WorldWideScience

Sample records for effluent tritium monitor

  1. Effluent Treatment Facility tritium emissions monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    An Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approved sampling and analysis protocol was developed and executed to verify atmospheric emissions compliance for the new Savannah River Site (SRS) F/H area Effluent Treatment Facility. Sampling equipment was fabricated, installed, and tested at stack monitoring points for filtrable particulate radionuclides, radioactive iodine, and tritium. The only detectable anthropogenic radionuclides released from Effluent Treatment Facility stacks during monitoring were iodine-129 and tritium oxide. This paper only examines the collection and analysis of tritium oxide

  2. Monitoring and management of tritium from the nuclear power plant effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiaoe; Liu, Ting; Yang, Lili; Meng, De; Song, Dahu

    2018-01-01

    It is important to regulate tritium nuclides from the nuclear power plant effluent, the paper briefly analyzes the main source of tritium, and the regulatory requirements associated with tritium in our country and the United States. The monitoring methods of tritium from the nuclear power plant effluent are described, and the purpose to give some advice to our national nuclear power plant about the effluent of tritium monitoring and management.

  3. Operational experience with two tritium-effluent-monitoring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynie, J.S.; Gutierrez, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    Two new tritium stack monitoring systems were designed and built. The operational experience of a wide-range detector with a useful range of a few μCi/m 3 to 10 8 μCi/m 3 , and a second monitoring system using an improved Kanne chamber and a new electrometer, called a Model 39 Electrometer-Chargemeter are discussed. Both tritium chambers have been designed to have a reduced sensitivity to tritium contamination, a fast response, and an integrating chargemeter with digital readout for easy conversion to microcuries. The calibration of these monitors and advantages of using these chambers over conventional systems are discussed

  4. Tritium effluent removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamberger, P.H.; Gibbs, G.E.

    1978-01-01

    An air detritiation system has been developed and is in routine use for removing tritium and tritiated compounds from glovebox effluent streams before they are released to the atmosphere. The system is also used, in combination with temporary enclosures, to contain and decontaminate airborne releases resulting from the opening of tritium containment systems during maintenance and repair operations. This detritiation system, which services all the tritium handling areas at Mound Facility, has played an important role in reducing effluents and maintaining them at 2 percent of the level of 8 y ago. The system has a capacity of 1.7 m 3 /min and has operated around the clock for several years. A refrigerated in-line filtration system removes water, mercury, or pump oil and other organics from gaseous waste streams. The filtered waste stream is then heated and passed through two different types of oxidizing beds; the resulting tritiated water is collected on molecular sieve dryer beds. Liquids obtained from regenerating the dryers and from the refrigerated filtration system are collected and transferred to a waste solidification and packaging station. Component redundancy and by-pass capabilities ensure uninterrupted system operation during maintenance. When processing capacity is exceeded, an evacuated storage tank of 45 m 3 is automatically opened to the inlet side of the system. The gaseous effluent from the system is monitored for tritium content and recycled or released directly to the stack. The average release is less than 1 Ci/day. The tritium effluent can be reduced by isotopically swamping the tritium; this is accomplished by adding hydrogen prior to the oxidizer beds, or by adding water to the stream between the two final dryer beds

  5. Radiological safety system based on real-time tritium-in-air monitoring indoor and in effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bidica, Nicolae; Sofalca, Nicolae; Balteanu, Ovidiu-Ioan; Stefan, Ioana-Iuliana

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we describe an improved real-time tritium monitoring system designed for Heavy Water Detritiation Pilot Plant of National Institute for Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation, Rm. Valcea, Romania. The system consists of three fixed tritium-in-air monitors which measure continuously tritium-in-air concentration (in both species: vapour and gas) in working areas and gaseous effluents. Portable tritium monitors with ionization chamber, and tritium-in-air collector combined with liquid scintillation counter method are also used to supplement fixed instrument measurements. The main functions of tritium monitoring system are: to measure tritium-in air concentration in working areas and gaseous effluents; to alarm the personnel if tritium concentration thresholds are exceeded; to integrate tritium activity released to the environment during a week and to cut off normal ventilation when the activity threshold is exceeded and start the air cleaning system. Now, several especial functions have been added, so that by using appropriate conversion factors, the tritium monitoring system is able to estimate the effective dose rate before starting an activity into the monitored area, during this activity, or soon as the activity was finished. Another new function has been added by coupling tritium-in-air monitoring system with control access system. This is very useful for quick estimation of tritium doses. For routine dosimetric survey, one the internal dose for individuals by measuring tritium in urine is estimated. With all these features our tritium monitoring system is really a safety system for personnel and for environment. (authors)

  6. Tritium monitoring in groundwater and evaluation of model predictions for the Hanford Site 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, D.B.; Bergeron, M.P.; Cole, C.R.; Freshley, M.D.; Wurstner, S.K.

    1997-08-01

    The Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) disposal site, also known as the State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS), receives treated effluent containing tritium, which is allowed to infiltrate through the soil column to the water table. Tritium was first detected in groundwater monitoring wells around the facility in July 1996. The SALDS groundwater monitoring plan requires revision of a predictive groundwater model and reevaluation of the monitoring well network one year from the first detection of tritium in groundwater. This document is written primarily to satisfy these requirements and to report on analytical results for tritium in the SALDS groundwater monitoring network through April 1997. The document also recommends an approach to continued groundwater monitoring for tritium at the SALDS. Comparison of numerical groundwater models applied over the last several years indicate that earlier predictions, which show tritium from the SALDS approaching the Columbia River, were too simplified or overly robust in source assumptions. The most recent modeling indicates that concentrations of tritium above 500 pCi/L will extend, at most, no further than ∼1.5 km from the facility, using the most reasonable projections of ETF operation. This extent encompasses only the wells in the current SALDS tritium-tracking network

  7. Radiological safety system based on real-time tritium-in-air monitoring indoors and in effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bidica, N.; Sofalca, N; Balteanu, O.; Srefan, I.

    2006-01-01

    Exposure to tritium is an important health hazard in any tritium processing facility so that implementing a real-time tritium monitoring system is necessary for its operation in safety conditions. The tritium processing facility operators need to be informed at any time about the in-air tritium concentration indoors or in the stack effluents, in order to detect immediately any leaks in tritium containments, or any releases inside the buildings or to the environment. This information is very important for adopting if necessary protection measures and correcting actions as quickly as possible. In this paper we describe an improved real-time tritium monitoring system designed for the Heavy Water Detritiation Pilot Plant of National Institute for Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation, Rm. Valcea, Romania. The design of the Radiological Safety System implemented for the ICIT Water Detritiation Pilot Plant is intended to provide the maximum safety level based on the ALARA concept. The main functions of tritium monitoring system are: - monitoring the working areas and gaseous effluents by determination of the tritium-in-air activity concentration; - local and remote data display; - assessing of environment dose equivalent rates and dose equivalents in the working environment (for personnel exposure control and work planning); - assessing the total tritium activity released to the environment through ventilation exhaust stack; - safety functions, i.e., local and remote, locking/unlocking personnel access, process shut-down in emergency conditions and start of the air cleaning systems. With all these features our tritium monitoring system is really a safety system adequate for personnel and environmental protection. (authors)

  8. Radiological safety system based on real-time tritium-in-air monitoring in room and effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bidica, N.; Sofalca, N.; Balteanu, O.; Stefan, I. [National Institute of Cryogenics and Isotopes Technologies, Ramnicu Valcea (Romania)

    2006-07-01

    The conceptual design of the radiological safety system based on real time-in-air monitoring in room and effluents is intended to provide the maximum achievable safety level, basing no the ALARA concept. the capabilities of this system are not only to inform any time personnel about tritium in air concentration level, but it will be able to: initiate the shut down procedure and drain off the plant, as well to start the Air cleaning System when the tritium-in-air concentration exceed pre-established threshold; estimate tritium effective dose rate before starting an activity into the monitored area, or during this activity, or soon as the activity was finished; estimate tritium effective dose and instantly record and update individual effective doses, using a special computer application called 'dose record'; lock access into the radiological area for individuals when tritium dose rate in the monitoring area will exceed the pre-established thresholds, or when any individual dose data provided by 'dose records' application ask for, or for other protection consideration; calculate the total tritium activity released to the environment (per day, week, or month). (N.C.)

  9. Radiological safety system based on real-time tritium-in-air monitoring in room and effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bidica, N.; Sofalca, N.; Balteanu, O.; Stefan, I.

    2006-01-01

    The conceptual design of the radiological safety system based on real time-in-air monitoring in room and effluents is intended to provide the maximum achievable safety level, basing no the ALARA concept. the capabilities of this system are not only to inform any time personnel about tritium in air concentration level, but it will be able to: initiate the shut down procedure and drain off the plant, as well to start the Air cleaning System when the tritium-in-air concentration exceed pre-established threshold; estimate tritium effective dose rate before starting an activity into the monitored area, or during this activity, or soon as the activity was finished; estimate tritium effective dose and instantly record and update individual effective doses, using a special computer application called 'dose record'; lock access into the radiological area for individuals when tritium dose rate in the monitoring area will exceed the pre-established thresholds, or when any individual dose data provided by 'dose records' application ask for, or for other protection consideration; calculate the total tritium activity released to the environment (per day, week, or month). (N.C.)

  10. Continuously tritium monitoring of the pipe of liquid effluents at the Cea Cadarache; Controle en continu du tritium de la conduite des effluents liquides du CEA Cadarache

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pira, Y

    2004-07-01

    This report is oriented toward the radiation protection of environment that is an essential component of radiation protection. It is necessary to detect any solid, liquid or gaseous abnormal release and to find its origin. The present study bears on a detection instrument in continuously to find tritium in liquid effluents of the Cea Cadarache. After having study the functioning principle of this device, an evaluation of its performances has been realised ( back noise, yield, detection limit) and to a checking in real conditions of utilization. (N.C.)

  11. Continuously tritium monitoring of the pipe of liquid effluents at the Cea Cadarache

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pira, Y.

    2004-01-01

    This report is oriented toward the radiation protection of environment that is an essential component of radiation protection. It is necessary to detect any solid, liquid or gaseous abnormal release and to find its origin. The present study bears on a detection instrument in continuously to find tritium in liquid effluents of the Cea Cadarache. After having study the functioning principle of this device, an evaluation of its performances has been realised ( back noise, yield, detection limit) and to a checking in real conditions of utilization. (N.C.)

  12. Tritium monitoring techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVore, J.R.; Buckner, M.A.

    1996-05-01

    As part of their operations, the U.S. Navy is required to store or maintain operational nuclear weapons on ships and at shore facilities. Since these weapons contain tritium, there are safety implications relevant to the exposure of personnel to tritium. This is particularly important for shipboard operations since these types of environments can make low-level tritium detection difficult. Some of these ships have closed systems, which can result in exposure to tritium at levels that are below normally acceptable levels but could still cause radiation doses that are higher than necessary or could hamper ship operations. This report describes the state of the art in commercial tritium detection and monitoring and recommends approaches for low-level tritium monitoring in these environments

  13. Monitoring of tritium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, James A.; Meacham, Sterling A.

    1981-01-01

    The fluid from a breeder nuclear reactor, which may be the sodium cooling fluid or the helium reactor-cover-gas, or the helium coolant of a gas-cooled reactor passes over the portion of the enclosure of a gaseous discharge device which is permeable to hydrogen and its isotopes. The tritium diffused into the discharge device is radioactive producing beta rays which ionize the gas (argon) in the discharge device. The tritium is monitored by measuring the ionization current produced when the sodium phase and the gas phase of the hydrogen isotopes within the enclosure are in equilibrium.

  14. Separation of tritium from reprocessing effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggeman, A.; Doyen, W.; Harnie, R.; Leysen, R.; Meynendonckx, L.; Monsecour, M.; Goossens, W.R.A.; Baetsle, L.H.

    1980-01-01

    For several years tritium retention has been studied at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, SCK/CEN; initially attention was focused on the removal of tritium from gaseous reprocessing effluents. If tritium can be released from the spent fuel into the gaseous phase before any aqueous operation, adsorption on molecular sieves after some isotopic dilution with hydrogen and after complete conversion to (tritiated) water is the most practical collection method. A once-through 15 m 3 .h -1 oxidation-adsorption unit with a closed regeneration system and with a decontamination factor of 1000 at total (tritiated) hydrogen and water inlet concentrations down to 1000 vpm (parts per million by volume) has been constructed and tested at SCK/CEN and it is described in the text. If no special head-end treatment is used an appropriate liquid management inside the reprocessing plant restricts the volume of tritiated aqueous effluents to about 3 m 3 per tonne of LWR fuel processed. However, for further reduction an isotope separation process becomes necessary. SCK/CEN is developing the ELEX process, which is a combination of water ELectrolysis and tritium EXchange between hydrogen and water, the exchange being promoted by a hydrophobic catalyst. For electrolysis under normal conditions an elementary tritium separation factor of 11.6 with a standard deviation of 6% was obtained. As concerns the exchange step a hydrophobic catalyst has been developed which yields for the flow rates used at atmospheric pressure and at 20 0 C an overall exchange rate constant of 9 mol.s -1 .m -3 in a countercurrent trickle-bed reactor. At present an integrated bench scale de-tritiation unit is being built for further tests and for a dynamic demonstration of the ELEX process

  15. Separation of tritium from aqueous effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geens, L.; Bruggeman, A.; Meynendonckx, L.; Parmentier, C.; Belien, H.; Ooms, E.; Smets, D.; Stevens, J.; van Vlerken, J.

