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Sample records for effort-related functions behavioral

  1. The Behavioral Pharmacology of Effort-related Choice Behavior: Dopamine, Adenosine and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamone, John D; Correa, Merce; Nunes, Eric J; Randall, Patrick A; Pardo, Marta

    2012-01-01

    For many years, it has been suggested that drugs that interfere with dopamine (DA) transmission alter the “rewarding” impact of primary reinforcers such as food. Research and theory related to the functions of mesolimbic DA are undergoing a substantial conceptual restructuring, with the traditional emphasis on hedonia and primary reward yielding to other concepts and lines of inquiry. The present review is focused upon the involvement of nucleus accumbens DA in effort-related choice behavior. Viewed from the framework of behavioral economics, the effects of accumbens DA depletions and antagonism on food-reinforced behavior are highly dependent upon the work requirements of the instrumental task, and DA-depleted rats show a heightened sensitivity to response costs, especially ratio requirements. Moreover, interference with accumbens DA transmission exerts a powerful influence over effort-related choice behavior. Rats with accumbens DA depletions or antagonism reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks that have high response requirements, and show increased selection of low reinforcement/low cost options. Nucleus accumbens DA and adenosine interact in the regulation of effort-related functions, and other brain structures (anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, ventral pallidum) also are involved. Studies of the brain systems regulating effort-based processes may have implications for understanding drug abuse, as well as symptoms such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia in depression and other neurological disorders. PMID:22287808

  2. The pharmacology of effort-related choice behavior: Dopamine, depression, and individual differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamone, John D; Correa, Merce; Yohn, Samantha; Lopez Cruz, Laura; San Miguel, Noemi; Alatorre, Luisa

    2016-06-01

    This review paper is focused upon the involvement of mesolimbic dopamine (DA) and related brain systems in effort-based processes. Interference with DA transmission affects instrumental behavior in a manner that interacts with the response requirements of the task, such that rats with impaired DA transmission show a heightened sensitivity to ratio requirements. Impaired DA transmission also affects effort-related choice behavior, which is assessed by tasks that offer a choice between a preferred reinforcer that has a high work requirement vs. less preferred reinforcer that can be obtained with minimal effort. Rats and mice with impaired DA transmission reallocate instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks with high response costs, and show increased selection of low reinforcement/low cost options. Tests of effort-related choice have been developed into models of pathological symptoms of motivation that are seen in disorders such as depression and schizophrenia. These models are being employed to explore the effects of conditions associated with various psychopathologies, and to assess drugs for their potential utility as treatments for effort-related symptoms. Studies of the pharmacology of effort-based choice may contribute to the development of treatments for symptoms such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia, which are seen in depression and other disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Behavioral Pharmacology of Effort-Related Choice Behavior: Dopamine, Adenosine and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamone, John D.; Correa, Merce; Nunes, Eric J.; Randall, Patrick A.; Pardo, Marta

    2012-01-01

    For many years, it has been suggested that drugs that interfere with dopamine (DA) transmission alter the "rewarding" impact of primary reinforcers such as food. Research and theory related to the functions of mesolimbic DA are undergoing a substantial conceptual restructuring, with the traditional emphasis on hedonia and primary reward yielding…

  4. Nucleus accumbens neurotransmission and effort-related choice behavior in food motivation: effects of drugs acting on dopamine, adenosine, and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Eric J; Randall, Patrick A; Podurgiel, Samantha; Correa, Mercè; Salamone, John D

    2013-11-01

    Mesolimbic dopamine (DA) is a critical component of the brain circuitry regulating behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Although nucleus accumbens (NAc) DA depletions or antagonism leave aspects of appetite and primary food motivation intact, rats with impaired DA transmission reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks with high response requirements, and instead select less effortful food-seeking behaviors. Previous work showed that adenosine A2A antagonists can reverse the effects of DA D2 antagonists on effort-related choice, and that stimulation of adenosine A2A receptors produces behavioral effects that are similar to those induced by DA antagonism. The present review summarizes the literature on the role of NAc DA and adenosine in effort-related processes, and also presents original data on the effects of local stimulation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in NAc core. Local injections of the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine directly into NAc core produces shifts in effort-related choice behavior similar to those induced by DA antagonism or A2A receptor stimulation, decreasing lever pressing but increasing chow intake in rats responding on a concurrent fixed ratio/chow feeding choice task. In contrast, injections into a neostriatal control site dorsal to the NAc were ineffective. The actions of pilocarpine on this task were attenuated by co-administration of the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine. Thus, drugs that act on DA, adenosine A2A, and muscarinic receptors regulate effort-related choice behavior, which may have implications for the treatment of psychiatric symptoms such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia that can be observed in depression and other disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Dopaminergic modulation of effort-related choice behavior as assessed by a progressive ratio chow feeding choice task: pharmacological studies and the role of individual differences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick A Randall

    Full Text Available Mesolimbic dopamine (DA is involved in behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Rats with impaired DA transmission reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks with high response requirements, and instead select less effortful food-seeking behaviors. In the present study, the effects of several drug treatments were assessed using a progressive ratio (PROG/chow feeding concurrent choice task. With this task, rats can lever press on a PROG schedule reinforced by a preferred high-carbohydrate food pellet, or alternatively approach and consume the less-preferred but concurrently available laboratory chow. Rats pass through each ratio level 15 times, after which the ratio requirement is incremented by one additional response. The DA D(2 antagonist haloperidol (0.025-0.1 mg/kg reduced number of lever presses and highest ratio achieved but did not reduce chow intake. In contrast, the adenosine A(2A antagonist MSX-3 increased lever presses and highest ratio achieved, but decreased chow consumption. The cannabinoid CB1 inverse agonist and putative appetite suppressant AM251 decreased lever presses, highest ratio achieved, and chow intake; this effect was similar to that produced by pre-feeding. Furthermore, DA-related signal transduction activity (pDARPP-32(Thr34 expression was greater in nucleus accumbens core of high responders (rats with high lever pressing output compared to low responders. Thus, the effects of DA antagonism differed greatly from those produced by pre-feeding or reduced CB1 transmission, and it appears unlikely that haloperidol reduces PROG responding because of a general reduction in primary food motivation or the unconditioned reinforcing properties of food. Furthermore, accumbens core signal transduction activity is related to individual differences in work output.

  6. Medial Orbitofrontal Cortex Mediates Effort-related Responding in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münster, Alexandra; Hauber, Wolfgang

    2017-11-17

    The medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) is known to support flexible control of goal-directed behavior. However, limited evidence suggests that the mOFC also mediates the ability of organisms to work with vigor towards a selected goal, a hypothesis that received little consideration to date. Here we show that excitotoxic mOFC lesion increased responding under a progressive ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement, that is, the highest ratio achieved, and increased the preference for the high effort-high reward option in an effort-related decision-making task, but left intact outcome-selective Pavlovian-instrumental transfer and outcome-specific devaluation. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of the mOFC increased, while pharmacological stimulation reduced PR responding. In addition, pharmacological mOFC stimulation attenuated methylphenidate-induced increase of PR responding. Intact rats tested for PR responding displayed higher numbers of c-Fos positive mOFC neurons than appropriate controls; however, mOFC neurons projecting to the nucleus accumbens did not show a selective increase in neuronal activation implying that they may not play a major role in regulating PR responding. Collectively, these results suggest that the mOFC plays a major role in mediating effort-related motivational functions. Moreover, our data demonstrate for the first time that the mOFC modulates effort-related effects of psychostimulant drugs. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Overview of NASA/OAST efforts related to manufacturing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, N. T.

    1976-01-01

    An overview of some of NASA's current efforts related to manufacturing technology and some possible directions for the future are presented. The topics discussed are: computer-aided design, composite structures, and turbine engine components.

  8. Behavior Management: Examining the Functions of Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alstot, Andrew E.; Alstot, Crystal D.

    2015-01-01

    Appropriate student behavior is essential for the success of a physical education lesson. Despite using effective proactive management strategies, teachers may need to also use reactive techniques to reduce problem behaviors by applying suitable consequences. For these consequences to be effective, they must be aligned with the function, or cause,…

  9. Activational and effort-related aspects of motivation: neural mechanisms and implications for psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohn, Samantha E.; López-Cruz, Laura; San Miguel, Noemí; Correa, Mercè

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Motivation has been defined as the process that allows organisms to regulate their internal and external environment, and control the probability, proximity and availability of stimuli. As such, motivation is a complex process that is critical for survival, which involves multiple behavioural functions mediated by a number of interacting neural circuits. Classical theories of motivation suggest that there are both directional and activational aspects of motivation, and activational aspects (i.e. speed and vigour of both the instigation and persistence of behaviour) are critical for enabling organisms to overcome work-related obstacles or constraints that separate them from significant stimuli. The present review discusses the role of brain dopamine and related circuits in behavioural activation, exertion of effort in instrumental behaviour, and effort-related decision-making, based upon both animal and human studies. Impairments in behavioural activation and effort-related aspects of motivation are associated with psychiatric symptoms such as anergia, fatigue, lassitude and psychomotor retardation, which cross multiple pathologies, including depression, schizophrenia, and Parkinson’s disease. Therefore, this review also attempts to provide an interdisciplinary approach that integrates findings from basic behavioural neuroscience, behavioural economics, clinical neuropsychology, psychiatry, and neurology, to provide a coherent framework for future research and theory in this critical field. Although dopamine systems are a critical part of the brain circuitry regulating behavioural activation, exertion of effort, and effort-related decision-making, mesolimbic dopamine is only one part of a distributed circuitry that includes multiple neurotransmitters and brain areas. Overall, there is a striking similarity between the brain areas involved in behavioural activation and effort-related processes in rodents and in humans. Animal models of effort-related

  10. Activational and effort-related aspects of motivation: neural mechanisms and implications for psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamone, John D; Yohn, Samantha E; López-Cruz, Laura; San Miguel, Noemí; Correa, Mercè

    2016-05-01

    Motivation has been defined as the process that allows organisms to regulate their internal and external environment, and control the probability, proximity and availability of stimuli. As such, motivation is a complex process that is critical for survival, which involves multiple behavioural functions mediated by a number of interacting neural circuits. Classical theories of motivation suggest that there are both directional and activational aspects of motivation, and activational aspects (i.e. speed and vigour of both the instigation and persistence of behaviour) are critical for enabling organisms to overcome work-related obstacles or constraints that separate them from significant stimuli. The present review discusses the role of brain dopamine and related circuits in behavioural activation, exertion of effort in instrumental behaviour, and effort-related decision-making, based upon both animal and human studies. Impairments in behavioural activation and effort-related aspects of motivation are associated with psychiatric symptoms such as anergia, fatigue, lassitude and psychomotor retardation, which cross multiple pathologies, including depression, schizophrenia, and Parkinson's disease. Therefore, this review also attempts to provide an interdisciplinary approach that integrates findings from basic behavioural neuroscience, behavioural economics, clinical neuropsychology, psychiatry, and neurology, to provide a coherent framework for future research and theory in this critical field. Although dopamine systems are a critical part of the brain circuitry regulating behavioural activation, exertion of effort, and effort-related decision-making, mesolimbic dopamine is only one part of a distributed circuitry that includes multiple neurotransmitters and brain areas. Overall, there is a striking similarity between the brain areas involved in behavioural activation and effort-related processes in rodents and in humans. Animal models of effort-related decision

  11. Behavioral and Brain Functions. A new journal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagvolden Terje

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Behavioral and Brain Functions (BBF is an Open Access, peer-reviewed, online journal considering original research, review, and modeling articles in all aspects of neurobiology or behavior, favoring research that relates to both domains. Behavioral and Brain Functions is published by BioMed Central. The greatest challenge for empirical science is to understand human behavior; how human behavior arises from the myriad functions such as attention, language, memory and emotion; how these functions are reflected in brain structures and functions; and how the brain and behavior are altered in disease. Behavioral and Brain Functions covers the entire area of behavioral and cognitive neuroscience – an area where animal studies traditionally play a prominent role. Behavioral and Brain Functions is published online, allowing unlimited space for figures, extensive datasets to allow readers to study the data for themselves, and moving pictures, which are important qualities assisting communication in modern science.

  12. Functional Thinking for Managing Challenging Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allday, R. Allan

    2018-01-01

    Challenging student behavior remains one of the biggest trials for classroom teachers. Understanding why a student performs a specific behavior is important in determining how to develop an intervention that targets the function of the behavior. This column focuses on how thinking functionally about behavior can help teachers understand why…

  13. Functional Perspectives on Emotion, Behavior, and Cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Logan A. Berg; Kathleen E. Darbor; Heather C. Lench

    2013-01-01

    This Editorial reviews the challenges and advantages posed by a functional perspective on the relationships among emotion, behavior, and cognition. We identify the core themes among the articles published as part of this Special Issue. The articles generally address two important questions: (1) are emotions functional and what is their impact on behavioral and cognitive processes, and (2) how do the interactions among emotion, cognition, and behavior play out in particular situations that pre...

  14. Perturbations in Effort-Related Decision-Making Driven by Acute Stress and Corticotropin-Releasing Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce, Courtney A; Floresco, Stan B

    2016-07-01

    Acute stress activates numerous systems in a coordinated effort to promote homeostasis, and can exert differential effects on mnemonic and cognitive functions depending on a myriad of factors. Stress can alter different forms of cost/benefit decision-making, yet the mechanisms that drive these effects, remain unclear. In the present study, we probed how corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) may contribute to stress-induced alterations in cost/benefit decision-making, using an task where well-trained rats chose between a low effort/low reward lever (LR; two pellets) and a high effort/high reward lever (HR; four pellets), with the effort requirement increasing over a session (2, 5, 10, and 20 presses). One-hour restraint stress markedly reduced preference for the HR option, but this effect was attenuated by infusions of the CRF antagonist, alpha-helical CRF. Conversely, central CRF infusion mimicked the effect of stress on decision-making, as well as increased decision latencies and reduced response vigor. CRF infusions did not alter preference for larger vs smaller rewards, but did reduce responding for food delivered on a progressive ratio, suggesting that these treatments may amplify perceived effort costs that may be required to obtain rewards. CRF infusions into the ventral tegmental area recapitulated the effect of central CRF treatment and restraint on choice behavior, suggesting that these effects may be mediated by perturbations in dopamine transmission. These findings highlight the involvement of CRF in regulating effort-related decisions and suggest that increased CRF activity may contribute to motivational impairments and abnormal decision-making associated with stress-related psychiatric disorders such as depression.

  15. Social Dynamics Management and Functional Behavioral Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David L.

    2018-01-01

    Managing social dynamics is a critical aspect of creating a positive learning environment in classrooms. In this paper three key interrelated ideas, reinforcement, function, and motivating operations, are discussed with relation to managing social behavior.

  16. Functional Behavioral Assessment in Early Education Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilsen, Shelley; McEvoy, Mary

    2004-01-01

    Functional behavioral assessment (FBA) is the process of identifying the events in the environment that consistently precede and follow challenging behavior. The use of FBA has increased significantly following the reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act in 1997, which mandated FBAs be conducted when children with…

  17. Effects of Training in Functional Behavior Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukes, Charles; Rosenberg, Howard; Brady, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of training special education teachers in the process of functional behavioral assessment (FBA) and subsequent development of recommendations to promote behavior change. An original evaluation instrument was developed that included measures of special education teachers' knowledge of…

  18. Functional Perspectives on Emotion, Behavior, and Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logan A. Berg

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This Editorial reviews the challenges and advantages posed by a functional perspective on the relationships among emotion, behavior, and cognition. We identify the core themes among the articles published as part of this Special Issue. The articles generally address two important questions: (1 are emotions functional and what is their impact on behavioral and cognitive processes, and (2 how do the interactions among emotion, cognition, and behavior play out in particular situations that present adaptive challenges? We also identify two core questions raised by the articles included in this Special Issue. Future research must address the extent to which emotions are best represented as discrete emotional constructs (e.g., anger, sadness, fear versus emotions that vary along dimensions, such as valence and arousal. Functional perspectives would also be facilitated by identification of situations or environments that are likely to elicit particular emotions and reactions.

  19. Functional perspectives on emotion, behavior, and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lench, Heather C; Darbor, Kathleen E; Berg, Logan A

    2013-12-01

    This Editorial reviews the challenges and advantages posed by a functional perspective on the relationships among emotion, behavior, and cognition. We identify the core themes among the articles published as part of this Special Issue. The articles generally address two important questions: (1) are emotions functional and what is their impact on behavioral and cognitive processes, and (2) how do the interactions among emotion, cognition, and behavior play out in particular situations that present adaptive challenges? We also identify two core questions raised by the articles included in this Special Issue. Future research must address the extent to which emotions are best represented as discrete emotional constructs (e.g., anger, sadness, fear) versus emotions that vary along dimensions, such as valence and arousal. Functional perspectives would also be facilitated by identification of situations or environments that are likely to elicit particular emotions and reactions.

  20. Status of Los Alamos efforts related to Hiroshima and Nagasaki dose estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whalen, P.P.

    1981-09-01

    The Los Alamos efforts related to resolution of the Hiroshima, Nagasaki doses are described as follows: (1) Using recently located replicas of the Hiroshima bomb, measurements will be made which will define the upper limit of the Hiroshima yield. (2) Two-dimensional calculations of the neutron and gamma-ray outputs of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki weapons are in progress. Neutron and gamma-ray leakage spectra measurements will be made. Similar measurements on the Mark 9 weapon and on the Ichiban assembly are proposed. These measurements will provide a check for present day cross sections and calculations. (3) Calculations of several air transport experiments are in progress. A comparison of calculated results with experimental results is given. (4) The neutron and gamma-ray output spectra of several devices tested in the atmosphere at the Nevada Test Site are being calculated. The results of these calculations will allow models of the debris cloud contribution to the total dose to be tested

  1. The VMAT-2 inhibitor tetrabenazine affects effort-related decision making in a progressive ratio/chow feeding choice task: reversal with antidepressant drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick A Randall

    Full Text Available Behavioral activation is a fundamental feature of motivation, and organisms frequently make effort-related decisions based upon evaluations of reinforcement value and response costs. Furthermore, people with major depression and other disorders often show anergia, psychomotor retardation, fatigue, and alterations in effort-related decision making. Tasks measuring effort-based decision making can be used as animal models of the motivational symptoms of depression, and the present studies characterized the effort-related effects of the vesicular monoamine transport (VMAT-2 inhibitor tetrabenazine. Tetrabenazine induces depressive symptoms in humans, and also preferentially depletes dopamine (DA. Rats were assessed using a concurrent progressive ratio (PROG/chow feeding task, in which they can either lever press on a PROG schedule for preferred high-carbohydrate food, or approach and consume a less-preferred lab chow that is freely available in the chamber. Previous work has shown that the DA antagonist haloperidol reduced PROG work output on this task, but did not reduce chow intake, effects that differed substantially from those of reinforcer devaluation or appetite suppressant drugs. The present work demonstrated that tetrabenazine produced an effort-related shift in responding on the PROG/chow procedure, reducing lever presses, highest ratio achieved and time spent responding, but not reducing chow intake. Similar effects were produced by administration of the subtype selective DA antagonists ecopipam (D1 and eticlopride (D2, but not by the cannabinoid CB1 receptor neutral antagonist and putative appetite suppressant AM 4413, which suppressed both lever pressing and chow intake. The adenosine A2A antagonist MSX-3, the antidepressant and catecholamine uptake inhibitor bupropion, and the MAO-B inhibitor deprenyl, all reversed the impairments induced by tetrabenazine. This work demonstrates the potential utility of the PROG/chow procedure as a

  2. Sexual function and behavior in social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodinger, Liron; Hermesh, Haggai; Aizenberg, Dov; Valevski, Avi; Marom, Sofi; Shiloh, Roni; Gothelf, Doron; Zemishlany, Zvi; Weizman, Abraham

    2002-10-01

    Social phobia is a type of performance and interpersonal anxiety disorder and as such may be associated with sexual dysfunction and avoidance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate sexual function and behavior in patients with social phobia compared with mentally healthy subjects. Eighty subjects participated in the study: 40 consecutive, drug-free outpatients with social phobia (DSM-IV) attending an anxiety disorders clinic between November 1997 and April 1999 and 40 mentally normal controls. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders and the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale were used to quantitatively and qualitatively assess sexual function and behavior. Men with social phobia reported mainly moderate impairment in arousal, orgasm, sexual enjoyment, and subjective satisfaction domains. Women with social phobia reported severe impairment in desire, arousal, sexual activity, and subjective satisfaction. In addition, compared with controls, men with social phobia reported significantly more frequent paid sex (p social phobia reported a significant paucity of sexual partners (p social phobia exhibit a wide range of sexual dysfunctions. Men have mainly performance problems, and women have a more pervasive disorder. Patients of both genders show difficulties in sexual interaction. It is important that clinicians be aware of this aspect of social phobia and initiate open discussions of sexual problems with patients.

  3. The adenosine A2A antagonist MSX-3 reverses the effort-related effects of dopamine blockade: differential interaction with D1 and D2 family antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worden, Lila T; Shahriari, Mona; Farrar, Andrew M; Sink, Kelly S; Hockemeyer, Jörg; Müller, Christa E; Salamone, John D

    2009-04-01

    Brain dopamine (DA) participates in the modulation of instrumental behavior, including aspects of behavioral activation and effort-related choice behavior. Rats with impaired DA transmission reallocate their behavior away from food-seeking behaviors that have high response requirements, and instead select less effortful alternatives. Although accumbens DA is considered a critical component of the brain circuitry regulating effort-related choice behavior, emerging evidence demonstrates a role for adenosine A(2A) receptors. Adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonism has been shown to reverse the effects of DA antagonism. The present experiments were conducted to determine if this effect was dependent upon the subtype of DA receptor that was antagonized to produce the changes in effort-related choice. The adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist MSX-3 (0.5-2.0 mg/kg IP) was assessed for its ability to reverse the effects of the D1 family antagonist SCH39166 (ecopipam; 0.2 mg/kg IP) and the D2 family antagonist eticlopride (0.08 mg/kg IP), using a concurrent lever pressing/chow feeding procedure. MSX-3 produced a substantial dose-related reversal of the effects of eticlopride on lever pressing and chow intake. At the highest dose of MSX-3, there was a complete reversal of the effects of eticlopride on lever pressing. In contrast, MSX-3 produced only a minimal attenuation of the effects of SCH39166, as measured by regression and effect size analyses. The greater ability of MSX-3 to reverse the effects of D2 vs. D1 blockade may be related to the colocalization of D2 and adenosine A(2A) receptors on the same population of striatal neurons.

  4. Functional Behavior Assessment in Schools: Current Status and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Cynthia M.; Rodriguez, Billie Jo; Campbell, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Functional behavior assessment is becoming a commonly used practice in school settings. Accompanying this growth has been an increase in research on functional behavior assessment. We reviewed the extant literature on documenting indirect and direct methods of functional behavior assessment in school settings. To discern best practice guidelines…

  5. Implicit activation of the aging stereotype influences effort-related cardiovascular response: The role of incentive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafeiriou, Athina; Gendolla, Guido H E

    2017-09-01

    Based on previous research on implicit effects on effort-related cardiovascular response and evidence that aging is associated with cognitive difficulties, we tested whether the mere activation of the aging stereotype can systematically influence young individuals' effort-mobilization during cognitive performance. Young participants performed an objectively difficult short-term memory task during which they processed elderly vs. youth primes and expected low vs. high incentive for success. When participants processed elderly primes during the task, we expected cardiovascular response to be weak in the low-incentive condition and strong in the high-incentive condition. Unaffected by incentive, effort in the youth-prime condition should fall in between the two elderly-prime cells. Effects on cardiac pre-ejection period (PEP) and heart rate (HR) largely supported these predictions. The present findings show for the first time that the mere activation of the aging stereotype can systematically influence effort mobilization during cognitive performance-even in young adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. FAB (Functionally Alert Behavior Strategies) to Improve Self-Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the FAB (Functionally Alert Behavior) Strategies approach to improve behavior in children and adolescents with complex behavioral challenges. FAB Strategies include evidence-based environmental adaptations, sensory modulation, positive behavioral support, and physical self-regulation strategies. FAB Strategies can be used by…

  7. Cognitive, functional and behavioral assessment: Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia L.F. Chaves

    Full Text Available Abstract A review of the evidence on cognitive, functional and behavioral assessment for the diagnosis of dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD is presented with revision and broadening of the recommendations on the use of tests and batteries in Brazil for the diagnosis of dementia due to AD. A systematic review of the literature (MEDLINE, LILACS and SCIELO database was carried out by a panel of experts. Studies on the validation and/or adaptation of tests, scales and batteries for the Brazilian population were analyzed and classified according to level of evidence. There were sufficient data to recommend the IQCODE, DAFS-R, DAD, ADL-Q and Bayer scale for the evaluation of instrumental activities of daily living, and the Katz scale for the assessment of basic activities of daily living. For the evaluation of neuropsychiatric symptoms, the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI and the CAMDEX were found to be useful, as was the Cornell scale for depression in dementia. The Mini-Mental State Examination has clinical utility as a screening test, as do the multifunctional batteries (CAMCOG-R, ADAS-COG, CERAD and MDRS for brief evaluations of several cognitive domains. There was sufficient evidence to recommend the CDR scale for clinical and severity assessment of dementia. Tests for Brazilian Portuguese are recommended by cognitive domain based on available data.

  8. Functional-Based Assessment of Social Behavior: Introduction and Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Timothy J.; Sugai, George

    1994-01-01

    This introduction to and overview of a special issue on social behavior assessment within schools discusses the impact of function-based methodologies on assessment and intervention practices in identification and remediation of challenging social behaviors. (JDD)

  9. A Comparison of Functional Behavioral Assessment and Functional Analysis Methodology among Students with Mild Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Timothy J.; Mitchell, Barbara S.; Harvey, Kristin; Green, Ambra; McKenzie, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Functional behavioral assessment (FBA) and functional analyses (FA) are grounded in the applied behavior analysis principle that posits problem behavior is functionally related to the environment in which it occurs and is maintained by either providing access to reinforcing outcomes or allowing the individual to avoid or escape that which they…

  10. A Survey of Functional Behavior Assessment Methods Used by Behavior Analysts in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Anthony C.; Pratt, Leigh A.; Normand, Matthew P.

    2015-01-01

    To gather information about the functional behavior assessment (FBA) methods behavior analysts use in practice, we sent a web-based survey to 12,431 behavior analysts certified by the Behavior Analyst Certification Board. Ultimately, 724 surveys were returned, with the results suggesting that most respondents regularly use FBA methods, especially…

  11. Implementing Functional Behavior Assessment in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opartkiattikul, Watinee; Arthur-Kelly, Michael; Dempsey, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Thailand is aiming to improve special education practices, and inclusive education has been introduced and mandated by national laws in the past few years. However, inclusive practices are challenging for many Thai teachers and schools. Many teachers are unprepared to support students with diverse needs and to deal with behavior problems. To…

  12. A Comparison of Experimental Functional Analysis and the Questions about Behavioral Function (QABF) in the Assessment of Challenging Behavior of Individuals with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Olive; Brett, Denise; Leader, Geraldine

    2013-01-01

    We compared two functional behavioral assessment methods: the Questions About Behavioral Function (QABF; a standardized test) and experimental functional analysis (EFA) to identify behavioral functions of aggressive/destructive behavior, self-injurious behavior and stereotypy in 32 people diagnosed with autism. Both assessments found that self…

  13. Progressing from Identification and Functional Analysis of Precursor Behavior to Treatment of Self-Injurious Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dracobly, Joseph D.; Smith, Richard G.

    2012-01-01

    This multiple-study experiment evaluated the utility of assessing and treating severe self-injurious behavior (SIB) based on the outcomes of a functional analysis of precursor behavior. In Study 1, a precursor to SIB was identified using descriptive assessment and conditional probability analyses. In Study 2, a functional analysis of precursor…

  14. Classwide Functional Analysis and Treatment of Preschoolers' Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Veena Y.; Dufrene, Brad A.; Sterling, Heather E.; Tingstrom, Daniel H.; Hardy, Christina M.

    2012-01-01

    Relatively few functional assessment and intervention studies have been conducted in preschool classrooms with children of typical development who engage in high incidence problem behaviors. Moreover, limited studies have used functional assessment procedures with the class as the unit of analysis. This study included functional analyses and a…

  15. Mental Status and Functional Behavior In Male Geriatric Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Mayer, Gregory Lee

    1989-01-01

    It was the goal of this study to examine the ecological validity of a number of measures of mental status for geriatric individuals. Subjects were 40 alert, ambulatory male VA patients. Mental status instruments included the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS) and the Vocabulary subtest of the WAIS-R. Measures of functional behavior included the Woodcock-Johnson Scales of Independent Behavior (SIB) and the Parachek Geriatric Behavior Rating Scale (PGBRS). Sig...

  16. Behavioral and neural Darwinism: selectionist function and mechanism in adaptive behavior dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, J J

    2010-05-01

    An evolutionary theory of behavior dynamics and a theory of neuronal group selection share a common selectionist framework. The theory of behavior dynamics instantiates abstractly the idea that behavior is selected by its consequences. It implements Darwinian principles of selection, reproduction, and mutation to generate adaptive behavior in virtual organisms. The behavior generated by the theory has been shown to be quantitatively indistinguishable from that of live organisms. The theory of neuronal group selection suggests a mechanism whereby the abstract principles of the evolutionary theory may be implemented in the nervous systems of biological organisms. According to this theory, groups of neurons subserving behavior may be selected by synaptic modifications that occur when the consequences of behavior activate value systems in the brain. Together, these theories constitute a framework for a comprehensive account of adaptive behavior that extends from brain function to the behavior of whole organisms in quantitative detail. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Intellectual, behavioral, and emotional functioning in children with syndromic craniosynostosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maliepaard, M.; Mathijssen, I.M.J.; Oosterlaan, J.; Okkerse, J.M.E.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine intellectual, behavioral, and emotional functioning of children who have syndromic craniosynostosis and to explore differences between diagnostic subgroups. METHODS: A national sample of children who have syndromic craniosynostosis participated in this study. Intellectual,

  18. Family Functioning and Adolescent Help-Seeking Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Barry J.; Bowles, Terry V. P.

    2001-01-01

    Examined relationship between help seeking behavior and family functioning. Adolescents who sought help clustered into two groups of families - one high in conflict and low in democratic parenting style, and one low in conflict and high in democratic parenting style. Complex relationships between help seeking behavior, type of family, and type of…

  19. Adolescent Perceptions of Overall Family System Functioning and Parental Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Carolyn S.; Robinson, Linda C.; Neal, Rachel A.; Huey, Erron L.

    2006-01-01

    We used a systems perspective to examine relationships between adolescents' perceptions of overall family system functioning and selected parental behaviors. Self-report questionnaire data from 160 ninth and tenth grade students were analyzed using MANCOVA and discriminant analysis. The results showed two parental behaviors, support and monitoring…

  20. The adenosine A2A antagonist MSX-3 reverses the effects of the dopamine antagonist haloperidol on effort-related decision making in a T-maze cost/benefit procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mott, Allison M; Nunes, Eric J; Collins, Lyndsey E; Port, Russell G; Sink, Kelly S; Hockemeyer, Jörg; Müller, Christa E; Salamone, John D

    2009-05-01

    Mesolimbic dopamine (DA) is a critical component of the brain circuitry regulating behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Research involving choice tasks has shown that rats with impaired DA transmission reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks with high response requirements and instead select less effortful food-seeking behaviors. Previous work showed that adenosine A(2A) antagonism can reverse the effects of the DA antagonist haloperidol in an operant task that assesses effort-related choice. The present work used a T-maze choice procedure to assess the effects of adenosine A(2A) and A(1) antagonism. With this task, the two arms of the maze have different reinforcement densities (four vs. two food pellets), and a vertical 44 cm barrier is positioned in the arm with the higher density, presenting the animal with an effort-related challenge. Untreated rats strongly prefer the arm with the high density of food reward and climb the barrier in order to obtain the food. Haloperidol produced a dose-related (0.05-0.15 mg/kg i.p.) reduction in the number of trials in which the rats chose the high-barrier arm. Co-administration of the adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist MSX-3 (0.75, 1.5, and 3.0 mg/kg i.p.), but not the A(1) antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (0.75, 1.5, and 3.0 mg/kg i.p.), reversed the effects of haloperidol on effort-related choice and latency. Adenosine A(2A) and D2 receptors interact to regulate effort-related decision making, which may have implications for the treatment of psychiatric symptoms such as psychomotor slowing or anergia that can be observed in depression, parkinsonism, and other disorders.

  1. Correspondence between Traditional Models of Functional Analysis and a Functional Analysis of Manding Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRue, Robert H.; Sloman, Kimberly N.; Weiss, Mary Jane; Delmolino, Lara; Hansford, Amy; Szalony, Jill; Madigan, Ryan; Lambright, Nathan M.

    2011-01-01

    Functional analysis procedures have been effectively used to determine the maintaining variables for challenging behavior and subsequently develop effective interventions. However, fear of evoking dangerous topographies of maladaptive behavior and concerns for reinforcing infrequent maladaptive behavior present challenges for people working in…

  2. Intellectual, behavioral, and emotional functioning in children with syndromic craniosynostosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliepaard, Marianne; Mathijssen, Irene M J; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Okkerse, Jolanda M E

    2014-06-01

    To examine intellectual, behavioral, and emotional functioning of children who have syndromic craniosynostosis and to explore differences between diagnostic subgroups. A national sample of children who have syndromic craniosynostosis participated in this study. Intellectual, behavioral, and emotional outcomes were assessed by using standardized measures: Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Third Edition, Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL)/6-18, Disruptive Behavior Disorder rating scale (DBD), and the National Institute of Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children. We included 82 children (39 boys) aged 6 to 13 years who have syndromic craniosynostosis. Mean Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ) was in the normal range (M = 96.6; SD = 21.6). However, children who have syndromic craniosynostosis had a 1.9 times higher risk for developing intellectual disability (FSIQ intellectual disability, internalizing, social, and attention problems. Higher levels of behavioral and emotional problems were related to lower levels of intellectual functioning.

  3. Functional analysis screening for multiple topographies of problem behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Marlesha C; Fahmie, Tara A

    2018-04-23

    The current study evaluated a screening procedure for multiple topographies of problem behavior in the context of an ongoing functional analysis. Experimenters analyzed the function of a topography of primary concern while collecting data on topographies of secondary concern. We used visual analysis to predict the function of secondary topographies and a subsequent functional analysis to test those predictions. Results showed that a general function was accurately predicted for five of six (83%) secondary topographies. A specific function was predicted and supported for a subset of these topographies. The experimenters discuss the implication of these results for clinicians who have limited time for functional assessment. © 2018 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  4. Learning a decision maker's utility function from (possibly) inconsistent behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Jensen, Finn Verner

    2004-01-01

    developed for learning the probabilities from a database.However, methods for learning the utilities have only received limitedattention in the computer science community. A promising approach for learning a decision maker's utility function is to takeoutset in the decision maker's observed behavioral...... patterns, and then find autility function which (together with a domain model) can explainthis behavior. That is, it is assumed that decision maker's preferences arereflected in the behavior. Standard learning algorithmsalso assume that the decision maker is behavioralconsistent, i.e., given a model ofthe...... decision problem, there exists a utility function which canaccount for all the observed behavior. Unfortunately, this assumption israrely valid in real-world decision problems, and in these situationsexisting learning methods may only identify a trivial utilityfunction. In this paper we relax...

  5. Executive function influences sedentary behavior: A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D. Loprinzi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: No study has evaluated the effects of executive function on follow-up sedentary behavior, which was this study’s purpose. Methods: A longitudinal design was employed among 18 young adult college students (Mage = 23.7 years; 88.9% female. Accelerometer-determined sedentary behavior and physical activity, along with executive function, were assessed at baseline. Approximately 8 weeks later, re-assessment of accelerometer-determined sedentary behavior and physical activity occurred. Executive function was assessed using the Parametric Go/No-Go (PGNG computer task. From this, 2 primary executive function outcome parameters were evaluated, including the Simple Rule and Repeating Rule. Results: After adjusting for baseline sedentary behavior, age, gender, body mass index and baseline moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA, for every 25% increase in the number of correctly identified targets for the Repeating rule at the baseline assessment, participants engaged in 91.8 fewer minutes of sedentary behavior at the follow-up assessment (β = -91.8; 95% CI: -173.5, -10.0; P = 0.03. Results were unchanged when also adjusting for total baseline or follow-up physical activity. Conclusion: Greater executive function is associated with less follow-up sedentary behavior.

  6. The Relationship Between Emotion Regulation, Executive Functioning, and Aggressive Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, Sarah R; Ewing, Scott T; Stiver, Jordan T; Bloch, Lian

    2015-06-30

    Emotion regulation deficits and executive functioning deficits have independently been shown to increase vulnerability toward engaging in aggressive behaviors. The effects of these risk factors, however, have not been evaluated in relation to one another. This study evaluated the degree to which each was associated with aggressive behaviors in a sample of 168 undergraduate students. Executive functioning (cognitive inhibition and mental flexibility) was assessed with a Stroop-like neuropsychological task. Emotion regulation and aggressive behaviors were assessed via self-report inventories. Results showed main effects for both emotion regulation and executive functioning, as well as a significant interaction, indicating that those who scored lowest in both domains reported engaging in aggressive behaviors the most frequently. When different types of aggression were examined, this interaction was only significant for acts of physical aggression, not for acts of verbal aggression. Therefore, for physical aggression, emotion regulation and executive functioning exerted a moderating effect on one another. The implications are that, at least for acts of physical aggression, relatively strong capabilities in either domain may buffer against tendencies to engage in aggressive behaviors. Thus, both emotion regulation skills and executive functioning abilities may be valuable targets for interventions aiming to reduce aggressive behaviors. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Strategic Risk Management Behavior: What Can Utility Functions Tell Us

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, J.M.E.; Garcia, P.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract The validity of the utility concept, particularly in an expected utility framework, has been questioned because of its inability to predict revealed behavior. In this paper we focus on the global shape of the utility function instead of the local shape of the utility function. We examine

  8. On the low-energy behavior of the Adler function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesterenko, A.V.

    2009-01-01

    The infrared behavior of the Adler function is examined by making use of a recently derived integral representation for the latter. The obtained result for the Adler function agrees with its experimental prediction in the entire energy range. The inclusive τ lepton decay is studied in the framework of the developed approach

  9. Developmental imaging genetics: linking dopamine function to adolescent behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Aarthi; Luna, Beatriz

    2014-08-01

    Adolescence is a period of development characterized by numerous neurobiological changes that significantly influence behavior and brain function. Adolescence is of particular interest due to the alarming statistics indicating that mortality rates increase two to three-fold during this time compared to childhood, due largely to a peak in risk-taking behaviors resulting from increased impulsivity and sensation seeking. Furthermore, there exists large unexplained variability in these behaviors that are in part mediated by biological factors. Recent advances in molecular genetics and functional neuroimaging have provided a unique and exciting opportunity to non-invasively study the influence of genetic factors on brain function in humans. While genes do not code for specific behaviors, they do determine the structure and function of proteins that are essential to the neuronal processes that underlie behavior. Therefore, studying the interaction of genotype with measures of brain function over development could shed light on critical time points when biologically mediated individual differences in complex behaviors emerge. Here we review animal and human literature examining the neurobiological basis of adolescent development related to dopamine neurotransmission. Dopamine is of critical importance because of (1) its role in cognitive and affective behaviors, (2) its role in the pathogenesis of major psychopathology, and (3) the protracted development of dopamine signaling pathways over adolescence. We will then focus on current research examining the role of dopamine-related genes on brain function. We propose the use of imaging genetics to examine the influence of genetically mediated dopamine variability on brain function during adolescence, keeping in mind the limitations of this approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Functional Behavior Assessments and Behavior Intervention Plans: Legal Requirements and Professional Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Lauren W.; Zirkel, Perry A.

    2017-01-01

    Functional behavior assessments (FBAs) and behavior intervention plans (BIPs) are critical components in the education of students with, or at risk for, emotional disturbance (ED). The purpose of this article is to compare the legal requirements with the professional requirements for FBAs and BIPs. The comparison is first according to the…

  11. Functional Communication Training: A Contemporary Behavior Analytic Intervention for Problem Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, V. Mark; Merges, Eileen

    2001-01-01

    This article describes functional communication training (FCT) with students who have autism. FCT involves teaching alternative communication strategies to replace problem behaviors. The article reviews the conditions under which this intervention is successful and compares the method with other behavioral approaches. It concludes that functional…

  12. Thermomechanical behavior of SBR reinforced with nanotubes functionalized with polyvinylpyridine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Falco, A. [Universidad de Buenos Aires, FCEyN, Depto. de Fisica, LPyMC, Pabellon I, Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina); Lamanna, M. [Universidad de Buenos Aires, FCEyN, Depto. de Quimica Organica, Centro de Investigaciones en Hidratos de Carbono (CIHIDECAR) (Argentina); Goyanes, S. [Universidad de Buenos Aires, FCEyN, Depto. de Fisica, LPyMC, Pabellon I, Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); D' Accorso, N.B. [Universidad de Buenos Aires, FCEyN, Depto. de Quimica Organica, Centro de Investigaciones en Hidratos de Carbono (CIHIDECAR) (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); Fascio, M.L., E-mail: mfascio@qo.fcen.uba.ar [Universidad de Buenos Aires, FCEyN, Depto. de Quimica Organica, Centro de Investigaciones en Hidratos de Carbono (CIHIDECAR) (Argentina)

    2012-08-15

    The mechanical and thermal behavior of composites consisting on a styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) matrix with a sulphur/accelerator system and multiwalled carbon nanotubes functionalized with poly-4-vinylpyridine (MWCNT-PVP) as reinforcement, were studied. The materials were tested with stress-strain tensile tests, DMTA and DSC for thermal properties. A strong increase in the plastic behavior with slight decrease of its elastic Modulus and Tg led to unexpected results.

  13. Thermomechanical behavior of SBR reinforced with nanotubes functionalized with polyvinylpyridine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Falco, A.; Lamanna, M.; Goyanes, S.; D'Accorso, N.B.; Fascio, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    The mechanical and thermal behavior of composites consisting on a styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) matrix with a sulphur/accelerator system and multiwalled carbon nanotubes functionalized with poly-4-vinylpyridine (MWCNT-PVP) as reinforcement, were studied. The materials were tested with stress-strain tensile tests, DMTA and DSC for thermal properties. A strong increase in the plastic behavior with slight decrease of its elastic Modulus and Tg led to unexpected results.

  14. Simulation of operator team behavior. Introduction of emotional function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, Seiichi; Hasegawa, Naoko

    1997-01-01

    Operator's behavior may be influenced by the atmosphere in a control room. Therefore, it is important to consider operator's emotions especially when abnormal situations occur in a plant. SYBORG (Simulation System for the Behavior of an Operating Group) is a system for simulating the behavior of an operator team. Based on 1) Investigations of how operators feel the situations in a control room and 2) biological and psychological similarities between emotion and immunity, an emotional function was tried to be incorporated into SYBORG using immune algorithm. (author)

  15. Executive Function and Adaptive Behavior in Muenke Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnell, Colin M P; Addissie, Yonit A; Hadley, Donald W; Guillen Sacoto, Maria J; Agochukwu, Nneamaka B; Hart, Rachel A; Wiggs, Edythe A; Platte, Petra; Paelecke, Yvonne; Collmann, Hartmut; Schweitzer, Tilmann; Kruszka, Paul; Muenke, Maximilian

    2015-08-01

    To investigate executive function and adaptive behavior in individuals with Muenke syndrome using validated instruments with a normative population and unaffected siblings as controls. Participants in this cross-sectional study included individuals with Muenke syndrome (P250R mutation in FGFR3) and their mutation-negative siblings. Participants completed validated assessments of executive functioning (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function [BRIEF]) and adaptive behavior skills (Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, Second Edition [ABAS-II]). Forty-four with a positive FGFR3 mutation, median age 9 years, range 7 months to 52 years were enrolled. In addition, 10 unaffected siblings served as controls (5 males, 5 females; median age, 13 years; range, 3-18 years). For the General Executive Composite scale of the BRIEF, 32.1% of the cohort had scores greater than +1.5 SD, signifying potential clinical significance. For the General Adaptive Composite of the ABAS-II, 28.2% of affected individuals scored in the 3rd-8th percentile of the normative population, and 56.4% were below the average category (General Executive Composite and the ABAS-II General Adaptive Composite. Individuals with Muenke syndrome are at an increased risk for developing adaptive and executive function behavioral changes compared with a normative population and unaffected siblings. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Use of cognitive behavior therapy for functional hypothalamic amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berga, Sarah L; Loucks, Tammy L

    2006-12-01

    Behaviors that chronically activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and/or suppress the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroidal (HPT) axis disrupt the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in women and men. Individuals with functional hypothalamic hypogonadism typically engage in a combination of behaviors that concomitantly heighten psychogenic stress and increase energy demand. Although it is not widely recognized clinically, functional forms of hypothalamic hypogonadism are more than an isolated disruption of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) drive and reproductive compromise. Indeed, women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea display a constellation of neuroendocrine aberrations that reflect allostatic adjustments to chronic stress. Given these considerations, we have suggested that complete neuroendocrine recovery would involve more than reproductive recovery. Hormone replacement strategies have limited benefit because they do not ameliorate allostatic endocrine adjustments, particularly the activation of the adrenal and the suppression of the thyroidal axes. Indeed, the rationale for the use of sex steroid replacement is based on the erroneous assumption that functional forms of hypothalamic hypogonadism represent only or primarily an alteration in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Potential health consequences of functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, often termed stress-induced anovulation, may include an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, depression, other psychiatric conditions, and dementia. Although fertility can be restored with exogenous administration of gonadotropins or pulsatile GnRH, fertility management alone will not permit recovery of the adrenal and thyroidal axes. Initiating pregnancy with exogenous means without reversing the hormonal milieu induced by chronic stress may increase the likelihood of poor obstetrical, fetal, or neonatal outcomes. In contrast, behavioral and psychological interventions that

  17. A Comparison of Functional Behavior Assessment Methodologies with Young Children: Descriptive Methods and Functional Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Peter J.; Conroy, Maureen A.; Mancil, G. Rich; Haydon, Todd

    2008-01-01

    The use of functional behavior assessment (FBA) to guide the development of behavior intervention plans continues to increase since they were first mandated in IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments of 1997, 20 U.S.C. Section 1400 et seq, 1997). A variety of indirect and direct instruments have been developed to facilitate…

  18. Behavioral Executive Functions Among Adolescents With Mathematics Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Marja E; Aunio, Pirjo; Björn, Piia M; Klenberg, Liisa; Korhonen, Johan; Hannula, Markku S

    2017-07-01

    This study investigates behavioral executive functions (EFs) in the mathematics classroom context among adolescents with different mathematics performance levels. The EF problems were assessed by teachers using a behavioral rating inventory. Using cutoff scores on a standardized mathematics assessment, groups with mathematics difficulties (MD; n = 124), low mathematics performance (LA; n = 140), and average or higher scores (AC; n = 355) were identified. Results showed that the MD group had more problems with distractibility, directing attention, shifting attention, initiative, execution of action, planning, and evaluation than the LA group, whereas the differences in hyperactivity, impulsivity, and sustaining attention were not significant. Compared to the AC group, the MD group showed more problems with all behavioral EFs except hyperactivity and impulsivity, while the LA group showed more problems only with shifting attention. Male adolescents showed more behavioral EF problems than female adolescents, but this gender difference was negligible within the MD group. The practical implications of the results are discussed.

  19. The Shape of Utility Functions and Organizational Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.E. Pennings; A. Smidts (Ale)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractBased on measurements with 332 owner-managers, the global shape of the utility function (i.e., S-shaped versus concave or convex over the total range of outcomes) appears to discriminate organizational behavior. Whereas the degree of risk aversion, based on the local shape of the utility

  20. Adaptive Feeding behavior and functional responses in pelagic copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Saiz, Enrico; Tiselius, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Zooplankton may modify their feeding behavior in response to prey availability and presence of predators with implications to populations of both predators and prey. Optimal foraging theory predicts that such responses result in a type II functional response for passive foragers and a type III re...

  1. A Neural Circuit Mechanism for the Involvements of Dopamine in Effort-Related Choices: Decay of Learned Values, Secondary Effects of Depletion, and Calculation of Temporal Difference Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Dopamine has been suggested to be crucially involved in effort-related choices. Key findings are that dopamine depletion (i) changed preference for a high-cost, large-reward option to a low-cost, small-reward option, (ii) but not when the large-reward option was also low-cost or the small-reward option gave no reward, (iii) while increasing the latency in all the cases but only transiently, and (iv) that antagonism of either dopamine D1 or D2 receptors also specifically impaired selection of the high-cost, large-reward option. The underlying neural circuit mechanisms remain unclear. Here we show that findings i–iii can be explained by the dopaminergic representation of temporal-difference reward-prediction error (TD-RPE), whose mechanisms have now become clarified, if (1) the synaptic strengths storing the values of actions mildly decay in time and (2) the obtained-reward-representing excitatory input to dopamine neurons increases after dopamine depletion. The former is potentially caused by background neural activity–induced weak synaptic plasticity, and the latter is assumed to occur through post-depletion increase of neural activity in the pedunculopontine nucleus, where neurons representing obtained reward exist and presumably send excitatory projections to dopamine neurons. We further show that finding iv, which is nontrivial given the suggested distinct functions of the D1 and D2 corticostriatal pathways, can also be explained if we additionally assume a proposed mechanism of TD-RPE calculation, in which the D1 and D2 pathways encode the values of actions with a temporal difference. These results suggest a possible circuit mechanism for the involvements of dopamine in effort-related choices and, simultaneously, provide implications for the mechanisms of TD-RPE calculation. PMID:29468191

  2. REFLECTIVE FUNCTIONING AND PERSONALITY ORGANIZATION: ASSOCIATIONS WITH NEGATIVE MATERNAL BEHAVIORS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensink, Karin; Rousseau, Marie-Eve; Biberdzic, Marko; Bégin, Michaël; Normandin, Lina

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether mothers who manifest insensitive and disconnected behaviors in interaction with their infants differ in terms of maternal reflective functioning (RF), personality organization, and histories of abuse. A total of 86 mother-infant dyads, 28 of them with histories of abuse, participated in the study. RF was assessed with the Adult Attachment Interview (C. George, N. Kaplan, & M. Main, 1985), and personality organization was assessed with the self-report Inventory of Personality Organization (M.F. Lenzenweger, J.F. Clarkin, O.F. Kernberg, & P.A. Foelsh, 2001; L. Normandin et al., 2002), before the birth of the baby. Maternal behaviors were assessed using the Disconnected and Extremely Insensitive Parenting measure when the infants were 15 to 18 months old. The results of multivariate analyses of covariance indicate that both RF and personality organization were associated with disconnected and extremely insensitive maternal behaviors. Mothers classified as presenting intrusive/aggressive behaviors had significantly lower RF as well as significantly more difficulties in personality organization, including reality testing, identity, and defense mechanisms. Withdrawn and disconnected maternal behaviors were associated with the combination of difficulties in mentalization and personality organization rather than difficulties in one specific area. In sum, the study provides new evidence regarding the importance of a mentalizing stance about early attachment relationships for the modulation of maternal behaviors, especially intrusive/aggressive behaviors. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  3. Correlation function behavior in quantum systems which are classically chaotic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berman, G.P.; Kolovsky, A.R.

    1983-01-01

    The time behavior of a phase correlation function for dynamical quantum systems which are classically chaotic is considered. It is shown that under certain conditions there are three time regions of the quantum correlations behavior; the region of classical stochasticity (exponential decay of quantum correlations); the region of the correlations decay with a power law; the region of the constant level of the quantum correlations. The boundaries of these time regions are presented. The estimation of a remaining level of the quantum correlations is given. (orig.)

  4. Dialectical behavior therapy and domains of functioning over two years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Chelsey R.; Korslund, Kathryn E.; Harned, Melanie; Linehan, Marsha M.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD) tend to have a significant degree of functional impairment across a range of social and occupational spheres including difficulty finding and maintaining satisfying employment, housing, or relationships. Understanding what factors are associated with functional impairment will enable treatment providers to move those diagnosed with BPD beyond symptomatic recovery and toward a life worth living. This paper investigated the trajectories and predictors of functional outcomes for suicidal women with BPD (N=99) during a treatment outcome study of Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT). Results revealed that participants had statistical and clinical improvements in functioning. Individuals with high emotion dysregulation displayed poorer psychosocial functioning at the subsequent assessment period and slower rates of change, which was also seen in reverse for one psychosocial functioning variable. Skills use was not related to individual trajectories in functioning. This study highlights the relationship of emotion dysregulation to functioning within a sample of suicidal women with BPD as well as the importance researching multiple domains in functioning. PMID:26764586

  5. Gritty people try harder: grit and effort-related cardiac autonomic activity during an active coping challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvia, Paul J; Eddington, Kari M; Beaty, Roger E; Nusbaum, Emily C; Kwapil, Thomas R

    2013-05-01

    Grit, a recently proposed personality trait associated with persistence for long-range goals, predicts achievement in a wide range of important life outcomes. Using motivational intensity theory, the present research examined the physiological underpinnings of grit during an active coping task. Forty young adults completed the Short Grit Scale and worked on a self-paced mental effort task. Effort-related autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity was assessed using impedance cardiography, which yielded measures of sympathetic activity (pre-ejection period; PEP) and parasympathetic activity (respiratory sinus arrhythmia; RSA). Multilevel models revealed that people high on the Perseverance of Effort subscale showed autonomic coactivation: both PEP and RSA became stronger during the task, reflecting higher activity of both ANS divisions. The Consistency of Interest subscale, in contrast, predicted only weaker sympathetic activity (slower PEP). Taken together, the findings illuminate autonomic processes associated with how "gritty" people pursue goals, and they suggest that more attention should be paid to the facets' distinct effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Goal striving strategies and effort mobilization: When implementation intentions reduce effort-related cardiac activity during task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freydefont, Laure; Gollwitzer, Peter M; Oettingen, Gabriele

    2016-09-01

    Two experiments investigate the influence of goal and implementation intentions on effort mobilization during task performance. Although numerous studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of setting goals and making plans on performance, the effects of goals and plans on effort-related cardiac activity and especially the cardiac preejection period (PEP) during goal striving have not yet been addressed. According to the Motivational Intensity Theory, participants should increase effort mobilization proportionally to task difficulty as long as success is possible and justified. Forming goals and making plans should allow for reduced effort mobilization when participants perform an easy task. However, when the task is difficult, goals and plans should differ in their effect on effort mobilization. Participants who set goals should disengage, whereas participants who made if-then plans should stay in the field showing high effort mobilization during task performance. As expected, using an easy task in Experiment 1, we observed a lower cardiac PEP in both the implementation intention and the goal intention condition than in the control condition. In Experiment 2, we varied task difficulty and demonstrated that while participants with a mere goal intention disengaged from difficult tasks, participants with an implementation intention increased effort mobilization proportionally with task difficulty. These findings demonstrate the influence of goal striving strategies (i.e., mere goals vs. if-then plans) on effort mobilization during task performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The Effects of Functional Communication Training on the Appropriate Behavior of a Student with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolivette, Kristine; Stichter, Janine P.; Houchins, David E.; Kennedy, Christina

    2007-01-01

    Functional analysis is used to generate and test hypotheses, specific to an individual's appropriate and inappropriate behaviors, by directly manipulating antecedent and consequent events within natural or analog environments. In the case that a function(s) was not determined or the behavior has multiple motivations during the functional analysis,…

  8. Implicit function with natural behavior over entire domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Taku; Saitoh, Ayumu; Kamitani, Atsushi; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2012-01-01

    To generate a smooth implicit function that behaves naturally over an entire domain, a method to smoothly combine an implicit function f(x) with a global support function g(x) has been proposed. The proposed method can be applied to large scattered point data, since the implicit function f(x) is generated by a partition-of-unity-based method. The global support function g(x) is generated by a radial basis function-based method or by the least-squares method. To ensure a smooth combination of f(x) and g(x), an appropriate weight function is employed. In numerical experiments, the proposed method is applied to large point data. The results illustrate that the proposed method can generate a smooth implicit function F(x) with natural behavior over the entire domain. In addition, on the given points, the accuracy of F(x) is exactly the same as that of f(x). Furthermore, the computational cost for generation of F(x) is almost the same as that of f(x). (author)

  9. WEC Farm Functions: Defining the Behaviors of the Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bull, Diana L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Costello, Ronan [Wave Venture Ltd, Penstraze (United Kingdom); Babarit, Aurelien [Ecole centrale de Nantes (France). Lab. of Research in Hydrodynamics, Energetics, and Atmospheric Environment (LHEEA); Malins, Robert Joseph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kennedy, Ben [Wave Venture Ltd, Penstraze (United Kingdom); Neilson, Kim [Ramboll, Copenhagen (Denmark); Bittencourt, Claudio [DNV GL, London (United Kingdom); Roberts, Jesse D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Weber, Jochem [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Capabilities and functions are hierarchical structures (i.e. taxonomies) that are used in a systems engineering framework to identify complimentary requirements for the system: what the system must do to achieve what it must be. In the case of capabilities, the taxonomy embodies the list of characteristics that are desired, from the perspective of the stakeholders, for the system to be successful. In terms of the functions, the hierarchy represents the solution agnostic (i.e. independent of specific design embodiments) elements that are needed to meet the stakeholder requirements. This paper will focus on the development of the functions. The functions define the fundamental elements of the solution that must be provided in order to achieve the mission and deliver the capabilities. They identify the behaviors the farm must possess, i.e. the farm must be able to generate and deliver electricity from wave power. High-level functions are independent of the technology or design used to implement the function. However, detailed functions may begin to border on specific design choices. Hence a strong effort has been made to maintain functions that are design agnostic.

  10. Dopamine, behavioral economics, and effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D Salamone

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. There are numerous problems with the hypothesis that brain dopamine (DA systems, particularly in the nucleus accumbens, directly mediate the rewarding or primary motivational characteristics of natural stimuli such as food. Research and theory related to the functions of mesolimbic DA are undergoing a substantial conceptual restructuring, with the traditional emphasis on hedonia and primary reward yielding to other concepts and lines of inquiry. The present review is focused upon the involvement of nucleus accumbens DA in behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Viewed from the framework of behavioral economics, the effects of accumbens DA depletions and antagonism on food-reinforced behavior are highly dependent upon the work requirements of the instrumental task, and DA depleted rats are more sensitive to increases in response costs (i.e., ratio requirements. Moreover, interference with accumbens DA transmission exerts a powerful influence over effort-related choice behavior. Rats with accumbens DA depletions or antagonism reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks that have high response requirements, and instead these rats select a less-effortful type of food-seeking behavior. Nucleus accumbens DA and adenosine interact in the regulation of effort-related functions, and other brain structures (anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, ventral pallidum also are involved. Studies of the brain systems regulating effort-based processes may have implications for understanding drug abuse, as well as energy-related disorders such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia in depression and other neurological disorders.

  11. Down syndrome: Cognitive and behavioral functioning across the lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieco, Julie; Pulsifer, Margaret; Seligsohn, Karen; Skotko, Brian; Schwartz, Alison

    2015-06-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) commonly possess unique neurocognitive and neurobehavioral profiles that emerge within specific developmental periods. These profiles are distinct relative to others with similar intellectual disability (ID) and reflect underlying neuroanatomic findings, providing support for a distinctive phenotypic profile. This review updates what is known about the cognitive and behavioral phenotypes associated with DS across the lifespan. In early childhood, mild deviations from neurotypically developing trajectories emerge. By school-age, delays become pronounced. Nonverbal skills remain on trajectory for mental age, whereas verbal deficits emerge and persist. Nonverbal learning and memory are strengths relative to verbal skills. Expressive language is delayed relative to comprehension. Aspects of language skills continue to develop throughout adolescence, although language skills remain compromised in adulthood. Deficits in attention/executive functions are present in childhood and become more pronounced with age. Characteristic features associated with DS (cheerful, social nature) are personality assets. Children are at a lower risk for psychopathology compared to other children with ID; families report lower levels of stress and a more positive outlook. In youth, externalizing behaviors may be problematic, whereas a shift toward internalizing behaviors emerges with maturity. Changes in emotional/behavioral functioning in adulthood are typically associated with neurodegeneration and individuals with DS are higher risk for dementia of the Alzheimer's type. Individuals with DS possess many unique strengths and weaknesses that should be appreciated as they develop across the lifespan. Awareness of this profile by professionals and caregivers can promote early detection and support cognitive and behavioral development. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The Use of a Functional Behavioral Assessment-Based Self Management Intervention for Students with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, Saleem A.; Fore, Cecil, III; Jones, Arthur; Smith, Latisha

    2012-01-01

    The research literature on the use of Functional Behavioral Assessments (FBA) to develop Behavior Intervention Plans (BIP) for students with emotional/behavioral disorders, who present problem classroom behaviors for use in the schools, is well documented. There are school-wide, district-wide, and state-wide plans that are currently being…

  13. Functional Behavioral Assessment for a Boy with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy and Problem Behavior: A Case Study from Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoridou, Zoe; Koutsoklenis, Athanasios

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the application of functional behavioral assessment (FBA) to design a positive behavior intervention (PBI) for a boy with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) who encounters serious difficulties at the mainstream school because of behavioral problems and physical limitations. After the definition of problem behavior and its…

  14. Analytic behavior of the QED polarizability function at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal, A.; Perez, A.

