomography and the reduced capacitance eases the design of fast transimpedance amplifiers. The metalized piezoelectric polymer thin film is segmented into N sections, electrically connected in series. In this way, the total capacitance is reduced by a factor 1/N"2, whereas the mechanical response and the active area of the sensor are not modified. We show the construction details for a two-section sensor, together with the impedance spectroscopy and impulse response experimental results that validate the design.

  14. Effect of processing on physicochemical characteristics and bioefficacy of β-lactoglobulin-epigallocatechin-3-gallate complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestringant, Pauline; Guri, Anilda; Gülseren, Ibrahim; Relkin, Perla; Corredig, Milena

    2014-08-20

    Varying amounts of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) were encapsulated in β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg) nanoparticles, either native or processed, denoted as heated or desolvated protein. The stability, physical properties, and bioactivity of the β-Lg-EGCG complexes were tested. Native β-Lg-EGCG complexes showed comparable stability and binding efficacy (EGCG/β-Lg molar ratio of 1:1) to heated β-Lg nanoparticles (1% and 5% protein w/w). The sizes of heated and desolvated β-Lg nanoparticles were comparable, but the latter showed the highest binding affinity for EGCG. The presence of EGCG complexed with β-Lg did not affect the interfacial tension of the protein when tested at the soy oil-water interface but caused a decrease in dilational elasticity. All β-Lg complexes (native, heated, or desolvated) showed a decrease in cellular proliferation similar to that of free ECGC. In summary, protein-EGCG complexes did not alter the bioefficacy of EGCG and contributed to increased stability with storage, demonstrating the potential benefits of nanoencapsulation.

  15. IHadoop: Asynchronous iterations for MapReduce

    KAUST Repository

    Elnikety, Eslam Mohamed Ibrahim

    2011-11-01

    MapReduce is a distributed programming frame-work designed to ease the development of scalable data-intensive applications for large clusters of commodity machines. Most machine learning and data mining applications involve iterative computations over large datasets, such as the Web hyperlink structures and social network graphs. Yet, the MapReduce model does not efficiently support this important class of applications. The architecture of MapReduce, most critically its dataflow techniques and task scheduling, is completely unaware of the nature of iterative applications; tasks are scheduled according to a policy that optimizes the execution for a single iteration which wastes bandwidth, I/O, and CPU cycles when compared with an optimal execution for a consecutive set of iterations. This work presents iHadoop, a modified MapReduce model, and an associated implementation, optimized for iterative computations. The iHadoop model schedules iterations asynchronously. It connects the output of one iteration to the next, allowing both to process their data concurrently. iHadoop\\'s task scheduler exploits inter-iteration data locality by scheduling tasks that exhibit a producer/consumer relation on the same physical machine allowing a fast local data transfer. For those iterative applications that require satisfying certain criteria before termination, iHadoop runs the check concurrently during the execution of the subsequent iteration to further reduce the application\\'s latency. This paper also describes our implementation of the iHadoop model, and evaluates its performance against Hadoop, the widely used open source implementation of MapReduce. Experiments using different data analysis applications over real-world and synthetic datasets show that iHadoop performs better than Hadoop for iterative algorithms, reducing execution time of iterative applications by 25% on average. Furthermore, integrating iHadoop with HaLoop, a variant Hadoop implementation that caches

  16. IHadoop: Asynchronous iterations for MapReduce

    KAUST Repository

    Elnikety, Eslam Mohamed Ibrahim; El Sayed, Tamer S.; Ramadan, Hany E.

    2011-01-01

    MapReduce is a distributed programming frame-work designed to ease the development of scalable data-intensive applications for large clusters of commodity machines. Most machine learning and data mining applications involve iterative computations over large datasets, such as the Web hyperlink structures and social network graphs. Yet, the MapReduce model does not efficiently support this important class of applications. The architecture of MapReduce, most critically its dataflow techniques and task scheduling, is completely unaware of the nature of iterative applications; tasks are scheduled according to a policy that optimizes the execution for a single iteration which wastes bandwidth, I/O, and CPU cycles when compared with an optimal execution for a consecutive set of iterations. This work presents iHadoop, a modified MapReduce model, and an associated implementation, optimized for iterative computations. The iHadoop model schedules iterations asynchronously. It connects the output of one iteration to the next, allowing both to process their data concurrently. iHadoop's task scheduler exploits inter-iteration data locality by scheduling tasks that exhibit a producer/consumer relation on the same physical machine allowing a fast local data transfer. For those iterative applications that require satisfying certain criteria before termination, iHadoop runs the check concurrently during the execution of the subsequent iteration to further reduce the application's latency. This paper also describes our implementation of the iHadoop model, and evaluates its performance against Hadoop, the widely used open source implementation of MapReduce. Experiments using different data analysis applications over real-world and synthetic datasets show that iHadoop performs better than Hadoop for iterative algorithms, reducing execution time of iterative applications by 25% on average. Furthermore, integrating iHadoop with HaLoop, a variant Hadoop implementation that caches

  17. Visual detection of gas shows from coal core and cuttings using liquid leak detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, C.E. [United States Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)

    2006-09-15

    Coal core descriptions are difficult to obtain, as they must be obtained immediately after the core is retrieved and before the core is closed in a canister. This paper described a method of marking gas shows on a core surface by coating the core with a water-based liquid leak detector and photographing the subsequent foam developed on the core surface while the core is still in the core tray. Coals from a borehole at the Yukon Flats Basin in Alaska and the Maverick Basin in Texas were used to illustrate the method. Drilling mud and debris were removed from the coal samples before the leak detector solution was applied onto the core surfaces. A white froth or dripping foam developed rapidly at gas shows on the sample surfaces. A hand-held lens and a binocular microscope were used to magnify the foaming action. It was noted that foaming was not continuous across the core surface, but was restricted to localized points along the surface. It was suggested that the localized point foaming may have resulted from the coring process. However, the same tendency toward point gas show across the sample surface was found in some hard, well-indurated samples that still had undisturbed bedding and other sedimentary structures. It was concluded that gas shows marked as separate foam centres may indicate a real condition of local permeability paths. Results suggested that the new gas show detection method could be used in core selection studies to reduce the costs of exploration programs. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Endogenous mobility-reducing norms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haagsma, R.; Koning, N.B.J.

    2002-01-01

    We present a model where a mobility-reducing norm arises in response to adverse economic conditions. Our example is the classical farm problem of low returns. A temporary transition barrier induces cognitive dissonance in farm youths, which they try to reduce by developing a belief that revalues

  19. Reducing Lookups for Invariant Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jakob Grauenkjær; Clausen, Christian; Andersen, Kristoffer Just

    2013-01-01

    This paper helps reduce the cost of invariant checking in cases where access to data is expensive. Assume that a set of variables satisfy a given invariant and a request is received to update a subset of them. We reduce the set of variables to inspect, in order to verify that the invariant is still...

  20. System for actively reducing sound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2005-01-01

    A system for actively reducing sound from a primary noise source, such as traffic noise, comprising: a loudspeaker connector for connecting to at least one loudspeaker for generating anti-sound for reducing said noisy sound; a microphone connector for connecting to at least a first microphone placed

  1. HIV-positive females show blunted neurophysiological responses in an emotion-attention dual task paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartar, Jaime L; McIntosh, Roger C; Rosselli, Monica; Widmayer, Susan M; Nash, Allan J

    2014-06-01

    Although HIV is associated with decreased emotional and cognitive functioning, the mechanisms through which affective changes can alter cognitive processes in HIV-infected individuals are unknown. We aimed to clarify this question through testing the extent to which emotionally negative stimuli prime attention to a subsequent infrequently occurring auditory tone in HIV+ compared to HIV- females. Attention to emotional compared to non-emotional pictures was measured via the LPP ERP. Subsequent attention was indexed through the N1 and late processing negativity ERP. We also assessed mood and cognitive functioning in both groups. In HIV- females, emotionally negative pictures, compared to neutral pictures, resulted in an enhanced LPP to the pictures and an enhanced N1 to subsequent tones. The HIV+ group did not show a difference in the LPP measure between picture categories, and accordingly, did not show a priming effect to the subsequent infrequent tones. The ERP findings, combined with neuropsychological deficits, suggest that HIV+ females show impairments in attention to emotionally-laden stimuli and that this impairment might be related to a loss of affective priming. This study is the first to provide physiological evidence that the LPP, a measure of attention to emotionally-charged visual stimuli, is reduced in HIV-infected individuals. These results set the stage for future work aimed at localizing brain activation to emotional stimuli in HIV+ individuals. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Keeping your distance: attentional withdrawal in individuals who show physiological signs of social discomfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpak, Ancret; Loetscher, Tobias; Churches, Owen; Thomas, Nicole A; Spence, Charles J; Nicholls, Michael E R

    2015-04-01

    Being in close social proximity to a stranger is generally perceived to be an uncomfortable experience, which most people seek to avoid. In circumstances where crowding is unavoidable, however, people may seek to withdraw their attention from the other person. This study examined whether social discomfort, as indexed by electrodermal activity, is related to a withdrawal of attention in 28 (m=8, f=20) university students. Students performed a radial line bisection task while alone or together with a stranger facing them. Physiological arousal was indexed by a wrist monitor, which recorded electrodermal activity. Correlational analyses showed that individuals who displayed physiological discomfort when together showed a withdrawal of the perceived midpoint of the line towards them (and away from the stranger). Conversely, individuals who showed no discomfort exhibited an expansion of the perceived midpoint away from them. We propose that participants shift their attention away from the stranger to increase interpersonal distance and reduce anxiety/arousal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Alzheimer's-associated Aβ oligomers show altered structure, immunoreactivity and synaptotoxicity with low doses of oleocanthal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitt, Jason; Roth, William; Lacor, Pascale; Smith, Amos B.; Blankenship, Matthew; Velasco, Pauline; De Felice, Fernanda; Breslin, Paul; Klein, William L.

    2009-01-01

    It now appears likely that soluble oligomers of amyloid-β 1-42 peptide, rather than insoluble fibrils, act as the primary neurotoxin in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Consequently, compounds capable of altering the assembly state of these oligomers (referred to as ADDLs) may have potential for AD therapeutics. Phenolic compounds are of particular interest for their ability to disrupt Aβ oligomerization and reduce pathogenicity. This study has focused on oleocanthal (OC), a naturally-occurring phenolic compound found in extra-virgin olive oil. OC increased the immunoreactivity of soluble Aβ species, when assayed with both sequence- and conformation-specific Aβ antibodies, indicating changes in oligomer structure. Analysis of oligomers in the presence of OC showed an upward shift in MW and a ladder-like distribution of SDS-stable ADDL subspecies. In comparison with control ADDLs, oligomers formed in the presence of OC (Aβ-OC) showed equivalent colocalization at synapses but exhibited greater immunofluorescence as a result of increased antibody recognition. The enhanced signal at synapses was not due to increased synaptic binding, as direct detection of fluorescently-labeled ADDLs showed an overall reduction in ADDL signal in the presence of OC. Decreased binding to synapses was accompanied by significantly less synaptic deterioration assayed by drebrin loss. Additionally, treatment with OC improved antibody clearance of ADDLs. These results indicate oleocanthal is capable of altering the oligomerization state of ADDLs while protecting neurons from the synaptopathological effects of ADDLs and suggest OC as a lead compound for development in AD therapeutics.

  4. Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Suppresses Human Herpesvirus 8 Replication and Induces ROS Leading to Apoptosis and Autophagy in Primary Effusion Lymphoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Yi Tsai

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, the major constituent of green tea, has been shown to induce cell death in cancer cells. Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL is an aggressive neoplasm caused by human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8. In this study, we examined the role of EGCG on PEL cells in cell death and HHV8 replication. We performed trypan blue exclusion assay to assess the cell viability of PEL cells, flow cytometry analysis to examine the cell cycle distribution and reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, caspase-3 activity to assay apoptosis, acridine orange staining to determine autophagy, and immunoblotting to detect the protein levels involved in apoptosis and autophagy as well as mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs activation upon EGCG treatment. The expression of the HHV8 lytic gene was determined by luciferase reporter assay and reverse transcription-PCR, and viral progeny production was determined by PCR. Results revealed that EGCG induced cell death and ROS generation in PEL cells in a dose-dependent manner. N-acetylcysteine (NAC inhibited the EGCG-induced ROS and rescued the cell from EGCG-induced cell death. Even though EGCG induced ROS generation in PEL cells, it reduced the production of progeny virus from PEL cells without causing HHV8 reactivation. These results suggest that EGCG may represent a novel strategy for the treatment of HHV8 infection and HHV8-associated lymphomas.

  5. The effects of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate on the proliferation and differentiation of human megakaryocytic progenitor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monzen, Satoru; Takahashi, Kenji; Abe, Yoshinao; Kashiwakura, Ikuo; Mori, Takao; Inanami, Osamu; Kuwabara, Mikinori

    2006-01-01

    Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCg) has been widely recognized as a powerful antioxidant and free radical scavenger. The effects of EGCg on the proliferation and differentiation of X-irradiated megakaryocytic progenitor cells (colony-forming unit-megakaryocyte, CFU-Meg) using CD34 + cells prepared from human placental and umbilical cord blood have been shown. In the absence of exogenous thrombopoietin (TPO), no colonies are observed in cultures containing or lacking EGCg (1 nM-100 μM). In the presence of TPO, in contrast, EGCg significantly promotes CFU-Meg-derived colony formations within the 10-100 nM range. A 1.5-fold increase in the total number of CFU-Meg has been counted compared with the control. These favorable effects of EGCg are also observed in the culture of CD34 + cells before and after X irradiation with 2 Gy. Moreover, in order to investigate the function of EGCg promoting megakaryocyto-poiesis and thrombopoiesis in ex vivo cultures, both non-irradiated and X-irradiated CD34 + cells are grown in liquid cultures supplemented with TPO. In both cultures, EGCg increases the total number of cells and megakaryocytes. It has been suggested that the favorable effects of EGCg reduce the risk factor from radiation damage in megakaryocytopoiesis. (author)

  6. Radon awareness in Ireland: a assessment of the effectiveness of radon road shows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synnott, H.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: In late 2004 the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (R.P.I.I.) initiated a series of radon road shows in areas designated as High Radon Areas 1 in the R.P.I.I. s national radon survey of homes. The main objective of these road shows was to provide information to a local audience on the risks of exposure to radon. These road shows target both employers and householders. Each road show has the same general format. A presentation and/or meeting with a major employer representative group within the area. The purpose is to make employers aware of the risks associated with exposure to radon in the workplace and to highlight their obligations under current Irish health and safety legislation regarding radon in the workplace. An information stand on radon manned by R.P.I.I. staff members in a local shopping centre or other similar area. This provides those concerned about radon with accessible information on radon exposure risks, how to measure radon and the steps a home owner could take to reduce radon concentrations where necessary. Where possible R.P.I.I. staff members visit one or more schools in the general area. A short presentation on radon was given to students and students were given an opportunity to asks questions Maximizing media exposure to publicize our visits is vital to the success of these visits. Each visit is preceded by a Press Release whose main aim is to brief local and national media on the radon issue so as to achieve maximum publicity mainly through radio and television coverage. In general the media are very interested in the whole radon area and R.P.I.I. staff members have given 57 radio and 10 television interviews to date since the commencement of this initiative. The four road shows carried out to date have been successful in encouraging householders to carry out radon measurements. Since the start of the road shows to the present, the R.P.I.I. has seen a 44% increase in the number of householders requesting radon

  7. Metabolic interactions between cysteamine and epigallocatechin gallate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzo, Valentina; Pietrocola, Federico; Sica, Valentina; Durand, Sylvère; Lachkar, Sylvie; Enot, David; Bravo-San Pedro, José Manuel; Chery, Alexis; Esposito, Speranza; Raia, Valeria; Maiuri, Luigi; Maiuri, Maria Chiara; Kroemer, Guido

    2017-02-01

    Phase II clinical trials indicate that the combination of cysteamine plus epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is effective against cystic fibrosis in patients bearing the most frequent etiological mutation (CFTRΔF508). Here, we investigated the interaction between both agents on cultured respiratory epithelia cells from normal and CFTRΔF508-mutated donors. We observed that the combination of both agents affected metabolic circuits (and in particular the tricarboxylic acid cycle) in a unique way and that cysteamine plus EGCG reduced cytoplasmic protein acetylation more than each of the 2 components alone. In a cell-free system, protein cross-linking activity of EGCG was suppressed by cysteamine. Finally, EGCG was able to enhance the conversion of cysteamine into taurine in metabolic flux experiments. Altogether, these results indicate that multiple pharmacological interactions occur between cysteamine and EGCG, suggesting that they contribute to the unique synergy of both agents in restoring the function of mutated CFTRΔF508.