    1988-01-01

    From 1975 until 1982 - within the framework of the CEC indirect action programme on management and storage of radioactive waste - the SCK/CEN has developed the ELEX process from laboratory scale experiments up to the construction of an integrated pilot installation. The ELEX process combines water electrolysis and catalytical isotope exchange for the separation of tritium from aqueous reprocessing effluents by isotope enrichment. Consequently, the pilot installation consists of two main parts: an 80 kW water electrolyser and a 10 cm diameter trickle bed exchange column. The feed rate of tritiated water amounts to 5 dm 3 .h -1 , containing up to 3.7 GBq.dm -3 of tritium. This report describes the further development of the process during the second phase of the second programme. Three main items are reported: (i) research work in the field of pretreatment of real reprocessing effluents, before feeding them to an ELEX installation; (ii) demonstration of the technical feasibility of the ELEX process with simulated active effluent streams in the pilot installation; (iii) a cost estimation for the ELEX installation, comprising the required investments and the annual operation costs

  16. Tritium monitor and collection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, G.L.; Meikrantz, D.H.; Ely, W.E.; Tuggle, D.G.; Grafwallner, E.G.; Wickham, K.L.; Maltrud, H.R.; Baker, J.D.

    1992-01-14

    This system measures tritium on-line and collects tritium from a flowing inert gas stream. It separates the tritium from other non-hydrogen isotope contaminating gases, whether radioactive or not. The collecting portion of the system is constructed of various zirconium alloys called getters. These alloys adsorb tritium in any of its forms at one temperature and at a higher temperature release it as a gas. The system consists of four on-line getters and heaters, two ion chamber detectors, two collection getters, and two guard getters. When the incoming gas stream is valved through the on-line getters, 99.9% of it is adsorbed and the remainder continues to the guard getter where traces of tritium not collected earlier are adsorbed. The inert gas stream then exits the system to the decay chamber. Once the on-line getter has collected tritium for a predetermined time, it is valved off and the next on-line getter is valved on. Simultaneously, the first getter is heated and a pure helium purge is employed to carry the tritium from the getter. The tritium loaded gas stream is then routed through an ion chamber which measures the tritium activity. The ion chamber effluent passes through a collection getter that readsorbs the tritium and is removable from the system once it is loaded and is then replaced with a clean getter. Prior to removal of the collection getter, the system switches to a parallel collection getter. The effluent from the collection getter passes through a guard getter to remove traces of tritium prior to exiting the system. The tritium loaded collection getter, once removed, is analyzed by liquid scintillation techniques. The entire sequence is under computer control except for the removal and analysis of the collection getter. 7 figs.

  17. Continuous monitoring of tritium in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Descours, S.; Guerin, P.

    1980-02-01

    TRYDYN is a detector studied for continuous monitoring of tritium in water. Its sensitivity of approximately 10 -3 μCi/milliliter (one third of the maximum permissible tritium concentration for the population at large) makes it ideal for radiological protection applications (effluents flowing in process drains, sewers, etc ...). The effluent is filtered and then passed through a transparent flowcell contaIning plastic scintillator beads held between two photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The cell's geometry and scintillator's geometry are designed to maximize measuring efficiency. Background is minimized by a 50 millimeter thick lead shielding and electronic circuitry of the same type as employed with liquid scintillators. This effluent purification unit can operate continuously for 8 days without manual intervention, the scintillator can operate for 6 months with a loss of sensitivity of less of 10%. The response time of the TRIDYN is less than 30 minutes for a concentration of 3.10 -3 μCi/milliliter [fr

  18. Facility effluent monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleckler, B.P.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the facility effluent monitoring programs and provides an evaluation of effluent monitoring data. These evaluations are useful in assessing the effectiveness of effluent treatment and control systems, as well as management practices.

  19. A prototype wearable tritium monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surette, R. A.; Dubeau, J.

    2008-01-01

    Sudden unexpected changes in tritium-in-air concentrations in workplace air can result in significant unplanned exposures. Although fixed area monitors are used to monitor areas where there is a potential for elevated tritium in air concentrations, they do not monitor personnel air space and may require some time for acute tritium releases to be detected. There is a need for a small instrument that will quickly alert staff of changing tritium hazards. A moderately sensitive tritium instrument that workers could wear would bring attention to any rise in tritium levels that were above predetermined limits and help in assessing the potential hazard therefore minimizing absorbed dose. Hand-held instruments currently available can be used but require the assistance of a fellow worker or restrict the user to using only one hand to perform some duties. (authors)

  20. Operating Experience Review of Tritium-in-Water Monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. A. Bruyere; L. C. Cadwallader

    2011-09-01

    Monitoring tritium facility and fusion experiment effluent streams is an environmental safety requirement. This paper presents data on the operating experience of a solid scintillant monitor for tritium in effluent water. Operating experiences were used to calculate an average monitor failure rate of 4E-05/hour for failure to function. Maintenance experiences were examined to find the active repair time for this type of monitor, which varied from 22 minutes for filter replacement to 11 days of downtime while waiting for spare parts to arrive on site. These data support planning for monitor use; the number of monitors needed, allocating technician time for maintenance, inventories of spare parts, and other issues.

  1. Nuclear reactor effluent monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minns, J.L.; Essig, T.H. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Radiological environmental monitoring and effluent monitoring at nuclear power plants is important both for normal operations, as well as in the event of an accident. During normal operations, environmental monitoring verifies the effectiveness of in-plant measures for controlling the release of radioactive materials in the plant. Following an accident, it would be an additional mechanism for estimating doses to members of the general public. This paper identifies the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulatory basis for requiring radiological environmental and effluent monitoring, licensee conditions for effluent and environmental monitoring, NRC independent oversight activities, and NRC`s program results.

  2. Nuclear reactor effluent monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minns, J.L.; Essig, T.H.

    1993-01-01

    Radiological environmental monitoring and effluent monitoring at nuclear power plants is important both for normal operations, as well as in the event of an accident. During normal operations, environmental monitoring verifies the effectiveness of in-plant measures for controlling the release of radioactive materials in the plant. Following an accident, it would be an additional mechanism for estimating doses to members of the general public. This paper identifies the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulatory basis for requiring radiological environmental and effluent monitoring, licensee conditions for effluent and environmental monitoring, NRC independent oversight activities, and NRC's program results

  3. Separation of tritium from gaseous and aqueous effluent systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobisk, E.H.

    1977-01-01

    Three processes are discussed for separating tritium from gaseous and aqueous effluent systems: separation in the gas phase using Pd-25 wt percent Ag alloy diffusion membranes; electrolytic separation in the aqueous phase using ''bipolar'' electrodes; and the countercurrent exchange of tritium-containing hydrogen gas with water on catalytic surfaces combined with separation by direct electrolysis

  4. Tritium concentration monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shono, Kosuke.

    1991-01-01

    A device for measuring the concentration of tritium in gaseous wastes in a power plant and a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant is reduced in the size and improved in performance. The device of the present invention pressurizes a sampling gas and cools it to a dew point. Water content in the sampling gas cooled to the dew point is condensated and recovered to a fine tube-like water content recovering container. The concentration of the recovered condensates is measured by a tritium density analyzer. With such procedures, since the specimen is pressurized, the dew point can be elevated. Accordingly, the size of the cooling device can be decreased, enabling to contribute to the reduction of the size of the entire device. Further, since the water content recovering device is formed as a fine tube, the area of contact between the specimen gas and the liquid condensated water can be reduced. Accordingly, evaporation of the liquid condensates can be prevented. (I.S.)

  5. Separation of tritium from aqueous effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggeman, A.; Leysen, R.; Meynendonckx, L.; Parmentier, C.; Bellien, H.; Smets, D.; Stevens, J.

    1984-01-01

    This report describes the further development of the so-called ELEX process, carried out from 1 July 1980 until 31 December 1982. The ELEX process is the combination of electrolysis with the catalytic tritium exchange between hydrogen and water in order to accumulate the tritium in the liquid phase. The experimental study of the catalytic tritium exchange between hydrogen and liquid water was continued and the overall exchange rate could be substantially increased. An alternative process based on bithermal exchange of tritium has been evaluated. In the 10 mol h -1 mini-pilot bench scale detritiation unit the ELEX process was successfully demonstrated by detritiating up to now more than 1m 3 of water containing up to 100 mCi tritium per dm 3 , which is the feed concentration to be expected for application of the process in a reprocessing plant. A 280 mol h -1 pilot detritiation installation now being constructed is described. This installation will realize a volume reduction factor of 100 and a process decontamination factor of 100. The maximum total tritium inventory will be about 1000 Ci. The plant consists mainly of a 80 kW electrolyser and a 10 cm diameter exchange column and can be considered as the ultimate step before industrial application of the ELEX process

  6. Environmental monitoring for tritium in tritium separation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varlam, Carmen; Stefanescu, Ioan; Steflea, Dumitru; Lazar, Roxana Elena

    2001-01-01

    The Cryogenic Pilot is an experimental project in the nuclear energy national research program, which has the aim of developing technologies for tritium and deuterium separation by cryogenic distillation. The experimental installation is located 15 km near the highest city of the area and 1 km near Olt River. An important chemical activity is developed in the area and chemical plants make up almost entire neighborhood of the Experimental Cryogenic Pilot. It is necessary to emphasize this aspect because the hall sewage system of the pilot is connected with the one of other three chemical plants from vicinity. This is the reason why we progressively established elements of an environmental monitoring program well in advance of tritium operation in order to determine baseline levels. The first step was the tritium level monitoring in environmental water and sewage from neighboring industrial activity. In this work, a low background liquid scintillation was used to determine tritium activity concentration according to ISO 9698/1998 standard. We measured drinking water, precipitation, river water, underground water and wastewater. The tritium level was between 10 TU and 27 TU what indicates that there is no source of tritium contamination in the neighborhood of Cryogenic Pilot. In order to determine baseline levels we decided to monitor monthly each location. In this paper it is presented a standard method used for tritium determination in water samples, the precautions needed to achieve reliable results and the evolution of tritium level in different location near the Experimental Pilot for Tritium and Deuterium Cryogenic Separation. (authors)

  7. Environmental monitoring for tritium at tritium separation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varlam, C.; Stefanescu, I.; Steflea, D.; Lazar, R.E.

    2001-01-01

    The Cryogenic Pilot is an experimental project in the nuclear energy national research program, which has the aim of developing technologies for tritium and deuterium separation by cryogenic distillation. The experimental installation is located 15 km near the highest city of the area and 1 km near Olt River. An important chemical activity is developed in the area and the Experimental Cryogenic Pilot's, almost the entire neighborhood are chemical plants. It is necessary to emphasize this aspect because the sewerage system is connected with the other three chemical plants from the neighborhood. This is the reason that we progressively established elements of an environmental monitoring program well in advance of tritium operation in order to determine baseline levels. The first step was the tritium level monitoring in environmental water and waste water of industrial activity from neighborhood. In this work, a low background liquid scintillation is used to determine tritium activity concentration according to ISO 9698/1998. We measured drinking water, precipitation, river water, underground water and waste water. The tritium level was between 10 TU and 27 TU that indicates there is no source of tritium contamination in the neighborhood of Cryogenic Pilot. In order to determine baseline levels we decide to monitories monthly each location. In this paper a standard method is presented which it is used for tritium determination in water sample, the precautions needed in order to achieve reliable results, and the evolution of tritium level in different location near the Experimental Pilot Tritium and Deuterium Cryogenic Separation.(author)

  8. Tritium liquid effluents from the Krsko NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savli, S.; Krizman, M.; Nemec, T.; Cindro, M.; Stritar, A.; Vokal Nemec, B.; Janzekovic, H.

    2007-01-01

    In the past, 12-months' fuel cycles in the Krsko NPP had not caused any problems regarding compliance with its Technical Specifications and license limits on liquid tritium releases (20 TBq/year, 8 TBq/three months). The first 18-months' fuel cycle, which was introduced in 2004, required fuel with higher enrichment, higher boron concentration in the primary coolant and more fuel rods with burnable poisons. In 2005, the NPP operated without refueling outage for the whole year and produced the highest amount of energy so far. Due to these facts and a few unplanned shutdowns and power reductions, production of tritium and releases increased strongly in 2005. As a result, the Krsko NPP hardly succeeded to stay within regulatory limits on tritium releases. However, the three-months' limit was exceeded in the first quarter of 2006. On the basis of conclusions acquired from the SNSA's study and practice of other European countries the SNSA considerably increased the annual limit of permitted liquid tritium releases (from 20 TBq to 45 TBq) and abolished the three-months' limit. At the same time, the SNSA reduced the limit of fission and activation products by halves. (author)

  9. Effluents and releases of tritium from Novo-Voronezh-5 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babenko, A.G.; Mekhedov, B.N.; Podporinova, L.E.; Popov, S.V.; Shalin, A.N.