    2012-01-01

    We revisit the analytical properties of the static quasi-photon polarizability function for an electron gas at finite temperature, in connection with the existence of Friedel oscillations in the potential created by an impurity. In contrast with the zero temperature case, where the polarizability is an analytical function, except for the two branch cuts which are responsible for Friedel oscillations, at finite temperature the corresponding function is non analytical, in spite of becoming continuous everywhere on the complex plane. This effect produces, as a result, the survival of the oscillatory behavior of the potential. We calculate the potential at large distances, and relate the calculation to the non-analytical properties of the polarizability.

  15. Behavioral correlates of anxiety in well-functioning older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losada, Andrés; Márquez-González, María; Pachana, Nancy A; Wetherell, Julie L; Fernández-Fernández, Virginia; Nogales-González, Celia; Ruiz-Díaz, Miguel

    2015-07-01

    Research on the behavioral correlates of anxiety in older adults is sparse. The aim of this study was to explore the association of anxiety with behavioral patterns defined by health, activity, emotional and social variables. A convenience sample of 395 older adults completed measures of health, activity, emotions, social variables and experiential avoidance. Cross-sectional data were analysed using cluster analysis. Five clusters were identified: active healthy, healthy, active vulnerable, lonely inactive and frail lonely. Participants in the active healthy and healthy clusters showed the highest scores on health variables (vitality and physical function), and adaptive scores on the rest of variables. They also reported the lowest scores on anxiety and included the lowest number of cases with clinically significant anxiety levels. Active vulnerable showed high scores on social support, leisure activities and capitalization on them but low scores in vitality and physical functioning. Participants in the lonely inactive cluster reported the highest mean score in experiential avoidance and high scores on boredom and loneliness, and low scores on social support, leisure activities capitalizing on pleasant activities and health variables. Frail lonely represent a particularly vulnerable profile of participants, similar to that of lonely inactive, but with significantly lower scores on health variables and higher scores on boredom and hours watching TV. Anxiety in older adults is not only linked to poor health, but also to dysfunctional social behavior, loneliness, boredom and experiential avoidance. Maladaptive profiles of older adults with regard to these variables have been identified.

  16. Using Videoconferencing to Conduct Functional Analysis of Challenging Behavior and Develop Classroom Behavioral Support Plans for Students with Autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machalicek, W.A.; O'Reilly, M.F.; Chan, J.M.; Lang, R.B.; Rispoli, M.; Davis, T.; Shogren, K.; Sigafoos, J.; Lancioni, G.E.; Antonuzzi, M.; Langthorne, P.; Andrews, A.; Didden, H.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a functional analysis of challenging behavior for two students with autism using widely available videoconferencing equipment (laptop computers equipped with web cameras). Observers used the videoconferencing facilities to collect data on challenging behavior and to instruct the

  17. Discrete-Trial Functional Analysis and Functional Communication Training with Three Adults with Intellectual Disabilities and Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chezan, Laura C.; Drasgow, Erik; Martin, Christian A.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a sequence of two studies on the use of discrete-trial functional analysis and functional communication training. First, we used discrete-trial functional analysis (DTFA) to identify the function of problem behavior in three adults with intellectual disabilities and problem behavior. Results indicated clear patterns of problem…

  18. Unihemispheric sleep and asymmetrical sleep: behavioral, neurophysiological, and functional perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascetti, Gian Gastone

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is a behavior characterized by a typical body posture, both eyes' closure, raised sensory threshold, distinctive electrographic signs, and a marked decrease of motor activity. In addition, sleep is a periodically necessary behavior and therefore, in the majority of animals, it involves the whole brain and body. However, certain marine mammals and species of birds show a different sleep behavior, in which one cerebral hemisphere sleeps while the other is awake. In dolphins, eared seals, and manatees, unihemispheric sleep allows them to have the benefits of sleep, breathing, thermoregulation, and vigilance. In birds, antipredation vigilance is the main function of unihemispheric sleep, but in domestic chicks, it is also associated with brain lateralization or dominance in the control of behavior. Compared to bihemispheric sleep, unihemispheric sleep would mean a reduction of the time spent sleeping and of the associated recovery processes. However, the behavior and health of aquatic mammals and birds does not seem at all impaired by the reduction of sleep. The neural mechanisms of unihemispheric sleep are unknown, but assuming that the neural structures involved in sleep in cetaceans, seals, and birds are similar to those of terrestrial mammals, it is suggested that they involve the interaction of structures of the hypothalamus, basal forebrain, and brain stem. The neural mechanisms promoting wakefulness dominate one side of the brain, while those promoting sleep predominates the other side. For cetaceans, unihemispheric sleep is the only way to sleep, while in seals and birds, unihemispheric sleep events are intermingled with bihemispheric and rapid eye movement sleep events. Electroencephalogram hemispheric asymmetries are also reported during bihemispheric sleep, at awakening, and at sleep onset, as well as being associated with a use-dependent process (local sleep).

  19. Unihemispheric sleep and asymmetrical sleep: behavioral, neurophysiological, and functional perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mascetti GG

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Gian Gastone Mascetti Department of General Psychology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy Abstract: Sleep is a behavior characterized by a typical body posture, both eyes' closure, raised sensory threshold, distinctive electrographic signs, and a marked decrease of motor activity. In addition, sleep is a periodically necessary behavior and therefore, in the majority of animals, it involves the whole brain and body. However, certain marine mammals and species of birds show a different sleep behavior, in which one cerebral hemisphere sleeps while the other is awake. In dolphins, eared seals, and manatees, unihemispheric sleep allows them to have the benefits of sleep, breathing, thermoregulation, and vigilance. In birds, antipredation vigilance is the main function of unihemispheric sleep, but in domestic chicks, it is also associated with brain lateralization or dominance in the control of behavior. Compared to bihemispheric sleep, unihemispheric sleep would mean a reduction of the time spent sleeping and of the associated recovery processes. However, the behavior and health of aquatic mammals and birds does not seem at all impaired by the reduction of sleep. The neural mechanisms of unihemispheric sleep are unknown, but assuming that the neural structures involved in sleep in cetaceans, seals, and birds are similar to those of terrestrial mammals, it is suggested that they involve the interaction of structures of the hypothalamus, basal forebrain, and brain stem. The neural mechanisms promoting wakefulness dominate one side of the brain, while those promoting sleep predominates the other side. For cetaceans, unihemispheric sleep is the only way to sleep, while in seals and birds, unihemispheric sleep events are intermingled with bihemispheric and rapid eye movement sleep events. Electroencephalogram hemispheric asymmetries are also reported during bihemispheric sleep, at awakening, and at sleep onset, as well as being associated with a use

  20. On a Modeling of Online User Behavior Using Function Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Pesout

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the online user system requirements has become very crucial for online services providers. The existence of many users and services leads to different users’ needs. The objective of this presented piece of work is to explore the algorithms of how to optimize providers supply with proposing a new way to represent user requirements as continuous functions depending on time. We address the problems of the prediction the of system requirements and reducing model complexity by creating the typical user behavior profiles.

  1. Dynamic behavior and functional integrity tests on RC shear walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akino, Kinji; Nasuda, Toshiaki; Shibata, Akenori.

    1991-01-01

    A project consisting of seven subprojects has been conducted to study the dynamic behavior and functional integrity of reinforced concrete (RC) shear walls in reactor buildings. The objective of this project is to obtain the data to improve and prepare the seismic analysis code regarding the nonlinear structural behavior and integrity of reactor buildings during and after earthquakes. The project started in April, 1986, and will end in March, 1994. Seven subprojects are strain rate test, damping characteristic test, ultimate state response test and the verification test for the test of restoring force characteristics regarding dynamic restoring force characteristics and damping performance; the restoring force characteristic test on the shear walls with openings; and pull-out strength test and the test on air leakage through concrete cracks regarding the functional integrity. The objectives of respective subprojects, the test models and the interim results are reported. Three subprojects have been completed by March, 1990. The results of these projects will be used for the overall evaluation. The strain rate test showed that the ultimate strength of shear walls increased with strain rate. A formula for estimating air flow through the cracks in walls was given by the leakage test. (K.I.)

  2. Visual function affects prosocial behaviors in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoli, Dac A; Smith, Merideth D; Leys, Monique J; Jain, Priyanka; Odom, J Vernon

    2016-02-01

    Eye-related pathological conditions such as glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration commonly lead to decreased peripheral/central field, decreased visual acuity, and increased functional disability. We sought to answer if relationships exist between measures of visual function and reported prosocial behaviors in an older adult population with eye-related diagnoses. The sample consisted of adults, aged ≥ 60 years old, at an academic hospital's eye institute. Vision ranged from normal to severe impairment. Medical charts determined the visual acuities, ocular disease, duration of disease (DD), and visual fields (VF). Measures of giving help were via validated questionnaires on giving formal support (GFS) and giving informal support; measures of help received were perceived support (PS) and informal support received (ISR). ISR had subscales: tangible support (ISR-T), emotional support (ISR-E), and composite (ISR-C). Visual acuities of the better and worse seeing eyes were converted to LogMAR values. VF information converted to a 4-point rating scale of binocular field loss severity. DD was in years. Among 96 participants (mean age 73.28; range 60-94), stepwise regression indicated a relationship of visual variables to GFS (p T (p prosocial behavior in older adults.

  3. Child gender influences paternal behavior, language, and brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascaro, Jennifer S; Rentscher, Kelly E; Hackett, Patrick D; Mehl, Matthias R; Rilling, James K

    2017-06-01

    Multiple lines of research indicate that fathers often treat boys and girls differently in ways that impact child outcomes. The complex picture that has emerged, however, is obscured by methodological challenges inherent to the study of parental caregiving, and no studies to date have examined the possibility that gender differences in observed real-world paternal behavior are related to differential paternal brain responses to male and female children. Here we compare fathers of daughters and fathers of sons in terms of naturalistically observed everyday caregiving behavior and neural responses to child picture stimuli. Compared with fathers of sons, fathers of daughters were more attentively engaged with their daughters, sang more to their daughters, used more analytical language and language related to sadness and the body with their daughters, and had a stronger neural response to their daughter's happy facial expressions in areas of the brain important for reward and emotion regulation (medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortex [OFC]). In contrast, fathers of sons engaged in more rough and tumble play (RTP), used more achievement language with their sons, and had a stronger neural response to their son's neutral facial expressions in the medial OFC (mOFC). Whereas the mOFC response to happy faces was negatively related to RTP, the mOFC response to neutral faces was positively related to RTP, specifically for fathers of boys. These results indicate that real-world paternal behavior and brain function differ as a function of child gender. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Executive Function and Food Approach Behavior in Middle Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoline eGroppe

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Executive function (EF has long been considered to be a unitary, domain-general cognitive ability. However, recent research suggests differentiating ‘hot’ affective and ‘cool’ cognitive aspects of EF. Yet, findings regarding this two-factor construct are still inconsistent. In particular, the development of this factor structure remains unclear and data on school-aged children is lacking. Furthermore, studies linking EF and overweight or obesity suggest that EF contributes to the regulation of eating behavior. So far, however, the links between EF and eating behavior have rarely been investigated in children and non-clinical populations.First, we examined whether EF can be divided into hot and cool factors or whether they actually correspond to a unitary construct in middle childhood. Second, we examined how hot and cool EF are associated with different eating styles that put children at risk of becoming overweight during development. Hot and cool EF were assessed experimentally in a non-clinical population of 1,657 elementary-school children (aged 6-11 years. The ‘food approach’ behavior was rated mainly via parent questionnaires.Findings indicate that hot EF is distinguishable from cool EF. However, only cool EF seems to represent a coherent functional entity, whereas hot EF does not seem to be a homogenous construct. This was true for a younger and an older subgroup of children. Furthermore, different EF components were correlated with eating styles, such as responsiveness to food, desire to drink, and restrained eating in girls but not in boys. This shows that lower levels of EF are not only seen in clinical populations of obese patients but are already associated with food approach styles in a normal population of elementary school-aged girls. Although the direction of effect still has to be clarified, results point to the possibility that EF constitutes a risk factor for eating styles contributing to the development of

  5. Neurocognitive functions and behavioral profiles in children with nephropathic cystinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reham Aly

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Children with nephropathic cystinosis (NCTN have evidence of defective intellec-tual functions and behavioral disorders. This prospective study was performed to detect the cognitive dysfunctions in patients with this rare hereditary lysosomal storage disease, define their behavioral phenotypes, and study the findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the brain. Thirteen patients with confirmed diagnosis of cystinosis (mean age ± SD 5.9 ± 3.0, range 1.5 - 12 years were subjected to the Stanford Binet test, Porteus Maze test, Child Behavior Checklist, and MRI brain. Thirteen age- and sex-matched children served as the control subjects (mean age ± SD 5.9 ± 2.9, range 1.7 - 12 years. The intelligence quotient (IQ was significantly lower in patients with cystinosis (P <0.001, with a significant defect in verbal (language, memory, and compre-hension and non-verbal abilities (visual perception and visiospatial and motor performance. A discrepancy between both abilities was detected - the non-verbal ability being lower; however, it did not reach statistical significance. Furthermore, analysis revealed the visiospatial ability to be significantly lower compared to the visual perception. In comparison to healthy controls, children with NCTN had evidence of increased incidence of behavioral problems, mainly social (P = 0.023. An MRI of the brain revealed varying degrees of atrophic changes in seven patients. Patients with NCTN need a wider scope of attention and care, encompassing not only the metabolic multisystem derangement, but also the neuropsychological impairment in the context of multidisciplinary management. This approach is crucial in formulating comprehensive plans for social and educational rehabilitation.

  6. The wave function behavior of the open topological string partition function on the conifold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashani-Poor, Amir-Kian

    2007-01-01

    We calculate the topological string partition function to all genus on the conifold, in the presence of branes. We demonstrate that the partition functions for different brane backgrounds (smoothly connected along a quantum corrected moduli space) can be interpreted as the same wave function in different polarizations. This behavior has a natural interpretation in the Chern-Simons target space description of the topological theory. Our detailed analysis however indicates that non-perturbatively, a modification of real Chern-Simons theory is required to capture the correct target space theory of the topological string. We perform our calculations in the framework of a free fermion representation of the open topological string, demonstrating that this framework extends beyond the simple C 3 geometry. The notion of a fermionic brane creation operator arises in this setting, and we study to what extent the wave function properties of the partition function can be extended to this operator

  7. Functional Behavior Assessments and Behavior Intervention Plans in Rural Schools: An Exploration of the Need, Barriers, and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oram, Lindsay; Owens, Sarah; Maras, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    A wealth of research highlights negative outcomes associated with mental and behavioral health problems in children and adolescents. Prevention-based frameworks have been developed to provide prevention and early intervention in the school setting. Tertiary behavioral supports often include the use of functional behavior assessments (FBAs) and…

  8. Synthesis and phase behavior of end-functionalized associating polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrue, Michelle H.

    We have explored polymer blend phase behavior in the presence of multiple hydrogen bonding end-groups. This work details the synthesis of functionalized polymers and their subsequent use in miscibility studies. The synthesis of end-functionalized hydrogen bonding polymers and the investigation of their physical properties and miscibility is presented. Mono-functional and telechelic ureidopyrimidinone (UPy) functionalized polymers were prepared by two main routes: post-polymerization functionalization (of commercially available or synthesized polymers); and polymerization of monomers using a functionalized initiator. UPy-functionalized polymers were prepared with a variety of polymer backbones including poly(ethylene oxide)s; poly(butadiene)s, poly(dimethyl siloxanxe)s; poly(styrene)s and poly(methyl methacrylate)s. The most successful route to polymers with UPy end-groups was atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) using a UPy-functionalized initiator, followed by atom transfer radical coupling (ATRC). The incorporation of ureidopyrimidinone end-groups was shown to affect the physical properties of the polymer backbone. Parent polymers that were liquids became viscous liquids or waxy solids upon UPy-functionalization of chain end. UPy-functionalization of a hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HO-PB-OH) resulted in a waxy solid while the HO-PB-OH precursor was a viscous liquid. The thermal properties of functionalized polymers also differed from those of the unfunctionalized parent polymers. Hot-stage optical microscopy revealed that UPy-functionalized PEO displayed a depressed melting point relative to the analogous unfunctionalized precursor. Differential scanning calorimetry was also used to investigate the synthesized UPy-polymers. UPy-functionalized polystyrenes and poly(methyl methacrylate)s showed an increased T g compared to the equivalent homopolymer standards. This increased Tg was determined to be dependent upon the fraction of UPy groups present and

  9. Discrete-Trial Functional Analysis and Functional Communication Training with Three Individuals with Autism and Severe Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jonathan D.; Drasgow, Erik; Halle, James W.; Martin, Christian A.; Bliss, Sacha A.

    2014-01-01

    Discrete-trial functional analysis (DTFA) is an experimental method for determining the variables maintaining problem behavior in the context of natural routines. Functional communication training (FCT) is an effective method for replacing problem behavior, once identified, with a functionally equivalent response. We implemented these procedures…

  10. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Lowers Elevated Functional Connectivity in Depressed Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayanti Chattopadhyay

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Imaging studies have implicated altered functional connectivity in adults with major depressive disorder (MDD. Whether similar dysfunction is present in adolescent patients is unclear. The degree of resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC may reflect abnormalities within emotional (‘hot’ and cognitive control (‘cold’ neural systems. Here, we investigate rsFC of these systems in adolescent patients and changes following cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI was acquired from adolescent patients before CBT, and 24-weeks later following completed therapy. Similar data were obtained from control participants. Cross-sectional Cohort: From 82 patients and 34 controls at baseline, rsFC of the amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, and pre-frontal cortex (PFC was calculated for comparison. Longitudinal Cohort: From 17 patients and 30 controls with longitudinal data, treatment effects were tested on rsFC. Patients demonstrated significantly greater rsFC to left amygdala, bilateral supragenual ACC, but not with PFC. Treatment effects were observed in right insula connected to left supragenual ACC, with baseline case-control differences reduced. rsFC changes were significantly correlated with changes in depression severity. Depressed adolescents exhibited heightened connectivity in regions of ‘hot’ emotional processing, known to be associated with depression, where treatment exposure exerted positive effects, without concomitant differences in areas of ‘cold’ cognition.

  11. Thermal behavior of the duct applied functionally graded material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jung Sun; Yoon, Dong Young; Im, Jong Bin [Hankuk Aviation Univ., Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    In Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), the high temperature results from friction among the air, combustion of fuel in engine and combustion gas of a nozzle. The high temperature may cause serious damages in UAV structure. The Functionally Graded Material(FGM) is chosen as a material of the engine duct structure. Thermal stress analysis of FGM is performed in this paper. FGM is composed of two constituent materials that are mixed up according to the specific volume fraction distribution in order to withstand high temperature. Therefore, hoop stress, axial stress and shear stress of duct with 2 layers, 4 layers and 8 layers FGM are compared and analyzed respectively. In addition, the creep behavior of FGM used in duct structure of an engine is analyzed for better understanding of FGM characteristics.

  12. Income and children's behavioral functioning: a sequential mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelleby, Elizabeth C; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Shaw, Daniel S; Dishion, Thomas J; Wilson, Melvin N; Gardner, Frances

    2014-12-01

    Children from low-income households tend to exhibit higher levels of conduct problems and emotional problems, yet the pathways linking economic disadvantage to children's behavioral functioning are not well understood. This study uses data from the Early Steps Multisite (ESM) project (N = 731) to investigate associations between family income in early childhood and children's conduct problems and emotional problems in middle childhood. The study explores whether the associations from income to child conduct problems and emotional problems operate through maternal depressive symptoms and 3 family risk factors in early childhood-harsh parenting, parenting hassles, and chaos in the home environment. Results of a sequential mediation model revealed significant indirect effects of family income on children's conduct problems operating through maternal depressive symptoms and parenting hassles and indirect effects of family income on children's emotional problems operating through maternal depressive symptoms, chaos in the home environment, and parenting hassles. Implications of these findings for understanding processes through which income influences child functioning are discussed.

  13. Functional microimaging. A hierarchical investigation of bone failure behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voide, Romain; Lenthe, G.Harry van; Stauber, Martin; Schneider, Philipp; Thurner, Philipp J.; Mueller, Ralph; Wyss, Peter; Stampanoni, Marco

    2008-01-01

    Biomechanical testing is the gold standard to determine bone competence, and has been used extensively. Direct mechanical testing provides detailed information on overall bone mechanical and material properties, but fails in revealing local properties such as local deformations and strains and does not permit quantification of fracture progression. Therefore, we incorporated several imaging methods in our mechanical setups to get a better insight into bone deformation and failure characteristics on various levels of structural organization. Our aim was to develop an integrative approach for hierarchical investigation of bone, working at different scales of resolution ranging from the whole bone to its ultrastructure. Inbred strains of mice make useful models to study bone properties. In this study, we concentrated on C57BL/6 (B6) and in C3H/He (C3H) mice, two strains known for their differences in bone phenotype. At the macroscopic level, we used high-resolution and high-speed cameras which allowed to visualize global failure behavior and fracture initiation with high temporal resolution. This image data proved especially important when dealing with small bones such as murine femora. At the microscopic level, bone microstructure, i.e. trabecular architecture and cortical porosity, are known to influence bone strength and failure mechanisms significantly. For this reason, we developed an image-guided failure assessment technique, also referred to as functional microimaging, allowing direct time-lapsed three-dimensional visualization and computation of local displacements and strains for better quantification of fracture initiation and progression. While the resolution of conventional desktop micro-computed tomography is typically around a few micrometers, computer tomography systems based on highly brilliant synchrotron radiation X-ray sources permit to explore the sub-micrometer world. This allowed, for the first time, to uncover fully nondestructively the 3D

  14. Study the Relationship of Executive Functions with Behavioral Symptoms in Children with High-Functioning Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vali Shiri

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The relation between autism disorder’s symptoms and cognitive capabilities can help with a better phenotype description of this disorder and can facilitate its pathological evaluation and treatment. Destruction of executive functions seems to be one of the cognitive reasons of potential phenotype in autism disorder. Thus, the present paper aims to study the relationship between executive dysfunction and autism disorder’s symptoms. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional research, 50 children with high-functioning autism were selected using convenience sampling method from Behara, Tehranpars and Roshd centers. Then, the GARS test and Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire was completed by therapists and neuropsychological tests of Strop and continuous performance test and shift attention were taken by the subjects. Pearson correlation coefficient and multi-variant regression were used for data analysis. Results: There is a significant positive relationship between selective attention with communicative and social interaction symptoms, sustained attention with social interaction symptoms and repetitive behaviors, shifting attention with communicative, social interaction and repetitive behavior symptoms (P<0.001 (P<0.01 (P<0.05. In addition, the results of regression analysis also revealed that selective attention and shifting attention can predict communication, and sustained attention can predict social interaction and repetitive behaviors symptoms (P<0.01 (P<0.05. Conclusion: The results obtained by this study indicate the significant role of executive functions in autistic symptoms. Thus, it is recommended to consider new treatment interventions in repairing executive functions for treatment of children with autistic disorder.

  15. The Effects of Function-Based Self-Management Interventions on Student Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Blake D.; Wills, Howard P.; Kamps, Debra M.; Greenwood, Charles R.

    2014-01-01

    Children with emotional and behavioral disorders (E/BD) struggle to achieve social and academic outcomes. Many studies have demonstrated self-management interventions to be effective at reducing problem behavior and increasing positive social and academic behaviors. Functional behavior assessment (FBA) information may be used in designing…

  16. Brain and effort: brain activation and effort-related working memory in healthy participants and patients with working memory deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eEngstrom

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the interest in the neuroimaging of working memory, little is still known about the neurobiology of complex working memory in tasks that require simultaneous manipulation and storage of information. In addition to the central executive network, we assumed that the recently described salience network (involving the anterior insular cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex might be of particular importance to working memory tasks that require complex, effortful processing. Method: Healthy participants (n=26 and participants suffering from working memory problems related to the Kleine-Levin syndrome (a specific form of periodic idiopathic hypersomnia; n=18 participated in the study. Participants were further divided into a high and low capacity group, according to performance on a working memory task (listening span. In a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI study, participants were administered the reading span complex working memory task tapping cognitive effort. Principal findings: The fMRI-derived blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD signal was modulated by 1 effort in both the central executive and the salience network and 2 capacity in the salience network in that high performers evidenced a weaker BOLD signal than low performers. In the salience network there was a dichotomy between the left and the right hemisphere; the right hemisphere elicited a steeper increase of the BOLD signal as a function of increasing effort. There was also a stronger functional connectivity within the central executive network because of increased task difficulty. Conclusion: The ability to allocate cognitive effort in complex working memory is contingent upon focused resources in the executive and in particular the salience network. Individual capacity during the complex working memory task is related to activity in the salience (but not the executive network so that high-capacity participants evidence a lower signal and possibly hence a larger

  17. Children's Executive Function Attenuate the Link Between Maternal Intrusiveness and Internalizing Behaviors at School Entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueron-Sela, Noa; Bedford, Rachael; Wagner, Nicholas J; Propper, Cathi B

    2017-10-20

    The goal of this study was to examine the independent and interactive roles of harsh-intrusive maternal behaviors and children's executive function in the development of internalizing behaviors across the first years of school. A diverse sample (58% African American, 42% European American) of 137 children (48% female) was followed from kindergarten (age 5 years) through school entry (ages 6-7 years). At age 5, maternal harsh-intrusive parenting behaviors were rated from a mother-child structured play task, and children completed 3 executive function tasks that measured inhibitory control, working memory, and attention set-shifting. Teachers reported on children's internalizing behaviors at ages 5, 6, and 7. Harsh-intrusive parenting behaviors at age 5 years were positively related to internalizing behaviors in the first years of school, whereas high executive function abilities at age 5 years were related to lower internalizing behaviors in the first years of school. In addition, executive function buffered the association between parenting behaviors and internalizing behaviors such that the link between harsh-intrusive parenting and child internalizing behaviors was evident only among children with low executive function and not among children with high executive function. Interventions that focus on reducing negative parenting behaviors and improving children's executive function may prevent internalizing behaviors from increasing during times of social and academic challenge.

  18. Relationships between child behavior problems and family functioning: A literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    As, N.M.C. van; Janssens, J.M.A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews research examining the relationship between family functioning and child behavior problems. Focuses on parenting styles, intergenerational relationships, family structure, and family interaction patterns. Finds that child behavior problems are related to a lack of parental support, an

  19. Using Videoconferencing to Conduct Functional Analysis of Challenging Behavior and Develop Classroom Behavioral Support Plans for Students with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machalicek, Wendy; O'Reilly, Mark; Chan, Jeffrey M.; Lang, Russell; Rispoli, Mandy; Davis, Tonya; Shogren, Karrie; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio; Antonucci, Massimo; Langthorne, Paul; Andrews, Alonzo; Didden, Robert

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a functional analysis of challenging behavior for two students with autism using widely available videoconferencing equipment (laptop computers equipped with web cameras). Observers used the videoconferencing facilities to collect data on challenging behavior and to instruct the therapist conducting the assessment. Results of the…

  20. Teacher Implementation of Trial-Based Functional Analysis and Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior for Students with Challenging Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Susan D.; Lo, Ya-yu

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a training package on three middle school special education teachers' accurate implementation of trial-based functional analysis (TBFA) and differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) with their students with autism spectrum disorders or emotional and behavioral disorders in the…

  1. Using Stimulus Equivalence-Based Instruction to Teach Graduate Students in Applied Behavior Analysis to Interpret Operant Functions of Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Leif; Schnell, Lauren; Reeve, Kenneth F.; Sidener, Tina M.

    2016-01-01

    Stimulus equivalence-based instruction (EBI) was used to teach four, 4-member classes representing functions of behavior to ten graduate students. The classes represented behavior maintained by attention (Class 1), escape (Class 2), access to tangibles (Class 3), and automatic reinforcement (Class 4). Stimuli within each class consisted of a…

  2. Increasing Compliance in Students with Intellectual Disabilities Using Functional Behavioral Assessment and Self-Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Jamie P.; Hansen, Blake D.; Wills, Sarah B.

    2015-01-01

    Noncompliance in three elementary age students with intellectual disabilities was assessed using functional behavioral assessments. Escape was identified as the primary function of the behavior in all three students, and access to tangible items was identified in one of the students as a secondary function. Teacher-monitoring and self-monitoring…

  3. Functions of Research in Radical Behaviorism for the Further Development of Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigland, Sam

    2010-01-01

    The experimental analysis of behavior began as an inductively oriented, empirically based scientific field. As the field grew, its distinctive system of science--radical behaviorism--grew with it. The continuing growth of the empirical base of the field has been accompanied by the growth of the literature on radical behaviorism and its…

  4. The relationship between executive functioning, central coherence, and repetitive behaviors in the high-functioning autism spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, Mikle; Ozonoff, Sally; McMahon, William M

    2007-09-01

    This study examined the relationship between everyday repetitive behavior (primary symptoms of autism) and performance on neuropsychological tests of executive function and central coherence (secondary symptoms). It was hypothesized that the frequency and intensity of repetitive behavior would be positively correlated with laboratory measures of cognitive rigidity and weak central coherence. Participants included 19 individuals (ages 10-19) with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (ASD group) and 18 age- and IQ-matched typically developing controls (TD group). There was partial support in the ASD group for the link between repetitive behavior and executive performance (the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task). There was no support for a link between repetitive behavior and measures of central coherence (a Gestalt Closure test and the Embedded Figures Test). Further research on repetitive behaviors in autism may benefit from a focus on narrow behavioral and cognitive constructs rather than general categories.

  5. Questions about Behavioral Function (QABF): Adaptation and Validation of the Spanish Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simo-Pinatella, David; Alomar-Kurz, Elisabeth; Font-Roura, Josep; Gine, Climent; Matson, Johnny L.; Cifre, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    People with intellectual disabilities (ID) often engage in problem behaviors, such as verbal or physical aggression, property destruction, or self-injury. These behaviors become a challenge for the families and for professionals. Functional behavioral assessment (FBA) is a method used to identify variables that influence or maintain challenging…

  6. Communication Disorders and Challenging Behaviors: Supporting Children's Functional Communication Goals in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Katy

    2017-01-01

    Children with communication disorders may express frustrations through challenging behaviors such as aggressive behaviors and social withdrawal. Challenging behaviors may lead to difficulties with building social competencies including emotional regulation and peer engagement. Individualized planning of functional goals for children with…

  7. Evaluating Treatments for Functionally Equivalent Problem Behavior Maintained by Adult Compliance with Mands during Interactive Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jonathan D.; Bednar, Mary K.; Willse, Lena V.; Goetzel, Amanda L.; Concepcion, Anthony; Pincus, Shari M.; Hardesty, Samantha L.; Bowman, Lynn G.

    2017-01-01

    A primary goal of behavioral interventions is to reduce dangerous or inappropriate behavior and to generalize treatment effects across various settings. However, there is a lack of research evaluating generalization of treatment effects while individuals with functionally equivalent problem behavior interact with each other. For the current study,…

  8. Improving Preservice Teachers' Knowledge and Application of Functional Behavioral Assessments Using Multimedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Shanna Eisner; Kennedy, Michael J.; Haines, Shana J.; Thomas, Cathy Newman; Alves, Kat D.

    2015-01-01

    Functional behavioral assessment (FBA) is an empirically supported intervention associated with decreasing problem behavior and increasing appropriate behavior. To date, few studies have examined multimedia approaches to FBA training. This paper provides the outcomes of a randomized controlled trial across three university sites and evaluates…

  9. Functional behavioral analysis and social scripting for the older patient with schizophrenia: a staff development program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markwick, Laura; Smith, Charlene; Mick, Diane

    2014-11-01

    Executive functioning is the ability to plan, strategize, organize, and focus on details. Impaired executive functioning plays a significant role in behavior disturbances. Lack of inhibition, impaired abstract reasoning, thought perseverance, rigidity in routine, and lack of insight disrupt social skills and daily life. Autism and schizophrenia present some similar behaviors, including impaired executive functioning, often resulting in pharmacological management as many healthcare professionals receive limited training in executive functioning. Non-pharmacological tools used in autism for behavior management include functional behavioral analysis and social scripting, which help to identify causes of behavior and teach more appropriate behavioral responses. Described here is an educational program for healthcare workers in a long-term care skilled nursing facility, to help them understand the basis for behaviors in individuals with impaired executive function, to use these same tools for behavioral modification techniques, and to help patients learn more appropriate social skills. Program evaluation suggested the educational program was successful in increasing the staff's knowledge and comfort level in addressing the behavioral issues that arise with this population and staff also reported less use of medication as first-line treatment for behavioral issues.

  10. Advances in the indirect, descriptive, and experimental approaches to the functional analysis of problem behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wightman, Jade; Julio, Flávia; Virués-Ortega, Javier

    2014-05-01

    Experimental functional analysis is an assessment methodology to identify the environmental factors that maintain problem behavior in individuals with developmental disabilities and in other populations. Functional analysis provides the basis for the development of reinforcement-based approaches to treatment. This article reviews the procedures, validity, and clinical implementation of the methodological variations of functional analysis and function-based interventions. We present six variations of functional analysis methodology in addition to the typical functional analysis: brief functional analysis, single-function tests, latency-based functional analysis, functional analysis of precursors, and trial-based functional analysis. We also present the three general categories of function-based interventions: extinction, antecedent manipulation, and differential reinforcement. Functional analysis methodology is a valid and efficient approach to the assessment of problem behavior and the selection of treatment strategies.

  11. The role of acculturation and family functioning in predicting HIV risk behaviors among Hispanic delinquent youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, Colleen; Cordova, David; Huang, Shi; Estrada, Yannine; Prado, Guillermo

    2013-06-01

    The present study examined the relationship between Berry's acculturation typology and HIV risk behaviors and whether family functioning mediated any such effects. A total of 235 high risk Hispanic adolescents were categorized into one of Berry's four acculturation typologies through the use of cut-off scores on measures of Hispanicism and Americanism. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the effects of acculturation typology on HIV risk behaviors and the indirect effects of acculturation typology on HIV risk behaviors through family functioning. Acculturation typology was related to HIV risk behaviors. Family functioning partially mediated the effects of acculturation typology on the HIV risk behavior outcomes. These findings suggest that both Americanism and Hispanicism play an important role in the etiology of HIV risk behaviors among Hispanic youth and that both, along with family functioning, are important to consider when designing preventive interventions for this population.

  12. Functional and Behavioral Product Information Representation and Consistency Validation for Collaboration in Product Lifecycle Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baysal, Mehmet Murat

    2012-01-01

    Information models that represent the function, assembly and behavior of artifacts are critical in the conceptual development of a product and its evaluation. Much research has been conducted in this area; however, existing models do not relate function, behavior and structure in a comprehensive and consistent way. In this work, NIST's Core…

  13. The Social Functions of Antisocial Behavior: Considerations for School Violence Prevention Strategies for Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Thomas W.; Lane, Kathleen L.; Lee, David L.; Hamm, Jill V.; Lambert, Kerrylin

    2012-01-01

    Research on school social dynamics suggests that antisocial behavior is often supported by peer group processes particularly during late childhood and adolescence. Building from a social interactional framework, this article explores how information on the social functions of aggressive and disruptive behavior may help to guide function-based…

  14. Intimacy Is a Transdiagnostic Problem for Cognitive Behavior Therapy: Functional Analytical Psychotherapy Is a Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterneck, Chad T.; Hart, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Problems with intimacy and interpersonal issues are exhibited across most psychiatric disorders. However, most of the targets in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy are primarily intrapersonal in nature, with few directly involved in interpersonal functioning and effective intimacy. Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) provides a behavioral basis for…

  15. Measurement Properties of Indirect Assessment Methods for Functional Behavioral Assessment: A Review of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Randy G.; Phaneuf, Robin L.; Wilczynski, Susan M.

    2005-01-01

    Indirect assessment instruments used during functional behavioral assessment, such as rating scales, interviews, and self-report instruments, represent the least intrusive techniques for acquiring information about the function of problem behavior. This article provides criteria for examining the measurement properties of these instruments…

  16. The Form and Function of Attachment Behavior in the Daily Lives of Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campa, Mary I.; Hazan, Cindy; Wolfe, Jared E.

    2009-01-01

    Central to attachment theory is the postulation of an inborn system to regulate attachment behavior. This system has been well studied in infancy and childhood, but much less is known about its functioning at later ages. The goal of this study was to explore the form and function of attachment behavior in the daily lives of young adults. Twenty…

  17. Training Head Start Teachers to Conduct Trial-Based Functional Analysis of Challenging Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispoli, Mandy; Burke, Mack D.; Hatton, Heather; Ninci, Jennifer; Zaini, Samar; Sanchez, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Trial-based functional analysis (TBFA) is a procedure for experimentally identifying the function of challenging behavior within applied settings. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a TBFA teacher-training package in the context of two Head Start centers implementing programwide positive behavior support (PWPBS). Four Head…

  18. Functional Analysis and Treatment of Human-Directed Undesirable Behavior Exhibited by a Captive Chimpanzee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Allison L.; Bloomsmith, Mollie A.; Kelley, Michael E.; Marr, M. Jackson; Maple, Terry L.

    2011-01-01

    A functional analysis identified the reinforcer maintaining feces throwing and spitting exhibited by a captive adult chimpanzee ("Pan troglodytes"). The implementation of a function-based treatment combining extinction with differential reinforcement of an alternate behavior decreased levels of inappropriate behavior. These findings further…

  19. Influence of assessment setting on the results of functional analyses of problem behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lang, R.B.; Sigafoos, J.; Lancioni, G.E.; Didden, H.C.M.; Rispoli, M.

    2010-01-01

    Analogue functional analyses are widely used to identify the operant function of problem behavior in individuals with developmental disabilities. Because problem behavior often occurs across multiple settings (e.g., homes, schools, outpatient clinics), it is important to determine whether the

  20. Specific Language Impairment and Executive Functioning: Parent and Teacher Ratings of Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittke, Kacie; Spaulding, Tammie J.; Schechtman, Calli J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The current study used the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function--Preschool Version (BRIEF-P; Gioia, Espy, & Isquith, 2003), a rating scale designed to investigate executive behaviors in everyday activities, to examine the executive functioning of preschool children with specific language impairment (SLI) relative to their…

  1. Disrupted cortical function underlies behavior dysfunction due to social isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Tomoyuki; Takase, Kenkichi; Nakajima, Waki; Tada, Hirobumi; Ohya, Daisuke; Sano, Akane; Goto, Takahisa; Hirase, Hajime; Malinow, Roberto; Takahashi, Takuya

    2012-01-01

    Stressful events during early childhood can have a profound lifelong influence on emotional and cognitive behaviors. However, the mechanisms by which stress affects neonatal brain circuit formation are poorly understood. Here, we show that neonatal social isolation disrupts molecular, cellular, and circuit developmental processes, leading to behavioral dysfunction. Neonatal isolation prevented long-term potentiation and experience-dependent synaptic trafficking of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptors normally occurring during circuit formation in the rodent barrel cortex. This inhibition of AMPA receptor trafficking was mediated by an increase of the stress glucocorticoid hormone and was associated with reduced calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II (CaMKII) signaling, resulting in attenuated whisker sensitivity at the cortex. These effects led to defects in whisker-dependent behavior in juvenile animals. These results indicate that neonatal social isolation alters neuronal plasticity mechanisms and perturbs the initial establishment of a normal cortical circuit, which potentially explains the long-lasting behavioral effects of neonatal stress. PMID:22706303

  2. Functional Organization of Neuronal and Humoral Signals Regulating Feeding Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Gary J.; Zeltser, Lori M.

    2014-01-01

    Energy homeostasis- ensuring that energy availability matches energy requirements- is essential for survival. One way that energy balance is achieved is through coordinated action of neural and neuroendocrine feeding circuits, which promote energy intake when energy supply is limited. Feeding behavior engages multiple somatic and visceral tissues distributed throughout the body – contraction of skeletal and smooth muscles in the head and along the upper digestive tract required to consume and digest food, as well as stimulation of endocrine and exocrine secretions from a wide range of organs. Accordingly, neurons that contribute to feeding behaviors are localized to central, peripheral and enteric nervous systems. To promote energy balance, feeding circuits must be able to identify and respond to energy requirements, as well as the amount of energy available from internal and external sources, and then direct appropriate coordinated responses throughout the body. PMID:23642202

  3. On the effects of testosterone on brain behavioral functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eCelec

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone influences the brain via organizational and activational effects. Numerous relevant studies on rodents and a few on humans focusing on specific behavioral and cognitive parameters have been published. The results are, unfortunately, controversial and puzzling. Dosing, timing, even the application route seem to considerably affect the outcomes. In addition, the methods used for the assessment of psychometric parameters are a bit less than ideal regarding their validity and reproducibility. Metabolism of testosterone contributes to the complexity of its actions. Reduction to dihydrotestosterone by 5-alpha reductase increases the androgen activity; conversion to estradiol by aromatase converts the androgen to estrogen activity. Recently, the non-genomic effects of testosterone on behavior bypassing the nuclear receptors have attracted the interest of researchers. This review tries to summarize the current understanding of the complexity of the effects of testosterone on brain with special focus on their role in the known sex differences.

  4. Perseveration and other repetitive verbal behaviors: functional dissociations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christman, Sarah S; Boutsen, Frank R; Buckingham, Hugh W

    2004-11-01

    This article will review types of perseveration from a neurolinguistic perspective. During the course of the article, continuous, stuck-in-set, and recurrent perseveration will be placed in contradistinction to several other types of repetitive behaviors commonly associated with neurogenic communication disorders. These include echolalia in mixed transcortical aphasia; conduite d'approche and conduite d'ecart in fluent aphasias; lexical and nonlexical automatisms in nonfluent aphasias; palilalia in neuromotor disorders, such as Parkinson's disease (PD); and sound, syllable, word, and phrase repetitions in neurogenic stuttering. When differentiating these phenomena from perseveration, it is helpful to consider the salient factors that condition observed behaviors in individual patients, such as overall speech fluency, inventory of available utterances, nature of eliciting tasks, and propositionality of responses. Information such as communication disorder diagnosis, underlying etiology, and known sites of lesion from each patient's total clinical profile may also assist with differentiation.

  5. Extraction of Structure Function and Gluon Distribution Function at Low-x from Cross Section Derivative by Regge Behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boroun, G.R.

    2005-01-01

    An approximation method based on Regge behavior is presented. This new method relates the reduced cross section derivative and the structure function Regge behavior at low x. With the use of this approximation method, the C and λ parameters are calculated from the HERA reduced cross section data taken at low-x. Also, we calculate the structure functions F 2 (x,Q 2 ) even for low-x values, which have not been investigated. To test the validity of calculated structure functions, we find the gluon distribution function in the Leading order approximation based on Regge behaviour of structure function and compare to the NLO QCD fit to H1 data and NLO parton distribution function.

  6. Malware Function Estimation Using API in Initial Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    KAWAGUCHI, Naoto; OMOTE, Kazumasa

    2017-01-01

    Malware proliferation has become a serious threat to the Internet in recent years. Most current malware are subspecies of existing malware that have been automatically generated by illegal tools. To conduct an efficient analysis of malware, estimating their functions in advance is effective when we give priority to analyze malware. However, estimating the malware functions has been difficult due to the increasing sophistication of malware. Actually, the previous researches do not estimate the...

  7. A Conceptual Foundation for Measures of Physical Function and Behavioral Health Function for Social Security Work Disability Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfeo, Elizabeth E.; Haley, Stephen M.; Jette, Alan M.; Eisen, Susan V.; Ni, Pengsheng; Bogusz, Kara; Meterko, Mark; McDonough, Christine M.; Chan, Leighton; Brandt, Diane E.; Rasch, Elizabeth K.

    2014-01-01

    Physical and mental impairments represent the two largest health condition categories for which workers receive Social Security disability benefits. Comprehensive assessment of physical and mental impairments should include aspects beyond medical conditions such as a person’s underlying capabilities as well as activity demands relevant to the context of work. The objective of this paper is to describe the initial conceptual stages of developing new measurement instruments of behavioral health and physical functioning relevant for Social Security work disability evaluation purposes. To outline a clear conceptualization of the constructs to be measured, two content models were developed using structured and informal qualitative approaches. We performed a structured literature review focusing on work disability and incorporating aspects of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) as a unifying taxonomy for framework development. Expert interviews provided advice and consultation to enhance face validity of the resulting content models. The content model for work-related behavioral health function identifies five major domains (1) Behavior Control, (2) Basic Interactions, (3) Temperament and Personality, (4) Adaptability, and (5) Workplace Behaviors. The content model describing physical functioning includes three domains (1) Changing and Maintaining Body Position, (2) Whole Body Mobility, and (3) Carrying, Moving and Handling Objects. These content models informed subsequent measurement properties including item development, measurement scale construction, and provided conceptual coherence guiding future empirical inquiry. The proposed measurement approaches show promise to comprehensively and systematically assess physical and behavioral health functioning relevant to work. PMID:23548543

  8. Cognitive functioning and its influence on sexual behavior in normal aging and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmans, Carien; Comijs, Hannie; Jonker, Cees

    2014-05-01

    Motivational aspects, emotional factors, and cognition, all of which require intact cognitive functioning may be essential in sexual functioning. However, little is known about the association between cognitive functioning and sexual behavior. The aim of this article is to review the current evidence for the influence of cognitive functioning on sexual behavior in normal aging and dementia. A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, Ovid, Cochrane, and PsycINFO databases. The databases were searched for English language papers focusing on human studies published relating cognitive functioning to sexual behavior in the aging population. Keywords included sexual behavior, sexuality, cognitive functioning, healthy elderly, elderly, aging and dementia. Eight studies fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Of these studies, five included dementia patients and/or their partners, whereas only three studies included healthy older persons. Although not consistently, results indicated a trend that older people who are not demented and continue to engage in sexual activity have better overall cognitive functioning. Cognitive decline and dementia seem to be associated with diminished sexual behavior in older persons. The association between cognitive functioning and sexual behavior in the aging population is understudied. The results found are inconclusive. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Acceptability of Functional Behavioral Assessment Procedures to Special Educators and School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Robert E.; Bundock, Kaitlin; Kladis, Kristin; Hawken, Leanne S.

    2015-01-01

    This survey study assessed the acceptability of a variety of functional behavioral assessment (FBA) procedures (i.e., functional assessment interviews, rating scales/questionnaires, systematic direct observations, functional analysis manipulations) to a national sample of 123 special educators and a state sample of 140 school psychologists.…

  10. Cognitive functioning and its influence on sexual behavior in normal aging and dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmans, C.; Comijs, H.; Jonker, C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Motivational aspects, emotional factors, and cognition, all of which require intact cognitive functioning may be essential in sexual functioning. However, little is known about the association between cognitive functioning and sexual behavior. The aim of this article is to review the

  11. Surface plasma functionalization influences macrophage behavior on carbon nanowalls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ion, Raluca [University of Bucharest, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 91-95 Spl. Independentei, 050095 Bucharest (Romania); Vizireanu, Sorin [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor, PO Box MG-36, 077125, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Stancu, Claudia Elena [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor, PO Box MG-36, 077125, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Leibniz Institute for Plasma Science and Technology (INP Greifswald), Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 2, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Luculescu, Catalin [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor, PO Box MG-36, 077125, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Cimpean, Anisoara, E-mail: anisoara.cimpean@bio.unibuc.ro [University of Bucharest, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 91-95 Spl. Independentei, 050095 Bucharest (Romania); Dinescu, Gheorghe [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor, PO Box MG-36, 077125, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania)

    2015-03-01

    The surfaces of carbon nanowall samples as scaffolds for tissue engineering applications were treated with oxygen or nitrogen plasma to improve their wettability and to functionalize their surfaces with different functional groups. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and water contact angle results illustrated the effective conversion of the carbon nanowall surfaces from hydrophobic to hydrophilic and the incorporation of various amounts of carbon, oxygen and nitrogen functional groups during the treatments. The early inflammatory responses elicited by un-treated and modified carbon nanowall surfaces were investigated by quantifying tumor necrosis factor-alpha and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha released by attached RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence studies were employed to investigate the changes in macrophage morphology and adhesive properties, while MTT assay was used to quantify cell proliferation. All samples sustained macrophage adhesion and growth. In addition, nitrogen plasma treatment was more beneficial for cell adhesion in comparison with un-modified carbon nanowall surfaces. Instead, oxygen plasma functionalization led to increased macrophage adhesion and spreading suggesting a more activated phenotype, confirmed by elevated cytokine release. Thus, our findings showed that the chemical surface alterations which occur as a result of plasma treatment, independent of surface wettability, affect macrophage response in vitro. - Highlights: • N{sub 2} and O{sub 2} plasma treatments alter the CNW surface chemistry and wettability. • Cells seeded on CNW scaffolds are viable and metabolically active. • Surface functional groups, independent of surface wettability, affect cell response. • O{sub 2} plasma treatment of CNW leads to a more activated macrophage phenotype.

  12. Parent-rated emotional-behavioral and executive functioning in childhood epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanaugh, Brian C; Scarborough, Vanessa Ramos; Salorio, Cynthia F

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined clinical and demographic risk factors associated with parent-rated emotional-behavioral and executive functioning in children and adolescents with epilepsy. The medical records of 152 children and adolescents with epilepsy referred for neuropsychological evaluation were reviewed. Results indicated that the sample displayed significantly elevated symptoms across the emotional-behavioral and executive domains assessed. Executive functioning and behavioral symptoms had the highest rates of clinically elevated scores, with lowest rates of elevated scores in internalizing and externalizing emotional problems. Only 34% of those participants with clinically significant emotional-behavioral or executive functioning difficulties had a history of psychological or counseling services, highlighting the underserved mental health needs of this population. In regard to clinical factors, the majority of seizure-related variables were not associated with emotional-behavioral or executive functioning. However, the frequency of seizures (i.e., seizure status) was associated with behavioral regulation aspects of executive functioning, and the age at evaluation was associated with externalizing problems and behavioral symptoms. Family psychiatric history (with the exception of ADHD) was associated with all domains of executive and emotional-behavioral functioning. In summary, emotional-behavioral and executive functioning difficulties frequently co-occur with seizures in childhood epilepsy, with both seizure-related and demographic factors contributing to the presentation of such neurobehavioral comorbidities. The present findings provide treatment providers of childhood epilepsy with important information to assist in better identifying children and adolescents who may be at risk for neurobehavioral comorbidities and may benefit from intervention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. OSCILLATION BEHAVIOR OF SOLUTIONS FOR EVEN ORDER NEUTRAL FUNCTIONAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.Candan

    2006-01-01

    Even order neutral functional differential equations are considered. Sufficient conditions for the oscillation behavior of solutions for this differential equation are presented. The new results are presented and some examples are also given.

  14. A formal ontological perspective on the behaviors and functions of technical artifacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgo, S.; Carrara, M.; Garbacz, P.; Vermaas, P.E.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present a formal characterization of the engineering concepts of behavior and function of technical artifacts. We capture the meanings that engineers attach to these concepts by formalizing, within the formal ontology DOLCE, the five meanings of artifact behavior and the two

  15. Parental Reflective Functioning Moderates the Relationship between Difficult Temperament in Infancy and Behavior Problems in Toddlerhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kristyn; Stacks, Ann M.; Rosenblum, Katherine L.; Muzik, Maria

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed the links between infant negative affect, parental reflective functioning (RF), and toddler behavior problems in a sample of 84 women and their infants. Mothers provided self-report demographic data and completed the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised during a home visit when the infant was 7 months old. They also completed…

  16. Maternal Emotion Regulation and Adolescent Behaviors: The Mediating Role of Family Functioning and Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, AliceAnn; Ghazarian, Sharon R; Day, Randal D; Riley, Anne W

    2016-11-01

    Prior research links poor maternal emotion regulation to maladaptive parenting and child behaviors, but little research is available on these relationships during the adolescent period. We use structural equation modeling to assess the influence of poor maternal emotion regulation, measured as emotional reactivity and distancing, on adolescent behaviors (measured as aggression and prosocial behaviors) among 478 adolescents (53 % female; baseline age 10-13 years) and their mothers over a 5 year period. We also tested the possible mediating roles of family functioning and parenting behaviors between maternal emotion regulation and adolescent behaviors. Results indicated that higher baseline maternal emotional distancing and reactivity were not directly predictive of adolescents' behaviors, but they were indirectly related through family functioning and parenting. Specifically, indulgent parenting mediated the relationship between maternal emotional reactivity and adolescent aggression. Maternal-reported family functioning significantly mediated the relationship between maternal emotional distancing and adolescent aggression. Family functioning also mediated the relationship between emotional distancing and regulation parenting. The results imply that poor maternal emotion regulation during their child's early adolescence leads to more maladaptive parenting and problematic behaviors during the later adolescent period. However, healthy family processes may ameliorate the negative impact of low maternal emotion regulation on parenting and adolescent behavioral outcomes. The implications for future research and interventions to improve parenting and adolescent outcomes are discussed.

  17. The Effects of a School-Based Functional Analysis on Subsequent Classroom Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tonya N.; Durand, Shannon; Fuentes, Lisa; Dacus, Sharon; Blenden, Kara

    2014-01-01

    In this study we analyzed the effects of conducting a school-based functional analysis on subsequent classroom behavior. Each participant was observed in the classroom during activities that were reported by teachers to result in high levels of challenging behavior. Participants were observed during (a) baseline, prior to the administration of a…

  18. Childhood Fears, Neurobehavioral Functioning and Behavior Problems in School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Jonathan; Sadeh, Avi

    2010-01-01

    The objective is to examine underlying associations between childhood fears, behavior problems and neurobehavioral functioning (NBF) in school-age children. Healthy, regular school children (N = 135), from second, fourth and sixth grade classes were assessed. Data regarding children's fears and behavioral problems were obtained with the Revised…

  19. Predictors of Behavioral Regulation in Kindergarten: Household Chaos, Parenting, and Early Executive Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Willoughby, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral regulation is an important school readiness skill that has been linked to early executive function (EF) and later success in learning and school achievement. Although poverty and related risks, as well as negative parenting, have been associated with poorer EF and behavioral regulation, chaotic home environments may also play a role in…

  20. An Evidence-Driven, Solution-Focused Approach to Functional Behavior Assessment Report Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Ryan L.; Floyd, Randy G.

    2016-01-01

    School-based practitioners are to implement and report functional behavior assessments (FBAs) that are consistent with both the research literature and the law, both federal and state. However, the literature regarding how best to document the FBA process is underdeveloped. A review of applied behavior analytic and school psychology literature as…

  1. Effects of prenatal ionizing irradiation on neural function and behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brizzee, K.R.; Ordy, J.M.; Pennwalt Corp., Rochester, NY

    1986-01-01

    Behavioral studies in the past decade on postnatal effects of prenatal ionizing irradiation (125-R) revealed alterations in circadian locomotor activity and modifications of duration, frequency and sequences of certain behavioral acts in irradiated rats. Other studies have shown that the effect of irradiation (150-R) and enriched environment were both significant in initial, repetitive and total error scores while at 200-R enrichment was less effective. Rats irradiated on the 13th, 14th and 15th day of gestation were born with a hopping gait, paired hind and forelimbs moving in unison. Thoracic cord section led to crossed extention hind-limb reflexes in control rats and simultaneus withdrawal of hind limbs in hopping rats, in response to pinprick. In 90 day old squirrel monkeys the percent of correct response in visual orientation, discrimination and reversal learning in 50- and 100-R offspring (Co 60 irradiation at 89-90 days gestation) were significantly lower than those of controls, and differences in reversal learning persisted undiminished at 2 years of age. Time required for body righting, head-up orientation and climbing at 45 0 incline was significantly greater in irradiated (mainly 100-R) than control animals at from 2 to 28 days of age. Visual acuity levels of 50- and 100-R 30 day old infants were significantly lower than in control infants. Stabilimeter activity in the dark was significantly higher in 50- and 100-R 30 day old infants than in controls. In the squirrel monkey studies effects of Co 60 irradiation (100-R) on postnatal development of the brain and behaviour can be identified at statistically significant levels of confidence independent of offspring nursery rearing effects. (orig.)

  2. Family Functioning and Predictors of Runaway Behavior Among At-Risk Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Stephanie Brooks; Edelen, Maria Orlando; Tucker, Joan S

    2017-06-01

    Adolescent runaway behavior is associated with a host of negative outcomes in young adulthood. Therefore, it is important to understand the factors that predict running away in youth. Longitudinal data from 111 at-risk families were used to identify proximal predictors of runaway behavior over a 12-week period. On average, youth were 14.96 years old, and 45% were female. Ten percent of youth ran away during the 12-week follow-up period. In bivariate analyses, running away was predicted by poorer youth- and parent-rated family functioning, past runaway behavior, and other problem behaviors (e.g., substance use, delinquency), but not poorer perceived academic functioning. Results of a hierarchical logistic regression revealed a relationship between youth-rated family functioning and runaway behavior. However, this effect became non-significant after accounting for past runaway behavior and other problem behaviors, both of which remained significant predictors in the multivariable model. These findings suggest that youth who run away may be engaged in a more pervasive pattern of problematic behavior, and that screening and prevention programs need to address the cycle of adolescent defiant behavior associated with running away. Recommendations for clinical practice with this at-risk population are discussed.

  3. Solutions and Hope for Severe Behaviors: The Development of Functional Behavioral Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLeon, Iser; Silverman, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    Severe behavior disorders are among the most perplexing conditions encountered by clinicians, and as a front page article in the past Christmas Day's "New York Times" illustrates ("Parents defend school's use of shock therapy"), treatment options remain a topic of contentious debate. Not all that long ago physical restraint was the only option,…

  4. Decoding Pigeon Behavior Outcomes Using Functional Connections among Local Field Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Liu, Xinyu; Li, Shan; Wan, Hong

    2018-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the local field potential (LFP) carries information about an animal's behavior, but issues regarding whether there are any relationships between the LFP functional networks and behavior tasks as well as whether it is possible to employ LFP network features to decode the behavioral outcome in a single trial remain unresolved. In this study, we developed a network-based method to decode the behavioral outcomes in pigeons by using the functional connectivity strength values among LFPs recorded from the nidopallium caudolaterale (NCL). In our method, the functional connectivity strengths were first computed based on the synchronization likelihood. Second, the strength values were unwrapped into row vectors and their dimensions were then reduced by principal component analysis. Finally, the behavioral outcomes in single trials were decoded using leave-one-out combined with the k -nearest neighbor method. The results showed that the LFP functional network based on the gamma-band was related to the goal-directed behavior of pigeons. Moreover, the accuracy of the network features (74 ± 8%) was significantly higher than that of the power features (61 ± 12%). The proposed method provides a powerful tool for decoding animal behavior outcomes using a neural functional network.

  5. Magnetic behavior study of samarium nitride using density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Som, Narayan N.; Mankad, Venu H.; Dabhi, Shweta D.; Patel, Anjali; Jha, Prafulla K.

    2018-02-01

    In this work, the state-of-art density functional theory is employed to study the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of samarium nitride (SmN). We have performed calculation for both ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic states in rock-salt phase. The calculated results of optimized lattice parameter and magnetic moment agree well with the available experimental and theoretical values. From energy band diagram and electronic density of states, we observe a half-metallic behaviour in FM phase of rock salt SmN in while metallicity in AFM I and AFM III phases. We present and discuss our current understanding of the possible half-metallicity together with the magnetic ordering in SmN. The calculated phonon dispersion curves shows dynamical stability of the considered structures. The phonon density of states and Eliashberg functional have also been analysed to understand the superconductivity in SmN.

  6. Relation between high leisure-time sedentary behavior and low functionality in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Navarro Bertolini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2016v18n6p713   Sedentary behavior refers to activities with low energy expenditure, usually performed in sitting or lying positions, and includes behavior belonging to the current lifestyle, such as watching television. In the course of aging, this activity is performed for longer periods by individuals on a daily basis. This is worrying, since aging associated with sedentary behavior accentuates functionality decline. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between high leisure-time sedentary behavior and low functionality in older adults. The sample consisted of 375 older adults aged 60-97 years (70 ± 7 years, and of these, 114 (30% were men and 261 (70% women. Functionality was assessed by two functional tests and information related to sedentary behavior was obtained using the self-reported physical activity questionnaire proposed by Baecke et al. The chi-square test was used to verify the association between sedentary behavior and functionality, and binary logistic regression analysis was used to build the multiple model. Older individuals with high leisure-time sedentary behavior were more likely to have low functionality [OR 2.57; 95% CI 1.40 to 4.71] and [OR 2.35; 95% CI 1.29 to 4.29] regardless of gender, age, smoking, osteoporosis, arthritis / osteoarthritis, low back pain and physical activity. Extended permanence in sedentary behavior was associated with low functionality in older subjects. Preventive measures to stimulate the practice of physical activities and encourage the reduction of time spent in sedentary activities such as watching television should be adopted by health professionals in an attempt to maintain functionality among older adults.

  7. Energy absorption behaviors of nanoporous materials functionalized (NMF) liquids

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Tae Wan

    2011-01-01

    For many decades, people have been actively investigating high-performance energy absorption materials, so as to develop lightweight and small-sized protective and damping devices, such as blast mitigation helmets, vehicle armors, etc. Recently, the high energy absorption efficiency of nanoporous materials functionalized (NMF) liquids has drawn considerable attention. A NMF liquid is usually a liquid suspension of nanoporous particles with large nanopore surface areas (100 - 2,000 m²/g). The ...