  8. Antioxidative capacity and binding affinity of the complex of green tea catechin and beta-lactoglobulin glycated by the Maillard reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perusko, Marija; Al-Hanish, Ayah; Mihailovic, Jelena; Minic, Simeon; Trifunovic, Sara; Prodic, Ivana; Cirkovic Velickovic, Tanja

    2017-10-01

    Major green tea catechin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), binds non-covalently to numerous dietary proteins, including beta-lactoglobulin of cow's milk. The effects of glycation of proteins via Maillard reaction on the binding capacity for polyphenols and the antiradical properties of the formed complexes have not been studied previously. Binding constant of BLG glycated by milk sugar lactose to EGCG was measured by the method of fluorophore quenching. Binding of EGCG was confirmed by CD and FTIR. The antioxidative properties of the complexes were examined by measuring ABTS radical scavenging capacity, superoxide anion scavenging capacity and total reducing power assay. Glycation of BLG does not significantly influence the binding constant of EGCG for the protein. Conformational changes were observed for both native and glycated BLG upon complexation with EGCG. Masking effect of polyphenol complexation on the antioxidative potential of the protein was of the similar degree for both glycated BLG and native BLG. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Strains of Lactococcus lactis with a partial pyrimidine requirement show sensitivity toward aspartic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadskov-Hansen, Steen Lyders Lerche; Martinussen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The growth rate of the widely used laboratory strain Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris LM0230 was reduced if aspartic acid were present in the growth medium. The strain LM0230 is a plasmid- and phage-cured derivative of L. lactis subsp. cremoris C2, the ancestor of the original dairy isolate L...... with the wild-type strain, and this varied with the concentration of aspartic acid. The observed effect of aspartate could be explained by the accumulation of the toxic pyrimidine de novo pathway intermediate, carbamoyl aspartate. Assays of the pyrimidine biosynthetic enzymes of L. lactis LM0230 showed...... that the partial pyrimidine requirement can be explained by a low specific activity of the pyrimidine biosynthetic enzymes. In conclusion, L. lactis LM0230 during the process of plasmid- and prophage-curing has acquired a partial pyrimidine requirement resulting in sensitivity toward aspartic acid....

  10. Local stressors reduce coral resilience to bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carilli, Jessica E; Norris, Richard D; Black, Bryan A; Walsh, Sheila M; McField, Melanie

    2009-07-22

    Coral bleaching, during which corals lose their symbiotic dinoflagellates, typically corresponds with periods of intense heat stress, and appears to be increasing in frequency and geographic extent as the climate warms. A fundamental question in coral reef ecology is whether chronic local stress reduces coral resistance and resilience from episodic stress such as bleaching, or alternatively promotes acclimatization, potentially increasing resistance and resilience. Here we show that following a major bleaching event, Montastraea faveolata coral growth rates at sites with higher local anthropogenic stressors remained suppressed for at least 8 years, while coral growth rates at sites with lower stress recovered in 2-3 years. Instead of promoting acclimatization, our data indicate that background stress reduces coral fitness and resilience to episodic events. We also suggest that reducing chronic stress through local coral reef management efforts may increase coral resilience to global climate change.

  11. Corn Cultivation to Reduce the Mycotoxin Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangseon Kim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of insecticide and fungicide treatment were investigated to reduce mycotoxin contamination of corn (Zea mays L. seeds. Deoxynivalenol and zearalenone contents were reduced in the treated seeds, but aflatoxin, ochratoxin A, fumonisin, and T-2 toxin were not effective by chemical treatments. The chemical treatment did not affect the growth of saprophyte, but inhibited the pathogenic fungi such as Fusarium verticillioides, F. graminearum and F. equiseti. Myotoxin contents at different harvesting time were compared. As the harvest time was delayed, both levels of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone and frequency of Fusarium spp. increased. However, the major nutrient contents of corn seeds were not affected by harvesting period. These results show that chemical treatments are necessary to reduce the fungal contamination of corn and harvest without delay is important as well.

  12. Hierarchical Traces for Reduced NSM Memory Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Torbjørn S.

    This paper presents work on using hierarchical long term memory to reduce the memory requirements of nearest sequence memory (NSM) learning, a previously published, instance-based reinforcement learning algorithm. A hierarchical memory representation reduces the memory requirements by allowing traces to share common sub-sequences. We present moderated mechanisms for estimating discounted future rewards and for dealing with hidden state using hierarchical memory. We also present an experimental analysis of how the sub-sequence length affects the memory compression achieved and show that the reduced memory requirements do not effect the speed of learning. Finally, we analyse and discuss the persistence of the sub-sequences independent of specific trace instances.

  13. Tennis players show a lower coactivation of the elbow antagonist muscles during isokinetic exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzucchi, Ilenia; Riccio, Maria Elena; Felici, Francesco

    2008-10-01

    Previous studies have suggested that muscle coactivation could be reduced by a recurrent activity (training, daily activities). If this was correct, skilled athletes should show a specific muscle activation pattern with a low level of coactivation of muscles which are typically involved in their discipline. In particular, the aim of this study was to verify the hypothesis that the amount of antagonist activation of biceps brachii (BB) and triceps brachii (TB) is different between tennis players and non-players individuals during maximal isokinetic contractions. Ten young healthy men and eight male tennis players participated in the study. The surface electromyographic signals (sEMG) were recorded from the BB and TB muscles during three maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVC) of elbow flexors and extensors and a set of three maximal elbow flexions and extensions at 15 degrees , 30 degrees , 60 degrees , 120 degrees , 180 degrees and 240 degrees /s. Normalized root mean square (RMS) of sEMG was calculated as an index of sEMG amplitude. Antagonist activation (%RMSmax) of TB was significantly lower in tennis players (from 14.0+/-7.9% at MVC to 16.3+/-8.9% at 240 degrees /s) with respect to non-players (from 27.7+/-19.7% at MVC to 38.7+/-17.6% at 240 degrees /s) at all angular velocities. Contrary to non-players, tennis players did not show any difference in antagonist activation between BB and TB muscles. Tennis players, with a constant practice in controlling forces around the elbow joint, learn how to reduce coactivation of muscles involved in the control of this joint. This has been shown by the lower antagonist muscular activity of triceps brachii muscle during isokinetic elbow flexion found in tennis players with respect to non-players.

  14. Environmental drivers of phototrophic biofilms in an Alpine show cave (SW-Italian Alps)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piano, E.; Bona, F.; Falasco, E.; La Morgia, V.; Badino, G.; Isaia, M.

    2015-01-01

    The proliferation of lampenflora is a major threat for the conservation of show caves, since phototrophic organisms cause physical, chemical and aesthetic damage to speleothems. In this paper we examine the environmental factors influencing the presence and the growth of the three main photosynthetic groups composing phototrophic biofilms in the Bossea show cave (SW-Italian Alps). The presence and the primary production of cyanobacteria, diatoms and green algae were detected with BenthoTorch®, an instrument for in situ measurement of chlorophyll a concentration that has never been used before in caves. By means of different techniques of regression analysis, we highlighted the response of the three photosynthetic groups to different environmental factors. Illuminance proved to be the main factor influencing positively both the probability of the presence and the productivity of the three groups. The presence of seeping water on the substrate and the distance from the cave entrance proved to play an important role in determining patterns of colonization. By means of GIS techniques, we provide thematic maps of the cave, providing a representation of pattern of the density of the three examined photosynthetic groups within different areas of the cave. The same approach may apply to other show caves, aiming at providing suggestions for the cave management (i.e. cleaning of the cave walls and positioning of artificial lights) and reduce impact caused by tourism. - Highlights: • We used a PAM fluorimeter on autotrophic biofilms in a show cave for the first time. • We modelled the environmental factors influencing phototrophic biofilms. • Illuminance, moisture and distance from the entrance proved to be significant. • We produced thematic maps illustrating our results. • We provide suggestions for cave management

  15. Alcohol Content in the 'Hyper-Reality' MTV Show 'Geordie Shore'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Eden; Britton, John; Cranwell, Jo

    2018-05-01

    To quantify the occurrence of alcohol content, including alcohol branding, in the popular primetime television UK Reality TV show 'Geordie Shore' Series 11. A 1-min interval coding content analysis of alcohol content in the entire DVD Series 11 of 'Geordie Shore' (10 episodes). Occurrence of alcohol use, implied use, other alcohol reference/paraphernalia or branding was recorded. All categories of alcohol were present in all episodes. 'Any alcohol' content occurred in 78%, 'actual alcohol use' in 30%, 'inferred alcohol use' in 72%, and all 'other' alcohol references occurred in 59% of all coding intervals (ACIs), respectively. Brand appearances occurred in 23% of ACIs. The most frequently observed alcohol brand was Smirnoff which appeared in 43% of all brand appearances. Episodes categorized as suitable for viewing by adolescents below the legal drinking age of 18 years comprised of 61% of all brand appearances. Alcohol content, including branding, is highly prevalent in the UK Reality TV show 'Geordie Shore' Series 11. Two-thirds of all alcohol branding occurred in episodes age-rated by the British Board of Film Classification (BBFC) as suitable for viewers aged 15 years. The organizations OfCom, Advertising Standards Authority (ASA) and the Portman Group should implement more effective policies to reduce adolescent exposure to on-screen drinking. The drinks industry should consider demanding the withdrawal of their brands from the show. Alcohol content, including branding, is highly prevalent in the MTV reality TV show 'Geordie Shore' Series 11. Current alcohol regulation is failing to protect young viewers from exposure to such content.

  16. Alcohol Content in the ‘Hyper-Reality’ MTV Show ‘Geordie Shore’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Eden; Britton, John

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Aim To quantify the occurrence of alcohol content, including alcohol branding, in the popular primetime television UK Reality TV show ‘Geordie Shore’ Series 11. Methods A 1-min interval coding content analysis of alcohol content in the entire DVD Series 11 of ‘Geordie Shore’ (10 episodes). Occurrence of alcohol use, implied use, other alcohol reference/paraphernalia or branding was recorded. Results All categories of alcohol were present in all episodes. ‘Any alcohol’ content occurred in 78%, ‘actual alcohol use’ in 30%, ‘inferred alcohol use’ in 72%, and all ‘other’ alcohol references occurred in 59% of all coding intervals (ACIs), respectively. Brand appearances occurred in 23% of ACIs. The most frequently observed alcohol brand was Smirnoff which appeared in 43% of all brand appearances. Episodes categorized as suitable for viewing by adolescents below the legal drinking age of 18 years comprised of 61% of all brand appearances. Conclusions Alcohol content, including branding, is highly prevalent in the UK Reality TV show ‘Geordie Shore’ Series 11. Two-thirds of all alcohol branding occurred in episodes age-rated by the British Board of Film Classification (BBFC) as suitable for viewers aged 15 years. The organizations OfCom, Advertising Standards Authority (ASA) and the Portman Group should implement more effective policies to reduce adolescent exposure to on-screen drinking. The drinks industry should consider demanding the withdrawal of their brands from the show. Short Summary Alcohol content, including branding, is highly prevalent in the MTV reality TV show ‘Geordie Shore’ Series 11. Current alcohol regulation is failing to protect young viewers from exposure to such content. PMID:29365032

  17. Environmental drivers of phototrophic biofilms in an Alpine show cave (SW-Italian Alps)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piano, E., E-mail: elena.piano@unito.it [Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, University of Turin, Via Accademia Albertina 13, 10123 Turin (Italy); Bona, F.; Falasco, E. [Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, University of Turin, Via Accademia Albertina 13, 10123 Turin (Italy); La Morgia, V. [ISPRA, via Ca' Fornacetta, 9, 40064 Ozzano dell' Emilia (Italy); Badino, G. [Department of Physics, University of Turin, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Turin (Italy); Isaia, M. [Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, University of Turin, Via Accademia Albertina 13, 10123 Turin (Italy)

    2015-12-01

    The proliferation of lampenflora is a major threat for the conservation of show caves, since phototrophic organisms cause physical, chemical and aesthetic damage to speleothems. In this paper we examine the environmental factors influencing the presence and the growth of the three main photosynthetic groups composing phototrophic biofilms in the Bossea show cave (SW-Italian Alps). The presence and the primary production of cyanobacteria, diatoms and green algae were detected with BenthoTorch®, an instrument for in situ measurement of chlorophyll a concentration that has never been used before in caves. By means of different techniques of regression analysis, we highlighted the response of the three photosynthetic groups to different environmental factors. Illuminance proved to be the main factor influencing positively both the probability of the presence and the productivity of the three groups. The presence of seeping water on the substrate and the distance from the cave entrance proved to play an important role in determining patterns of colonization. By means of GIS techniques, we provide thematic maps of the cave, providing a representation of pattern of the density of the three examined photosynthetic groups within different areas of the cave. The same approach may apply to other show caves, aiming at providing suggestions for the cave management (i.e. cleaning of the cave walls and positioning of artificial lights) and reduce impact caused by tourism. - Highlights: • We used a PAM fluorimeter on autotrophic biofilms in a show cave for the first time. • We modelled the environmental factors influencing phototrophic biofilms. • Illuminance, moisture and distance from the entrance proved to be significant. • We produced thematic maps illustrating our results. • We provide suggestions for cave management.