    1990-01-01

    Results of systematic measurements of tritium concentration within technological systems of reactor of Novo-Voronezh NPP conducted to evaluate tritium effluents and releases and radiation doses to population from these effluents and releases are given. It is shown that 68% concerning tritium total amount were disposed into sewerage while 17% - through vent tube and 15% - with water and steam from secondary circuit systems. Standartized tritium effluents from WWER-1000 reactor for 5 year run constitute 15±1.9 GBq/MWxyear and it corresponds to mean value of effluents for foreign NPPs. Tritium concentration in the atmosphere constituted according to calculations (4.1-20)x10 -5 Bq/l. Conclusion is made about insignificant dose to population from tritium gaseous effluents. Detail study is necessary for dose connected with tritium contained in water effluents

  10. Separation of tritium from gaseous and aqueous effluent systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobisk, E.H.

    1977-01-01

    Removal or reduction of tritium content in a wide variety of effluent streams has been extensively studied in the United States. This paper specifically reviews three processes involving tritium separation in the gaseous phase and the aqueous phase. Diffusion through a selective Pd-25Ag alloy membrane at temperatures up to 600 0 C and at pressures up to 700 kg/cm 2 has resulted in successful separation of hydrogen-deuterium mixtures with an associated separation factor of 1.65 (and gives a calculated separation factor for hydrogen-tritium mixtures of 2.0). Use of a single palladium bipolar membrane in an electrolysis system has been found to yield a hydrogen-deuterium separation factor of 4 and a hydrogen-tritium factor of 6 to 11 without the production of gaseous hydrogen. Finally, countercurrent catalytic exchange between tritium-containing hydrogen gas and water has yielded a separation factor of 6.3. The specific advantages of each of these systems will be discussed in terms of their potential applications. In all cases, further investigations are necessary to scale the systems to handle large quantities of feed material in a continuous mode and to minimize energy requirements. Such separative systems must necessarily be cascaded to yield gaseous or aqueous product streams suitable for recycling to the tritium producing systems, for storage or for discharge to the environment. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Tritium monitoring equipments for animal experiment facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hiroo

    1980-01-01

    Animal experiment facilities using tritium are described with reference to laws and regulations concerning radiological safety. Usual breeding facilities and surrounding conditions at non-radioactive animal experiments are summarized on feasible and effective designs of tritium monitors. Characteristics and desirable arrangements of various kinds of tritium monitors such as ionization chambers, proportional counters and liquid scintillation detectors are discussed from the standpoint of monitoring for room, glove-box, stack, liquid waste and personnel. (J.P.N.)

  12. Tritium monitoring at the Sandia Tritium Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devlin, T.K.

    1978-10-01

    Sandia Laboratories at Livermore, California, is presently beginning operation of a Tritium Research Laboratory (TRL). The laboratory incorporates containment and cleanup facilities such that any unscheduled tritium release is captured rather than vented to the atmosphere. A sophisticated tritium monitoring system is in use at the TRL to protect operating personnel and the environment, as well as ensure the safe and effective operation of the TRL decontamination systems. Each monitoring system has, in addition to a local display, a display in a centralized control room which, when coupled room which, when coupled with the TRL control computer, automatically provides an immediate assessment of the status of the entire facility. The computer controls a complex alarm array status of the entire facility. The computer controls a complex alarm array and integrates and records all operational and unscheduled tritium releases

  13. Automation system for tritium contaminated surface monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culcer, Mihai; Iliescu, Mariana; Curuia, Marian; Raceanu, Mircea; Enache, Adrian; Stefanescu, Ioan; Ducu, Catalin; Malinovschi, Viorel

    2005-01-01

    The low energy of betas makes tritium difficult to detect. However, there are several methods used in tritium detection, such as liquid scintillation and ionization chambers. Tritium on or near a surface can be also detected using proportional counter and, recently, solid state devices. The paper presents our results in the design and achievement of a surface tritium monitor using a PIN photodiode as a solid state charged particle detector to count betas emitted from the surface. That method allows continuous, real-time and non-destructively measuring of tritium. (authors)

  14. ELEX process for tritium separation from aqueous effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggeman, A.; Doyen, W.; Leysen, R.; Meynendonckx, L.; Monsecour, M.; Goossens, W.R.A.

    1980-01-01

    Within the framework of the European Communities' indirect action program on management and storage of radioactive waste the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, S.C.K./C.E.N., is developing the ELEX process for tritium separation from aqueous reprocessing effluents. This process is a combination of water electrolysis and tritium exchange between hydrogen and water, the exchange being promoted by a hydrophobic catalyst. For classical electrolysis under normal working conditions with elementary tritium separation factor of 11.6 with a standard deviation of 6% was obtained. As to the exchange step an appropriate hydrophobic catalyst has been developed, and overall tritium exchange rates were measured in a countercurrent packed-bed reactor. Extrapolation of these results to the 3 m 3 per day scale of a reprocessing plant leads to an electrolyser capacity of about 1 MW and to an exchange volume of about 1 m 3 for an ELEX installation that concentrates 90% of the original tritium in 1% of the original volume. At the moment the construction of a small integrated detritiation unit is nearly finished. A larger pilot installation will be built later on

  15. Tritium waste management on the La Hague AREVA NC site: associated impact and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devin, P.; Deguette, H.

    2009-01-01

    The authors propose an analysis of tritium behaviour in the nuclear fuel processed in the AREVA NC plant in La Hague, of its presence in the plant and in its wastes, and of the impact of these wastes and the tritium monitoring in the environment. First, they present the AREVA NC plant and evoke the legal context concerning the waste management. They report and discuss the analysis of the presence and behaviour of tritium in irradiated fuel, of its behaviour during spent fuel processing, the evolution of tritium releases (legal limitations, evolutions since 1992), of measurement of activity in effluents, and discuss a study of possible reductions of tritium releases by La Hague plants (mainly in sea waters). They also report the computational assessment of the dosimetric impact of tritium on neighbouring population. They describe how the presence of tritium in the environment is monitored within the annual radioactivity monitoring programme

  16. Environmental monitoring of molecular tritium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichimasa, M.; Ichimasa, Y.; Akita, Y. (Ibaraki Univ., Mito (Japan). Faculty of Science); Suzuki, M.; Obayashi, H.; Sakuma, Y.

    1992-01-01

    The oxidation of atmospheric molecular tritium (HT) in vegetation was determined by in vitro experiments for various kinds of woody and herbaceous plant leaves, mosses and lichens taken from a forest and a garden in Ibaraki prefecture and a forest in Gifu prefecture, and comparison of the HT oxidation activity in vegetation was made with those in its neighboring surface soil (0-5cm in depth). The oxidation of HT in woody plant leaves was extremely low, only about 1/10000-1/1000 that in the surface soil as well as herbaceous plant leaves with some exception, whereas HT oxidation in mosses and lichens was 50-500 times that in pine needles. These results suggest the usefulness of mosses and lichens as monitor vegetation for accidental release of HT into the environment. (author).

  17. Tritium Room Air Monitor Operating Experience Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. C. Cadwallader; B. J. Denny

    2008-09-01

    Monitoring the breathing air in tritium facility rooms for airborne tritium is a radiological safety requirement and a best practice for personnel safety. Besides audible alarms for room evacuation, these monitors often send signals for process shutdown, ventilation isolation, and cleanup system actuation to mitigate releases and prevent tritium spread to the environment. Therefore, these monitors are important not only to personnel safety but also to public safety and environmental protection. This paper presents an operating experience review of tritium monitor performance on demand during small (1 mCi to 1 Ci) operational releases, and intentional airborne inroom tritium release tests. The tritium tests provide monitor operation data to allow calculation of a statistical estimate for the reliability of monitors annunciating in actual tritium gas airborne release situations. The data show a failure to operate rate of 3.5E-06/monitor-hr with an upper bound of 4.7E-06, a failure to alarm on demand rate of 1.4E-02/demand with an upper bound of 4.4E-02, and a spurious alarm rate of 0.1 to 0.2/monitor-yr.

  18. Preparation of honey sample for tritium monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Bingru; Wang Chenlian; Wang Weihua

    1989-01-01

    The method of preparation of honey sample for tritium monitoring was described. The equipments consist of an air and honey supply system, a quartz combustor with CM-type monolithic combustion catalyst and a condensation system. In the equipments, honey sample was converted into cooling water by the distilling, cracking and carbonizing procedures for tritium counting. The recovery ratio is 99.0 ± 4.5 percent for tritiated water and 96.0 ± 2.0 for tritiated organic compounds. It is a feasible preparing method for the total tritium monitoring in honey sample

  19. Tritium monitor for fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalbert, R.A.

    1982-08-01

    This report describes the design, operation, and performance of a flow-through ion-chamber instrument designed to measure tritium concentrations in air containing /sup 13/N, /sup 16/N, and /sup 41/Ar produced by neutrons generated by D-T fusion devices. The instrument employs a chamber assembly consisting of two coaxial ionization chambers. The inner chamber is the flow-through measuring chamber and the outer chamber is used for current subtraction. A thin wall common to both chambers is opaque to the tritium betas. Currents produced in the two chambers by higher energy radiation are automatically subtracted, leaving only the current due to tritium.

  20. Tritium monitoring in environment at ICIT Tritium Separation Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varlam, Carmen; Stefanescu, I.; Vagner, Irina; Faurescu, I.; Toma, A.; Dulama, C.; Dobrin, R.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The Cryogenic Pilot is an experimental project developed within the national nuclear energy research program, which is designed to develop the required technologies for tritium and deuterium separation by cryogenic distillation of heavy water. The process used in this installation is based on a combination between liquid-phase catalytic exchange (LPCE) and cryogenic distillation. Basically, there are two ways that the Cryogenic Pilot could interact with the environment: by direct atmospheric release and through the sewage system. This experimental installation is located 15 km near the region biggest city and in the vicinity - about 1 km, of Olt River. It must be specified that in the investigated area there is an increased chemical activity; almost the entire Experimental Cryogenic Pilot's neighborhood is full of active chemical installations. This aspect is really essential for our study because the sewerage system is connected with the other three chemical plants from the neighborhood. For that reason we progressively established elements of an environmental monitoring program well in advance of tritium operation in order to determine baseline levels. The first step was the tritium level monitoring in environmental water and wastewater of industrial activity from neighborhood. In order to establish the base level of tritium concentration in the environment around the nuclear facilities, we investigated the sample preparation treatment for different types of samples: onion, green beams, grass, apple, garden lettuce, tomato, cabbage, strawberry and grapes. We used azeotropic distillation of all types of samples, the carrier solvent being toluene from different Romanian providers. All measurements for the determination of environmental tritium concentration were performed using liquid scintillation counting (LSC), with the Quantulus 1220 spectrometer. (authors)

  1. Environmental monitoring for tritium separation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varlam, Carmen; Stefanescu, Ioan; Steflea, Dumitru; Lazar, Roxana Elena

    2001-01-01

    The Cryogenic Pilot is an experimental project within the nuclear energy national research program, which has the aim of developing technologies for tritium and deuterium separation by cryogenic distillation. The experimental installation is located 15 km near the highest city of the area and 1 km near Olt River. An important chemical activity is developed in the area and almost all the neighbors of the Experimental Cryogenic Pilot are chemical plants. It is necessary to emphasize this aspect because the sewage system is connected with the other tree chemical plants from the neighborhood. In this work, a low background liquid scintillation is used to determine tritium activity concentration according to ISO 9698/1998. We measured drinking water, precipitation, river water, underground and waste water. The tritium level was between 10 TU and 27 TU what indicates that there is no sources of tritium contamination in the neighborhood of Cryogenic Pilot. In order to determine baseline levels we decided to monitor monthly each location. In this paper it is presented the standard method used for tritium determination in water samples, the precautions needed in order to achieve reliable results, and the evolution of tritium level in different location near the Tritium and Deuterium Cryogenic Separation Experimental Pilot. (authors)

  2. A new tritium process monitor based on scintillating fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacenti, P.; Edwards, R.A.H.; Monte, A. de; Campi, F.

    1998-01-01

    The main requirements for tritium monitoring in processes related with fusion fuel cycle are low tritium memory, fast response and accuracy, in decreasing order of importance. At present, in-line tritium monitoring in such tritium processing is done mostly using ionization chambers, which suffer a number of drawbacks: output and sensitivity depends on total gas pressure, composition and flow, etc., and have problems such as tritium memory and generally of saturation effect at high tritium concentrations. Solid scintillators can only work well with tritium if they offer a large surface area, because tritium is absorbed within the first microns of material. The present design uses entirely inorganic scintillator and construction materials, chosen to minimize tritium memory. The described on line and real time tritium detector presents some advantages in comparison with well established flow-through tritium process monitors, such as ionization chambers and thermal conductivity detectors. (authors)

  3. Palisades Nuclear Plant. Radioactive effluents and environmental monitoring sections to second annual operating report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A total of 0.435 Ci of radioactive liquid effluent less tritium was released with 19.63 Ci of tritium. Both liquid and gaseous releases were within permissible limits. There were 8 Ci of solid wastes stored on the site as of 12/31/76. Data clearly shows there was no detectable increase in radioactivity levels in the environmental media that can be attributed to plant effluents. Monitoring reports are presented concerning fish, meteorology, noise, and cooling tower drift

  4. Facility effluent monitoring plan for WESF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SIMMONS, F.M.

    1999-09-01

    The FEMP for the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) provides sufficient information on the WESF effluent characteristics and the effluent monitoring systems so that a compliance assessment against applicable requirements may be performed. Radioactive and hazardous material source terms are related to specific effluent streams that are in turn, related to discharge points and, finally are compared to the effluent monitoring system capability.