  8. Investigation of dynamic fracture behavior in functionally graded materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, X B; Qin, Y P; Zhuang, Z; You, X C

    2008-01-01

    The fast running crack in functionally graded materials (FGMs) is investigated through numerical simulations under impact loading. Some fracture characterizations such as crack propagation and arrest are evaluated by the criterion of the crack tip opening angle. Based on the experimental results, the whole propagation process of the fast running crack is simulated by the finite element program. Thus, the dynamic fracture parameters can be obtained during the crack growing process. In this paper, the crack direction is assumed to be the graded direction of the materials, and the property gradation in FGMs is considered by varying the elastic modulus exponentially along the graded direction and keeping the mass density and Poisson's ratio constant. The influences of the non-homogeneity, the loading ratio and the crack propagation speed on the dynamic fracture response of FGMs are analyzed through the test and numerical analysis. Considering the potential application of FGMs in natural-gas transmission engineering, a functionally graded pipeline is designed to arrest the fast running crack for a short period in high pressure large diameter natural-gas pipelines

  9. Parasite-altered feeding behavior in insects: integrating functional and mechanistic research frontiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Melissa A; Singer, Michael S

    2017-08-15

    Research on parasite-altered feeding behavior in insects is contributing to an emerging literature that considers possible adaptive consequences of altered feeding behavior for the host or the parasite. Several recent ecoimmunological studies show that insects can adaptively alter their foraging behavior in response to parasitism. Another body of recent work shows that infection by parasites can change the behavior of insect hosts to benefit the parasite; manipulations of host feeding behavior may be part of this phenomenon. Here, we address both the functional and the underlying physiological frontiers of parasite-altered feeding behavior in order to spur research that better integrates the two. Functional categories of parasite-altered behavior that are adaptive for the host include prophylaxis, therapy and compensation, while host manipulation is adaptive for the parasite. To better understand and distinguish prophylaxis, therapy and compensation, further study of physiological feedbacks affecting host sensory systems is especially needed. For host manipulation in particular, research on mechanisms by which parasites control host feedbacks will be important to integrate with functional approaches. We see this integration as critical to advancing the field of parasite-altered feeding behavior, which may be common in insects and consequential for human and environmental health. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. The function of dart behavior in the paper wasp, Polistes fuscatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumana, A; Starks, Philip T

    2004-05-01

    Dominance behavior in Polistes wasps is a composite trait consisting of various discrete behaviors such as darts, lunges, bites, and mounts. The majority of these behaviors are considered "aggressive", and these aggressive behaviors are considered to form a continuum from mild (e.g., darts) to severe (e.g., falling fights). In this paper we focus on darts, the most common of the dominance behaviors, and investigate their function in un-manipulated post-emergent colonies of the primitively eusocial wasp P. fuscatus. Here we show that darts are correlated with the more severe dominance behaviors, and that dominance ranks do not change with the addition or exclusion of darts. We find no correlation, however, between receiving darts and receiving more severe dominance behaviors. This result suggests that darts are not indicative of aggressive reinforcement of dominance, but rather may serve a different function. Our data suggest that the function of darts is to regulate activity on nests. Both foundresses and workers dart inactive workers significantly more often than by chance, and workers respond to a foundress's (but not a worker's) dart by becoming less inactive. We also found that active workers who receive a dart from either a foundress or worker respond mostly by switching from one activity to another. Thus, our data suggest that darts are not aggressive behaviors, that foundresses use this signal to initiate activity, and that foundresses and workers both use the signal to regulate worker activity.

  11. Nutritional status and social behavior in preschool children: the mediating effects of neurocognitive functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianghong; Raine, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Early malnutritional status has been associated with reduced cognitive ability in childhood. However, there are almost no studies on the effect of malnutrition on positive social behavior, and no tests of possible mediating mechanisms. This study tests the hypothesis that poor nutritional status is associated with impaired social functioning in childhood, and that neurocognitive ability mediates this relationship. We assessed 1553 male and female 3-year-olds from a birth cohort on measures of malnutrition, social behavior and verbal and spatial neurocognitive functions. Children with indicators of malnutrition showed impaired social behavior (p malnutrition and degree of social behavior, with increased malnutrition associated with more impaired social behavior. Neurocognitive ability was found to mediate the nutrition–social behavior relationship. The mediation effect of neurocognitive functioning suggests that poor nutrition negatively impacts brain areas that play important roles in developing positive social behavior. Findings suggest that reducing poor nutrition, alternatively promoting good nutrition, may help promote positive social behavior in early childhood during a critical period for social and neurocognitive development, with implications for improving positive health in adulthood. PMID:27133006

  12. Transactional relations between caregiving stress, executive functioning, and problem behavior from early childhood to early adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaGasse, Linda L.; Conradt, Elisabeth; Karalunas, Sarah L.; Dansereau, Lynne M.; Butner, Jonathan E.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R.; Whitaker, Toni M.; Lester, Barry M.

    2016-01-01

    Developmental psychopathologists face the difficult task of identifying the environmental conditions that may contribute to early childhood behavior problems. Highly stressed caregivers can exacerbate behavior problems, while children with behavior problems may make parenting more difficult and increase caregiver stress. Unknown is: (1) how these transactions originate, (2) whether they persist over time to contribute to the development of problem behavior and (3) what role resilience factors, such as child executive functioning, may play in mitigating the development of problem behavior. In the present study, transactional relations between caregiving stress, executive functioning, and behavior problems were examined in a sample of 1,388 children with prenatal drug exposures at three developmental time points: early childhood (birth-age 5), middle childhood (ages 6 to 9), and early adolescence (ages 10 to 13). Transactional relations differed between caregiving stress and internalizing versus externalizing behavior. Targeting executive functioning in evidence-based interventions for children with prenatal substance exposure who present with internalizing problems and treating caregiving psychopathology, depression, and parenting stress in early childhood may be particularly important for children presenting with internalizing behavior. PMID:27427803

  13. Clustering of Midlife Lifestyle Behaviors and Subsequent Cognitive Function: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Valentina A.; Lassale, Camille; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the association between individual and clustered lifestyle behaviors in middle age and later in cognitive functioning. Methods. Middle-aged participants (n = 2430) in the Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydant study self-reported their low physical activity, sedentary behavior, alcohol use, smoking, low fruit and vegetable consumption, and low fish consumption. We assessed cognition 13 years later via 6 neuropsychological tests. After standardization, we summed the scores for a composite cognitive measure. We estimated executive functioning and verbal memory scores using principal component analysis. We estimated the mean differences (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) in cognitive performance by the number of unhealthy behaviors using analysis of covariance. We identified latent unhealthy behavior factor via structural equation modeling. Results. Global cognitive function and verbal memory were linearly, negatively associated with the number of unhealthy behaviors: adjusted mean differences = −0.36 (95% CI = −0.69, −0.03) and −0.46 (95% CI = −0.80, −0.11), respectively, per unit increase in the number of unhealthy behaviors. The latent unhealthy behavior factor with low fruit and vegetable consumption and low physical activity as main contributors was associated with reduced verbal memory (RMSEA = 0.02; CFI = 0.96; P = .004). No association was found with executive functioning. Conclusions. Comprehensive public health strategies promoting healthy lifestyles might help deter cognitive aging. PMID:25211733

  14. Parental corporal punishment in relation to children's executive function and externalizing behavior problems in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Xiaopei; Wang, Meifang; Wang, Zhengyan

    2018-04-01

    The current study examined the relationship among paternal and maternal corporal punishment (CP), children's executive function (EF), and children's externalizing behavior problems. In total, 328 Chinese preschool-aged children and their parents and teachers participated. Paternal and maternal CP was assessed by father-reports and by mother-reports, respectively. Children's EF was assessed by the Executive Function Touch program. Children's externalizing behavior problems were assessed by mother-reports and by teacher-reports. The results of structural equation modeling generally supported working memory as a mediator linking paternal CP and children's externalizing behaviors and inhibitory control as a mediator linking maternal CP and children's externalizing behaviors. No differences by children's gender were found. The current findings highlight the importance of EF in behavioral outcomes of children who experience parental CP.

  15. Neurological function, information-motivation-behavioral skills factors, and risk behaviors among HIV-positive alcohol users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malow, Robert M; Dévieux, Jessy G; Stein, Judith A; Rosenberg, Rhonda; Lerner, Brenda G; Attonito, Jennifer; Villalba, Karina

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine neurological impairment in combination with information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) variables. The study tests the role of IMB variables as mediators of antecedent variables of demographics, life stress, social support, and neurological impairment with outcome measures of HIV preventive and risk behaviors in a sample of HIV-positive, alcohol-using adults (n = 250) with a history of alcohol abuse/dependence. Neurological impairment was measured with the Color Trails Test (CTT). Average performance on the CTT by the sample was substantially worse than established norms. In a directional latent variable model, neurological impairment directly predicted lower transmission knowledge scores and poorer performance on an observational condom skills assessment. Greater neurological impairment was significantly associated with greater age. Future interventions geared toward HIV+ adults who use alcohol should take into consideration HIV-related and age-related neurological functioning which may impede the facilitation of safe sex behaviors.

  16. Does impaired socioemotional functioning account for behavioral dysexecutive disorders? Evidence from a transnosological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narme, Pauline; Roussel, Martine; Mouras, Harold; Krystkowiak, Pierre; Godefroy, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Behavioral dysexecutive disorders are highly prevalent in patients with neurological diseases but cannot be explained by cognitive dysexecutive impairments. In fact, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Given that socioemotional functioning underlies appropriate behavior, socioemotional impairments may contribute to the appearance of behavioral disorders. To investigate this issue, we performed a transnosological study. Seventy-five patients suffering from various neurological diseases (Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), frontotemporal lobar degeneration, and stroke) were included in the study. The patients were comprehensively assessed in terms of cognitive and behavioral dysexecutive disorders and socioemotional processes (facial emotion recognition and theory of mind). As was seen for cognitive and behavioral dysexecutive impairments, the prevalence of socioemotional impairments varied according to the diagnosis. Stepwise logistic regressions showed that (i) only cognitive executive indices predicted hypoactivity with apathy/abulia, (ii) theory of mind impairments predicted hyperactivity-distractibility-impulsivity and stereotyped/perseverative behaviors, and (iii) impaired facial emotion recognition predicted social behavior disorders. Several dysexecutive behavioral disorders are associated with an underlying impairment in socioemotional processes but not with cognitive indices of executive functioning (except for apathy). These results strongly suggest that some dysexecutive behavioral disorders are the outward signs of an underlying impairment in socioemotional processes.

  17. Early Parenting and the Development of Externalizing Behavior Problems: Longitudinal Mediation Through Children's Executive Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulik, Michael J; Blair, Clancy; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Berry, Daniel; Greenberg, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Path analysis was used to investigate the longitudinal associations among parenting and children's executive function and externalizing behavior problems from 36 to 90 months of age in the Family Life Project (N = 1,115), a study of child development in the context of rural poverty. While controlling for stability in the constructs, semistructured observations of parenting prospectively predicted performance on a battery of executive function tasks and primary caregivers' reports of externalizing behavior. Furthermore, the association between early parenting and later externalizing behavior was longitudinally mediated by executive function, providing support for a process model in which sensitive parenting promotes children's self-regulation, which in turn reduces children's externalizing behavior. © 2015 The Authors. Child Development © 2015 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  18. The Relation Between Intellectual Functioning and Adaptive Behavior in the Diagnosis of Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassé, Marc J; Luckasson, Ruth; Schalock, Robert L

    2016-12-01

    Intellectual disability originates during the developmental period and is characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills. In this article, we present a brief history of the diagnostic criteria of intellectual disability for both the DSM-5 and AAIDD. The article also (a) provides an update of the understanding of adaptive behavior, (b) dispels two thinking errors regarding mistaken temporal or causal link between intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior, (c) explains that there is a strong correlational, but no causative, relation between intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior, and (d) asserts that once a question of determining intellectual disability is raised, both intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior are assessed and considered jointly and weighed equally in the diagnosis of intellectual disability. We discuss the problems created by an inaccurate statement that appears in the DSM-5 regarding a causal link between deficits in intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior and propose an immediate revision to remove this erroneous and confounding statement.

  19. Child Behavior Problems, Teacher Executive Functions, and Teacher Stress in Head Start Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman-Krauss, Allison H; Raver, C Cybele; Neuspiel, Juliana M; Kinsel, John

    2014-01-01

    The current article explores the relationship between teachers' perceptions of child behavior problems and preschool teacher job stress, as well as the possibility that teachers' executive functions moderate this relationship. Data came from 69 preschool teachers in 31 early childhood classrooms in 4 Head Start centers and were collected using Web-based surveys and Web-based direct assessment tasks. Multilevel models revealed that higher levels of teachers' perceptions of child behavior problems were associated with higher levels of teacher job stress and that higher teacher executive function skills were related to lower job stress. However, findings did not yield evidence for teacher executive functions as a statistical moderator. Many early childhood teachers do not receive sufficient training for handling children's challenging behaviors. Child behavior problems increase a teacher's workload and consequently may contribute to feelings of stress. However, teachers' executive function abilities may enable them to use effective, cognitive-based behavior management and instructional strategies during interactions with students, which may reduce stress. Providing teachers with training on managing challenging behaviors and enhancing executive functions may reduce their stress and facilitate their use of effective classroom practices, which is important for children's school readiness skills and teachers' health.

  20. Child Behavior Problems, Teacher Executive Functions, and Teacher Stress in Head Start Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman-Krauss, Allison H.; Raver, C. Cybele; Neuspiel, Juliana M.; Kinsel, John

    2017-01-01

    Research Findings The current article explores the relationship between teachers’ perceptions of child behavior problems and preschool teacher job stress, as well as the possibility that teachers’ executive functions moderate this relationship. Data came from 69 preschool teachers in 31 early childhood classrooms in 4 Head Start centers and were collected using Web-based surveys and Web-based direct assessment tasks. Multilevel models revealed that higher levels of teachers’ perceptions of child behavior problems were associated with higher levels of teacher job stress and that higher teacher executive function skills were related to lower job stress. However, findings did not yield evidence for teacher executive functions as a statistical moderator. Practice or Policy Many early childhood teachers do not receive sufficient training for handling children’s challenging behaviors. Child behavior problems increase a teacher’s workload and consequently may contribute to feelings of stress. However, teachers’ executive function abilities may enable them to use effective, cognitive-based behavior management and instructional strategies during interactions with students, which may reduce stress. Providing teachers with training on managing challenging behaviors and enhancing executive functions may reduce their stress and facilitate their use of effective classroom practices, which is important for children’s school readiness skills and teachers’ health. PMID:28596698

  1. Mothers' Temperament and Personality: Their Relationship to Parenting Behaviors, Locus of Control, and Young Children's Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puff, Jayme; Renk, Kimberly

    2016-10-01

    There appears to be a lack of construct clarity and a dearth of studies that have examined both mothers' temperament and personality in conjunction with parenting behaviors when predicting young children's functioning. As a result, this study examined these constructs jointly so that a further understanding of how mothers' temperament and personality may work together to predict young children's functioning could be gained. As part of this study, 214 diverse mothers with young children who ranged in age from 2- to 6-years rated their own temperament and personality, their parenting characteristics, and their young children's functioning (i.e., temperament and emotional and behavioral functioning). Based on the findings of hierarchical regression analyses completed in this study, both mothers' temperament and personality may be important individual predictors of young children's temperament but may be important joint predictors, along with parenting behaviors, of young children's behavior problems. Consequently, future research should examine the role that mothers' temperament and personality characteristics may play in conjunction with their parenting behaviors when trying to understand young children's functioning. These findings will be particularly helpful for professionals providing parenting interventions to families with young children who have difficult temperament styles and/or emotional and behavioral problems.

  2. Prediction of rat behavior outcomes in memory tasks using functional connections among neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Lu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Analyzing the neuronal organizational structures and studying the changes in the behavior of the organism is key to understanding cognitive functions of the brain. Although some studies have indicated that spatiotemporal firing patterns of neuronal populations have a certain relationship with the behavioral responses, the issues of whether there are any relationships between the functional networks comprised of these cortical neurons and behavioral tasks and whether it is possible to take advantage of these networks to predict correct and incorrect outcomes of single trials of animals are still unresolved. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This paper presents a new method of analyzing the structures of whole-recorded neuronal functional networks (WNFNs and local neuronal circuit groups (LNCGs. The activity of these neurons was recorded in several rats. The rats performed two different behavioral tasks, the Y-maze task and the U-maze task. Using the results of the assessment of the WNFNs and LNCGs, this paper describes a realization procedure for predicting the behavioral outcomes of single trials. The methodology consists of four main parts: construction of WNFNs from recorded neuronal spike trains, partitioning the WNFNs into the optimal LNCGs using social community analysis, unsupervised clustering of all trials from each dataset into two different clusters, and predicting the behavioral outcomes of single trials. The results show that WNFNs and LNCGs correlate with the behavior of the animal. The U-maze datasets show higher accuracy for unsupervised clustering results than those from the Y-maze task, and these datasets can be used to predict behavioral responses effectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results of the present study suggest that a methodology proposed in this paper is suitable for analysis of the characteristics of neuronal functional networks and the prediction of rat behavior. These types of structures in cortical

  3. Hypersexual behavior in an online sample of males: associations with personal distress and functional impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spenhoff, Miriam; Kruger, Tillmann H C; Hartmann, Uwe; Kobs, Julia

    2013-12-01

    The population of individuals reporting hypersexual behavior is heterogeneous. Prior research has implicated the importance of personal distress and functional impairment, as both may serve as indicators of problem severity and relevance. Still, little is known about associations with distress and impairment following hypersexuality. The purpose of this study was to investigate personal distress and functional impairment in a community sample of male self-identified "sex addicts" and to explore the associations with related variables. Three hundred forty-nine men completed an online survey that included questions about personal distress, functional impairment, motivation for behavior change, type of hypersexual behaviors, time spent on sexual behavior, and progression of sexual urges. The survey included the Sexual Addiction Screening Test-Revised (SAST-R) core. Specific survey questions about personal distress and functional impairment in six life areas were used to assess these variables. Chi-square and P-values were calculated to explore the interrelations among them. There were 75.3% (N = 253) who reported feeling distressed due to hypersexual behavior. Functional impairment in at least one life area was specified by 77.4% (N = 270), and most participants (56.2%) reported impairment regarding partner relationships. Personal distress and functional impairment in three areas were associated with a strong motivation for behavior change. Distress was associated with online pornography use, masturbation, and/or sexual contact with changing partners. The progression of sexual urges was related to distress, while time spent on sexual behavior was not. There were 92.9% of the distressed participants who scored above the SAST-R core scale cut-off, but also 59.0% of the participants with little or no distress scored in this range. Results underline the particular role of problems in social or intimate relationships in association with hypersexuality. Clustering

  4. Acute and chronic effects of cannabinoids on effort-related decision-making and reward learning: an evaluation of the cannabis 'amotivational' hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawn, Will; Freeman, Tom P; Pope, Rebecca A; Joye, Alyssa; Harvey, Lisa; Hindocha, Chandni; Mokrysz, Claire; Moss, Abigail; Wall, Matthew B; Bloomfield, Michael Ap; Das, Ravi K; Morgan, Celia Ja; Nutt, David J; Curran, H Valerie

    2016-10-01

    Anecdotally, both acute and chronic cannabis use have been associated with apathy, amotivation, and other reward processing deficits. To date, empirical support for these effects is limited, and no previous studies have assessed both acute effects of Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), as well as associations with cannabis dependence. The objectives of this study were (1) to examine acute effects of cannabis with CBD (Cann + CBD) and without CBD (Cann-CBD) on effort-related decision-making and (2) to examine associations between cannabis dependence, effort-related decision-making and reward learning. In study 1, 17 participants each received three acute vaporized treatments, namely Cann-CBD (8 mg THC), Cann + CBD (8 mg THC + 10 mg CBD) and matched placebo, followed by a 50 % dose top-up 1.5 h later, and completed the Effort Expenditure for Rewards Task (EEfRT). In study 2, 20 cannabis-dependent participants were compared with 20 non-dependent, drug-using control participants on the EEfRT and the Probabilistic Reward Task (PRT) in a non-intoxicated state. Cann-CBD reduced the likelihood of high-effort choices relative to placebo (p = 0.042) and increased sensitivity to expected value compared to both placebo (p = 0.014) and Cann + CBD (p = 0.006). The cannabis-dependent and control groups did not differ on the EEfRT. However, the cannabis-dependent group exhibited a weaker response bias than the control group on the PRT (p = 0.007). Cannabis acutely induced a transient amotivational state and CBD influenced the effects of THC on expected value. In contrast, cannabis dependence was associated with preserved motivation alongside impaired reward learning, although confounding factors, including depression, cannot be disregarded. This is the first well powered, fully controlled study to objectively demonstrate the acute amotivational effects of THC.

  5. The Informational Content of the Shape of Utility Functions: Financial Strategic Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, J.M.E.; Garcia, P.

    2009-01-01

    Recently, Pennings and Smidts (2003) showed a relationship between organizational behavior and the global shape of the utility function. Their results suggest that the shape of the utility function may be related to `higher-order¿ decisions. This research examines the relationship between financial

  6. Test Review: Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function--Self-Report Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Justin M.; D'Amato, Rik Carl

    2006-01-01

    The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Self-Report version (BRIEF-SR) is the first self-report measure of executive functioning for adolescents. With the Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act authorization, there is a greater need for appropriate assessment of severely impaired children. Recent studies have…

  7. Developmental Trajectories of Acculturation in Hispanic Adolescents: Associations with Family Functioning and Adolescent Risk Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Des Rosiers, Sabrina; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Knight, George P.; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, Jose

    2013-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal acculturation patterns, and their associations with family functioning and adolescent risk behaviors, in Hispanic immigrant families. A sample of 266 Hispanic adolescents (M[subscript age] = 13.4) and their primary parents completed measures of acculturation, family functioning, and adolescent conduct problems,…

  8. Early Childhood Predictors of Post-Kindergarten Executive Function: Behavior, Parent Report, and Psychophysiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Kimberly; Hubble, Morgan; Bell, Martha Ann

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined whether children's executive functions before kindergarten would predict variance in executive functions after kindergarten. We obtained behavioral (working memory task performance), parent-reported (temperament-based inhibitory control), and psychophysiological (working memory-related changes in heart rate…

  9. Functions of Memory Sharing and Mother-Child Reminiscing Behaviors: Individual and Cultural Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkofsky, Sarah; Wang, Qi; Koh, Jessie Bee Kim

    2009-01-01

    This study examined maternal beliefs about the functions of memory sharing and the relations between these beliefs and mother-child reminiscing behaviors in a cross-cultural context. Sixty-three European American and 47 Chinese mothers completed an open-ended questionnaire concerning their beliefs about the functions of parent-child memory…

  10. Republication of "Functional Analysis of Classroom Variables for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Glen; Kern, Lee; dePerczel, Maria; Clarke, Shelley; Wilson, Diane; Childs, Karen E.; White, Ronnie; Falk, George D.

    2018-01-01

    Functional assessment and functional analysis are processes that have been applied successfully in work with people who have developmental disabilities, but they have been used rarely with students who experience emotional or behavioral disorders. In the present study, five students in elementary school programs for severe emotional disturbance…

  11. Classroom-Based Functional Analysis and Intervention for Disruptive and Off-Task Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumate, Emily D.; Wills, Howard P.

    2010-01-01

    Although there is a growing body of literature on the use of functional analysis in schools, there is a need for more demonstrations of this technology being used during the course of typical instruction. In this study, we conducted functional analyses of disruptive and off-task behavior in a reading classroom setting for 3 participants of typical…

  12. Functional Analysis and Treatment of Problem Behavior in Early Education Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Brian D.; Neidert, Pamela L.; Dozier, Claudia L.; Payne, Steven W.; Zonneveld, Kimberley L. M.; Harper, Amy M.

    2013-01-01

    We conducted functional analyses (FA) with 4 typically developing preschool children during ongoing classroom activities and evaluated treatments that were based on FA results. Results of each child's FA suggested social-positive reinforcement functions, and differential reinforcement of alternative behavior plus time-out was effective in…

  13. Conceptual foundation for measures of physical function and behavioral health function for Social Security work disability evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfeo, Elizabeth E; Haley, Stephen M; Jette, Alan M; Eisen, Susan V; Ni, Pengsheng; Bogusz, Kara; Meterko, Mark; McDonough, Christine M; Chan, Leighton; Brandt, Diane E; Rasch, Elizabeth K

    2013-09-01

    Physical and mental impairments represent the 2 largest health condition categories for which workers receive Social Security disability benefits. Comprehensive assessment of physical and mental impairments should include aspects beyond medical conditions such as a person's underlying capabilities as well as activity demands relevant to the context of work. The objective of this article is to describe the initial conceptual stages of developing new measurement instruments of behavioral health and physical functioning relevant for Social Security work disability evaluation purposes. To outline a clear conceptualization of the constructs to be measured, 2 content models were developed using structured and informal qualitative approaches. We performed a structured literature review focusing on work disability and incorporating aspects of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health as a unifying taxonomy for framework development. Expert interviews provided advice and consultation to enhance face validity of the resulting content models. The content model for work-related behavioral health function identifies 5 major domains: (1) behavior control, (2) basic interactions, (3) temperament and personality, (4) adaptability, and (5) workplace behaviors. The content model describing physical functioning includes 3 domains: (1) changing and maintaining body position, (2) whole-body mobility, and (3) carrying, moving, and handling objects. These content models informed subsequent measurement properties including item development and measurement scale construction, and provided conceptual coherence guiding future empirical inquiry. The proposed measurement approaches show promise to comprehensively and systematically assess physical and behavioral health functioning relevant to work. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Emotional and Behavioral Functioning After Conformal Radiation Therapy for Pediatric Ependymoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willard, Victoria W.; Conklin, Heather M.; Boop, Frederick A.; Wu, Shengjie; Merchant, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The standard of care for pediatric patients with ependymoma involves postoperative radiation therapy. Prior research suggests that conformal radiation therapy (CRT) is associated with relative sparing of cognitive and academic functioning, but little is known about the effect of CRT on emotional and behavioral functioning. Methods and Materials: A total of 113 patients with pediatric ependymoma underwent CRT using photons as part of their enrollment on an institutional trial. Patients completed annual evaluations of neurocognitive functioning during the first 5 years after CRT. Emotional and behavioral functioning was assessed via the Child Behavior Checklist. Results: Before CRT, emotional and behavioral functioning were commensurate with those of the normative population and within normal limits. After 5 years, means remained within normal limits but were significantly below the normative mean. Linear mixed models revealed a significant increase in attention problems over time. These problems were associated with age at diagnosis/CRT, tumor location, and extent of resection. A higher-than-expected incidence of school problems was present at all assessment points after baseline. Conclusions: The use of photon CRT for ependymoma is associated with relatively stable emotional and behavioral functioning during the first 5 years after treatment. The exception is an increase in attention problems. Results suggest that intervening earlier in the survivorship period—during the first year posttreatment—may be beneficial

  15. Emotional and Behavioral Functioning After Conformal Radiation Therapy for Pediatric Ependymoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willard, Victoria W.; Conklin, Heather M. [Department of Psychology, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Boop, Frederick A. [Department of Surgery, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Department of Neurosurgery, Semmes-Murphey Neurologic and Spine Institute, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Wu, Shengjie [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Merchant, Thomas E., E-mail: thomas.merchant@stjude.org [Division of Radiation Oncology, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: The standard of care for pediatric patients with ependymoma involves postoperative radiation therapy. Prior research suggests that conformal radiation therapy (CRT) is associated with relative sparing of cognitive and academic functioning, but little is known about the effect of CRT on emotional and behavioral functioning. Methods and Materials: A total of 113 patients with pediatric ependymoma underwent CRT using photons as part of their enrollment on an institutional trial. Patients completed annual evaluations of neurocognitive functioning during the first 5 years after CRT. Emotional and behavioral functioning was assessed via the Child Behavior Checklist. Results: Before CRT, emotional and behavioral functioning were commensurate with those of the normative population and within normal limits. After 5 years, means remained within normal limits but were significantly below the normative mean. Linear mixed models revealed a significant increase in attention problems over time. These problems were associated with age at diagnosis/CRT, tumor location, and extent of resection. A higher-than-expected incidence of school problems was present at all assessment points after baseline. Conclusions: The use of photon CRT for ependymoma is associated with relatively stable emotional and behavioral functioning during the first 5 years after treatment. The exception is an increase in attention problems. Results suggest that intervening earlier in the survivorship period—during the first year posttreatment—may be beneficial.

  16. Monetary reward magnitude effects on behavior and brain function during goal-directed behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell-Negre, P; Bustamante, J C; Fuentes-Claramonte, P; Costumero, V; Benabarre, S; Barrós-Loscertales, A

    2017-08-01

    Reward may modulate the cognitive processes required for goal achievement, while individual differences in personality may affect reward modulation. Our aim was to test how different monetary reward magnitudes modulate brain activation and performance during goal-directed behavior, and whether individual differences in reward sensitivity affect this modulation. For this purpose, we scanned 37 subjects with a parametric design in which we varied the magnitude of monetary rewards (€0, €0.01, €0.5, €1 or €1.5) in a blocked fashion while participants performed an interference counting-Stroop condition. The results showed that the brain activity of left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the striatum were modulated by increasing and decreasing reward magnitudes, respectively. Behavioral performance improved as the magnitude of monetary reward increased while comparing the non reward (€0) condition to any other reward condition, or the lower €0.01 to any other reward condition, and this improvement was related with individual differences in reward sensitivity. In conclusion, the locus of influence of monetary incentives overlaps the activity of the regions commonly involved in cognitive control.

  17. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Suicidal Behavior: Indirect Effects of Impaired Social Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Courtney E; Rojas, Sasha M; Badour, Christal L; Wanklyn, Sonya G; Feldner, Matthew T

    2016-01-01

    Social functioning is negatively impacted by the presence of PTSD, while increasing risk of suicidal behavior among individuals with PTSD. However, little research has examined the specific role of social functioning in the association between PTSD and suicidal behavior. Parallel multiple indirect effects analyses were performed to understand the unique indirect effects of four aspects of social functioning. Indirect effects of PTSD on suicidal ideation were significant through three pathways: interpersonal conflict, perceived family support, and interpersonal apprehension. Perceived family support was the only indirect pathway significantly associated with suicide attempt. Findings suggest that social functioning should be assessed and potentially targeted during treatment to help modify the risk for suicidal behavior among individuals with PTSD.

  18. Work-related measures of physical and behavioral health function: Test-retest reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Molly Elizabeth; Meterko, Mark; Marfeo, Elizabeth E; McDonough, Christine M; Jette, Alan M; Ni, Pengsheng; Bogusz, Kara; Rasch, Elizabeth K; Brandt, Diane E; Chan, Leighton

    2015-10-01

    The Work Disability Functional Assessment Battery (WD-FAB), developed for potential use by the US Social Security Administration to assess work-related function, currently consists of five multi-item scales assessing physical function and four multi-item scales assessing behavioral health function; the WD-FAB scales are administered as Computerized Adaptive Tests (CATs). The goal of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the WD-FAB Physical Function and Behavioral Health CATs. We administered the WD-FAB scales twice, 7-10 days apart, to a sample of 376 working age adults and 316 adults with work-disability. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated to measure the consistency of the scores between the two administrations. Standard error of measurement (SEM) and minimal detectable change (MDC90) were also calculated to measure the scales precision and sensitivity. For the Physical Function CAT scales, the ICCs ranged from 0.76 to 0.89 in the working age adult sample, and 0.77-0.86 in the sample of adults with work-disability. ICCs for the Behavioral Health CAT scales ranged from 0.66 to 0.70 in the working age adult sample, and 0.77-0.80 in the adults with work-disability. The SEM ranged from 3.25 to 4.55 for the Physical Function scales and 5.27-6.97 for the Behavioral Health function scales. For all scales in both samples, the MDC90 ranged from 7.58 to 16.27. Both the Physical Function and Behavioral Health CATs of the WD-FAB demonstrated good test-retest reliability in adults with work-disability and general adult samples, a critical requirement for assessing work related functioning in disability applicants and in other contexts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Density Functional Theory Modeling of Ferrihydrite Nanoparticle Adsorption Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubicki, J.

    2016-12-01

    Ferrihydrite is a critical substrate for adsorption of oxyanion species in the environment1. The nanoparticulate nature of ferrihydrite is inherent to its formation, and hence it has been called a "nano-mineral"2. The nano-scale size and unusual composition of ferrihydrite has made structural determination of this phase problematic. Michel et al.3 have proposed an atomic structure for ferrihydrite, but this model has been controversial4,5. Recent work has shown that the Michel et al.3 model structure may be reasonably accurate despite some deficiencies6-8. An alternative model has been proposed by Manceau9. This work utilizes density functional theory (DFT) calculations to model both the structure of ferrihydrite nanoparticles based on the Michel et al. 3 model as refined in Hiemstra8 and the modified akdalaite model of Manceau9. Adsorption energies of carbonate, phosphate, sulfate, chromate, arsenite and arsenate are calculated. Periodic projector-augmented planewave calculations were performed with the Vienna Ab-initio Simulation Package (VASP10) on an approximately 1.7 nm diameter Michel nanoparticle (Fe38O112H110) and on a 2 nm Manceau nanoparticle (Fe38O95H76). After energy minimization of the surface H and O atoms. The model will be used to assess the possible configurations of adsorbed oxyanions on the model nanoparticles. Brown G.E. Jr. and Calas G. (2012) Geochemical Perspectives, 1, 483-742. Hochella M.F. and Madden A.S. (2005) Elements, 1, 199-203. Michel, F.M., Ehm, L., Antao, S.M., Lee, P.L., Chupas, P.J., Liu, G., Strongin, D.R., Schoonen, M.A.A., Phillips, B.L., and Parise, J.B., 2007, Science, 316, 1726-1729. Rancourt, D.G., and Meunier, J.F., 2008, American Mineralogist, 93, 1412-1417. Manceau, A., 2011, American Mineralogist, 96, 521-533. Maillot, F., Morin, G., Wang, Y., Bonnin, D., Ildefonse, P., Chaneac, C., Calas, G., 2011, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 75, 2708-2720. Pinney, N., Kubicki, J.D., Middlemiss, D.S., Grey, C.P., and Morgan, D

  20. Behavior and adaptive functioning in adolescents with Down syndrome: specifying targets for intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacola, Lisa M; Hickey, Francis; Howe, Steven R; Esbensen, Anna; Shear, Paula K

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that adolescents with Down syndrome experience increased behavior problems as compared to age matched peers; however, few studies have examined how these problems relate to adaptive functioning. The primary aim of this study was to characterize behavior in a sample of adolescents with Down syndrome using two widely-used caregiver reports: the Behavioral Assessment System for Children, 2 nd Edition (BASC-2) and Child Behavioral Checklist (CBCL). The clinical utility of the BASC-2 as a measure of behavior and adaptive functioning in adolescents with Down syndrome was also examined. Fifty-two adolescents with Down syndrome between the ages of 12 and 18 (24 males) completed the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, 4 th Edition (PPVT-IV) as an estimate of cognitive ability. Caregivers completed the BASC-2 and the CBCL for each participant. A significant proportion of the sample was reported to demonstrate behavior problems, particularly related to attention and social participation. The profile of adaptive function was variable, with caregivers most frequently rating impairment in skills related to activities of daily living and functional communication. Caregiver ratings did not differ by gender and were not related to age or estimated cognitive ability. Caregiver ratings of attention problems on the BASC-2 accounted for a significant proportion of variance in Activities of Daily Living ( Adj R 2 = 0.30) , Leadership ( Adj R 2 = 0.30) Functional Communication ( Adj R 2 = 0.28, Adaptability ( Adj R 2 = 0.29), and Social Skills ( Adj R 2 = 0.17). Higher frequencies of symptoms related to social withdrawal added incremental predictive validity for Functional Communication, Leadership, and Social Skills. Convergent validity between the CBCL and BASC-2 was poor when compared with expectations based on the normative sample. Our results confirm and extend previous findings by describing relationships between specific behavior problems and targeted areas of

  1. Behavior and adaptive functioning in adolescents with Down syndrome: specifying targets for intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacola, Lisa M.; Hickey, Francis; Howe, Steven R.; Esbensen, Anna; Shear, Paula K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Research suggests that adolescents with Down syndrome experience increased behavior problems as compared to age matched peers; however, few studies have examined how these problems relate to adaptive functioning. The primary aim of this study was to characterize behavior in a sample of adolescents with Down syndrome using two widely-used caregiver reports: the Behavioral Assessment System for Children, 2nd Edition (BASC-2) and Child Behavioral Checklist (CBCL). The clinical utility of the BASC-2 as a measure of behavior and adaptive functioning in adolescents with Down syndrome was also examined. Methods Fifty-two adolescents with Down syndrome between the ages of 12 and 18 (24 males) completed the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, 4th Edition (PPVT-IV) as an estimate of cognitive ability. Caregivers completed the BASC-2 and the CBCL for each participant. Results A significant proportion of the sample was reported to demonstrate behavior problems, particularly related to attention and social participation. The profile of adaptive function was variable, with caregivers most frequently rating impairment in skills related to activities of daily living and functional communication. Caregiver ratings did not differ by gender and were not related to age or estimated cognitive ability. Caregiver ratings of attention problems on the BASC-2 accounted for a significant proportion of variance in Activities of Daily Living (Adj R2 = 0.30), Leadership (Adj R2 = 0.30) Functional Communication (Adj R2 = 0.28, Adaptability (Adj R2 = 0.29), and Social Skills (Adj R2 = 0.17). Higher frequencies of symptoms related to social withdrawal added incremental predictive validity for Functional Communication, Leadership, and Social Skills. Convergent validity between the CBCL and BASC-2 was poor when compared with expectations based on the normative sample. Conclusion Our results confirm and extend previous findings by describing relationships between specific behavior problems

  2. Functions of behavior change interventions when implementing multi-professional teamwork at an emergency department: a comparative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frykman, Mandus; Hasson, Henna; Athlin, Åsa Muntlin; von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica

    2014-05-15

    While there is strong support for the benefits of working in multi-professional teams in health care, the implementation of multi-professional teamwork is reported to be complex and challenging. Implementation strategies combining multiple behavior change interventions are recommended, but the understanding of how and why the behavior change interventions influence staff behavior is limited. There is a lack of studies focusing on the functions of different behavior change interventions and the mechanisms driving behavior change. In this study, applied behavior analysis is used to analyze the function and impact of different behavior change interventions when implementing multi-professional teamwork. A comparative case study design was applied. Two sections of an emergency department implemented multi-professional teamwork involving changes in work processes, aimed at increasing inter-professional collaboration. Behavior change interventions and staff behavior change were studied using observations, interviews and document analysis. Using a hybrid thematic analysis, the behavior change interventions were categorized according to the DCOM® model. The functions of the behavior change interventions were then analyzed using applied behavior analysis. The two sections used different behavior change interventions, resulting in a large difference in the degree of staff behavior change. The successful section enabled staff performance of teamwork behaviors with a strategy based on ongoing problem-solving and frequent clarification of directions. Managerial feedback initially played an important role in motivating teamwork behaviors. Gradually, as staff started to experience positive outcomes of the intervention, motivation for teamwork behaviors was replaced by positive task-generated feedback. The functional perspective of applied behavior analysis offers insight into the behavioral mechanisms that describe how and why behavior change interventions influence staff

  3. Functions of behavior change interventions when implementing multi-professional teamwork at an emergency department: a comparative case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background While there is strong support for the benefits of working in multi-professional teams in health care, the implementation of multi-professional teamwork is reported to be complex and challenging. Implementation strategies combining multiple behavior change interventions are recommended, but the understanding of how and why the behavior change interventions influence staff behavior is limited. There is a lack of studies focusing on the functions of different behavior change interventions and the mechanisms driving behavior change. In this study, applied behavior analysis is used to analyze the function and impact of different behavior change interventions when implementing multi-professional teamwork. Methods A comparative case study design was applied. Two sections of an emergency department implemented multi-professional teamwork involving changes in work processes, aimed at increasing inter-professional collaboration. Behavior change interventions and staff behavior change were studied using observations, interviews and document analysis. Using a hybrid thematic analysis, the behavior change interventions were categorized according to the DCOM® model. The functions of the behavior change interventions were then analyzed using applied behavior analysis. Results The two sections used different behavior change interventions, resulting in a large difference in the degree of staff behavior change. The successful section enabled staff performance of teamwork behaviors with a strategy based on ongoing problem-solving and frequent clarification of directions. Managerial feedback initially played an important role in motivating teamwork behaviors. Gradually, as staff started to experience positive outcomes of the intervention, motivation for teamwork behaviors was replaced by positive task-generated feedback. Conclusions The functional perspective of applied behavior analysis offers insight into the behavioral mechanisms that describe how and why behavior

  4. Relations of Preschoolers' Visual-Motor and Object Manipulation Skills With Executive Function and Social Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Megan; Lipscomb, Shannon; McClelland, Megan M; Duncan, Rob; Becker, Derek; Anderson, Kim; Kile, Molly

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this article was to examine specific linkages between early visual-motor integration skills and executive function, as well as between early object manipulation skills and social behaviors in the classroom during the preschool year. Ninety-two children aged 3 to 5 years old (M age  = 4.31 years) were recruited to participate. Comprehensive measures of visual-motor integration skills, object manipulation skills, executive function, and social behaviors were administered in the fall and spring of the preschool year. Our findings indicated that children who had better visual-motor integration skills in the fall had better executive function scores (B = 0.47 [0.20], p gender, Head Start status, and site location, but not after controlling for children's baseline levels of executive function. In addition, children who demonstrated better object manipulation skills in the fall showed significantly stronger social behavior in their classrooms (as rated by teachers) in the spring, including more self-control (B - 0.03 [0.00], p social behavior in the fall and other covariates. Children's visual-motor integration and object manipulation skills in the fall have modest to moderate relations with executive function and social behaviors later in the preschool year. These findings have implications for early learning initiatives and school readiness.

  5. Measures of behavioral function predict duration of video game play: Utilization of the Video Game Functional Assessment - Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buono, Frank D; Griffiths, Mark D; Sprong, Matthew E; Lloyd, Daniel P; Sullivan, Ryan M; Upton, Thomas D

    2017-12-01

    Background Internet gaming disorder (IGD) was introduced in the DSM-5 as a way of identifying and diagnosing problematic video game play. However, the use of the diagnosis is constrained, as it shares criteria with other addictive orders (e.g., pathological gambling). Aims Further work is required to better understand IGD. One potential avenue of investigation is IGD's relationship to the primary reinforcing behavioral functions. This study explores the relationship between duration of video game play and the reinforcing behavioral functions that may motivate or maintain video gaming. Methods A total of 499 video game players began the online survey, with complete data from 453 participants (85% white and 28% female), were analyzed. Individuals were placed into five groups based on self-reported hours of video gaming per week, and completed the Video Game Functional Assessment - Revised (VGFA-R). Results The results demonstrated the escape and social attention function were significant in predicting duration of video game play, whereas sensory and tangible were not significant. Conclusion Future implications of the VGFA-R and behaviorally based research are discussed.

  6. Parents Function and Behavioral Disorders in Children with and without Diurnal Voiding Dysfunction: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parsa Yousefi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diurnal voiding dysfunction is one of the most common causes of pediatric urology clinic admissions. It can cause behavioral problems for children and their parents. We lunch this study to compare the parents’ function and children’s behavior problem in pediatric patients suffering from diurnal voiding dysfunction referring Arak Amir Kabir hospital. Materials and Methods: To perform this case-control study, we recruit 116 children with diurnal voiding dysfunction and compared them with other 116 children non-affected children aged between 5 to 16 years old. The child behavior checklist (CBCL4/18 for children behavior assessment and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF for the evaluation of their parent’s behavior was completed by the parents. Data was analyzed using ANOVA, qualitative variables and χ2 formula. Results: Among 116 patient with voiding dysfunction, 10 case (8.6% showed behavioral problem while this figure was 3 case (2.6% in the control group, denoting a significant difference (p=0.04. Moreover 20 children (17.2% in the case group and 9 children (7.8% in the control group had internalizing problem (p=0.02. Twenty two children (19% with voiding dysfunction and 8 children (6.9% in the healthy group had externalizing problem which was also a significant difference (p=0.01. As a significant difference (0.01, the parent’s average stress and behavior scores in case and control group were 3.65 and 3.76, respectively. Conclusion: The higher prevalence of behavioral problem in the children suffering from diurnal voiding dysfunction and their parent’s functional impairment highlights the importance of early parent’s intervention for early treatment and subsequently prevention of future behavioral problem in their sibling.

  7. Child behavior check list and Korean personality inventory for children with functional visual loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyung, Sung Eun; Lee, Sang Mi; Lim, Myung Ho

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the clinical psychiatric characteristics of children with the main complaint of functional visual loss, their behavior and personality were evaluated by the means of the Korean child behavior check list (K-CBCL), and the Korean personality inventory for children (KPI-C). The evaluation was carried out by the K-CBCL and the KPI-C, the domestically standardized tools, with 20 child subjects suspected of functional visual loss, among the patients who visited our hospital, between August, 2005 and December, 2012. The control group included 160 children in general schools of the same region. The 20 patients whose main complaint was functional visual loss were diagnosed as having a functional visual disorder. The child patient group showed a higher score for the K-CBCL and KPI-C sub-scales of somatic complaints, social problems, aggressive behavior, internalizing problems, externalizing problems, total behavioral problems, somatization and hyperactivity, than that of the control group. The results of the K-CBCL and KPI-C tests among children with functional visual loss, were significantly different from those of the normal control group. This result suggested that psychological factors may influence children with a main complaint of functional visual loss.

  8. Impaired behavioral and neurocognitive function in preschool children with obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Yael E; Bar-Yishay, Orit; Greenberg-Dotan, Sari; Goldbart, Aviv D; Tarasiuk, Ariel; Tal, Asher

    2012-02-01

    We aimed to examine the hypothesis that behavioral and neurocognitive functions of preschool children with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS) are impaired compared to healthy children, and improve after adenotonsillectomy (TA). A comprehensive assessment battery was used to assess cognitive and behavioral functions, and quality of life in children with OSAS compared to matched controls. 45 children (mean age 45.5 ± 9 months, 73% boys, BMI 15.7 ± 2) with OSAS were compared to 26 healthy children (mean age 48.6 ± 8 months, 46% boys, BMI 16.4 ± 2). Mean AHI in the OSAS group was 13.2 ± 10.7 (ranging from 1.2 to 57). Significantly impaired planning and fluency (executive function) were found in children with OSAS, as well as impaired attention and receptive vocabulary. Parents and teachers described the OSAS group as having significantly more behavior problems. Quality of life questionnaire in children with OSAS (mean 2.3, range 0.7-4.3) was significantly worse compared to controls (mean 0, range: 0-4), P improvement was documented in verbal and motor fluency, sustained attention, and vocabulary. After TA, fewer behavioral problems were seen. Preschool children with OSAS present significantly impaired executive functions, impaired attention and receptive vocabulary, and more behavior problems. One year after TA, the prominent improvements were in behavior and quality of life. These findings suggest that the impact of OSAS on behavioral and cognitive functions begins in early childhood. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Day-to-day variations in health behaviors and daily functioning: two intensive longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flueckiger, Lavinia; Lieb, Roselind; Meyer, Andrea H; Witthauer, Cornelia; Mata, Jutta

    2017-04-01

    In two intensive longitudinal studies we examined the daily dynamics in health behaviors and their associations with two important indicators of young adults' daily functioning, namely, affect and academic performance. Over a period of 8 months, university students (Study 1: N = 292; Study 2: N = 304) reported sleep, physical activity, snacking, positive and negative affect, and learning goal achievement. A subsample wore an actigraph to provide an additional measurement of sleep and physical activity and participated in a controlled laboratory snacking situation. Multilevel structural equation models showed that better day-to-day sleep quality or more physical activity than usual, but not snacking, were associated with improved daily functioning, namely, affect and learning goal achievement. Importantly, self-report measurements of health behaviors correlated with behavioral measurements. These findings have the potential to inform health promotion programs aimed at supporting young adults in their daily functioning in good physical and mental health.

  10. FUNCTIONAL BEHAVIOR ASSESSMENT IN EDUCTION OF AUTISTIC CHILDREN WITH PROBLEM BEHAVIOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdonė Indrašienė

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Scientific research data evidences that the number of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD is growing in Lithuania, as general global trend, however, Lithuanian educators are still unprepared to learn students with ASD (Diržytė, Mikulėnaitė ir Kalvaitis, 2016. One of the reasons of this issue – students’ behavior problems, which significantly disturbs the process of education. The education system in Lithuania has not yet found its unified model of education for effective intervention plans for students with problem behavior, while Functional behavior assessment (FBA is already successfully used to reduce problem behavior of children with ASD in the United States and in part of Western European countries. The purpose of this article – to explore the practice of Western countries in the application of FBA procedures for the purposes of developing interventions for students with ASD. The meta-analysis of secondary data was performed for the purposes of this research. The article deals only with those studies’ results, which are directly related to the core problem of this article. The overview of the foreign studies has clearly shown that FBA methods may be effectively applied in both – group and individual learning – to reduce problem behaviours of children with ASD. FBA is a process when the variables influencing problem behavior are identified and this allows you to identify an effective treatment for severe problem behavior. The FBA provides the means to reduce challenging behavior sets for students with ASD and to use the outcomes of an FBA to develop function-based intervention plans. Data is essential in determining the effectiveness of an intervention and its durability. Behavior problems of students with ASD have been addressed successfully by using reinforcement of alternative behavior and extinction of inappropriate behavior. Additional research is necessary in order to find out and justify the effectiveness of

  11. Combining agreement and frequency rating scales to optimize psychometrics in measuring behavioral health functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfeo, Elizabeth E; Ni, Pengsheng; Chan, Leighton; Rasch, Elizabeth K; Jette, Alan M

    2014-07-01

    The goal of this article was to investigate optimal functioning of using frequency vs. agreement rating scales in two subdomains of the newly developed Work Disability Functional Assessment Battery: the Mood & Emotions and Behavioral Control scales. A psychometric study comparing rating scale performance embedded in a cross-sectional survey used for developing a new instrument to measure behavioral health functioning among adults applying for disability benefits in the United States was performed. Within the sample of 1,017 respondents, the range of response category endorsement was similar for both frequency and agreement item types for both scales. There were fewer missing values in the frequency items than the agreement items. Both frequency and agreement items showed acceptable reliability. The frequency items demonstrated optimal effectiveness around the mean ± 1-2 standard deviation score range; the agreement items performed better at the extreme score ranges. Findings suggest an optimal response format requires a mix of both agreement-based and frequency-based items. Frequency items perform better in the normal range of responses, capturing specific behaviors, reactions, or situations that may elicit a specific response. Agreement items do better for those whose scores are more extreme and capture subjective content related to general attitudes, behaviors, or feelings of work-related behavioral health functioning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Entire Functions of Bounded L-Index: Its Zeros and Behavior of Partial Logarithmic Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriy Bandura

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we obtain new sufficient conditions of boundedness of L-index in joint variables for entire function in Cn functions. They give an estimate of maximum modulus of an entire function by its minimum modulus on a skeleton in a polydisc and describe the behavior of all partial logarithmic derivatives and the distribution of zeros. In some sense, the obtained results are new for entire functions of bounded index and l-index in C too. They generalize known results of Fricke, Sheremeta, and Kuzyk.

  13. Effective Leadership of Surgical Teams: A Mixed Methods Study of Surgeon Behaviors and Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Juliana L; Aveling, Emma-Louise; Frean, Molly; Shields, Morgan C; Wright, Cameron; Gino, Francesca; Sundt, Thoralf M; Singer, Sara J

    2017-08-01

    The importance of effective team leadership for achieving surgical excellence is widely accepted, but we understand less about the behaviors that achieve this goal. We studied cardiac surgical teams to identify leadership behaviors that best support surgical teamwork. We observed, surveyed, and interviewed cardiac surgical teams, including 7 surgeons and 116 team members, from September 2013 to April 2015. We documented 1,926 surgeon/team member interactions during 22 cases, coded them by behavior type and valence (ie, positive/negative/neutral), and characterized them by leadership function (conductor, elucidator, delegator, engagement facilitator, tone setter, being human, and safe space maker) to create a novel framework of surgical leadership derived from direct observation. We surveyed nonsurgeon team members about their perceptions of individual surgeon's leadership effectiveness on a 7-point Likert scale and correlated survey measures with individual surgeon profiles created by calculating percentage of behavior types, leader functions, and valence. Surgeon leadership was rated by nonsurgeons from 4.2 to 6.2 (mean, 5.4). Among the 33 types of behaviors observed, most interactions constituted elucidating (24%) and tone setting (20%). Overall, 66% of interactions (range, 43%-84%) were positive and 11% (range, 1%-45%) were negative. The percentage of positive and negative behaviors correlated strongly (r = 0.85 for positive and r = 0.75 for negative, p leadership. Facilitating engagement related most positively (r = 0.80; p = 0.03), and negative forms of elucidating, ie, criticism, related most negatively (r = -0.81; p = 0.03). We identified 7 surgeon leadership functions and related behaviors that impact perceptions of leadership. These observations suggest actionable opportunities to improve team leadership behavior. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. THE CHANGES OF BEHAVIORS AND COGNITIVE FUNCTIONS BY COGNITIVE BEHAVIOURAL THERAPY IN THE DRUG ABUSERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herni Susanti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study was aimed to find out the effect of CBT on the behaviors i.e. depressive, agressive and antisocial behaviors as well as cognitive functions of patients who were treated in rehabilitation unit at a drug addiction hospital (Rumah Sakit Ketergantungan Obat in Jakarta. Method: The research design was Quasi experimental pre-post test without control group by providing intervention: CBT for 6 sessions (10–12 times intervention. The population was all patients in the rehabilitation unit with a nursing diagnosis: low self esteem and/or inffective coping strategies. There were 23 participants who involved in this investigation. The data was analized by using dependent and independent sample t, and anova tests. Result: The results showed that p value for depressive behaviours, agressive behaviurs, antisocial behaviors, and cognitive functions were 0.914; 0.001; 0.039; 0.003 respectively. The outcomes indicated that there was significant impact of CBT on agressive behaviors, antisocial behaviors, and cognitive functions (α = 0.05, p value 0.05. Discussion: It is argued that depressive symptoms might not be apparent for the users in rehabilitative phase. The findings also showed that there was significant relation between antisocial behaviors and the length of drug usage. This affirms exsiting concepts in that long drug usage brings about serious damage in the users' behaviors and cognitive functions. It is recommended, therefore, to include CBT as an important intervention for clients with drug abuse problems who are cared in rehabilitation center.

  15. Psychosocial functioning in children with neurodevelopmental disorders and externalizing behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arim, Rubab G; Kohen, Dafna E; Garner, Rochelle E; Lach, Lucyna M; Brehaut, Jamie C; MacKenzie, Michael J; Rosenbaum, Peter L

    2015-01-01

    This study examines psychosocial functioning in children with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) and/or externalizing behavior problems (EBPs) as compared to children with neither condition. The longitudinal sample, drawn from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth, included children who were 6 to 9 years old in Cycle 1 who were followed-up biennially in Cycles 2 and 3 (N = 3476). The associations between NDDs and/or EBPs, child and family socio-demographic characteristics and parenting behaviors (consistency and ineffective parenting), were examined across several measures of child psychosocial functioning: peer relationships, general self-esteem, prosocial behavior and anxiety-emotional problems. Children with NDDs, EBPs, and both NDDs and EBPs self-reported lower scores on general self-esteem. Children with NDDs and both NDDs and EBPs reported lower scores on peer relationships and prosocial behavior. Lastly, children with both NDDs and EBPs self-reported higher scores on anxiety-emotional behaviors. After considering family socio-demographic characteristics and parenting behaviors, these differences remained statistically significant only for children with both NDDs and EBPs. Child age and gender, household income and parenting behaviors were important in explaining these associations. Psychosocial functioning differs for children with NDDs and/or EBPs. Children with both NDDs and EBPs appear to report poorer psychosocial functioning compared to their peers with neither condition. However, it is important to consider the context of socio-demographic characteristics, parenting behaviors and their interactions to understand differences in children's psychosocial functioning. Implication for Rehabilitation: Practitioners may wish to consider complexity in child health by examining a comprehensive set of determinants of psychosocial outcomes as well as comorbid conditions, such as neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) and externalizing

  16. Dynamical behaviors determined by the Lyapunov function in competitive Lotka-Volterra systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ying; Yuan, Ruoshi; Ma, Yian

    2013-01-01

    Dynamical behaviors of the competitive Lotka-Volterra system even for 3 species are not fully understood. In this paper, we study this problem from the perspective of the Lyapunov function. We construct explicitly the Lyapunov function using three examples of the competitive Lotka-Volterra system for the whole state space: (1) the general 2-species case, (2) a 3-species model, and (3) the model of May-Leonard. The basins of attraction for these examples are demonstrated, including cases with bistability and cyclical behavior. The first two examples are the generalized gradient system, where the energy dissipation may not follow the gradient of the Lyapunov function. In addition, under a new type of stochastic interpretation, the Lyapunov function also leads to the Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution on the final steady state when multiplicative noise is added.

  17. Balancing Automatic-Controlled Behaviors and Emotional-Salience States: A Dynamic Executive Functioning Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluwe-Schiavon, Bruno; Viola, Thiago W; Sanvicente-Vieira, Breno; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    Recently, there has been growing interest in understanding how executive functions are conceptualized in psychopathology. Since several models have been proposed, the major issue lies within the definition of executive functioning itself. Theoretical discussions have emerged, narrowing the boundaries between "hot" and "cold" executive functions or between self-regulation and cognitive control. Nevertheless, the definition of executive functions is far from a consensual proposition and it has been suggested that these models might be outdated. Current efforts indicate that human behavior and cognition are by-products of many brain systems operating and interacting at different levels, and therefore, it is very simplistic to assume a dualistic perspective of information processing. Based upon an adaptive perspective, we discuss how executive functions could emerge from the ability to solve immediate problems and to generalize successful strategies, as well as from the ability to synthesize and to classify environmental information in order to predict context and future. We present an executive functioning perspective that emerges from the dynamic balance between automatic-controlled behaviors and an emotional-salience state. According to our perspective, the adaptive role of executive functioning is to automatize efficient solutions simultaneously with cognitive demand, enabling individuals to engage such processes with increasingly complex problems. Understanding executive functioning as a mediator of stress and cognitive engagement not only fosters discussions concerning individual differences, but also offers an important paradigm to understand executive functioning as a continuum process rather than a categorical and multicomponent structure.

  18. Fracture Behavior and Properties of Functionally Graded Fiber-Reinforced Concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesler, Jeffery; Bordelon, Amanda; Gaedicke, Cristian; Park, Kyoungsoo; Paulino, Glaucio

    2008-01-01

    In concrete pavements, a single concrete mixture design is selected to resist mechanical loading without attempting to adversely affect the concrete pavement shrinkage, ride quality, or noise attenuation. An alternative approach is to design distinct layers within the concrete pavement surface which have specific functions thus achieving higher performance at a lower cost. The objective of this research was to address the structural benefits of functionally graded concrete materials (FGCM) for rigid pavements by testing and modeling the fracture behavior of different combinations of layered plain and synthetic fiber-reinforced concrete materials. Fracture parameters and the post-peak softening behavior were obtained for each FGCM beam configuration by the three point bending beam test. The peak loads and initial fracture energy between the plain, fiber-reinforced, and FGCM signified similar crack initiation. The total fracture energy indicated improvements in fracture behavior of FGCM relative to full-depth plain concrete. The fracture behavior of FGCM depended on the position of the fiber-reinforced layer relative to the starter notch. The fracture parameters of both fiber-reinforced and plain concrete were embedded into a finite element-based cohesive zone model. The model successfully captured the experimental behavior of the FGCMs and predicted the fracture behavior of proposed FGCM configurations and structures. This integrated approach (testing and modeling) demonstrates the viability of FGCM for designing layered concrete pavements system

  19. Cognitive and behavioral functioning in Coffin-Siris syndrome and epilepsy: a case presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, H Allison; Zaroff, Charles M; Karantzoulis, Stella; Nakhutina, Luba; MacAllister, William S; Luciano, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The authors characterized the cognitive, adaptive, and behavioral sequelae of Coffin-Siris (CS) syndrome and epilepsy in a 7.5-year-old child. Little is known about the early neurobehavioral presentation of CS. Clinical features consistent with this genetic anomaly include underdeveloped tips and nails of the fifth fingers, extended infranasal depression, and craniofacial abnormalities. MRI findings often reveal callosal agenesis. The authors conducted a neuropsychological evaluation and obtained parental ratings of behavioral and adaptive functioning. Attentional abilities were limited. As assessed by the Mullen Scales of Early Learning, receptive language abilities (age equivalent [AE]: 3-3) were relatively stronger than expressive skills (AE: 1-4). Adaptive functioning was low across all domains (Vineland Adaptive Behavior Composite AE: 1-9). On the Behavior Assessment for Children (BASC-2), social skills dysfunction, stereotyped and self-stimulatory behaviors, restricted interests, ritualistic play, and inappropriate object usage were noted. No significant mood disturbances were endorsed. Study findings indicate a diffuse pattern of neurobehavioral deficits in a child with CS and epilepsy. Further clinical assessment and research should include multidimensional assessment techniques, including evaluation of adaptive behavior, in an effort to capture the full range developmental sequelae in children with CS.

  20. Heavy particle irradiation, neurochemistry and behavior: thresholds, dose-response curves and recovery of function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.; Shukitt-Hale, B.

    2004-01-01

    Exposure to heavy particles can affect the functioning of the central nervous system (CNS), particularly the dopaminergic system. In turn, the radiation-induced disruption of dopaminergic function affects a variety of behaviors that are dependent upon the integrity of this system, including motor behavior (upper body strength), amphetamine (dopamine)-mediated taste aversion learning, and operant conditioning (fixed-ratio bar pressing). Although the relationships between heavy particle irradiation and the effects of exposure depend, to some extent, upon the specific behavioral or neurochemical endpoint under consideration, a review of the available research leads to the hypothesis that the endpoints mediated by the CNS have certain characteristics in common. These include: (1) a threshold, below which there is no apparent effect; (2) the lack of a dose-response relationship, or an extremely steep dose-response curve, depending on the particular endpoint; and (3) the absence of recovery of function, such that the heavy particle-induced behavioral and neural changes are present when tested up to one year following exposure. The current report reviews the data relevant to the degree to which these characteristics are common to neurochemical and behavioral endpoints that are mediated by the effects of exposure to heavy particles on CNS activity.