  18. Fascicles and the interfascicular matrix show decreased fatigue life with ageing in energy storing tendons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Chavaunne T; Riley, Graham P; Birch, Helen L; Clegg, Peter D; Screen, Hazel R C

    2017-07-01

    Tendon is composed of rope-like fascicles bound together by interfascicular matrix (IFM). The IFM is critical for the function of energy storing tendons, facilitating sliding between fascicles to allow these tendons to cyclically stretch and recoil. This capacity is required to a lesser degree in positional tendons. We have previously demonstrated that both fascicles and IFM in energy storing tendons have superior fatigue resistance compared with positional tendons, but the effect of ageing on the fatigue properties of these different tendon subunits has not been determined. Energy storing tendons become more injury-prone with ageing, indicating reduced fatigue resistance, hence we tested the hypothesis that the decline in fatigue life with ageing in energy storing tendons would be more pronounced in the IFM than in fascicles. We further hypothesised that tendon subunit fatigue resistance would not alter with ageing in positional tendons. Fascicles and IFM from young and old energy storing and positional tendons were subjected to cyclic fatigue testing until failure, and mechanical properties were calculated. The results show that both IFM and fascicles from the SDFT exhibit a similar magnitude of reduced fatigue life with ageing. By contrast, the fatigue life of positional tendon subunits was unaffected by ageing. The age-related decline in fatigue life of tendon subunits in energy storing tendons is likely to contribute to the increased risk of injury in aged tendons. Full understanding of the mechanisms resulting in this reduced fatigue life will aid in the development of treatments and interventions to prevent age-related tendinopathy. Understanding the effect of ageing on tendon-structure function relationships is crucial for the development of effective preventative measures and treatments for age-related tendon injury. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that the fatigue resistance of the interfascicular matrix decreases with ageing in energy

  19. ECONOMIC GROWTH AND EQUALITY IN REDUCING POVERTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaenal Muttaqin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In some developing countries, the instrument to alleviate the poverty is by using the economic growth. So, the increasing in investment, infrastructure development, and macroeconomics stability always be priority from developing countries. In this article explain that economic growth is not the important factor to alleviate the poverty, because equality sometimes is more important rather than the economic growth. In this context, its measure by inequality growth trade off index (IGTI. This method is to measure the influence of economic growth to reducing the inequality, with this method every country can measure which one is better to reducing the poverty whether the economic growth or equality. With this method, Laos in 2000 show that economic growth is more important than equality, but in the same year in Thailand show that equality is more important than economic growth.DOI: 10.15408/sjie.v1i1.2592

  20. Antiviral Properties of the Natural Polyphenols Delphinidin and Epigallocatechin Gallate against the Flaviviruses West Nile Virus, Zika Virus, and Dengue Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángela Vázquez-Calvo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Flavivirus genus contains important pathogens, such as West Nile virus (WNV, Zika virus (ZIKV, and Dengue virus (DENV, which are enveloped plus-strand RNA viruses transmitted by mosquitoes and constitute a worrisome threat to global human and animal health. Currently no licensed drugs against them are available, being, thus, still necessary the search for effective antiviral molecules. In this line, a novel antiviral approach (economical, simple to use, and environmental friendly is the use of natural compounds. Consequently, we have tested the antiviral potential of different polyphenols present in plants and natural products, such as wine and tea, against WNV, ZIKV, and DENV. So that, we assayed the effect of a panel of structurally related polyphenols [delphinidin (D, cyanidin (Cy, catechin (C, epicatechin (EC, epigallocatechin (EGC, and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG] on WNV infection, and found that D and EGCG inhibited more effectively the virus production. Further analysis with both compounds indicated that they mainly affected the attachment and entry steps of the virus life cycle. Moreover, D and EGCG showed a direct effect on WNV particles exerting a virucidal effect. We showed a similar inhibition of viral production of these compounds on WNV variants that differed on acidic pH requirements for viral fusion, indicating that their antiviral activity against WNV is produced by a virucidal effect rather than by an inhibition of pH-dependent viral fusion. Both polyphenols also reduced the infectivity of ZIKV and DENV. Therefore, D and EGCG impair the infectivity in cell culture of these three medically relevant flaviviruses.

  1. Development of a whole-organism model to screen new compounds for sun protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun-Hsin; Wen, Chi-Chung; Yang, Zhi-Shiang; Cheng, Chien-Chung; Tsai, Jen-Ning; Ku, Chia-Chen; Wu, Hsin-Ju; Chen, Yau-Hung

    2009-01-01

    We used zebrafish as a whole-organism model to screen new compounds for sun protection activity. First of all, we designed a series of UVB exposure experiments and recorded the phenotypic changes of zebrafish embryos. Results showed that 100 mJ/cm(2) of UVB given six times separated by 30 min intervals is the best condition. Fin malformation (reduced and/or absent fin) phenotypes are the most evident consequences after exposure to UVB. Each fin was affected by UVB, including pelvic, ventral, caudal, and dorsal fin, but pelvic fin seemed to be the most sensitive target after UVB exposure. We furthermore carried out "prevention" and "treatment" experiments using green tea extract and/or (-)-epigallocatechin (EGCG) to test this whole-organism model by observing the morphological changes of all fins (especially pelvic fin) after UVB exposure. Effects of UVB, green tea extract and EGCG on fin development were assessed using the Kaplan-Meier analysis, log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards regression. Results showed that a zebrafish pelvic fin in the UVB + green tea (treatment) group is 5.51 (range from 2.39 to 14.90) times, one in the UVB + green tea (prevention) group is 7.04 (range from 3.11 to 18.92) times, and one in the 25 ppm of EGCG (prevention) group is 22.19 (range from 9.40 to 61.50) times more likely to return to normal fin than one in the UVB only group. On the basis of these observations, we believe this model is effective for screening the higher stability and lower toxicity of new compounds, such as small chemicals which are derivative from EGCG or other dietary agents for sun protection.

  2. Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate suppresses melanoma growth by inhibiting inflammasome and IL-1β secretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, Lixia Z.; Liu, Weimin; Luo, Yuchun; Okamoto, Miyako; Qu, Dovina; Dunn, Jeffrey H.; Fujita, Mayumi

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► EGCG inhibits melanoma cell growth at physiological doses (0.1–1 μM). ► EGCG inhibits melanoma cell growth via inflammasomes and IL-1β suppression. ► Inflammasomes and IL-1β could be potential targets for future melanoma therapeutics. -- Abstract: Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major polyphenolic component of green tea, has been demonstrated to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-mutagenic and anti-carcinogenic properties. The anti-melanoma effect of EGCG has been previously suggested, but no clear mechanism of action has been established. In this study, we demonstrated that EGCG inhibits melanoma cell growth at physiological doses (0.1–1 μM). In the search for mechanisms of EGCG-mediated melanoma cell suppression, we found that NF-κB was inhibited, and that reduced NF-κB activity was associated with decreased IL-1β secretion from melanoma cells. Since inflammasomes are involved in IL-1β secretion, we investigated whether IL-1β suppression was mediated by inflammasomes, and found that EGCG treatment led to downregulation of the inflammasome component, NLRP1, and reduced caspase-1 activation. Furthermore, silencing the expression of NLRP1 abolished EGCG-induced inhibition of tumor cell proliferation both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting a key role of inflammasomes in EGCG efficacy. This paper provides a novel mechanism for EGCG-induced melanoma inhibition: inflammasome downregulation → decreased IL-1β secretion → decreased NF-κB activities → decreased cell growth. In addition, it suggests inflammasomes and IL-1β could be potential targets for future melanoma therapeutics.

  3. Reducing the Burden of Price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Janet S.

    1984-01-01

    Setting prices for undergraduate education and assessing their effects on consumers and institutions is complicated by widespread price discounting. Student aid programs, credit, subsidized employment, and tax policy can reduce the actual costs paid by students and their families. (MSE)

  4. Filtering reducer of flushing fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secu, P; Apostu, M; Basarabescu, T; Popescu, F

    1981-02-28

    This is a patent of a filtering reducer of flushing fluid on a water base with low content of solid particles used at temperatures of roughly 200/sup 0/C. With the use of the proposed filtering reducer, there is no excessive increase in viscosity and gelatinization of the flushing fluids without restriction in the quantity of reducer needed to guarantee the required filtering. There is a possibility of recovering the polyalkylphenol vat residues obtained in the production of nonyl phenol. It is possible to reduce the time of treatment and dissolving of the product; there is no danger of plugging of the productive oil beds. The process of hydration of clay is excluded.

  5. Interference, reduced action, and trajectories

    OpenAIRE

    Floyd, Edward R.

    2006-01-01

    Instead of investigating the interference between two stationary, rectilinear wave functions in a trajectory representation by examining the two rectilinear wave functions individually, we examine a dichromatic wave function that is synthesized from the two interfering wave functions. The physics of interference is contained in the reduced action for the dichromatic wave function. As this reduced action is a generator of the motion for the dichromatic wave function, it determines the dichroma...

  6. Learning to REDUCE: A Reduced Electricity Consumption Prediction Ensemble

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aman, Saima; Chelmis, Charalampos; Prasanna, Viktor

    2016-02-12

    Utilities use Demand Response (DR) to balance supply and demand in the electric grid by involving customers in efforts to reduce electricity consumption during peak periods. To implement and adapt DR under dynamically changing conditions of the grid, reliable prediction of reduced consumption is critical. However, despite the wealth of research on electricity consumption prediction and DR being long in practice, the problem of reduced consumption prediction remains largely un-addressed. In this paper, we identify unique computational challenges associated with the prediction of reduced consumption and contrast this to that of normal consumption and DR baseline prediction.We propose a novel ensemble model that leverages different sequences of daily electricity consumption on DR event days as well as contextual attributes for reduced consumption prediction. We demonstrate the success of our model on a large, real-world, high resolution dataset from a university microgrid comprising of over 950 DR events across a diverse set of 32 buildings. Our model achieves an average error of 13.5%, an 8.8% improvement over the baseline. Our work is particularly relevant for buildings where electricity consumption is not tied to strict schedules. Our results and insights should prove useful to the researchers and practitioners working in the sustainable energy domain.

  7. Study of the Relationship between Taste Sensor Response and the Amount of Epigallocatechin Gallate Adsorbed Onto a Lipid-Polymer Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhei Harada

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A taste sensor using lipid-polymer membranes has been developed to evaluate the taste of foods, beverages and medicines. The response of the taste sensor, measured as a change in the membrane potential caused by adsorption (CPA, corresponds to the aftertaste felt by humans. The relationships between the CPA value and the amount of adsorbed taste substances, quinine and iso-α acid (bitterness, and tannic acid (astringency, have been studied so far. However, that of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg has not been clarified, although EGCg is abundantly present in green tea as one of its astringent substances. This study aimed at clarifying the response of the taste sensor to EGCg and its relationship with the amount of EGCg adsorbed onto lipid-polymer membranes. The lipid concentration dependence of the CPA value was similar to that of the amount of adsorbed EGCg, indicating a high correlation between the CPA value and the amount of adsorbed EGCg. The CPA value increased with increasing amount of adsorbed EGCg; however, the CPA value showed a tendency of leveling off when the amount of adsorbed EGCg further increased.

  8. Numerical simulation of faulting in the Sunda Trench shows that seamounts may generate megathrust earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, L.; Chan, C. H.; Tapponnier, P.

    2017-12-01

    The role of seamounts in generating earthquakes has been debated, with some studies suggesting that seamounts could be truncated to generate megathrust events, while other studies indicate that the maximum size of megathrust earthquakes could be reduced as subducting seamounts could lead to segmentation. The debate is highly relevant for the seamounts discovered along the Mentawai patch of the Sunda Trench, where previous studies have suggested that a megathrust earthquake will likely occur within decades. In order to model the dynamic behavior of the Mentawai patch, we simulated forearc faulting caused by seamount subducting using the Discrete Element Method. Our models show that rupture behavior in the subduction system is dominated by stiffness of the overriding plate. When stiffness is low, a seamount can be a barrier to rupture propagation, resulting in several smaller (M≤8.0) events. If, however, stiffness is high, a seamount can cause a megathrust earthquake (M8 class). In addition, we show that a splay fault in the subduction environment could only develop when a seamount is present, and a larger offset along a splay fault is expected when stiffness of the overriding plate is higher. Our dynamic models are not only consistent with previous findings from seismic profiles and earthquake activities, but the models also better constrain the rupture behavior of the Mentawai patch, thus contributing to subsequent seismic hazard assessment.

  9. Mortality risk factors show similar trends in modern and historic populations exposed to plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubini, Mauro; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela; Manzon, Vanessa S; Rinaldo, Natascia; Bianucci, Raffaella

    2016-05-31

    Plague has been responsible for two major historic pandemics (6th-8th century CE; 14th-19th century CE) and a modern one. The recent Malagasy plague outbreaks raised new concerns on the deadly potential of the plague-causing bacteria Yersinia pestis. Between September 2014 and April 2015, outbreaks of bubonic and pneumonic plague hit the Malagasy population. Two hundred and sixty-three cases, including 71 deaths, have been reported in 16 different districts with a case fatality rate of 27%. The scope of our study was to ascertain whether the risk factors for health in modern-day populations exposed to plague and in ancient populations that faced the two historic pandemics varied or remained substantially unaltered. The risk of mortality of the Malagasy population with those obtained from the reconstruction of three samples of European populations exposed to the historic pandemics was contrasted. The evidence shows that the risks of death are not uniform across age neither in modern nor in historic populations exposed to plague and shows precise concentrations in specific age groups (children between five and nine years of age and young adults). Although in the post-antibiotic era, the fatality rates have drastically reduced, both modern and historic populations were exposed to the same risk factors that are essentially represented by a low standard of environmental hygiene, poor nutrition, and weak health systems.

  10. Crude Aloe vera Gel Shows Antioxidant Propensities and Inhibits Pancreatic Lipase and Glucose Movement In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taukoorah, Urmeela; Mahomoodally, M. Fawzi

    2016-01-01

    Aloe vera gel (AVG) is traditionally used in the management of diabetes, obesity, and infectious diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the inhibitory potential of AVG against α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and pancreatic lipase activity in vitro. Enzyme kinetic studies using Michaelis-Menten (K m) and Lineweaver-Burk equations were used to establish the type of inhibition. The antioxidant capacity of AVG was evaluated for its ferric reducing power, 2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl hydrate scavenging ability, nitric oxide scavenging power, and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity. The glucose entrapment ability, antimicrobial activity, and total phenolic, flavonoid, tannin, and anthocyanin content were also determined. AVG showed a significantly higher percentage inhibition (85.56 ± 0.91) of pancreatic lipase compared to Orlistat. AVG was found to increase the Michaelis-Menten constant and decreased the maximal velocity (V max) of lipase, indicating mixed inhibition. AVG considerably inhibits glucose movement across dialysis tubes and was comparable to Arabic gum. AVG was ineffective against the tested microorganisms. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were 66.06 ± 1.14 (GAE)/mg and 60.95 ± 0.97 (RE)/mg, respectively. AVG also showed interesting antioxidant properties. The biological activity observed in this study tends to validate some of the traditional claims of AVG as a functional food. PMID:26880905

  11. Microchip-calorimetry of organic charge transfer complex which shows superconductivity at low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muraoka, Yuki [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Machikaneyama 1-1, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Yamashita, Satoshi [RIKEN, Hirosawa 2-1, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Yamamoto, Takashi [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Machikaneyama 1-1, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Nakazawa, Yasuhiro, E-mail: nakazawa@chem.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Machikaneyama 1-1, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Institute for Molecular Science, Nishigonaka 38, Myodaiji, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan)

    2012-03-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Organic charge transfer salt of {kappa}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}Cu[N(CN){sub 2}]Br shows superconductivity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We succeeded to detect thermal anomaly microchip device TCG3880. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Development details of the calorimeter and the detection system is presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The magnetic fields dependence shows typical character of layered superconductor. - Abstract: We carried out thermodynamic measurements of organic charge transfer complex of {kappa}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}Cu[N(CN){sub 2}]Br, where BEDT-TTF is bis(ethylenedithio)tetrathiafulvalene by TCG3880 chip device in order to examine capability of the chip calorimeter at low temperature region and under magnetic fields. TCG3880 chip is mounted on a {sup 3}He cryostat available in combination with a superconductive magnet up to 7 T. Thermal anomalies related to the glass-like freezing of ethylene groups of BEDT-TTF molecules and the superconductive transition were observed. A frequency dependence of the thermal anomaly of the glass formation and a magnetic fields dependence of the thermal anomaly of the superconductive transition are reported. The results presented in this work demonstrate that the TCG3880 is quite useful for thermodynamic investigations of the organic charge transfer complex with much reduced sample quantity as compared with those of relaxation and adiabatic calorimetry.

  12. Effect of catechin and its derivatives on inhibition of polyphenoloxidase and melanosis of Pacific white shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sae-Leaw, Thanasak; Benjakul, Soottawat; Simpson, Benjamin K

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of tea catechin (C) and 4 of its derivatives on the Pacific white shrimp PPO inhibition and melanosis during refrigerated storage. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) exhibited the highest inhibition towards PPO, followed by C. Inhibitory activity of all compounds tested was in a dose dependent manner (0.1-2.0 mM). Based on activity staining, EGCG most effectively inhibited PPO. For inhibition kinetic studies, C and epicatechin (EC) showed uncompetitive type, whereas epicatechin gallate (ECG), epigallocatechin (EGC) and EGCG exhibited mixed type inhibition. When whole shrimps were treated with EGCG solution at various concentrations (0.25-0.75%), those treated with 0.5 or 0.75% EGCG had lower melanosis scores throughout storage for 10 days at 4 °C, compared with the control and the 1.25% sodium metabisulfite treated samples ( P  white shrimp during refrigerated storage.