  5. Waste monitoring system for effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, J.M.; Gomez, B.; Trujillo, L.; Malcom, J.E.; Nekimken, H.; Pope, N.; Bibeau, R.

    1995-07-01

    The waste monitoring system in use at Los Alamos National Laboratory's Plutonium Facility, TA-55, is a computer-based system that proves real-time information on industrial effluents. Remote computers monitor discharge events and data moves from one system to another via a local area network. This report describes the history, system design, summary, instrumentation list, displays, trending screens, and layout of the waste monitoring system

  6. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the 324 Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    The 324 Facility [Waste Technology Engineering Laboratory] in the 300 Area primarily supports the research and development of radioactive and nonradioactive waste vitrification technologies, biological waste remediation technologies, spent nuclear fuel studies, waste mixing and transport studies, and tritium development programs. All of the above-mentioned programs deal with, and have the potential to, release hazardous and/or radioactive material. The potential for discharge would primarily result from (1) conducting research activities using the hazardous materials, (2) storing radionuclides and hazardous chemicals, and (3) waste accumulation and storage. This report summarizes the airborne and liquid effluents, and the results of the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) determination for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterizing effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements

  7. Tritium monitoring in the GCFR sweep gas fuel irradiation capsule BG-10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gat, U.; Pruitt, M.E.; Longest, A.W.; Epstein, B.D.

    1980-01-01

    The release of tritium and its transport pathways were studied in a vented, pressure-equalized fuel rod which simulated a fuel rod in a Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR). The purpose was to determine the fraction of total tritium production transported via the various pathways and to determine its chemical form (tritiated hydrogen or water). It was concluded that the fuel rod and its effluent venting lines retained low concentrations of HT (or T 2 ) and any HTO (or T 2 O) present. However, the addition of 1% hydrogen to the helium carrier gas quantitatively eluted the tritium from the charcoal trap integral to the fuel rod and from the effluent lines. The chemical composition of the tritium arriving at the monitoring system could be determined by means of converters which convert HT to HTO and vice versa. Ht was the dominant species in the samples measured

  8. Development of a tritium monitor combined with an electrochemical tritium pump using a proton conducting oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, M. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Sugiyama, T. [Nagoya University, Fro-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya (Japan)

    2015-03-15

    The detection of low level tritium is one of the key issues for tritium management in tritium handling facilities. Such a detection can be performed by tritium monitors based on proton conducting oxide technique. We tested a tritium monitoring system composed of a commercial proportional counter combined with an electrochemical hydrogen pump equipped with CaZr{sub 0.9}In{sub 0.1}O{sub 3-α} as proton conducting oxide. The hydrogen pump operated at 973 K under electrolysis conditions using tritiated water vapor (HTO). The proton conducting oxide extracts tritium molecules (HT) from HTO and tritium concentration is measured by the proportional counter. The advantage of the proposed tritium monitoring system is that it is able to convert HTO into molecular hydrogen.

  9. Radioactive gases monitor system: tritium, radon, noble gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egey, J.Z.; Matatagui, E.

    2015-01-01

    A system for monitoring the radioactive gases tritium, radon and noble gases is described. We present the description of the sensor and the associated electronics that have been developed to monitor the presence of radioactive gases in air or other gaseous effluents. The system has a high sensitivity and a wide range of operation. The sensor is an ionization chamber, featuring the internal circulation of the gas to monitor and the associated electronics has a resolution better than 10 E-15A (fA). It allows the detection of the individual pulses that are produced during the alpha decay of radon and its daughter elements. The measurement system is made up of a commercial data acquisition system connected to a computer. The acquired data is presented on a graphical display and it is stored for later processing and analysis. We have a system that is of simple construction and versatile. Here we present the experimental results. (authors) [es

  10. Facility effluent monitoring plan for WESF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SIMMONS, F.M.

    1999-01-01

    The FEMP for the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) provides sufficient information on the WESF effluent characteristics and the efferent monitoring systems so that a compliance assessment against applicable requirements may be performed. Radioactive and hazardous material source terms are related to specific effluent streams that are in turn, related to discharge points and, finally are compared to the effluent monitoring system capability

  11. Tritium conference days; Journees tritium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnier-Laplace, J.; Lebaron-Jacobs, L.; Sene, M.; Devin, P.; Chretien, V.; Le Guen, B.; Guetat, Ph.; Baglan, N.; Ansoborlo, E.; Boyer, C.; Masson, M.; Bailly-Du-Bois, P.; Jenkinson, St.; Wakeford, R.; Saintigny, Y.; Romeo, P.H.; Thompson, P.; Leterq, D.; Chastagner, F.; Cortes, P.; Philippe, M.; Paquet, F.; Fournier, M.

    2009-07-01

    This document gathers the slides of the available presentations given during this conference day. Twenty presentations out of 21 are assembled in the document and deal with: 1 - tritium in the environment (J. Garnier-Laplace); 2 - status of knowledge about tritium impact on health (L. Lebaron-Jacobs); 3 - tritium, discrete but present everywhere (M. Sene); 4 - management of tritium effluents from Areva NC La Hague site - related impact and monitoring (P. Devin); 5 - tritium effluents and impact in the vicinity of EDF's power plants (V. Chretien and B. Le Guen); 6 - contribution of CEA-Valduc centre monitoring to the knowledge of atmospheric tritiated water transfers to the different compartments of the environment (P. Guetat); 7 - tritium analysis in environment samples: constraints and means (N. Baglan); 8 - organically-linked tritium: the analyst view (E. Ansoborlo); 9 - study of tritium transfers to plants via OBT/HTO{sub air} and OBT/HTO{sub free} (C. Boyer); 10 - tritium in the British Channel (M. Masson and P. Bailly-Du-Bois); 11 - tritium in British coastal waters (S. Jenkinson); 12 - recent results from epidemiology (R. Wakeford); 13 - effects of tritiated thymidine on hematopoietic stem cells (P.H. Romeo); 14 - tritium management issue in Canada: the point of view from authorities (P. Thompson); 15 - experience feedback of the detritiation process of Valduc centre (D. Leterq); 16 - difficulties linked with tritiated wastes confinement (F. Chastagner); 17 - optimisation of tritium management in the ITER project (P. Cortes); 18 - elements of thought about the management of tritium generated by nuclear facilities (M. Philippe); 19 - CIPR's position about the calculation of doses and risks linked with tritium exposure (F. Paquet); 20 - tritium think tanks (M. Fournier). (J.S.)

  12. Survey of tritium wastes and effluents in near-term fusion-research facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickford, W.E.; Dingee, D.A.; Willingham, C.E.

    1981-08-01

    The use of tritium control technology in near-term research facilities has been studied for both the magnetic and inertial confinement fusion programs. This study focused on routine generation of tritium wastes and effluents, with little referene to accidents or facility decommissioning. This report serves as an independent review of the effectiveness of planned control technology and radiological hazards associated with operation. The facilities examined for the magnetic fusion program included Fusion Materials Irradiation Testing Facility (FMIT), Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA), and Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) in the magnetic fusion program, while NOVA and Antares facilities were examined for the inertial confinement program

  13. CY-1981 effluent monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honkus, R.J.

    1982-05-01

    The effluent monitoring programs at ICPP for calendar year 1981 are summarized. During the year, five significant occurrences or unplanned releases occurred. These are briefly described and tabulated. In none of the instances were the applicable Radiation Concentration Guides (RCG's) exceeded. A graphic summary of the total airborne, liquid and solid releases during CY-1981 is presented. Liquid waste activity was higher than anticipated due to various processing factors throughout the year. Solid waste jumped dramatically in December due to shipment of end-prices from the EBR-II fuel which was processed during the Electrolytic campaign

  14. Legal provisions governing liquid effluents radiological monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gans, I.; Ruehle, H.

    1985-01-01

    The KTA rule 1504 for radiological monitoring of liquid effluents from nuclear installations is explained. As there are no such rules published to date for establishments handling isotopes, some criteria are discussed which in the future ought to form part of a practical guide for liquid effluents monitoring in isotope handling installations. Monitoring measures described refer to liquid effluents from transfer containers, auxiliary cooling equipment, turbine buildings, main cooling installations, and waste air discharges from closed-circuit cooling systems. (DG) [de

  15. Tritium contaminated surface monitoring with a solid - state device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culcer, Mihai; Iliescu, Mariana; Curuia, Marian; Enache, Adrian; Stefanescu, Ioan; Ducu, Catalin; Malinovschi, Viorel

    2004-01-01

    The low energy of betas makes tritium difficult to detect. However, there are several methods used in tritium detection, such as liquid scintillation and ionization chambers. Tritium on or near a surface can be also detected using proportional counters and, recently, solid state devices. The paper presents our results in the design and achievement of a surface tritium monitor using a PIN photodiode as a solid state charged particle detector to count betas emitted from the surface. That method allows continuous, real-time and non-destructively measuring of tritium. (authors)

  16. Tritium monitoring at NPP and enviromental area under survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurislamov, I.R.; Kham'yanov, L.P.; Panichkin, V.F.

    1983-01-01

    Methods and devices for tritium monitoring at NPP with the WWER-type reactors and the environment are described. Aqueous solutions of inorganic and organic compounds, water vapours in the air of NPP rooms and the environment atmosphere, free and bound water in soils and vegetation were the objects for monitoring. Methods of tritium sampling from the atmosphere as well as determination of its content in samples are presented. Special attention is paid to sample enrichment with tritium

  17. Development of a compact tritium activity monitor and first tritium measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Röllig, M., E-mail: marco.roellig@kit.edu; Ebenhöch, S.; Niemes, S.; Priester, F.; Sturm, M.

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • We report about experimental results of a new tritium activity monitoring system using the BIXS method. • The system is compact and easy to implement. It has a small dead volume of about 28 cm{sup 3} and can be used in a flow-through mode. • Gold coated surfaces are used to improve significantly count rate stability of the system and to reduce stored inventory. - Abstract: To develop a convenient tool for in-line tritium gas monitoring, the TRitium Activity Chamber Experiment (TRACE) was built and commissioned at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK). The detection system is based on beta-induced X-ray spectrometry (BIXS), which observes the bremsstrahlung X-rays generated by tritium decay electrons in a gold layer. The setup features a measuring chamber with a gold-coated beryllium window and a silicon drift detector. Such a detection system can be used for accountancy and process control in tritium processing facilities like the Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino Experiment (KATRIN). First characterization measurements with tritium were performed. The system demonstrates a linear response between tritium partial pressure and the integral count rate in a pressure range of 1 Pa up to 60 Pa. Within 100 s measurement time the lower detection limit for tritium is (143.63 ± 5.06) · 10{sup 4} Bq. The system stability of TRACE is limited by a linear decrease of integral count rate of 0.041 %/h. This decrease is most probably due to exchange interactions between tritium and the stainless steel walls. By reducing the interaction surface with stainless steel, the decrease of the integral count rate was reduced to 0.008 %/h. Based on the first results shown in this paper it can be concluded that TRACE is a promising complement to existing tritium monitoring tools.

  18. Effectiveness Monitoring Report, MWMF Tritium Phytoremediation Interim Measures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitchcock, Dan; Blake, John, I.

    2003-02-10

    This report describes and presents the results of monitoring activities during irrigation operations for the calendar year 2001 of the MWMF Interim Measures Tritium Phytoremediation Project. The purpose of this effectiveness monitoring report is to provide the information on instrument performance, analysis of CY2001 measurements, and critical relationships needed to manage irrigation operations, estimate efficiency and validate the water and tritium balance model.