  1. Executive function, approach sensitivity, and emotional decision making as influences on risk behaviors in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Megan E; Blair, Clancy; Maggs, Jennifer L

    2008-05-01

    Relations among executive function, behavioral approach sensitivity, emotional decision making, and risk behaviors (alcohol use, drug use, and delinquent behavior) were examined in single female college students (N = 72). Hierarchical multiple regressions indicated a significant Approach Sensitivity x Working Memory interaction in which higher levels of alcohol use were associated with the combination of greater approach tendency and better working memory. This Approach Sensitivity x Working Memory interaction was also marginally significant for drug use and delinquency. Poor emotional decision making, as measured by a gambling task, was also associated with higher levels of alcohol use, but only for individuals low in inhibitory control. Findings point to the complexity of relations among aspects of self-regulation and personality and provide much needed data on neuropsychological correlates of risk behaviors in a nonclinical population.

  2. Stability of a Jensen Type Logarithmic Functional Equation on Restricted Domains and Its Asymptotic Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Jae-Young

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Let be the set of positive real numbers, a Banach space, and , with . We prove the Hyers-Ulam stability of the Jensen type logarithmic functional inequality in restricted domains of the form for fixed with or and . As consequences of the results we obtain asymptotic behaviors of the inequality as .

  3. Relationship of Acculturation and Family Functioning to Smoking Attitudes and Behaviors among Asian-American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, JieWu; Garbanati, James A.

    2004-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to examine the combination of acculturation, family functioning, and parental smoking as predictors of smoking attitudes and behaviors among Asian-American adolescents. The participants were 106 Asian-American high school students whose ages ranged from 15 to 19 (51 male and 55 female, mean age = 16.30…

  4. Executive Functioning Characteristics Associated with ADHD Comorbidity in Adolescents with Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummer, Tom A.; Kronenberger, William G.; Wang, Yang; Dunn, David W.; Mosier, Kristine M.; Kalnin, Andrew J.; Mathews, Vincent P.

    2011-01-01

    The nature of executive dysfunction in youth with disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) remains unclear, despite extensive research in samples of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). To determine the relationship between DBD, ADHD, and executive function deficits in aggressive teens, adolescents with DBD and comorbid ADHD…

  5. The Relation between Intellectual Functioning and Adaptive Behavior in the Diagnosis of Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassé, Marc J.; Luckasson, Ruth; Schalock, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    Intellectual disability originates during the developmental period and is characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills. In this article, we present a brief history of the diagnostic criteria of intellectual disability for both…

  6. The Influence of Neurocognitive Functioning on Proactive Coping Behaviors in Adults With HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, Shameka L; Fazeli, Pariya L; D Moneyham, Linda; Vance, David E

    2016-10-01

    Although many can appreciate the life-sustaining benefits of combination antiretroviral therapy, some adults with HIV continue to have difficulty managing physical, neurocognitive, and everyday stressors. Fortunately, some adults with HIV are able to use accumulated resources (e.g., social networks) to help them engage in proactive coping behaviors such as planning and problem solving. Others, however, manage their stressors by engaging in avoidant coping, isolating themselves, or ruminating about the negative aspects of their situation. Perhaps, the capacity to engage in proactive coping may be influenced by damage to the frontal-striatal-thalamo circuitry, a region of the brain responsible for executive functioning and often compromised in adults with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. This study examined potential neurocognitive influences on proactive coping behaviors in adults with HIV (N = 98). Participants were administered a series of neurocognitive and psychosocial measures to determine if neurocognitive functioning and other factors that have been associated with coping in other populations, such as spirituality/religiosity, influenced proactive coping behaviors. Multiple regression analysis revealed that spirituality/religiosity (p = .002), rather than neurocognitive functioning (Useful Field of View, p = .277; Trails A, p = .701; Trails B, p = .365; Wechsler Memory Scale-III Digit Span, p = .864), was a significant predictor of proactive coping. Interventions to address spirituality/religiosity needs of adults with HIV may possibly facilitate proactive coping behaviors and improve mood, both of which are important for healthy neurocognitive functioning.

  7. Quality of Life and Behavioral Functioning in Dutch Children with a History of Kawasaki Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tacke, Carline E.; Haverman, Lotte; Berk, Birgit M.; van Rossum, Marion A.; Kuipers, Irene M.; Grootenhuis, Martha A.; Kuijpers, Taco W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The authors evaluated health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and behavioral functioning in patients with a history of Kawasaki disease (KD). Study design A cross-sectional study was conducted at a tertiary referral center for KD follow-up in 280 patients (mean age 8.6 years, 60.0% male).

  8. A Functional Approach to Reducing Runaway Behavior and Stabilizing Placements for Adolescents in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Hewitt B.; Crosland, Kimberly A.; Geller, David; Cripe, Michael; Kenney, Terresa; Neff, Bryon; Dunlap, Glen

    2008-01-01

    Teenagers' running from foster placement is a significant problem in the field of child protection. This article describes a functional, behavior analytic approach to reducing running away through assessing the motivations for running, involving the youth in the assessment process, and implementing interventions to enhance the reinforcing value of…

  9. Association of Rigid-Compulsive Behavior with Functional Constipation in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marler, Sarah; Ferguson, Bradley J.; Lee, Evon Batey; Peters, Brittany; Williams, Kent C.; McDonnell, Erin; Macklin, Eric A.; Levitt, Pat; Margolis, Kara Gross; Beversdorf, David Q.; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    Based upon checklist data from the Autism Speaks Autism Treatment Network, we hypothesized that functional constipation (FC) would be associated with rigid-compulsive behavior in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We used the Questionnaire on Pediatric Gastrointestinal Symptoms-Rome III to assess FC symptoms in 108 children with ASD. As…

  10. Using Functional Analysis Methodology to Evaluate Effects of an Atypical Antipsychotic on Severe Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danov, Stacy E.; Tervo, Raymond; Meyers, Stephanie; Symons, Frank J.

    2012-01-01

    The atypical antipsychotic medication aripiprazole was evaluated using a randomized AB multiple baseline, double-blind, placebo-controlled design for the treatment of severe problem behavior with 4 children with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Functional analysis (FA) was conducted concurrent with the medication evaluation to…

  11. Self-Injurious Behavior and Functional Analysis: Where Are the Descriptions of Participant Protections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeden, Marc; Mahoney, Amanda; Poling, Alan

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the reporting of participant protections in studies involving functional analysis and self-injurious behavior and published from 1994 through 2008. Results indicated that session termination criteria were rarely reported and other specific participant safeguards were seldom described. The absence of such information in no way…

  12. Relations of Preschoolers' Visual-Motor and Object Manipulation Skills with Executive Function and Social Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Megan; Lipscomb, Shannon; McClelland, Megan M.; Duncan, Rob; Becker, Derek; Anderson, Kim; Kile, Molly

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article was to examine specific linkages between early visual-motor integration skills and executive function, as well as between early object manipulation skills and social behaviors in the classroom during the preschool year. Method: Ninety-two children aged 3 to 5 years old (M[subscript age] = 4.31 years) were…

  13. Cognitive behavior therapy for pediatric functional abdominal pain: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veek, Shelley M. C.; Derkx, Bert H. F.; Benninga, Marc A.; Boer, Frits; de Haan, Else

    2013-01-01

    This randomized controlled trial investigated the effectiveness of a 6-session protocolized cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) compared with 6 visits to a pediatrician (intensive medical care; IMC) for the treatment of pediatric functional abdominal pain (FAP). One hundred four children aged 7 to 18

  14. Emotional and Behavioral Functioning of Offspring of African American Mothers with Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Rhonda C.; Diamond, Guy S.; Ten Have, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    Extensive research demonstrates the negative impact of maternal depression on their offspring. Unfortunately, few studies have been explored in African American families. This study examined emotional and behavioral functioning among children of African American mothers with depression. African American mothers (n = 63), with a past year diagnosis…

  15. Influence of Peripheral and Motivational Cues on Rigid-Flexible Functioning: Perceptual, Behavioral, and Cognitive Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cretenet, Joel; Dru, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    Recent research has shown that performing approach versus avoidance behaviors (arm flexion vs. extension) effectively influences cognitive functioning. In another area, lateralized peripheral activations (left vs. right side) of the motivational systems of approach versus avoidance were linked to various performances in cognitive tasks. By…

  16. Mothers' Predictions of Their Son's Executive Functioning Skills: Relations to Child Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    This study examined mothers' ability to accurately predict their sons' performance on executive functioning tasks in relation to the child's behavior problems. One-hundred thirteen mothers and their 4-7 year old sons participated. From behind a one-way mirror, mothers watched their sons perform tasks assessing inhibition and planning skills.…

  17. Indirect Effects of Functional Communication Training on Non-Targeted Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieltz, Kelly M.; Wacker, David P.; Harding, Jay W.; Berg, Wendy K.; Lee, John F.; Padilla Dalmau, Yaniz C.; Mews, Jayme; Ibrahimovic, Muska

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of functional communication training (FCT) on the occurrence of non-targeted disruptive behavior. The 10 participants were preschool-aged children with developmental disabilities who engaged in both destructive (property destruction, aggression, self-injury) and disruptive (hand flapping,…

  18. A Factor-Analytic Study of Adaptive Behavior and Intellectual Functioning in Learning Disabled Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeargan, Dollye R.

    The factorial structure of intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior was examined in 160 learning disabled students (6 to 16 years old). Ss were administered the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) and the Coping Inventory (CI). Factor analysis of WISC-R scores revealed three factors: verbal comprehenson, perceptual…

  19. Functional Behavioral Assessment: An Interactive Training Module. User's Manual & Facilitator's Guide. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaupsin, Carl J.; Scott, Terry M.; Nelson, C. Michael

    This user's manual and facilitator's guide is intended for use with an accompanying interactive CD-ROM to provide a complete training program in conducting functional behavioral assessments (FBAs) as required under the 1997 reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Chapter 1 provides general information for users, such as…

  20. The Impact of Health Behaviors and Health Management on Employment After SCI: Physical Health and Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Michelle A; Reed, Karla S; Krause, James S

    2016-01-01

    Background : Research has shown that employment following spinal cord injury (SCI) is related to health and functioning, with physical health and functioning after SCI frequently identified as a primary barrier to employment. Objective: To examine the relationship between employment and behaviors associated with the management of physical health and functioning as described by individuals with SCI who have been employed post injury. Methods: A qualitative approach using 6 focus groups at 2 sites included 44 participants with SCI who had worked at some time post injury. Heterogeneous and homogeneous groups were created based on specific characteristics, such as education, gender, or race. A semi-structured interview format asked questions about personal, environmental, and policy-related factors influencing employment after SCI. Groups were recorded, transcribed, and entered into NVivo before coding by 2 reviewers. Results: Within the area of behaviors and management of physical health and functioning, 4 overlapping themes were identified: (1) relearning your own body and what it can do; (2) general health and wellness behaviors; (3) communication, education, and advocacy; and (4) secondary conditions and aging. Specific themes articulate the many types of behaviors individuals must master and their impact on return to work as well as on finding, maintaining, and deciding to leave employment. Conclusions: Individuals with SCI who are successfully employed after injury must learn how to perform necessary behaviors to manage health and function in a work environment. The decision to leave employment often appears to be associated with secondary complications and other conditions that occur as persons with SCI age.

  1. Use of Behavior and Influence Functions for Relay Selection in Cooperative Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craciunescu, Razvan; Mihovska, Albena Dimitrova; Prasad, Ramjee

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses a novel set of functions to model the relay selection process in a scenario of cooperative wireless communications. We define a utility function that reflects the behavior and influence that a selected relay may have on the quality of the link to be established for the forwarding...... of data. The utility function takes into account also the strategies of other players. To this end, we define a relay selection game and a supporting Nash Equilibrium (NE) algorithm for the choice of a relay during communication. The successful selection of a relay is evaluated by simulations in terms...

  2. Behavioral and Neural Correlates of Executive Function: Interplay between Inhibition and Updating Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Na Young; Wittenberg, Ellen; Nam, Chang S

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the interaction between two executive function processes, inhibition and updating, through analyses of behavioral, neurophysiological, and effective connectivity metrics. Although, many studies have focused on behavioral effects of executive function processes individually, few studies have examined the dynamic causal interactions between these two functions. A total of twenty participants from a local university performed a dual task combing flanker and n-back experimental paradigms, and completed the Operation Span Task designed to measure working memory capacity. We found that both behavioral (accuracy and reaction time) and neurophysiological (P300 amplitude and alpha band power) metrics on the inhibition task (i.e., flanker task) were influenced by the updating load (n-back level) and modulated by working memory capacity. Using independent component analysis, source localization (DIPFIT), and Granger Causality analysis of the EEG time-series data, the present study demonstrated that manipulation of cognitive demand in a dual executive function task influenced the causal neural network. We compared connectivity across three updating loads (n-back levels) and found that experimental manipulation of working memory load enhanced causal connectivity of a large-scale neurocognitive network. This network contains the prefrontal and parietal cortices, which are associated with inhibition and updating executive function processes. This study has potential applications in human performance modeling and assessment of mental workload, such as the design of training materials and interfaces for those performing complex multitasking under stress.

  3. Behavioral and Neural Correlates of Executive Function: Interplay between Inhibition and Updating Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Young Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the interaction between two executive function processes, inhibition and updating, through analyses of behavioral, neurophysiological, and effective connectivity metrics. Although, many studies have focused on behavioral effects of executive function processes individually, few studies have examined the dynamic causal interactions between these two functions. A total of twenty participants from a local university performed a dual task combing flanker and n-back experimental paradigms, and completed the Operation Span Task designed to measure working memory capacity. We found that both behavioral (accuracy and reaction time and neurophysiological (P300 amplitude and alpha band power metrics on the inhibition task (i.e., flanker task were influenced by the updating load (n-back level and modulated by working memory capacity. Using independent component analysis, source localization (DIPFIT, and Granger Causality analysis of the EEG time-series data, the present study demonstrated that manipulation of cognitive demand in a dual executive function task influenced the causal neural network. We compared connectivity across three updating loads (n-back levels and found that experimental manipulation of working memory load enhanced causal connectivity of a large-scale neurocognitive network. This network contains the prefrontal and parietal cortices, which are associated with inhibition and updating executive function processes. This study has potential applications in human performance modeling and assessment of mental workload, such as the design of training materials and interfaces for those performing complex multitasking under stress.

  4. Effects of cognitive-behavioral conjoint therapy for PTSD on partners' psychological functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shnaider, Philippe; Pukay-Martin, Nicole D; Fredman, Steffany J; Macdonald, Alexandra; Monson, Candice M

    2014-04-01

    A number of studies have documented that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in "one" partner are negatively associated with their intimate partner's psychological functioning. The present study investigated intimate partners' mental health outcomes (i.e., depression, anxiety, and anger) in a sample of 40 partners of individuals with PTSD within a randomized waitlist controlled trial of cognitive-behavioral conjoint therapy for PTSD (Monson & Fredman, 2012). There were no significant differences between active treatment and waitlist in intimate partners' psychological functioning at posttreatment. Subgroup analyses, however, of partners exhibiting clinical levels of distress at pretreatment on several measures showed reliable and clinically significant improvements in their psychological functioning at posttreatment and no evidence of worsening. Results suggest that cognitive-behavioral conjoint therapy for PTSD may have additional benefits for partners presenting with psychological distress. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  5. Beneficial effects of fruit extracts on neuronal function and behavior following 56Fe irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, J. A.; Shukitt-Hale, B.; Carey, A. N.; Jenkins, D.; Rabin, B. M.

    Exposing young rats to particles of high energy and charge HZE particles enhances indices of oxidative stress and inflammation and disrupts the functioning of the dopaminergic system and behaviors mediated by this system in a manner similar to that seen in aged animals Previous research has shown that diets supplemented with 2 blueberry or strawberry extracts have the ability to retard and even reverse age-related deficits in behavior and signal transduction in rats perhaps due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties This study evaluated the efficacy of these diets on irradiation-induced deficits in these parameters by maintaining rats on these diets or a control diet for 8 weeks prior to being exposed to whole-body irradiation with 1 5 Gy of 1 GeV n high-energy 56 Fe particles Irradiation impaired performance in the Morris water maze and measures of dopamine release one month following radiation these deficits were protected by the antioxidant diets The strawberry diet offered better protection against spatial deficits in the maze because strawberry-fed animals were better able to retain place information a hippocampally-mediated behavior compared to controls The blueberry diet on the other hand seemed to improve reversal learning a behavior more dependent on intact striatal function These data suggest that 56 Fe particle irradiation causes deficits in behavior and signaling in rats which were ameliorated by an antioxidant diet and that the polyphenols in these fruits might be acting in different brain regions

  6. Comorbidity of functional urinary incontinence and encopresis: somatic and behavioral associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Gontard, Alexander; Hollmann, Elke

    2004-06-01

    Functional urinary incontinence and encopresis are common comorbid disorders in childhood. We analyze the specific somatic and behavioral symptoms associated with functional enuresis/urinary incontinence and encopresis when they occur together. A total of 167 consecutive children 5 to 10 year olds, with day and/or night wetting were examined prospectively with ultrasound, uroflowmetry, electroencephalography, the Child Behavior Checklist, Culture Fair Intelligence Test and ICD-10 child psychiatric diagnoses. The main findings for the comorbid group (20 patients) with wetting and soiling were a significantly higher rate of daytime incontinence and micturition problems, thickened bladder walls and pathological electroencephalography. There were higher, although not significant, rates of previous urinary tract infections, antibiotic prophylaxis, residual volume and abnormal uroflow curves in this group. Behaviorally, hyperkinetic syndromes, and emotional and conduct disorders (according to ICD-10) were more common. Of the 20 patients 65% had a Child Behavior Checklist total score (greater than 90th percentile) in the clinical range. The externalizing, internalizing, delinquent and anxious/depressed problem scales were also significantly higher. This risk group requires detailed assessment and specific treatment. In addition to the symptomatic treatment of the wetting and soiling, many of these children are in need of specific behavioral, psychotherapeutic and pharmacological treatment.

  7. Functional disability and suicidal behavior in middle-aged and older adults: A systematic critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Julie; Fiske, Amy

    2018-02-01

    Middle-aged and older adults have elevated rates of suicide around the globe, but there is a paucity of knowledge about risk factors for suicide in these age groups. One possible risk factor may be functional disability, which is more common at later ages. The current systematic critical review examined findings regarding the associations between functional disability and suicidal behavior (suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and death by suicide) in middle-aged and older adults (i.e. age 50 and older). Forty-five studies were found that examined these associations. The majority of studies supported a significant association between functional disability and suicidal ideation. In addition, findings to date strongly suggest that depression serves as a mediator of the association between functional disability and suicidal ideation, though most studies did not directly test for mediation. Firm conclusions regarding suicide attempts and death by suicide, as well as mediation, cannot be drawn due to a relative lack of research in these areas. The association between functional disability and suicidal behavior suggests an important area for prevention and intervention among middle-aged and older adults, but additional research is necessary to clarify the specifics of these associations and examine appropriate intervention strategies. Important future directions for research in this area include the direct comparison of associations of risk factors with different types of suicidal behavior, greater use of longitudinal data with multiple time points, and further examination of potential mediators and moderators of the association between functional disability and suicidal behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Functional connectivity experiments reflect routine movement behavior of a tropical hummingbird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Noelia L; Hadley, Adam S; Robinson, W Douglas; Betts, Matthew G

    Translocation experiments, in which researchers displace animals and then monitor their movements to return home, are commonly used as tools to assess functional connectivity of fragmented landscapes. Such experiments are purported to have important advantages of being time efficient and of standardizing “motivation” to move across individuals. Yet, we lack tests of whether movement behavior of translocated birds reflects natural behavior of unmanipulated birds. We compared the routine movement behavior of a tropical hummingbird, the Green Hermit (Phaethornis guy), to that of experimentally translocated individuals. We tested for differences in site selection patterns during movement at two spatial scales (point and path levels). We also compared movement rates between treatments. Behaviors documented during translocation experiments reflected those observed during routine movements. At the point level, both translocated and non-translocated birds showed similar levels of preference for mature tropical forest. At the path level, step selection functions showed both translocated and non-translocated hummingbirds avoiding movement across non-forested matrix and selecting streams as movement corridors. Movement rates were generally higher during translocation experiments. However, the negative influence of forest cover on movement rates was proportionately similar in translocation and routine movement treatments. We report the first evidence showing that movement behavior of birds during translocation experiments is similar to their natural movement behavior. Therefore, translocation experiments may be reliable tools to address effects of landscape structure on animal movement. We observed consistent selection of landscape elements between translocated and non-translocated birds, indicating that both routine and translocation movement studies lead to similar conclusions regarding the effect of landscape structure and forest composition on functional connectivity

  9. rTMS neuromodulation improves electrocortical functional measures of information processing and behavioral responses in autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estate M Sokhadze

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Reports in autism spectrum disorders (ASD of a minicolumnopathy with consequent deficits of lateral inhibition help explain observed behavioral and executive dysfunctions. We propose that neuromodulation based on rTMS will enhance lateral inhibition through activation of inhibitory double bouquet interneurons and will be accompanied by improvements in the prefrontal executive functions. Methods: The current study used ERPs in a visual oddball task with illusory figures. We compared clinical, behavioral and electrocortical outcomes in 2 groups of children with autism (TMS, wait-list group [WTL]. We predicted that 18 session long course in autistic patients will have better behavioral and ERP outcomes as compared to age- and IQ-matched wait-list group. We used 18 sessions of 1Hz rTMS applied over the dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex in 27 individuals with ASD diagnosis. The WTL group was comprised of 27 age-matched ASD subjects. Results: Post-TMS evaluations showed decreased irritability and hyperactivity and decreased stereotypic behaviors. Following rTMS we found decreased amplitude and prolonged latency in the fronto-central ERPs to non-targets in the TMS group. These ERP changes along with increased centro-parietal ERPs to targets are indicative of more efficient processing of information post-TMS. Another finding was increased magnitude of error-related negativity (ERN during commission errors. We calculated normative post-error reaction time (RT slowing response in both groups and found that rTMS was accompanied by post-error RT slowing and higher accuracy of responses, whereas the WTL group kept on showing typical for ASD post-error RT speeding and had higher error rate. Conclusion: Results from our study indicate that rTMS improves executive functioning in ASD as evidenced by normalization of ERP responses and behavioral reactions during executive function test, and also by improvements in clinical behavioral evaluations.

  10. Leadership for evidence-based practice: strategic and functional behaviors for institutionalizing EBP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetler, Cheryl B; Ritchie, Judith A; Rycroft-Malone, Jo; Charns, Martin P

    2014-08-01

    Making evidence-based practice (EBP) a reality throughout an organization is a challenging goal in healthcare services. Leadership has been recognized as a critical element in that process. However, little is known about the exact role and function of various levels of leadership in the successful institutionalization of EBP within an organization. To uncover what leaders at different levels and in different roles actually do, and what actions they take to develop, enhance, and sustain EBP as the norm. Qualitative data from a case study regarding institutionalization of EBP in two contrasting cases (Role Model and Beginner hospitals) were systematically analyzed. Data were obtained from multiple interviews of leaders, both formal and informal, and from staff nurse focus groups. A deductive coding schema, based on concepts of functional leadership, was developed for this in-depth analysis. Participants' descriptions reflected a hierarchical array of strategic, functional, and cross-cutting behaviors. Within these macrolevel "themes," 10 behavioral midlevel themes were identified; for example, Intervening and Role modeling. Each theme is distinctive, yet various themes and their subthemes were interrelated and synergistic. These behaviors and their interrelationships were conceptualized in the framework "Leadership Behaviors Supportive of EBP Institutionalization" (L-EBP). Leaders at multiple levels in the Role Model case, both formal and informal, engaged in most of these behaviors. Supportive leadership behaviors required for organizational institutionalization of EBP reflect a complex set of interactive, multifaceted EBP-focused actions carried out by leaders from the chief nursing officer to staff nurses. A related framework such as L-EBP may provide concrete guidance needed to underpin the often-noted but abstract finding that leaders should "support" EBP. © 2014 The Authors. Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of

  11. Leadership for Evidence-Based Practice: Strategic and Functional Behaviors for Institutionalizing EBP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetler, Cheryl B; Ritchie, Judith A; Rycroft-Malone, Jo; Charns, Martin P

    2014-01-01

    Background Making evidence-based practice (EBP) a reality throughout an organization is a challenging goal in healthcare services. Leadership has been recognized as a critical element in that process. However, little is known about the exact role and function of various levels of leadership in the successful institutionalization of EBP within an organization. Aims To uncover what leaders at different levels and in different roles actually do, and what actions they take to develop, enhance, and sustain EBP as the norm. Methods Qualitative data from a case study regarding institutionalization of EBP in two contrasting cases (Role Model and Beginner hospitals) were systematically analyzed. Data were obtained from multiple interviews of leaders, both formal and informal, and from staff nurse focus groups. A deductive coding schema, based on concepts of functional leadership, was developed for this in-depth analysis. Results Participants’ descriptions reflected a hierarchical array of strategic, functional, and cross-cutting behaviors. Within these macrolevel “themes,” 10 behavioral midlevel themes were identified; for example, Intervening and Role modeling. Each theme is distinctive, yet various themes and their subthemes were interrelated and synergistic. These behaviors and their interrelationships were conceptualized in the framework “Leadership Behaviors Supportive of EBP Institutionalization” (L-EBP). Leaders at multiple levels in the Role Model case, both formal and informal, engaged in most of these behaviors. Linking Evidence to Action Supportive leadership behaviors required for organizational institutionalization of EBP reflect a complex set of interactive, multifaceted EBP-focused actions carried out by leaders from the chief nursing officer to staff nurses. A related framework such as L-EBP may provide concrete guidance needed to underpin the often-noted but abstract finding that leaders should “support” EBP. PMID:24986669

  12. Executive function and childhood stuttering: Parent ratings and evidence from a behavioral task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntourou, Katerina; Anderson, Julie D; Wagovich, Stacy A

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the executive function (EF) abilities of preschool children who do (CWS) and do not stutter (CWNS) using a parent-report questionnaire and a behavioral task. Participants were 75 CWS and 75 CWNS between the ages of 3;0 and 5;11 (years; months). Parents rated their children's EF abilities using the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Preschool Version (BRIEF-P; Gioia, Espy, & Isquith, 2003). Children's ability to integrate cognitive flexibility, inhibitory control, and working memory was measured using a behavioral task, the Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders (HTKS; Cameron Ponitz, McClelland, Matthews, & Morrison, 2009). The CWS were judged by their parents as being less proficient in working memory, shift/flexibility, and overall EF than the parents of the CWNS. Children in the CWS group were also 2½ to 7 times more likely than children in the CWNS group to exhibit clinically significant difficulties with EF. Behavioral task findings revealed that 3-year old CWS performed more poorly than their peers on the HTKS. Parental ratings of executive function and working memory were significantly and moderately correlated with receptive and expressive vocabulary skills only for the CWNS group. CWS have more difficulty with EF in everyday life and may experience early delays in their ability to integrate aspects of attention and EF compared to CWNS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Coherence training in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: cognitive functions and behavioral changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Anthony; Brett, David; Wesnes, Keith

    2010-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most prevalent behavioral diagnosis in children, with an estimated 500 000 children affected in the United Kingdom alone. The need for an appropriate and effective intervention for children with ADHD is a growing concern for educators and childcare agencies. This randomized controlled clinical trial evaluated the impact of the HeartMath self-regulation skills and coherence training program (Institute of HeartMath, Boulder Creek, California) on a population of 38 children with ADHD in academic year groups 6, 7, and 8. Learning of the skills was supported with heart rhythm coherence monitoring and feedback technology designed to facilitate self-induced shifts in cardiac coherence. The cognitive drug research system was used to assess cognitive functioning as the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcome measures assessed teacher and student reposted changes in behavior. Participants demonstrated significant improvements in various aspects of cognitive functioning such as delayed word recall, immediate word recall, word recognition, and episodic secondary memory. Significant improvements in behavior were also found. The results suggest that the intervention offers a physiologically based program to improve cognitive functioning in children with ADHD and improve behaviors that is appropriate to implement in a school environment.

  14. A comparative study of sexual function, behavior, and cognitions of women with lifelong vaginismus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherner, Rebecca A; Reissing, Elke D

    2013-11-01

    Vaginismus is classified as a sexual dysfunction, yet limited research is available on the sexual function and behavior of women with this condition. Comparing women with lifelong vaginismus to women with lifelong dyspareunia and women with no pain during intercourse, this study explored sexual function, anxiety, and behavior along with cognitions related to vaginal penetration. A total of 152 women completed an online survey that included a series of validated questionnaires. Main findings indicated that, relative to both comparison groups, women in the vaginismus group reported a more limited range of sexual behavior across the lifespan and more maladaptive cognitions related to fear of losing control of one's body and the situation during penetration. Compared to the no-pain group, both symptomatic groups reported more difficulties across several indicators of sexual function, more limited sexual behavior in the past year and past month, and more maladaptive cognitions related to vaginal penetration. However, women with vaginismus reported more sexual desire and less difficulty with lubrication compared to women with dyspareunia. Numerous sexual problems extending beyond vaginal penetration difficulties were confirmed, suggesting a need for broader treatment approaches not limited to the experience of vaginal penetration. Results were discussed as they relate to the fear-avoidance model of vaginismus.

  15. Neurocognitive, Social-Behavioral, and Adaptive Functioning in Preschool Children with Mild to Moderate Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Stephen R.; Gerson, Arlene C.; Johnson, Rebecca J.; Mendley, Susan R.; Shinnar, Shlomo; Lande, Marc B.; Matheson, Matthew B.; Gipson, Debbie S.; Morgenstern, Bruce; Warady, Bradley A.; Furth, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The negative impact of End Stage Kidney Disease on cognitive function in children is well established, but no studies have examined the neurocognitive, social-behavioral, and adaptive behavior skills of preschool children with mild to moderate chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods Participants included 124 preschool children with mild to moderate CKD, ages 12-68 months (median=3.7 years), and an associated mean glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 50.0 ml/min per 1.73m2. In addition to level of function and percent of participants scoring≥1SD below the test mean, regression models examined the associations between biomarkers of CKD (GFR, anemia, hypertension, seizures, abnormal birth history), and Developmental Level/IQ, attention regulation, and parent ratings of executive functions, social-behavior, and adaptive behaviors. Results Median scores for all measures were in the average range; however, 27% were deemed at-risk for a Developmental Level/IQpreschool children with mild to moderate CKD, but the need for ongoing developmental surveillance in this population remains warranted, particularly for those with abnormal birth histories, seizures, and heightened disease severity. PMID:26890559

  16. Bambara-wheat composite flour: rheological behavior of dough and functionality in bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erukainure, Ochuko L; Okafor, Jane N C; Ogunji, Akinyele; Ukazu, Happiness; Okafor, Ebele N; Eboagwu, Ijeoma L

    2016-11-01

    The rheological behavior and functional properties of doughs from bambara-wheat composite flour was investigated. Bambara-wheat composite flour was prepared by substituting wheat with 0%, 10%, 15%, and 20% of bambara flour. The rheological behavior of their dough was analyzed with Mixolab. Breads produced from the flour were analyzed for physical characteristics. Organoleptic analysis was carried out by 20 panelists. Mixolab analysis revealed, except for stability time, depreciating values for dough consistency (C1), protein weakening (C2), starch gelatinization (C3), amylase activity (C4), and retrogradation (C5) as the inclusion of bambara flour increased. Physical characteristics of the loaves revealed significant ( P  baking characteristics.

  17. Infant Functional Regulatory Problems and Gender Moderate Bidirectional Effects Between Externalizing Behavior and Maternal Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Daniel Ewon; Sameroff, Arnold J.; McDonough, Susan C.

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study of 251 families examined bidirectional associations between maternal depressive symptoms and toddler behavioral problems. Functional regulatory problems in infancy and gender were examined as moderators. Mothers rated children’s regulatory problems of crying, feeding, and sleeping in infancy, toddler-age externalizing behavior, and their own depressive symptoms when children were ages 7, 15, and 33 months. Using a structural equation model we found that exposure to maternal depressive symptoms at 7 months predicted high levels of child externalizing behavior at 15 and 33 months. Gender moderated the effect, such that maternal depressive symptoms only predicted boys’ externalizing behavior at 33 months. Toddler-age externalizing behavior predicted high levels of maternal depressive symptoms at 33 months, only among those who had relatively few regulatory problems as infants. Infancy seems to be a period of heightened vulnerability to effects of maternal depression and boys are more likely than girls to develop resulting externalizing problems. Mothers of infants with few regulatory problems may develop worse depressive symptoms in response to their children’s preschool-age behavioral problems. PMID:23545078

  18. Captive chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) behavior as a function of space per animal and enclosure type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal Webb, Sarah J; Hau, Jann; Schapiro, Steven J

    2018-03-01

    Space per animal, or animal density, and enclosure type are important elements of functionally appropriate captive environments (FACEs) for chimpanzees. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) recommends that captive chimpanzees be maintained in areas of >250 ft 2 /animal. Several studies have investigated chimpanzee behavior in relation to space per animal, but only two studies have examined these variables while attempting to hold environmental complexity constant. Both have found few, if any, significant differences in behavior associated with increased space per animal. The NIH does not provide recommendations pertaining to enclosure type. Although Primadomes™ and corrals are considered acceptable FACE housing, no studies have investigated chimpanzee behavior in relation to these two common types of enclosures. We examined the NIH space per animal recommendation, and the effects of enclosure type, while maintaining similar levels of environmental complexity. We used focal animal observations to record the behavior of 22 chimpanzees in three social groups following within-facility housing transfers. Chimpanzees that were moved from an area with space below the NIH recommendation to the same type of enclosure with space above the recommendation (dome to double dome) exhibited significantly more locomotion and behavioral diversity post-transfer. Chimpanzees that were moved from an area with space below the recommendation to a different type of enclosure with space above the recommendation (dome to corral) exhibited significant increases in foraging and behavioral diversity, and a decrease in rough scratching. Lastly, chimpanzees that were moved from an area above the recommendation to a different enclosure type with space equal to the recommendation (corral to double dome) exhibited an increase in behavioral diversity. These results add to the body of literature that addresses the concept of specific minimum space requirements per chimpanzee, and highlight the

  19. Surface chemical functionalities affect the behavior of human adipose-derived stem cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xujie; Feng, Qingling; Bachhuka, Akash; Vasilev, Krasimir

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the effect of surface chemical functionalities on the behavior of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) in vitro. Plasma polymerized films rich in amine (-NH 2 ), carboxyl (-COOH) and methyl (-CH 3 ), were generated on hydroxyapatite (HAp) substrates. The surface chemical functionalities were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The ability of different substrates to absorb proteins was evaluated. The results showed that substrates modified with hydrophilic functional group (-COOH and -NH 2 ) can absorb more proteins than these modified with more hydrophobic functional group (-CH 3 ). The behavior of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) cultured on different substrates was investigated in vitro: cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) analysis was used to characterize cell proliferation, scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) analysis was used to characterize cell morphology and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity analysis was used to account for differentiation. The results of this study demonstrated that the -NH 2 modified surfaces encourage osteogenic differentiation; the -COOH modified surfaces promote cell adhesion and spreading and the -CH 3 modified surfaces have the lowest ability to induce osteogenic differentiation. These findings confirmed that the surface chemical states of biomaterials can affect the behavior of hASCs in vitro.

  20. Surface chemical functionalities affect the behavior of human adipose-derived stem cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xujie [State key laboratory of new ceramics and fine processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Feng, Qingling, E-mail: biomater@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [State key laboratory of new ceramics and fine processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Bachhuka, Akash [Mawson Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes 5095 (Australia); Vasilev, Krasimir [Mawson Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes 5095 (Australia); School of Advanced Manufacturing, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes 5095 (Australia)

    2013-04-01

    This study examines the effect of surface chemical functionalities on the behavior of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) in vitro. Plasma polymerized films rich in amine (-NH{sub 2}), carboxyl (-COOH) and methyl (-CH{sub 3}), were generated on hydroxyapatite (HAp) substrates. The surface chemical functionalities were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The ability of different substrates to absorb proteins was evaluated. The results showed that substrates modified with hydrophilic functional group (-COOH and -NH{sub 2}) can absorb more proteins than these modified with more hydrophobic functional group (-CH{sub 3}). The behavior of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) cultured on different substrates was investigated in vitro: cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) analysis was used to characterize cell proliferation, scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) analysis was used to characterize cell morphology and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity analysis was used to account for differentiation. The results of this study demonstrated that the -NH{sub 2} modified surfaces encourage osteogenic differentiation; the -COOH modified surfaces promote cell adhesion and spreading and the -CH{sub 3} modified surfaces have the lowest ability to induce osteogenic differentiation. These findings confirmed that the surface chemical states of biomaterials can affect the behavior of hASCs in vitro.

  1. A functional neuroimaging review of obesity, appetitive hormones and ingestive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Kyle S; Berner, Laura A

    2014-09-01

    Adequate energy intake is vital for the survival of humans and is regulated by complex homeostatic and hedonic mechanisms. Supported by functional MRI (fMRI) studies that consistently demonstrate differences in brain response as a function of weight status during exposure to appetizing food stimuli, it has been posited that hedonically driven food intake contributes to weight gain and obesity maintenance. These food reward theories of obesity are reliant on the notion that the aberrant brain response to food stimuli relates directly to ingestive behavior, specifically, excess food intake. Importantly, functioning of homeostatic neuroendocrine regulators of food intake, such as leptin and ghrelin, are impacted by weight status. Thus, data from studies that evaluate the effect on weight status on brain response to food may be a result of differences in neuroendocrine functioning and/or behavior. In the present review, we examine the influence of weight and weight change, exogenous administration of appetitive hormones, and ingestive behavior on BOLD response to food stimuli. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Mutation of the key residue for extraribosomal function of ribosomal protein S19 cause increased grooming behaviors in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Kaitsuka, Taku; Fujino, Rika; Araki, Kimi; Tomizawa, Kazuhito; Yamamoto, Tetsuro

    2016-08-26

    Ribosomal protein S19 (RP S19) possesses ribosomal function as RP S19 monomer and extraribosomal function as cross-linked RP S19 oligomers which function as a ligand of the complement 5a (C5a) receptor (CD88). We have generated a Gln137Glu-RP S19 knock-in (KI) mouse, which is shown to possess the weakened extraribosomal function of RP S19. Because whether the extraribosomal function of RP S19 has a role in brain function had been unclear, we performed behavioral analysis on these mice and demonstrated that KI mice displayed an increased grooming behavior during open-field test and elevated plus maze test and an enhanced freezing behavior in contextual fear conditioning test. These results suggest an involvement of RP S19 oligomers in some anxiety-like behavior, especially grooming behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Reorganization of brain function after a short-term behavioral intervention for stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chunming; Zheng, Lifen; Long, Yuhang; Yan, Qian; Ding, Guosheng; Liu, Li; Peng, Danling; Howell, Peter

    2017-05-01

    This study investigated changes in brain function that occurred over a 7-day behavioral intervention for adults who stutter (AWS). Thirteen AWS received the intervention (AWS+), and 13 AWS did not receive the intervention (AWS-). There were 13 fluent controls (FC-). All participants were scanned before and after the intervention. Whole-brain analysis pre-intervention showed significant differences in task-related brain activation between AWS and FC- in the right inferior frontal cortex (IFC) and left middle temporal cortex, but there were no differences between the two AWS groups. Across the 7-day period of the intervention, AWS+ alone showed a significant increase of brain activation in the left ventral IFC/insula. There were no changes in brain function for the other two groups. Further analysis revealed that the change did not correlate with resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) that AWS showed in the cerebellum (Lu et al., 2012). However, both changes in task-related brain function and RSFC correlated with changes in speech fluency level. Together, these findings suggest that functional reorganization in a brain region close to the left IFC that shows anomalous function in AWS, occurs after a short-term behavioral intervention for stuttering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Analyzing the multiple functions of stereotypical behavior for students with autism: implications for assessment and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, C H; Meyer, K A; Knowles, T; Shukla, S

    2000-01-01

    We studied behavioral functions associated with stereotypical responses for students with autism. In Study 1, analogue functional analyses (attention, demand, no-attention, and recreation conditions) were conducted for 5 students. Results suggested that stereotypy was multiply determined or occurred across all assessment conditions. For 2 students, stereotypy was associated with positive and negative reinforcement and the absence of environmental stimulation. For 2 other students, stereotypy occurred at high levels across all experimental conditions. For the 5th student, stereotypy was associated with negative reinforcement and the absence of environmental stimulation. In Study 2, the stereotypy of 1 student was further analyzed on a function-by-function basis. Within a concurrent-schedules procedure, alternative responses were taught to the student using functional communication training. The results of Study 2 showed that similar topographies of stereotypy, based on qualitatively different reinforcers, were reduced only when differential reinforcement contingencies for alternative forms of communication were implemented for specific response-reinforcer relations. Our results suggest that the causes of stereotypy for students with autism are complex and that the presumed association between response topography and behavioral function may be less important than previously realized.

  5. Treatment of Aphasia Combining Neuromodulation and Behavioral Intervention: Taking an Impairment and Functional Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth E. Galletta

    2014-04-01

    Baseline measures of naming nouns and verbs in single words, and sentences, were obtained. While there was no improvement in production of nouns or verbs in single words or sentence production after sham tDCS, and no improvement of noun production after anodal tDCS and speech-language treatment, production of verbs in sentences improved after a 10-session treatment block of anodal tDCS and behavioral therapy. Conclusion Administering a behavioral treatment that is impairment-based as well as functionally-based in conjunction with tDCS is both feasible and promising. Anodal tDCS in conjunction with behavioral intervention is a treatment approach that warrants continued investigation. The results will be discussed in relation to the tDCS and aphasia literature.

  6. Housing conditions influence motor functions and exploratory behavior following focal damage of the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gornicka-Pawlak, Elzbieta; Jabłońska, Anna; Chyliński, Andrzej; Domańska-Janik, Krystyna

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated influence of housing conditions on motor functions recovery and exploratory behavior following ouabain focal brain lesion in the rat. During 30 days post-surgery period rats were housed individually in standard cages (IS) or in groups in enriched environment (EE) and behaviorally tested. The EE lesioned rats showed enhanced recovery from motor impairments in walking beam task, comparing with IS animals. Contrarily, in the open field IS rats (both lesioned and control) traveled a longer distance, showed less habituation and spent less time resting at the home base than the EE animals. Unlike the EE lesioned animals, the lesioned IS rats, presented a tendency to hyperactivity in postinjury period. Turning tendency was significantly affected by unilateral brain lesion only in the EE rats. We can conclude that housing conditions distinctly affected the rat's behavior in classical laboratory tests.

  7. Health risk behaviors and depressive symptoms among Hispanic adolescents: Examining acculturation discrepancies and family functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; Schwartz, Seth J; Castillo, Linda G; Unger, Jennifer B; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L; Romero, Andrea J; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Córdova, David; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Lizzi, Karina M; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Soto, Daniel W; Villamar, Juan Andres; Pattarroyo, Monica; Szapocznik, José

    2016-03-01

    Drawing from a theory of bicultural family functioning 2 models were tested to examine the longitudinal effects of acculturation-related variables on adolescent health risk behaviors and depressive symptoms (HRB/DS) mediated by caregiver and adolescent reports of family functioning. One model examined the effects of caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies in relation to family functioning and HRB/DS. A second model examined the individual effects of caregiver and adolescent acculturation components in relation to family functioning and HRB/DS. A sample of 302 recently immigrated Hispanic caregiver-child dyads completed measures of Hispanic and U.S. cultural practices, values, and identities at baseline (predictors); measures of family cohesion, family communications, and family involvement 6 months postbaseline (mediators); and only adolescents completed measures of smoking, binge drinking, inconsistent condom use, and depressive symptoms 1 year postbaseline (outcomes). Measures of family cohesion, family communications, and family involvement were used to conduct a confirmatory factor analysis to estimate the fit of a latent construct for family functioning. Key findings indicate that (a) adolescent acculturation components drove the effect of caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies in relation to family functioning; (b) higher levels of adolescent family functioning were associated with less HRB/DS, whereas higher levels of caregiver family functioning were associated with more adolescent HRB/DS; (c) and only adolescent reports of family functioning mediated the effects of acculturation components and caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies on HRB/DS. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Examining the Case for Functional Behavior Assessment as an Evidence-Based Practice for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in General Education Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Terrance M.; Alter, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    This article is a review of functional behavior assessment studies in general education setting for students with emotional and behavioral disorders. The studies were assessed in accordance with published standards for evidence-based practices. Overall, few studies met criteria for inclusion in this review and even fewer studies included all three…

  9. Can Emotional and Behavioral Dysregulation in Youth Be Decoded from Functional Neuroimaging?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana C L Portugal

    Full Text Available High comorbidity among pediatric disorders characterized by behavioral and emotional dysregulation poses problems for diagnosis and treatment, and suggests that these disorders may be better conceptualized as dimensions of abnormal behaviors. Furthermore, identifying neuroimaging biomarkers related to dimensional measures of behavior may provide targets to guide individualized treatment. We aimed to use functional neuroimaging and pattern regression techniques to determine whether patterns of brain activity could accurately decode individual-level severity on a dimensional scale measuring behavioural and emotional dysregulation at two different time points.A sample of fifty-seven youth (mean age: 14.5 years; 32 males was selected from a multi-site study of youth with parent-reported behavioral and emotional dysregulation. Participants performed a block-design reward paradigm during functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI. Pattern regression analyses consisted of Relevance Vector Regression (RVR and two cross-validation strategies implemented in the Pattern Recognition for Neuroimaging toolbox (PRoNTo. Medication was treated as a binary confounding variable. Decoded and actual clinical scores were compared using Pearson's correlation coefficient (r and mean squared error (MSE to evaluate the models. Permutation test was applied to estimate significance levels.Relevance Vector Regression identified patterns of neural activity associated with symptoms of behavioral and emotional dysregulation at the initial study screen and close to the fMRI scanning session. The correlation and the mean squared error between actual and decoded symptoms were significant at the initial study screen and close to the fMRI scanning session. However, after controlling for potential medication effects, results remained significant only for decoding symptoms at the initial study screen. Neural regions with the highest contribution to the pattern regression model

  10. Gestational cortisol and social play shape development of marmosets' HPA functioning and behavioral responses to stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustoe, Aaryn C; Taylor, Jack H; Birnie, Andrew K; Huffman, Michelle C; French, Jeffrey A

    2014-09-01

    Both gestational cortisol exposure (GCE) and variability in postnatal environments can shape the later-life behavioral and endocrine outcomes of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. We examined the influence of GCE and social play on HPA functioning in developing marmosets. Maternal urinary cortisol samples were collected across pregnancy to determine GCE for 28 marmoset offspring (19 litters). We administered a social separation stressor to offspring at 6, 12, and 18 months of age, during which we collected urinary cortisol samples and behavioral observations. Increased GCE was associated with increased basal cortisol levels and cortisol reactivity, but the strength of this relationship decreased across age. Increased social play was associated with decreased basal cortisol levels and a marginally greater reduction in cortisol reactivity as offspring aged, regardless of offspring GCE. Thus, GCE is associated with HPA functioning, but socially enriching postnatal environments can alter the effects associated with increased fetal exposure to glucocorticoids. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Short-distance behavior of the Bethe--Salpeter wave function in the ladder approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guth, A.H.; Soper, D.E.

    1975-01-01

    We investigate the short-distance behavior of the (Wick-rotated) Bethe--Salpeter wave function for the two spin-1/2 quarks bound by the exchange of a massive vector meson. We use the ladder-model kernel, which has the same p -4 scaling behavior as the true kernel in a theory with a fixed point of the renormalization group at g not equal to 0. For a bound state with the quantum numbers of the pion, the leading asymptotic behavior is chi (q/sup μ/) approx. cq/sup -4 + epsilon(g)/γ 5 , where epsilon (g) =1- (1-g 2 /π 2 ) 1 / 2 . Our method also provides the full asymptotic series, although it should be noted that the nonleading terms will depend on the nonleading behavior of the ladder-model kernel. A general term has the form cq - /sup a/(lnq)/sup n/phi (q/sup μ/), where c is an unknown constant, a may be integral or nonintegral, n is an integer, and phi (q/sup μ/) is a representation function of the rotation group in four dimensions

  12. Long-distance behavior of temperature correlation functions in the one-dimensional Bose gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, K.K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Maillet, J.M. [UMR 5672 du CNRS, ENS Lyon (France). Lab. de Physique; Slavnov, N.A. [Steklov Mathematical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2010-12-15

    We describe a Bethe ansatz based method to derive, starting from a multiple integral representation, the long-distance asymptotic behavior at finite temperature of the density-density correlation function in the interacting onedimensional Bose gas. We compute the correlation lengths in terms of solutions of non-linear integral equations of the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz type. Finally, we establish a connection between the results obtained in our approach with the correlation lengths stemming from the quantum transfer matrix method. (orig.)

  13. Promoting social behavior with oxytocin in high-functioning autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Andari, Elissar; Duhamel, Jean-René; Zalla, Tiziana; Herbrecht, Evelyn; Leboyer, Marion; Sirigu, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Social adaptation requires specific cognitive and emotional competences. Individuals with high-functioning autism or with Asperger syndrome cannot understand or engage in social situations despite preserved intellectual abilities. Recently, it has been suggested that oxytocin, a hormone known to promote mother-infant bonds, may be implicated in the social deficit of autism. We investigated the behavioral effects of oxytocin in 13 subjects with autism. In a simulated ball game where participan...

  14. Imbalance in resting state functional connectivity is associated with eating behaviors and adiposity in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BettyAnn A. Chodkowski

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: In the absence of any explicit eating-related stimuli, the developing brain is primed toward food approach and away from food avoidance behavior with increasing adiposity. Imbalance in resting state functional connectivity that is associated with non-homeostatic eating develops during childhood, as early as 8–13 years of age. Our results indicate the importance of identifying children at risk for obesity for earlier intervention. In addition to changing eating habits and physical activity, strategies that normalize neural functional connectivity imbalance are needed to maintain healthy weight. Mindfulness may be one such approach as it is associated with increased response inhibition and decreased impulsivity.

  15. Dynamical behavior connection of the gluon distribution and the proton structure function at small x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boroun, G.R.

    2014-01-01

    We make a critical study of the relationship between the singlet structure function F 2 S and the gluon distribution G(x,Q 2 ) proposed in the past two decades, which is frequently used to extract the gluon distribution from the proton structure function. We show that a simple relation is not generally valid in the simplest state. We complete this relation by using a Laplace transform method and hard-pomeron behavior at LO and NLO at small x. Our study shows that this relation is dependent on the splitting functions and initial conditions at Q 2 =Q 2 0 and running coupling constant at NLO. The resulting analytic expression allows us to predict the proton structure function with respect to the gluon distributions and to compare the results with H1 data and a QCD analysis fit. Comparisons with other results are made and predictions for the proposed best approach are also provided. (orig.)

  16. The Hawkes process with different excitation functions and its asymptotoc behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fierro, Raúl; Leiva, Víctor; Møller, Jesper

    The standard Hawkes process is constructed from a homogeneous Poisson process and using the same exciting function for dierent generations of offspring. We propose an extension of this process by considering different exciting functions. This consideration could be important to be taken into acco......The standard Hawkes process is constructed from a homogeneous Poisson process and using the same exciting function for dierent generations of offspring. We propose an extension of this process by considering different exciting functions. This consideration could be important to be taken...... into account in a number of fields; e.g. in seismology, where main shocks produce aftershocks with possibly different intensities. The main results are devoted to the asymptotic behavior of this extension of the Hawkes process. Indeed, a law of large numbers and a central limit theorem are stated...

  17. Do executive functions explain the covariance between internalizing and externalizing behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatoum, Alexander S; Rhee, Soo Hyun; Corley, Robin P; Hewitt, John K; Friedman, Naomi P

    2017-11-16

    This study examined whether executive functions (EFs) might be common features of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems across development. We examined relations between three EF latent variables (a common EF factor and factors specific to updating working memory and shifting sets), constructed from nine laboratory tasks administered at age 17, to latent growth intercept (capturing stability) and slope (capturing change) factors of teacher- and parent-reported internalizing and externalizing behaviors in 885 individual twins aged 7 to 16 years. We then estimated the proportion of intercept-intercept and slope-slope correlations predicted by EF as well as the association between EFs and a common psychopathology factor (P factor) estimated from all 9 years of internalizing and externalizing measures. Common EF was negatively associated with the intercepts of teacher-rated internalizing and externalizing behavior in males, and explained 32% of their covariance; in the P factor model, common EF was associated with the P factor in males. Shifting-specific was positively associated with the externalizing slope across sex. EFs did not explain covariation between parent-rated behaviors. These results suggest that EFs are associated with stable problem behavior variation, explain small proportions of covariance, and are a risk factor that that may depend on gender.

  18. Altered functional connectivity in lesional peduncular hallucinosis with REM sleep behavior disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geddes, Maiya R; Tie, Yanmei; Gabrieli, John D E; McGinnis, Scott M; Golby, Alexandra J; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Brainstem lesions causing peduncular hallucinosis (PH) produce vivid visual hallucinations occasionally accompanied by sleep disorders. Overlapping brainstem regions modulate visual pathways and REM sleep functions via gating of thalamocortical networks. A 66-year-old man with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation developed abrupt-onset complex visual hallucinations with preserved insight and violent dream enactment behavior. Brain MRI showed restricted diffusion in the left rostrodorsal pons suggestive of an acute ischemic stroke. REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) was diagnosed on polysomnography. We investigated the integrity of ponto-geniculate-occipital circuits with seed-based resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) in this patient compared to 46 controls. Rs-fcMRI revealed significantly reduced functional connectivity between the lesion and lateral geniculate nuclei (LGN), and between LGN and visual association cortex compared to controls. Conversely, functional connectivity between brainstem and visual association cortex, and between visual association cortex and prefrontal cortex (PFC) was significantly increased in the patient. Focal damage to the rostrodorsal pons is sufficient to cause RBD and PH in humans, suggesting an overlapping mechanism in both syndromes. This lesion produced a pattern of altered functional connectivity consistent with disrupted visual cortex connectivity via de-afferentation of thalamocortical pathways. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of the Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Stress Management on Executive Function Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Ruiz, Ana; Robles-Ortega, Humbelina; Pérez-García, Miguel; Peralta-Ramírez, María Isabel

    2017-02-13

    This study aims to determine whether it is possible to modify executive function in stressed individuals by means of cognitive-behavioral therapy for stress management. Thirty-one people with high levels of perceived stress were recruited into the study (treatment group = 18; wait-list group = 13). The treatment group received 14 weeks of stress management program. Psychological and executive function variables were evaluated in both groups pre and post-intervention. The treatment group showed improved psychological variables of perceived stress (t = 5.492; p = .001), vulnerability to stress (t = 4.061; p = .001) and superstitious thinking (t = 2.961; p = .009). Likewise, the results showed statistically significant differences in personality variables related to executive function, positive urgency (t = 3.585; p = .002) and sensitivity to reward (t = -2.201; p = .042), which improved after the therapy. These variables showed a moderate to high effect size (oscillates between 1.30 for perceived stress and .566 for sensitivity to reward). The cognitive-behavioral therapy for stress management may be an appropriate strategy for improving personality construct components related to executive function, however effects of the therapy are not showed on performance on the tests of executive function applied, as presented studies previous.

  20. Comparing Executive Function and Behavioral Inhibition in Schizophrenia, Bipolar Mood Disorder Type I and Normal Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marziye Khodaee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cognitive performance in patients with schizophrenia and Bipolar I disorder seems to be different from the normal individuals, that these defects affect their treatment results. Therefore, this study aimed to compare executive function and behavioral inhibition within patients suffering from schizophrenia, bipolar type I as well as a normal group. Methods: In this descriptive-comparative study, out of all patients hospitalized in daily psychiatric clinic in Najafabad in 2014 due to these disorders, 20 schizophrenia and 20 bipolar type I as well as 20 normal individuals were selected via the convinience sampling. All the study participants completed the computerizing tests including Tower of London and Go-No Go. The study data were analyzed utilizing SPSS software (ver 22 via MANOVA. Results: The study findings revealed a significant difference between the two patient groups and the normal group in regard with executive function and behavioral inhibition (p<0.05, whereas no differences were detected between schizophrenics and bipolar patient groups. Furthermore, patients suffering from schizophrenia and bipolar I mood disorder demonstrated significantly poor performance in cognitive function and behavioral inhibition compared to the normal group. Conclusion: The present study results can be significantly applied in pathology and therapy of these disorders, so as recognizing the inability of such patients can be effective in developing cognitive rehabilitation programs in these patients.

  1. Iowa Gambling Task Performance and Executive Function Predict Low-income Urban Preadolescents’ Risky Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursache, Alexandra; Raver, C. Cybele

    2015-01-01

    This study examines preadolescents’ reports of risk-taking as predicted by two different, but related inhibitory control systems involving sensitivity to reward and loss on the one hand, and higher order processing in the context of cognitive conflict, known as executive functioning (EF), on the other. Importantly, this study examines these processes with a sample of inner-city, low-income preadolescents and as such examines the ways in which these processes may be related to risky behaviors as a function of children's levels of both concurrent and chronic exposure to household poverty. As part of a larger longitudinal study, 382 children (ages 9 -11) provided a self-report of risky behaviors and participated in the Iowa Gambling task, assessing bias for infrequent loss (preference for infrequent, high magnitude versus frequent, low magnitude loss) and the Hearts and Flowers task assessing executive functioning. Results demonstrated that a higher bias for infrequent loss was associated with higher risky behaviors for children who demonstrated lower EF. Furthermore, bias for infrequent loss was most strongly associated with higher risk-taking for children facing highest levels of poverty. Implications for early identification and prevention of risk-taking in inner-city preadolescents are discussed. PMID:26412918

  2. Linking Neurons to Network Function and Behavior by Two-Photon Holographic Optogenetics and Volumetric Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Maschio, Marco; Donovan, Joseph C; Helmbrecht, Thomas O; Baier, Herwig

    2017-05-17

    We introduce a flexible method for high-resolution interrogation of circuit function, which combines simultaneous 3D two-photon stimulation of multiple targeted neurons, volumetric functional imaging, and quantitative behavioral tracking. This integrated approach was applied to dissect how an ensemble of premotor neurons in the larval zebrafish brain drives a basic motor program, the bending of the tail. We developed an iterative photostimulation strategy to identify minimal subsets of channelrhodopsin (ChR2)-expressing neurons that are sufficient to initiate tail movements. At the same time, the induced network activity was recorded by multiplane GCaMP6 imaging across the brain. From this dataset, we computationally identified activity patterns associated with distinct components of the elicited behavior and characterized the contributions of individual neurons. Using photoactivatable GFP (paGFP), we extended our protocol to visualize single functionally identified neurons and reconstruct their morphologies. Together, this toolkit enables linking behavior to circuit activity with unprecedented resolution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The influence of lifestyle on health behavior and preference for functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szakály, Zoltán; Szente, Viktória; Kövér, György; Polereczki, Zsolt; Szigeti, Orsolya

    2012-02-01

    The main objective of this survey is to reveal the relationship between lifestyle, health behavior, and the consumption of functional foods on the basis of Grunert's food-related lifestyle model. In order to achieve this objective, a nationwide representative questionnaire-based survey was launched with 1000 participants in Hungary. The results indicate that a Hungarian consumer makes rational decisions, he or she seeks bargains, and he wants to know whether or not he gets good value for his money. Further on, various lifestyle segments are defined by the authors: the rational, uninvolved, conservative, careless, and adventurous consumer segments. Among these, consumers with a rational approach provide the primary target group for the functional food market, where health consciousness and moderate price sensitivity can be observed together. Adventurous food consumers stand out because they search for novelty; this makes them an equally important target group. Conservative consumers are another, one characterized by positive health behavior. According to the findings of the research, there is a significant relationship between lifestyle, health behavior, and the preference for functional food products. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessing frontal behavioral syndromes and cognitive functions in traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengenfelder, Jeannie; Arjunan, Aparna; Chiaravalloti, Nancy; Smith, Angela; DeLuca, John

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between individual and family ratings on a measure of frontal behaviors using the Frontal Systems Behavior Scale (FrSBe). Additionally, this study investigated whether self-reported symptoms of frontal-lobe dysfunction correspond to neuropsychological performance, particularly those tests measuring executive functions. Thirty-three individuals with moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and 19 healthy individuals completed the FrSBe and neuropsychological measures. Results indicated that the self-ratings of individuals' apathy, disinhibition, and executive dysfunction significantly increased from before to after injury, as did the family members' ratings, with no significant difference between the patients' and family members' reports for any of the three FrSBe subscales. Although individuals with TBI demonstrated impairments in neuropsychological measures, including measures of executive functioning, few significant correlations were found between the patients' FrSBe ratings and measures of cognitive functioning. This suggests that information from the FrSBe may differ from information gathered during a cognitive evaluation and may enhance our understanding of the behavioral sequelae following TBI that may not be captured by neuropsychological assessment alone.