  13. Cobalamin C Deficiency Shows a Rapidly Progressing Maculopathy With Severe Photoreceptor and Ganglion Cell Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonafede, Lucas; Ficicioglu, Can H.; Serrano, Leona; Han, Grace; Morgan, Jessica I. W.; Mills, Monte D.; Forbes, Brian J.; Davidson, Stefanie L.; Binenbaum, Gil; Kaplan, Paige B.; Nichols, Charles W.; Verloo, Patrick; Leroy, Bart P.; Maguire, Albert M.; Aleman, Tomas S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To describe in detail the retinal structure and function of a group of patients with cobalamin C (cblC) disease. Methods Patients (n = 11, age 4 months to 15 years) with cblC disease (9/11, early onset) diagnosed by newborn screening underwent complete ophthalmic examinations, fundus photography, near-infrared reflectance imaging, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Electroretinograms (ERGs) were performed in a subset of patients. Results Patients carried homozygous or compound heterozygote mutations in the methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria type C (MMACHC) gene. Late-onset patients had a normal exam. All early-onset patients showed a maculopathy; older subjects had a retina-wide degeneration (n = 4; >7 years of age). In general, retinal changes were first observed before 1 year of age and progressed within months to a well-established maculopathy. Pseudocolobomas were documented in three patients. Measurable visual acuities ranged from 20/200 to 20/540. Nystagmus was present in 8/11 patients; 5/6 patients had normal ERGs; 1/6 had reduced rod-mediated responses. Spectral-domain OCT showed macular thinning, with severe ganglion cell layer (GCL) and outer nuclear layer (ONL) loss. Inner retinal thickening was observed in areas of total GCL/ONL loss. A normal lamination pattern in the peripapillary nasal retina was often seen despite severe central and/or retina-wide disease. Conclusions Patients with early-onset cblC and MMACHC mutations showed an early-onset, unusually fast-progressing maculopathy with severe central ONL and GCL loss. An abnormally thickened inner retina supports a remodeling response to both photoreceptor and ganglion cell degeneration and/or an interference with normal development in early-onset cblC. PMID:26658511

  14. Sleep can reduce proactive interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Magdalena; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T

    2014-01-01

    Sleep has repeatedly been connected to processes of memory consolidation. While extensive research indeed documents beneficial effects of sleep on memory, little is yet known about the role of sleep for interference effects in episodic memory. Although two prior studies reported sleep to reduce retroactive interference, no sleep effect has previously been found for proactive interference. Here we applied a study format differing from that employed by the prior studies to induce a high degree of proactive interference, and asked participants to encode a single list or two interfering lists of paired associates via pure study cycles. Testing occurred after 12 hours of diurnal wakefulness or nocturnal sleep. Consistent with the prior work, we found sleep in comparison to wake did not affect memory for the single list, but reduced retroactive interference. In addition we found sleep reduced proactive interference, and reduced retroactive and proactive interference to the same extent. The finding is consistent with the view that arising benefits of sleep are caused by the reactivation of memory contents during sleep, which has been suggested to strengthen and stabilise memories. Such stabilisation may make memories less susceptible to competition from interfering memories at test and thus reduce interference effects.

  15. Evolution of technetium speciation in reducing grout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukens, Wayne W.; Bucher, Jerome J.; Shuh, David K.; Edelstein,Norman M.

    2003-11-24

    Cementitious waste forms (CWFs) are an important component of the strategy to immobilize high-level nuclear waste resulting from plutonium production by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Technetium (99Tc) is an abundant fission product of particular concern in CWFs due to the high solubility and mobility of pertechnetate, TcO4-, the stable form of technetium in aerobic environments. CWFs can more effectively immobilize 99Tc if they contain additives that reduce mobile TcO4- to immobile Tc(IV) species. Leaching of 99Tc from reducing CWFs that contain Tc(IV) is much slower than for CWFs containing TcO4-. Previous X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) studies showed that the Tc(IV) species were oxidized to TcO4- in reducing grout samples prepared on a laboratory scale. Whether the oxidizer was atmospheric O2 or NO3- in the waste simulant was not determined. In actual CWFs, rapid oxidation of Tc(IV) by NO3- would be a concern, whereas oxidation by atmospheric O2 would be of less concern due to the slow diffusion and reaction of O2 with the reducing CWF. To address this uncertainty, two series of reducing grouts were prepared using TcO4- containing waste simulants with and without NO3-. In the first series of samples, the TcO4- was completely reduced using Na2S, and the samples were placed in containers that permitted O2 diffusion. In these samples, all of the technetium was initially present as aTc(IV) sulfide compound, TcSx, which was characterized using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, and is likely Tc2S7. The TcSx initially present in the grout samples was steadily oxidized over 4 years. In the second series of samples, all of the TcO4- was not initially reduced, and the grout samples were placed in airtight containers. In these samples, the remaining TcO4- continued to be reduced as the samples aged, presumably due to the presence of reducing blast furnace slag. When samples in the second series were exposed to atmosphere, the

  16. Chronic infusion of epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate into the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus attenuates hypertension and sympathoexcitation by restoring neurotransmitters and cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Qiu-Yue; Li, Hong-Bao; Qi, Jie; Yu, Xiao-Jing; Huo, Chan-Juan; Li, Xiang; Bai, Juan; Gao, Hong-Li; Kou, Bo; Liu, Kai-Li; Zhang, Dong-Dong; Chen, Wen-Sheng; Cui, Wei; Zhu, Guo-Qing; Shi, Xiao-Lian; Kang, Yu-Ming

    2016-11-16

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the brain are involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG), one of the active compounds in green tea, has anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and vascular protective properties. This study was designed to determine whether chronic infusion of EGCG into the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) attenuates ROS and sympathetic activity and delays the progression of hypertension by up-regulating anti-inflammatory cytokines, reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs) and decreasing nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activity, as well as restoring the neurotransmitters balance in the PVN of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Adult normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats and SHR received bilateral PVN infusion of EGCG (20μg/h) or vehicle via osmotic minipumps for 4 weeks. SHR showed higher mean arterial pressure, plasma proinflammatory cytokines and circulating norepinephrine (NE) levels compared with WKY rats. SHR also had higher PVN levels of the subunit of NAD(P)H oxidase (gp91 phox ), ROS, tyrosine hydroxylase, and PICs; increased NF-κB activity; and lower PVN levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10) and 67kDa isoform of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD67) than WKY rats. PVN infusion of EGCG attenuated all these changes in SHR. These findings suggest that SHR have an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters, as well as an imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the PVN. Chronic inhibition of ROS in the PVN restores the balance of neurotransmitters and cytokines in the PVN, thereby attenuating hypertensive response and sympathetic activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Nature of Reduced Carbon in Martian Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Everett K., Jr.; McKay, D. S.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Clemett, S. J.; White, L. M.

    2012-01-01

    Martian meteorites provide important information on the nature of reduced carbon components present on Mars throughout its history. The first in situ analyses for carbon on the surface of Mars by the Viking landers yielded disappointing results. With the recognition of Martian meteorites on Earth, investigations have shown carbon-bearing phases exist on Mars. Studies have yielded presence of reduced carbon, carbonates and inferred graphitic carbon phases. Samples ranging in age from the first approximately 4 Ga of Mars history [e.g. ALH84001] to nakhlites with a crystallization age of 1.3 Ga [e.g. Nakhla] with aqueous alteration processes occurring 0.5-0.7 Ga after crystallizaton. Shergottites demonstrate formation ages around 165-500 Ma with younger aqueous alterations events. Only a limited number of the Martian meteorites do not show evidence of significance terrestrial alterations. Selected areas within ALH84001, Nakhla, Yamato 000593 and possibly Tissint are suitable for study of their indigenous reduced carbon bearing phases. Nakhla possesses discrete, well-defined carbonaceous phases present within iddingsite alteration zones. Based upon both isotopic measurements and analysis of Nakhla's organic phases the presence of pre-terrestrial organics is now recognized. The reduced carbon-bearing phases appear to have been deposited during preterrestrial aqueous alteration events that produced clays. In addition, the microcrystalline layers of Nakhla's iddingsite have discrete units of salt crystals suggestive of evaporation processes. While we can only speculate on the origin of these unique carbonaceous structures, we note that the significance of such observations is that it may allow us to understand the role of Martian carbon as seen in the Martian meteorites with obvious implications for astrobiology and the pre-biotic evolution of Mars. In any case, our observations strongly suggest that reduced organic carbon exists as micrometer- size, discrete structures

  18. Reducing dust and allergen exposure in bakeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard J Mason

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bakers have a continuing high incidence of occupational allergic asthma. In factory bakeries they are exposed not only to flour dust containing allergens, but also improvers whose ingredients enhance the strength and workability of the dough and its speed of rising. Improvers are flour-based but can contain added soya, fungal or bacterial enzymes that are also allergenic, as well as vegetable oil, calcium sulphate/silicate and organic esters. This study investigated the dustiness of the components used in factory bakeries and whether altering improver ingredients could reduce dust and allergen exposure. A standardised rotating drum test was employed on the individual components, as well as a representative improver and three practicable improver modifications by decreasing calcium sulphate, calcium silicate or increasing oil content. Levels of dust, the allergens wheat flour amylase inhibitor (WAAI and soya trypsin inhibitor (STI were measured in the generated inhalable, thoracic and respirable sized fractions. A “scooping and pouring” workplace simulation was also performed. Initial tests showed that dustiness of several wheat flours was relatively low, and even lower for soya flour, but increased in combination with some other improver components. All three improver modifications generally reduced levels of dust, STI and WAAI, but increasing oil content significantly decreased dust and STI in comparison to the standard improver and those improvers with reduced calcium silicate or sulphate. The simulation demonstrated that increased oil content reduced inhalable levels of gravimetric dust, STI and WAAI. Changing improver formulation, such as increasing oil content of flour by a small amount, may represent a simple, practical method of reducing bakery workers’ exposure to dust and allergens where improvers are used. It may be a useful adjunct to engineering control, changes to work practices and appropriate training in reducing the risk to

  19. Mitochondrial Modulation by Epigallocatechin 3-Gallate Ameliorates Cisplatin Induced Renal Injury through Decreasing Oxidative/Nitrative Stress, Inflammation and NF-kB in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueping; Wang, Ping; Fu, Guanghou; Meng, Hongzhou; Wang, Yimin; Jin, Baiye

    2015-01-01

    Cancer chemotherapy drug cisplatin is known for its nephrotoxicity. The aim of this study is to investigate whether Epigallocatechin 3-Gallate (EGCG) can reduce cisplatin mediated side effect in kidney and to understand its mechanism of protection against tissue injury. We used a well-established 3-day cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity mice model where EGCG were administered. EGCG is a major active compound in Green Tea and have strong anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. EGCG protected against cisplatin induced renal dysfunction as measured by serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). EGCG improved cisplatin induced kidney structural damages such as tubular dilatation, cast formation, granulovaculoar degeneration and tubular cell necrosis as evident by PAS staining. Cisplatin induced kidney specific mitochondrial oxidative stress, impaired activities of mitochondrial electron transport chain enzyme complexes, impaired anti-oxidant defense enzyme activities such as glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) in mitochondria, inflammation (tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 1β), increased accumulation of NF-κB in nuclear fraction, p53 induction, and apoptotic cell death (caspase 3 activity and DNA fragmentation). Treatment of mice with EGCG markedly attenuated cisplatin induced mitochondrial oxidative/nitrative stress, mitochondrial damages to electron transport chain activities and antioxidant defense enzyme activities in mitochondria. These mitochondrial modulations by EGCG led to protection mechanism against cisplatin induced inflammation and apoptotic cell death in mice kidney. As a result, EGCG improved renal function in cisplatin mediated kidney damage. In addition to that, EGCG attenuated cisplatin induced apoptotic cell death and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in human kidney tubular cell line HK-2. Thus, our data suggest that EGCG may represent new promising adjunct candidate for

  20. Epigalloccatechin-3-gallate Inhibits Ocular Neovascularization and Vascular Permeability in Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial and Human Retinal Microvascular Endothelial Cells via Suppression of MMP-9 and VEGF Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hak Sung Lee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Epigalloccatechin-3-gallate (EGCG is the main polyphenol component of green tea (leaves of Camellia sinensis. EGCG is known for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and anti-carcinogenic properties. Here, we identify EGCG as a new inhibitor of ocular angiogenesis and its vascular permeability. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF play a key role in the processes of extracellular matrix (ECM remodeling and microvascular permeability during angiogenesis. We investigated the inhibitory effects of EGCG on ocular neovascularization and vascular permeability using the retina oriented cells and animal models induced by VEGF and alkaline burn. EGCG treatment significantly decreased mRNA and protein expression levels of MMP-9 in the presence of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α in human retinal pigment epithelial cells (HRPECs. EGCG also effectively protected ARPE-19 cells from cell death and attenuated mRNA expressions of key angiogenic factors (MMP-9, VEGF, VEGF Receptor-2 by inhibiting generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. EGCG significantly inhibited proliferation, vascular permeability, and tube formation in VEGF-induced human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMECs. Furthermore, EGCG significantly reduced vascular leakage and permeability by blood-retinal barrier breakdown in VEGF-induced animal models. In addition, EGCG effectively limited upregulation of MMP-9 and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM/CD31 on corneal neovascularization (CNV induced by alkaline burn. Our data suggest that MMP-9 and VEGF are key therapeutic targets of EGCG for treatment and prevention of ocular angiogenic diseases such as age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and corneal neovascularization.

  1. Six ways to reduce inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunn, T

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to help you reduce the inventory in your operation. We will accomplish that task by discussing six specific methods that companies have used successfully to reduce their inventory. One common attribute of these successes is that they also build teamwork among the people. Every business operation today is concerned with methods to improve customer service. The real trick is to accomplish that task without increasing inventory. We are all concerned with improving our skills at keeping inventory low.

  2. The Gambling Reducing Slot Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Mette Buhl; Thomsen, Kristine Rømer; Linnet, Jakob

    2007-01-01

      The Gambling Reducing Slot Machine - Preliminary results Mette Buhl Callesen, Kristine Rømer Thomsen, Jakob Linnet and Arne Møller The PET Centre, Aarhus University Hospital and Centre of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Aarhus, Denmark   Slot machines are among the most addictive forms...... and willingness to continue gambling. The results may have important implications for understanding how to reduce gambling behavior in pathological gamblers.   [1] Griffiths, M. 1999. Gambling Technologies: Prospects for Problem Gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, vol. 15(3), pp. 265-283.    ...

  3. Quasi-equilibria in reduced Liouville spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halse, Meghan E; Dumez, Jean-Nicolas; Emsley, Lyndon

    2012-06-14

    The quasi-equilibrium behaviour of isolated nuclear spin systems in full and reduced Liouville spaces is discussed. We focus in particular on the reduced Liouville spaces used in the low-order correlations in Liouville space (LCL) simulation method, a restricted-spin-space approach to efficiently modelling the dynamics of large networks of strongly coupled spins. General numerical methods for the calculation of quasi-equilibrium expectation values of observables in Liouville space are presented. In particular, we treat the cases of a time-independent Hamiltonian, a time-periodic Hamiltonian (with and without stroboscopic sampling) and powder averaging. These quasi-equilibrium calculation methods are applied to the example case of spin diffusion in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance. We show that there are marked differences between the quasi-equilibrium behaviour of spin systems in the full and reduced spaces. These differences are particularly interesting in the time-periodic-Hamiltonian case, where simulations carried out in the reduced space demonstrate ergodic behaviour even for small spins systems (as few as five homonuclei). The implications of this ergodic property on the success of the LCL method in modelling the dynamics of spin diffusion in magic-angle spinning experiments of powders is discussed.