  19. Handling of tritium contaminated effluents and wastes: Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varghese, C.; Singh, I.; Agarwal, R.P.; Ramani, M.P.S.; Khan, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    This report deals with the work on: (1) applicability of cotton, woodpulp, sawdust and certian cellulosic derivatives for the removal of tritium from aqueous medium, (2) containment and fixation of tritiated water in nonleachable matrices. The absorption studies on cotton, woodpulp, sawdust, and cellulose acetates were carried out with a view to assess their potentialities as concentration media and also to choose a matrix which can concentrate tritium to the maximum extent possible. The experiments on water hyacinth plants were designed to see the applicability of concentrating tritium and also for providing a via medium for slow release of tritium into the atmosphere. The immobilisation of tritiated water in cement matrices was studied with combinations of portland cement and five filler materials namely sand, silica, vermiculite, portland cement aggregate and accoproof. If cement blocks come in contact with aqueous media as it may happen when the tritium bearing blocks are disposed to the ground, a considerable portion of the contained activity is likely to diffuse and leach out. In order to prevent this, it was proposed to try several coating materials as diffusion barriers over cement blocks. Screening of locally available coating materials was done using a diffusion cell. Shalismatic HD, Anticor and epoxy paint were found to be promising among the screened materials. Tritiated cement blocks with 29% vermiculite loading were coated with the above coating materials, and were subjected to leaching, both in sea water and distilled water. The cumulative leaching data for tritiated cement blocks over a period of 400 days show that Shalimastic HD, when used as a coating material, retards the leaching to the maximum extent. Further leaching studies were started on Shalimastic HD blocks in one ground water formulation, which is continued to this date. (author)

  20. Effluent monitoring: Its purpose and value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoen, A.A.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of effluent monitoring is described in terms of the primary objectives, the most important of which is to verify that the facility is functioning as it was designed and that the waste treatment and effluent control systems are performing as planned and expected. The object of a monitoring programme should be periodically re-examined to ensure that the programme serves a contemporary purpose. The value of the effluent monitoring programme is determined by the extent to which users of the monitoring data, i.e. the operator, the regulating authorities and the public, accept the result as indicating that the plant is operating safely, and in an environmentally acceptable manner. The credibility of the monitoring results is therefore the most important factor determining the value of an effluent monitoring programme. (author)

  1. Tritium in water monitor for measurement of tritium activity in the process water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathnakaran, M.; Ravetkar, R.M.; Abani, M.C.; Mehta, S.K.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the evaluation of a tritium in water monitor for measurement of tritium activity in the secondary coolant in pressurised heavy water reactor used for power generation. For this purpose it uses a plastic scintillator flow cell detector in a continuous on-line mode. It is observed that the sensitivity of the system depends on the transparency of the detector, which gradually reduces with use because of the collection of dirt around the scintillator. A simple type of sample conditioner based on polypropylene candle filter and filter paper is developed and installed at RAPS along with tritium in water monitor. The functioning of this system is reported here. (author)

  2. A review of tritium-in-water monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surette, R.A.; McElroy, R.G.C.

    1986-11-01

    The current status of tritium-in-water monitors is reviewed. It is argued that the main short-coming of existing tritium-in-water monitors is imperfections in the sample delivery. Most of the liquid and solid scintillation detectors are adequately sensitive for real time monitoring applications. Although other techniques for detecting tritium-in-water are possible they all suffer from the same sample delivery problems and are either insensitive, costly, complicated or not applicable for real time monitoring. 25 refs

  3. Experimental study of the tritium distribution in the effluents resulting from the sodium hydrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassery, A. [CEA, DEN, Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Universite de Toulouse, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, Toulouse (France); CNRS, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, Toulouse (France); Lorcet, H.; Godlewski, J; Liger, K.; Latge, C. [CEA, DEN, Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Joulia, X. [Universite de Toulouse, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, Toulouse (France); CNRS, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, Toulouse (France)

    2015-03-15

    Within the framework of the dismantling of fast breeder reactors in France several processes are under investigation regarding sodium disposal. One of them, called ELA (radioactive sodium waste treatment process), is based on the implementation of the sodium-water reaction, in a controlled and progressive way, to remove residual sodium. This sodium contains impurities such as sodium hydride, sodium oxide and tritiated sodium hydride. The hydrolysis of these various chemical species leads to the production of a liquid effluent, mainly composed of an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide, and a gaseous effluent, mainly composed of nitrogen (inert gas), hydrogen and steam. The tritium is distributed between these effluents, and, within the gaseous effluent, according to its forms HT and HTO (tritiated water). HTO being 10,000 times more radio-toxic than HT, a precise knowledge of the mechanisms governing the phase distribution of tritium is necessary. This paper presents the first experimental results from a parametric study on the tritium distribution between the various effluents generated during hydrolysis operations. A series of experiments have been performed in order to study the influence of water flow rate, argon flow rate, initial mass and specific activity of the hydrolyzed sodium sample. An important influence of the total tritium concentration in the hydrolyzed sample has been highlighted. As for the phenomena suspected to be responsible for the phase change of tritiated water, in the studied range of parameters, vaporization induced by the heat of reactions seems to be dominant over the evaporation induced by the inert gas flow rate.

  4. Tritium monitor calibration at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjork, C.J.; Aikin, D.J.; Houlton, T.W.

    1997-08-01

    Tritium in air is monitored at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) with air breathing instruments based on ionization chambers. Stack emissions are continuously monitored from sample tubes which each connect to a Tritium bubble which differentially collects HTO and HT. A set of glass vials of glycol capture the HTO. The HT is oxidized with a palladium catalyst and the resultant HTO is captured in a second set of vials of glycol. The glycol is counted with a liquid scintillation counter. All calibrations are performed with tritium containing gas. The Radiation Instrumentation and Calibration (RIC) Team has constructed and maintains two closed loop gas handling systems based on femto TECH model U24 tritium ion chamber monitors: a fixed system housed in a fume hood and a portable system mounted on two two wheeled hand trucks. The U24 monitors are calibrated against tritium in nitrogen gas standards. They are used as standard transfer instruments to calibrate other ion chamber monitors with tritium in nitrogen, diluted with air. The gas handling systems include a circulation pump which permits a closed circulation loop to be established among the U24 monitor and typically two to four other monitors of a given model during calibration. Fixed and portable monitors can be calibrated. The stack bubblers are calibrated in the field by: blending a known concentration of tritium in air within the known volume of the two portable carts, coupled into a common loop; releasing that gas mixture into a ventilation intake to the stack; collecting oxidized tritium in the bubbler; counting the glycol; and using the stack and bubbler flow rates, computing the bubbler's efficiency. Gas calibration has become a convenient and quality tool in maintaining the tritium monitors at LANL

  5. Tritium monitoring for nuclear facilities and environment in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Huaiyuan

    1995-12-01

    Reviews of achievement and great progress of tritium monitoring techniques for nuclear facility and environment in China over the past 30 years are made which including the development experiences of several important detectors and instruments for health physics monitoring on site and some sampling and measuring methods for environmental monitoring and assessment. Information on nation wide survey activities during 1970∼1980 years on natural environmental radioactivity level in China and the related tritium data are given. (28 refs., 6 tabs.)

  6. Groundwater Monitoring and Tritium-Tracking Plan for the 200 Area State-Approved Land Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DB Barnett

    2000-08-31

    The 200 Area State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS) is a drainfield which receives treated wastewater, occasionally containing tritium from treatment of Hanford Site liquid wastes at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Since operation of the SALDS began in December 1995, discharges of tritium have totaled {approx}304 Ci, only half of what was originally predicted for tritium quantity through 1999. Total discharge volumes ({approx}2.7E+8 L) have been commensurate with predicted volumes to date. This document reports the results of all tritium analyses in groundwater as determined from the SALDS tritium-tracking network since the first SALDS wells were installed in 1992 through July 1999, and provides interpretation of these results as they relate to SALDS operation and its effect on groundwater. Hydrologic and geochemical information are synthesized to derive a conceptual model, which is in turn used to arrive at an appropriate approach to continued groundwater monitoring at the facility.

  7. A recommended program of tritium monitoring research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickerson, S.B.; Gerdingh, R.F.; Penfold, K.

    1982-10-01

    This report presents recommendations for programs of research and development in tritium monitoring instrumentation. These recommendations, if implemented, will offer Canadian industry the opportunity to develop marketable instruments. The major recommendations are to assist in the development and promotion of two Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories' monitors and an Ontario Hydro monitor, and to support research and development of a surface monitor

  8. The tritium monitoring requirements of fusion and the status of research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickerson, S.B.; Gerdingh, R.F.; Penfold, K.

    1982-10-01

    This report is a summary of an investigation into the tritium monitoring requirements of tritium laboratories, D-T burning ignition experiments, and fusion reactors. There is also a summary of the status of research into tritium monitoring and a survey of commercially available tritium monitors

  9. Tritium-gas/water-vapor monitor. Tests and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalbert, R.A.

    1982-07-01

    A tritium gas/water-vapor monitor was designed and built by the Health Physics Group at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. In its prototype configuration, the monitor took the shape of two separate instruments: a (total) tritium monitor and a water-vapor monitor. Both instruments were tested and evaluated. The tests of the (total) tritium monitor, basically an improved version of the standard flow-through ion-chamber instrument, are briefly reported here and more completely elsewhere. The tests of the water-vapor monitor indicated that the novel approach used to condense water vapor for scintillation counting has a number of serious drawbacks and that further development of the instrument is unwarranted

  10. Tritium effluent control project progress report, July--September 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kershner, C.J.; Bixel, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    In the Tritiated Liquid Waste Decontamination (Molecular Excitation) program, it was found that a 1/4'' Nd:YAG amplifier and a Faraday rotator isolator must be added to the oscillator to obtain the required power for the laser excitation experiments. The isotopic selectivity of the two-photon dissociation process was examined in more detail. The selectivity or ratio of HTO to H 2 O molecules that are photodissociated was found to be on the order of 25, which is inadequate for application to large-scale detritiation projects, e.g., nuclear fuel reprocessing plant waste. The selectivity is such that most of the laser energy is wasted in photodissociation of H 2 O. This obstacle may be overcome by pumping more vibrational energy into the HTO molecules. Various schemes towards this end are being considered. Extensive ab initio calculations on the potential surface for the hydrogen atom-water exchange reaction have been carried out. The energy barrier is calculated to be 38 1/2 kcal/mole, which implies that the exchange reaction T + H 2 O → HTO + H is at least 10 9 times slower than the exchange reaction T + H 2 → HT + H. Calculations were also performed on the analogous hydrogen atom-hydrogen fluoride exchange reaction. In lieu of other disposal methods a system using a General Electric UCT-1 regenerative cell has been assembled and tested. This system should be capable of decomposing pure water into hydrogen and oxygen gases. The tritium from this process can be purified and reused instead of buried. A preliminary economic evaluation was made of the HT/H 2 O catalytic exchange detritiation stripping process as it might apply to a 5 metric ton/day nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. A tritiated water shipping container has been designed and developed for use with the ERDA--DOT approved AL--MI secondary container

  11. Tritium contamination and monitoring at Frascati Neutron Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucci, F.; Sandri, S.; Ianni, A. [ENEA, Frascati (Italy). Dipartimento Ambiente; Vasselli, R. [ANPA, Roma (Italy); Pillon, M.; Bettinali, L. [ENEA, Frascati (Italy). Dipartimento Energia

    1994-11-01

    The Frascati Neutron Generator (FGN) is a specialised 300 keV, 3 mA direct electrostatic deuteron accelerator which produces about 5-10{sup 1}1 14 MeV neutrons per second by D-T reactions on a tritium-titanium fixed target. This paper concerns the tritium contamination control and monitoring aspects after some months of testing and a preliminary period of operation of the plant. The tritium monitoring system is composed of both on-line and off-line devices to control the tritium concentration in the atmosphere measured from different parts of the plant: vacuum exhaust clean up (VECU) system, stack, etc. The on-line devices are three flux monitors, that sample continuosly the air from up to eight different points in the plant. The passive sampling system is designed to select the chemical form of tritium and to collect respectively HTO and HT in two different cartridges filled with an appropriate drying material. The response of the on-line tritium monitor system are exposed and discussed: some measurements performed with atmosphere dehumidifying apparatus of this system are described and the relevant results are analysed.

  12. Tritium contamination and monitoring at Frascati Neutron Generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucci, F.; Sandri, S.; Ianni, A.; Pillon, M.; Bettinali, L.

    1994-11-01

    The Frascati Neutron Generator (FGN) is a specialised 300 keV, 3 mA direct electrostatic deuteron accelerator which produces about 5-10 1 1 14 MeV neutrons per second by D-T reactions on a tritium-titanium fixed target. This paper concerns the tritium contamination control and monitoring aspects after some months of testing and a preliminary period of operation of the plant. The tritium monitoring system is composed of both on-line and off-line devices to control the tritium concentration in the atmosphere measured from different parts of the plant: vacuum exhaust clean up (VECU) system, stack, etc. The on-line devices are three flux monitors, that sample continuosly the air from up to eight different points in the plant. The passive sampling system is designed to select the chemical form of tritium and to collect respectively HTO and HT in two different cartridges filled with an appropriate drying material. The response of the on-line tritium monitor system are exposed and discussed: some measurements performed with atmosphere dehumidifying apparatus of this system are described and the relevant results are analysed

  13. Continuous monitoring of gaseous effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasco, A.; Giraut, H.; Prado, M.; Bonino, A.D.

    1990-01-01

    The system allows to continuously determine the radioactive materials discharge (iodine, noble gases and aerosols) to the environment. It consists in compelling, by a pump, a known and fixed fraction of the total flow and preserving the aerosols by a filter. The gas -now free from aerosols- traverses an activated carbon filter which keeps the iodine; after being free from aerosols and iodine, the effluent traverses a measurement chambers for noble gases which has a scintillator. (Author) [es

  14. Legal provisions governing gaseous effluents radiological monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkelmann, I.