  5. Development of an instrument to measure behavioral health function for work disability: item pool construction and factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfeo, Elizabeth E; Ni, Pengsheng; Haley, Stephen M; Jette, Alan M; Bogusz, Kara; Meterko, Mark; McDonough, Christine M; Chan, Leighton; Brandt, Diane E; Rasch, Elizabeth K

    2013-09-01

    To develop a broad set of claimant-reported items to assess behavioral health functioning relevant to the Social Security disability determination processes, and to evaluate the underlying structure of behavioral health functioning for use in development of a new functional assessment instrument. Cross-sectional. Community. Item pools of behavioral health functioning were developed, refined, and field tested in a sample of persons applying for Social Security disability benefits (N=1015) who reported difficulties working because of mental or both mental and physical conditions. None. Social Security Administration Behavioral Health (SSA-BH) measurement instrument. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) specified that a 4-factor model (self-efficacy, mood and emotions, behavioral control, social interactions) had the optimal fit with the data and was also consistent with our hypothesized conceptual framework for characterizing behavioral health functioning. When the items within each of the 4 scales were tested in CFA, the fit statistics indicated adequate support for characterizing behavioral health as a unidimensional construct along these 4 distinct scales of function. This work represents a significant advance both conceptually and psychometrically in assessment methodologies for work-related behavioral health. The measurement of behavioral health functioning relevant to the context of work requires the assessment of multiple dimensions of behavioral health functioning. Specifically, we identified a 4-factor model solution that represented key domains of work-related behavioral health functioning. These results guided the development and scale formation of a new SSA-BH instrument. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Latino parent acculturation stress: Longitudinal effects on family functioning and youth emotional and behavioral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Meca, Alan; Unger, Jennifer B; Romero, Andrea; Gonzales-Backen, Melinda; Piña-Watson, Brandy; Cano, Miguel Ángel; Zamboanga, Byron L; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Soto, Daniel W; Villamar, Juan A; Lizzi, Karina M; Pattarroyo, Monica; Schwartz, Seth J

    2016-12-01

    Latino parents can experience acculturation stressors, and according to the Family Stress Model (FSM), parent stress can influence youth mental health and substance use by negatively affecting family functioning. To understand how acculturation stressors come together and unfold over time to influence youth mental health and substance use outcomes, the current study investigated the trajectory of a latent parent acculturation stress factor and its influence on youth mental health and substance use via parent-and youth-reported family functioning. Data came from a 6-wave, school-based survey with 302 recent (stress loaded onto a latent factor of acculturation stress at each of the first 4 time points. Earlier levels of and increases in parent acculturation stress predicted worse youth-reported family functioning. Additionally, earlier levels of parent acculturation stress predicted worse parent-reported family functioning and increases in parent acculturation stress predicted better parent-reported family functioning. While youth-reported positive family functioning predicted higher self-esteem, lower symptoms of depression, and lower aggressive and rule-breaking behavior in youth, parent-reported family positive functioning predicted lower youth alcohol and cigarette use. Findings highlight the need for Latino youth preventive interventions to target parent acculturation stress and family functioning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Organization of intrinsic functional brain connectivity predicts decisions to reciprocate social behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceda, Ricardo; James, G Andrew; Gutman, David A; Kilts, Clinton D

    2015-10-01

    Reciprocation of trust exchanges is central to the development of interpersonal relationships and societal well-being. Understanding how humans make pro-social and self-centered decisions in dyadic interactions and how to predict these choices has been an area of great interest in social neuroscience. A functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) based technology with potential clinical application is the study of resting state brain connectivity. We tested if resting state connectivity may predict choice behavior in a social context. Twenty-nine healthy adults underwent resting state fMRI before performing the Trust Game, a two person monetary exchange game. We assessed the ability of patterns of resting-state functional brain organization, demographic characteristics and a measure of moral development, the Defining Issues Test (DIT-2), to predict individuals' decisions to reciprocate money during the Trust Game. Subjects reciprocated in 74.9% of the trials. Independent component analysis identified canonical resting-state networks. Increased functional connectivity between the salience (bilateral insula/anterior cingulate) and central executive (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex/ posterior parietal cortex) networks significantly predicted the choice to reciprocate pro-social behavior (R(2) = 0.20, p = 0.015). Stepwise linear regression analysis showed that functional connectivity between these two networks (p = 0.002), age (p = 0.007) and DIT-2 personal interest schema score (p = 0.032) significantly predicted reciprocity behavior (R(2) = 0.498, p = 0.001). Intrinsic functional connectivity between neural networks in conjunction with other individual characteristics may be a valuable tool for predicting performance during social interactions. Future replication and temporal extension of these findings may bolster the understanding of decision making in clinical, financial and marketing settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Consistent Individual Differences Drive Collective Behavior and Group Functioning of Schooling Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolles, Jolle W; Boogert, Neeltje J; Sridhar, Vivek H; Couzin, Iain D; Manica, Andrea

    2017-09-25

    The ubiquity of consistent inter-individual differences in behavior ("animal personalities") [1, 2] suggests that they might play a fundamental role in driving the movements and functioning of animal groups [3, 4], including their collective decision-making, foraging performance, and predator avoidance. Despite increasing evidence that highlights their importance [5-16], we still lack a unified mechanistic framework to explain and to predict how consistent inter-individual differences may drive collective behavior. Here we investigate how the structure, leadership, movement dynamics, and foraging performance of groups can emerge from inter-individual differences by high-resolution tracking of known behavioral types in free-swimming stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) shoals. We show that individual's propensity to stay near others, measured by a classic "sociability" assay, was negatively linked to swim speed across a range of contexts, and predicted spatial positioning and leadership within groups as well as differences in structure and movement dynamics between groups. In turn, this trait, together with individual's exploratory tendency, measured by a classic "boldness" assay, explained individual and group foraging performance. These effects of consistent individual differences on group-level states emerged naturally from a generic model of self-organizing groups composed of individuals differing in speed and goal-orientedness. Our study provides experimental and theoretical evidence for a simple mechanism to explain the emergence of collective behavior from consistent individual differences, including variation in the structure, leadership, movement dynamics, and functional capabilities of groups, across social and ecological scales. In addition, we demonstrate individual performance is conditional on group composition, indicating how social selection may drive behavioral differentiation between individuals. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by

  9. A structured assessment of motor function, behavior, and communication in patients with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Heidi E; Bergsaker, David K; Hunn, Bente S; Schmidt, Susanne; Hoxmark, Lise B

    2017-11-01

    The present study aimed to increase the knowledge about Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS), especially concerning motor function, autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and adapted behavior, but also regarding clinical symptoms in general. Motor function was evaluated via systematic observation. Standardized assessments such as the Vineland Adapted Behavior Scales II (VABS II), the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ), and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) or Adult Behavior Checklist (ABCL) were used for the behavioral assessment. In total, two males and eight females between one and 48 years of age with a genetically confirmed diagnosis of WHS and their parents participated in this study. Deletion sizes were known for seven of the ten patients and varied between 55 Kb and 20 Mb. The chromosome coordinates were known for six of them, and none of those had the same break points in their deletion. The main finding in this study was that patients with WHS may have a better outcome regarding motor skills and expressive communication than previously described. We could confirm the main medical findings described earlier, but found also a population with a less severe dysmorphology, fewer congenital malformations, and fewer medical challenges than expected. Sleep problems may persist into adulthood and need a more thorough investigation. Research on possible indications of ASD is strongly needed for targeted interventions. In conclusion, a more thorough assessment of communication, possible ASD, and sleep in larger groups of patients with WHS are needed to confirm and further investigate the findings from this study and to provide more targeted interventions for WHS patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Anomalous brain functional connectivity contributing to poor adaptive behavior in Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol, Jesus; del Hoyo, Laura; Blanco-Hinojo, Laura; de Sola, Susana; Macià, Dídac; Martínez-Vilavella, Gerard; Amor, Marta; Deus, Joan; Rodríguez, Joan; Farré, Magí; Dierssen, Mara; de la Torre, Rafael

    2015-03-01

    Research in Down syndrome has substantially progressed in the understanding of the effect of gene overexpression at the molecular level, but there is a paucity of information on the ultimate consequences on overall brain functional organization. We have assessed the brain functional status in Down syndrome using functional connectivity MRI. Resting-state whole-brain connectivity degree maps were generated in 20 Down syndrome individuals and 20 control subjects to identify sites showing anomalous synchrony with other areas. A subsequent region-of-interest mapping served to detail the anomalies and to assess their potential contribution to poor adaptive behavior. Down syndrome individuals showed higher regional connectivity in a ventral brain system involving the amygdala/anterior temporal region and the ventral aspect of both the anterior cingulate and frontal cortices. By contrast, lower functional connectivity was identified in dorsal executive networks involving dorsal prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices and posterior insula. Both functional connectivity increases and decreases contributed to account for patient scoring on adaptive behavior related to communication skills. The data overall suggest a distinctive functional organization with system-specific anomalies associated with reduced adaptive efficiency. Opposite effects were identified on distinct frontal and anterior temporal structures and relative sparing of posterior brain areas, which is generally consistent with Down syndrome cognitive profile. Relevantly, measurable connectivity changes, as a marker of the brain functional anomaly, could have a role in the development of therapeutic strategies addressed to improve the quality of life in Down syndrome individuals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Executive functioning and risk-taking behavior in Parkinson's disease patients with impulse control disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineau, Fanny; Roze, Emmanuel; Lacomblez, Lucette; Bonnet, Anne-Marie; Vidailhet, Marie; Czernecki, Virginie; Corvol, Jean-Christophe

    2016-06-01

    Impulse control disorders (ICD) are common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and are associated with dopaminergic medication. The purpose of this study was to investigate executive function and risk-taking behavior in PD patients with ICD. 17 PD patients with ICD (ICD-PD) were compared to 20 PD patients without ICD (CTRL-PD) using neuropsychological and experimental tasks. Executive functions were assessed using standard executive testing (Conner's Performance Test, Modified Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Trail Making Test and phonological verbal fluency). Subjects were also submitted to an experimental gambling task consisted of three decks of money cards: neutral deck (equal opportunity for gains as losses), winning deck (small amount of money with a positive balance) and loser deck (high amount of money with a negative balance), evaluating risk-taking behavior (number of cards picked in each deck) and valuation of the reward (subjective appreciation of the value of each deck). There was no significant difference in executive functioning between groups. Both groups selected more cards in the losing deck (high amount of money) as compared to the neutral deck (Mann-Whitney test, ICD-PD, p = 0.02; CTRL-PD, p = 0.003) and to the winning deck (Mann-Whitney test, ICD-PD p = 0.0001; CTRL-PD p = 0.003), suggesting an increased risk-taking behavior. Interestingly, we found that ICD-PD patients estimated the value of decks differently from CTRL-PD patients, taking into account mainly the positive reinforced value of the decks (Mann-Whitney test, p = 0.04). This study showed that executive pattern and risk-taking behavior are similar between ICD-PD and CTRL-PD patients. However, ICD-PD patients showed a specific deficit of the subjective estimation of the reward. Links between this deficit and metacognitive skills are discussed.

  12. Twelve-month follow-up of cognitive behavioral therapy for children with functional abdominal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Rona L; Langer, Shelby L; Walker, Lynn S; Romano, Joan M; Christie, Dennis L; Youssef, Nader; DuPen, Melissa M; Ballard, Sheri A; Labus, Jennifer; Welsh, Ericka; Feld, Lauren D; Whitehead, William E

    2013-02-01

    To determine whether a brief intervention for children with functional abdominal pain and their parents' responses to their child's pain resulted in improved coping 12 months later. Prospective, randomized, longitudinal study. Families were recruited during a 4-year period in Seattle, Washington, and Morristown, New Jersey. Two hundred children with persistent functional abdominal pain and their parents. A 3-session social learning and cognitive behavioral therapy intervention or an education and support intervention. Child symptoms and pain-coping responses were monitored using standard instruments, as was parental response to child pain behavior. Data were collected at baseline and after treatment (1 week and 3, 6, and 12 months after treatment). This article reports the 12-month data. Relative to children in the education and support group, children in the social learning and cognitive behavioral therapy group reported greater baseline to 12-month follow-up decreases in gastrointestinal symptom severity (estimated mean difference, -0.36; 95% CI, -0.63 to -0.01) and greater improvements in pain-coping responses (estimated mean difference, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.26 to 1.02). Relative to parents in the education and support group, parents in the social learning and cognitive behavioral therapy group reported greater baseline to 12-month decreases in solicitous responses to their child's symptoms (estimated mean difference, -0.22; 95% CI, -0.42 to -0.03) and greater decreases in maladaptive beliefs regarding their child's pain (estimated mean difference, -0.36; 95% CI, -0.59 to -0.13). Results suggest long-term efficacy of a brief intervention to reduce parental solicitousness and increase coping skills. This strategy may be a viable alternative for children with functional abdominal pain. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00494260.

  13. Executive functioning and substance use in adolescence: Neurobiological and behavioral perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Kahn, Rachel E; Lauharatanahirun, Nina; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Bickel, Warren K; Chiu, Pearl H; King-Casas, Brooks

    2017-06-01

    The current review is guided by the theoretical perspective that emphasizes the regulating role of executive functioning (Carver et al., 2009) and presents studies that elucidate the ways that executive functioning (inhibition and working memory) explain individual differences in adolescent substance use independently or by regulating the reactive system (reward and punishment sensitivity). Behavioral studies indicate that main effects of executive functioning on adolescent substance use are often nonsignificant or weak in effect sizes. In contrast, emerging evidence suggests consistent and stronger regulating effects of executive functioning over reward and punishment sensitivity. Functional neuroimaging studies reveal significant associations between executive functioning task-related hemodynamic responses and substance use with strong effect sizes. There is also direct evidence from studies testing statistical interactions of the regulating effects of EF-related brain activation, and indirect evidence in studies examining functional connectivity, temporal discounting, and reinforced control. We note key future directions and ways to address limitations in existing work. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Brain Genomics Superstruct Project initial data release with structural, functional, and behavioral measures.

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    Holmes, Avram J; Hollinshead, Marisa O; O'Keefe, Timothy M; Petrov, Victor I; Fariello, Gabriele R; Wald, Lawrence L; Fischl, Bruce; Rosen, Bruce R; Mair, Ross W; Roffman, Joshua L; Smoller, Jordan W; Buckner, Randy L

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the Brain Genomics Superstruct Project (GSP) is to enable large-scale exploration of the links between brain function, behavior, and ultimately genetic variation. To provide the broader scientific community data to probe these associations, a repository of structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans linked to genetic information was constructed from a sample of healthy individuals. The initial release, detailed in the present manuscript, encompasses quality screened cross-sectional data from 1,570 participants ages 18 to 35 years who were scanned with MRI and completed demographic and health questionnaires. Personality and cognitive measures were obtained on a subset of participants. Each dataset contains a T1-weighted structural MRI scan and either one (n=1,570) or two (n=1,139) resting state functional MRI scans. Test-retest reliability datasets are included from 69 participants scanned within six months of their initial visit. For the majority of participants self-report behavioral and cognitive measures are included (n=926 and n=892 respectively). Analyses of data quality, structure, function, personality, and cognition are presented to demonstrate the dataset's utility.

  15. Diagnoses, Intervention Strategies, and Rates of Functional Improvement in Integrated Behavioral Health Care Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Ana J.; Gregus, Samantha J.; Rodriguez, Juventino Hernandez; Andrews, Arthur R.; Villalobos, Bianca T.; Pastrana, Freddie A.; Cavell, Timothy A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Compared with more traditional mental health care, integrated behavioral health care (IBHC) offers greater access to services and earlier identification and intervention of behavioral and mental health difficulties. The current study examined demographic, diagnostic, and intervention factors that predict positive changes for IBHC patients. Method Participants were 1,150 consecutive patients (mean age = 30.10 years, 66.6% female, 60.1% Hispanic, 47.9% uninsured) seen for IBHC services at 2 primary care clinics over a 34-month period. Patients presented with depressive (23.2%), anxiety (18.6%), adjustment (11.3%), and childhood externalizing (7.6%) disorders, with 25.7% of patients receiving no diagnosis. Results The most commonly delivered interventions included behavioral activation (26.1%), behavioral medicine-specific consultation (14.6%), relaxation training (10.3%), and parent-management training (8.5%). There was high concordance between diagnoses and evidence-based intervention selection. We used latent growth curve modeling to explore predictors of baseline global assessment of functioning (GAF) and improvements in GAF across sessions, utilizing data from a subset of 117 patients who attended at least 3 behavioral health visits. Hispanic ethnicity and being insured predicted higher baseline GAF, while patients with an anxiety disorder had lower baseline GAF than patients with other diagnoses. Controlling for primary diagnosis, patients receiving behavioral activation or exposure therapy improved at faster rates than patients receiving other interventions. Demographic variables did not relate to rates of improvement. Conclusion Results suggest even brief IBHC interventions can be focused, targeting specific patient concerns with evidence-based treatment components. PMID:25774786

  16. Selective Fair Behavior as a Function of Psychopathic Traits in a Subclinical Population

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    Takahiro Osumi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Psychopathy is a group of personality traits that are associated with violations of social norms. Previous studies have suggested that people with psychopathic traits in subclinical populations do not necessarily display antisocial, self-defeating behaviors, and instead may strategically show adaptive behaviors in response to cues during reciprocal social interactions. Therefore, in the present study, we examined whether the association between psychopathic traits and unfair behavior can be moderated by a potential for punishment and social distance (anonymity, which are known to facilitate fair behavior. We focused on two psychopathic traits: primary and secondary psychopathy. Primary psychopathy is characterized by callousness, shallow affect, manipulation, and superficial charm. In contrast, secondary psychopathy is associated with impulsivity and lack of long-term goals, and is related to hostile behavior. A total of 348 undergraduate students determined the amounts of money that they would offer to strangers or friends at their university in hypothetical scenarios of the ultimatum game (UG and the dictator game (DG. While gender affected decisions in the hypothetical scenarios of the DG, it did not interact with psychopathic traits. The score for primary psychopathy on the Levenson self-report psychopathy scale predicted unfair monetary offers to strangers in the DG, where participants could not be punished. However, compared with their offers in the DG, individuals with higher scores for primary psychopathy made larger offers in the UG, where low offers could trigger punishment from the recipient. Moreover, primary psychopathy did not decrease the amounts of offers in either game when the participant considered the recipient to be a friend. On the other hand, secondary psychopathy was not associated with differences in behavioral fairness depending on a potential for punishment or social distance. Based on these findings, we discuss

  17. An Investigation of the Impact of Function of Problem Behavior on Effectiveness of the Behavior Education Program (BEP)

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    Hawken, Leanne S.; O'Neill, Robert E.; MacLeod, K. Sandra

    2011-01-01

    The Behavior Education Program (BEP) is a check-in, check-out intervention implemented with students who are at-risk for engaging in more severe problem behavior. Previous research with middle and elementary school students found that the BEP was more effective with students who had adult attention maintained problem behavior. The purposes of this…

  18. The scaling behavior of hand motions reveals self-organization during an executive function task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastas, Jason R.; Stephen, Damian G.; Dixon, James A.

    2011-05-01

    Recent approaches to cognition explain cognitive phenomena in terms of interaction-dominant dynamics. In the current experiment, we extend this approach to executive function, a construct used to describe flexible, goal-oriented behavior. Participants were asked to perform a widely used executive function task, card sorting, under two conditions. In one condition, participants were given a rule with which to sort the cards. In the other condition, participants had to induce the rule from experimenter feedback. The motion of each participant’s hand was tracked during the sorting task. Detrended fluctuation analysis was performed on the inter-point time series using a windowing strategy to capture changes over each trial. For participants in the induction condition, the Hurst exponent sharply increased and then decreased. The Hurst exponents for the explicit condition did not show this pattern. Our results suggest that executive function may be understood in terms of changes in stability that arise from interaction-dominant dynamics.

  19. Food supplementation and testosterone interact to influence reproductive behavior and immune function in Sceloporus graciosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Mayté; French, Susannah S; Demas, Gregory E; Martins, Emília P

    2010-02-01

    The energetic resources in an organism's environment are essential for executing a wide range of life-history functions, including immunity and reproduction. Most energetic budgets, however, are limited, which can lead to trade-offs among competing functions. Increasing reproductive effort tends to decrease immunity in many cases, and increasing total energy via supplemental feedings can eliminate this effect. Testosterone (T), an important regulator of reproduction, and food availability are thus both potential factors regulating life-history processes, yet they are often tested in isolation of each other. In this study, we considered the effect of both food availability and elevated T on immune function and reproductive behavior in sagebrush lizards, Sceloporus graciosus, to assess how T and energy availability affect these trade-offs. We experimentally manipulated diet (via supplemental feedings) and T (via dermal patches) in males from a natural population. We determined innate immune response by calculating the bacterial killing capability of collected plasma exposed to Escherichia coli ex vivo. We measured reproductive behavior by counting the number of courtship displays produced in a 20-min sampling period. We observed an interactive effect of food availability and T-patch on immune function, with food supplementation increasing immunity in T-patch lizards. Additionally, T increased courtship displays in control food lizards. Lizards with supplemental food had higher circulating T than controls. Collectively, this study shows that the energetic state of the animal plays a critical role in modulating the interactions among T, behavior and immunity in sagebrush lizards and likely other species. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Intellectual, Adaptive, and Behavioral Functioning in Children with Urea Cycle Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivitzky, Lauren; Babikian, Talin; Lee, HyeSeung; Thomas, Nina Hattiangadi; Burk-Paull, Karen L.; Batshaw, Mark L.

    2009-01-01

    Inborn errors of urea synthesis lead to an accumulation of ammonia in blood and brain, and result in high rates of mortality and neurodevelopmental disability. The current study seeks to characterize the cognitive, adaptive, and emotional/behavioral functioning of children with Urea Cycle Disorders (UCDs). These domains were measured through testing and parent questionnaires in 92 children with UCDs (33 neonatal onset, 59 late onset). Results indicate that children who present with neonatal onset have poorer outcome than those who present later in childhood. Approximately half of the children with neonatal onset performed in the range of intellectual disability (ID), including a substantial number (~30%) who were severely impaired. In comparison, only a quarter of the late onset group were in the range of ID. There is also evidence that the UCD group has difficulties in aspects of emotional/behavioral and executive skills domains. In conclusion, children with UCDs present with a wide spectrum of cognitive outcomes. Children with neonatal onset disease have a much higher likelihood of having an intellectual disability, which becomes even more evident with increasing age. However, even children with late onset UCDs demonstrate evidence of neurocognitive and behavioral impairment, particularly in aspects of attention and executive functioning. PMID:19287347

  1. Impact of Sexual Deprivation on Sexual Behavior and Some Reproductive-Endocrinal Functions in Albino Rats

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    Sadek S. Abd El Moghny

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of stress on the sexual behavior and its pathophysiological effects on some reproductive and endocrine functions in albino rats. Methods: One hundred and twenty albino rats were included and divided into a control groupand three exper-imental sub-groups, which were subjected to sexual stress. Female rats were investigated for the cytological changes in the phases of the estrous cycle. All rats were observed for behavioral changes throughout the experiment. Histopathological examination of the thyroid, testes and ovaries and the assessment of thyroid and gonadal hormones in the sera of control and experimental rats were performed. Results: Cytological examination revealed stopped estrous cycle in the diestrous phase in all female rats. Thyroid hormones revealed a decrease in the levels of triiodothyronine and thyroxin; however, non-significant changes were detected in the thyroid-stimulating hormone level in experimental rats compared to the controls. Gonadal hormones revealed a great discrepancy in their levels among both sexes. Conclusions: The results of the present study show that sexual excitation is one of the stressful factors affecting sexual behavior, hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axes as well as sex organs with secretory functions. Therefore, it is considered as a socio-pathological factor that needs more specific studies to further clarify its effects.

  2. Multiresponsive Behavior of Functional Poly(p-phenylene vinylenes in Water

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    Kanykei Ryskulova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The multiresponsive behavior of functionalized water-soluble conjugated polymers (CPs is presented with potential applications for sensors. In this study, we investigated the aqueous solubility behavior of water-soluble CPs with high photoluminescence and with a particular focus on their pH and temperature responsiveness. For this purpose, two poly(phenylene vinylenes (PPVs—namely 2,5-substituted PPVs bearing both carboxylic acid and methoxyoligoethylene glycol units—were investigated, with different amount of carboxylic acid units. Changes in the pH and temperature of polymer solutions led to a response in the fluorescence intensity in a pH range from 3 to 10 and for temperatures ranging from 10 to 85 °C. Additionally, it is demonstrated that the polymer with the largest number of carboxylic acid groups displays upper critical solution temperature (UCST-like thermoresponsive behavior in the presence of a divalent ion like Ca2+. The sensing capability of these water-soluble PPVs could be utilized to design smart materials with multiresponsive behavior in biomedicine and soft materials.

  3. [Formula: see text]Executive functions and social information processing in adolescents with severe behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nieuwenhuijzen, M; Van Rest, M M; Embregts, P J C M; Vriens, A; Oostermeijer, S; Van Bokhoven, I; Matthys, W

    2017-02-01

    One tradition in research for explaining aggression and antisocial behavior has focused on social information processing (SIP). Aggression and antisocial behavior have also been studied from the perspective of executive functions (EFs), the higher-order cognitive abilities that affect other cognitive processes, such as social cognitive processes. The main goal of the present study is to provide insight into the relation between EFs and SIP in adolescents with severe behavior problems. Because of the hierarchical relation between EFs and SIP, we examined EFs as predictors of SIP. We hypothesized that, first, focused attention predicts encoding and interpretation, second, inhibition predicts interpretation, response generation, evaluation, and selection, and third, working memory predicts response generation and selection. The participants consisted of 94 respondents living in residential facilities aged 12-20 years, all showing behavior problems in the clinical range according to care staff. EFs were assessed using subtests from the Amsterdam Neuropsychological Test battery. Focused attention was measured by the Flanker task, inhibition by the GoNoGo task, and working memory by the Visual Spatial Sequencing task. SIP was measured by video vignettes and a structured interview. The results indicate that positive evaluation of aggressive responses is predicted by impaired inhibition and selection of aggressive responses by a combination of impaired focused attention and inhibition. It is concluded that different components of EFs as higher-order cognitive abilities affect SIP.

  4. Wired for behavior: from development to function of innate limbic system circuitry

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    Katie eSokolowski

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The limbic system of the brain regulates a number of behaviors that are essential for the survival of all vertebrate species including humans. The limbic system predominantly controls appropriate responses to stimuli with social, emotional or motivational salience, which includes innate behaviors such as mating, aggression and defense. Activation of circuits regulating these innate behaviors begins in the periphery with sensory stimulation (primarily via the olfactory system in rodents, and is then processed in the brain by a set of delineated structures that primarily includes the amygdala and hypothalamus. While the basic neuroanatomy of these connections is well established, much remains unknown about how information is processed within innate circuits and how genetic hierarchies regulate development and function of these circuits. Utilizing innovative technologies including channel rhodopsin-based circuit manipulation and genetic manipulation in rodents, recent studies have begun to answer these central questions. In this article we review the current understanding of how limbic circuits regulate sexually dimorphism and how these circuits are established and shaped during pre- and post-natal development. We also discuss how understanding developmental processes of innate circuit formation may inform behavioral alterations observed in neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders, which are characterized by limbic system dysfunction.

  5. Executive cognitive functions and impulsivity as correlates of risk taking and problem behavior in preadolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romer, Daniel; Betancourt, Laura; Giannetta, Joan M; Brodsky, Nancy L; Farah, Martha; Hurt, Hallam

    2009-11-01

    Initiation of drug use and other risky behavior in preadolescence is associated with poor developmental outcomes. In this research, we examine models that ascribe the trajectory to (a) weak executive cognitive function (ECF), (b) early manifestation of externalizing problems, or (c) heightened levels of trait impulsivity. We test the explanatory power of these factors in a structural equation model with a community sample of 387 preadolescents ages 10-12 years. Participants were tested with a computerized battery of tasks to assess three facets of ECF (working memory, cognitive control, and reward processing) as well as with an audio assisted computerized self-interview to obtain reports of impulsivity and risk behaviors (use of cigarettes and alcohol as well as engaging in fighting and gambling for money) and a self-administered questionnaire to assess externalizing and internalizing problems. The best fitting model explained both early risk taking and externalizing symptoms as the result of individual differences in impulsivity. Although no ECF was directly related to risk taking, working memory and one measure of reward processing performance (reversal learning) were inversely related to impulsivity. The results are discussed in regard to theories of early risk taking with particular focus on the potential relation between ECF and impulsive behavior tendencies and the implications for early intervention to prevent the dysfunctional trajectory associated with early risk behavior.

  6. Cognitive behavioral therapy changes functional connectivity between medial prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Shinpei; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Matsunaga, Miki; Onoda, Keiichi; Okada, Go; Kunisato, Yoshihiko; Yoshino, Atsuo; Ueda, Kazutaka; Suzuki, Shin-Ichi; Yamawaki, Shigeto

    2017-01-15

    Depression is characterized by negative self-cognition. Our previous study (Yoshimura et al. 2014) revealed changes in brain activity after cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression, but changes in functional connectivity were not assessed. This study included 29 depressive patients and 15 healthy control participants. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging was used to investigate possible CBT-related functional connectivity changes associated with negative emotional self-referential processing. Depressed and healthy participants (overlapping with our previous study, Yoshimura et al. 2014) were included. We defined a seed region (medial prefrontal cortex) and coupled region (ACC) based on our previous study, and we examined changes in MPFC-ACC functional connectivity from pretreatment to posttreatment. CBT was associated with reduced functional connectivity between the MPFC and ACC. Symptom change with CBT was positively correlated with change in MPFC-ACC functional connectivity. Patients received pharmacotherapy including antidepressant. The present sample size was quite small and more study is needed. Statistical threshold in fMRI analysis was relatively liberal. CBT for depression may disrupt MPFC-ACC connectivity, with associated improvements in depressive symptoms and dysfunctional cognition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Prenatal and childhood traffic-related air pollution exposure and childhood executive function and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Maria H; Gold, Diane R; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Melly, Steven J; Zanobetti, Antonella; Coull, Brent A; Schwartz, Joel D; Gryparis, Alexandros; Kloog, Itai; Koutrakis, Petros; Bellinger, David C; Belfort, Mandy B; Webster, Thomas F; White, Roberta F; Sagiv, Sharon K; Oken, Emily

    Traffic-related air pollution exposure may influence brain development and function and thus be related to neurobehavioral problems in children, but little is known about windows of susceptibility. Examine associations of gestational and childhood exposure to traffic-related pollution with executive function and behavior problems in children. We studied associations of pre- and postnatal pollution exposures with neurobehavioral outcomes in 1212 children in the Project Viva pre-birth cohort followed to mid-childhood (median age 7.7years). Parents and classroom teachers completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Using validated spatiotemporal models, we estimated exposure to black carbon (BC) and fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) in the third trimester of pregnancy, from birth to 3years, from birth to 6years, and in the year before behavioral ratings. We also measured residential distance to major roadways and near-residence traffic density at birth and in mid-childhood. We estimated associations of BC, PM 2.5 , and other traffic exposure measures with BRIEF and SDQ scores, adjusted for potential confounders. Higher childhood BC exposure was associated with higher teacher-rated BRIEF Behavioral Regulation Index (BRI) scores, indicating greater problems: 1.0 points (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.0, 2.1) per interquartile range (IQR) increase in birth-age 6BC, and 1.7 points (95% CI: 0.6, 2.8) for BC in the year prior to behavioral ratings. Mid-childhood residential traffic density was also associated with BRI score (0.6, 95% CI: 0.1, 1.1). Birth-age 3BC was not associated with BRIEF or SDQ scores. Third trimester BC exposure was not associated with teacher-rated BRI scores (-0.2, 95% CI: -1.1, 0.8), and predicted lower scores (fewer problems) on the BRIEF Metacognition Index (-1.2, 95% CI: -2.2, -0.2) and SDQ total difficulties (-0.9, 95% CI: -1.4, -0.4). PM 2.5 exposure was

  8. Function of chemo- and mechanoreceptors in lobster (Homarus americanus) feeding behavior

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    Derby, C D; Atema, J

    1982-01-01

    The behavior of lobsters preying on live mussels (Mytilus edulis) was observed before and after chemosensory-mechanosensory deafferentation of different sensory appendages. Deafferentation of the antennules, leg tips, or maxillipeds (but not the carapace or proximal leg segments) interfered with feeding performance by causing an increase in the time necessary to crush a mussel after search initiation. In addition, deafferentation of the leg tips or the maxillipeds caused a decline in number of mussels crushed but for different reasons. Deafferentation of leg chemoreceptors resulted in the same behavioural deficiencies as deafferentation of leg chemo- and mechanoreceptors, demonstrating that it is the leg chemoreceptors that are essential in releasing this grasping response. Chemoreceptors on different appendages of lobsters therefore fulfill different functional roles in their feeding behavior.

  9. How Oral Contraceptives Impact Social-Emotional Behavior and Brain Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Estrella R; Bos, Peter A

    2017-02-01

    Millions of women worldwide use oral contraceptives ('the pill'; OCs), often starting at a pubertal age when their brains are in a crucial developmental stage. Research into the social-emotional effects of OCs is of utmost importance. In this review, we provide an overview of studies that have emerged over the past decade investigating how OCs, and their main ingredients estradiol (E) and progesterone (P), influence social-emotional behaviors and underlying brain functions. Based on this overview, we present a heuristic model that postulates that OCs modulate core social-emotional behaviors and brain systems. Research domains and challenges for the future, as well as implications, are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The relations of children's dispositional prosocial behavior to emotionality, regulation, and social functioning.

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    Eisenberg, N; Fabes, R A; Karbon, M; Murphy, B C; Wosinski, M; Polazzi, L; Carlo, G; Juhnke, C

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relations of a measure of children's dispositional prosocial behavior (i.e., peer nominations) to individual differences in children's negative emotionality, regulation, and social functioning. Children with prosocial reputations tended to be high in constructive social skills (i.e., socially appropriate behavior and constructive coping) and attentional regulation, and low in negative emotionality. The relations of children's negative emotionality to prosocial reputation were moderated by level of dispositional attentional regulation. In addition, the relations of prosocial reputation to constructive social skills and parent-reported negative emotionality (for girls) increased with age. Vagal tone, a marker of physiological regulation, was negatively related to girls' prosocial reputation.

  11. Promoting social behavior with oxytocin in high-functioning autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andari, Elissar; Duhamel, Jean-René; Zalla, Tiziana; Herbrecht, Evelyn; Leboyer, Marion; Sirigu, Angela

    2010-03-02

    Social adaptation requires specific cognitive and emotional competences. Individuals with high-functioning autism or with Asperger syndrome cannot understand or engage in social situations despite preserved intellectual abilities. Recently, it has been suggested that oxytocin, a hormone known to promote mother-infant bonds, may be implicated in the social deficit of autism. We investigated the behavioral effects of oxytocin in 13 subjects with autism. In a simulated ball game where participants interacted with fictitious partners, we found that after oxytocin inhalation, patients exhibited stronger interactions with the most socially cooperative partner and reported enhanced feelings of trust and preference. Also, during free viewing of pictures of faces, oxytocin selectively increased patients' gazing time on the socially informative region of the face, namely the eyes. Thus, under oxytocin, patients respond more strongly to others and exhibit more appropriate social behavior and affect, suggesting a therapeutic potential of oxytocin through its action on a core dimension of autism.

  12. Predictors of child functioning and problem behaviors for children diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder and externalizing problems.

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    Nabors, Laura; Baker-Phibbs, Christina; Burbage, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder and behavioral disorders are related to problems in emotional functioning for young children. Factors related to child functioning are important to understand in order to develop interventions and assess their impact. This study examined clinician and parent reports of child functioning and behavior problems and factors related to each of these outcome variables. Results indicated that parental acceptance was inversely related to child behavior problems. Increased parental supervision of the child was related to high total problems scores. Parental acceptance was positively related to child functioning. Future research is needed to examine relations among interventions to improve parental supervision and interactions with the child and child functioning, in terms of both positive and negative behaviors.

  13. The serotonergic central nervous system of the Drosophila larva: anatomy and behavioral function.

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    Annina Huser

    Full Text Available The Drosophila larva has turned into a particularly simple model system for studying the neuronal basis of innate behaviors and higher brain functions. Neuronal networks involved in olfaction, gustation, vision and learning and memory have been described during the last decade, often up to the single-cell level. Thus, most of these sensory networks are substantially defined, from the sensory level up to third-order neurons. This is especially true for the olfactory system of the larva. Given the wealth of genetic tools in Drosophila it is now possible to address the question how modulatory systems interfere with sensory systems and affect learning and memory. Here we focus on the serotonergic system that was shown to be involved in mammalian and insect sensory perception as well as learning and memory. Larval studies suggested that the serotonergic system is involved in the modulation of olfaction, feeding, vision and heart rate regulation. In a dual anatomical and behavioral approach we describe the basic anatomy of the larval serotonergic system, down to the single-cell level. In parallel, by expressing apoptosis-inducing genes during embryonic and larval development, we ablate most of the serotonergic neurons within the larval central nervous system. When testing these animals for naïve odor, sugar, salt and light perception, no profound phenotype was detectable; even appetitive and aversive learning was normal. Our results provide the first comprehensive description of the neuronal network of the larval serotonergic system. Moreover, they suggest that serotonin per se is not necessary for any of the behaviors tested. However, our data do not exclude that this system may modulate or fine-tune a wide set of behaviors, similar to its reported function in other insect species or in mammals. Based on our observations and the availability of a wide variety of genetic tools, this issue can now be addressed.

  14. Sex on the brain: Are gender-dependent structural and functional differences associated with behavior?

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    Grabowska, Anna

    2017-01-02

    A substantial number of studies provide evidence documenting a variety of sex differences in the brain. It remains unclear whether sexual differentiation at the neural level is related to that observed in daily behavior, cognitive function, and the risk of developing certain psychiatric and neurological disorders. Some investigators have questioned whether the brain is truly sexually differentiated and support this view with several arguments including the following: (1) brain structural or functional differences are not necessarily reflected in appropriate differences at the behavioral level, which might suggest that these two phenomena are not linked to each other; and (2) sex-related differences in the brain are rather small and concern features that significantly overlap between males and females. This review polemicizes with those opinions and presents examples of sex-related local neural differences underpinning a variety of sex differences in behaviors, skills, and cognitive/emotional abilities. Although male/female brain differentiation may vary in pattern and scale, nonetheless, in some respects (e.g., relative local gray matter volumes) it can be substantial, taking the form of sexual dimorphism and involving large areas of the brain (the cortex in particular). A significant part of this review is devoted to arguing that some sex differences in the brain may serve to prevent (in the case where they are maladaptive), rather than to produce, differences at the behavioral/skill level. Specifically, some differences might result from compensatory mechanisms aimed at maintaining similar intellectual capacities across the sexes, despite the smaller average volume of the brain in females compared with males. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Organotins in Neuronal Damage, Brain Function, and Behavior: A Short Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Ferraz da Silva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The consequences of exposure to environmental contaminants have shown significant effects on brain function and behavior in different experimental models. The endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC present various classes of pollutants with potential neurotoxic actions, such as organotins (OTs. OTs have received special attention due to their toxic effects on the central nervous system, leading to abnormal mammalian neuroendocrine axis function. OTs are organometallic pollutants with a tin atom bound to one or more carbon atoms. OT exposure may occur through the food chain and/or contaminated water, since they have multiple applications in industry and agriculture. In addition, OTs have been used with few legal restrictions in the last decades, despite being highly toxic. In addition to their action as EDC, OTs can also cross the blood–brain barrier and show relevant neurotoxic effects, as observed in several animal model studies specifically involving the development of neurodegenerative processes, neuroinflammation, and oxidative stress. Thus, the aim of this short review is to summarize the toxic effects of the most common OT compounds, such as trimethyltin, tributyltin, triethyltin, and triphenyltin, on the brain with a focus on neuronal damage as a result of oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. We also aim to present evidence for the disruption of behavioral functions, neurotransmitters, and neuroendocrine pathways caused by OTs.

  16. The biological mechanisms and behavioral functions of opsin-based light detection by the skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Kelley

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Light detection not only forms the basis of vision (via visual retinal photoreceptors, but can also occur in other parts of the body, including many non-rod/non-cone ocular cells, the pineal complex, the deep brain, and the skin. Indeed, many of the photopigments (an opsin linked to a light-sensitive 11-cis retinal chromophore that mediate color vision in the eyes of vertebrates are also present in the skin of animals such as reptiles, amphibians, crustaceans and fishes (with related photoreceptive molecules present in cephalopods, providing a localized mechanism for light detection across the surface of the body. This form of non-visual photosensitivity may be particularly important for animals that can change their coloration by altering the dispersion of pigments within the chromatophores (pigment containing cells of the skin. Thus, skin coloration may be directly color matched or tuned to both the luminance and spectral properties of the local background environment, thereby facilitating behavioral functions such as camouflage, thermoregulation, and social signaling. This review examines the diversity and sensitivity of opsin-based photopigments present in the skin and considers their putative functional roles in mediating animal behavior. Furthermore, it discusses the potential underlying biochemical and molecular pathways that link shifts in environmental light to both photopigment expression and chromatophore photoresponses. Although photoreception that occurs independently of image formation remains poorly understood, this review highlights the important role of non-visual light detection in facilitating the multiple functions of animal coloration.

  17. Anatomy and behavioral function of serotonin receptors in Drosophila melanogaster larvae.

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    Annina Huser

    Full Text Available The biogenic amine serotonin (5-HT is an important neuroactive molecule in the central nervous system of the majority of animal phyla. 5-HT binds to specific G protein-coupled and ligand-gated ion receptors to regulate particular aspects of animal behavior. In Drosophila, as in many other insects this includes the regulation of locomotion and feeding. Due to its genetic amenability and neuronal simplicity the Drosophila larva has turned into a useful model for studying the anatomical and molecular basis of chemosensory behaviors. This is particularly true for the olfactory system, which is mostly described down to the synaptic level over the first three orders of neuronal information processing. Here we focus on the 5-HT receptor system of the Drosophila larva. In a bipartite approach consisting of anatomical and behavioral experiments we describe the distribution and the implications of individual 5-HT receptors on naïve and acquired chemosensory behaviors. Our data suggest that 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, and 5-HT7 are dispensable for larval naïve olfactory and gustatory choice behaviors as well as for appetitive and aversive associative olfactory learning and memory. In contrast, we show that 5-HT/5-HT2A signaling throughout development, but not as an acute neuronal function, affects associative olfactory learning and memory using high salt concentration as a negative unconditioned stimulus. These findings describe for the first time an involvement of 5-HT signaling in learning and memory in Drosophila larvae. In the longer run these results may uncover developmental, 5-HT dependent principles related to reinforcement processing possibly shared with adult Drosophila and other insects.

  18. Dynamical behavior of a three species food chain model with Beddington-DeAngelis functional response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naji, Raid Kamel; Balasim, Alla Tariq

    2007-01-01

    A three species food chain model with Beddington-DeAngelis functional response is investigated. The local stability analysis is carried out and global behavior is simulated numerically for a biologically feasible choice of parameters. The persistence conditions of a food chain model are established. The bifurcation diagrams are obtained for different parameters of the model after intensive numerical simulations. The results of simulations show that the model could exhibit chaotic dynamics for realistic and biologically feasible parametric values. Finally, the effect of immigration within prey species is investigated. It is observed that adding small amount of constant immigration to prey species stabilize the system

  19. [Neuropsychological models of autism spectrum disorders - behavioral evidence and functional imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziobek, Isabel; Bölte, Sven

    2011-03-01

    To review neuropsychological models of theory of mind (ToM), executive functions (EF), and central coherence (CC) as framework for cognitive abnormalities in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Behavioral and functional imaging studies are described that assess social-cognitive, emotional, and executive functions as well as locally oriented perception in ASD. Impairments in ToM and EF as well as alterations in CC are frequently replicated phenomena in ASD. Especially problems concerning social perception and ToM have high explanatory value for clinical symptomatology. Brain activation patterns differ between individuals with and without ASD for ToM, EF, und CC functions. An approach focussing on reduced cortical connectivity seems to be increasingly favored over explanations focussing on single affected brain sites. A better understanding of the complexities of ASD in future research demands the integration of clinical, neuropsychological, functional imaging, and molecular genetics evidence. Weaknesses in ToM and EF as well as strengths in detail-focussed perception should be used for individual intervention planning.

  20. Resting state functional connectivity differences between behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne eHafkemeijer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD and behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD are the most common types of early-onset dementia. Here, we apply resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to study functional brain connectivity differences between AD and bvFTD.We used resting state fMRI data of 31 AD patients, 25 bvFTD patients, and 29 controls. We studied functional connectivity throughout the entire brain, applying two different analysis techniques, studying network-to-region and region-to-region connectivity. A general linear model approach was used to study group differences, while controlling for physiological noise, age, gender, study center, and regional gray matter volume. Given gray matter differences, we observed decreased network-to-region connectivity in bvFTD between a lateral visual cortical network and lateral occipital and cuneal cortex, and b auditory system network and angular gyrus. In AD, we found decreased network-to-region connectivity between the dorsal visual stream network and lateral occipital and parietal opercular cortex. Region-to-region connectivity was decreased in bvFTD between superior temporal gyrus and cuneal, supracalcarine, intracalcarine cortex, and lingual gyrus. We showed that the pathophysiology of functional brain connectivity is different between AD and bvFTD. However, the group differences in functional connectivity are less abundant than has been shown in previous studies.

  1. Functional Analysis of Precursors for Serious Problem Behavior and Related Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, Nancy A.; Carr, Edward G.; Owen-DeSchryver, Jamie S.

    2008-01-01

    Precursor behaviors are innocuous behaviors that reliably precede the occurrence of problem behavior. Intervention efforts applied to precursors might prevent the occurrence of severe problem behavior. We examined the relationship between precursor behavior and problem behavior in three individuals with developmental disabilities. First, a…

  2. Children with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disabilities and Externalizing Behavior: Individual Characteristics, Family functioning and Treatment Effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Schuiringa, H.D.

    2014-01-01

    Children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities (MBID; IQ between 55 and 85 with problems in adaptive functioning) have been found to show higher rates of emotional and externalizing behavior problems and their externalizing behavior problems tend to persist over time, more so than those in peers with average intelligence (defined here as an IQ above 85). The processes underlying these externalizing behavior problems in children with MBID nevertheless largely remained unclear and e...

  3. Microglia and Beyond: Innate Immune Cells As Regulators of Brain Development and Behavioral Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn M. Lenz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Innate immune cells play a well-documented role in the etiology and disease course of many brain-based conditions, including multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, traumatic brain and spinal cord injury, and brain cancers. In contrast, it is only recently becoming clear that innate immune cells, primarily brain resident macrophages called microglia, are also key regulators of brain development. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding microglia in brain development, with particular emphasis on how microglia during development are distinct from microglia later in life. We also summarize the effects of early life perturbations on microglia function in the developing brain, the role that biological sex plays in microglia function, and the potential role that microglia may play in developmental brain disorders. Finally, given how new the field of developmental neuroimmunology is, we highlight what has yet to be learned about how innate immune cells shape the development of brain and behavior.

  4. Microglia and Beyond: Innate Immune Cells As Regulators of Brain Development and Behavioral Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Kathryn M; Nelson, Lars H

    2018-01-01

    Innate immune cells play a well-documented role in the etiology and disease course of many brain-based conditions, including multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, traumatic brain and spinal cord injury, and brain cancers. In contrast, it is only recently becoming clear that innate immune cells, primarily brain resident macrophages called microglia, are also key regulators of brain development. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding microglia in brain development, with particular emphasis on how microglia during development are distinct from microglia later in life. We also summarize the effects of early life perturbations on microglia function in the developing brain, the role that biological sex plays in microglia function, and the potential role that microglia may play in developmental brain disorders. Finally, given how new the field of developmental neuroimmunology is, we highlight what has yet to be learned about how innate immune cells shape the development of brain and behavior.

  5. Thermal shock resistance behavior of a functionally graded ceramic: Effects of finite cooling rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihe Jin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a semi-analytical model to explore the effects of cooling rate on the thermal shock resistance behavior of a functionally graded ceramic (FGC plate with a periodic array of edge cracks. The FGC is assumed to be a thermally heterogeneous material with constant elastic modulus and Poisson's ratio. The cooling rate applied at the FGC surface is modeled using a linear ramp function. An integral equation method and a closed form asymptotic temperature solution are employed to compute the thermal stress intensity factor (TSIF. The thermal shock residual strength and critical thermal shock of the FGC plate are obtained using the SIF criterion. Thermal shock simulations for an Al2O3/Si3N4 FGC indicate that a finite cooling rate leads to a significantly higher critical thermal shock than that under the sudden cooling condition. The residual strength, however, is relatively insensitive to the cooling rate.

  6. Photochemical modification of diamond powder with sulfur functionalities and its behavior on gold surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, T; Ohana, T; Hagiwara, Y; Tsubota, T

    2010-01-01

    A useful method of modifying the surface of diamond powders with sulfur-containing functionalities was developed by the use of the photolysis of elemental sulfur. The introduction of sulfur-containing functional groups on the diamond surfaces was confirmed by means of XPS, DRIFT and mass spectroscopy analyses. The sulfur-modified diamond powders exhibited surface-attachment behavior to gold surfaces through the sulfur-containing linkage. In brief, exposure of the modified diamond powders to gold colloids resulted in gold nanoparticles being attached to the diamond powders. Treatment of the modified diamond powders with gold thin film on Si substrate afforded alignment of surface-attached diamond powders through sulfur linkages by self-assembly.

  7. Corazonin neurons function in sexually dimorphic circuitry that shape behavioral responses to stress in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhao

    Full Text Available All organisms are confronted with dynamic environmental changes that challenge homeostasis, which is the operational definition of stress. Stress produces adaptive behavioral and physiological responses, which, in the Metazoa, are mediated through the actions of various hormones. Based on its associated phenotypes and its expression profiles, a candidate stress hormone in Drosophila is the corazonin neuropeptide. We evaluated the potential roles of corazonin in mediating stress-related changes in target behaviors and physiologies through genetic alteration of corazonin neuronal excitability. Ablation of corazonin neurons confers resistance to metabolic, osmotic, and oxidative stress, as measured by survival. Silencing and activation of corazonin neurons lead to differential lifespan under stress, and these effects showed a strong dependence on sex. Additionally, altered corazonin neuron physiology leads to fundamental differences in locomotor activity, and these effects were also sex-dependent. The dynamics of altered locomotor behavior accompanying stress was likewise altered in flies with altered corazonin neuronal function. We report that corazonin transcript expression is altered under starvation and osmotic stress, and that triglyceride and dopamine levels are equally impacted in corazonin neuronal alterations and these phenotypes similarly show significant sexual dimorphisms. Notably, these sexual dimorphisms map to corazonin neurons. These results underscore the importance of central peptidergic processing within the context of stress and place corazonin signaling as a critical feature of neuroendocrine events that shape stress responses and may underlie the inherent sexual dimorphic differences in stress responses.

  8. Shingles Immunity and Health Functioning in the Elderly: Tai Chi Chih as a Behavioral Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Irwin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Both the incidence and severity of herpes zoster (HZ or shingles increase markedly with increasing age in association with a decline in varicella zoster virus (VZV-specific immunity. Considerable evidence shows that behavioral stressors, prevalent in older adults, correlate with impairments of cellular immunity. Moreover, the presence of depressive symptoms in older adults is associated with declines in VZV-responder cell frequency (VZV-RCF, an immunological marker of shingles risk. In this review, we discuss recent findings that administration of a relaxation response-based intervention, tai chi chih (TCC, results in improvements in health functioning and immunity to VZV in older adults as compared with a control group. TCC is a slow moving meditation consisting of 20 separate standardized movements which can be readily used in elderly and medically compromised individuals. TCC offers standardized training and practice schedules, lending an important advantage over prior relaxation response-based therapies. Focus on older adults at increased risk for HZ and assay of VZV-specific immunity have implications for understanding the impact of behavioral factors and a behavioral intervention on a clinically relevant end-point and on the response of the immune system to infectious pathogens.

  9. The functional neuroanatomy of maternal love: mother's response to infant's attachment behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noriuchi, Madoka; Kikuchi, Yoshiaki; Senoo, Atsushi

    2008-02-15

    Maternal love, which may be the core of maternal behavior, is essential for the mother-infant attachment relationship and is important for the infant's development and mental health. However, little has been known about these neural mechanisms in human mothers. We examined patterns of maternal brain activation in response to infant cues using video clips. We performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measurements while 13 mothers viewed video clips, with no sound, of their own infant and other infants of approximately 16 months of age who demonstrated two different attachment behaviors (smiling at the infant's mother and crying for her). We found that a limited number of the mother's brain areas were specifically involved in recognition of the mother's own infant, namely orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), periaqueductal gray, anterior insula, and dorsal and ventrolateral parts of putamen. Additionally, we found the strong and specific mother's brain response for the mother's own infant's distress. The differential neural activation pattern was found in the dorsal region of OFC, caudate nucleus, right inferior frontal gyrus, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (PFC), anterior cingulate, posterior cingulate, thalamus, substantia nigra, posterior superior temporal sulcus, and PFC. Our results showed the highly elaborate neural mechanism mediating maternal love and diverse and complex maternal behaviors for vigilant protectiveness.

  10. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  11. Children with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disabilities and Externalizing Behavior: Individual Characteristics, Family functioning and Treatment Effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiringa, H.D.

    2014-01-01

    Children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities (MBID; IQ between 55 and 85 with problems in adaptive functioning) have been found to show higher rates of emotional and externalizing behavior problems and their externalizing behavior problems tend to persist over time, more so than those

  12. What Affects Academic Functioning in Secondary Special Education Students with Serious Emotional and/or Behavioral Problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattison, Richard E.; Blader, Joseph C.

    2013-01-01

    Concern is growing over the limited academic progress in special education students with emotional and/or behavioral disorders (EBD). We know little about how academic and behavioral factors interact in these students to affect their academic functioning. Therefore, potential associations were investigated over the course of one school year for…

  13. Working Memory, Attention, Inhibition, and Their Relation to Adaptive Functioning and Behavioral/Emotional Symptoms in School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuontela, Virve; Carlson, Synnove; Troberg, Anna-Maria; Fontell, Tuija; Simola, Petteri; Saarinen, Suvi; Aronen, Eeva T.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the development of executive functions (EFs) and their associations with performance and behavior at school in 8-12-year-old children. The EFs were measured by computer-based n-back, Continuous Performance and Go/Nogo tasks. School performance was evaluated by Teacher Report Form (TRF) and behavior by TRF and Child…

  14. Coping, Daily Hassles and Behavior and Emotional Problems in Adolescents with High-Functioning Autism/Asperger's Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, Angela S.; Melvin, Glenn A.; Reid, Sophie C.; Gray, Kylie M.

    2014-01-01

    Although daily hassles and coping are associated with behavior and emotional problems in non-clinical populations, few studies have investigated these relationships in individuals with high-functioning autism/Asperger's Disorder (HFASD). This study examined the relationships between daily hassles, coping and behavior and emotional problems in…

  15. Cognitive Function, Progression of Age-related Behavioral Changes, Biomarkers, and Survival in Dogs More Than 8 Years Old

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schütt, T.; Berendt, M.; Toft, Nils

    2015-01-01

    BackgroundCanine cognitive dysfunction (CCD) is an age-dependent neurodegenerative condition dominated by changes in behavioral patterns. Cohort studies investigating cognitive status in dogs are lacking. ObjectivesTo investigate cognitive function, progression of age-related behavioral changes...

  16. Prediction of the relative toxicity of environmental toxins as a function of behavioral and non-behavioral endpoints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to examine the differential effects of behavioral and non-behavioral endpoints on the prediction of the relative toxicity of an environmental toxin. The effects of ionizing radiation were taken as the model for this evaluation. Forty rhesus monkeys were irradiated in groups of four at five different dose levels of high energy neuton and Bremsstrahlung radiations. Measures of behavioral performance, emesis and mortality were taken for each subject in order to test the hypotheses that behavioral indices would be more sensitive to gamma radiation than would physiological indices and that the physiological indices would be more sensitive to neutron radiations than would behavioral indices. The results supported these hypotheses

  17. Functional Assessment Based Parent Intervention in Reducing Children’s Challenging Behaviors: Exploratory Study of Group Training

    OpenAIRE

    Angel Fettig; Michaelene M. Ostrosky

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of group parent training on children’s challenging behaviors in home settings. Eight parents of young children with challenging behaviors were trained in a large group setting on using functional assessment to design interventions that fit the strengths and needs of individual families. The training included information sharing and collaborating with parents on designing functional-assessment based interventions. An Interrupted Time Series Design was used to ex...

  18. The impact of executive function on response to cognitive behavioral therapy in late-life depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodkind, Madeleine S; Gallagher-Thompson, Dolores; Thompson, Larry W; Kesler, Shelli R; Anker, Lauren; Flournoy, John; Berman, Mika P; Holland, Jason M; O'Hara, Ruth M

    2016-04-01

    Late-life depression (LLD) is a common and debilitating condition among older adults. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has strong empirical support for the treatment of depression in all ages, including in LLD. In teaching patients to identify, monitor, and challenge negative patterns in their thinking, CBT for LLD relies heavily on cognitive processes and, in particular, executive functioning, such as planning, sequencing, organizing, and selectively inhibiting information. It may be that the effectiveness of CBT lies in its ability to train these cognitive areas. Participants with LLD completed a comprehensive neuropsychological battery before enrolling in CBT. The current study examined the relationship between neuropsychological function prior to treatment and response to CBT. When using three baseline measures of executive functioning that quantify set shifting, cognitive flexibility, and response inhibition to predict treatment response, only baseline Wisconsin Card Sort Task performance was associated with a significant drop in depression symptoms after CBT. Specifically, worse performance on the Wisconsin Card Sort Task was associated with better treatment response. These results suggest that CBT, which teaches cognitive techniques for improving psychiatric symptoms, may be especially beneficial in LLD if relative weaknesses in specific areas of executive functioning are present. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Neural Changes following Behavioral Activation for a Depressed Breast Cancer Patient: A Functional MRI Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Gawrysiak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional neuroimaging is an innovative but at this stage underutilized method to assess the efficacy of psychotherapy for depression. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was used in this case study to examine changes in brain activity in a depressed breast cancer patient receiving an 8-session Behavioral Activation Treatment for Depression (BATD, based on the work of Hopko and Lejuez (2007. A music listening paradigm was used during fMRI brain scans to assess reward responsiveness at pre- and posttreatment. Following treatment, the patient exhibited attenuated depression and changes in blood oxygenation level dependence (BOLD response in regions of the prefrontal cortex and the subgenual cingulate cortex. These preliminary findings outline a novel means to assess psychotherapy efficacy and suggest that BATD elicits functional brain changes in areas implicated in the pathophysiology of depression. Further research is necessary to explore neurobiological mechanisms of change in BATD, particularly the potential mediating effects of reward responsiveness and associated brain functioning.

  20. Psychosocial functioning in patients with treatment-resistant depression after group cognitive behavioral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunisato Yoshihiko

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although patients with Treatment Resistant Depression (TRD often have impaired social functioning, few studies have investigated the effectiveness of psychosocial treatment for these patients. We examined whether adding group cognitive behavioral therapy (group-CBT to medication would improve both the depressive symptoms and the social functioning of patient with mild TRD, and whether any improvements would be maintained over one year. Methods Forty-three patients with TRD were treated with 12 weekly sessions of group-CBT. Patients were assessed with the Global Assessment of Functioning scale (GAF, the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD, the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale (DAS, and the Automatic Thought Questionnaire-Revised (ATQ-R at baseline, at the termination of treatment, and at the 12-month follow-up. Results Thirty-eight patients completed treatment; five dropped out. For the patients who completed treatment, post-treatment scores on the GAF and SF-36 were significantly higher than baseline scores. Scores on the HRSD, DAS, and ATQ-R were significantly lower after the treatment. Thus patients improved on all measurements of psychosocial functioning and mood symptoms. Twenty patients participated in the 12-month follow-up. Their improvements for psychosocial functioning, depressive symptoms, and dysfunctional cognitions were sustained at 12 months following the completion of group-CBT. Conclusions These findings suggest a positive effect that the addition of cognitive behavioural group therapy to medication on depressive symptoms and social functioning of mildly depressed patients, showing treatment resistance.

  1. Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for adolescents with functional gastrointestinal disorders — An open trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Bonnert

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID, including irritable bowel syndrome, functional dyspepsia and functional abdominal pain, are common in adolescents and are associated with substantially decreased quality of life. Cognitive behavior therapy for children and adolescents with FGID is one of few treatments that have shown effect, but treatment access is limited. In adults with irritable bowel syndrome, exposure-based internet-delivered CBT (ICBT leads to reduced symptoms and increased quality of life, but studies in children are lacking. This open pilot aimed to evaluate feasibility and the potential efficacy of an exposure-based ICBT-program for adolescents with pain-predominant FGID. Twenty-nine adolescents (age 13–17, with FGID were included. The ICBT-program lasted for 8 weeks with weekly online therapist support. The protocol for adolescents included exposure to abdominal symptoms, while the protocol for parents aimed at increasing parents' attention to adolescent healthy behaviors. Assessment points were baseline, post-treatment and 6-month follow-up. The primary outcome was the Gastrointestinal Symptoms Rating Scale-IBS (GSRS-IBS. Effect sizes were calculated using Cohen's d in an intent to treat analysis. GSRS-IBS improved significantly from baseline to post-treatment (mean difference 6.48; 95% CI [2.37–10.58] and to follow-up (mean difference 7.82; 95% CI [3.43–12.21], corresponding to moderate effect sizes (within-group Cohen's d = 0.50; 95% CI [0.16–0.84] and d = 0.63; 95% CI [0.24–1.02], respectively. Treatment adherence was high with 22 of 29 (76% adolescents completing the entire treatment period. High adherence indicates acceptability of format and content, while symptomatic improvement suggests potential efficacy for this ICBT intervention in adolescents with FGID.