  4. Interventions: Employees’ Perceptions of What Reduces Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Pignata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To build upon research evaluating stress interventions, this qualitative study tests the framework of the extended Job Demands-Resources model to investigate employees’ perceptions of the stress-reduction measures implemented at 13 Australian universities. Methods. In a cross-sectional survey design, tenured and contract staff indicated whether their overall level of stress had changed during the previous three-four years, and, if so, they described the major causes. A total of 462 staff reported that their level of stress had decreased; the study examines commentary from 115 academic and 304 nonacademic staff who provided details of what they perceived to be effective in reducing stress. Results. Thematic analyses show that the key perceived causes were changes in job or work role, new heads of departments or supervisors, and the use of organizational strategies to reduce or manage stress. A higher percentage of academic staff reported reduced stress due to using protective coping strategies or their increased recognition and/or success, whereas a higher percentage of nonacademic staff reported reduced stress due to increases in staffing resources and/or systems. Conclusion. These results identify the importance of implementing multilevel strategies to enhance employees’ well-being. Nonacademic staff, in particular, specified a variety of organizational stress-reduction interventions.

  5. The preparation and characterization of gold-conjugated polyphenol nanoparticles as a novel delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsieh DS

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Dar-Shih Hsieh1,2, Hsiu-Chin Lu5, Cheng-Cheung Chen1,3, Chang-Jer Wu1,*, Ming-Kung Yeh4,* 1Department of Food Science, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung, Taiwan; 2Division of Urology, 3Department of Pathology, Tri-Service General Hospital, 4Institute of Preventive Medicine, National Defence Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan; 5Department of Laboratory Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Nanogold particles are commonly used in nanomedicine. We generated physical nanogold (pNG conjugated with different ratios of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG and evaluated its physicochemical properties, antioxidant activity, and cytotoxicity in vitro as well as anticancer activity in vivo. Results showed that the EGCG-pNG conjugates were successfully prepared at ratios between 23:1 and 23:5, with the percentage of EGCG content increasing with the EGCG:pNG ratio from 23:1 (2.0% ± 0.02% to 23:5 (28% ± 0.3%. EGCG-pNG particles at ratios of 23:1 and 23:5 demonstrated significantly decreased size from 500 to 20 nm and decreasing zeta potentials of 21 mV to –22 mV, respectively. At a ratio of 23:2.5, the EGCG-pNG particles (27% EGCG, 50 nm in size, zeta potential of –8 mV showed longer EGCG activity half-life (110 days vs 5 hours, controlled release (2 hours vs 30 minutes, and higher antioxidant activity (four times, as well as inhibition of tumor cell growth, than controls. The present study indicated that EGCG-pNG possesses promising therapeutic potential, based on its strong free-radical scavenging and anticancer activities.Keywords: EGCG, nanoparticles, antioxidant, antitumor activity, nanogold

  6. DOES FINANCIAL DEVELOPMENT REDUCE CORRUPTION?

    OpenAIRE

    John Thornton

    2009-01-01

    I estimate the impact of bank cred it to the private sector on corruption using indicators of a country's legal origin as instrumental variables to assess causality. I find that bank credit reduces corruption, with the result robust to instrumenting for bank credit and for different controls.

  7. Reducing cement's CO2 footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oss, Hendrik G.

    2011-01-01

    The manufacturing process for Portland cement causes high levels of greenhouse gas emissions. However, environmental impacts can be reduced by using more energy-efficient kilns and replacing fossil energy with alternative fuels. Although carbon capture and new cements with less CO2 emission are still in the experimental phase, all these innovations can help develop a cleaner cement industry.

  8. Reducing ammonia emissions in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.

    2011-01-01

    The NEC directive has set targets for the 2010 ammonia emissions from a number of European countries. The target will be reached by most EU-countries and the total emission for EU-27 has been reduced by 22% from 1990 to 2007. Denmark is one of the countries with the largest reductions since 1990...

  9. Ways to reduce miner absenteeism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-11-01

    Discussion is presented of the use of attendance programs at mines, to reduce interruptions to production, decrease labour costs, and to improve safety. Techniques described include use of absentee charts, frequency of attendance charts, and rewards for good attendance. 3 figs.

  10. SURFACE PROPERTIES OF ELECTROCHEMICALLY REDUCED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    A viscose rayon based activated carbon cloth (ACC) was electrochemically reduced ..... bath of liquid nitrogen at a temperature of 77 K. ... that above 59,400 c/g extent of oxidation, the ..... ACC react with aldehyde groups to produce ether.

  11. The reverse transcription inhibitor abacavir shows anticancer activity in prostate cancer cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Carlini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Transposable Elements (TEs comprise nearly 45% of the entire genome and are part of sophisticated regulatory network systems that control developmental processes in normal and pathological conditions. The retroviral/retrotransposon gene machinery consists mainly of Long Interspersed Nuclear Elements (LINEs-1 and Human Endogenous Retroviruses (HERVs that code for their own endogenous reverse transcriptase (RT. Interestingly, RT is typically expressed at high levels in cancer cells. Recent studies report that RT inhibition by non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs induces growth arrest and cell differentiation in vitro and antagonizes growth of human tumors in animal model. In the present study we analyze the anticancer activity of Abacavir (ABC, a nucleoside reverse transcription inhibitor (NRTI, on PC3 and LNCaP prostate cancer cell lines. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: ABC significantly reduces cell growth, migration and invasion processes, considerably slows S phase progression, induces senescence and cell death in prostate cancer cells. Consistent with these observations, microarray analysis on PC3 cells shows that ABC induces specific and dose-dependent changes in gene expression, involving multiple cellular pathways. Notably, by quantitative Real-Time PCR we found that LINE-1 ORF1 and ORF2 mRNA levels were significantly up-regulated by ABC treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate the potential of ABC as anticancer agent able to induce antiproliferative activity and trigger senescence in prostate cancer cells. Noteworthy, we show that ABC elicits up-regulation of LINE-1 expression, suggesting the involvement of these elements in the observed cellular modifications.

  12. Nav 1.8-null mice show stimulus-dependent deficits in spinal neuronal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wood John N

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The voltage gated sodium channel Nav 1.8 has a highly restricted expression pattern to predominantly nociceptive peripheral sensory neurones. Behaviourally Nav 1.8-null mice show an increased acute pain threshold to noxious mechanical pressure and also deficits in inflammatory and visceral, but not neuropathic pain. Here we have made in vivo electrophysiology recordings of dorsal horn neurones in intact anaesthetised Nav 1.8-null mice, in response to a wide range of stimuli to further the understanding of the functional roles of Nav 1.8 in pain transmission from the periphery to the spinal cord. Results Nav 1.8-null mice showed marked deficits in the coding by dorsal horn neurones to mechanical, but not thermal, -evoked responses over the non-noxious and noxious range compared to littermate controls. Additionally, responses evoked to other stimulus modalities were also significantly reduced in Nav 1.8-null mice where the reduction observed to pinch > brush. The occurrence of ongoing spontaneous neuronal activity was significantly less in mice lacking Nav 1.8 compared to control. No difference was observed between groups in the evoked activity to electrical activity of the peripheral receptive field. Conclusion This study demonstrates that deletion of the sodium channel Nav 1.8 results in stimulus-dependent deficits in the dorsal horn neuronal coding to mechanical, but not thermal stimuli applied to the neuronal peripheral receptive field. This implies that Nav 1.8 is either responsible for, or associated with proteins involved in mechanosensation.

  13. Mice deficient in PAPP-A show resistance to the development of diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, Jessica R; Resch, Zachary T; McLean, Gary R; Mikkelsen, Jakob H; Oxvig, Claus; Marler, Ronald J; Conover, Cheryl A

    2013-10-01

    We investigated pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) in diabetic nephropathy. Normal human kidney showed specific staining for PAPP-A in glomeruli, and this staining was markedly increased in diabetic kidney. To assess the possible contribution of PAPP-A in the development of diabetic nephropathy, we induced diabetes with streptozotocin in 14-month-old WT and Papp-A knockout (KO) mice. Renal histopathology was evaluated after 4 months of stable hyperglycemia. Kidneys from diabetic WT mice showed multiple abnormalities including thickening of Bowman's capsule (100% of mice), increased glomerular size (80% of mice), tubule dilation (80% of mice), and mononuclear cell infiltration (90% of mice). Kidneys of age-matched non-diabetic WT mice had similar evidence of tubule dilation and mononuclear cell infiltration to those of diabetic WT mice, indicating that these changes were predominantly age-related. However, thickened Bowman's capsule and increased glomerular size appeared specific for the experimental diabetes. Kidneys from diabetic Papp-A KO mice had significantly reduced or no evidence of changes in Bowman's capsule thickening and glomerular size. There was also a shift to larger mesangial area and increased macrophage staining in diabetic WT mice compared with Papp-A KO mice. In summary, elevated PAPP-A expression in glomeruli is associated with diabetic nephropathy in humans and absence of PAPP-A is associated with resistance to the development of indicators of diabetic nephropathy in mice. These data suggest PAPP-A as a potential therapeutic target for diabetic nephropathy.

  14. Distinguishing iron-reducing from sulfate-reducing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapelle, F.H.; Bradley, P.M.; Thomas, M.A.; McMahon, P.B.

    2009-01-01

    Ground water systems dominated by iron- or sulfate-reducing conditions may be distinguished by observing concentrations of dissolved iron (Fe2+) and sulfide (sum of H2S, HS-, and S= species and denoted here as "H2S"). This approach is based on the observation that concentrations of Fe2+ and H2S in ground water systems tend to be inversely related according to a hyperbolic function. That is, when Fe2+ concentrations are high, H2S concentrations tend to be low and vice versa. This relation partly reflects the rapid reaction kinetics of Fe2+ with H2S to produce relatively insoluble ferrous sulfides (FeS). This relation also reflects competition for organic substrates between the iron- and the sulfate-reducing microorganisms that catalyze the production of Fe2+ and H 2S. These solubility and microbial constraints operate in tandem, resulting in the observed hyperbolic relation between Fe2+ and H 2S concentrations. Concentrations of redox indicators, including dissolved hydrogen (H2) measured in a shallow aquifer in Hanahan, South Carolina, suggest that if the Fe2+/H2S mass ratio (units of mg/L) exceeded 10, the screened interval being tapped was consistently iron reducing (H2 ???0.2 to 0.8 nM). Conversely, if the Fe 2+/H2S ratio was less than 0.30, consistent sulfate-reducing (H2 ???1 to 5 nM) conditions were observed over time. Concomitantly high Fe2+ and H2S concentrations were associated with H2 concentrations that varied between 0.2 and 5.0 nM over time, suggesting mixing of water from adjacent iron- and sulfate-reducing zones or concomitant iron and sulfate reduction under nonelectron donor-limited conditions. These observations suggest that Fe2+/H2S mass ratios may provide useful information concerning the occurrence and distribution of iron and sulfate reduction in ground water systems. ?? 2009 National Ground Water Association.

  15. Restricted fish feeding reduces cod otolith opacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høie, H.; Folkvord, A.; Mosegaard, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to examine the effect of reduced feeding and constant temperature on cod otolith opacity. Three groups of juvenile cod were given restricted food rations at different times for 4 months, resulting in depressed somatic growth. Otolith opacity was measured on pictures...... in otolith opacity were found between individual fish both within groups and between groups. In two of the three groups significantly more translucent otolith material was deposited in response to reduced feeding. Our results show that variations in feeding and hence fish growth resulted in variation...... in otolith opacity, but the effect was minor compared to that of variations in ambient temperature. The combined influence of these effects, which both act on fish metabolism, are most likely controlling the seasonal opacity changes observed in wild fish. Our results help explain the variations seen in fish...

  16. Handgun waiting periods reduce gun deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, Michael; Malhotra, Deepak; Poliquin, Christopher

    2017-11-14

    Handgun waiting periods are laws that impose a delay between the initiation of a purchase and final acquisition of a firearm. We show that waiting periods, which create a "cooling off" period among buyers, significantly reduce the incidence of gun violence. We estimate the impact of waiting periods on gun deaths, exploiting all changes to state-level policies in the Unites States since 1970. We find that waiting periods reduce gun homicides by roughly 17%. We provide further support for the causal impact of waiting periods on homicides by exploiting a natural experiment resulting from a federal law in 1994 that imposed a temporary waiting period on a subset of states. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  17. Reduced graphite oxide in supercapacitor electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobato, Belén; Vretenár, Viliam; Kotrusz, Peter; Hulman, Martin; Centeno, Teresa A

    2015-05-15

    The current energy needs have put the focus on highly efficient energy storage systems such as supercapacitors. At present, much attention focuses on graphene-like materials as promising supercapacitor electrodes. Here we show that reduced graphite oxide offers a very interesting potential. Materials obtained by oxidation of natural graphite and subsequent sonication and reduction by hydrazine achieve specific capacitances as high as 170 F/g in H2SO4 and 84F/g in (C2H5)4NBF4/acetonitrile. Although the particle size of the raw graphite has no significant effect on the physico-chemical characteristics of the reduced materials, that exfoliated from smaller particles (materials may suffer from a drop in their specific surface area upon fabrication of electrodes with features of the existing commercial devices. This should be taken into account for a reliable interpretation of their performance in supercapacitors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Reducing CQI Signalling Overhead in HSPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saied M. Abd El-atty

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of adaptive modulation and coding (AMC procedure in high speed Downlink packet access (HSDPA depends on the frequency of the channel quality information (CQI reports transmitted by the UE to Node B. The more frequent the reports are the more accurate the link adaptation procedure is. On the other hand, the frequent CQI reports increase uplink interference, reducing thus the signal reception quality at the uplink. In this study, we propose an improved CQI reporting scheme which aims to reduce the required CQI signaling by exploiting a CQI prediction method based on a finite-state Markov chain (FSMC model of the wireless channel. The simulation results show that under a high downlink traffic load, the proposed scheme has a near-to-optimum performance while produces less interference compared to the respective periodic CQI scheme.

  19. Factors secreted from dental pulp stem cells show multifaceted benefits for treating experimental rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Jun; Takahashi, Nobunori; Matsumoto, Takuya; Yoshioka, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Noriyuki; Nishikawa, Masaya; Hibi, Hideharu; Ishigro, Naoki; Ueda, Minoru; Furukawa, Koichi; Yamamoto, Akihito

    2016-02-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by synovial hyperplasia and chronic inflammation, which lead to the progressive destruction of cartilage and bone in the joints. Numerous studies have reported that administrations of various types of MSCs improve arthritis symptoms in animal models, by paracrine mechanisms. However, the therapeutic effects of the secreted factors alone, without the cell graft, have been uncertain. Here, we show that a single intravenous administration of serum-free conditioned medium (CM) from human deciduous dental pulp stem cells (SHED-CM) into anti-collagen type II antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA), a mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), markedly improved the arthritis symptoms and joint destruction. The therapeutic efficacy of SHED-CM was associated with an induction of anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages in the CAIA joints and the abrogation of RANKL expression. SHED-CM specifically depleted of an M2 macrophage inducer, the secreted ectodomain of sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin-9 (ED-Siglec-9), exhibited a reduced ability to induce M2-related gene expression and attenuate CAIA. SHED-CM also inhibited the RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro. Collectively, our findings suggest that SHED-CM provides multifaceted therapeutic effects for treating CAIA, including the ED-Siglec-9-dependent induction of M2 macrophage polarization and inhibition of osteoclastogenesis. Thus, SHED-CM may represent a novel anti-inflammatory and reparative therapy for RA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Proceedings of the 4. annual international greening rooftops for sustainable communities conference, awards and trade show

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Green roof technologies represent opportunities for significant social, economic and environmental benefits, particularly in urban areas. This conference, awards and trade show provided a forum to discuss the integration of nature with architecture and demonstrated the possibilities of applying advanced green roof technology to residential, institutional, industrial and commercial buildings. Sustainable landscaping principles were reviewed along with methods and techniques of urban ecology. Green roofs have proven to filter polluted air, reduce energy demands, and assist in stormwater management. The additional benefits of green roof technology in urban settings include moderation of the urban heat island effect, creation of green spaces, and preservation of habitat and biodiversity. It was noted that the widespread adoption of green roof technology in North America lags behind Europe due to a lack of effective policy instruments and standards. The conference was divided into the following 3 main sessions: (1) policy and program development, (2) case studies and design, and (3) research on technical performance benefits. The conference featured 40 presentations, of which 36 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  1. Metabolic remodeling agents show beneficial effects in the dystrophin-deficient mdx mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahnke Vanessa E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a genetic disease involving a severe muscle wasting that is characterized by cycles of muscle degeneration/regeneration and culminates in early death in affected boys. Mitochondria are presumed to be involved in the regulation of myoblast proliferation/differentiation; enhancing mitochondrial activity with exercise mimetics (AMPK and PPAR-delta agonists increases muscle function and inhibits muscle wasting in healthy mice. We therefore asked whether metabolic remodeling agents that increase mitochondrial activity would improve muscle function in mdx mice. Methods Twelve-week-old mdx mice were treated with two different metabolic remodeling agents (GW501516 and AICAR, separately or in combination, for 4 weeks. Extensive systematic behavioral, functional, histological, biochemical, and molecular tests were conducted to assess the drug(s' effects. Results We found a gain in body and muscle weight in all treated mice. Histologic examination showed a decrease in muscle inflammation and in the number of fibers with central nuclei and an increase in fibers with peripheral nuclei, with significantly fewer activated satellite cells and regenerating fibers. Together with an inhibition of FoXO1 signaling, these results indicated that the treatments reduced ongoing muscle damage. Conclusions The three treatments produced significant improvements in disease phenotype, including an increase in overall behavioral activity and significant gains in forelimb and hind limb strength. Our findings suggest that triggering mitochondrial activity with exercise mimetics improves muscle function in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice.