    1985-01-01

    This contribution explains the main provisions governing radiological monitoring of gaseous effluents from LWR type nuclear power plants. KTA rule 1503.1 defines the measuring methods and tasks to be fulfilled by reactor operators in order to safeguard due monitoring and accounting of radioactive substances in the plants' gaseous effluents. The routine measurements are checked by a supervisory programme by an independent expert. The routine controls include analysis of filter samples, comparative measurement of radioactive noble gases, interlaboratory comparisons, and comparative evaluation of measured values. (DG) [de

  15. Environmental and Effluent Monitoring at ANSTO Sites, 2002-2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, E L; Ferris,; Markich, S J

    2004-10-01

    This report presents the results of environmental and effluent monitoring at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre (LHSTC) and the National Medical Cyclotron (NMC) from January 2002 to June 2003. Potential effective dose rates to the general public from airborne discharges from the LHSTC site were less than 0.01 mSv/year, well below the 1 mSv/year dose rate limit for long term exposure that is recommended by the Australian National Occupational Health and Safety Commission. The effective dose rates to hypothetical individuals potentially exposed to radiation in routine liquid effluent discharges from the LHSTC were recently calculated to be less than 0.001 mSv/year. This is much less than dose rates estimated for members of public potentially exposed to airborne emissions. The levels of tritium detected in roundwater and stormwater at the LHSTC were less than the Australian drinking water guidelines. The airborne and liquid effluent emissions from the NMC were below the ARPANSA-approved notification levels and NSW EPA limits, respectively. ANSTO's routine operations at the LHSTC and the NMC make only a very small addition to the natural background radiation dose experienced by members of the Australian public. (authors)

  16. Role of the chemical engineering technician in applied research related to tritium separation from aqueous effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, S.D.

    1978-01-01

    Applied research and development activities related to the removal of tritium from aqueous effluent streams have presented broad opportunities to the chemical engineering technician for professional growth. Technician job activities involve operating complex analytical instrumentation and constructing, maintaining, and operating experimental electrolysis apparatus. The technician is a member of a professional team including scientific, engineering, and other technical personnel and as such is expected to exercise creative thought. Proximity of a large university and availability of formalized ''in house'' training courses provide incentives for technicians to broaden their academic base concurrent with their work involvement

  17. Tritium conference days

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnier-Laplace, J.; Lebaron-Jacobs, L.; Sene, M.; Devin, P.; Chretien, V.; Le Guen, B.; Guetat, Ph.; Baglan, N.; Ansoborlo, E.; Boyer, C.; Masson, M.; Bailly-Du-Bois, P.; Jenkinson, St.; Wakeford, R.; Saintigny, Y.; Romeo, P.H.; Thompson, P.; Leterq, D.; Chastagner, F.; Cortes, P.; Philippe, M.; Paquet, F.; Fournier, M.

    2009-01-01

    This document gathers the slides of the available presentations given during this conference day. Twenty presentations out of 21 are assembled in the document and deal with: 1 - tritium in the environment (J. Garnier-Laplace); 2 - status of knowledge about tritium impact on health (L. Lebaron-Jacobs); 3 - tritium, discrete but present everywhere (M. Sene); 4 - management of tritium effluents from Areva NC La Hague site - related impact and monitoring (P. Devin); 5 - tritium effluents and impact in the vicinity of EDF's power plants (V. Chretien and B. Le Guen); 6 - contribution of CEA-Valduc centre monitoring to the knowledge of atmospheric tritiated water transfers to the different compartments of the environment (P. Guetat); 7 - tritium analysis in environment samples: constraints and means (N. Baglan); 8 - organically-linked tritium: the analyst view (E. Ansoborlo); 9 - study of tritium transfers to plants via OBT/HTO air and OBT/HTO free (C. Boyer); 10 - tritium in the British Channel (M. Masson and P. Bailly-Du-Bois); 11 - tritium in British coastal waters (S. Jenkinson); 12 - recent results from epidemiology (R. Wakeford); 13 - effects of tritiated thymidine on hematopoietic stem cells (P.H. Romeo); 14 - tritium management issue in Canada: the point of view from authorities (P. Thompson); 15 - experience feedback of the detritiation process of Valduc centre (D. Leterq); 16 - difficulties linked with tritiated wastes confinement (F. Chastagner); 17 - optimisation of tritium management in the ITER project (P. Cortes); 18 - elements of thought about the management of tritium generated by nuclear facilities (M. Philippe); 19 - CIPR's position about the calculation of doses and risks linked with tritium exposure (F. Paquet); 20 - tritium think tanks (M. Fournier). (J.S.)

  18. Effluent monitoring for nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanchi, L.

    1977-01-01

    A microprocessor-based instrument operates a continuous surveillance on effluents from a nuclear facility. It receives and evaluates pulses from two NaI detectors and a set of single-channel analyzers. It has self-diagnosing capability so that it takes actions not only when it recognizes excessive radioactivity but also when it ascertains some abnormal behavior. Power failure procedure and automatic restart are provided. Operative constants such as alarm thresholds, times, and number of successive measurements are permanently stored in a read/write battery operated C-MOS memory. The program allows automatic succession of phases in a peculiar way and has a feature for loading an auxiliary program into RAMs

  19. Effluent monitoring for nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanchi, L.

    1976-01-01

    A microprocessor-based instrument operates a continuous surveillance on effluents from a nuclear facility. It receives and evaluates pulses from two NaI detectors and a set of single-channel analyzers. It has self-diagnosing capability so that it takes actions not only when it recognizes excessive radioactivity but also when it ascertains some abnormal behavior. Power failure procedure and automatic restart are provided. Operative constants such as alarm thresholds, times, and number of successive measurements are permanently stored in a read/write battery operated C-MOS memory. The program allows automatic succession of phases in a peculiar way and has a feature for loading an auxiliary program into RAMs

  20. Environmental and effluent monitoring at ANSTO sites, 2005-2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, Emmy L.; Loosz, Tom; Ferris, John M.; Harrison, Jennifer J.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents the results of ANSTO's environmental and effluent monitoring at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre (LHSTC) and the National Medical Cyclotron (NMC) sites, from July 2005 to June 2006. Estimated effective doses to the critical group of members of the public potentially affected by routine airborne emissions from the LHSTC were less than 0.005 mSv/year. The maximum potential dose was 23% of the ANSTO ALARA objective of 0.02 mSv/year, much lower than the public dose limit of 1 mSv/year that is recommended by the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA). The effective doses to the critical group of members of the public potentially exposed to routine liquid effluent releases from the LHSTC have been realistically estimated as a quarter (or less) of the estimated doses to the critical group for airborne releases. The median tritium concentrations detected in groundwater and surface waters at the LHSTC were typically less than 2% of those set out in the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines. The airborne emissions from the NMC were below the ARPANSA-approved notification levels. Results of environmental monitoring at both ANSTO sites confirm that the facilities continue to be operated well within regulatory limits. ANSTO's routine operations at the LHSTC and NMC make only a very small addition to the natural background radiation dose of -1.5 mSv/year experienced by members of the Australian public

  1. Tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    The role played the large amount supply of tritium and its effects are broadly reviewed. This report is divided into four parts. The introductory part includes the history of tritium research. The second part deals with the physicochemical properties of tritium and the compounds containing tritium such as tritium water and labeled compounds, and with the isotope effects and self radiation effects of tritium. The third part deals with the tritium production by artificial reaction. Attention is directed to the future productivity of tritium from B, Be, N, C, O, etc. by using the beams of high energy protons or neutrons. The problems of the accepting market and the accuracy of estimating manufacturing cost are discussed. The expansion of production may bring upon the reduction of cost but also a large possibility of social impact. The irradiation problem and handling problem in view of environmental preservation are discussed. The fourth part deals with the use of tritium as a target, as a source of radiation or light, and its utilization for geochemistry. The future development of the solid tritium target capable of elongating the life of neutron sources is expected. The rust thickness of the surface of iron can be measured with the X-ray of Ti-T or Zr-T. The tritium can substitute self-light emission paint or lamp. The tritium is suitable for tracing the movement of sea water and land surface water because of its long half life. (Iwakiri, K.)

  2. Tritium monitoring in the environment of the French territory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leprieur, F.; Roussel-Debet, S.; Pierrard, O.; Tournieux, D.; Boissieux, T.; Caldera-Ideias, P. [Institut de radioprotection et de surete nucleaire (France)

    2014-07-01

    Introduction: Radioactive releases in the environment from civilian and military nuclear facilities have significantly decreased over the last few decades, except for discharges of tritium which are forecast to increase due to changes in the fuel management in power plants and in the longer term by new tritium-emitting units (fusion reactors). In the aim to perform its radiological monitoring mission throughout the French territory, IRSN uses and develops advanced technology equipment to sample and to analyze tritium in the different environmental compartments. Methodology: IRSN uses bubblers to collect both tritium vapour (HTO) and gaseous tritium (mainly HT) in the air. Another method, developed by IRSN, consists in directly sampling the water vapour in the air by condensing in a cold trap and more recently with passive sampler. In continental and marine surface water, samples are usually collected by automatic water samplers. Instantaneous surface water samples are also collected by grab sample devices. In addition, IRSN conducts animal and plant samples near French nuclear facilities. Natural origin and tritium remaining from testing of nuclear weapons In the atmosphere, the background levels of tritium of 1 to 2 Bq/L measured in water vapour, equivalent to an activity of 0.01 to 0.02 Bq/m{sup 3} of air. In fresh waters, the tritium activity currently ranges between 1 and 3 Bq/L of water. In the marine environment, tritium emitted during nuclear weapon tests has been totally 'diluted' in cosmogenic tritium and concentration levels at the surface have remained around 0.1 to 0.2 Bq/L. In biological matrices, total tritium concentration range from 1 to 3 Bq/kg f.w. with a variable proportion of free and organically bounded forms. Tritium around nuclear facilities: Close to facilities releasing more than 2x10{sup 13} Bq/year of gaseous tritium, higher activity levels, ranging from a few tens to a few hundred Bq/L, are observed in the atmospheric and

  3. Monitoring of released radioactive gaseous and liquid effluent at Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, M.; Keta, S.; Nagai, S.; Kano, M.; Ishihara, N.; Moriyama, T.; Ogaki, K.; Noda, K.

    2009-01-01

    Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP) Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant started its active tests with spent fuel at the end of March 2006. When spent fuels are sheared and dissolved, radioactive gaseous effluent and radioactive liquid effluent such as krypton-85, tritium, etc. are released into the environment. In order to limit the public dose as low as reasonably achievable in an efficient way, RRP removes radioactive material by evaporation, rinsing, filtering, etc., and then releases it through the main stack and the sea discharge pipeline that allow to make dispersion and dilution very efficiently. Also, concerning the radioactive gaseous and liquid effluent to be released into the environment, the target values of annual release have been defined in the Safety Rule based on the estimated annual release evaluated at the safety review of RRP. By monitoring the radioactive material in gaseous exhaust and liquid effluent RRP controls it not to exceed the target values. RRP reprocessed 430 tUpr of spent fuel during Active Test (March 2006 to October 2008). In this report, we report about: The outline of gaseous and liquid effluent monitoring. The amount of radioactive gaseous and liquid effluent during the active test. The performance of removal of radioactive materials in gaseous and liquid effluents. The impact on the public from radioactive effluents during the active test. (author)

  4. Current status for applications of hydrophobic platinum catalysts in tritium removal from nuclear effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vagner, Irina; Ionita, Gheorghe; Varlam, Carmen

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Based on the long experience of the authors, in the preparation, testing and evaluation of the performances of hydrophobic catalysts, and based on the reviewed references, this paper presents up-to-date R and D results on the preparation methods and applications of the hydrophobic catalysts, in deuterium and tritium separation. The objectives of the paper are: 1. to provide a database for selection of the most appropriate catalyst and catalytic packing for above mentioned processes; 2. to evaluate the potentiality of hydrophobic Pt-catalysts in the deuterium and tritium separation; 3. to assess and find a new procedure for preparation of a new improved hydrophobic catalyst. The merits of the hydrophobic catalysts are shown in comparison to hydrophilic catalysts. As results of the review some general conclusions about the applications of hydrophobic catalysts in environmental field are as follow: 1. the hydrophobic Pt-catalysts packed in the trickle bed reactors showed a high catalytic activity and long stability; 2. the utilization of the hydrophobic Pt-catalysts for tritium removal from liquid and gaseous effluent in nuclear field was entirely confirmed on industrial scale; 3. the extension of the utilization of the hydrophobic Pt-catalysts to other new processes, which take place in presence of liquid water or high humidity, like VOCs oxidation from wastewater or H 2 -O 2 catalytic recombination, are subject to testing

  5. Environmental and effluent monitoring at ANSTO sites, 2004-2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, Emmy L.; Loosz, Tom; Ferris, John M.; Harrison, Jennifer J.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents the results of ANSTO's environmental and effluent monitoring at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre (LHSTC) and the National Medical Cyclotron (NMC) sites, from July 2004 to June 2005. Effective doses to the critical group of members of the public potentially affected by routine airborne emissions from the LHSTC were less than 0.005 mSv/year. This estimated maximum potential dose is less than 24% of the ANSTO ALARA objective of 0.02 mSv/year, and much lower than the public dose limit of 1 mSv/year that is recommended by the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA). The effective doses to the critical group of members of the public potentially exposed to routine liquid effluent releases from the LHSTC have been realistically estimated as a quarter (or less) of the estimated doses to the critical group for airborne releases. The levels of tritium detected in groundwater and stormwater at the LHSTC were less than those set out in the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines. The airborne and liquid effluent emissions from the NMC were below both the ARPANSA-approved notification levels and Sydney Water limits for acceptance of trade wastewater to sewer. Results of environmental monitoring at both ANSTO sites confirm that the facilities continue to be operated well within regulatory limits. ANSTO's routine operations at the LHSTC and NMC make only a very small addition to the natural background radiation dose of ∼1.5 mSv/year experienced by members of the Australian public

  6. Effluent and sanitary sewer monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanchi, L.; Vasey, M.R.

    1977-03-01

    Two similar instruments that monitor the liquid wastes from the plutonium facility are described. The operation of the two instruments is completely automatic and performs a continuous surveillance in the frame of Nuclear Safeguards. One instrument controls the liquids from the facility and the other checks the sanitary sewer wastes. Both have self-diagnosing capabilities and take automatic actions in case of abnormal occurrences

  7. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the fast flux test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickels, J.M.; Dahl, N.R.