  2. Incorporating "motivation" into the functional analysis of challenging behavior: on the interactive and integrative potential of the motivating operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langthorne, Paul; McGill, Peter; O'Reilly, Mark

    2007-07-01

    Sensitivity theory attempts to account for the variability often observed in challenging behavior by recourse to the "aberrant motivation" of people with intellectual and developmental disabilities. In this article, we suggest that a functional analysis based on environmental (challenging environments) and biological (challenging needs) motivating operations provides a more parsimonious and empirically grounded account of challenging behavior than that proposed by sensitivity theory. It is argued that the concept of the motivating operation provides a means of integrating diverse strands of research without the undue inference of mentalistic constructs. An integrated model of challenging behavior is proposed, one that remains compatible with the central tenets of functional analysis.

  3. A function-behavior-structure framework for quantification and reproduction of emotional haptic experience in using an electronic device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Il Ju; Lee, Soo Hong; Ok, Hyung Seok; Lee, Jae In

    2013-01-01

    A user's haptic experience in using an electronic device is related to the continuous and dynamic variances of the structural state of the device. Since the changes of the structural component cause complex changes of the dynamics, it is difficult to predict the user's experience. We propose a function-behavior-structure framework to predict and improve the user's experience. The framework consists of the function layer model, the behavior layer model, and the structure layer model. Especially, the independent behavior model to the device is based on a physical phenomenon. Finally, an optimized structure which produces an ideal haptic experience for a cell phone is suggested.

  4. Prevalence of behavioral problems and related family functioning among middle school students in an eastern city of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiquan; Yao, Yuhong; Zhao, Xudong

    2013-03-01

    This study was carried out to explore the prevalence of behavioral problems among adolescents in junior high school as well as their families' levels of function or dysfunction that contribute to children's behavioral problems in Mainland China. One thousand, four hundred and seventy-six adolescents (ages 12-17 years) and their families participated in the study. Parents completed a self-administered questionnaire consisting of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), Family Assessment Device (FAD) and a number of demographic questions. Student's t-tests, chi-square tests and stepwise multiple regression models were performed to examine the variables. The estimated prevalence of behavioral problems was 10.5% based on the cutoff point for behavioral problems according to the CBCL. Behavioral problems identified by the CBCL occurred differently at various developmental stages (F = 10.06, P = 0.007). The study showed that inappropriate affective responsiveness, poor affective involvement and low ability of problem solving in the family were significantly associated with increased risk for externalizing behavior problems and total behavior problems of boys. Inappropriate affective responsiveness and poor communication in the family were significantly associated with increased risk for internalizing problems for boys. Poorly established patterns of family behavior were important factors contributing to the development of externalizing behavior problems, internalizing behavior problems and total behavior problems for girls'. The present findings suggest that functional levels of family are associated with the adolescent's mental health, and that specific family dynamics may influence the development of behavioral problems among adolescents in China. Copyright © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. Descriptive analysis of the verbal behavior of a therapist: a known-group validity analysis of the putative behavioral functions involved in clinical interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virues-Ortega, Javier; Montaño-Fidalgo, Montserrat; Froján-Parga, María Xesús; Calero-Elvira, Ana

    2011-12-01

    This study analyzes the interobserver agreement and hypothesis-based known-group validity of the Therapist's Verbal Behavior Category System (SISC-INTER). The SISC-INTER is a behavioral observation protocol comprised of a set of verbal categories representing putative behavioral functions of the in-session verbal behavior of a therapist (e.g., discriminative, reinforcing, punishing, and motivational operations). The complete therapeutic process of a clinical case of an individual with marital problems was recorded (10 sessions, 8 hours), and data were arranged in a temporal sequence using 10-min periods. Hypotheses based on the expected performance of the putative behavioral functions portrayed by the SISC-INTER codes across prevalent clinical activities (i.e., assessing, explaining, Socratic method, providing clinical guidance) were tested using autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models. Known-group validity analyses provided support to all hypotheses. The SISC-INTER may be a useful tool to describe therapist-client interaction in operant terms. The utility of reliable and valid protocols for the descriptive analysis of clinical practice in terms of verbal behavior is discussed. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Functions of parental involvement and effects of school climate on bullying behaviors among South Korean middle school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Hun; Song, Juyoung

    2012-08-01

    This study uses an ecological systems theory to understand bullying behavior. Emphasis is given to overcome limitations found in the literature, such as very little empirical research on functions of parental involvement and the impacts of school climate on bullying as an outcome variable. Two functions of parental involvement investigated are (a) bridging the negative experiences within the family with bullying behaviors at schools, and (b) influencing school climate. Bullying behaviors were measured by a modified Korean version of Olweus' bully/victim questionnaire (reliability range: .78-.84) from 1,238 randomly selected Korean middle school students in 2007. Findings from structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses showed that (a) individual traits are one of the most important influence on bullying, (b) negative experiences in the family do not have direct influence on bullying behaviors at school, (c) parental involvement influences school climate, and (d) positive school climate was negatively related to bullying behaviors.

  7. Early Parenting and the Development of Externalizing Behavior Problems: Longitudinal Mediation through Children’s Executive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulik, Michael J.; Blair, Clancy; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Berry, Daniel; Greenberg, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Path analysis was used to investigate the longitudinal associations among parenting and children’s executive function and externalizing behavior problems from 36 to 90 months of age in the Family Life Project (N = 1,115), a study of child development in the context of rural poverty. While controlling for stability in the constructs, semi-structured observations of parenting prospectively predicted performance on a battery of executive function tasks and primary caregivers’ reports of externalizing behavior. Furthermore, the association between early parenting and later externalizing behavior was longitudinally mediated by executive function, providing support for a process model in which sensitive parenting promotes children’s self-regulation, which in turn reduces children’s externalizing behavior. PMID:26082032

  8. The Effects of Bug-in-Ear Coaching on Pre-Service Behavior Analysts' Use of Functional Communication Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artman-Meeker, Kathleen; Rosenberg, Nancy; Badgett, Natalie; Yang, Xueyan; Penney, Ashley

    2017-09-01

    Behavior analysts play an important role in supporting the behavior and learning of young children with disabilities in natural settings. However, there is very little research related specifically to developing the skills and competencies needed by pre-service behavior analysts. This study examined the effects of "bug-in-ear" (BIE) coaching on pre-service behavior analysts' implementation of functional communication training with pre-school children with autism in their classrooms. BIE coaching was associated with increases in the rate of functional communication training trials each intern initiated per session and in the fidelity with which interns implemented functional communication training. Adults created more intentional opportunities for children to communicate, and adults provided more systematic instruction around those opportunities.

  9. The Impact of Inattention, Hyperactivity/Impulsivity Symptoms, and Executive Functions on Learning Behaviors of Children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomer, Carla; Berenguer, Carmen; Roselló, Belén; Baixauli, Inmaculada; Miranda, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Children diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at risk of experiencing lower academic achievement compared to their peers without ADHD. However, we have a limited understanding of the mechanisms underlying this association. Both the symptoms of the disorder and the executive functions can negatively influence learning behaviors, including motivation, attitude toward learning, or persistence, key aspects of the learning process. The first objective of this study was to compare different components of learning behaviors in children diagnosed with ADHD and typically developing (TD) children. The second objective was to analyze the relationships among learning behaviors, executive functioning, and symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity in both groups. Participants were 35 children diagnosed with ADHD and 37 with TD (7-11 years old), matched on age and IQ. The teachers filled out the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and the Learning Behaviors Scale, which evaluates Competence/motivation, Attitude toward learning, Attention/persistence, and Strategy/flexibility. In addition, parents and teachers filled out the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for ADHD. ANOVAs showed significant differences between children with ADHD and TD children on all the learning behaviors. Moreover, in both the ADHD and TD groups, the behavioral regulation index of the BRIEF predicted the search for strategies, and the metacognition index was a good predictor of motivation. However, attitude toward learning was predicted by metacognition only in the group with ADHD. Therefore, the executive functions had greater power than the typical symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity in predicting learning behaviors of children with ADHD. The findings are in line with other studies that support the influence of the executive functions on performance, highlighting the importance of including their development as a top priority from early ages in the

  10. Functional characterization of dopamine transporter in vivo using Drosophila melanogaster behavioral analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taro eUeno

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine mediates diverse functions such as motivation, reward, attention, learning/memory and sleep/arousal. Recent studies using model organisms including the fruit fly, have elucidated various physiological functions of dopamine, and identified specific neural circuits for these functions. Flies with mutations in the Drosophila dopamine transporter (dDAT gene show enhanced dopamine signaling, and short sleep and memory impairment phenotypes. However, understanding the mechanism by which dopamine signaling causes these phenotypes requires an understanding of the dynamics of dopamine release. Here we report the effects of dDAT expression on behavioral traits. We show that dDAT expression in a subset of dopaminergic neurons is sufficient for normal sleep. dDAT expression in other cell types such as Kenyon cells and glial cells can also rescue the short sleep phenotype of dDAT mutants. dDAT mutants also show a down-regulation of the D1-like dopamine receptor dDA1, and this phenotype is rescued when dDAT is expressed in the same cell types in which it rescues sleep. On the other hand, dDAT overexpression in mushroom bodies, which are the target of memory forming dopamine neurons, abolishes olfactory aversive memory. Our data demonstrate that expression of extrasynaptic dopamine transporters can rescue some aspects of dopamine signaling in dopamine transporter mutants. These results provide novel insights into regulatory systems that modulate dopamine signaling.

  11. Fathers' postnatal distress, parenting self-efficacy, later parenting behavior, and children's emotional-behavioral functioning: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rominov, Holly; Giallo, Rebecca; Whelan, Thomas A

    2016-12-01

    Fathers' postnatal distress has been associated with subsequent emotional and behavioral problems for children; however, the mechanisms by which this occurs have received less attention. One potential pathway could be via the negative effects that father mental health problems and parenting self-efficacy (PSE) in the postnatal period have on later parenting behaviors. Using a nationally representative cohort of Australian father-child dyads (N = 3,741), the long-term relationships between fathers' psychological distress and PSE in the postnatal period, parenting behavior when children were aged 4-5 years, and emotional-behavioral outcomes for children aged 8-9 years were explored. Path analysis indicated that high distress and low PSE in the postnatal period was associated with higher levels of hostile parenting and lower parenting consistency when children were aged 4-5 years; in turn, these were associated with poorer child outcomes at 8-9 years. These results remained significant after controlling for socioeconomic position, couple relationship quality, mothers' and fathers' mental health, and fathers' concurrent parenting behavior. The pathways among PSE, parenting hostility, parenting consistency, and children's outcomes at age 8-9 years differed for fathers of boys compared with fathers of girls. Results highlight the importance of father-inclusive assessments of postnatal mental health. Support programs targeting new fathers' perceptions of parenting competence may be particularly important for fathers experiencing postnatal distress. For fathers, building a stronger sense of parenting competence in the postnatal period is important for later parenting behavior, which relates to children's emotional and behavioral outcomes during middle childhood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. [An oral function improvement program utilizing health behavior theories ameliorates oral functions and oral hygienic conditions of pre-frail elderly persons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Hideo

    2014-06-01

    Oral function improvement programs utilizing health behavior theories are considered to be effective in preventing the need for long-term social care. In the present study, an oral function improvement program based upon health behavior theories was designed, and its utility was assessed in 102 pre-frail elderly persons (33 males, 69 females, mean age: 76.9 +/- 5.7) considered to be in potential need of long-term social care and attending a long-term care prevention class in Sayama City, Saitama Prefecture, Japan. The degree of improvement in oral functions (7 items) and oral hygienic conditions (3 items) was assessed by comparing oral health before and after participation in the program. The results showed statistically significant improvements in the following oral functions: (1) lip functions (oral diadochokinesis, measured by the regularity of the repetition of the syllable "Pa"), (2) tongue functions, (3) tongue root motor skills (oral diadochokinesis, measured by the regularity of the repetition of the syllables "Ta" and "Ka"), (4) tongue extension/retraction, (5) side-to-side tongue movement functions, (6) cheek motor skills, and (7) repetitive saliva swallowing test (RSST). The following measures of oral hygiene also showed a statistically significant improvement: (1) debris on dentures or teeth, (2) coated tongue, and (3) frequency of oral cleaning. These findings demonstrated that an improvement program informed by health behavior theories is useful in improving oral functions and oral hygiene conditions.

  13. Social Functioning in Youth with Anxiety Disorders: Association with Anxiety Severity and Outcomes from Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settipani, Cara A.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2013-01-01

    Social functioning was assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist and Teacher Report Form for children with anxiety disorders who participated in a randomized clinical trial (N = 161, aged 7-14). Significant relationships were found between severity of children's principal anxiety disorder and most measures of social functioning, such that poorer…

  14. Parental Ratings of Children and Adolescents with Prader-Willi Syndrome on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Marnie; Pei, Jacqueline; Leung, Wing Sze Wence; Mackenzie, Michelle; Hicks, Melanie D.; Thurm, Audrey E.; Han, Joan C.; Haqq, Andrea M.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated executive functioning in 25 children and adolescents with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). Significant deficits emerged, with mean scores on all but two scales reaching levels of clinical significance (T score = 65). Older children tended to have higher scores than younger…

  15. Cognitive Functioning and Family Risk Factors in Relation to Symptom Behaviors of ADHD and ODD in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forssman, Linda; Eninger, Lilianne; Tillman, Carin M.; Rodriguez, Alina; Bohlin, Gunilla

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In this study, the authors investigated whether ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) behaviors share associations with problems in cognitive functioning and/or family risk factors in adolescence. This was done by examining independent as well as specific associations of cognitive functioning and family risk factors with ADHD and…

  16. A model for integrating elementary neural functions into delayed-response behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Gisiger

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that various cortical regions can implement a wide array of neural processes, yet the mechanisms which integrate these processes into behavior-producing, brain-scale activity remain elusive. We propose that an important role in this respect might be played by executive structures controlling the traffic of information between the cortical regions involved. To illustrate this hypothesis, we present a neural network model comprising a set of interconnected structures harboring stimulus-related activity (visual representation, working memory, and planning, and a group of executive units with task-related activity patterns that manage the information flowing between them. The resulting dynamics allows the network to perform the dual task of either retaining an image during a delay (delayed-matching to sample task, or recalling from this image another one that has been associated with it during training (delayed-pair association task. The model reproduces behavioral and electrophysiological data gathered on the inferior temporal and prefrontal cortices of primates performing these same tasks. It also makes predictions on how neural activity coding for the recall of the image associated with the sample emerges and becomes prospective during the training phase. The network dynamics proves to be very stable against perturbations, and it exhibits signs of scale-invariant organization and cooperativity. The present network represents a possible neural implementation for active, top-down, prospective memory retrieval in primates. The model suggests that brain activity leading to performance of cognitive tasks might be organized in modular fashion, simple neural functions becoming integrated into more complex behavior by executive structures harbored in prefrontal cortex and/or basal ganglia.

  17. A model for integrating elementary neural functions into delayed-response behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisiger, Thomas; Kerszberg, Michel

    2006-04-01

    It is well established that various cortical regions can implement a wide array of neural processes, yet the mechanisms which integrate these processes into behavior-producing, brain-scale activity remain elusive. We propose that an important role in this respect might be played by executive structures controlling the traffic of information between the cortical regions involved. To illustrate this hypothesis, we present a neural network model comprising a set of interconnected structures harboring stimulus-related activity (visual representation, working memory, and planning), and a group of executive units with task-related activity patterns that manage the information flowing between them. The resulting dynamics allows the network to perform the dual task of either retaining an image during a delay (delayed-matching to sample task), or recalling from this image another one that has been associated with it during training (delayed-pair association task). The model reproduces behavioral and electrophysiological data gathered on the inferior temporal and prefrontal cortices of primates performing these same tasks. It also makes predictions on how neural activity coding for the recall of the image associated with the sample emerges and becomes prospective during the training phase. The network dynamics proves to be very stable against perturbations, and it exhibits signs of scale-invariant organization and cooperativity. The present network represents a possible neural implementation for active, top-down, prospective memory retrieval in primates. The model suggests that brain activity leading to performance of cognitive tasks might be organized in modular fashion, simple neural functions becoming integrated into more complex behavior by executive structures harbored in prefrontal cortex and/or basal ganglia.

  18. Stability of executive function and predictions to adaptive behavior from middle childhood to pre-adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeline eHarms

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The shift from childhood to adolescence is characterized by rapid remodeling of the brain and increased risk-taking behaviors. Current theories hypothesize that developmental enhancements in sensitivity to affective environmental cues in adolescence may undermine executive function (EF and increase the likelihood of problematic behaviors. In the current study, we examined the extent to which EF in childhood predicts EF in early adolescence. We also tested whether individual differences in neural responses to affective cues (rewards/punishments in childhood serve as a biological marker for EF, sensation-seeking, academic performance, and social skills in early adolescence. At age 8, 84 children completed a gambling task while event-related potentials (ERPs were recorded. We examined the extent to which selections resulting in rewards or losses in this task elicited (i the P300, a post-stimulus waveform reflecting the allocation of attentional resources toward a stimulus, and (ii the SPN, a pre-stimulus anticipatory waveform reflecting a neural representation of a hunch about an outcome that originates in insula and ventromedial PFC. Children also completed a Dimensional Change Card-Sort (DCCS and Flanker task to measure EF. At age 12, 78 children repeated the DCCS and Flanker and completed a battery of questionnaires. Flanker and DCCS accuracy at age 8 predicted Flanker and DCCS performance at age 12, respectively. Individual differences in the magnitude of P300 (to losses vs. rewards and SPN (preceding outcomes with a high probability of punishment at age 8 predicted self-reported sensation seeking (lower and teacher-rated academic performance (higher at age 12. We suggest there is stability in EF from age 8 to 12, and that childhood neural sensitivity to reward and punishment predicts individual differences in sensation seeking and adaptive behaviors in children entering adolescence.

  19. The dynamical behaviors of a food chain model with impulsive effect and Ivlev functional response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang Zhongyi; Song Xinyu

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a food chain model with Ivlev functional response and impulsive effect of top predator is investigated. Conditions for extinction of mid-level predator are given. By using the Floquet theory of linear τ-period impulsive differential equation and small amplitude perturbation skills, we show that the lowest-level prey and the mid-level predator extinction periodic solution is unstable, while the mid-level predator eradication periodic solution is stable, and meanwhile, we prove that the system is permanent if the impulsive period is larger than some critical value. Furthermore, influences of the impulsive perturbation on the inherent oscillation are studied numerically, which displays complicated behavior including a sequence of direct and inverse cascade of period doubling, period halfing as well as chaos.

  20. Pull-in behavior analysis of vibrating functionally graded micro-cantilevers under suddenly DC voltage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Zare

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research attempts to explain dynamic pull-in instability of functionally graded micro-cantilevers actuated by step DC voltage while the fringing-field effect is taken into account in the vibrational equation of motion. By employing modern asymptotic approach namely Homotopy Perturbation Method with an auxiliary term, high-order frequency-amplitude relation is obtained, then the influences of material properties and actuation voltage on dynamic pull-in behavior are investigated. It is demonstrated that the auxiliary term in the homotopy perturbation method is extremely effective for higher order approximation and two terms in series expansions are sufficient to produce an acceptable solution. The strength of this analytical procedure is verified through comparison with numerical results.

  1. The modulation of stem cell behaviors by functionalized nanoceramic coatings on Ti-based implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangmei Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nanoceramic coating on the surface of Ti-based metallic implants is a clinical potential option in orthopedic surgery. Stem cells have been found to have osteogenic capabilities. It is necessary to study the influences of functionalized nanoceramic coatings on the differentiation and proliferation of stem cells in vitro or in vivo. In this paper, we summarized the recent advance on the modulation of stem cells behaviors through controlling the properties of nanoceramic coatings, including surface chemistry, surface roughness and microporosity. In addition, mechanotransduction pathways have also been discussed to reveal the interaction mechanisms between the stem cells and ceramic coatings on Ti-based metals. In the final part, the osteoinduction and osteoconduction of ceramic coating have been also presented when it was used as carrier of BMPs in new bone formation.

  2. Effects of male sex hormones on gender identity, sexual behavior, and cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuan-shan; Cai, Li-qun

    2006-04-01

    Androgens, the male sex hormones, play an essential role in male sexual differentiation and development. However, the influence of these sex hormones extends beyond their roles in sexual differentiation and development. In many animal species, sex hormones have been shown to be essential for sexual differentiation of the brain during development and for maintaining sexually dimorphic behavior throughout life. The principals of sex determination in humans have been demonstrated to be similar to other mammals. However, the hormonal influence on sexual dimorphic differences in the nervous system in humans, sex differences in behaviors, and its correlations with those of other mammals is still an emerging field. In this review, the roles of androgens in gender and cognitive function are discussed with the emphasis on subjects with androgen action defects including complete androgen insensitivity due to androgen receptor mutations and 5alpha-reductase-2 deficiency syndromes due to 5alpha-reductase-2 gene mutations. The issue of the complex interaction of nature versus nurture is addressed.

  3. Pam heterozygous mice reveal essential role for Cu in amygdalar behavioral and synaptic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaier, Eric D; Eipper, Betty A; Mains, Richard E

    2014-05-01

    Copper (Cu) is an essential element with many biological roles, but its roles in the mammalian nervous system are poorly understood. Mice deficient in the cuproenzyme peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase (Pam(+/-) mice) were initially generated to study neuropeptide amidation. Pam(+/-) mice exhibit profound deficits in a few behavioral tasks, including enhancements in innate fear along with deficits in acquired fear. Interestingly, several Pam(+/-) phenotypes were recapitulated in Cu-restricted wild-type mice and rescued in Cu-supplemented Pam(+/-) mice. These behaviors correspond to enhanced excitability and deficient synaptic plasticity in the amygdala of Pam(+/-) mice, which are also rescued by Cu supplementation. Cu and ATP7A are present at synapses, in key positions to respond to and influence synaptic activity. Further study demonstrated that extracellular Cu is necessary for wild-type synaptic plasticity and sufficient to induce long-term potentiation. These experiments support roles for PAM in Cu homeostasis and for synaptic Cu in amygdalar function. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  4. Disciplinary style and child abuse potential: association with indicators of positive functioning in children with behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Christina M; Eden, Ann M

    2008-06-01

    Reduction of ineffective parenting is promoted in parent training components of mental health treatment for children with externalizing behavior disorders, but minimal research has considered whether disciplinary style and lower abuse risk could also be associated with positive functioning in such children. The present study examined whether lower dysfunctional disciplinary style and child abuse risk was associated with children's positive self-concept, adaptive attributional style, and hopefulness. Recruited from children undergoing treatment for disruptive behavior disorders, 69 mother-child dyads participated, with maternal caregivers reporting on their disciplinary style and abuse potential and children reporting independently on their positive functioning (adaptive attributional style, overall self-concept, and hopelessness). Findings supported the hypothesized association, with lower scores on mothers' dysfunctional discipline style and abuse potential significantly predicting children's reported positive functioning. Future research directions pertaining to more adaptive functioning in children with behavior problems are discussed.

  5. Posttranslational regulation of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN and its functional impact on cancer behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu WT

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Wenting Xu,1 Zhen Yang,1 Shu-Feng Zhou,2 Nonghua Lu1 1Department of Gastroenterology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA Abstract: The incidence of cancer is increasing worldwide, but the biochemical mechanisms for the occurrence of cancer is not fully understood, and there is no cure for advanced tumors. Defects of posttranslational modifications of proteins are linked to a number of important diseases, such as cancer. This review will update our knowledge on the critical role of posttranscriptional regulation of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN and its activities and the functional impact on cancer behaviors. PTEN is a tumor suppressor gene that occupies a key position in regulating cell growth, proliferation, apoptosis, mobility, signal transduction, and other crucial cellular processes. The activity and function of PTEN are regulated by coordinated epigenetic, transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and posttranslational modifications. In particular, PTEN is subject to phosphorylation, ubiquitylation, somoylation, acetylation, and active site oxidation. Posttranslational modifications of PTEN can dynamically change its activity and function. Deficiency in the posttranslational regulation of PTEN leads to abnormal cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and adhesion, which are associated with cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis. With increasing information on how PTEN is regulated by multiple mechanisms and networked proteins, its exact role in cancer initiation, growth, and metastasis will be revealed. PTEN and its functionally related proteins may represent useful targets for the discovery of new anticancer drugs, and gene therapy and the therapeutic potentials should be fully explored. Keywords: phosphorylation, ubiquitination, acetylation, oxidation

  6. Functional integration processes underlying the instruction-based learning of novel goal-directed behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruge, Hannes; Wolfensteller, Uta

    2013-03-01

    How does the human brain translate symbolic instructions into overt behavior? Previous studies suggested that this process relies on a rapid control transition from the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) to the anterior striatum (aSTR) and premotor cortex (PMC). The present fMRI study investigated whether the transfer from symbolic to pragmatic stimulus-response (S-R) rules relies on changes in the functional coupling among these and other areas and to which extent action goal representations might get integrated within this symbolic-pragmatic transfer. Goal integration processes were examined by manipulating the contingency between actions and differential outcomes (i.e. action goals). We observed a rapid strengthening of the functional coupling between the LPFC and the basal ganglia (aSTR and putamen) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) as well as between the LPFC and the anterior dorsal PMC (pre-PMd), the anterior inferior parietal lobule (aIPL), and the posterior superior parietal lobule (pSPL). Importantly, only some of these functional integration processes were sensitive to the outcome contingency manipulation, including LPFC couplings with aSTR, OFC, aIPL, and pre-PMd. This suggests that the symbolic-pragmatic rule transfer is governed by principles of both, instrumental learning (increasingly tighter coupling between LPFC and aSTR/OFC) and ideomotor learning (increasingly tighter coupling between LPFC and aIPL/pre-PMd). By contrast, increased functional coupling between LPFC and putamen was insensitive to outcome contingency possibly indicating an early stage of habit formation under instructed learning conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Unique contributions of emotion regulation and executive functions in predicting the quality of parent-child interaction behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Anne; Obradović, Jelena

    2017-03-01

    Parenting is a cognitive, emotional, and behavioral endeavor, yet limited research investigates parents' executive functions and emotion regulation as predictors of how parents interact with their children. The current study is a multimethod investigation of parental self-regulation in relation to the quality of parenting behavior and parent-child interactions in a diverse sample of parents and kindergarten-age children. Using path analyses, we tested how parent executive functions (inhibitory control) and lack of emotion regulation strategies uniquely relate to both sensitive/responsive behaviors and positive/collaborative behaviors during observed interaction tasks. In our analyses, we accounted for parent education, financial stress, and social support as socioeconomic factors that likely relate to parent executive function and emotion regulation skills. In a diverse sample of primary caregivers (N = 102), we found that direct assessment of parent inhibitory control was positively associated with sensitive/responsive behaviors, whereas parent self-reported difficulties in using emotion regulation strategies were associated with lower levels of positive and collaborative dyadic behaviors. Parent education and financial stress predicted inhibitory control, and social support predicted emotion regulation difficulties; parent education was also a significant predictor of sensitive/responsive behaviors. Greater inhibitory control skills and fewer difficulties identifying effective emotion regulation strategies were not significantly related in our final path model. We discuss our findings in the context of current and emerging parenting interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Conflict-related anterior cingulate functional connectivity is associated with past suicidal ideation and behavior in recent-onset schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minzenberg, Michael J; Lesh, Tyler; Niendam, Tara; Yoon, Jong H; Cheng, Yaoan; Rhoades, Remy; Carter, Cameron S

    2015-06-01

    Suicide is highly prevalent in schizophrenia (SZ), yet it remains unclear how suicide risk factors such as past suicidal ideation or behavior relate to brain function. Circuits modulated by the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are altered in SZ, including in dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) during conflict-monitoring (an important component of cognitive control), and dACC changes are observed in post-mortem studies of heterogeneous suicide victims. We tested whether conflict-related dACC functional connectivity is associated with past suicidal ideation and behavior in SZ. 32 patients with recent-onset of DSM-IV-TR-defined SZ were evaluated with the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale and functional MRI during cognitive control (AX-CPT) task performance. Group-level regression models relating past history of suicidal ideation or behavior to dACC-seeded functional connectivity during conflict-monitoring controlled for severity of depression, psychosis and impulsivity. Past suicidal ideation was associated with relatively higher functional connectivity of the dACC with the precuneus during conflict-monitoring. Intensity of worst-point past suicidal ideation was associated with relatively higher dACC functional connectivity in medial parietal lobe and striato-thalamic nuclei. In contrast, among those with past suicidal ideation (n = 17), past suicidal behavior was associated with lower conflict-related dACC connectivity with multiple lateral and medial PFC regions, parietal and temporal cortical regions. This study provides unique evidence that recent-onset schizophrenia patients with past suicidal ideation or behavior show altered dACC-based circuit function during conflict-monitoring. Suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior have divergent patterns of associated dACC functional connectivity, suggesting a differing pattern of conflict-related brain dysfunction with these two distinct features of suicide phenomenology. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation of the neural correlates of cognitive-behavioral therapy for externalizing behavior problems in adolescent bullies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Johanna Inhyang; Kang, Yun-Hyong; Lee, Jong-Min; Cha, Jungho; Park, Yeong-Hun; Kweon, Kuk-Ju; Kim, Bung-Nyun

    2018-06-06

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the neural correlates of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for externalizing behavior problems in perpetrators of school bullying using assessments of brain activity and behavior. Twenty-five adolescent bullies participated in an 8-session intervention. Prior to and after participation, 24 adolescents were evaluated using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and 23 completed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Changes in the fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF) and scores on the CBCL were analyzed. We also compared the identified changes into 2 groups (low and high delinquency) differentiated by a cutoff of 65 points on the delinquency subscale of the CBCL. Following the intervention, participants exhibited improvement in the subscores of the CBCL and decreases in the fALFF of the inferior parietal lobule, lingual, interior frontal and middle occipital gyrus. A positive correlation was observed between changes in the CBCL externalizing behavior scores and fALFF of the inferior frontal gyrus. The high delinquency group showed a greater decrease in delinquency and externalizing CBCL subscores across time than did the low delinquency group. The high delinquency group had more areas that showed change in fALFF post-intervention than did the low delinquency group. A positive correlation was observed between changes in the CBCL delinquency scores and fALFF of the precentral gyrus in the high delinquency group. The results indicate that this CBT for externalizing behavior problems in bullies had more positive effects on delinquent behavior in adolescents with high levels of delinquency, and these changes were associated with functional changes in brain activity. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02670876. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. The VMAT-2 inhibitor tetrabenazine alters effort-related decision making as measured by the T-maze barrier choice task: reversal with the adenosine A2A antagonist MSX-3 and the catecholamine uptake blocker bupropion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohn, Samantha E; Thompson, Christian; Randall, Patrick A; Lee, Christie A; Müller, Christa E; Baqi, Younis; Correa, Mercè; Salamone, John D

    2015-04-01

    Depressed people show effort-related motivational symptoms, such as anergia, retardation, lassitude, and fatigue. Animal tests can model these motivational symptoms, and the present studies characterized the effort-related effects of the vesicular monoamine transport (VMAT-2) inhibitor tetrabenazine. Tetrabenazine produces depressive symptoms in humans and, at low doses, preferentially depletes dopamine. The current studies investigated the effects of tetrabenazine on effort-based decision making using the T-maze barrier task. Rats were tested in a T-maze in which the choice arms of the maze contain different reinforcement densities, and under some conditions, a vertical barrier was placed in the high-density arm to provide an effort-related challenge. The first experiment assessed the effects of tetrabenazine under different maze conditions: a barrier in the arm with 4 food pellets and 2 pellets in the no barrier arm (4-2 barrier), 4 pellets in one arm and 2 pellets in the other with no barrier in either arm (no barrier), and 4 pellets in the barrier arm with no pellets in the other (4-0 barrier). Tetrabenazine (0.25-0.75 mg/kg IP) decreased selection of the high cost/high reward arm when the barrier was present, but had no effect on choice under the no barrier and 4-0 barrier conditions. The effects of tetrabenazine on barrier climbing in the 4-2 condition were reversed by the adenosine A2A antagonist MSX-3 and the catecholamine uptake inhibitor and antidepressant bupropion. These studies have implications for the development of animal models of the motivational symptoms of depression and other disorders.

  11. Understanding the corrosion behavior of isomorphous Cu–Ni alloy from its electron work function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, X.C.; Lu, H.; Li, D.Y., E-mail: dongyang.li@ualberta.ca

    2016-04-15

    The electrode potential or galvanic series is usually used to reflect the nobility of metals and semi-metals. However, this potential is environment-dependent and the intrinsic nobility of a metal is ultimately governed by its electron stability, which can be represented by the electron work function (EWF). This article reports our studies on the corrosion behavior of isomorphous Cu–Ni alloy in HCl and NaCl solutions, respectively. It was demonstrated that the EWF of the alloy increased as the Ni concentration was increased, so did the corrosion resistance in the acidic solution. In the sodium chloride solution, however, the trend was reversed due to adsorption, hydrolysis and the formation of oxide scale on Cu-rich samples, which more or less prevented them from further corrosion in this solution. In order to confirm this, corrosive wear tests were performed to analyze the performance of the alloy when the effect of oxide scale was eliminated or minimized by the mechanical action. - Highlights: • Increasing %Ni resulted in higher overall electron work function of Cu–Ni alloy. • Higher EWF corresponded to higher resistance to corrosion in a HCl solution. • Trend was reversed in a NaCl solution due to the formation of oxide scale. • During slurry-jet tests, alloys with higher EWFs performed better.

  12. Understanding the corrosion behavior of isomorphous Cu–Ni alloy from its electron work function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, X.C.; Lu, H.; Li, D.Y.

    2016-01-01

    The electrode potential or galvanic series is usually used to reflect the nobility of metals and semi-metals. However, this potential is environment-dependent and the intrinsic nobility of a metal is ultimately governed by its electron stability, which can be represented by the electron work function (EWF). This article reports our studies on the corrosion behavior of isomorphous Cu–Ni alloy in HCl and NaCl solutions, respectively. It was demonstrated that the EWF of the alloy increased as the Ni concentration was increased, so did the corrosion resistance in the acidic solution. In the sodium chloride solution, however, the trend was reversed due to adsorption, hydrolysis and the formation of oxide scale on Cu-rich samples, which more or less prevented them from further corrosion in this solution. In order to confirm this, corrosive wear tests were performed to analyze the performance of the alloy when the effect of oxide scale was eliminated or minimized by the mechanical action. - Highlights: • Increasing %Ni resulted in higher overall electron work function of Cu–Ni alloy. • Higher EWF corresponded to higher resistance to corrosion in a HCl solution. • Trend was reversed in a NaCl solution due to the formation of oxide scale. • During slurry-jet tests, alloys with higher EWFs performed better.

  13. Rayleigh wave behavior in functionally graded magneto-electro-elastic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzin, Hamdi; Mkaoir, Mohamed; Amor, Morched Ben

    2017-12-01

    Piezoelectric-piezomagnetic functionally graded materials, with a gradual change of the mechanical and electromagnetic properties have greatly applying promises. Based on the ordinary differential equation and stiffness matrix methods, a dynamic solution is presented for the propagation of the wave on a semi-infinite piezomagnetic substrate covered with a functionally graded piezoelectric material (FGPM) layer. The materials properties are assumed to vary in the direction of the thickness according to a known variation law. The phase and group velocity of the Rayleigh wave is numerically calculated for the magneto-electrically open and short cases, respectively. The effect of gradient coefficients on the phase velocity, group velocity, coupled magneto-electromechanical factor, on the stress fields, the magnetic potential and the mechanical displacement are discussed, respectively. Illustration is achieved on the hetero-structure PZT-5A/CoFe2O4; the obtained results are especially useful in the design of high-performance acoustic surface devices and accurately prediction of the Rayleigh wave propagation behavior.

  14. Cognitive behavior therapy for pediatric functional abdominal pain: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veek, Shelley M C; Derkx, Bert H F; Benninga, Marc A; Boer, Frits; de Haan, Else

    2013-11-01

    This randomized controlled trial investigated the effectiveness of a 6-session protocolized cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) compared with 6 visits to a pediatrician (intensive medical care; IMC) for the treatment of pediatric functional abdominal pain (FAP). One hundred four children aged 7 to 18 were randomized to CBT or IMC. CBT was delivered primarily by trained master's degree students in psychology; IMC was delivered by pediatricians or pediatric gastroenterologists. Assessments were performed pretreatment, posttreatment, and at 6- and 12-month follow-up. Primary outcomes were level of abdominal pain (AP) as reported on questionnaires and diaries. Secondary outcomes were other gastrointestinal complaints, functional disability, other somatic complaints, anxiety, depression, and quality of life. Both CBT and IMC resulted in a significant decrease in AP (P .05 for all end points). According to the questionnaire-derived data, 1 year after treatment, 60% of children that received CBT had significantly improved or recovered, versus 56.4% of children receiving IMC, which did not significantly differ (P = .47). These percentages were 65.8% versus 62.8% according to the diary-derived data, which also did not significantly differ (P = .14). Additionally, nearly all secondary outcomes improved after treatment. CBT was equally effective as IMC in reducing AP in children with FAP. More research into the specific working mechanisms of CBT for pediatric FAP is needed.

  15. Optimizing Neuropsychological Assessments for Cognitive, Behavioral, and Functional Impairment Classification: A Machine Learning Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petronilla Battista

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Subjects with Alzheimer’s disease (AD show loss of cognitive functions and change in behavioral and functional state affecting the quality of their daily life and that of their families and caregivers. A neuropsychological assessment plays a crucial role in detecting such changes from normal conditions. However, despite the existence of clinical measures that are used to classify and diagnose AD, a large amount of subjectivity continues to exist. Our aim was to assess the potential of machine learning in quantifying this process and optimizing or even reducing the amount of neuropsychological tests used to classify AD patients, also at an early stage of impairment. We investigated the role of twelve state-of-the-art neuropsychological tests in the automatic classification of subjects with none, mild, or severe impairment as measured by the clinical dementia rating (CDR. Data were obtained from the ADNI database. In the groups of measures used as features, we included measures of both cognitive domains and subdomains. Our findings show that some tests are more frequently best predictors for the automatic classification, namely, LM, ADAS-Cog, AVLT, and FAQ, with a major role of the ADAS-Cog measures of delayed and immediate memory and the FAQ measure of financial competency.

  16. Awareness, self-management behaviors, health literacy and kidney function relationships in specialty practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devraj, Radhika; Borrego, Matthew E; Vilay, A Mary; Pailden, Junvie; Horowitz, Bruce

    2018-01-01

    AIM To determine the relationship between chronic kidney disease (CKD) awareness (CKD-A), self-management behaviors (CKD-SMB) knowledge, performance of CKD-SMBs, health literacy (HL) and kidney function. METHODS Participants were eligible patients attending an outpatient nephrology clinic. Participants were administered: Newest Vital Sign to measure HL, CKD self-management knowledge tool (CKD-SMKT) to assess knowledge, past performance of CKD-SMB, CKD-A. Estimated GFR (eGFR) was determined using the MDRD-4 equation. Duration of clinic participation and CKD cause were extracted from medical charts. RESULTS One-hundred-fifty patients participated in the study. eGFRs ranged from 17-152 mL/min per 1.73 m2. Majority (83%) of respondents had stage 3 or 4 CKD, low HL (63%), and were CKD aware (88%). Approximately 40% (10/25) of patients in stages 1 and 2 and 6.4% (8/125) in stages 3 and 4 were unaware of their CKD. CKD-A differed with stage (P level, duration of clinic participation, or CKD cause. Majority of respondents (≥ 90%) correctly answered one or more CKD-SMKT items. Knowledge of one behavior, “controlling blood pressure” differed significantly by CKD-A. CKD-A was associated with past performance of two CKD-SMBs, “controlling blood pressure” (P = 0.02), and “keeping healthy body weight” (P = 0.01). Adjusted multivariate analyses between CKD-A and: (1) HL; and (2) CKD-SMB knowledge were non-significant. However, there was a significant relationship between CKD-A and kidney function after controlling for demographics, HL, and CKD-SMB (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION CKD-A is not associated with HL, or better CKD-SMBs. CKD-A is significantly associated with kidney function and substantially lower eGFR, suggesting the need for focused patient education in CKD stages 1. PMID:29359119

  17. Later Life Changes in Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Behavioral Functions After Low-Dose Prenatal Irradiation at Early Organogenesis Stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganapathi, Ramya; Manda, Kailash

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate long-term changes in behavioral functions of mice after exposure to low-dose prenatal radiation at an early organogenesis stage. Methods and Materials: Pregnant C57BL/6J mice were irradiated (20 cGy) at postcoitus day 5.5. The male and female offspring were subjected to different behavioral assays for affective, motor, and cognitive functions at 3, 6, and 12 months of age. Behavioral functions were further correlated with the population of CA1 and CA3 pyramidal neurons and immature neurons in hippocampal dentate gyrus. Results: Prenatally exposed mice of different age groups showed a sex-specific pattern of sustained changes in behavioral functions. Male mice showed significant changes in anxiety-like phenotypes, learning, and long-term memory at age 3 months. At 6 months of age such behavioral functions were recovered to a normal level but could not be sustained at age 12 months. Female mice showed an appreciable recovery in almost all behavioral functions at 12 months. Patterns of change in learning and long-term memory were comparable to the population of CA1 and CA3 pyramidal neurons and doublecortin-positive neurons in hippocampus. Conclusion: Our finding suggests that prenatal (early organogenesis stage) irradiation even at a lower dose level (20 cGy) is sufficient to cause potential changes in neurobehavioral function at later stages of life. Male mice showed relatively higher vulnerability to radiation-induced neurobehavioral changes as compared with female.

  18. Later Life Changes in Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Behavioral Functions After Low-Dose Prenatal Irradiation at Early Organogenesis Stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganapathi, Ramya; Manda, Kailash, E-mail: kailashmanda@gmail.com

    2017-05-01

    Purpose: To investigate long-term changes in behavioral functions of mice after exposure to low-dose prenatal radiation at an early organogenesis stage. Methods and Materials: Pregnant C57BL/6J mice were irradiated (20 cGy) at postcoitus day 5.5. The male and female offspring were subjected to different behavioral assays for affective, motor, and cognitive functions at 3, 6, and 12 months of age. Behavioral functions were further correlated with the population of CA1 and CA3 pyramidal neurons and immature neurons in hippocampal dentate gyrus. Results: Prenatally exposed mice of different age groups showed a sex-specific pattern of sustained changes in behavioral functions. Male mice showed significant changes in anxiety-like phenotypes, learning, and long-term memory at age 3 months. At 6 months of age such behavioral functions were recovered to a normal level but could not be sustained at age 12 months. Female mice showed an appreciable recovery in almost all behavioral functions at 12 months. Patterns of change in learning and long-term memory were comparable to the population of CA1 and CA3 pyramidal neurons and doublecortin-positive neurons in hippocampus. Conclusion: Our finding suggests that prenatal (early organogenesis stage) irradiation even at a lower dose level (20 cGy) is sufficient to cause potential changes in neurobehavioral function at later stages of life. Male mice showed relatively higher vulnerability to radiation-induced neurobehavioral changes as compared with female.

  19. Comparative Study of Features of Social Intelligence and Speech Behavior of Children of Primary School Age with Impaired Mental Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shcherban D.

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the concept of social intelligence and its characteristics in children of primary school age with impaired mental functions. The concept and main features, including speech, are discussed, delays of mental development, the importance of detained development for social intelligence and speech behavior are also considered. Also, the concept of speech behavior is analyzed, the author defines the phenomenon, describes its specific features, which are distinguish its structure, and consist of six components: verbal, emotional, motivational, ethical (moral, prognostic, semantic (cognitive. Particular attention is paid to the position of social intelligence in the structure of speech behavior of children of primary school age with a impaired mental functions. Indicators of social intelligence were analyzed from the point of view of speech behavior of children with different rates of mental development and compared with its components at a qualitative level. The study used both author's and well-known techniques.

  20. Distinct contributions of functional and deep neural network features to representational similarity of scenes in human brain and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Iris Ia; Greene, Michelle R; Baldassano, Christopher; Fei-Fei, Li; Beck, Diane M; Baker, Chris I

    2018-03-07

    Inherent correlations between visual and semantic features in real-world scenes make it difficult to determine how different scene properties contribute to neural representations. Here, we assessed the contributions of multiple properties to scene representation by partitioning the variance explained in human behavioral and brain measurements by three feature models whose inter-correlations were minimized a priori through stimulus preselection. Behavioral assessments of scene similarity reflected unique contributions from a functional feature model indicating potential actions in scenes as well as high-level visual features from a deep neural network (DNN). In contrast, similarity of cortical responses in scene-selective areas was uniquely explained by mid- and high-level DNN features only, while an object label model did not contribute uniquely to either domain. The striking dissociation between functional and DNN features in their contribution to behavioral and brain representations of scenes indicates that scene-selective cortex represents only a subset of behaviorally relevant scene information.

  1. Craving behavioral intervention for internet gaming disorder: remediation of functional connectivity of the ventral striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin-Tao; Ma, Shan-Shan; Li, Chiang-Shan R; Liu, Lu; Xia, Cui-Cui; Lan, Jing; Wang, Ling-Jiao; Liu, Ben; Yao, Yuan-Wei; Fang, Xiao-Yi

    2018-01-01

    Psychobehavioral intervention is an effective treatment of Internet addiction, including Internet gaming disorder (IGD). However, the neural mechanisms underlying its efficacy remain unclear. Cortical-ventral striatum (VS) circuitry is a common target of psychobehavioral interventions in drug addiction, and cortical-VS dysfunction has been reported in IGD; hence, the primary aim of the study was to investigate how the VS circuitry responds to psychobehavioral interventions in IGD. In a cross-sectional study, we examined resting-state functional connectivity of the VS in 74 IGD subjects (IGDs) and 41 healthy controls (HCs). In a follow-up craving behavioral intervention (CBI) study, of the 74 IGD subjects, 20 IGD subjects received CBI (CBI+) and 16 IGD subjects did not (CBI-). All participants were scanned twice with similar time interval to assess the effects of CBI. IGD subjects showed greater resting-state functional connectivity of the VS to left inferior parietal lobule (lIPL), right inferior frontal gyrus and left middle frontal gyrus, in positive association with the severity of IGD. Moreover, compared with CBI-, CBI+ showed significantly greater decrease in VS-lIPL connectivity, along with amelioration in addiction severity following the intervention. These findings demonstrated that functional connectivity between VS and lIPL, each presumably mediating gaming craving and attentional bias, may be a potential biomarker of the efficacy of psychobehavioral intervention. These results also suggested that non-invasive techniques such as transcranial magnetic or direct current stimulation targeting the VS-IPL circuitry may be used in the treatment of Internet gaming disorders. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  2. Needs in nursing homes and their relation with cognitive and functional decline, behavioral and psychological symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rita Ferreira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Unmet needs are becoming acknowledged as better predictors of the worst prognostic outcomes than common measures of functional or cognitive decline. Their accurate assessment is a pivotal component of effective care delivery, particularly in institutionalized care where little is known about the needs of its residents, many of whom suffer from dementia and show complex needs. The aims of this study were to describe the needs of an institutionalized sample and to analyze its relationship with demographic and clinical characteristics. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample from three nursing homes. All residents were assessed with a comprehensive protocol that included Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS15, Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI and Adults and Older Adults Functional Inventory (IAFAI. To identify needs, the Camberwell Assessment of Need for the Elderly (CANE was used. The final sample included 175 residents with a mean age of 80.6(sd=10.1. From these, 58.7% presented cognitive deficit (MMSE and 45.2% depressive symptoms (GDS. Statistically significant negative correlations were found between MMSE score and met(rs=-0.425, unmet(rs=-0.369 and global needs(rs=-0.565. Data also showed significant correlations between depressive symptoms and unmet(rs=0.683 and global needs(rs=0.407 and between behavioral and psychological symptoms (BPSD and unmet (rs=0.181 and global needs (rs=0.254. Finally, significant correlations between functional impairment and met(rs=0.642, unmet(rs=0.505 and global needs(rs=0.796 were also found. These results suggest that in this sample, more unmet needs are associated with the worst outcomes measured. This is consistent with previous findings and seems to demonstrate that the needs of those institutionalized elderly remain under-diagnosed and untreated.

  3. A Longitudinal Study on Resting State Functional Connectivity in Behavioral Variant Frontotemporal Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafkemeijer, Anne; Möller, Christiane; Dopper, Elise G P; Jiskoot, Lize C; van den Berg-Huysmans, Annette A; van Swieten, John C; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Vrenken, Hugo; Pijnenburg, Yolande A L; Barkhof, Frederik; Scheltens, Philip; van der Grond, Jeroen; Rombouts, Serge A R B

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) are the most common types of early-onset dementia. We applied longitudinal resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to delineate functional brain connections relevant for disease progression and diagnostic accuracy. We used two-center resting state fMRI data of 20 AD patients (65.1±8.0 years), 12 bvFTD patients (64.7±5.4 years), and 22 control subjects (63.8±5.0 years) at baseline and 1.8-year follow-up. We used whole-network and voxel-based network-to-region analyses to study group differences in functional connectivity at baseline and follow-up, and longitudinal changes in connectivity within and between groups. At baseline, connectivity between paracingulate gyrus and executive control network, between cuneal cortex and medial visual network, and between paracingulate gyrus and salience network was higher in AD compared with controls. These differences were also present after 1.8 years. At follow-up, connectivity between angular gyrus and right frontoparietal network, and between paracingulate gyrus and default mode network was lower in bvFTD compared with controls, and lower compared with AD between anterior cingulate gyrus and executive control network, and between lateral occipital cortex and medial visual network. Over time, connectivity decreased in AD between precuneus and right frontoparietal network and in bvFTD between inferior frontal gyrus and left frontoparietal network. Longitudinal changes in connectivity between supramarginal gyrus and right frontoparietal network differ between both patient groups and controls. We found disease-specific brain regions with longitudinal connectivity changes. This suggests the potential of longitudinal resting state fMRI to delineate regions relevant for disease progression and for diagnostic accuracy, although no group differences in longitudinal changes in the direct comparison of AD and bvFTD were found.

  4. Functional inactivation of dorsal medial striatum alters behavioral flexibility and recognition process in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yanhua; Wang, Xingyue; Ma, Lian; Li, Shengguang; Liang, Jing

    2017-10-01

    Deficits in behavioral flexibility and recognition memory are commonly observed in mental illnesses and neurodegenerative diseases. Abnormality of the striatum has been implicated in an association with the pathology of these diseases. However, the exact roles of striatal heterogeneous structures in these cognitive functions are still unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effects of suppressing neuronal activity in the dorsomedial striatum (DMStr) and nucleus accumbens core (NAcC) on reversal learning and novelty recognition in mice. In addition, the locomotor activity, anxiety-like behavior and social interaction were analyzed. Neuronal inactivation was performed by expressing lentivirus-mediated tetanus toxin (TeNT) in the target regions. The results showed that reversal learning was facilitated by neuronal inactivation in the DMStr but not the NAcC, which was attributable to accelerated extinction of acquired strategy but not to impaired memory retention. Furthermore, mice with NAcC inactivation spent more time exploring a novel object than a familiar one, comparable to control mice. In contrast, mice with DMStr inactivation exhibited no preference to a novel environment during the novel object or place recognition test. The DMStr mice also exhibited decreased anxiety level. No phenotypic effect was observed in the locomotion or social interaction in mice with either DMStr or NAcC inactivation. Altogether, these findings suggest that the DMStr but not the ventral area of the striatum plays a crucial role in learning and memory by coordinating spatial exploration as well as mediating information updating. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Generalized partition function zeros of 1D spin models and their critical behavior at edge singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalmazi, D; Sa, F L

    2010-01-01

    Here we study the partition function zeros of the one-dimensional Blume-Emery-Griffiths model close to their edge singularities. The model contains four couplings (H, J, Δ, K) including the magnetic field H and the Ising coupling J. We assume that only one of the three couplings (J, Δ, K) is complex and the magnetic field is real. The generalized zeros z i tend to form continuous curves on the complex z-plane in the thermodynamic limit. The linear density at the edges z E diverges usually with ρ(z) ∼ |z - z E | σ and σ = -1/2. However, as in the case of complex magnetic fields (Yang-Lee edge singularity), if we have a triple degeneracy of the transfer matrix eigenvalues a new critical behavior with σ = -2/3 can appear as we prove here explicitly for the cases where either Δ or K is complex. Our proof applies for a general three-state spin model with short-range interactions. The Fisher zeros (complex J) are more involved; in practice, we have not been able to find an explicit example with σ = -2/3 as far as the other couplings (H, Δ, K) are kept as real numbers. Our results are supported by numerical computations of zeros. We show that it is absolutely necessary to have a non-vanishing magnetic field for a new critical behavior. The appearance of σ = -2/3 at the edge closest to the positive real axis indicates its possible relevance for tricritical phenomena in higher-dimensional spin models.

  6. Mechanical behavior of tungsten–vanadium–lanthana alloys as function of temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacios, T., E-mail: teresa.palacios@mater.upm.es [Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales-CISDEM, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, E.T.S.I. Caminos, Canales y Puertos, C/Professor Aranguren s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Pastor, J.Y. [Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales-CISDEM, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, E.T.S.I. Caminos, Canales y Puertos, C/Professor Aranguren s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Aguirre, M.V. [Departamento de Tecnologías Especiales Aplicadas a la Aeronáutica, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, E.I. Aeronáutica y del Espacio, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Martín, A. [Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales-CISDEM, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, E.T.S.I. Caminos, Canales y Puertos, C/Professor Aranguren s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Monge, M.A.; Muñóz, A.; Pareja, R. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Leganés (Spain)

    2013-11-15

    The mechanical behavior of three tungsten (W) alloys with vanadium (V) and lanthana (La{sub 2}O{sub 3}) additions (W–4%V, W–1%La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, W–4%V–1%La{sub 2}O{sub 3}) processed by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) have been compared with pure-W to analyze the influence of the dopants. Mechanical characterization was performed by three point bending (TPB) tests in an oxidizing air atmosphere and temperature range between 77 (immersion tests in liquid nitrogen) and 1273 K, through which the fracture toughness, flexural strength, and yield strength as function of temperature were obtained. Results show that the V and La{sub 2}O{sub 3} additions improve the mechanical properties and oxidation behavior, respectively. Furthermore, a synergistic effect of both dopants results in an extraordinary increase of the flexure strength, fracture toughness and resistance to oxidation compared to pure-W, especially at higher temperatures. In addition, a new experimental method was developed to obtain a very small notch tip radius (around 5–7 μm) and much more similar to a crack through the use of a new machined notch. The fracture toughness results were lower than those obtained with traditional machining of the notch, which can be explained with electron microscopy, observations of deformation in the rear part of the notch tip. Finally, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination of the microstructure and fracture surfaces was used to determine and analyze the relationship between the macroscopic mechanical properties and the micromechanisms of failure involved, depending on the temperature and the dispersion of the alloy.

  7. A behavioral comparison of male and female adults with high functioning autism spectrum conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Chuan Lai

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum conditions (ASC affect more males than females in the general population. However, within ASC it is unclear if there are phenotypic sex differences. Testing for similarities and differences between the sexes is important not only for clinical assessment but also has implications for theories of typical sex differences and of autism. Using cognitive and behavioral measures, we investigated similarities and differences between the sexes in age- and IQ-matched adults with ASC (high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome. Of the 83 (45 males and 38 females participants, 62 (33 males and 29 females met Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R cut-off criteria for autism in childhood and were included in all subsequent analyses. The severity of childhood core autism symptoms did not differ between the sexes. Males and females also did not differ in self-reported empathy, systemizing, anxiety, depression, and obsessive-compulsive traits/symptoms or mentalizing performance. However, adult females with ASC showed more lifetime sensory symptoms (p = 0.036, fewer current socio-communication difficulties (p = 0.001, and more self-reported autistic traits (p = 0.012 than males. In addition, females with ASC who also had developmental language delay had lower current performance IQ than those without developmental language delay (p<0.001, a pattern not seen in males. The absence of typical sex differences in empathizing-systemizing profiles within the autism spectrum confirms a prediction from the extreme male brain theory. Behavioral sex differences within ASC may also reflect different developmental mechanisms between males and females with ASC. We discuss the importance of the superficially better socio-communication ability in adult females with ASC in terms of why females with ASC may more often go under-recognized, and receive their diagnosis later, than males.

  8. Functional analysis of a specialized prey processing behavior: winnowing by surfperches (Teleostei: Embiotocidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drucker, E G; Jensen, J S

    1991-12-01

    Several surfperches (Embiotocidae), including the black surfperch, Embiotoca jacksoni, exhibit a specialized prey handling behavior known as winnowing, in which ingested food and non-nutritive debris are separated within the oropharyngeal cavity. Prey items are swallowed, and unpalatable material is ejected from the mouth. Winnowing is believed to play an important role in the partitioning of food resources among sympatric embiotocids. We present a mechanistic model for this separative prey processing based on high-speed video analysis, cineradiography, electromyography, and buccal and opercular cavity pressure transducer recording. Winnowing by embiotocids is characterized by premaxillary protrusions repeated cyclically with reduced oral gape. Protrusion is accompanied by depression of the hyoid apparatus and adduction of the opercula. Alternating expansion and contraction of the buccal and opercular cavities generate regular pressure waveforms that indicate bidirectional water flow during processing. Separation of food from debris by Embiotoca jacksoni occurs in three phases. The prey-debris bolus is transported anteriorly and posteriorly within the oropharyngeal cavity and is then sheared by the pharyngeal jaws. Mechanical processing is complemented by the rinsing action of water currents during hydraulic prey transport. The feeding apparatus of Embiotoca jacksoni is functionally versatile, although not obviously specialized relative to that of nonwinnowing surfperches. Protrusion of the premaxillae and depression of the hyoid apparatus are critical to both prey capture and subsequent prey processing. The pharyngeal jaws exhibit kinematic patterns during separation of food from debris distinct from those observed during mastication of uncontaminated prey. This behavioral flexibility facilitates resource partitioning and the coexistence of E. jacksoni in sympatric embiotocid assemblages.

  9. Parenting Behavior, Quality of the Parent-Adolescent Relationship, and Adolescent Functioning in Four Ethnic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissink, Inge B.; Dekovic, Maja; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2006-01-01

    The cross-ethnic similarity in the pattern of associations among parenting behavior (support and authoritative and restrictive control), the quality of the parent-adolescent relationship (disclosure and positive and negative quality), and several developmental outcomes (aggressive behavior, delinquent behavior, and global self-esteem) was tested.…

  10. Girls' disruptive behavior and its relationship to family functioning: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroneman, L.M.; Loeber, R.; Hipwell, A.E.; Koot, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    Although a number of reviews of gender differences in disruptive behavior and parental socialization exist, we extend this literature by addressing the question of differential development among girls and by placing both disruptive behavior and parenting behavior in a developmental framework.

  11. Genetic variant for behavioral regulation factor of executive function and its possible brain mechanism in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao; Wu, Zhaomin; Cao, Qingjiu; Qian, Ying; Liu, Yong; Yang, Binrang; Chang, Suhua; Yang, Li; Wang, Yufeng

    2018-05-16

    As a childhood-onset psychiatric disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is complicated by phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity. Lifelong executive function deficits in ADHD are described in many literatures and have been proposed as endophenotypes of ADHD. However, its genetic basis is still elusive. In this study, we performed a genome-wide association study of executive function, rated with Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF), in ADHD children. We identified one significant variant (rs852004, P = 2.51e-08) for the overall score of BRIEF. The association analyses for each component of executive function found this locus was more associated with inhibit and monitor components. Further principle component analysis and confirmatory factor analysis provided an ADHD-specific executive function pattern including inhibit and monitor factors. SNP rs852004 was mainly associated with the Behavioral Regulation factor. Meanwhile, we found the significant locus was associated with ADHD symptom. The Behavioral Regulation factor mediated its effect on ADHD symptom. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analyses further showed evidence that this variant affected the activity of inhibition control related brain regions. It provided new insights for the genetic basis of executive function in ADHD.

  12. Relationship between Child and Parental Dental Anxiety with Child's Psychological Functioning and Behavior during the Administration of Local Anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boka, Vasiliki; Arapostathis, Konstantinos; Kotsanos, Nikolaos; Karagiannis, Vassilis; van Loveren, Cor; Veerkamp, Jaap

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine: 1) the relationship between children's psychological functioning, dental anxiety and cooperative behavior before and during local anesthesia, 2) the relationship of parental dental anxiety with all the above child characteristics. There was a convenient sample of 100 children (4-12 years). Child dental anxiety and psychological functioning were measured using the "Children's Fear Survey Schedule" (CFSS-DS) and the "Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire" (SDQ) respectively. Parental dental anxiety was measured using the "Modified Dental Anxiety Scale" (MDAS). All questionnaires were completed by parents. Before and during local anesthesia, the child behavior was scored by one experienced examiner, using the Venham scale. Non-parametric tests and correlations (Mann-Whitney, Spearman's rho) were used for the analysis. The mean SDQ score was 10±5.6 for boys (n=60) and 8.3±4.8 for girls (n=40) (p=0.038), but there was no correlation with children's age. The mean CFSS-DS score was 33.1±11.86 and there was no correlation with age or gender. Children with higher levels in the pro-social subscale of the SDQ had significantly less anxiety and better behavior before local anesthesia. Higher mean CFSS-DS scores were significantly associated with uncooperative behavior during local anesthesia (p=0.04). There was no correlation between parents' and their children's dental anxiety, psychological functioning and behavior. 46% of the children had previous dental experience in the last 6 months. As time since the last dental treatment increased, an improvement was found in children's behavior during local anesthesia. Child psychological functioning was related to dental anxiety and behavior during dental appointment involving local anesthesia.