  2. Combretum lanceolatum flowers extract shows antidiabetic activity through activation of AMPK by quercetin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Porto Dechandt

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the antidiabetic activity of the Combretum lanceolatum Pohl ex Eichler, Combretaceae, flowers extract (ClEtOH in diabetic rats. Streptozotocin-diabetic rats were divided into four groups: diabetic control, diabetic treated with 500 mg/kg of metformin and diabetic treated with 250 or 500 mg/kg of ClEtOH for 21 days. The treatment of diabetic rats with 500 mg/kg of ClEtOH promoted an increase in the weight of liver, white adipose tissues and skeletal muscles, improving body weight gain. Diabetic rats treated with 500 mg/kg of ClEtOH also presented reduction in glycemia, glycosuria and urinary urea levels, and increase in liver glycogen content. HPLC chromatogram showed that quercetin is the major compound in the extract. The phosphorylation levels of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase were increased in liver slices incubated in vitro with 50 µg/mL of ClEtOH, similarly to the incubation with metformin (50 µg/mL or quercetin (10 µg/mL. The antihyperglycemic effect of ClEtOH was similar to that of metformin and appears to be through inhibition of gluconeogenesis, since urinary urea was reduced and skeletal muscle mass was increased. These data indicate that the antidiabetic activity of the Combretum lanceolatum extract could be mediated, at least in part, through activation of adenosine monophosphateactivated protein kinase by quercetin.

  3. Proceedings of CanWEA's 24. annual conference and trade show : fast forward to wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The Canadian Wind Energy Association's conference and trade show provides an annual forum for wind developers, wind turbine manufacturers, component suppliers and electric utility operators to discuss issues currently facing the wind industry and measures that must be taken to ensure its future growth in Canada. As part of a range of renewable energy initiatives designed to help Canada reach its target commitments for the Kyoto Protocol, the expansion of the wind industry is expected to reduce the country's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and provide significant economic benefits to local communities. However, the wind industry is facing a number of challenges and constraints due to a lack of clear policies from provincial and federal governments. Significant infrastructure investments and financial incentives will need to be put in place in order to provide a secure foundation for future growth. The conference was divided into 3 tracks: (1) wind energy enhancement in Canada; (2) trends in wind research and development; and (3) the business of wind. Presentations examined solutions related to wind energy integration with electricity grids and discussed methods of building social acceptance of wind projects in communities. Advances in forecasting and computerized simulations were presented, and methods of negotiating environmental assessments and planning permit requirements were discussed. The conference also included a small wind pre-conference that addressed issues related to the growth and manufacturing of small wind turbines in Canada. The conference featured 88 presentations, of which 69 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs

  4. TKA patients with unsatisfying knee function show changes in neuromotor synergy pattern but not joint biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardestani, Marzieh M; Malloy, Philip; Nam, Denis; Rosenberg, Aaron G; Wimmer, Markus A

    2017-12-01

    Nearly 20% of patients who have undergone total knee arthroplasty (TKA) report persistent poor knee function. This study explores the idea that, despite similar knee joint biomechanics, the neuro-motor synergies may be different between high-functional and low-functional TKA patients. We hypothesized that (1) high-functional TKA recruit a more complex neuro-motor synergy pattern compared to low-functional TKA and (2) high-functional TKA patients demonstrate more stride-to-stride variability (flexibility) in their synergies. Gait and electromyography (EMG) data were collected during level walking for three groups of participants: (i) high-functional TKA patients (n=13); (ii) low-functional TKA patients (n=13) and (iii) non-operative controls (n=18). Synergies were extracted from EMG data using non-negative matrix factorization. Analysis of variance and Spearman correlation analyses were used to investigate between-group differences in gait and neuro-motor synergies. Results showed that synergy patterns were different among the three groups. Control subjects used 5-6 independent neural commands to execute a gait cycle. High functional TKA patients used 4-5 independent neural commands while low-functional TKA patients relied on only 2-3 independent neural commands to execute a gait cycle. Furthermore, stride-to-stride variability of muscles' response to the neural commands was reduced up to 15% in low-functional TKAs compared to the other two groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Most Developmentally Truncated Fishes Show Extensive Hox Gene Loss and Miniaturized Genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmstrøm, Martin; Britz, Ralf; Matschiner, Michael; Tørresen, Ole K; Hadiaty, Renny Kurnia; Yaakob, Norsham; Tan, Heok Hui; Jakobsen, Kjetill Sigurd; Salzburger, Walter; Rüber, Lukas

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The world’s smallest fishes belong to the genus Paedocypris. These miniature fishes are endemic to an extreme habitat: the peat swamp forests in Southeast Asia, characterized by highly acidic blackwater. This threatened habitat is home to a large array of fishes, including a number of miniaturized but also developmentally truncated species. Especially the genus Paedocypris is characterized by profound, organism-wide developmental truncation, resulting in sexually mature individuals of <8 mm in length with a larval phenotype. Here, we report on evolutionary simplification in the genomes of two species of the dwarf minnow genus Paedocypris using whole-genome sequencing. The two species feature unprecedented Hox gene loss and genome reduction in association with their massive developmental truncation. We also show how other genes involved in the development of musculature, nervous system, and skeleton have been lost in Paedocypris, mirroring its highly progenetic phenotype. Further, our analyses suggest two mechanisms responsible for the genome streamlining in Paedocypris in relation to other Cypriniformes: severe intron shortening and reduced repeat content. As the first report on the genomic sequence of a vertebrate species with organism-wide developmental truncation, the results of our work enhance our understanding of genome evolution and how genotypes are translated to phenotypes. In addition, as a naturally simplified system closely related to zebrafish, Paedocypris provides novel insights into vertebrate development. PMID:29684203

  6. Calcium phosphate coating containing silver shows high antibacterial activity and low cytotoxicity and inhibits bacterial adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, Yoshiki, E-mail: andoy@jmmc.jp [Division of Microbiology, Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, 5-1-1 Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501 (Japan); Research Department, Japan Medical Materials Corporation, Uemura Nissei Bldg.9F 3-3-31 Miyahara, Yodogawa-ku, Osaka 532-0003 (Japan); Miyamoto, Hiroshi [Division of Microbiology, Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, 5-1-1 Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501 (Japan); Noda, Iwao; Sakurai, Nobuko [Research Department, Japan Medical Materials Corporation, Uemura Nissei Bldg.9F 3-3-31 Miyahara, Yodogawa-ku, Osaka 532-0003 (Japan); Akiyama, Tomonori [Division of Microbiology, Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, 5-1-1 Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501 (Japan); Yonekura, Yutaka; Shimazaki, Takafumi; Miyazaki, Masaki; Mawatari, Masaaki; Hotokebuchi, Takao [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, 5-1-1 Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501 (Japan)

    2010-01-01

    Surgical site infection is one of the serious complications of orthopedic implants. In order to reduce the incidence of implant-associated infections, we developed a novel coating technology of calcium phosphate (CP) containing silver (Ag), designated Ag-CP coating, using a thermal spraying technique. In this study, we evaluated the antibacterial efficacy and biological safety of this coating. In vitro antibacterial activity tests showed that the growths of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) are completely suppressed on Ag-CP coating. In vitro bacterial adherence tests revealed that the number of adherent bacteria on the surface of this coating is significantly less (p < 0.02) than that on the surface of the CP coating. Moreover, the Ag-CP coating completely inhibits MRSA adhesion [<10 colony-forming units (CFU)] when 10{sup 2} CFU MRSA is inoculated. On the other hand, V79 Chinese hamster lung cells were found to grow on the Ag-CP coating as well as on the CP coating in a cytotoxicity test. These results indicate that the Ag-CP coating on the surface of orthopedic implants exhibits antibacterial activity and inhibits bacterial adhesion without cytotoxicity.

  7. Green fabricated CuO nanobullets via Olea europaea leaf extract shows auspicious antimicrobial potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqbool, Qaisar; Iftikhar, Sidra; Nazar, Mudassar; Abbas, Fazal; Saleem, Asif; Hussain, Talib; Kausar, Rizwan; Anwaar, Sadaf; Jabeen, Nyla

    2017-06-01

    In present investigation, copper oxide (CuO) nanostructures have been prepared via green chemistry. Olea europaea leaf extract act as strong chelating agent for tailoring physical as well as bio-medical characteristics of CuO at the nano-size. Physical characterisation such as scanning electron microscope analysis depicts the formation of homogenised spherical shape nanoparticles (NPs) with average size of 42 nm. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy further confirmed the crystalline pure phase and monoclinic structure. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) testing is performed to evaluate the relative concentration of bioactive molecules in the O. europaea leaf extract. From HPLC results capping action of organic molecules around CuO-NPs is hypothesised. The antimicrobial potency of biosynthesised CuO-NPs have been evaluated using colony forming unit (CFU) counting assay and disc diffusion method which shows a significant zone of inhibition against bacterial and fungal strains may be highly potential for future antimicrobial pharmaceutics. Furthermore, reduction of various precursors by plant extract will reduce environmental impact over chemical synthesis.

  8. The Most Developmentally Truncated Fishes Show Extensive Hox Gene Loss and Miniaturized Genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmstrøm, Martin; Britz, Ralf; Matschiner, Michael; Tørresen, Ole K; Hadiaty, Renny Kurnia; Yaakob, Norsham; Tan, Heok Hui; Jakobsen, Kjetill Sigurd; Salzburger, Walter; Rüber, Lukas

    2018-04-01

    The world's smallest fishes belong to the genus Paedocypris. These miniature fishes are endemic to an extreme habitat: the peat swamp forests in Southeast Asia, characterized by highly acidic blackwater. This threatened habitat is home to a large array of fishes, including a number of miniaturized but also developmentally truncated species. Especially the genus Paedocypris is characterized by profound, organism-wide developmental truncation, resulting in sexually mature individuals of <8 mm in length with a larval phenotype. Here, we report on evolutionary simplification in the genomes of two species of the dwarf minnow genus Paedocypris using whole-genome sequencing. The two species feature unprecedented Hox gene loss and genome reduction in association with their massive developmental truncation. We also show how other genes involved in the development of musculature, nervous system, and skeleton have been lost in Paedocypris, mirroring its highly progenetic phenotype. Further, our analyses suggest two mechanisms responsible for the genome streamlining in Paedocypris in relation to other Cypriniformes: severe intron shortening and reduced repeat content. As the first report on the genomic sequence of a vertebrate species with organism-wide developmental truncation, the results of our work enhance our understanding of genome evolution and how genotypes are translated to phenotypes. In addition, as a naturally simplified system closely related to zebrafish, Paedocypris provides novel insights into vertebrate development.

  9. Radiation dose of workers originating from radon in the show Cave of Tapolca, Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somlai, J.; Szeiler, G.; Szabo, P.; Kovacs, T.; Tokonami, S.; Ishikawa, T.; Sorimachi, A.; Yoshinaga, S.

    2009-01-01

    In the last few decades attention has been given to improve workplace conditions, primarily to reduce the different health risks. In the air that accumulates in underground workplaces radon may constitute one of the health risks. The radon concentration in the show cave in Tapolca is especially high in summer months, with the annual average in the year 2005 being 7227 Bq/m 3 , in 2006 8591 Bq/m 3 . The radon concentration was found to be independent on the location of the measurement. Its value was rather similar for working hours and for the total period. The hours spent in the cave by the workers depend on the number of visitors. The radiation dose, estimated on the basis of personal dosimeters, is significant for those working there especially, employed during the whole year. Taking into consideration the actual working hours and the equilibrium factor, F = 0.4, given in the literature, it approaches and even exceeds the dose limit of 20 mSv/year. With a well organized work schedule, as well as the employment of outside workers during the summer period, the dose limit of 20 mSv/year can probably be maintained. However, on the basis of recent measurements, the actual equilibrium factor was determined to be F 0.5, which in turn means a further 25% increase in the dose effect. (author)

  10. Mutations in Caenorhabditis elegans him-19 show meiotic defects that worsen with age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lois; Machacek, Thomas; Mamnun, Yasmine M; Penkner, Alexandra; Gloggnitzer, Jiradet; Wegrostek, Christina; Konrat, Robert; Jantsch, Michael F; Loidl, Josef; Jantsch, Verena

    2010-03-15

    From a screen for meiotic Caenorhabditis elegans mutants based on high incidence of males, we identified a novel gene, him-19, with multiple functions in prophase of meiosis I. Mutant him-19(jf6) animals show a reduction in pairing of homologous chromosomes and subsequent bivalent formation. Consistently, synaptonemal complex formation is spatially restricted and possibly involves nonhomologous chromosomes. Also, foci of the recombination protein RAD-51 occur delayed or cease altogether. Ultimately, mutation of him-19 leads to chromosome missegregation and reduced offspring viability. The observed defects suggest that HIM-19 is important for both homology recognition and formation of meiotic DNA double-strand breaks. It therefore seems to be engaged in an early meiotic event, resembling in this respect the regulator kinase CHK-2. Most astonishingly, him-19(jf6) hermaphrodites display worsening of phenotypes with increasing age, whereas defects are more severe in female than in male meiosis. This finding is consistent with depletion of a him-19-dependent factor during the production of oocytes. Further characterization of him-19 could contribute to our understanding of age-dependent meiotic defects in humans.

  11. Female employment reduces fertility in rural Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Broeck, Goedele; Maertens, Miet

    2015-01-01

    Economic growth and modernization of society are generally associated with fertility rate decreases but which forces trigger this is unclear. In this paper we assess how fertility changes with increased labor market participation of women in rural Senegal. Evidence from high-income countries suggests that higher female employment rates lead to reduced fertility rates but evidence from developing countries at an early stage of demographic transition is largely absent. We concentrate on a rural area in northern Senegal where a recent boom in horticultural exports has been associated with a sudden increase in female off-farm employment. Using survey data we show that employed women have a significantly higher age at marriage and at first childbirth, and significantly fewer children. As causal identification strategy we use instrumental variable and difference-in-differences estimations, combined with propensity score matching. We find that female employment reduces the number of children per woman by 25%, and that this fertility-reducing effect is as large for poor as for non-poor women and larger for illiterate than for literate women. Results imply that female employment is a strong instrument for empowering rural women, reducing fertility rates and accelerating the demographic transition in poor countries. The effectiveness of family planning programs can increase if targeted to areas where female employment is increasing or to female employees directly because of a higher likelihood to reach women with low-fertility preferences. Our results show that changes in fertility preferences not necessarily result from a cultural evolution but can also be driven by sudden and individual changes in economic opportunities.