    1992-11-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in US Department of Energy Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could affect employee or public safety or the environment. A Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan determination was performed during calendar year 1991 and the evaluation requires the need for a facility effluent monitoring plan. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements

  8. Safe handling of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The main objective of this publication is to provide practical guidance and recommendations on operational radiation protection aspects related to the safe handling of tritium in laboratories, industrial-scale nuclear facilities such as heavy-water reactors, tritium removal plants and fission fuel reprocessing plants, and facilities for manufacturing commercial tritium-containing devices and radiochemicals. The requirements of nuclear fusion reactors are not addressed specifically, since there is as yet no tritium handling experience with them. However, much of the material covered is expected to be relevant to them as well. Annex III briefly addresses problems in the comparatively small-scale use of tritium at universities, medical research centres and similar establishments. However, the main subject of this publication is the handling of larger quantities of tritium. Operational aspects include designing for tritium safety, safe handling practice, the selection of tritium-compatible materials and equipment, exposure assessment, monitoring, contamination control and the design and use of personal protective equipment. This publication does not address the technologies involved in tritium control and cleanup of effluents, tritium removal, or immobilization and disposal of tritium wastes, nor does it address the environmental behaviour of tritium. Refs, figs and tabs

  9. Summarization of radioactive effluent monitoring in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station 1994-2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang Junjie; Chen Yue

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces the radioactive effluent monitoring systems, measurement and quality control methods used in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station from its commercial operation in 1994. The main work and experiences for the management of effluent release are discussed and analyzed. The radwaste data appear declining trend and are far blow the annual limit approved by the national Environmental Protection Bureau since 1995. The normalized release (unit GBq/GWa) of 9 years is as follows: liquid nuclides (except tritium) 11.1, liquid tritium 1.91 x 10 4 , noble gas 2.03 x 10 4 , halogen 0.13, aerosol 7.57 x 10 -3 . For 110m Ag, the average release from 1998 to 2002 has been reduced to 1/7 of the quantity in 1997

  10. Monitoring and comparison of tritium content in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Feng; Hua Wei; Zheng Chuancheng; Wang Xu; Wen Wanxin

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To ensure the health of staff engaged in tritium, the purpose of experiment is to find out a fast, convenient and reliable sample preparation and measurement methods for such routine monitoring. Methods: We use the conventional distillation decolorization and non-decoloration quenching correction methods dealing with urine sample, and then carried out the urine sample liquid scintillation measurements, statistical analysis between the two measurements. Results: By using above two different methods of sample pretreatment, the results that we measure tritium in urine sample are not obviously different in comparison. Conclusion: The above two different methods can be used for nuclear facilities staff and staff related to conventional tritium detection. However, non-decoloration quenching correction method is simpler and less in time and manpower than the conventional distillation method in operation. It is suitable for a large number of samples prepared, measured, and analyzed in a short period of time. (authors)

  11. Tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiege, A.

    1992-07-01

    This report contains information on chemical and physical properties, occurence, production, use, technology, release, radioecology, radiobiology, dose estimates, radioprotection and legal aspects of tritium. The objective of this report is to provide a reliable data base for the public discussion on tritium, especially with regard to its use in future nuclear fusion plants and its radiological assessment. (orig.) [de

  12. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited monitoring tritiated water in air and water effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborne, R.V.; Tepley, N.W

    1978-01-01

    Current on-line methods of monitoring effluents for tritium (as tritiated water, HTO) measure concentrations in air above 250 nCi/m 3 (approx. 10 kBq/m 3 ) and in water above 1 uCi/kg (approx. 40 kBq/kg). Some of the problems encountered in such monitoring are the presence of fission and activation products in the effluents and, particularly in water monitoring, the often dirty quality of the sample. In a new design of monitor, HTO is collected directly from air by a flow of liquid scintillator (LS). For water monitoring a flow of air continuously samples the water and transports HTO to the LS. The key features of the new design are that the high detection efficiency of LS is realizable, that the rate of use of LS is only approx. 2 mm 3 /s, that the controlled evaporation and metering of air provides the low flow of HTO needed for mixing with LS, and that accurate metering of a dirty effluent is not needed. The sensitivities for detecing tritium on-line are improved by at least an order of magnitude

  13. New tritium monitor for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalbert, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    At DT-fueled fusion reactors, there will be a need for tritium monitors that can simultaneously measure in real time the concentrations of HTO, HT and the activated air produced by fusion neutrons. Such a monitor has been developed, tested and delivered to the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory for use at the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). It uses semipermeable membranes to achieve the removal of HTO from the sampled air for monitoring and a catalyst to convert the HT to HTO, also for removal and monitoring. The remaining air, devoid of tritium, is routed to a third detector for monitoring the activated air. The sensitivities are those that would be expected from tritium instruments employing conventional flow-through ionization chambers: 1 to 3 μCi/m 3 . Its discriminating ability is approximately 10 -3 for any of the three components (HTO, HT and activated air) in any of the other two channels. For instance, the concentration of HT in the HTO channel is 10 -3 times its original concentration in the sampled air. This will meet the needs of TFTR

  14. Quality Assurance Project Plan for Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frazier, T.P.

    1994-01-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for the activities associated with the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, which are part of the overall Hanford Site Environmental Protection Plan. This plan specifically applies to the sampling and analysis activities and continuous monitoring performed for all Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company. It is generic in approach and will be implemented in conjunction with the specific requirements of the individual Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans

  15. Results of monitoring of tritium behaviour and its concentration in the objects of Chernobylsk NPP environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badyaev, V.V.; Egorov, Yu.A.; Korobejnikov, V.L.; Krasnozhen, G.N.; Stegachev, G.F.; Tolstykh, V.D.

    1985-01-01

    Results of systematic observations on tritium behaviur at the Chernobyl NPP in the system ''source of formation-environment'' are presented. Investigations were conducted in a stepwise manner. Investigations of the first step were performed in order to make an experimental basis of the tritium dynamic model. Tritium activity is determined in all NPP technological subsystems, in cooling reservoir and in the atmosphere. The dynamic model of tritium accumulation at NPP with LWGR-reactor and its exchange with environment is developed and studied at the second step. The third step of investigations includes studies of tritium behaviour in complex experiments along with the behaviour of other radionuclides present in NPP releases and effluents incidentally state of environmental objects is recorded. It is shown that tritium specific activity in atmosphere does not exceed the background values. Tritium activity in leaves of trees is equal to (5-7)x10 -11 Ci/kg of mass

  16. Quality Assurance Project Plan for Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickels, J.M.

    1991-06-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for the Facility Monitoring Plans of the overall site-wide environmental monitoring plan. This plan specifically applies to the sampling and analysis activities and continuous monitoring performed for all Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company. It is generic in approach and will be implemented in conjunction with the specific requirements of individual Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans. This document is intended to be a basic road map to the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan documents (i.e., the guidance document for preparing Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan determinations, management plan, and Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans). The implementing procedures, plans, and instructions are appropriate for the control of effluent monitoring plans requiring compliance with US Department of Energy, US Environmental Protection Agency, state, and local requirements. This Quality Assurance Project Plan contains a matrix of organizational responsibilities, procedural resources from facility or site manuals used in the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, and a list of the analytes of interest and analytical methods for each facility preparing a Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan. 44 refs., 1 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Use of passive sampling for atmospheric tritium monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldeira Ideias, P.; Pierrard, O.; Tournieux, D. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire - IRSN (France); Tenailleau, L. [Marine nationale (France)

    2014-07-01

    Tritium is one of the most important radionuclide in environmental radiological monitoring. In French civil and military nuclear facilities, the releases levels are between 100 to 100 000 higher than any other radionuclide (rare gas excluded). Moreover these levels will probably increase in the next decades. With an average energy of 6 keV, the beta particle from tritium radioactive decay is difficult to detect and quantify within the environmental levels. To monitor the tritium in the air, French actors (authorities, operator, and experts) commonly use atmospheric bubblers and water vapour condensers. This type of sampling approach is time-consuming and very costly. To simplify and complete these methods, the Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), had developed an atmospheric tritium monitoring device based on passive sampling. The passive sampler developed consists in a small container designed with a patented specific geometry and filled with 13X molecular sieve. This system is based on free diffusion flow principle (Fick's law). The driving force is the partial pressure gradient existing between the environmental atmosphere and the passive sampler. The constancy of the sampling rate for different moisture conditions assures the representativeness of the proposed device. The desorption bench developed specifically allows the recovery of 99% of the water vapour sampled in the molecular sieve. More than 99% of the sampled tritium (HTO) activity is recovered in the range between 0 and 100 Bq.L{sup -1}. Above 100 Bq.L{sup -1} to 25 k Bq.L{sup -1} (max tested activity), it was verified that no more than 3% of the tritium remains in the molecular sieve.. Thus, the use of passive sampler provides: - a representative sampling method, - a good detection limit (0,01 Bq.m{sup -3}), - no electric power supply needs, - a wide range of sampling duration (1 day to 1 month), - a low-cost method for monitoring. Different performance tests were

  18. Use of hydrophobic Pt-catalysts in tritium removal from effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gheorghe, Ionita; Popescu, Irina; Stefanescu, Ioan; Steflea, Dumitru; Varlam, Carmen

    2002-01-01

    Based on the long experience of the authors, in the preparation, testing and evaluation of the performances of hydrophobic catalysts, and based on the reviewed references, this paper presents up-to-date R and D activities on the application of the hydrophobic catalysts in tritium removal from nuclear effluents. Tritium removal from the heavy water reactor and nuclear reprocessing plant, the cleanup of atmosphere and gaseous effluents by hydrogen-oxygen recombination, removal of oxygen dissolved in water are presented and discussed. Unlike the conventional hydrophilic catalysts, the hydrophobic catalysts keep a high catalytic activity and stability, even under the direct contact to liquid water or in presence of saturated humidity. A large diversity of catalyst types (over 100 catalysts) was prepared and tested in order to make them feasible for such processes. The objectives of the review are: - to provide a database for selection of the most appropriate catalyst and catalytic packing for above mentioned processes; - the designing and operation of reactor packed with hydrophobic catalysts; - to evaluate the potentiality of hydrophobic Pt-catalysts in the present and future applications. The most important results are the following: - the hydrophobic Pt-catalysts packed in the trickle bed or separated bed reactors, showed a high catalytic activity and long stability; - the utilization of the hydrophobic Pt-catalysts for the hydrogen isotopes (tritium and deuterium) separation and for hydrogen-oxygen recombination in nuclear field was entirely confirmed on industrial scale; - the improvement of the inner geometry of the reactors and of the composition of mixed catalytic packing as well as the evaluation of performances of separation processes constitute a major contribution of the authors; - the extension of the utilization of the hydrophobic Pt-catalysts in the oxidation of volatile organic compounds from wastewater; - the removal of dissolved oxygen, and deuterium

  19. The use of Tritium measurements for environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camus, H.; Carrere, D; Simeon, C.

    1987-05-01

    Impact studies, compulsory for large installations and land use, require an environmental monitoring program throughout the plant operation. Therefore, and in appliance with the specific regulations concerning them, industrial plants of the nuclear fuel cycle must ensure environmental monitoring including measurements both on the air and water vectors and on the receiving compartments, i.e. food chains and consumers. The development of fine methods in order to assess the limiting capacity of the environment and evaluate the fate of the releases requires to have sensitive bioindicators. For radioactive releases, this is the case of tritium: following the fate of hydrogen, it combines with the vegetal or animal organic molecule, and therefore presents a biological half-life longer than in the elemental water on which measurements were carried out systematically up to now. The interest of measuring organically bound tritium in food chains is presented, and the corresponding technique is described [fr

  20. Environmental monitoring of tritium risk along Romanian Danube sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varlam, C.; Stefanescu, I.; Popescu, I.; Faurescu, I.; Dobrinescu, D.

    2009-01-01

    Danube basin covers the Romanian-Bulgarian sub-basin downstream of Cazane Gorge and the sub-basins of Siret and Prut rivers. Cernavoda Nuclear Power, operating a CANDU type reactor, is located in this region upstream Danube delta. Taking into account the future development of this important Romanian nuclear objective, the knowledge of the present status of tritium level becomes a necessity. Therefore, an extensive monitoring program for this radioisotope has been started along the Romanian sector of the Danube River basin, starting with Cazane Gorge and ending with Danube Delta. The tributaries from this sector: Cerna, Jiu, Olt, Arges rivers are included also in this seasonal monitoring. The average results of the seasonal variation for tritium level during 2006-2007 periods in 12 locations of mentioned areas are presented in the paper. (author)

  1. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the plutonium uranium extraction facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiegand, D.L.

    1994-09-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-01. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated at a minimum of every three years.

  2. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the uranium trioxide facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohrasbi, J.; Johnson, D.L.; De Lorenzo, D.S.