  13. How Am I Driving? Using Genetic Programming to Generate Scoring Functions for Urban Driving Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto López

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic injuries are a serious concern in emerging economies. Their death toll and economic impact are shocking, with 9 out of 10 deaths occurring in low or middle-income countries; and road traffic crashes representing 3% of their gross domestic product. One way to mitigate these issues is to develop technology to effectively assist the driver, perhaps making him more aware about how her (his decisions influence safety. Following this idea, in this paper we evaluate computational models that can score the behavior of a driver based on a risky-safety scale. Potential applications of these models include car rental agencies, insurance companies or transportation service providers. In a previous work, we showed that Genetic Programming (GP was a successful methodology to evolve mathematical functions with the ability to learn how people subjectively score a road trip. The input to this model was a vector of frequencies of risky maneuvers, which were supposed to be detected in a sensor layer. Moreover, GP was shown, even with statistical significance, to be better than six other Machine Learning strategies, including Neural Networks, Support Vector Regression and a Fuzzy Inference system, among others. A pending task, since then, was to evaluate if a more detailed comparison of different strategies based on GP could improve upon the best GP model. In this work, we evaluate, side by side, scoring functions evolved by three different variants of GP. In the end, the results suggest that two of these strategies are very competitive in terms of accuracy and simplicity, both generating models that could be implemented in current technology that seeks to assist the driver in real-world scenarios.

  14. Acid sphingomyelinase (aSMase) deficiency leads to abnormal microglia behavior and disturbed retinal function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dannhausen, Katharina; Karlstetter, Marcus; Caramoy, Albert [Laboratory for Experimental Immunology of the Eye, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Volz, Cornelia; Jägle, Herbert [Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany); Liebisch, Gerhard [Institute for Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, University Hospital Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany); Utermöhlen, Olaf [Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene and Center for Molecular Medicine Cologne, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Langmann, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.langmann@uk-koeln.de [Laboratory for Experimental Immunology of the Eye, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany)

    2015-08-21

    Mutations in the acid sphingomyelinase (aSMase) coding gene sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 1 (SMPD1) cause Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) type A and B. Sphingomyelin storage in cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system cause hepatosplenomegaly and severe neurodegeneration in the brain of NPD patients. However, the effects of aSMase deficiency on retinal structure and microglial behavior have not been addressed in detail yet. Here, we demonstrate that retinas of aSMase{sup −/−} mice did not display overt neuronal degeneration but showed significantly reduced scotopic and photopic responses in electroretinography. In vivo fundus imaging of aSMase{sup −/−} mice showed many hyperreflective spots and staining for the retinal microglia marker Iba1 revealed massive proliferation of retinal microglia that had significantly enlarged somata. Nile red staining detected prominent phospholipid inclusions in microglia and lipid analysis showed significantly increased sphingomyelin levels in retinas of aSMase{sup −/−} mice. In conclusion, the aSMase-deficient mouse is the first example in which microglial lipid inclusions are directly related to a loss of retinal function. - Highlights: • aSMase-deficient mice show impaired retinal function and reactive microgliosis. • aSMase-deficient microglia express pro-inflammatory transcripts. • aSMase-deficient microglia proliferate and have increased cell body size. • In vivo imaging shows hyperreflective spots in the fundus of aSMase-deficient mice. • aSMase-deficient microglia accumulate sphingolipid-rich intracellular deposits.

  15. Effects of bio-functionalizing surface treatments on the mechanical behavior of open porous titanium biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin Yavari, S; Ahmadi, S M; van der Stok, J; Wauthle, R; Riemslag, A C; Janssen, M; Schrooten, J; Weinans, H; Zadpoor, A A

    2014-08-01

    Bio-functionalizing surface treatments are often applied for improving the bioactivity of biomaterials that are based on otherwise bioinert titanium alloys. When applied on highly porous titanium alloy structures intended for orthopedic bone regeneration purposes, such surface treatments could significantly change the static and fatigue properties of these structures and, thus, affect the application of the biomaterial as bone substitute. Therefore, the interplay between biofunctionalizing surface treatments and mechanical behavior needs to be controlled. In this paper, we studied the effects of two bio-functionalizing surface treatments, namely alkali-acid heat treatment (AlAcH) and acid-alkali (AcAl), on the static and fatigue properties of three different highly porous titanium alloy implants manufactured using selective laser melting. It was found that AlAcH treatment results in minimal mass loss. The static and fatigue properties of AlAcH specimens were therefore not much different from as-manufactured (AsM) specimens. In contrast, AcAl resulted in substantial mass loss and also in significantly less static and fatigue properties particularly for porous structures with the highest porosity. The ratio of the static mechanical properties of AcAl specimens to that of AsM specimen was in the range of 1.5-6. The fatigue lives of AcAl specimens were much more severely affected by the applied surface treatments with fatigue lives up to 23 times smaller than that of AsM specimens particularly for the porous structures with the highest porosity. In conclusion, the fatigue properties of surface treated porous titanium are dependent not only on the type of applied surface treatment but also on the porosity of the biomaterial. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A dynamic view of molecular switch behavior at serotonin receptors: implications for functional selectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Martí-Solano

    Full Text Available Functional selectivity is a property of G protein-coupled receptors that allows them to preferentially couple to particular signaling partners upon binding of biased agonists. Publication of the X-ray crystal structure of serotonergic 5-HT1B and 5-HT2B receptors in complex with ergotamine, a drug capable of activating G protein coupling and β-arrestin signaling at the 5-HT1B receptor but clearly favoring β-arrestin over G protein coupling at the 5-HT2B subtype, has recently provided structural insight into this phenomenon. In particular, these structures highlight the importance of specific residues, also called micro-switches, for differential receptor activation. In our work, we apply classical molecular dynamics simulations and enhanced sampling approaches to analyze the behavior of these micro-switches and their impact on the stabilization of particular receptor conformational states. Our analysis shows that differences in the conformational freedom of helix 6 between both receptors could explain their different G protein-coupling capacity. In particular, as compared to the 5-HT1B receptor, helix 6 movement in the 5-HT2B receptor can be constrained by two different mechanisms. On the one hand, an anchoring effect of ergotamine, which shows an increased capacity to interact with the extracellular part of helices 5 and 6 and stabilize them, hinders activation of a hydrophobic connector region at the center of the receptor. On the other hand, this connector region in an inactive conformation is further stabilized by unconserved contacts extending to the intracellular part of the 5-HT2B receptor, which hamper opening of the G protein binding site. This work highlights the importance of considering receptor capacity to adopt different conformational states from a dynamic perspective in order to underpin the structural basis of functional selectivity.

  17. The human likeness dimension of the "uncanny valley hypothesis": behavioral and functional MRI findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheetham, Marcus; Suter, Pascal; Jäncke, Lutz

    2011-01-01

    The uncanny valley hypothesis (Mori, 1970) predicts differential experience of negative and positive affect as a function of human likeness. Affective experience of humanlike robots and computer-generated characters (avatars) dominates "uncanny" research, but findings are inconsistent. Importantly, it is unknown how objects are actually perceived along the hypothesis' dimension of human likeness (DOH), defined in terms of human physical similarity. To examine whether the DOH can also be defined in terms of effects of categorical perception (CP), stimuli from morph continua with controlled differences in physical human likeness between avatar and human faces as endpoints were presented. Two behavioral studies found a sharp category boundary along the DOH and enhanced visual discrimination (i.e., CP) of fine-grained differences between pairs of faces at the category boundary. Discrimination was better for face pairs presenting category change in the human-to-avatar than avatar-to-human direction along the DOH. To investigate brain representation of physical change and category change along the DOH, an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study used the same stimuli in a pair-repetition priming paradigm. Bilateral mid-fusiform areas and a different right mid-fusiform area were sensitive to physical change within the human and avatar categories, respectively, whereas entirely different regions were sensitive to the human-to-avatar (caudate head, putamen, thalamus, red nucleus) and avatar-to-human (hippocampus, amygdala, mid-insula) direction of category change. These findings show that Mori's DOH definition does not reflect subjective perception of human likeness and suggest that future "uncanny" studies consider CP and the DOH's category structure in guiding experience of non-human objects.

  18. Identification of Hydrochemical Function and Behavior of the Houzhai Karst Basin, Guizhou Province, Southwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the difference of geomorphology and the development of fractures, the hydrochemical function and behavior appear to be complex. Variations of karst water conductivity can reflect the contribution of different runoff sources and thus indirectly reflect the development characteristics of conduits and fractures. Taking Houzhai karst system (southwestern China as a case study, the frequency distribution curves of karst water conductivity were decomposed by Gaussian Mixture Analysis to identify the runoff components of different karst landform. The dominant runoff types had been distinguished, and the relative contribution of the different water types had been investigated. The results showed that the karst flow types were slope flow, rapid fracture flow, and slow fracture flow. Rapid fracture flow was the major recharge type of Houzhai karst water system. Slow fracture flow in the downstream area accounted for a larger proportion than that of the upstream area. The relative contribution of the different runoff components showed that the upstream area was a rapid flow area of conduit structure with low storage capacity, the downstream area was an aquifer spatial structure of netted fissure conduit with high storage capacity, and the midstream area was a transitional zone between the upstream and downstream area.

  19. Tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding of Ni-rich NiTi plates: functional behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, J. P.; Barbosa, D.; Braz Fernandes, F. M.; Miranda, R. M.

    2016-03-01

    It is often reported that, to successfully join NiTi shape memory alloys, fusion-based processes with reduced thermal affected regions (as in laser welding) are required. This paper describes an experimental study performed on the tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding of 1.5 mm thick plates of Ni-rich NiTi. The functional behavior of the joints was assessed. The superelasticity was analyzed by cycling tests at maximum imposed strains of 4, 8 and 12% and for a total of 600 cycles, without rupture. The superelastic plateau was observed, in the stress-strain curves, 30 MPa below that of the base material. Shape-memory effect was evidenced by bending tests with full recovery of the initial shape of the welded joints. In parallel, uniaxial tensile tests of the joints showed a tensile strength of 700 MPa and an elongation to rupture of 20%. The elongation is the highest reported for fusion-welding of NiTi, including laser welding. These results can be of great interest for the wide-spread inclusion of NiTi in complex shaped components requiring welding, since TIG is not an expensive process and is simple to operate and implement in industrial environments.

  20. Functional behavior and reproduction in androgenic sex reversed zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Mia G; Baatrup, Erik

    2010-08-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals released into natural watercourses may cause biased sex ratios by sex reversal in fish populations. The present study investigated the androgenic sex reversal of zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to the androgenic compound 17beta-trenbolone (TB) and whether sex-changed females would revert to the female phenotype after cessation of TB exposure. 17beta-Trenbolone is a metabolite of trenbolone acetate, an anabolic steroid used as a growth promoter in beef cattle. 17beta-Trenbolone in runoff from cattle feedlots may reach concentrations that affect fish sexual development. Zebrafish were exposed to a concentration of 20 ng/L TB in a flow-through system for five months from egg until sexual maturity. This resulted in an all-male population. It was further found that all these phenotypic males displayed normal male courtship behavior and were able to reproduce successfully, implying that the sex reversal was complete and functional. None of the phenotypic males developed into females after six months in clean water, demonstrating that androgenic sex reversal of zebrafish is irreversible. Copyright 2010 SETAC

  1. A short course on functional equations based upon recent applications to the social and behavioral sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Aczél, J

    1987-01-01

    Recently I taught short courses on functional equations at several universities (Barcelona, Bern, Graz, Hamburg, Milan, Waterloo). My aim was to introduce the most important equations and methods of solution through actual (not artifi­ cial) applications which were recent and with which I had something to do. Most of them happened to be related to the social or behavioral sciences. All were originally answers to questions posed by specialists in the respective applied fields. Here I give a somewhat extended version of these lectures, with more recent results and applications included. As previous knowledge just the basic facts of calculus and algebra are supposed. Parts where somewhat more (measure theory) is needed and sketches of lengthier calcula­ tions are set in fine print. I am grateful to Drs. J. Baker (Waterloo, Ont.), W. Forg-Rob (Innsbruck, Austria) and C. Wagner (Knoxville, Tenn.) for critical remarks and to Mrs. Brenda Law for care­ ful computer-typing of the manuscript (in several versions). A...

  2. Extraction, chemical composition, rheological behavior, antioxidant activity and functional properties of Cordia myxa mucilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokht, Shaghayegh Keshani; Djomeh, Zahra Emam; Yarmand, Mohammad Saeid; Fathi, Morteza

    2018-06-14

    This paper aims to investigate chemical composition, rheological behavior, antioxidant activity and functional properties of Cordia myxa mucilage (CMM). Response surface methodology (RSM) demonstrated that optimum conditions for CMM extraction were as follow: ultrasound power of 99.37 W, extraction temperature of 88.05 °C and solid to water ratio of 16.25 w/w. CMM had, on average, 77.51% carbohydrate, 5.86% total ash, 8.90% protein, 6.90% moisture, and 1.00% fat. Due to a high level of nutrients, CMM can be suggested as a value added by-product in food and pharmaceutical systems. CMM is a low molecular weight polysaccharide containing three fractions with various molecular weights. FT-IR spectrum illustrated that this polymer had all typical bands and peaks characteristics of polysaccharides. Based on steady shear measurements, CMM can be introduced as a new source of hydrocolloid with high-temperature stability. CMM had the desirable antiradical capacity, water solubility and water/oil holding capacity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Behavioral and neural correlates of executive functioning in musicians and non-musicians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Zuk

    Full Text Available Executive functions (EF are cognitive capacities that allow for planned, controlled behavior and strongly correlate with academic abilities. Several extracurricular activities have been shown to improve EF, however, the relationship between musical training and EF remains unclear due to methodological limitations in previous studies. To explore this further, two experiments were performed; one with 30 adults with and without musical training and one with 27 musically trained and untrained children (matched for general cognitive abilities and socioeconomic variables with a standardized EF battery. Furthermore, the neural correlates of EF skills in musically trained and untrained children were investigated using fMRI. Adult musicians compared to non-musicians showed enhanced performance on measures of cognitive flexibility, working memory, and verbal fluency. Musically trained children showed enhanced performance on measures of verbal fluency and processing speed, and significantly greater activation in pre-SMA/SMA and right VLPFC during rule representation and task-switching compared to musically untrained children. Overall, musicians show enhanced performance on several constructs of EF, and musically trained children further show heightened brain activation in traditional EF regions during task-switching. These results support the working hypothesis that musical training may promote the development and maintenance of certain EF skills, which could mediate the previously reported links between musical training and enhanced cognitive skills and academic achievement.

  4. A Function-Behavior-State Approach to Designing Human Machine Interface for Nuclear Power Plant Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y.; Zhang, W. J.

    2005-02-01

    This paper presents an approach to human-machine interface design for control room operators of nuclear power plants. The first step in designing an interface for a particular application is to determine information content that needs to be displayed. The design methodology for this step is called the interface design framework (called framework ). Several frameworks have been proposed for applications at varying levels, including process plants. However, none is based on the design and manufacture of a plant system for which the interface is designed. This paper presents an interface design framework which originates from design theory and methodology for general technical systems. Specifically, the framework is based on a set of core concepts of a function-behavior-state model originally proposed by the artificial intelligence research community and widely applied in the design research community. Benefits of this new framework include the provision of a model-based fault diagnosis facility, and the seamless integration of the design (manufacture, maintenance) of plants and the design of human-machine interfaces. The missing linkage between design and operation of a plant was one of the causes of the Three Mile Island nuclear reactor incident. A simulated plant system is presented to explain how to apply this framework in designing an interface. The resulting human-machine interface is discussed; specifically, several fault diagnosis examples are elaborated to demonstrate how this interface could support operators' fault diagnosis in an unanticipated situation.

  5. Adolescents with a history of specific language impairment (SLI): strengths and difficulties in social, emotional and behavioral functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Mok, Pearl L H; Pickles, Andrew; Durkin, Kevin

    2013-11-01

    Adolescents with specific language impairment (SLI) are at a greater risk of emotional and behavioral problems compared to their typically developing (TD) peers, but little is known about their self-perceived strengths and difficulties. In this study, the self-reported social, emotional and behavioral functioning of 139 adolescents with a history of SLI and 124 TD individuals at age 16 was examined. The self-report version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was used to assess their prosocial behavior and levels of peer, emotional and behavioral difficulties. Associations of these areas of functioning with gender, verbal and non-verbal skills were also investigated. Adolescents with a history of SLI were more likely than their TD peers to report higher levels of peer problems, emotional symptoms, hyperactivity and conduct problems. The majority of adolescents in both groups (87% SLI and 96% TD), however, reported prosocial behavior within the typical range. Difficulty with peer relations was the strongest differentiator between the groups, with the odds of reporting borderline or abnormally high levels of peer problems being 12 times higher for individuals with a history of SLI. Adolescents with poorer receptive language skills were also more likely to report higher levels of emotional and behavioral difficulties. The findings of this study identify likely traits that may lead to referral to services. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. On the Asymptotic Behavior of the Kernel Function in the Generalized Langevin Equation: A One-Dimensional Lattice Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Weiqi; Li, Xiantao

    2018-01-01

    We present some estimates for the memory kernel function in the generalized Langevin equation, derived using the Mori-Zwanzig formalism from a one-dimensional lattice model, in which the particles interactions are through nearest and second nearest neighbors. The kernel function can be explicitly expressed in a matrix form. The analysis focuses on the decay properties, both spatially and temporally, revealing a power-law behavior in both cases. The dependence on the level of coarse-graining is also studied.

  7. Early Parenting and the Development of Externalizing Behavior Problems: Longitudinal Mediation through Children’s Executive Function

    OpenAIRE

    Sulik, Michael J.; Blair, Clancy; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Berry, Daniel; Greenberg, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Path analysis was used to investigate the longitudinal associations among parenting and children’s executive function and externalizing behavior problems from 36 to 90 months of age in the Family Life Project (N = 1,115), a study of child development in the context of rural poverty. While controlling for stability in the constructs, semi-structured observations of parenting prospectively predicted performance on a battery of executive function tasks and primary caregivers’ reports of external...

  8. THE IMPACT OF VISIONARY LEADERSHIP, LEARNING ORGANIZATION AND INNOVATIVE BEHAVIOR TO PERFORMANCE OF CUSTOMS AND EXCISE FUNCTIONAL

    OpenAIRE

    Anshar, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to determine the impact of visionary leadership, learning organization, and innovative behavior on the performance of Functional Officers of Customs and Excise Inspectors at Tanjung Priok Customs and Excise Main Service Office. The research was conducted at Tanjung Priok Customs and Excise Service Office using the number of samples of 78 Functional Officers of Customs and Excise Inspectors. The sample was selected using simple random sampling technique. Data collection was ...

  9. High-Throughput Behavioral Screens: the First Step towards Finding Genes Involved in Vertebrate Brain Function Using Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Gerlai

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The zebrafish has been in the forefront of developmental biology for three decades and has become a favorite of geneticists. Due to the accumulated genetic knowledge and tools developed for the zebrafish it is gaining popularity in other disciplines, including neuroscience. The zebrafish offers a compromise between system complexity (it is a vertebrate similar in many ways to our own species and practical simplicity (it is small, easy to keep, and prolific. Such features make zebrafish an excellent choice for high throughput mutation and drug screening. For the identification of mutation or drug induced alteration of brain function arguably the best methods are behavioral test paradigms. This review does not present experimental examples for the identification of particular genes or drugs. Instead it describes how behavioral screening methods may enable one to find functional alterations in the vertebrate brain. Furthermore, the review is not comprehensive. The behavioral test examples presented are biased according to the personal interests of the author. They will cover research areas including learning and memory, fear and anxiety, and social behavior. Nevertheless, the general principles will apply to other functional domains and should represent a snapshot of the rapidly evolving behavioral screening field with zebrafish.

  10. Recovery of ovarian activity in women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea who were treated with cognitive behavior therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berga, Sarah L; Marcus, Marsha D; Loucks, Tammy L; Hlastala, Stefanie; Ringham, Rebecca; Krohn, Marijane A

    2003-10-01

    To determine whether cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) targeted to problematic attitudes common among women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea would restore ovarian function. Randomized, prospective, controlled intervention. Clinical research center in an academic medical institution. Sixteen women participated who had functional hypothalamic amenorrhea; were of normal body weight; and did not report psychiatric conditions, eating disorders, or excessive exercise. Subjects were randomized to CBT or observation for 20 weeks. Serum levels of E(2) and P and vaginal bleeding were monitored. Of eight women treated with CBT, six resumed ovulating, one had partial recovery of ovarian function without evidence of ovulation, and one did not display return of ovarian function. Of those randomized to observation, one resumed ovulating, one had partial return of ovarian function, and six did not recover. Thus, CBT resulted in a higher rate of ovarian activity (87.5%) than did observation (25.0%), chi(2) = 7.14. A cognitive behavioral intervention designed to minimize problematic attitudes linked to hypothalamic allostasis was more likely to result in resumption of ovarian activity than observation. The prompt ovarian response to CBT suggests that a tailored behavioral intervention offers an efficacious treatment option that also avoids the pitfalls of pharmacological modalities.

  11. A function-behavior-structure framework for quantification and reproduction of emotional haptic experience in using an electronic device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Il Ju; Lee, Soo Hong [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ok, Hyung Seok; Lee, Jae In [LG Electronics Inc, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    A user's haptic experience in using an electronic device is related to the continuous and dynamic variances of the structural state of the device. Since the changes of the structural component cause complex changes of the dynamics, it is difficult to predict the user's experience. We propose a function-behavior-structure framework to predict and improve the user's experience. The framework consists of the function layer model, the behavior layer model, and the structure layer model. Especially, the independent behavior model to the device is based on a physical phenomenon. Finally, an optimized structure which produces an ideal haptic experience for a cell phone is suggested.

  12. Effects of oily fish intake on cardiovascular risk markers, cognitive function, and behavior in school-aged children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla T.; Lauritzen, Lotte; Hauger, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    Background Most children in Western populations do not meet recommendations for fish consumption. Oily fish is an important source of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), which reduce blood pressure and plasma triacylglycerol in adults and may affect cognitive development...... and behavior. However, to our knowledge, the potential effects of oily fish on cardiometabolic health, cognitive function, and behavior in children have not been investigated. The aim of the FiSK Junior study is to investigate the effects of oily fish consumption on cardiovascular risk markers, cognitive...... function, and behavior in healthy children. Methods/design We are conducting a randomized controlled trial with 8- to 9-year-old Danish children, comparing the effect of consuming 300 g/week of oily fish with poultry (control) for 12 weeks between August 2016 and June 2017. The primary outcomes are blood...

  13. Dietary isoflavones alter regulatory behaviors, metabolic hormones and neuroendocrine function in Long-Evans male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bu Lihong

    2004-12-01

    protein (UCP-1 mRNA levels in brown adipose tissue (BAT were seen in Phyto-600 fed males. However, decreased core body temperature was recorded in these same animals compared to Phyto-free fed animals. Conclusions This study demonstrates that consumption of a soy-based (isoflavone-rich diet, significantly alters several parameters involved in maintaining body homeostatic balance, energy expenditure, feeding behavior, hormonal, metabolic and neuroendocrine function in male rats.

  14. Effects of Coaching on the Implementation of Functional Assessment-Based Parent Intervention in Reducing Challenging Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fettig, Angel; Schultz, Tia R.; Sreckovic, Melissa A.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of coaching on the implementation of functional assessment--based parent intervention in reducing children's challenging behaviors. A multiple baseline across participants design was used with three parent-child dyads with children between the ages of 2 and 5 years. The intervention consisted of training and delayed…

  15. Disciplinary Style and Child Abuse Potential: Association with Indicators of Positive Functioning in Children with Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Christina M.; Eden, Ann M.

    2008-01-01

    Reduction of ineffective parenting is promoted in parent training components of mental health treatment for children with externalizing behavior disorders, but minimal research has considered whether disciplinary style and lower abuse risk could also be associated with positive functioning in such children. The present study examined whether lower…

  16. Mothers' Socialization Goals, Mothers' Emotion Socialization Behaviors, Child Emotion Regulation, and Child Socioemotional Functioning in Urban India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raval, Vaishali V.; Raval, Pratiksha H.; Deo, Neeraj

    2014-01-01

    Studies examining the link between parental socialization and child functioning in varying cultural contexts are scarce. Focusing on early adolescents in suburban middle-class families in India, the present study examined interrelations among reports of mothers' socialization goals, socialization behaviors in response to child emotion, child…

  17. Executive Functions and Child Problem Behaviors Are Sensitive to Family Disruption: A Study of Children of Mothers Working Overseas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewage, Chandana; Bohlin, Gunilla; Wijewardena, Kumudu; Lindmark, Gunilla

    2011-01-01

    Mothers in Sri Lanka are increasingly seeking overseas employment, resulting in disruption of the childcare environment. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of maternal migration on executive function (EF) and behavior, thereby also contributing to the scientific understanding of environmental effects--or more specifically…

  18. Virtual reality training to enhance behavior and cognitive function among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shema-Shiratzky, Shirley; Brozgol, Marina; Cornejo-Thumm, Pablo; Geva-Dayan, Karen; Rotstein, Michael; Leitner, Yael; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M; Mirelman, Anat

    2018-05-17

    To examine the feasibility and efficacy of a combined motor-cognitive training using virtual reality to enhance behavior, cognitive function and dual-tasking in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Fourteen non-medicated school-aged children with ADHD, received 18 training sessions during 6 weeks. Training included walking on a treadmill while negotiating virtual obstacles. Behavioral symptoms, cognition and gait were tested before and after the training and at 6-weeks follow-up. Based on parental report, there was a significant improvement in children's social problems and psychosomatic behavior after the training. Executive function and memory were improved post-training while attention was unchanged. Gait regularity significantly increased during dual-task walking. Long-term training effects were maintained in memory and executive function. Treadmill-training augmented with virtual-reality is feasible and may be an effective treatment to enhance behavior, cognitive function and dual-tasking in children with ADHD.

  19. Functional Assessment and Behavioral Treatment of Skin Picking in a Teenage Girl With Prader-Willi Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radstaake, M.; Didden, H.C.M.; Bolio, M.M.L.; Lang, R.B.; Lancioni, G.E.; Curfs, L.M.G.

    2011-01-01

    Skin picking is common in individuals with Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) but few treatment studies exist. This study reports the successful functional behavioral assessment (FBA) and treatment of skin picking in a 16-year-old female with PWS. A treatment package based on FBA results consisted of

  20. East Tennessee State University's "Make a Difference" Project: Using a Team-Based Consultative Model To Conduct Functional Behavioral Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Kelley; Hales, Cindy; Bush, Marta; Fox, James

    1998-01-01

    Describes implementation of functional behavioral assessment (FBA) through collaboration between a university (East Tennessee State University) and the local school system. Discusses related issues such as factors in team training, team size, FBA adaptations, and replicability of the FBA team model. (Author/DB)

  1. THE IMPACT OF VISIONARY LEADERSHIP, LEARNING ORGANIZATION AND INNOVATIVE BEHAVIOR TO PERFORMANCE OF CUSTOMS AND EXCISE FUNCTIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Anshar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to determine the impact of visionary leadership, learning organization, and innovative behavior on the performance of Functional Officers of Customs and Excise Inspectors at Tanjung Priok Customs and Excise Main Service Office. The research was conducted at Tanjung Priok Customs and Excise Service Office using the number of samples of 78 Functional Officers of Customs and Excise Inspectors. The sample was selected using simple random sampling technique. Data collection was done by using questionnaire and data analysis using path analysis. The results showed that 1 visionary leadership, learning organization and innovative behavior have a direct and positive impact on performance, 2 visionary leadership, and learning organization have a direct and positive impact on innovative behavior and 3 visionary leadership have a direct and positive impact on learning organization. The conclusion of this research is to improve the performance of Functional Officer of Customs and Excise Inspectors at TanjungPriok Customs and Excise Main Service Office, it is necessary to increase the aspect of visionary leadership from Head of Main Service Office, learning organization at Main Service Office and innovative behavior at Functional Officers of Customs and Excise Inspectors.

  2. The Association between Emotional and Behavioral Problems and Gastrointestinal Symptoms among Children with High-Functioning Autism

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    Mazefsky, Carla A.; Schreiber, Dana R.; Olino, Thomas M.; Minshew, Nancy J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the association between gastrointestinal symptoms and a broad set of emotional and behavioral concerns in 95 children with high-functioning autism and IQ scores = 80. Gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed via the Autism Treatment Network's Gastrointestinal Symptom Inventory, and data were gathered on autism symptom…

  3. Gay and Lesbian Adoptive Families: An Exploratory Study of Family Functioning, Adoptive Child's Behavior, and Familial Support Networks

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    Erich, Stephen; Leung, Patrick; Kindle, Peter; Carter, Sharon

    2005-01-01

    Traditional legal and social forces have hindered the adoption of children by gay and lesbian individuals and couples. Using a convenience sample drawn from gay and lesbian support groups and Internet sites, this exploratory study examines adoptive families with gay and lesbian parents in terms of family functioning capabilities, child's behavior,…

  4. Contribution of Theory of Mind, Executive Functioning, and Pragmatics to Socialization Behaviors of Children with High-Functioning Autism

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    Berenguer, Carmen; Miranda, Ana; Colomer, Carla; Baixauli, Inmaculada; Roselló, Belén

    2018-01-01

    Social difficulties are a key aspect of autism, but the intervening factors are still poorly understood. This study had two objectives: to compare the profile of ToM skills, executive functioning (EF), and pragmatic competence (PC) of children with high-functioning autism (HFA) and children with typical development (TD), and analyze their mediator…

  5. Impact of a Behavioral Sleep Intervention on New School Entrants' Social Emotional Functioning and Sleep: A Translational Randomized Trial.

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    Hiscock, Harriet; Quach, Jon; Paton, Kate; Peat, Rebecca; Gold, Lisa; Arnup, Sarah; Sia, Kah-Ling; Nicolaou, Elizabeth; Wake, Melissa

    2018-05-14

    Determine the effects and costs of a brief behavioral sleep intervention, previously shown to improve child social-emotional functioning, sleep, and parent mental health, in a translational trial. Three hundred thirty-four school entrant children from 47 primary schools in Melbourne, Australia, with parent-reported moderate to severe behavioral sleep problems. intervention group received sleep hygiene practices and standardized behavioral strategies delivered by trained school nurses in 2013 and 2014. Control group children could receive usual community care. Outcome measures: child social-emotional functioning (Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 psychosocial health summary score-primary outcome), sleep problems (parent-reported severity, Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire), behavior, academic function, working memory, child and parent quality of life, and parent mental health. At six months post randomization, 145 (of 168) intervention and 155 (of 166) control families completed the primary outcome for which there was no difference. Intervention compared with control children had fewer sleep problems (35.2% vs. 52.7% respectively, OR 0.5; 95% CI 0.3 to 0.8, p = 0.002) and better sleep patterns (e.g., longer sleep duration). Their parents reported fewer symptoms of depression. All differences attenuated by 12 months. There was no difference in other outcomes at either time point. Intervention costs: $AUS 182/child. A brief behavioral sleep intervention, delivered by school nurses to children with behavioral sleep problems, does not improve social emotional functioning. Benefits to child sleep and parent mental health are evident at 6 but not 12 months. Approaches that increase intervention dosage may improve outcomes.

  6. Slow angled-descent forepaw grasping (SLAG): an innate behavioral task for identification of individual experimental mice possessing functional vision.

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    Gil-Pagés, Macarena; Stiles, Robert J; Parks, Christopher A; Neier, Steven C; Radulovic, Maja; Oliveros, Alfredo; Ferrer, Alejandro; Reed, Brendan K; Wilton, Katelynn M; Schrum, Adam G

    2013-08-23

    There is significant interest in the generation of improved assays to clearly identify experimental mice possessing functional vision, a property that could qualify mice for inclusion in behavioral and neuroscience studies. Widely employed current methods rely on mouse responses to visual cues in assays of reflexes, depth perception, or cognitive memory. However, commonly assessed mouse reflexes can sometimes be ambiguous in their expression, while depth perception assays are sometimes confounded by variation in anxiety responses and exploratory conduct. Furthermore, in situations where experimental groups vary in their cognitive memory capacity, memory assays may not be ideal for assessing differences in vision. We have optimized a non-invasive behavioral assay that relies on an untrained, innate response to identify individual experimental mice possessing functional vision: slow angled-descent forepaw grasping (SLAG). First, we verified that SLAG performance depends on vision and not olfaction. Next, all members of an age-ranged cohort of 158 C57BL/6 mice (57 wild-type, 101 knockout, age range 44-241 days) were assessed for functional vision using the SLAG test without training or conditioning. Subjecting the population to a second innate behavioral test, Dark Chamber preference, corroborated that the functional vision assessment of SLAG was valid. We propose that the SLAG assay is immediately useful to quickly and clearly identify experimental mice possessing functional vision. SLAG is based on a behavioral readout with a significant innate component with no requirement for training. This will facilitate the selection of mice of known sighted status in vision-dependent experiments that focus on other types of behavior, neuroscience, and/or cognitive memory.

  7. Contribution of Theory of Mind, Executive Functioning, and Pragmatics to Socialization Behaviors of Children with High-Functioning Autism.

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    Berenguer, Carmen; Miranda, Ana; Colomer, Carla; Baixauli, Inmaculada; Roselló, Belén

    2018-02-01

    Social difficulties are a key aspect of autism, but the intervening factors are still poorly understood. This study had two objectives: to compare the profile of ToM skills, executive functioning (EF), and pragmatic competence (PC) of children with high-functioning autism (HFA) and children with typical development (TD), and analyze their mediator role in social functioning. The participants were 52 children with HFA and 37 children with TD matched on age, intelligence quotient, and expressive vocabulary. Significant differences were found on measures of ToM, both explicit and applied, EF, and PC between children with HFA and TD. Multiple mediation analysis revealed that applied ToM skills and PC mediated the relations between autism symptoms and social functioning. Implications for social cognitive interventions to address these findings are discussed.

  8. Social functioning in youth with anxiety disorders: association with anxiety severity and outcomes from cognitive-behavioral therapy.

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    Settipani, Cara A; Kendall, Philip C

    2013-02-01

    Social functioning was assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist and Teacher Report Form for children with anxiety disorders who participated in a randomized clinical trial (N = 161, aged 7-14). Significant relationships were found between severity of children's principal anxiety disorder and most measures of social functioning, such that poorer social functioning was associated with more severe anxiety. Among youth who received cognitive-behavioral therapy (n = 111), significant associations were found between parent-reported social competence and both absence of principal anxiety disorder and lower anxiety severity at posttreatment and 1-year follow-up, controlling for the severity of the child's principal anxiety disorder at pretreatment. Findings support a relationship between anxiety severity and social difficulties, and suggest the importance of social competence for a favorable treatment response.

  9. Teacher Expectations of Students' Classroom Behavior: Do Expectations Vary as a Function of School Risk?

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    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Pierson, Melinda R.; Stang, Kristin K.; Carter, Erik W.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the social behaviors teachers believe is critical for school success and can contribute to the development of effective behavioral supports and assist teachers in better preparing students for successful school transitions across the K-12 grade span. We explored 1303 elementary, middle, and high school teachers' expectations of…

  10. Estrous behavior in dairy cows: identification of underlying mechanisms and gene functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, H.M.T.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Beerda, B.; Woelders, H.

    2010-01-01

    Selection in dairy cattle for a higher milk yield has coincided with declined fertility. One of the factors is reduced expression of estrous behavior. Changes in systems that regulate the estrous behavior could be manifested by altered gene expression. This literature review describes the current

  11. The Influence of Rurality and Parental Affect on Kindergarten Children's Social and Behavioral Functioning

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    Sheridan, Susan M.; Koziol, Natalie A.; Clarke, Brandy L.; Rispoli, Kristin M.; Coutts, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: Children's early academic achievement is supported by positive social and behavioral skills, and difficulties with these skills frequently gives way to underachievement. Social and behavioral problems often arise as a product of parent-child interactional patterns and environmental influences. Few studies have examined the role…

  12. Peer Relations as a Function of Physical Attractiveness: The Eye of the Beholder or Behavioral Reality?

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    Langlois, Judith H.; Downs, A. Chris

    This study examines the relationship between physical attractiveness and behavior by assessing whether behavioral differences exist between children judged by adults to be physically attractive and unattractive. Sixty-four 3- and 5-year-old boys and girls were selected as subjects on the basis of physical attractiveness. Three types of same-age…

  13. Randomized clinical trial of cognitive behavioral social skills training for schizophrenia: improvement in functioning and experiential negative symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granholm, Eric; Holden, Jason; Link, Peter C; McQuaid, John R

    2014-12-01

    Identifying treatments to improve functioning and reduce negative symptoms in consumers with schizophrenia is of high public health significance. In this randomized clinical trial, participants with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (N = 149) were randomly assigned to cognitive behavioral social skills training (CBSST) or an active goal-focused supportive contact (GFSC) control condition. CBSST combined cognitive behavior therapy with social skills training and problem-solving training to improve functioning and negative symptoms. GFSC was weekly supportive group therapy focused on setting and achieving functioning goals. Blind raters assessed functioning (primary outcome: Independent Living Skills Survey [ILSS]), CBSST skill knowledge, positive and negative symptoms, depression, and defeatist performance attitudes. In mixed-effects regression models in intent-to-treat analyses, CBSST skill knowledge, functioning, amotivation/asociality negative symptoms, and defeatist performance attitudes improved significantly more in CBSST relative to GFSC. In both treatment groups, comparable improvements were also found for positive symptoms and a performance-based measure of social competence. The results suggest CBSST is an effective treatment to improve functioning and experiential negative symptoms in consumers with schizophrenia, and both CBSST and supportive group therapy actively focused on setting and achieving functioning goals can improve social competence and reduce positive symptoms.

  14. A Modified Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test Predicts Behavioral Variant Frontotemporal Dementia Better Than Executive Function Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias L. Schroeter

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD is characterized by deep alterations in behavior and personality. Although revised diagnostic criteria agree for executive dysfunction as most characteristic, impairments in social cognition are also suggested. The study aimed at identifying those neuropsychological and behavioral parameters best discriminating between bvFTD and healthy controls. Eighty six patients were diagnosed with possible or probable bvFTD according to Rascovsky et al. (2011 and compared with 43 healthy age-matched controls. Neuropsychological performance was assessed with a modified Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET, Stroop task, Trail Making Test (TMT, Hamasch-Five-Point Test (H5PT, and semantic and phonemic verbal fluency tasks. Behavior was assessed with the Apathy Evaluation Scale, Frontal Systems Behavioral Scale, and Bayer Activities of Daily Living Scale. Each test’s discriminatory power was investigated by Receiver Operating Characteristic curves calculating the area under the curve (AUC. bvFTD patients performed significantly worse than healthy controls in all neuropsychological tests. Discriminatory power (AUC was highest in behavioral questionnaires, high in verbal fluency tasks and the RMET, and lower in executive function tests such as the Stroop task, TMT and H5PT. As fluency tasks depend on several cognitive functions, not only executive functions, results suggest that the RMET discriminated better between bvFTD and control subjects than other executive tests. Social cognition should be incorporated into diagnostic criteria for bvFTD in the future, such as in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11, as already suggested in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5.

  15. Predicting organizational citizenship behavior from the functional analysis and role identity perspectives: further evidence in Spanish employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila, Ma Celeste; Finkelstein, Marcia A

    2010-05-01

    Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) is a prosocial activity with similarities to volunteerism. The purpose of this work is to contribute new evidence about the relevance to OCB of two models of sustained volunteerism, functional analysis and role identity theory. A total of 983 Spanish employees at49 organizations completed surveys measuring amount of OCB, motives for engaging in citizenship behavior, and the degree to which respondents developed an organizational citizen role identity. The results showed that both motives and role identity were significant predictors of OCB, with motive partially mediating the role identity-OCB relationship. The findings suggest that similar mechanisms are involved in sustaining volunteerism and OCB.

  16. The Relationship between Self-Reported Executive Functioning and Risk-Taking Behavior in Urban Homeless Youth.

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    Piche, Joshua; Kaylegian, Jaeson; Smith, Dale; Hunter, Scott J

    2018-01-03

    Introduction: Almost 2 million U.S. youth are estimated to live on the streets, in shelters, or in other types of temporary housing at some point each year. Both their age and living situations make them more likely to engage in high-risk behaviors, particularly during adolescence, a time of increased risk taking. Much of self-control appears related to the development of the prefrontal cortex, which is at a particularly crucial period of elaboration and refinement during adolescence and emerging adulthood. Executive processes like decision-making, inhibition, planning, and reasoning may be vulnerable to adversity experienced as a result of homelessness and related impoverishment during childhood and adolescence. No study to date, to our knowledge, has directly investigated differences in risk-taking by homeless youth as it relates to their developing executive control. Objective: Examine the relationship between the level of self-reported executive function (EF) and engagement in risk taking behaviors among a sample of shelter-living urban homeless youth. We predicted that homeless youth who have lower levels of self-reported EF would more readily engage in risky behaviors that could lead to negative outcomes. Participants: One hundred and forty-nine youths between 18 and 22 years of age were recruited from homeless agencies in Chicago. Of this study sample, 53% were female and 76% African American. Measures: All participants completed, as part of a broader neuropsychological assessment, the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning-Adult Version (BRIEF-A), the National Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), and the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Analyses: Groups were separated based on level of self-reported EF, with two groups identified: High self-reported EF fell >1 SD above the normative average, and low self-reported EF fell >1 SD below the normative average. All analyses utilized Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests. Results and

  17. User Experience of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Apps for Depression: An Analysis of App Functionality and User Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stawarz, Katarzyna; Preist, Chris; Tallon, Debbie; Wiles, Nicola; Coyle, David

    2018-06-06

    Hundreds of mental health apps are available to the general public. With increasing pressures on health care systems, they offer a potential way for people to support their mental health and well-being. However, although many are highly rated by users, few are evidence-based. Equally, our understanding of what makes apps engaging and valuable to users is limited. The aim of this paper was to analyze functionality and user opinions of mobile apps purporting to support cognitive behavioral therapy for depression and to explore key factors that have an impact on user experience and support engagement. We systematically identified apps described as being based on cognitive behavioral therapy for depression. We then conducted 2 studies. In the first, we analyzed the therapeutic functionality of apps. This corroborated existing work on apps' fidelity to cognitive behavioral therapy theory, but we also extended prior work by examining features designed to support user engagement. Engagement features found in cognitive behavioral therapy apps for depression were compared with those found in a larger group of apps that support mental well-being in a more general sense. Our second study involved a more detailed examination of user experience, through a thematic analysis of publicly available user reviews of cognitive behavioral therapy apps for depression. We identified 31 apps that purport to be based on cognitive behavioral therapy for depression. Functionality analysis (study 1) showed that they offered an eclectic mix of features, including many not based on cognitive behavioral therapy practice. Cognitive behavioral therapy apps used less varied engagement features compared with 253 other mental well-being apps. The analysis of 1287 user reviews of cognitive behavioral therapy apps for depression (study 2) showed that apps are used in a wide range of contexts, both replacing and augmenting therapy, and allowing users to play an active role in supporting their mental

  18. The function of medication beliefs as mediators between personality traits and adherence behavior in people with asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axelsson M

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Malin Axelsson,1,2 Christina Cliffordson,2 Bo Lundbäck,1 Jan Lötvall11Krefting Research Centre, Institute of Medicine, Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; 2Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, University West, Trollhättan, SwedenBackground: There is evidence that both personality traits and personal beliefs about medications affect adherence behavior. However, limited research exists on how personality and beliefs about asthma medication interact in influencing adherence behavior in people with asthma. To extend our knowledge in this area of adherence research, we aimed to determine the mediating effects of beliefs about asthma medication between personality traits and adherence behavior.Methods: Asthmatics (n=516 selected from a population-based study called West Sweden Asthma Study completed the Neuroticism, Extraversion and Openness to Experience Five-Factor Inventory, the Medication Adherence Report Scale, and the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling.Results: Three of the five investigated personality traits – agreeableness, conscientiousness, and neuroticism – were associated with both concerns about asthma medication and adherence behavior. Concerns functioned as a partial mediator for the influencing effects of agreeableness, conscientiousness, and neuroticism on adherence behavior.Conclusion: The findings suggest that personality traits could be used to identify individuals with asthma who need support with their adherence behavior. Additionally, targeting concerns about asthma medication in asthmatics with low levels of agreeableness or conscientiousness or high levels of neuroticism could have a favorable effect on their adherence behavior.Keywords: adherence, individual differences, medication concerns, health behavior

  19. A risk function for behavioral disruption of Blainville's beaked whales (Mesoplodon densirostris from mid-frequency active sonar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Moretti

    Full Text Available There is increasing concern about the potential effects of noise pollution on marine life in the world's oceans. For marine mammals, anthropogenic sounds may cause behavioral disruption, and this can be quantified using a risk function that relates sound exposure to a measured behavioral response. Beaked whales are a taxon of deep diving whales that may be particularly susceptible to naval sonar as the species has been associated with sonar-related mass stranding events. Here we derive the first empirical risk function for Blainville's beaked whales (Mesoplodon densirostris by combining in situ data from passive acoustic monitoring of animal vocalizations and navy sonar operations with precise ship tracks and sound field modeling. The hydrophone array at the Atlantic Undersea Test and Evaluation Center, Bahamas, was used to locate vocalizing groups of Blainville's beaked whales and identify sonar transmissions before, during, and after Mid-Frequency Active (MFA sonar operations. Sonar transmission times and source levels were combined with ship tracks using a sound propagation model to estimate the received level (RL at each hydrophone. A generalized additive model was fitted to data to model the presence or absence of the start of foraging dives in 30-minute periods as a function of the corresponding sonar RL at the hydrophone closest to the center of each group. This model was then used to construct a risk function that can be used to estimate the probability of a behavioral change (cessation of foraging the individual members of a Blainville's beaked whale population might experience as a function of sonar RL. The function predicts a 0.5 probability of disturbance at a RL of 150 dBrms re µPa (CI: 144 to 155 This is 15dB lower than the level used historically by the US Navy in their risk assessments but 10 dB higher than the current 140 dB step-function.

  20. Functional Roles of Neural Preparatory Processes in a Cued Stroop Task Revealed by Linking Electrophysiology with Behavioral Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Ding, Mingzhou; Kluger, Benzi M

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that cuing facilitates behavioral performance and that different aspects of instructional cues evoke specific neural preparatory processes in cued task-switching paradigms. To deduce the functional role of these neural preparatory processes the majority of studies vary aspects of the experimental paradigm and describe how these variations alter markers of neural preparatory processes. Although these studies provide important insights, they also have notable limitations, particularly in terms of understanding the causal or functional relationship of neural markers to cognitive and behavioral processes. In this study, we sought to address these limitations and uncover the functional roles of neural processes by examining how variability in the amplitude of neural preparatory processes predicts behavioral performance to subsequent stimuli. To achieve this objective 16 young adults were recruited to perform a cued Stroop task while their brain activity was measured using high-density electroencephalography. Four temporally overlapping but functionally and topographically distinct cue-triggered event related potentials (ERPs) were identified: 1) A left-frontotemporal negativity (250-700 ms) that was positively associated with word-reading performance; 2) a midline-frontal negativity (450-800 ms) that was positively associated with color-naming and incongruent performance; 3) a left-frontal negativity (450-800 ms) that was positively associated with switch trial performance; and 4) a centroparietal positivity (450-800 ms) that was positively associated with performance for almost all trial types. These results suggest that at least four dissociable cognitive processes are evoked by instructional cues in the present task, including: 1) domain-specific task facilitation; 2) switch-specific task-set reconfiguration; 3) preparation for response conflict; and 4) proactive attentional control. Examining the relationship between ERPs and behavioral

  1. Functional Roles of Neural Preparatory Processes in a Cued Stroop Task Revealed by Linking Electrophysiology with Behavioral Performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wang

    Full Text Available It is well established that cuing facilitates behavioral performance and that different aspects of instructional cues evoke specific neural preparatory processes in cued task-switching paradigms. To deduce the functional role of these neural preparatory processes the majority of studies vary aspects of the experimental paradigm and describe how these variations alter markers of neural preparatory processes. Although these studies provide important insights, they also have notable limitations, particularly in terms of understanding the causal or functional relationship of neural markers to cognitive and behavioral processes. In this study, we sought to address these limitations and uncover the functional roles of neural processes by examining how variability in the amplitude of neural preparatory processes predicts behavioral performance to subsequent stimuli. To achieve this objective 16 young adults were recruited to perform a cued Stroop task while their brain activity was measured using high-density electroencephalography. Four temporally overlapping but functionally and topographically distinct cue-triggered event related potentials (ERPs were identified: 1 A left-frontotemporal negativity (250-700 ms that was positively associated with word-reading performance; 2 a midline-frontal negativity (450-800 ms that was positively associated with color-naming and incongruent performance; 3 a left-frontal negativity (450-800 ms that was positively associated with switch trial performance; and 4 a centroparietal positivity (450-800 ms that was positively associated with performance for almost all trial types. These results suggest that at least four dissociable cognitive processes are evoked by instructional cues in the present task, including: 1 domain-specific task facilitation; 2 switch-specific task-set reconfiguration; 3 preparation for response conflict; and 4 proactive attentional control. Examining the relationship between ERPs and behavioral

  2. Combination of behaviorally sub-effective doses of glutamate NMDA and dopamine D1 receptor antagonists impairs executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Sagar J; Allman, Brian L; Rajakumar, Nagalingam

    2017-04-14

    Impairment of executive function is a core feature of schizophrenia. Preclinical studies indicate that injections of either N-methyl d-aspartate (NMDA) or dopamine D 1 receptor blockers impair executive function. Despite the prevailing notion based on postmortem findings in schizophrenia that cortical areas have marked suppression of glutamate and dopamine, recent in vivo imaging studies suggest that abnormalities of these neurotransmitters in living patients may be quite subtle. Thus, we hypothesized that modest impairments in both glutamate and dopamine function can act synergistically to cause executive dysfunction. In the present study, we investigated the effect of combined administration of "behaviorally sub-effective" doses of NMDA and dopamine D 1 receptor antagonists on executive function. An operant conditioning-based set-shifting task was used to assess behavioral flexibility in rats that were systemically injected with NMDA and dopamine D 1 receptor antagonists individually or in combination prior to task performance. Separate injections of the NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801, and the dopamine D 1 receptor antagonist, SCH 23390, at low doses did not impair set-shifting; however, the combined administration of these same behaviorally sub-effective doses of the antagonists significantly impaired the performance during set-shifting without affecting learning, retrieval of the memory of the initial rule, latency of responses or the number of omissions. The combined treatment also produced an increased number of perseverative errors. Our results indicate that NMDA and D 1 receptor blockade act synergistically to cause behavioral inflexibility, and as such, subtle abnormalities in glutamatergic and dopaminergic systems may act cooperatively to cause deficits in executive function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Prediction of Risk Behaviors in HIV-infected Patients Based on Family Functioning: The Mediating Roles of Lifestyle and Risky Decision Making

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    Fariba Ebrahim Babaei

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Risk behaviors are more common in the HIV-positive patients than that in the general population. These behaviors are affected by various factors, such as biological, familial, and social determinants, peer group, media, and lifestyle. Low family functioning is one of the important factors predicting risk behaviors. Regarding this, the present study aimed to investigate the role of family functioning in predicting risk behaviors in the HIV-infected patients based on the mediating roles of risky decision making and lifestyle. Materials and Methods: This descriptive correlational study was conducted on 147 HIV-positive patients selected through convenience sampling technique. The data were collected using the health promoting lifestyle profile-2 (HPLP-2, family adaptability and cohesion scale IV (FACES-IV, balloon analogue risk task (BART, and risk behavior assessment in social situation. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling method in LISREL 8.8 software. Results: According to the results, there was an indirect relationship between family functioning and risk behaviors. Furthermore, family functioning both directly and indirectly affected the risk behaviors through two mediators of lifestyle and risky decision making. Conclusion: As the findings indicated, family functioning directly contributed to risk behaviors. Moreover, this variable indirectly affected risk behaviors through the mediating roles of risky decision making and lifestyle. Consequently, the future studies should focus more deeply on family functioning role in the risk behaviors of the HIV-infected patients.

  4. Confabulation behavior and false memories in Korsakoff's syndrome: Role of source memory and executive functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, R.P.C.; Kortrijk, H.E.; Wester, A.J.; Nys, G.M.S.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: Confabulation behavior is common in patients with Korsakoff's syndrome. A distinction can be made between spontaneous and provoked confabulations, which may have different underlying cognitive mechanisms. Provoked confabulations may be related to intrusions on memory tests, whereas spontaneous

  5. Confabulation behavior and false memories in Korsakoff's syndrome: role of source memory and executive functioning.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, R.P.C.; Kortrijk, H.E.; Wester, A.J.; Nys, G.M.S.

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: Confabulation behavior is common in patients with Korsakoff's syndrome. A distinction can be made between spontaneous and provoked confabulations, which may have different underlying cognitive mechanisms. Provoked confabulations may be related to intrusions on memory tests, whereas spontaneous

  6. Effects of psycho-behavioral interventions on immune functioning in cancer patients: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Guixian; Geng, Qingqing; Cheng, Jing; Chai, Jing; Xia, Yi; Feng, Rui; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Debin

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at summarizing evidence about effects of psycho-behavioral interventions (PBIs) on immune responses among cancer patients and analyzing quality of published studies so as to inform future researches. Literature retrieval utilized both highly inclusive algorithms searching randomized controlled studies published in English and Chinese and manual searching of eligible studies from references of relevant review papers. Two researchers examined the articles selected separately and extracted the information using a pre-designed form for soliciting data about the trials (e.g., sample size, disease status, intervention, immune responses) and quality ratings of the studies. Both narrative descriptions and meta-analysis (via Review manager 5) were used synthesizing the effects of PBIs on immune responses among cancer patients and state of art of the researches in this area. Seventy-six RCTs met inclusion criteria. PBIs implemented were divided into three major categories including psychological state adjustment, physical activity and dietary modification. Immune indicators measured included CD4+ cells, CD8+ cells, CD4/CDC8+ ratio, CD3+ cells, NK cell activity, etc. Effects of PBIs on immune responses documented in individual papers were mixed and pooled analysis of CD4+ cells, CD4+/CD8+ ratio, CD3+ cells, NKCA, IgG, IgM and IL-2 showed modest effects. However, there were huge discrepancies in intervention effects between studies published in English and Chinese and the results should be interpreted with caution. Besides, most studies suffer from some quality flaws concerning blinding, randomization procedures, compliance, attrition and intention-to-treat analyses, etc. Although there are considerable evidences of PBI effects on some immune indicators, the effect sizes are modest and it is still premature to conclude whether PBIs have effects on immune functions among cancer patients. There is a clear need for much more rigorous efforts in this area

  7. Bias and Undermatching in Delinquent Boys' Verbal Behavior As a Function of Their Level of Deviance

    OpenAIRE

    McDowell, J.J; Caron, Marcia L

    2010-01-01

    Eighty-one 13- to 14-year-old boys at risk for delinquency (target boys) engaged in brief dyadic conversations with their peer friends. The target boys' verbal behavior was coded into two mutually exclusive content categories, rule-break talk and normative talk. Positive social responses from peer boys for each category of talk were also recorded, and were presumed to reinforce the target boys' verbal behavior. A measure of child deviance was available for each target boy. The generalized mat...

  8. Functional and Symbolic Values of Cloud Terminals: A Study of User Acceptance and Purchasing Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Pan; Lijuan Luo; Dan Liu; Li Gao; Hengyi Rao

    2014-01-01

    The purchasing behavior of cloud terminals is increasingly shaped by the emerging cloud services. Rather than its hardware configuration, performance of cloud intelligent terminals such as the Chromebook is more and more dependent on the cloud service capability. However, it remains unknown what factors will drive user's acceptance and purchase of these cloud terminals. Using the Chromebook and MacBook as two representative products, this study models user's acceptance and purchasing behavior...

  9. Longitudinal change in parent and child functioning after internet-delivered cognitive-behavioral therapy for chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Emily F; Fisher, Emma; Howard, Waylon J; Levy, Rona; Ritterband, Lee; Palermo, Tonya M

    2017-10-01

    Theoretical models of pediatric chronic pain propose longitudinal associations between children's pain experiences and parent and family factors. A large body of cross-sectional research supports these models, demonstrating that greater parent distress and maladaptive parenting behaviors are associated with greater child disability. Family-based cognitive-behavioral therapy interventions have been developed for youth with chronic pain which aim to improve child disability and reduce maladaptive parenting behaviors. However, little is known about temporal, longitudinal associations between parent and child functioning in this population. In the present study, we conducted a secondary analysis of data from 138 families of youth with chronic pain aged 11 to 17 years old who received family-based cognitive-behavioral therapy delivered through the Internet as part of a randomized controlled trial. Measures of child disability, parent protective behavior, and parent distress were obtained at pretreatment, immediate posttreatment, 6-month follow-up, and 12-month follow-up. Latent growth modeling indicated that child disability, parent protective behavior, and parent distress improved with treatment over the 12-month study period. Latent growth modeling for parallel processes indicated that higher parent distress at pretreatment predicted less improvement in child disability over 12 months. No other predictive paths between parent and child functioning were significant. These findings indicate that parent distress may increase the risk of poor response to psychological pain treatment among youth with chronic pain. At present, parent distress is not routinely targeted in psychological interventions for pediatric chronic pain. Research is needed to determine optimal strategies for targeting parent and family factors in the treatment of pediatric chronic pain.

  10. Sex differences in parent-reported executive functioning and adaptive behavior in children and young adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Emily I; Wallace, Gregory L; Bascom, Julia; Armour, Anna C; Register-Brown, Kelly; Popal, Haroon S; Ratto, Allison B; Martin, Alex; Kenworthy, Lauren

    2017-10-01

    This study is the largest to date examining executive function and adaptive skills in females with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Its primary aim was to utilize parent ratings of real-world executive functioning and adaptive behavior to better understand whether females with ASD differ from males with ASD in these areas of everyday functioning. We compared 79 females with ASD to 158 males with ASD (ages 7-18) who were statistically matched on age, IQ, and level of ADHD or ASD traits. All participants were assessed using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and a subset (56 females and 130 males) also received the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS). Females were rated by parents as having greater problems with executive function on the BRIEF. Parents also rated females as exhibiting more difficulties than males on the Daily Living Skills domain of the VABS. There was a correlation between increased global EF difficulty and decreased adaptive ability in both males and females. Our results indicate relative weaknesses for females compared to males diagnosed with ASD on executive function and daily living skills. These differences occur in the absence of sex differences in our sample in age, IQ, clinician ratings of core ASD symptomatology, parent ratings of ADHD symptoms, and parent-reported social and communication adaptive skills on the VABS. These findings indicate specific liabilities in real world EF and daily living skills for females with ASD and have important implications for targeting their treatments. Autism Res 2017, 10: 1653-1662. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Aging and Autophagic Function Influences the Progressive Decline of Adult Drosophila Behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric P Ratliff

    Full Text Available Multiple neurological disorders are characterized by the abnormal accumulation of protein aggregates and the progressive impairment of complex behaviors. Our Drosophila studies demonstrate that middle-aged wild-type flies (WT, ~4-weeks exhibit a marked accumulation of neural aggregates that is commensurate with the decline of the autophagy pathway. However, enhancing autophagy via neuronal over-expression of Atg8a (Atg8a-OE reduces the age-dependent accumulation of aggregates. Here we assess basal locomotor activity profiles for single- and group-housed male and female WT flies and observed that only modest behavioral changes occurred by 4-weeks of age, with the noted exception of group-housed male flies. Male flies in same-sex social groups exhibit a progressive increase in nighttime activity. Infrared videos show aged group-housed males (4-weeks are engaged in extensive bouts of courtship during periods of darkness, which is partly repressed during lighted conditions. Together, these nighttime courtship behaviors were nearly absent in young WT flies and aged Atg8a-OE flies. Previous studies have indicated a regulatory role for olfaction in male courtship partner choice. Coincidently, the mRNA expression profiles of several olfactory genes decline with age in WT flies; however, they are maintained in age-matched Atg8a-OE flies. Together, these results suggest that middle-aged male flies develop impairments in olfaction, which could contribute to the dysregulation of courtship behaviors during dark time periods. Combined, our results demonstrate that as Drosophila age, they develop early behavior defects that are coordinate with protein aggregate accumulation in the nervous system. In addition, the nighttime activity behavior is preserved when neuronal autophagy is maintained (Atg8a-OE flies. Thus, environmental or genetic factors that modify autophagic capacity could have a positive impact on neuronal aging and complex behaviors.

  12. Assessing the Social Acceptability of the Functional Analysis of Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langthorne, Paul; McGill, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Although the clinical utility of the functional analysis is well established, its social acceptability has received minimal attention. The current study assessed the social acceptability of functional analysis procedures among 10 parents and 3 teachers of children who had recently received functional analyses. Participants completed a 9-item…

  13. Cognitive abilities and functional capacity in older adults: results from the modified Scales of Independent Behavior-Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jing Ee; Hultsch, David F; Strauss, Esther

    2009-04-01

    The relationship between cognitive and functional abilities was examined in a sample of community-dwelling older adults. Self and informant (e.g., spouse) reports of participants' functional status were obtained on the modified Scales of Independent Behavior-Revised (mSIB-R). Participants also completed measures of processing speed, episodic memory, executive functioning, and verbal ability. Results showed that the mSIB-R correlated positively with cognitive variables. Hierarchical regression analyses suggested that each mSIB-R factor is predicted by somewhat different cognitive variables, after adjusting for demographic, health, and motor variables. This report-based measure was as accurate as a performance-based measure in classifying cognitive groups. Informant social/cognitive engagement and self physical/environment engagement factors showed the most promise in this regard. The findings reveal links between cognitive and functional abilities in a sample with varying degrees of cognitive impairment.