  12. Female employment reduces fertility in rural Senegal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goedele Van den Broeck

    Full Text Available Economic growth and modernization of society are generally associated with fertility rate decreases but which forces trigger this is unclear. In this paper we assess how fertility changes with increased labor market participation of women in rural Senegal. Evidence from high-income countries suggests that higher female employment rates lead to reduced fertility rates but evidence from developing countries at an early stage of demographic transition is largely absent. We concentrate on a rural area in northern Senegal where a recent boom in horticultural exports has been associated with a sudden increase in female off-farm employment. Using survey data we show that employed women have a significantly higher age at marriage and at first childbirth, and significantly fewer children. As causal identification strategy we use instrumental variable and difference-in-differences estimations, combined with propensity score matching. We find that female employment reduces the number of children per woman by 25%, and that this fertility-reducing effect is as large for poor as for non-poor women and larger for illiterate than for literate women. Results imply that female employment is a strong instrument for empowering rural women, reducing fertility rates and accelerating the demographic transition in poor countries. The effectiveness of family planning programs can increase if targeted to areas where female employment is increasing or to female employees directly because of a higher likelihood to reach women with low-fertility preferences. Our results show that changes in fertility preferences not necessarily result from a cultural evolution but can also be driven by sudden and individual changes in economic opportunities.

  13. Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits TLR4 signaling through the 67-kDa laminin receptor on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated dendritic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Eui-Baek; Choi, Han-Gyu; Sung, Nak-Yun; Byun, Eui-Hong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Expressions of CD80, CD86, and MHC class I/II were inhibited by EGCG via 67LR. ► EGCG-treated DCs inhibited LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines via 67LR. ► EGCG-treated DCs inhibited MAPKs activation and NF-κB p65 translocation via 67LR. ► EGCG elevated the expression of the Tollip protein through 67LR in DCs. -- Abstract: Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major active polyphenol of green tea, has been shown to down-regulate inflammatory responses in dendritic cells (DCs); however, the underlying mechanism has not been understood. Recently, we identified the 67-kDa laminin receptor (67LR) as a cell-surface EGCG receptor. In this study, we showed the molecular basis for the down-regulation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signal transduction by EGCG in DCs. The expressions of CD80, CD86, and MHC class I and II, which are molecules essential for antigen presentation by DCs, were inhibited by EGCG via 67LR. In addition, EGCG-treated DCs inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, interleukin [IL]-1β, and IL-6) and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), e.g., extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) p65 translocation through 67LR. Interestingly, we also found that EGCG markedly elevated the expression of the Tollip protein, a negative regulator of TLR signaling, through 67LR. These novel findings provide new insight into the understanding of negative regulatory mechanisms of the TLR4 signaling pathway and consequent inflammatory responses that are implicated in the development and progression of many chronic diseases.

  14. The Green Tea Component (--Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Sensitizes Primary Endothelial Cells to Arsenite-Induced Apoptosis by Decreasing c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase-Mediated Catalase Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jee-Youn Kim

    Full Text Available The green tea component (--epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG has been shown to sensitize many different types of cancer cells to anticancer drug-induced apoptosis, although it protects against non-cancerous primary cells against toxicity from certain conditions such as exposure to arsenic (As or ultraviolet irradiation. Here, we found that EGCG promotes As-induced toxicity of primary-cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC at doses in which treatment with each chemical alone had no such effect. Increased cell toxicity was accompanied by an increased condensed chromatin pattern and fragmented nuclei, cleaved poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP, activity of the pro-apoptotic enzymes caspases 3, 8 and 9, and Bax translocation into mitochondria, suggesting the involvement of an apoptotic signaling pathway. Fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis revealed that compared with EGCG or As alone, combined EGCG and As (EGCG/As treatment significantly induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, which was accompanied by decreased catalase activity and increased lipid peroxidation. Pretreatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine or catalase reversed EGCG/As-induced caspase activation and EC toxicity. EGCG/As also increased the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK, which was not reversed by catalase. However, pretreatment with the JNK inhibitor SP600125 reversed all of the observed effects of EGCG/As, suggesting that JNK may be the most upstream protein examined in this study. Finally, we also found that all the observed effects by EGCG/As are true for other types of EC tested. In conclusion, this is firstly to show that EGCG sensitizes non-cancerous EC to As-induced toxicity through ROS-mediated apoptosis, which was attributed at least in part to a JNK-activated decrease in catalase activity.

  15. The Green Tea Component (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Sensitizes Primary Endothelial Cells to Arsenite-Induced Apoptosis by Decreasing c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase-Mediated Catalase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jee-Youn; Choi, Ji-Young; Lee, Hyeon-Ju; Byun, Catherine Jeonghae; Park, Jung-Hyun; Park, Jae Hoon; Cho, Ho-Seong; Cho, Sung-Jin; Jo, Sangmee Ahn; Jo, Inho

    2015-01-01

    The green tea component (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) has been shown to sensitize many different types of cancer cells to anticancer drug-induced apoptosis, although it protects against non-cancerous primary cells against toxicity from certain conditions such as exposure to arsenic (As) or ultraviolet irradiation. Here, we found that EGCG promotes As-induced toxicity of primary-cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) at doses in which treatment with each chemical alone had no such effect. Increased cell toxicity was accompanied by an increased condensed chromatin pattern and fragmented nuclei, cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), activity of the pro-apoptotic enzymes caspases 3, 8 and 9, and Bax translocation into mitochondria, suggesting the involvement of an apoptotic signaling pathway. Fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis revealed that compared with EGCG or As alone, combined EGCG and As (EGCG/As) treatment significantly induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which was accompanied by decreased catalase activity and increased lipid peroxidation. Pretreatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine or catalase reversed EGCG/As-induced caspase activation and EC toxicity. EGCG/As also increased the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), which was not reversed by catalase. However, pretreatment with the JNK inhibitor SP600125 reversed all of the observed effects of EGCG/As, suggesting that JNK may be the most upstream protein examined in this study. Finally, we also found that all the observed effects by EGCG/As are true for other types of EC tested. In conclusion, this is firstly to show that EGCG sensitizes non-cancerous EC to As-induced toxicity through ROS-mediated apoptosis, which was attributed at least in part to a JNK-activated decrease in catalase activity.

  16. Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits TLR4 signaling through the 67-kDa laminin receptor on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated dendritic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Eui-Baek [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Han-Gyu [Department of Microbiology and Research Institute for Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 301-747 (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Nak-Yun [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Eui-Hong, E-mail: ehbyun80@gmail.com [Department of Microbiology and Research Institute for Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 301-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expressions of CD80, CD86, and MHC class I/II were inhibited by EGCG via 67LR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EGCG-treated DCs inhibited LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines via 67LR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EGCG-treated DCs inhibited MAPKs activation and NF-{kappa}B p65 translocation via 67LR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EGCG elevated the expression of the Tollip protein through 67LR in DCs. -- Abstract: Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major active polyphenol of green tea, has been shown to down-regulate inflammatory responses in dendritic cells (DCs); however, the underlying mechanism has not been understood. Recently, we identified the 67-kDa laminin receptor (67LR) as a cell-surface EGCG receptor. In this study, we showed the molecular basis for the down-regulation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signal transduction by EGCG in DCs. The expressions of CD80, CD86, and MHC class I and II, which are molecules essential for antigen presentation by DCs, were inhibited by EGCG via 67LR. In addition, EGCG-treated DCs inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-{alpha}, interleukin [IL]-1{beta}, and IL-6) and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), e.g., extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and nuclear factor {kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) p65 translocation through 67LR. Interestingly, we also found that EGCG markedly elevated the expression of the Tollip protein, a negative regulator of TLR signaling, through 67LR. These novel findings provide new insight into the understanding of negative regulatory mechanisms of the TLR4 signaling pathway and consequent inflammatory responses that are implicated in the development and progression of many chronic diseases.

  17. Inhibition of interaction between epigallocatechin-3-gallate and myofibrillar protein by cyclodextrin derivatives improves gel quality under oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yumeng; Chen, Lin; Lv, Yuanqi; Wang, Shuangxi; Suo, Zhiyao; Cheng, Xingguang; Xu, Xinglian; Zhou, Guanghong; Li, Zhixi; Feng, Xianchao

    2018-06-01

    High levels of polyphenols can interact with myofibrillar proteins (MPs), causing damage to a MP emulsion gel. In this study, β-cyclodextrins were used to reduce covalent and non-covalent interaction between epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and MPs under oxidative stress. The loss of both thiol and free amine groups and the unfolding of MPs caused by EGCG (80 μM/g protein) were significantly prevented by β-cyclodextrins, and the structural stability and solubility were improved. MP emulsion gel treated with EGCG (80 μM/g protein) had the highest cooking loss (68.64%) and gel strength (0.51 N). Addition of β-cyclodextrins significantly reduced cooking loss (26.24-58.20%) and improved gel strength (0.31-0.41 N) of MP emulsion gel jeopardized by EGCG under oxidative stress. Damage to the emulsifying properties of MPs caused by EGCG was significantly prevented by addition of β-cyclodextrins. β-cyclodextrins reduced interaction between EGCG and MPs in the order Methyl-β-cyclodextrin > (2-Hydroxypropyl)-β-cyclodextrin > β-cyclodextrin. In absence of EGCG, addition of β-cyclodextrins partly protected MPs from oxidative attack and improved its solubility. It is concluded that β-cyclodextrins does not markedly reduce the antioxidant ability of EGCG according to carbonyl analysis, and can effectively increase EGCG loading to potentially provide more durable antioxidant effect for meat products during processing, transportation and storage. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Mitochondrial Respiration Is Reduced in Atherosclerosis, Promoting Necrotic Core Formation and Reducing Relative Fibrous Cap Thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Emma P K; Reinhold, Johannes; Yu, Haixiang; Starks, Lakshi; Uryga, Anna K; Foote, Kirsty; Finigan, Alison; Figg, Nichola; Pung, Yuh-Fen; Logan, Angela; Murphy, Michael P; Bennett, Martin

    2017-12-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage is present in murine and human atherosclerotic plaques. However, whether endogenous levels of mtDNA damage are sufficient to cause mitochondrial dysfunction and whether decreasing mtDNA damage and improving mitochondrial respiration affects plaque burden or composition are unclear. We examined mitochondrial respiration in human atherosclerotic plaques and whether augmenting mitochondrial respiration affects atherogenesis. Human atherosclerotic plaques showed marked mitochondrial dysfunction, manifested as reduced mtDNA copy number and oxygen consumption rate in fibrous cap and core regions. Vascular smooth muscle cells derived from plaques showed impaired mitochondrial respiration, reduced complex I expression, and increased mitophagy, which was induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein. Apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE -/- ) mice showed decreased mtDNA integrity and mitochondrial respiration, associated with increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species. To determine whether alleviating mtDNA damage and increasing mitochondrial respiration affects atherogenesis, we studied ApoE -/- mice overexpressing the mitochondrial helicase Twinkle (Tw + /ApoE -/- ). Tw + /ApoE -/- mice showed increased mtDNA integrity, copy number, respiratory complex abundance, and respiration. Tw + /ApoE -/- mice had decreased necrotic core and increased fibrous cap areas, and Tw + /ApoE -/- bone marrow transplantation also reduced core areas. Twinkle increased vascular smooth muscle cell mtDNA integrity and respiration. Twinkle also promoted vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and protected both vascular smooth muscle cells and macrophages from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. Endogenous mtDNA damage in mouse and human atherosclerosis is associated with significantly reduced mitochondrial respiration. Reducing mtDNA damage and increasing mitochondrial respiration decrease necrotic core and increase fibrous cap areas independently of changes in

  19. Ferroelectric capacitor with reduced imprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jr., Joseph T.; Warren, William L.; Tuttle, Bruce A.; Dimos, Duane B.; Pike, Gordon E.

    1997-01-01

    An improved ferroelectric capacitor exhibiting reduced imprint effects in comparison to prior art capacitors. A capacitor according to the present invention includes top and bottom electrodes and a ferroelectric layer sandwiched between the top and bottom electrodes, the ferroelectric layer comprising a perovskite structure of the chemical composition ABO.sub.3 wherein the B-site comprises first and second elements and a dopant element that has an oxidation state greater than +4. The concentration of the dopant is sufficient to reduce shifts in the coercive voltage of the capacitor with time. In the preferred embodiment of the present invention, the ferroelectric element comprises Pb in the A-site, and the first and second elements are Zr and Ti, respectively. The preferred dopant is chosen from the group consisting of Niobium, Tantalum, and Tungsten. In the preferred embodiment of the present invention, the dopant occupies between 1 and 8% of the B-sites.

  20. Breastfeeding reduces postpartum weight retention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Gamborg, Michael; Heitmann, Berit L

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Weight gained during pregnancy and not lost postpartum may contribute to obesity in women of childbearing age. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine whether breastfeeding reduces postpartum weight retention (PPWR) in a population among which full breastfeeding is common and breastfeeding...... duration is long. DESIGN: We selected women from the Danish National Birth Cohort who ever breastfed (>98%), and we conducted the interviews at 6 (n = 36 030) and 18 (n = 26 846) mo postpartum. We used regression analyses to investigate whether breastfeeding (scored to account for duration and intensity......) reduced PPWR at 6 and 18 mo after adjustment for maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG). RESULTS: GWG was positively (P postpartum. Breastfeeding was negatively associated with PPWR in all women but those...

  1. Rheological measurements in reduced gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiyarov, Sayavur I.; Overfelt, Ruel A.

    1999-01-01

    Rheology of fluidized beds and settling suspensions were studied experimentally in a series of reduced gravity parabolic flights aboard NASA's KC-135 aircraft. Silica sands of two different size distributions were fluidized by air. The slurries were made using silica sand and Glycerol solution. The experimental set up incorporated instrumentation to measure the air flow rate, the pressure drop and the apparent viscosity of the fluidized sand and sand suspensions at a wide range of the shear rates. The fluidization chamber and container had transparent walls to allow visualization of the structure changes involved in fluidization and in Couette flow in reduced gravity. Experiments were performed over a broad range of gravitational accelerations including microgravity and double gravity conditions. The results of the flight and ground experiments reveal significant differences in overall void fraction and hence in the apparent viscosity of fluidized sand and sand suspensions under microgravity as compared to one-g conditions.

  2. Reducing carbon dioxide to products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Emily Barton; Sivasankar, Narayanappa; Parajuli, Rishi; Keets, Kate A

    2014-09-30

    A method reducing carbon dioxide to one or more products may include steps (A) to (C). Step (A) may bubble said carbon dioxide into a solution of an electrolyte and a catalyst in a divided electrochemical cell. The divided electrochemical cell may include an anode in a first cell compartment and a cathode in a second cell compartment. The cathode may reduce said carbon dioxide into said products. Step (B) may adjust one or more of (a) a cathode material, (b) a surface morphology of said cathode, (c) said electrolyte, (d) a manner in which said carbon dioxide is bubbled, (e), a pH level of said solution, and (f) an electrical potential of said divided electrochemical cell, to vary at least one of (i) which of said products is produced and (ii) a faradaic yield of said products. Step (C) may separate said products from said solution.

  3. BCJ numerators from reduced Pfaffian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Yi-Jian [Center for Theoretical Physics, School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University,No. 299 Bayi Road, Wuhan 430072 (China); Teng, Fei [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah,115 South 1400 East, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States)

    2017-04-07

    By expanding the reduced Pfaffian in the tree level Cachazo-He-Yuan (CHY) integrands for Yang-Mills (YM) and nonlinear sigma model (NLSM), we can get the Bern-Carrasco-Johansson (BCJ) numerators in Del Duca-Dixon-Maltoni (DDM) form for arbitrary number of particles in any spacetime dimensions. In this work, we give a set of very straightforward graphic rules based on spanning trees for a direct evaluation of the BCJ numerators for YM and NLSM. Such rules can be derived from the Laplace expansion of the corresponding reduced Pfaffian. For YM, the each one of the (n−2)! DDM form BCJ numerators contains exactly (n−1)! terms, corresponding to the increasing trees with respect to the color order. For NLSM, the number of nonzero numerators is at most (n−2)!−(n−3)!, less than those of several previous constructions.

  4. Correlated Electrons in Reduced Dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonesteel, Nicholas E [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2015-01-31

    This report summarizes the work accomplished under the support of US DOE grant # DE-FG02-97ER45639, "Correlated Electrons in Reduced Dimensions." The underlying hypothesis of the research supported by this grant has been that studying the unique behavior of correlated electrons in reduced dimensions can lead to new ways of understanding how matter can order and how it can potentially be used. The systems under study have included i) fractional quantum Hall matter, which is realized when electrons are confined to two-dimensions and placed in a strong magnetic field at low temperature, ii) one-dimensional chains of spins and exotic quasiparticle excitations of topologically ordered matter, and iii) electrons confined in effectively ``zero-dimensional" semiconductor quantum dots.

  5. Increasing sales by reducing procrastination

    OpenAIRE

    Gjedrem, William Gilje

    2012-01-01

    Master's thesis in Finance In this paper I analyze whether an intervention program increases productivity and sales, by reducing potential procrastination problems that employees face at work. The intervention was introduced to stores in a large retail chain in Norway, and contained different tools that could lead to lower perceived costs of higher effort. In a difference-in-differences analysis I find that the intervention increases sales after a 14 weeks long implementation period. Fu...

  6. Reduced Deforestation and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Doupe

    2014-01-01

    The clearing of forests for agricultural land and other marketable purposes is a well-trodden path of economic development. With these private benefits from deforestation come external costs: emissions from deforestation currently account for 12 per cent of global carbon emissions. A widespread intervention in reducing emissions from deforestation will affect the paths of agricultural expansion and economic growth of lower income nations. To investigate these processes, this paper presents a ...

  7. Relativistic mechanics with reduced fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, S.N.

    1996-01-01

    A new relativistic classical mechanics of interacting particles using a concept of a reduced field (RF) os proposed. RF is a mediator of interactions, the state of which is described by a finite number of two-argument functions. Ten of these functions correspond to the generators of the Poincare group. Equations of motion contain the retardation of interactions required by the causality principle and have form of a finite system of ordinary hereditary differential equations [ru

  8. Female Sprague Dawley Rats Show Impaired Spatial Memory in the 8-Arm Radial Maze under Dim Blue and Red Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Pirchl

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Light intensity and wavelength strongly influence mood and cognition in humans and rodent animal models. The aim of the present study was to explore if dim white (7.6–17.7 lux , blue (1.3–2.3 lux, and red light (0.8–1.4 lux affect spatial memory of male and female Sprague Dawley rats in the 8-arm radial maze. Our data show that spatial memory significantly improved within 5 daily learning sessions (each 5 trials under dim white light, which was not different between male and female rats. However, dim blue and red light significantly reduced spatial learning of female rats in the 8-arm radial maze in the last training session (session 5. In conclusion, we suggest that female Sprague Dawley rats show reduced learning under blue and red light.

  9. Reducing consumption through communal living

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herring, Horace [The Open Univ., Milton Keynes (United Kingdom). Energy and Environment Research Unit

    2003-07-01

    This paper examines ways consumers and communities can voluntarily adopt a low consumption (or low carbon) lifestyle, often termed 'voluntary simplicity' or a policy of 'sufficiency'. There is an increasing academic literature within Europe in the last five years on the whole question of 'sustainable consumption', and the relationship between income levels and consumption particularly at the household. This debate has moved beyond 'green consumerism' to look at building 'new concepts of prosperity' through local community actions, or reducing working time to allow more time for the creation of social capital. The paper will concentrate on one aspect of the quest for sustainable communities, the relevance of communal living to reducing consumption through examining energy consumption (both direct and indirect) in one such community in the UK. The results from this preliminary study reveal that it is not the sharing of resources that reduces consumption but the mutual reinforcement of attitudes towards a low consumption lifestyle. Thus it is the creation of social capital in a community that is its key to its ecological lifestyle.

  10. Reduced Vlasov-Maxwell simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helluy, P.; Navoret, L.; Pham, N.; Crestetto, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Maxwell-Vlasov system is a fundamental model in physics. It can be applied to plasma simulations, charged particles beam, astrophysics, etc. The unknowns are the electromagnetic field, solution to the Maxwell equations and the distribution function, solution to the Vlasov equation. In this paper we review two different numerical methods for Vlasov-Maxwell simulations. The first method is based on a coupling between a Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) Maxwell solver and a Particle-In-Cell (PIC) Vlasov solver. The second method only uses a DG approach for the Vlasov and Maxwell equations. The Vlasov equation is first reduced to a space-only hyperbolic system thanks to the finite-element method. The two numerical methods are implemented using OpenCL in order to achieve high performance on recent Graphic Processing Units (GPU). We obtained interesting speedups, but we also observe that the PIC method is the most expensive part of the computation. Therefore we propose another fully Eulerian approach. Thanks to a decomposition of the distribution function on velocity basis functions, we obtain a reduced Vlasov model, which appears to be a hyperbolic system of conservation laws written only in the (x,t) space. We can thus adapt very easily our DG solver to the reduced model

  11. Radio Show on Books and Libraries as a Means of Promoting the Public Library: Marking the 200th Edition of the Show Tvoja,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Pavletič

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTSince 2004, the Ciril Kosmač Library of Tolmin has been continuously preparing a radio show on books and libraries on the local radio station Alpski val. The show has been used as an advertising platform or as a means of primary library promotion. The radio show is regarded as one of the tools of what is termed market communication, and it is intended to provide broad public information on the services of a public library, to promote the library’s activities and holdings and to foster a reading culture. The aim of the show is to stimulate the potential user interest in visiting and using the services of a public library, to expand the circle of users and consequently raise the number of visits and library loans. The title of the show, its audio image, target audience, metapromotion and substantive concept are all key to planning the radio show on books and libraries. The radio show is an example of an effective tool that helps to establish the library’s ties with the local community. This example of best practices shows that it is worth pursuing this activity in Slovenia’s public libraries and highlighting it on their websites.

  12. Clinker mineral hydration at reduced relative humidities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Hansen, Per Freiesleben; Lachowski, Eric E.

    1999-01-01

    and experimental data are presented showing that C(3)A can hydrate at lower humidities than either C3S or C2S. It is suggested that the initiation of hydration during exposure to water vapour is nucleation controlled. When C(3)A hydrates at low humidity, the characteristic hydration product is C(3)AH(6......Vapour phase hydration of purl cement clinker minerals at reduced relative humidities is described. This is relevant to modern high performance concrete that may self-desiccate during hydration and is also relevant to the quality of the cement during storage. Both the oretical considerations...

  13. Meteorological Data Analysis Using MapReduce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Fang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the atmospheric science, the scale of meteorological data is massive and growing rapidly. K-means is a fast and available cluster algorithm which has been used in many fields. However, for the large-scale meteorological data, the traditional K-means algorithm is not capable enough to satisfy the actual application needs efficiently. This paper proposes an improved MK-means algorithm (MK-means based on MapReduce according to characteristics of large meteorological datasets. The experimental results show that MK-means has more computing ability and scalability.

  14. Environment, Renewable Energy and Reduced Carbon Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, S.; Khazanov, G.; Kishimoto, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Increased energy security and reduced carbon emissions pose significant challenges for science and technology. However, they also create substantial opportunities for innovative research and development. In this review paper, we highlight some of the key opportunities and mention public policies that are needed to enable the efforts and to maximize the probability of their success. Climate is among the uttermost nonlinear behaviors found around us. As recent studies showed the possible effect of cosmic rays on the Earth's climate, we investigate how complex interactions between the planet and its environment can be responsible for climate anomalies.

  15. Human Performance in Simulated Reduced Gravity Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Matthew; Harvill, Lauren; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2014-01-01

    the ARGOS, but only 0.2 +/- 0.1 on the C-9. Discussion: Gait analysis showed differences in joint kinematics and temporal-spatial parameters between the reduced gravity simulators and with respect to earth gravity. Although most of the subjects chose a somewhat unique ambulation style as a result of learning to ambulate in a new environment, all but two were consistent with keeping an Earth-like gait. Learning how reduced gravity affects ambulation will help NASA to determine optimal suit designs, influence mission planning, help train crew, and may shed light on the underlying methods the body uses to optimize gait for energetic efficiency. Conclusion: Kinematic and kinetic analysis demonstrated noteworthy differences between an offloaded environment and 1-g, as would be expected. The analysis showed a trend to change the ambulation style in an offloaded environment to a rolling-loping walk (resembling crosscountry skiing) with increased swing time. This ambulation modification, particularly in the ARGOS, indicated that the relative kinetic energy of the subject was increased, on average, per the static body weight compared to the 1-g condition. How much of this was influenced by the active offloading of the ARGOS system is unknown.

  16. Green Tea Extract Ameliorates Learning and Memory Deficits in Ischemic Rats via Its Active Component Polyphenol Epigallocatechin-3-gallate by Modulation of Oxidative Stress and Neuroinflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Jen Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke results in brain damage and behavioral deficits including memory impairment. Protective effects of green tea extract (GTex and its major functional polyphenol (−-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG on memory were examined in cerebral ischemic rats. GTex and EGCG were administered 1 hr before middle cerebral artery ligation in rats. GTex, EGCG, and pentoxifylline (PTX significantly improved ishemic-induced memory impairment in a Morris water maze test. Malondialdehyde (MDA levels, glutathione (GSH, and superoxide dismutase (SOD activity in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus were increased by long-term treatment with GTex and EGCG. Both compounds were also associated with reduced cerebral infraction breakdown of MDA and GSH in the hippocampus. In in vitro experiments, EGCG had anti-inflammatory effects in BV-2 microglia cells. EGCG inhibited lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced nitric oxide production and reduced cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in BV-2 cells. GTex and its active polyphenol EGCG improved learning and memory deficits in a cerebral ischemia animal model and such protection may be due to the reduction of oxidative stress and neuroinflammation.

  17. Lead Time to Appointment and No-Show Rates for New and Follow-up Patients in an Ambulatory Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewek, Rupali; Mirea, Lucia; Adelson, P David

    High rates of no-shows in outpatient clinics are problematic for revenue and for quality of patient care. Longer lead time to appointment has variably been implicated as a risk factor for no-shows, but the evidence within pediatric clinics is inconclusive. The goal of this study was to estimate no-show rates and test for association between appointment lead time and no-show rates for new and follow-up patients. Analyses included 534 new and 1920 follow-up patients from pulmonology and gastroenterology clinics at a freestanding children's hospital. The overall rate of no-shows was lower for visits scheduled within 0 to 30 days compared with 30 days or more (23% compared with 47%, P < .0001). Patient type significantly modified the association of appointment lead time; the rate of no-shows was higher (30%) among new patients compared with (21%) follow-up patients with appointments scheduled within 30 days (P = .004). For appointments scheduled 30 or more days' lead time, no-show rates were statistically similar for new patients (46%) and follow-up patients (0.48%). Time to appointment is a risk factor associated with no-shows, and further study is needed to identify and implement effective approaches to reduce appointment lead time, especially for new patients in pediatric subspecialties.

  18. Analytic thinking reduces belief in conspiracy theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Voracek, Martin; Stieger, Stefan; Tran, Ulrich S; Furnham, Adrian

    2014-12-01

    Belief in conspiracy theories has been associated with a range of negative health, civic, and social outcomes, requiring reliable methods of reducing such belief. Thinking dispositions have been highlighted as one possible factor associated with belief in conspiracy theories, but actual relationships have only been infrequently studied. In Study 1, we examined associations between belief in conspiracy theories and a range of measures of thinking dispositions in a British sample (N=990). Results indicated that a stronger belief in conspiracy theories was significantly associated with lower analytic thinking and open-mindedness and greater intuitive thinking. In Studies 2-4, we examined the causational role played by analytic thinking in relation to conspiracist ideation. In Study 2 (N=112), we showed that a verbal fluency task that elicited analytic thinking reduced belief in conspiracy theories. In Study 3 (N=189), we found that an alternative method of eliciting analytic thinking, which related to cognitive disfluency, was effective at reducing conspiracist ideation in a student sample. In Study 4, we replicated the results of Study 3 among a general population sample (N=140) in relation to generic conspiracist ideation and belief in conspiracy theories about the July 7, 2005, bombings in London. Our results highlight the potential utility of supporting attempts to promote analytic thinking as a means of countering the widespread acceptance of conspiracy theories. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Reducing the likelihood of long tennis matches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Tristan; Alan, Brown; Pollard, Graham

    2006-01-01

    Long matches can cause problems for tournaments. For example, the starting times of subsequent matches can be substantially delayed causing inconvenience to players, spectators, officials and television scheduling. They can even be seen as unfair in the tournament setting when the winner of a very long match, who may have negative aftereffects from such a match, plays the winner of an average or shorter length match in the next round. Long matches can also lead to injuries to the participating players. One factor that can lead to long matches is the use of the advantage set as the fifth set, as in the Australian Open, the French Open and Wimbledon. Another factor is long rallies and a greater than average number of points per game. This tends to occur more frequently on the slower surfaces such as at the French Open. The mathematical method of generating functions is used to show that the likelihood of long matches can be substantially reduced by using the tiebreak game in the fifth set, or more effectively by using a new type of game, the 50-40 game, throughout the match. Key PointsThe cumulant generating function has nice properties for calculating the parameters of distributions in a tennis matchA final tiebreaker set reduces the length of matches as currently being used in the US OpenA new 50-40 game reduces the length of matches whilst maintaining comparable probabilities for the better player to win the match.

  20. Purification and characterization of a beta-Glucanase produced by Trichoderma harzianum showing biocontrol potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Lisboa de Marco

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A beta-1,3-glucanase was produced by Trichoderma harzianum in cultures containing chitin as the sole substrate. Two proteins showing beta-1,3-glucanase activity were purified to apparent homogeneity by hydrophobic chromatography. The molecular masses of these proteins were 29 and 36 kDa. The 36 kDa protein was further characterized. It was active on a broad pH range, and maximal activity was detected at pH 5.0. The optimum temperature of the 36 kDa beta-1,3-glucanase was 50ºC, but the purified enzyme was very sensitive to temperature. It lost about 60% or more of the activity after incubation for 30 min at 45, 50 and 60ºC. The apparent K M and Vmax for hydrolysis of laminarin at pH 5.0 and 37ºC, were 0.099 mg of reducing sugar/mL and 0.3 mg of reducing sugar/min.mL, respectively. The enzyme was insensitive to organic compound and metal ions, except for the ferric ion which inhibited about 100% of the original activity at the concentration of 1 mM. In contrast to other hydrolytic enzymes (a chitinase and a protease produced by the same T. harzianum isolate (1051, the beta-1,3-glucanase showed no effect on the cell wall of the phytopathogenic fungus Crinipellis perniciosa.Uma beta-1,3-glucanase foi produzida por Trichoderma harzianum em cultura contendo quitina como fonte de carbono. Duas proteínas com atividade de beta-1,3-glucanase foram purificadas através de cromatografia de interação hidrofóbica. As massas moleculares destas proteínas foram de 29 kDa e 36 kDa. A proteína de 36 kDa foi caracterizada quanto à influência das condições de pH e temperatura. A atividade máxima foi encontrada em pH 5,0 e temperatura de 50ºC. A proteína purificada mostrou-se muito sensível à temperatura. Aproximadamente 60% da atividade original foi perdida por incubação da proteína a 45ºC, 50ºC e 60ºC, por 30 min. O K M aparente e a Vmax para hidrólise de laminarina em pH 5,0 à 37ºC, foram de 0,099 mg de açúcar redutor/mL e 0,3 mg de a