  14. The association between emotional and behavioral problems and gastrointestinal symptoms among children with high-functioning autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazefsky, Carla A; Schreiber, Dana R; Olino, Thomas M; Minshew, Nancy J

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the association between gastrointestinal symptoms and a broad set of emotional and behavioral concerns in 95 children with high-functioning autism and IQ scores ≥ 80. Gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed via the Autism Treatment Network's Gastrointestinal Symptom Inventory, and data were gathered on autism symptom severity, adaptive behavior, and multiple internalizing and externalizing problems. The majority (61%) of children had at least one reported gastrointestinal symptom. Emotional and behavioral problems were also common but with a high degree of variability. Children with and without gastrointestinal problems did not differ in autism symptom severity, adaptive behavior, or total internalizing or externalizing problem scores. However, participants with gastrointestinal problems had significantly higher levels of affective problems. This finding is consistent with a small body of research noting a relationship between gastrointestinal problems, irritability, and mood problems in autism spectrum disorder. More research to identify the mechanisms underlying this relationship in autism spectrum disorder is warranted. Future research should include a medical assessment of gastrointestinal concerns, longitudinal design, and participants with a range of autism spectrum disorder severity in order to clarify the directionality of this relationship and to identify factors that may impact heterogeneity in the behavioral manifestation of gastrointestinal concerns. © The Author(s) 2013.

  15. Function and structure in social brain regions can link oxytocin-receptor genes with autistic social behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasue, Hidenori

    2013-02-01

    Difficulties in appropriate social and communicative behaviors are the most prevalent and core symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Although recent intensive research has focused on the neurobiological background of these difficulties, many aspects of them were not yet elucidated. Recent studies have employed multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indices as intermediate phenotypes of this behavioral phenotype to link candidate genes with the autistic social difficulty. As MRI indices, functional MRI (fMRI), structural MRI, and MR-spectroscopy have been examined in subjects with autism spectrum disorders. As candidate genes, this mini-review has much interest in oxytocin-receptor genes (OXTR), since recent studies have repeatedly reported their associations with normal variations in social cognition and behavior as well as with their extremes, autistic social dysfunction. Through previous increasing studies, medial prefrontal cortex, hypothalamus and amygdala have repeatedly been revealed as neural correlates of autistic social behavior by MRI multimodalities and their relationship to OXTR. For further development of this research area, this mini-review integrates recent accumulating evidence about human behavioral and neural correlates of OXTR. Copyright © 2012 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Can functional magnetic resonance imaging studies help with the optimization of health messaging for lifestyle behavior change? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Maxine E; Morgan, Paul S; Sherar, Lauren B; Orme, Mark W; Esliger, Dale W

    2017-06-01

    Unhealthy behaviors, including smoking, poor nutrition, excessive alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and sedentary lifestyles, are global risk factors for non-communicable diseases and premature death. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) offers a unique approach to optimize health messages by examining how the brain responds to information relating to health. Our aim was to systematically review fMRI studies that have investigated variations in brain activation in response to health messages relating to (i) smoking; (ii) alcohol consumption; (iii) physical activity; (iv) diet; and (v) sedentary behavior. The electronic databases used were Medline/PubMed, Web of Science (Core Collection), PsychINFO, SPORTDiscuss, Cochrane Library and Open Grey. Studies were included if they investigated subjects aged ≥10years and were published before January 2017. Of the 13,836 studies identified in the database search, 18 studies (smoking k=15; diet k=2; physical activity/sedentary behavior k=1) were included in the review. The prefrontal cortex was activated in seven (47%) of the smoking-related studies and the physical activity study. Results suggest that activation of the ventromedial, dorsolateral and medial prefrontal cortex regions were predictive of subsequent behavior change following exposure to aversive anti-smoking stimuli. Studies investigating the neurological responses to anti-smoking material were most abundant. Of note, the prefrontal cortex and amygdala were most commonly activated in response to health messages across lifestyle behaviors. The review highlights an important disparity between research focusing on different lifestyle behaviors. Insights from smoking literature suggest fMRI may help to optimize health messaging in relation to other lifestyle behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of Covalent Functionalization of MWCNTs on the Thermal Properties and Non-Isothermal Crystallization Behaviors of PPS Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myounguk Kim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a PPS/MWCNTs composite was prepared with poly(phenylene sulfide (PPS, as well as pristine and covalent functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs via melt-blending techniques. Moreover, the dispersion of the MWCNTs on the PPS matrix was improved by covalent functionalization as can be seen from a Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM images. The thermal properties of the PPS/MWCNTs composites were characterized using a thermal conductivity analyzer, and a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC. To analyze the crystallization behavior of polymers under conditions similar with those in industry, the non-isothermal crystallization behaviors of the PPS/MWCNTs composites were confirmed using various kinetic equations, such as the modified Avrami equation and Avrami-Ozawa combined equation. The crystallization rate of PPS/1 wt % pristine MWCNTs composite (PPSP1 was faster because of the intrinsic nucleation effect of the MWCNTs. However, the crystallization rates of the composites containing covalently-functionalized MWCNTs were slower than PPSP1 because of the destruction of the MWCNTs graphitic structure via covalent functionalization. Furthermore, the activation energies calculated by Kissinger’s method were consistently decreased by covalent functionalization.

  18. The enhanced spin-polarized transport behaviors through cobalt benzene-porphyrin-benzene molecular junctions: the effect of functional groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jue-Fei; Zhou, Liping; Wen, Zhongqian; Yan, Qiang; Han, Qin; Gao, Lei

    2017-05-01

    The modification effects of the groups amino (NH2) and nitro (NO2) on the spin polarized transport properties of the cobalt benzene-porphyrin-benzene (Co-BPB) molecule coupled to gold (Au) nanowire electrodes are investigated by the nonequilibrium Green’s function method combined with the density functional theory. The calculation results show that functional groups can lead to the significant spin-filter effect, enhanced low-bias negative differential resistance (NDR) behavior and novel reverse rectifying effect in Co-BPB molecular junction. The locations and types of functional groups have distinct influences on spin-polarized transport performances. The configuration with NH2 group substituting H atom in central porphyrin ring has larger spin-down current compared to that with NO2 substitution. And Co-BPB molecule junction with NH2 group substituting H atom in side benzene ring shows reverse rectifying effect. Detailed analyses confirm that NH2 and NO2 group substitution change the spin-polarized transferred charge, which makes the highest occupied molecular orbitals (HOMO) of spin-down channel of Co-BPB closer to the Fermi level. And the shift of HOMO strengthens the spin-polarized coupling between the molecular orbitals and the electrodes, leading to the enhanced spin-polarized behavior. Our findings might be useful in the design of multi-functional molecular devices in the future.

  19. Behavioral functionality of mobile apps in health interventions: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Hannah E; Lister, Cameron; West, Joshua H; Bernhardt, Jay M

    2015-02-26

    Several thousand mobile phone apps are available to download to mobile phones for health and fitness. Mobile phones may provide a unique means of administering health interventions to populations. The purpose of this systematic review was to systematically search and describe the literature on mobile apps used in health behavior interventions, describe the behavioral features and focus of health apps, and to evaluate the potential of apps to disseminate health behavior interventions. We conducted a review of the literature in September 2014 using key search terms in several relevant scientific journal databases. Only English articles pertaining to health interventions using mobile phone apps were included in the final sample. The 24 studies identified for this review were primarily feasibility and pilot studies of mobile apps with small sample sizes. All studies were informed by behavioral theories or strategies, with self-monitoring as the most common construct. Acceptability of mobile phone apps was high among mobile phone users. The lack of large sample studies using mobile phone apps may signal a need for additional studies on the potential use of mobile apps to assist individuals in changing their health behaviors. Of these studies, there is early evidence that apps are well received by users. Based on available research, mobile apps may be considered a feasible and acceptable means of administering health interventions, but a greater number of studies and more rigorous research and evaluations are needed to determine efficacy and establish evidence for best practices.

  20. Exercise preconditioning improves behavioral functions following transient cerebral ischemia induced by 4-vessel occlusion (4-VO) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahamtan, Mahshid; Allahtavakoli, Mohammad; Abbasnejad, Mehdi; Roohbakhsh, Ali; Taghipour, Zahra; Taghavi, Mohsen; Khodadadi, Hassan; Shamsizadeh, Ali

    2013-12-01

    There is evidence that exercise decreases ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. Since behavioral deficits are the main outcome in patients after stroke, our study was designed to investigate whether exercise preconditioning improves the acute behavioral functions and also brain inflammatory injury following cerebral ischemia. Male rats weighing 250-300 g were randomly allocated into five experimental groups. Exercise was performed on a treadmill 30min/day for 3 weeks. Ischemia was induced by 4-vessel occlusion method. Recognition memory was assessed by novel object recognition task (NORT) and step-through passive avoidance task. Sensorimotor function and motor movements were evaluated by adhesive removal test and ledged beam-walking test, respectively. Brain inflammatory injury was evaluated by histological assessment. In NORT, the discrimination ratio was decreased after ischemia (P test, a significant reduction in response latency was observed in the ischemic group. Exercise preconditioning significantly decreased the response latency in the ischemic rats (P test, latency to touch and remove the sticky labels from forepaw was increased following induction of ischemia (all P beam-walking test, the slip ratio was increased following ischemia (P < 0.05).  In the ischemia group, marked neuronal injury in hippocampus was observed. These neuropathological changes were attenuated by exercise preconditioning (P < 0.001). Our results showed that exercise preconditioning improves behavioral functions and maintains more viable cells in the dorsal hippocampus of the ischemic brain.

  1. Preschool outcomes following prenatal serotonin reuptake inhibitor exposure: differences in language and behavior, but not cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Katrina C; Smith, Alicia K; Stowe, Zachary N; Newport, D Jeffrey; Brennan, Patricia A

    2016-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) is associated with language and behavioral outcomes in preschool-aged children, while accounting for confounds such as concomitant exposures and maternal mental illness. An observational, prospective, longitudinal study of mental illness in pregnancy was conducted at a university-based women's mental health clinic (April 2010-November 2012). A sample of 178 mother-child dyads participated in a laboratory visit at preschool age (2.5-5.5 years). The majority of women (87%) received psychotropic medication during pregnancy. Psychiatric status (based on DSM-IV), other medication use, and substance use were serially assessed and tested as confounds. Primary outcome measures included standardized measures of expressive language and cognitive function and mother and alternate caregiver ratings of child behavior problems, including the Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD) subscale of the Child Behavior Checklist. Linear regression analyses revealed that, after controlling for relevant covariates, expressive language scores from the Test of Early Language Development, 3rd edition, were negatively associated with prenatal SRI exposure (β = -0.15, t = -2.41), while the PDD behavioral problems subscales completed by alternate caregivers and mothers were positively associated with prenatal SRI exposure (β = 0.17, t = 2.01; β = 0.16, t = 2.00, respectively). Cognitive function, measured using the Differential Ability Scales, 2nd edition, was not associated with any medication exposures. The current data suggest a small but significant association between prenatal SRI exposure and preschool outcomes, including expressive language and behavior problems. These data corroborate data from recent, population-based studies, although overall, published findings are mixed. Replication and identification of moderating risk factors are needed to understand potential clinical implications.

  2. Time of day and eating behaviors are associated with the composition and function of the human gastrointestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, Jennifer L; Musaad, Salma Ma; Holscher, Hannah D

    2017-11-01

    Background: Preclinical research has shown that the gastrointestinal microbiota exhibits circadian rhythms and that the timing of food consumption can affect the composition and function of gut microbes. However, there is a dearth of knowledge on these relations in humans. Objective: We aimed to determine whether human gastrointestinal microbes and bacterial metabolites were associated with time of day or behavioral factors, including eating frequency, percentage of energy consumed early in the day, and overnight-fast duration. Design: We analyzed 77 fecal samples collected from 28 healthy men and women. Fecal DNA was extracted and sequenced to determine the relative abundances of bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy was used to assess short-chain fatty acid concentrations. Eating frequency, percentage of energy consumed before 1400, and overnight-fast duration were determined from dietary records. Data were analyzed by linear mixed models or generalized linear mixed models, which controlled for fiber intake, sex, age, body mass index, and repeated sampling within each participant. Each OTU and metabolite were tested as the outcome in a separate model. Results: Acetate, propionate, and butyrate concentrations decreased throughout the day ( P = 0.006, 0.04, and 0.002, respectively). Thirty-five percent of bacterial OTUs were associated with time. In addition, relations were observed between gut microbes and eating behaviors, including eating frequency, early energy consumption, and overnight-fast duration. Conclusions: These results indicate that the human gastrointestinal microbiota composition and function vary throughout the day, which may be related to the circadian biology of the human body, the microbial community itself, or human eating behaviors. Behavioral factors, including timing of eating and overnight-fast duration, were also predictive of bacterial abundances. Longitudinal intervention studies are needed to

  3. A self administered executive functions ecological questionnaire (the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function - Adult Version shows impaired scores in a sample of patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Szöke

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Subjective measurements of cognition have seldom been used in schizophrenia. This is mainly due to the assumption that such measurements lack sensitivity in a disorder characterized by poor insight. We investigated the capacity of BRIEF-A (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function - Adult Version: a self-administered, ecological questionnaire to identify executive deficits in adults with schizophrenia. The global score and each domain-specific score was significantly lower in patients than in healthy controls. BRIEF-A could be a useful complement to objective measurements, providing a subjective assessment of everyday consequences of executive dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia.

  4. Children with emotional and behavioral disorders in special education : Placement, progress, and family functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoutjesdijk, Regina

    2014-01-01

    The studies described in this dissertation focus on children with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) in special education. It was found that poor academic performance, relational problems between children and caregivers, and the age at which youth care was involved for the first time predicted

  5. Recollections of Childhood Religious Identity and Behavior as a Function of Adult Religiousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, R. David; Maselko, Joanna; Meador, Keith G.

    2012-01-01

    People have a strong motivation to maintain a self-concept that is coherent and consistent over time. Religion is an central source of social identity for many people, but its importance is prone to dramatic change across the life course. To maintain a consistent perception of self, recollections of one’s own past religiousness may shift to better fit with the present. This study examined changes between early and middle adulthood in retrospective perceptions of religious behavior and identity in childhood. Data from a population-based birth cohort sample were matched with data from individuals who participated in at least two of three adult follow-up studies, at intervals of approximately 10 years. Logistic regression was used to analyze the association of final recollections of childhood behavior and identity with previous recollections and current religious characteristics. Consistent with the predictions of temporal self-appraisal theory, participants’ perception of their religious identity as children tended to change over time to match their adult religious identity. Recollections of childhood religious behavior were more stable than recollections of religious identity, and change was unrelated to adult behavior. These results have implications for studying religious characteristics using retrospective measures, regarding their accuracy and their independence from contemporary measures. PMID:22844186

  6. Ancestral Exposure to Stress Generates New Behavioral Traits and a Functional Hemispheric Dominance Shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambeskovic, Mirela; Soltanpour, Nasrin; Falkenberg, Erin A; Zucchi, Fabiola C R; Kolb, Bryan; Metz, Gerlinde A S

    2017-03-01

    In a continuously stressful environment, the effects of recurrent prenatal stress (PS) accumulate across generations and generate new behavioral traits in the absence of genetic variation. Here, we investigated if PS or multigenerational PS across 4 generations differentially affect behavioral traits, laterality, and hemispheric dominance in male and female rats. Using skilled reaching and skilled walking tasks, 3 findings support the formation of new behavioral traits and shifted laterality by multigenerational stress. First, while PS in the F1 generation did not alter paw preference, multigenerational stress in the F4 generation shifted paw preference to favor left-handedness only in males. Second, multigenerational stress impaired skilled reaching and skilled walking movement abilities in males, while improving these abilities in females beyond the levels of controls. Third, the shift toward left-handedness in multigenerationally stressed males was accompanied by increased dendritic complexity and greater spine density in the right parietal cortex. Thus, cumulative multigenerational stress generates sexually dimorphic left-handedness and dominance shift toward the right hemisphere in males. These findings explain the origins of apparently heritable behavioral traits and handedness in the absence of DNA sequence variations while proposing epigenetic mechanisms. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Preschoolers' distress and regulatory behaviors vary as a function of infant-mother attachment security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jin; Leerkes, Esther M; King, Elizabeth K

    2016-08-01

    Children (N=98) with higher attachment security scores, and lower resistance and avoidance scores during the Strange Situation at 16 months demonstrated somewhat more adaptive observed and mother-reported emotion regulation as preschoolers independent of maternal behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Sensitivity, Functional Analysis, and Behavior Genetics: A Response to Freeman et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Steven; Havercamp, Susan M.

    1999-01-01

    Sensitivity theory divides the causes of challenging behavior into three categories, aberrant contingencies, aberrant environments, and aberrant motivation. This paper replies to criticism that sensitivity theory is circular and unsupported by empirical evidence by reporting on studies that support the theory and rejecting the idea that…

  9. Parenting, Child Behavior, and Academic and Social Functioning: Does Ethnicity Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hyo; Hopkins, Joyce; Gouze, Karen R.; Lavigne, John V.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Most research on the relation between parenting behaviors and child outcomes has not focused on cross-ethnic variation in these relations. Objective: This study examined if ethnicity moderates associations between parenting, child agency/persistence, and child academic achievement and social competence. Design: Participants included…

  10. Behavioral and Emotional Adjustment, Family Functioning, Academic Performance, and Social Relationships in Children with Selective Mutism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Charles E.; McHolm, Angela; Boyle, Michael H.; Patel, Sejal

    2004-01-01

    This study addressed four questions which parents of children with selective mutism (SM) frequently ask: (1) Is SM associated with anxiety or oppositional behavior? (2) Is SM associated with parenting and family dysfunction? (3) Will my child fail at school? and (4) Will my child make friends or be teased and bullied? In comparison to a sample of…

  11. Bias and Undermatching in Delinquent Boys' Verbal Behavior as a Function of Their Level of Deviance

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, J. J.; Caron, Marcia L.

    2010-01-01

    Eighty-one 13- to 14-year-old boys at risk for delinquency (target boys) engaged in brief dyadic conversations with their peer friends. The target boys' verbal behavior was coded into two mutually exclusive content categories, rule-break talk and normative talk. Positive social responses from peer boys for each category of talk were also recorded,…

  12. Domain dependent associations between cognitive functioning and regular voluntary exercise behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swagerman, Suzanne C; de Geus, Eco J C; Koenis, Marinka M G; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Boomsma, Dorret I; Kan, Kees-Jan

    Regular exercise has often been suggested to have beneficial effects on cognition, but empirical findings are mixed because of heterogeneity in sample composition (age and sex); the cognitive domain being investigated; the definition and reliability of exercise behavior measures; and study design

  13. Autism and Schizophrenia in High Functioning Adults: Behavioral Differences and Overlap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spek, Annelies A.; Wouters, Saskia G. M.

    2010-01-01

    Several recent studies have demonstrated a genetical overlap between autism and schizophrenia. However, at a behavioral level it remains unclear which features can validly distinguish adults with autism from an adult schizophrenia group. To this end, the present study compared 21 individuals with the autistic disorder and 21 individuals with…

  14. Conversational Behaviors in Youth with High-Functioning ASD and Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Rhea; Orlovski, Stephanie Miles; Marcinko, Hillary Chuba; Volkmar, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-nine youth with autism spectrum disorders and 26 with typical development between 12 and 18 years of age were engaged in structured interviews (ADOS). The interviews were videotaped and rated for atypical conversational behaviors by trained raters, using the Pragmatic Rating Scale (Landa et al. "Psychol Med" 22:245-254, 1992). The ASD group…

  15. How Are New Behavioral Forms and Functions Introduced during Ontogenesis? Commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Peter H.

    1991-01-01

    Comments on Thelen and Ulrich's monograph in this issue. Examines theoretical and empirical sections and findings, concluding that the authors have taken a major step forward by introducing the dynamic systems perspective to the study of behavioral coordination in infants, thus opening the way for experimental investigation of phenomena that could…

  16. Domain dependent associations between cognitive functioning and regular voluntary exercise behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swagerman, S.C.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Koenis, M.M.G.; Hulshoff Pol, H.E.; Boomsma, D.I.; Kan, K.J.

    2015-01-01

    Regular exercise has often been suggested to have beneficial effects on cognition, but empirical findings are mixed because of heterogeneity in sample composition (age and sex); the cognitive domain being investigated; the definition and reliability of exercise behavior measures; and study design

  17. Functional Behavioral Assessment: The Letter and the Spirit of the Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Mary Magee

    2000-01-01

    This article addresses two types of issues related to policy decisions. First, it examines policy as it relates to the logistics of conducting an FBA. Second, it discusses issues related to proactively preventing serious behavior from occurring in schools. (Contains 13 references.) (CR)

  18. The Relationship between Family Functioning and Behavior Problems in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Darryn; Moran, Erin; Orlich, Felice; Hall, Trevor A.; Kovacs, Erica A.; Delahaye, Jennifer; Clemons, Traci E.; Kuhlthau, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Although it is well known that families of children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at risk for increased stress and other problems, little is known about what child characteristics may mediate that risk. To address the impact of child behavior problems on family health, we examined data collected from 136 families raising children with…

  19. Behavioral Treatment and Normal Educational and Intellectual Functioning in Young Autistic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovaas, O. Ivar

    1987-01-01

    Reports the results of behavior modification treatment for two groups of similarly constituted, young autistic children. Pretreatment measures revealed no significant differences between the intensively treated experimental group and the minimally treated control groups. At follow-up, experimental group subjects (N=19) did significantly better…

  20. Autism and Schizophrenia in high functioning adults: Behavioral differences and overlap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spek, Annelies A; Wouters, Saskia G.M.

    2011-01-01

    Several recent studies have demonstrated a genetical overlap between autism and schizophrenia. However, at a behavioral level it remains unclear which features can validly distinguish adults with autism from an adult schizophrenia group. To this end, the present study compared 21 individuals with

  1. Behavior profiles in children with functional urinary incontinence before and after incontinence treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Bael (An); P. Winkler (Pauline); H. Lax (Hildegard); H. Hirche (Herbert); E. Gäbel (Elisabeth); M. Vijverberg (Marianne); R. van Zon (Roelie); E. van Hoecke (Eline); J.D. van Gool (Jan)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE. The purpose of this work was to analyze prospectively the prevalence of behavioral disorders in children with urinary incontinence because of nonneuropathic bladder-sphincter dysfunction before and after treatment for incontinence. METHODS. A total of 202 children with

  2. Behavior profiles in children with functional urinary incontinence before and after incontinence treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bael, An; Winkler, Pauline; Lax, Hildegard; Hirche, Herbert; Gaebel, Elisabeth; Vijverberg, Marianne; van Zon, Roelie; Van Hoecke, Eline; van Gool, Jan D.

    OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this work was to analyze prospectively the prevalence of behavioral disorders in children with urinary incontinence because of nonneuropathic bladder-sphincter dysfunction before and after treatment for incontinence. METHODS. A total of 202 children with nonneuropathic

  3. Behavioral coping and physical functioning: The effect of adjusting the level of activity on observed dexterity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lankveld, W.G.J.M. van; Näring, G.W.B.; Pad Bosch, P. van 't; Putte, L.B.A. van de

    1999-01-01

    Objective. To assess the relationship between behavioral coping and dexterity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) after controlling for disease activity, impairment of the hands, and pain. Methods. A random sample of 109 patients with RA was assessed twice within one year. Dexterity, disease activity, and

  4. Modeling of the interface behavior in tape casting of functionally graded ceramics for magnetic refrigeration parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbari, Masoud; Spangenberg, Jon; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2013-01-01

    of a graded configuration of the magnetocaloric materials. The Newtonian flow behavior with relatively high viscosity is assumed for each fluid and used in the simulation with a commercial CFD code (ANSYS FLUENT). The results show that the density difference does not affect the interface between the adjacent...

  5. Resting state functional connectivity differences between behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Hafkemeijer (Anne); C. Möller (Christiane); E.G.P. Dopper (Elise); L.C. Jiskoot (Lize); T.M. Schouten (Tijn M.); J.C. van Swieten (John); W.M. van der Flier (Wiesje); H. Vrenken (Hugo); Y. Pijnenburg (Yolande); F. Barkhof (Frederik); P. Scheltens (Philip); J. van der Grond (Jeroen); S.A.R.B. Rombouts (Serge)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Alzheimer's disease (AD) and behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) are the most common types of early-onset dementia. Early differentiation between both types of dementia may be challenging due to heterogeneity and overlap of symptoms. Here, we apply resting

  6. Heavy water effects on the structure, functions and behavior of biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzgariu, Wanda; Caloianu, Maria; Moldovan, Lucia; Titescu, G.

    2003-01-01

    The H 2 O substitution for D 2 O either in environment or in the culture medium of the living systems generates changes in their main functions and composition. In this paper some of the heavy water effects in biological systems such as structural and functional changes were reviewed: normal cell architecture alterations, cell division and membrane functions disturbance, muscular contractility and the perturbations of biological oscillators such as circadian rhythm, heart rate, respiratory cycle, tidal and ultradian rhythm. (authors)

  7. Statistical indicators of collective behavior and functional clusters in gene networks of yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Živković, J.; Tadić, B.; Wick, N.; Thurner, S.

    2006-03-01

    We analyze gene expression time-series data of yeast (S. cerevisiae) measured along two full cell-cycles. We quantify these data by using q-exponentials, gene expression ranking and a temporal mean-variance analysis. We construct gene interaction networks based on correlation coefficients and study the formation of the corresponding giant components and minimum spanning trees. By coloring genes according to their cell function we find functional clusters in the correlation networks and functional branches in the associated trees. Our results suggest that a percolation point of functional clusters can be identified on these gene expression correlation networks.

  8. Brief telephone-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy targeted to parents of children with functional abdominal pain: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Rona L; Langer, Shelby L; van Tilburg, Miranda A L; Romano, Joan M; Murphy, Tasha B; Walker, Lynn S; Mancl, Lloyd A; Claar, Robyn L; DuPen, Melissa M; Whitehead, William E; Abdullah, Bisher; Swanson, Kimberly S; Baker, Melissa D; Stoner, Susan A; Christie, Dennis L; Feld, Andrew D

    2017-04-01

    Pediatric functional abdominal pain disorders (FAPDs) are associated with increased health care utilization, school absences, and poor quality of life (QoL). Cost-effective and accessible interventions are needed. This multisite study tested the effects of a 3-session cognitive behavioral intervention delivered to parents, in-person or remotely, on the primary outcome of pain severity and secondary outcomes (process measures) of parental solicitousness, pain beliefs, catastrophizing, and child-reported coping. Additional outcomes hypothesized a priori and assessed included functional disability, QoL, pain behavior, school absences, health care utilization, and gastrointestinal symptoms. The study was prospective and longitudinal (baseline and 3 and 6 months' follow-up) with 3 randomized conditions: social learning and cognitive behavioral therapy in-person (SLCBT) or by phone (SLCBT-R) and education and support condition by phone (ES-R). Participants were children aged 7 to 12 years with FAPD and their parents (N = 316 dyads). Although no significant treatment effect for pain severity was found, the SLCBT groups showed significantly greater improvements compared with controls on process measures of parental solicitousness, pain beliefs, and catastrophizing, and additional outcomes of parent-reported functional disability, pain behaviors, child health care visits for abdominal pain, and (remote condition only) QoL and missed school days. No effects were found for parent and child-reported gastrointestinal symptoms, or child-reported QoL or coping. These findings suggest that for children with FAPD, a brief phone SLCBT for parents can be similarly effective as in-person SLCBT in changing parent responses and improving outcomes, if not reported pain and symptom report, compared with a control condition.

  9. [Behavior and functional state of the dopaminergic brain system in pups of depressive WAG/Rij rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyshev, A V; Razumkina, E V; Rogozinskaia, É Ia; Sarkisova, K Iu; Dybynin, V A

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, it has been studied for the first time behavior and functional state of the dopaminergic brain system in pups of "depressive" WAG/Rij rats. Offspring of "depressive" WAG/Rij rats at age of 6-16 days compared with offspring of "normal" (non-depressed) outbred rats of the same age exhibited reduced rate of pshychomotor development, lower body weight, attenuation in integration of coordinated reflexes and vestibular function (greater latency of righting reflex, abnormal negative geotaxis), hyper-reactivity to tactile stimulation, reduced motivation to contact with mother (reduced infant-mother attachment). Differences in a nest seeking response induced by olfactory stimuli (olfactory discrimination test) and in locomotor activity (tests "gait reflex" and "small open field") have not been revealed. Acute injection of the antagonist of D2-like dopamine receptors clebopride 20 min before testing aggravated mother-oriented behavior in 15-days-old pups of both "depressive" and "non-depressive" rats. However this effect was greater in pups of "depressive" WAG/Rij rats compared with pups of "normal" rats that may indicate reduced functional activity of the dopaminergic brain system in offspring of "depressive" rats. It is proposed that reduced attachment behavior in pups of "depressive" WAG/Rij rats might be a consequence of maternal depression and associated with it reduced maternal care. Moreover, reduced attachment behavior in pups of "depressive" rats might be an early precursor (a marker) of depressive-like pathology which become apparent later in life (approximately at age of 3 months).

  10. Genetic targeting of NRXN2 in mice unveils role in excitatory cortical synapse function and social behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesche eBorn

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Human genetics has identified rare copy number variations and deleterious mutations for all neurexin genes (NRXN1-3 in patients with neurodevelopmental diseases, and electrophysiological recordings in animal brains have shown that Nrxns are important for synaptic transmission. While several mouse models for Nrxn1α inactivation have previously been studied for behavioral changes, very little information is available for other variants. Here, we validate that mice lacking Nrxn2α exhibit behavioral abnormalities, characterized by social interaction deficits and increased anxiety-like behavior, which partially overlap, partially differ from Nrxn1α mutant behaviors. Using patch-clamp recordings in Nrxn2α knockout brains, we observe reduced spontaneous transmitter release at excitatory synapses in the neocortex. We also analyse at this cellular level a novel NRXN2 mouse model that carries a combined deletion of Nrxn2α and Nrxn2β. Electrophysiological analysis of this Nrxn2-mutant mouse shows surprisingly similar defects of excitatory release to Nrxn2α, indicating that the β-variant of Nrxn2 has no strong function in basic transmission at these synapses. Inhibitory transmission as well as synapse densities and ultrastructure remain unchanged in the neocortex of both models. Furthermore, at Nrxn2α and Nrxn2-mutant excitatory synapses we find an altered facilitation and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR function because NMDAR-dependent decay time and NMDAR-mediated responses are reduced. As Nrxn can indirectly be linked to NMDAR via neuroligin and PSD-95, the trans-synaptic nature of this complex may help to explain occurrence of presynaptic and postsynaptic effects. Since excitatory/inhibitory imbalances and impairment of NMDAR function are alledged to have a role in autism and schizophrenia, our results support the idea of a related pathomechanism in these disorders.

  11. A Functional Analysis of Gestural Behaviors Emitted by Young Children with Severe Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreri, Summer J.; Plavnick, Joshua B.

    2011-01-01

    Many children with severe developmental disabilities emit idiosyncratic gestures that may function as verbal operants (Sigafoos et al., 2000). This study examined the effectiveness of a functional analysis methodology to identify the variables responsible for gestures emitted by 2 young children with severe developmental disabilities. Potential…

  12. In Vivo Neuromechanics : Decoding Causal Motor Neuron Behavior with Resulting Musculoskeletal Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sartori, Massimo; Yavuz, Utku; Farina, Dario

    2017-01-01

    Human motor function emerges from the interaction between the neuromuscular and the musculoskeletal systems. Despite the knowledge of the mechanisms underlying neural and mechanical functions, there is no relevant understanding of the neuro-mechanical interplay in the neuro-musculo-skeletal system.

  13. Synthesis and protonation behavior of carboxylate-functionalized poly(propylene imine) dendrimers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijvenbode, van R.C.; Rajanayagam, A.; Koper, G.J.M.; Baars, M.W.P.L.; Waal, de B.F.M.; Meijer, E.W.; Borkovec, M.

    2000-01-01

    Five generations of carboxylate-functionalized poly(propyleneimine) dendrimers have been synthesized starting from a double Michael addition of amine-functionalized poly(propyleneimine) dendrimers to methyl acrylate followed by basic hydrolysis using LiOH in a water/methanol mixture. The dendritic

  14. Surface colonized silver nano particles over chitosan poly-electrolyte micro-spheres and their multi-functional behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, B.; Asha, S.; Nimrodh Ananth, A.; Vanithakumari, G.; Okram, G. S.; Jose, Sujin P.; Jothi Rajan, M. A.

    2018-02-01

    Chitosan/tripolyphosphate polyelectrolyte (TPP) microspheres, decorated and surface functionalized with silver nanoparticles (NPs) of average diameter of 15 nm, were synthesized following a simple two-step procedure. These Ag NP-functionalized polyelectrolyte microspheres (Ag-CSPMs) are found to be biocompatible and enhancing the reactive oxygen species in curcumin with excellent anti-bacterial activity for selected Gram-positive and negative bacterial strains, making them much attractive relative to bare surface counterparts; the well-stabilized silver NPs do not form any agglomerations on the surface of the chitosan microspheres. They also show excellent cytotoxic behavior towards MCF7 cell lines, showing a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 32 μg ml-1. Therefore, Ag-CSPMs exhibit multi-functional ability having potential towards theranostics applications.

  15. The role of iridium in the work-function behavior of dilute-solution tungsten, iridium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Cruz, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    Requirements of thermionic electrode materials have emphasized the need for substantial improvements in microstructural stability, strength and creep resistance at service temperatures in excess of 2,500K. This study utilized both chemical alloying and mechanical alloying procedures for the addition of iridium to submicron W powder followed by cold compaction and sintering. The shrinkage characteristics and microstructural development were studied in iridium-added tungsten compacts with a range of additive levels. An electron-emission study was subsequently carried out in order to evaluate the work-function behavior of the consolidated alloys. The work function was obtained from current-emission measurements from the electrode surface under UHV conditions in the temperature range of 1,800 to 2,500K using a Vacuum Emission Vehicle (VEV). The data show that the magnitude of the work function in these alloys varied with temperature and was sensitive to sub-surface iridium content

  16. Evaluation of Self-Concept and Emotional-Behavioral Functioning of Children with Brachial Plexus Birth Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfiore, Lori A; Rosen, Carol; Sarshalom, Rachel; Grossman, Leslie; Sala, Debra A; Grossman, John A I

    2016-01-01

    Background  The reported incidence of brachial plexus birth injury (BPBI) is 0.87 to 2.2 per 1,000 live births. The psychological functioning, including self-concept and emotional-behavioral functioning, of children with BPBI has only been examined to a limited extent. Objective  The purpose of this study was to describe the self-concept and emotional-behavioral functioning in children with BPBI from both the child's and parent's perspective. Methods  Thirty-one children with BPBI, mean age 11 years 1 month, completed the Draw A Person: Screening Procedure for Emotional Disturbance (DAP:SPED) and Piers Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale (PHCSCS). The parents answered questions from the Behavior Assessment System for Children, Parent Rating Scales (BASC-2 PRS). Results  The scores from the DAP:SPED drawings showed further evaluation was not strongly indicated in the majority of the children. The PHCSCS Total score demonstrated that the children had a strongly positive self-concept. The parental responses to the BASC-2 PRS indicated that few children were at risk or in the clinically significant range for the four composite scores and all of the component clinical or adaptive scales. Gender comparison revealed females exhibited greater anxiety than males. Conclusion  Both children and parents reported a positive psychological well-being for the majority of the children. Parents had greater concerns about their child's social-emotional functioning, particularly anxiety. An interdisciplinary approach (occupational therapy evaluation, clinical observation, and parental interview) is necessary to determine the need for mental health referral.

  17. Changes in functional brain organization and behavioral correlations after rehabilitative therapy using a brain-computer interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany Mei Young

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the changes in task-related brain activity induced by rehabilitative therapy using brain-computer interface (BCI technologies and whether these changes are relevant to functional gains achieved through the use of these therapies. Stroke patients with persistent upper-extremity motor deficits received interventional rehabilitation therapy using a closed-loop neurofeedback BCI device (n=8 or no therapy (n=6. Behavioral assessments using the Stroke Impact Scale, the Action Research Arm Test, and the Nine-Hole Peg Test as well as task-based fMRI scans were conducted before, during, after, and one month after therapy administration or at analogous intervals in the absence of therapy. Laterality Index (LI during finger tapping of each hand were calculated for each time point and assessed for correlation with behavioral outcomes. Brain activity during finger tapping of each hand shifted over the course of BCI therapy but not in the absence of therapy to greater involvement of the non-lesioned hemisphere (and lesser involvement of the stroke-lesioned hemisphere as measured by LI. Moreover, changes from baseline LI values during finger tapping of the impaired hand were correlated with gains in both objective and subjective behavioral measures. These findings suggest that the administration of interventional BCI therapy can induce differential changes in brain activity patterns between the lesioned and nonlesioned hemisphere and that these brain changes are associated with changes in specific motor functions.

  18. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for children with functional abdominal pain and their parents decreases pain and other symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Rona L; Langer, Shelby L; Walker, Lynn S; Romano, Joan M; Christie, Dennis L; Youssef, Nader; DuPen, Melissa M; Feld, Andrew D; Ballard, Sheri A; Welsh, Ericka M; Jeffery, Robert W; Young, Melissa; Coffey, Melissa J; Whitehead, William E

    2010-04-01

    Unexplained abdominal pain in children has been shown to be related to parental responses to symptoms. This randomized controlled trial tested the efficacy of an intervention designed to improve outcomes in idiopathic childhood abdominal pain by altering parental responses to pain and children's ways of coping and thinking about their symptoms. Two hundred children with persistent functional abdominal pain and their parents were randomly assigned to one of two conditions-a three-session intervention of cognitive-behavioral treatment targeting parents' responses to their children's pain complaints and children's coping responses, or a three-session educational intervention that controlled for time and attention. Parents and children were assessed at pretreatment, and 1 week, 3 months, and 6 months post-treatment. Outcome measures were child and parent reports of child pain levels, function, and adjustment. Process measures included parental protective responses to children's symptom reports and child coping methods. Children in the cognitive-behavioral condition showed greater baseline to follow-up decreases in pain and gastrointestinal symptom severity (as reported by parents) than children in the comparison condition (time x treatment interaction, Pparents in the cognitive-behavioral condition reported greater decreases in solicitous responses to their child's symptoms compared with parents in the comparison condition (time x treatment interaction, Pparental responses and increasing child coping skills is effective in reducing children's pain and symptom levels compared with an educational control condition.

  19. Brief hypnotherapeutic-behavioral intervention for functional abdominal pain and irritable bowel syndrome in childhood: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulewitsch, Marco Daniel; Müller, Judith; Hautzinger, Martin; Schlarb, Angelika Anita

    2013-08-01

    Functional abdominal pain and irritable bowel syndrome are two prevalent disorders in childhood which are associated with recurrent or chronic abdominal pain, disabilities in daily functioning, and reduced quality of life. This study aimed to evaluate a brief hypnotherapeutic-behavioral intervention program in a prospective randomized controlled design. Thirty-eight children, 6 to 12 years of age, and their parents were randomly assigned to a standardized hypnotherapeutic-behavioral treatment (n = 20) or to a waiting list condition (n = 18). Both groups were reassessed 3 months after beginning. Primary outcome variables were child-completed pain measures and pain-related disability. Secondary outcome variables were parent-completed measures of their children's pain and pain-related disability. Health-related quality of life from both perspectives also served as a secondary outcome. In the treatment group, 11 of 20 children (55.0%) showed clinical remission (>80% improvement), whereas only one child (5.6%) in the waiting list condition was classified as responder. Children in the treatment group reported a significantly greater reduction of pain scores and pain-related disability than children of the waiting list condition. Parental ratings also showed a greater reduction of children's abdominal pain and pain-related disability. Health-related quality of life did not increase significantly. Hypnotherapeutic and behavioral interventions are effective in treating children with long-standing AP. Treatment success of this brief program should be further evaluated against active interventions with a longer follow-up.

  20. Sexual Health Care, Sexual Behaviors and Functioning, and Female Genital Cutting: Perspectives From Somali Women Living in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Jennifer Jo; Hunt, Shanda; Finsaas, Megan; Ciesinski, Amanda; Ahmed, Amira; Robinson, Beatrice Bean E

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the sexual values, attitudes, and behaviors of 30 Somali female refugees living in a large metropolitan area of Minnesota by collecting exploratory sexual health information based on the components of the sexual health model-components posited to be essential aspects of healthy human sexuality. A Somali-born bilingual interviewer conducted the semistructured interviews in English or Somali; 22 participants chose to be interviewed in Somali. Interviews were translated, transcribed, and analyzed using descriptive statistics and thematic analyses. Our study findings highlighted a sexually conservative culture that values sexual intimacy, female and male sexual pleasure, and privacy in marriage; vaginal sexual intercourse as the only sanctioned sexual behavior; and the importance of Islamic religion in guiding sexual practices. Findings related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) revealed HIV testing at immigration, mixed attitudes toward condom use, and moderate knowledge about HIV transmission modes. Female genital cutting (FGC) was a pervasive factor affecting sexual functioning in Somali women, with attitudes about the controversial practice in transition. We recommend that health professionals take the initiative to discuss sexual health care and safer sex, sexual behaviors/functioning, and likely challenges to sexual health with Somali women--as they may be unlikely to broach these subjects without permission and considerable encouragement.

  1. Functional approach to exploring climatic and landscape controls of runoff generation: 1. Behavioral constraints on runoff volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Yi; Sivapalan, Murugesu; Tian, Fuqiang; Harman, Ciaran

    2014-12-01

    Inspired by the Dunne diagram, the climatic and landscape controls on the partitioning of annual runoff into its various components (Hortonian and Dunne overland flow and subsurface stormflow) are assessed quantitatively, from a purely theoretical perspective. A simple distributed hydrologic model has been built sufficient to simulate the effects of different combinations of climate, soil, and topography on the runoff generation processes. The model is driven by a sequence of simple hypothetical precipitation events, for a large combination of climate and landscape properties, and hydrologic responses at the catchment scale are obtained through aggregation of grid-scale responses. It is found, first, that the water balance responses, including relative contributions of different runoff generation mechanisms, could be related to a small set of dimensionless similarity parameters. These capture the competition between the wetting, drying, storage, and drainage functions underlying the catchment responses, and in this way, provide a quantitative approximation of the conceptual Dunne diagram. Second, only a subset of all hypothetical catchment/climate combinations is found to be "behavioral," in terms of falling sufficiently close to the Budyko curve, describing mean annual runoff as a function of climate aridity. Furthermore, these behavioral combinations are mostly consistent with the qualitative picture presented in the Dunne diagram, indicating clearly the commonality between the Budyko curve and the Dunne diagram. These analyses also suggest clear interrelationships amongst the "behavioral" climate, soil, and topography parameter combinations, implying these catchment properties may be constrained to be codependent in order to satisfy the Budyko curve.

  2. Repeated exposure of adult rats to transient oxidative stress induces various long-lasting alterations in cognitive and behavioral functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Iguchi

    Full Text Available Exposure of neonates to oxidative stress may increase the risk of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia in adulthood. However, the effects of moderate oxidative stress on the adult brain are not completely understood. To address this issue, we systemically administrated 2-cyclohexen-1-one (CHX to adult rats to transiently reduce glutathione levels. Repeated administration of CHX did not affect the acquisition or motivation of an appetitive instrumental behavior (lever pressing rewarded by a food outcome under a progressive ratio schedule. In addition, response discrimination and reversal learning were not affected. However, acute CHX administration blunted the sensitivity of the instrumental performance to outcome devaluation, and this effect was prolonged in rats with a history of repeated CHX exposure, representing pro-depression-like phenotypes. On the other hand, repeated CHX administration reduced immobility in forced swimming tests and blunted acute cocaine-induced behaviors, implicating antidepressant-like effects. Multivariate analyses segregated a characteristic group of behavioral variables influenced by repeated CHX administration. Taken together, these findings suggest that repeated administration of CHX to adult rats did not cause a specific mental disorder, but it induced long-term alterations in behavioral and cognitive functions, possibly related to specific neural correlates.

  3. Antiretroviral treatment initiation does not differentially alter neurocognitive functioning over time in youth with behaviorally acquired HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Sharon L; Bethel, James; Kapogiannis, Bill G; Li, Tiandong; Woods, Steven P; Patton, E Doyle; Ren, Weijia; Thornton, Sarah E; Major-Wilson, Hanna O; Puga, Ana M; Sleasman, John W; Rudy, Bret J; Wilson, Craig M; Garvie, Patricia A

    2016-04-01

    Although youth living with behaviorally acquired HIV (YLWH) are at risk for cognitive impairments, the relationship of impairments to HIV and potential to improve with antiretroviral therapy (ART) are unclear. This prospective observational study was designed to examine the impact of initiation and timing of ART on neurocognitive functioning in YLWH in the Adolescent Medicine Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions. Treatment naïve YLWH age 18-24 completed baseline and four additional assessments of attention/working memory, complex executive, and motor functioning over 3 years. Group 1 co-enrolled in an early ART initiation study and initiated ART at enrollment CD4 >350 (n = 56); group 2 had CD4 >350 and were not initiating ART (n = 66); group 3 initiated ART with CD4 treatment guidelines at the time. Treatment was de-intensified to boosted protease inhibitor monotherapy at 48 weeks for those in group 1 with suppressed viral load. Covariates included demographic, behavioral, and medical history variables. Analyses used hierarchical linear modeling. All groups showed improved performance with peak at 96 weeks in all three functional domains. Trajectories of change were not significantly associated with treatment, timing of treatment initiation, or ART de-intensification. Demographic variables and comorbidities were associated with baseline functioning but did not directly interact with change over time. In conclusion, YLWH showed improvement in neurocognitive functioning over time that may be related to practice effects and nonspecific impact of study participation. Neither improvement nor decline in functioning was associated with timing of ART initiation or therapy de-intensification.

  4. Executive function predicts cognitive-behavioral therapy response in childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hybel, Katja Anna; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Lambek, Rikke

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is considered first-line treatment for childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Despite CBT's efficacy, too many children and adolescents do not fully respond to treatment, making the identification of predictors of treatment response highly relevant...... in CBT for childhood OCD and denotes a possible need for development of enhanced treatments for children and adolescents with OCD and superior EF performance........ Daily life EF behavior in OCD probands improved after treatment relative to controls. The findings suggest that EF performance impacts CBT outcome, and that exposure-based CBT is well-suited for children and adolescents with OCD and poorer EF test performance. This study supports the relevance of EF...

  5. Aggregation behavior of nanodiamonds and their functionalized analogs in an aqueous environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Chintal; Chen, Kun; Mitra, Somenath

    2014-03-01

    The colloidal behavior of aqueous dispersions of detonation nanodiamonds (DNDs) and carboxylated nanodiamonds (DND-COOH) which were synthesized via a microwave process is presented. Both forms of DNDs were found to be relatively stable in aqueous solutions, but aggregated rapidly in the presence of mono and divalent salts. The critical coagulation concentration (CCC) values for DNDs and DND-COOH were estimated to be between 8 and 10 mM for NaCl and 7 and 8 mM for MgCl2. In general, the formation of carboxyl groups on the DND surface did not alter colloidal behavior as dramatically as it is known to do for other nanocarbons especially carbon nanotubes.

  6. Electric behavior of functional glasses based on TeO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terny, S.; Rubia, M. a. de la; Barolin, S.; Alonso, R. E.; Frutos, J. de; Frechero, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study the structural and electrical behavior of glass-ceramic material of general formula: xMgO (1-x) (0.5V 2 O 5 .0.5MoO 3 )2TeO 2 (0≤ x≤0.9) through measurements of density, molar volume, oxygen packing density (OPD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Raman spectroscopy: electric behavior was studied by impedance spectroscopy. We found that magnesium cation induces the growth of slightly crystallized areas inside the material. Those nanocrystallizations were detected to a greater extent by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and in lesser extent by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Regarding the electrical measurements, it can be established that magnesium cation does not act as good ionic conductor in this material. (Author)

  7. Colonic Oxidative and Mitochondrial Function in Parkinson’s Disease and Idiopathic REM Sleep Behavior Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Morén, C.; González-Casacuberta, Í.; Navarro-Otano, J.; Juárez-Flores, D.; Vilas, D.; Garrabou, G.; Milisenda, J. C.; Pont-Sunyer, C.; Catalán-García, M.; Guitart-Mampel, M.; Tobías, E.; Cardellach, F.; Valldeoriola, F.; Iranzo, A.; Tolosa, E.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To determine potential mitochondrial and oxidative alterations in colon biopsies from idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) subjects. Methods Colonic biopsies from 7 iRBD subjects, 9 subjects with clinically diagnosed PD, and 9 healthy controls were homogenized in 5% w/v mannitol. Citrate synthase (CS) and complex I (CI) were analyzed spectrophotometrically. Oxidative damage was assessed either by lipid peroxidation, through malondialdehyde and h...

  8. Behavioral Criteria in Research and the Study of Racism: Performing the Jackal Function. Part III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-01

    and observation, follow-up interviews, basic demographic data base, and non-taped behaviors, among others. However, symbolic interactionism focuses...limiting and often void of meaning given the lack of contextual referants when so!el. analyzed through video techniques. Symbolic interaction is a more...any clear sense of confidence or connection in idea. - Qcott. coiments on heav, symbolism in Tut exhitit. This seems to derail group somewhat. The

  9. The Import of the Cortisol Rise in Child Care Differs as a Function of Behavioral Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnar, Megan R.; Kryzer, Erin; Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Phillips, Deborah A.

    2011-01-01

    Children of ages 3 to 4.5 years (N = 107; 45 boys, 62 girls) were studied twice, 6 months apart, to examine whether the cortisol rise in child care at Time 1 (T1) was associated with (a) changes in anxious, vigilant behavior from T1 to Time 2 (T2) and (b) higher internalizing symptoms at T2. Controlling for measures of home environment and child…

  10. Examining links between sexual risk behaviors and dating violence involvement as a function of sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipwell, A E; Stepp, S D; Keenan, K; Allen, A; Hoffmann, A; Rottingen, L; McAloon, R

    2013-08-01

    To examine the association between dating violence perpetration and victimization and sexually risky behaviors among sexual minority and heterosexual adolescent girls. Adolescent girls reported on sexual orientation, sexual behaviors, and risk-taking, and their use of, and experience with, dating violence in the past year. Data were analyzed using multinomial regression adjusted for race, poverty, living in a single parent household, and gender of current partner to examine (1) whether sexual minority status was associated with sexual risk behaviors after sociodemographic correlates of sexual risk were controlled; and (2) whether dating violence context accounted for elevated risk. Urban, population-based sample of girls interviewed in the home. 1,647 adolescent girls (38% European American, 57% African American, and 5% other) aged 17 years. Over one-third of the sample lived in poverty. None. Sexual risk-taking. Sexual minority status differentiated girls engaging in high sexual risk-taking from those reporting none, after controlling for sociodemographic and relationship characteristics. Dating violence perpetration and victimization made unique additional contributions to this model and did not account for the elevated risk conferred by sexual minority status. Sexual minority girls (SMGs) were more likely than heterosexual girls to report high sexual risk-taking and teen dating violence victimization. As with heterosexual girls, sexual risk-taking among SMGs was compounded by dating violence, which was not explained by partner gender. Adolescent girls' risky sexual behavior may be reduced by interventions for teen dating violence regardless of sexual minority status. Copyright © 2013 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Perceived Child Weight Status, Family Structure and Functioning, and Support for Health Behaviors in a Sample of Bariatric Surgery Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Keeley J; Ferriby, Megan; Noria, Sabrena; Skelton, Joseph; Taylor, Christopher; Needleman, Bradley

    2018-01-29

    The purpose of this study is to describe the associations between bariatric surgery patients' perspectives of their child's weight status, family support for eating and exercise behavior change, and family structure and functioning. A cross-sectional descriptive design with pre- and postsurgery (N = 224) patients was used. Demographics, perceptions of child weight status, family support for eating habits and exercise, and family functioning were assessed from patients at a University Bariatric Clinic. Patients who perceived their child to be overweight/obese reported more impaired family functioning, less family exercise participation, and more discouragement for eating habit change in the family compared to patients who did not perceive their child to be overweight/obese. Single parents more often perceived their children to be overweight/obese, and had more impaired family functioning, and less support for changing eating habits and family exercise participation. Patients with impaired family functioning reported less support for changing eating habits and family exercise participation. Bariatric patients who perceived their child to be overweight/obese and identified as single parents reported more impaired family functioning and less support for eating habits and family participation in exercise. Assessing pre- and postsurgery measures from parents and children will allow the further identification of relationship variables that can be targeted to promote positive family changes that benefit parents and children long-term. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Increased Motor Activity During REM Sleep Is Linked with Dopamine Function in Idiopathic REM Sleep Behavior Disorder and Parkinson Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoetmulder, Marielle; Nikolic, Miki; Biernat, Heidi B

    2016-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia characterized by impaired motor inhibition during REM sleep, and dream-enacting behavior. RBD is especially associated with α-synucleinopathies, such as Parkinson disease (PD). Follow-up studies have shown......-FP-CIT uptake in the putamen. In PD patients, EMG-activity was correlated to anti-Parkinson medication. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the hypothesis that increased EMG-activity during REM sleep is at least partly linked to the nigrostriatal dopamine system in iRBD, and with dopamine function in PD....... the relation between this system and electromyographic (EMG) activity during sleep. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the nigrostriatal dopamine system and muscle activity during sleep in iRBD and PD. METHODS: 10 iRBD patients, 10 PD patients with PD, 10 PD patients...

  13. Development of vicarious trial-and-error behavior in odor discrimination learning in the rat: relation to hippocampal function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, D; Griesbach, G; Amsel, A

    1997-06-01

    Previous work from our laboratory has suggested that hippocampal electrolytic lesions result in a deficit in simultaneous, black-white discrimination learning and reduce the frequency of vicarious trial-and-error (VTE) at a choice-point. VTE is a term Tolman used to describe the rat's conflict-like behavior, moving its head from one stimulus to the other at a choice point, and has been proposed as a major nonspatial feature of hippocampal function in both visual and olfactory discrimination learning. Simultaneous odor discrimination and VTE behavior were examined at three different ages. The results were that 16-day-old pups made fewer VTEs and learned much more slowly than 30- and 60-day-olds, a finding in accord with levels of hippocampal maturity in the rat.

  14. An analysis of functional communication training as an empirically supported treatment for problem behavior displayed by individuals with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Patricia F; Boelter, Eric W; Jarmolowicz, David P; Chin, Michelle D; Hagopian, Louis P

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the literature on the use of functional communication training (FCT) as a treatment for problem behavior displayed by individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID). Criteria for empirically supported treatments developed by Divisions 12 and 16 of the American Psychological Association (Kratochwill & Stoiber, 2002; Task Force, 1995) and adapted by Jennett and Hagopian (2008) for evaluation of single-case research studies were used to examine the support for FCT. Results indicated that FCT far exceeds criteria to be designated as a well-established treatment for problem behavior exhibited by children with ID and children with autism spectrum disorder, and can be characterized as probably efficacious with adults. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The global security perspective on the effects of executive cognitive function on complex behavioral screening intervention and HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Suk-Hee

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study is to understand the global security perspective on the effects of executive cognitive function (ECF) on Complex Behavioral Screening Intervention and HIV/AIDS. The HIV/AIDS pandemic is as much a social, political, economic, and cultural problem as a biomedical one. HIV/AIDS is associated centrally with the collapse not just of communities and families but potentially of states, with some of the largest public health interventions ever and enormous questions about governance, a huge population of orphans, and deep questions about intergenerational relations and cultural transmission. This study also is to develop a screening instrument that improves quality of life for individuals with executive cognitive impairments and behavior problems in our communities and the global society.

  16. Asymptotic behavior of the logarithmic derivative for entire functions of order zero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Zabolotskyj

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We get an approximation theorem for the logarithmic derivative $F$ of entire functions of order zero and, with it's help, establish the asymptotic of $ F $ outside the exceptional set.

  17. Asymptotic behavior of solutions of nonlinear differential equations and generalized guiding functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Avramescu

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Let $f:\\mathbb{R}\\times \\mathbb{R}^{N}\\rightarrow \\mathbb{R}^{N}$ be a continuous function and let $h:\\mathbb{R}\\rightarrow \\mathbb{R}$ be a continuous and strictly positive function. A sufficient condition such that the equation $\\dot{x}=f\\left( t,x\\right $ admits solutions $x:\\mathbb{R}\\rightarrow \\mathbb{R}^{N}$ satisfying the inequality $\\left| x\\left( t\\right \\right| \\leq k\\cdot h\\left( t\\right ,$ $t\\in \\mathbb{R},$ $k>0$, where $\\left| \\cdot \\right| $ is the euclidean norm in $\\mathbb{R}^{N},$ is given. The proof of this result is based on the use of a special function of Lyapunov type, which is often called guiding function. In the particular case $h\\equiv 1$, one obtains known results regarding the existence of bounded solutions.

  18. Organophosphate-Induced Changes in the PKA Regulatory Function of Swiss Cheese/NTE Lead to Behavioral Deficits and Neurodegeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretzschmar, Doris

    2014-01-01

    Organophosphate-induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN) is a Wallerian-type axonopathy that occurs weeks after exposure to certain organophosphates (OPs). OPs have been shown to bind to Neuropathy Target Esterase (NTE), thereby inhibiting its enzymatic activity. However, only OPs that also induce the so-called aging reaction cause OPIDN. This reaction results in the release and possible transfer of a side group from the bound OP to NTE and it has been suggested that this induces an unknown toxic function of NTE. To further investigate the mechanisms of aging OPs, we used Drosophila, which expresses a functionally conserved orthologue of NTE named Swiss Cheese (SWS). Treating flies with the organophosporous compound tri-ortho-cresyl phosphate (TOCP) resulted in behavioral deficits and neurodegeneration two weeks after exposure, symptoms similar to the delayed effects observed in other models. In addition, we found that primary neurons showed signs of axonal degeneration within an hour after treatment. Surprisingly, increasing the levels of SWS, and thereby its enzymatic activity after exposure, did not ameliorate these phenotypes. In contrast, reducing SWS levels protected from TOCP-induced degeneration and behavioral deficits but did not affect the axonopathy observed in cell culture. Besides its enzymatic activity as a phospholipase, SWS also acts as regulatory PKA subunit, binding and inhibiting the C3 catalytic subunit. Measuring PKA activity in TOCP treated flies revealed a significant decrease that was also confirmed in treated rat hippocampal neurons. Flies expressing additional PKA-C3 were protected from the behavioral and degenerative phenotypes caused by TOCP exposure whereas primary neurons were not. In addition, knocking-down PKA-C3 caused similar behavioral and degenerative phenotypes as TOCP treatment. We therefore propose a model in which OP-modified SWS cannot release PKA-C3 and that the resulting loss of PKA-C3 activity plays a crucial role in developing

  19. Effects of metformin on learning and memory behaviors and brain mitochondrial functions in high fat diet induced insulin resistant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintana, Hiranya; Apaijai, Nattayaporn; Pratchayasakul, Wasana; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

    2012-10-05

    Metformin is a first line drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Our previous study reported that high-fat diet (HFD) consumption caused not only peripheral and neuronal insulin resistance, but also induced brain mitochondrial dysfunction as well as learning impairment. However, the effects of metformin on learning behavior and brain mitochondrial functions in HFD-induced insulin resistant rats have never been investigated. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were divided into two groups to receive either a normal diet (ND) or a high-fat diet (HFD) for 12weeks. Then, rats in each group were divided into two treatment groups to receive either vehicle or metformin (15mg/kg BW twice daily) for 21days. All rats were tested for cognitive behaviors using the Morris water maze (MWM) test, and blood samples were collected for the determination of glucose, insulin, and malondialdehyde. At the end of the study, animals were euthanized and the brain was removed for studying brain mitochondrial function and brain oxidative stress. We found that in the HFD group, metformin significantly attenuated the insulin resistant condition by improving metabolic parameters, decreasing peripheral and brain oxidative stress levels, and improving learning behavior, compared to the vehicle-treated group. Furthermore, metformin completely prevented brain mitochondrial dysfunction caused by long-term HFD consumption. Our findings suggest that metformin effectively improves peripheral insulin sensitivity, prevents brain mitochondrial dysfunction, and completely restores learning behavior, which were all impaired by long-term HFD consumption. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of Disruptive Behavior Disorders on Academic Performance and School Functions of Youths with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao-Yu; Huang, Wei-Lieh; Kao, Wei-Chih; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2017-12-01

    Childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) are associated with negative school outcomes. The study aimed to examine the impact of ADHD and ODD/CD on various school functions. 395 youths with ADHD (244 with ADHD + ODD/CD and 151 with ADHD only) and 156 controls received semi-structured psychiatric interviews. School functions were assessed and compared between each group with a multiple-level model. The results showed that youths with ADHD had poorer performance across different domains of school functioning. Youths with ADHD + ODD/CD had more behavioral problems but similar academic performance than those with ADHD only. The multiple linear regression models revealed that ADHD impaired academic performance while ODD/CD aggravated behavioral problems. Our findings imply that comorbid ODD/CD may specifically contribute to social difficulties in youths with ADHD. Measures of early detection and intervention for ODD/CD should be conducted to prevent adverse outcomes.