    1993-12-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-01. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated at a minimum of every three years

  3. Facility effluent monitoring plan determinations for the 200 Area facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickels, J.M.

    1991-11-01

    The following facility effluent monitoring plan determinations document the evaluations conducted for the Westinghouse Hanford Company 200 Area facilities (chemical processing, waste management, 222-S Laboratory, and laundry) on the Hanford Site in south central Washington State. These evaluations determined the need for facility effluent monitoring plans for the 200 Area facilities. The facility effluent monitoring plan determinations have been prepared in accordance with A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438 (WHC 1991). The Plutonium/Uranium Extraction Plant and UO 3 facility effluent monitoring plan determinations were prepared by Los Alamos Technical Associates, Richland, Washington. The Plutonium Finishing Plant, Transuranic Waste Storage and Assay Facility, T Plant, Tank Farms, Low Level Burial Grounds, and 222-S Laboratory determinations were prepared by Science Applications International Corporation of Richland, Washington. The B Plant Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan Determination was prepared by ERCE Environmental Services of Richland, Washington

  4. Facility effluent monitoring plan for 242-A Evaporator facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crummel, G.M.; Gustavson, R.D.

    1993-03-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1* for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could affect employee or public safety or the environment. A facility effluent monitoring plan determination was performed during Calendar Year 1991 and the evaluation showed the need for a facility effluent monitoring plan. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-1**. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements

  5. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the plutonium uranium extraction facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiegand, D.L.

    1994-09-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-01. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated at a minimum of every three years

  6. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the Plutonium Uranium Extraction Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greager, E.M.

    1997-01-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-01. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether these systems are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan will ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated, at a minimum, every 3 years

  7. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the B plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesser, J.E.

    1994-09-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the U.S. Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-1. This facility effluent monitoring plant assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated every three years

  8. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the tank farm facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crummel, G.M.

    1998-05-18

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements.

  9. A guide for preparing Hanford Site facility effluent monitoring plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickels, J.M.

    1992-06-01

    This document provides guidance on the format and content of effluent monitoring plans for facilities at the Hanford Site. The guidance provided in this document is designed to ensure compliance with US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders 5400.1 (DOE 1988a), 5400.3 (DOE 1989a), 5400.4 (DOE 1989b), 5400.5 (DOE 1990a), 5480.1 (DOE 1982), 5480.11 (DOE 1988b), and 5484.1 (DOE 1981). These require environmental monitoring plans for each site, facility, or process that uses, generates, releases, or manages significant pollutants of radioactive or hazardous materials. In support of DOE Orders 5400.5 (Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment) and 5400.1 (General Environmental Protection Program), the DOE Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE 1991) should be used to establish elements of a radiological effluent monitoring program in the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan. Evaluation of facilities for compliance with the US Environmental Protection Agency Clean Air Act of 1977 requirements also is included in the airborne emissions section of the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans. Sampling Analysis Plans for Liquid Effluents, as required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement), also are included in the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans. The Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans shall include complete documentation of gaseous and liquid effluent sampling and monitoring systems

  10. Facility effluent monitoring plan determinations for the 400 Area facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickels, J.M.

    1991-09-01

    This Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan determination resulted from an evaluation conducted for the Westinghouse Hanford Company 400 Area facilities on the Hanford Site. The Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan determinations have been prepared in accordance with A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans. Two major Westinghouse Hanford Company facilities in the 400 Area were evaluated: the Fast Flux Test Facility and the Fuels Manufacturing and examination Facility. The determinations were prepared by Westinghouse Hanford Company. Of these two facilities, only the Fast Flux Test Facility will require a Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan. 7 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  11. CAS-3 H - a device for tritium monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbu, N.; Popescu, I. V.; Bucur, C.

    2001-01-01

    The equipment for tritium monitoring is designed to continuous sampling of tritium from working places in nuclear power plants (NPP) or from plants' surroundings. Its construction allows continuous function in free atmosphere during 8 hours, it is protected against environment factors by support beg, while its components are made from stainless steel or corrosion resistant materials. Inside and surroundings of NPP tritium can exist in different form. The most important tritium quantity (over 90%) are in form of tritiated water, and in form of free hydrogen (less than 10% in closed rooms inside NPP), as well as, in a very small quantity in form of chemical organic tritiated combinations (less than 1%). Tritium sampling from indoor following a mixing phase is considered a simply and fast method. Even this method isn't too precise it requires short time for determination. This is a big advantage because inside NPP the momentary evolution of tritium concentration must be known to be able to take adequate measures. Constructive data for this device are: - dimensions, length x width x height, 470 x 410 x 130 mm; - supply, 2,5 V c.c.; - maxim power consumed, 5 W/h - weight, max. 6 kg. Device main components are: - dry mini-pump with double membrane that ensures a nominal debit upper then necessary, of 12 l/h air at a depression of least 20 mm Hg; - electrical engine with supply tension of 2.5 V c.c., and revolution of 500 rev/min, that acts the pump. Engine power is about 5 W; - filter used as device's shield against particles from air; - revmeter type ROTROM-I.D-PTFE, for air debit measurement by mixing vessels, with measure scale between 4 and 27 Nl/h air; - two mixing vessels made of glass with active capacity of 100 ml; - 28 photoelectric cells placed over support beg, that ensures accumulator charging, thus allowing an increased autonomy in time for device function; - two accumulators type R20 with tension of 1.25 V and minimum intensity of 4 A; - support beg

  12. Facility effluent monitoring plan for 242-A evaporator facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crummel, G.M.; Gustavson, R.D.

    1995-02-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the U.S. Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could affect employee or public safety or the environment. A facility effluent monitoring plan determination was performed during Calendar Year 1991 and the evaluation showed the need for a facility effluent monitoring plan. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-1. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated, as a minimum, every three years

  13. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the Plutonium Finishing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FRAZIER, T.P.

    1999-01-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the U. S. Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether these systems are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. To ensure the long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems, an update to this facility effluent monitoring plan is required whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document is reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and is updated, at a minimum, every 3 years

  14. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the tank farms facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachand, D.D.; Crummel, G.M.

    1995-05-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using specific guidelines. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated as a minimum every three years.

  15. Tritium monitor with improved gamma-ray discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Samson A.; Bennett, Edgar F.; Yule, Thomas J.

    1985-01-01

    Apparatus and method for selective measurement of tritium oxide in an environment which may include other radioactive components and gamma radiation, the measurement including the selective separation of tritium oxide from a sample gas through a membrane into a counting gas, the generation of electrical pulses individually representative by rise times of tritium oxide and other radioactivity in the counting gas, separation of the pulses by rise times, and counting of those pulses representative of tritium oxide. The invention further includes the separate measurement of any tritium in the sample gas by oxidizing the tritium to tritium oxide and carrying out a second separation and analysis procedure as described above.

  16. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the 327 Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    The 327 Facility [Post-Irradiation Testing Laboratory] provides office and laboratory space for Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) scientific and engineering staff conducting multidisciplinary research in the areas of post-irradiated fuels and structural materials. The facility is designed to accommodate the use of radioactive and hazardous materials in the conduct of these activities. This report summarizes the airborne emissions and liquid effluents and the results of the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) determination for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterization of effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements

  17. Safe handling and monitoring of tritium in research on nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Yoshikazu; Naruse, Yuji

    1978-01-01

    An actual condition of technique of safety handling and monitoring of tritium in the laboratory which treated a great quantity of tritium in relation to nuclear fusion, was described. With respect to the technique of safety handling of tritium, an actual condition of the technique in the U.S.A. which had wide experience in treating a great quantity of 3 H was mainly introduced, and it was helpful to a safety measure and a reduction of tritium effluence. Glovebox, hood, and other component machinery and tools for treating 3 H were also introduced briefly. As a monitoring technique, monitoring of indoor air and air exhaust by ionization chamber-type monitor for continuous monitoring of a great quantity of gaseous tritium was mentioned. Next, monitoring of a room, the surfaces of equipments, and draining, internal exposure of the individual, and monitoring of the environment were introduced. (Kanao, N.)

  18. Monitoring of tritium-contaminated surfaces, including skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surette, R A; Wood, M J

    1994-05-01

    We have examined various commercially available tritium surface contamination monitors along with different swipe media and techniques for direct and indirect (swipe) monitoring of contaminated surfaces, including skin. None of the methods or instruments evaluated were more sensitive than the swipe and liquid scintillation counting (LSC) method. Swipe measurements with open-window proportional counters were, in general, less than half as sensitive as LSC, but have the advantages of having the results available almost immediately, and no sample preparation is required. The Nuclear Measurement Corporation`s PC-55 is the most suitable instrument we tested for the analysis of routine swipe measurement. The PC-55 was about one third as sensitive as LSC when used with Ontario Hydro filter paper swipe media. Surface contamination measurement results can be obtained within minutes using the PC-55, compared to hours using LSC. The selection of swipe media for use with proportional counter-based instruments is critical. A medium that is electrically insulating can develop an electrostatic charge on its surface; this may alter the field gradient in the detector and may adversely influence the results. Although the PC-55 is sufficiently sensitive and very convenient, operational experience with the instrument is needed before recommending that it replace current LSC methods. The PC-55`s susceptibility to internal tritium contamination may limit its practical usefulness. Because of the complexity of using live animals to evaluate direct and indirect methods for assessing skin contamination, pig skin was investigated as a possible substitute. We concluded that, for the first few hours post-exposure, pig skin mimics the kinetics of animal skin that has contacted a tritium-contaminated surface. (author). 30 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  19. Monitoring of tritium-contaminated surfaces, including skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surette, R.A.; Wood, M.J.

    1994-05-01

    We have examined various commercially available tritium surface contamination monitors along with different swipe media and techniques for direct and indirect (swipe) monitoring of contaminated surfaces, including skin. None of the methods or instruments evaluated were more sensitive than the swipe and liquid scintillation counting (LSC) method. Swipe measurements with open-window proportional counters were, in general, less than half as sensitive as LSC, but have the advantages of having the results available almost immediately, and no sample preparation is required. The Nuclear Measurement Corporation's PC-55 is the most suitable instrument we tested for the analysis of routine swipe measurement. The PC-55 was about one third as sensitive as LSC when used with Ontario Hydro filter paper swipe media. Surface contamination measurement results can be obtained within minutes using the PC-55, compared to hours using LSC. The selection of swipe media for use with proportional counter-based instruments is critical. A medium that is electrically insulating can develop an electrostatic charge on its surface; this may alter the field gradient in the detector and may adversely influence the results. Although the PC-55 is sufficiently sensitive and very convenient, operational experience with the instrument is needed before recommending that it replace current LSC methods. The PC-55's susceptibility to internal tritium contamination may limit its practical usefulness. Because of the complexity of using live animals to evaluate direct and indirect methods for assessing skin contamination, pig skin was investigated as a possible substitute. We concluded that, for the first few hours post-exposure, pig skin mimics the kinetics of animal skin that has contacted a tritium-contaminated surface. (author). 30 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs

  20. Results of Tritium Tracking and Groundwater Monitoring at the Hanford Site 200 Area State-Approved Land Disposal Site-FY 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, D.B.

    1999-01-01

    The Hanford Site 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) processes contaminated liquids derived from Hanford Site facilities. The clean water generated by these processes is occasionally enriched in tritium and is discharged to the 200 Area State Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS). Groundwater monitoring for tritium and other constituents is required by the state-issued permit at 21 wells surrounding the facility. During FY 1999, average tritium activities in most wells declined from average activities in 1998. The exception was deep well 69948-77C, where tritium results were at an all-time high (77,000 pCi/L) as a result of the delayed penetration of effluent deeper into the aquifer. Of the 12 constituents with permit enforcement limits, which are monitored in SALDS proximal wells, all were within limits during FY 1999. Water level measurements in nearby wells indicate that a small hydraulic mound exists around the SALDS facility as a result of discharges. This feature is directing groundwater flow radially outward a short distance before the regional northeasterly flow predominates. Evaluation of this condition indicates that the network is currently adequate for tracking potential effects of the SALDS on the groundwater. Recommendations include the discontinuation of ammonia, benzene, tetrahydrofuran, and acetone from the regular groundwater constituent list; designating background well 299-W8-1 as a tritium-tracking well only, and the use of quadruplicate averages of field pH, instead of a single laboratory measurement, as a permit compliance parameter

  1. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the 222-S Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, A.V.

    1991-11-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems against applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan is the first annual report. It shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. The current operation of the 222-S facilities includes the provision of analytical and radiological chemistry services in support of Hanford Site processing plants. The emphasis is on waste management, chemical processing, environmental monitoring effluent programs at B Plant, the Uranium Oxide Plant, Tank Farms, the 242-A Evaporator, the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility, the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Facility, the Plutonium Finishing Plant, process development/impact activities, and essential materials. The laboratory also supplies analytical services in support of ongoing waste tank characterization

  2. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the N Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, D.J.; Brendel, D.F.; Shields, K.D.

    1991-11-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP- 0438. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan is the first annual report. It shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated as a minimum every three years. The primary purpose of the N Reactor Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP), during standby, is to ensure that the radioactive effluents are properly monitored and evaluated for compliance with the applicable DOE orders and regulatory agencies at the federal, state, and local levels. A secondary purpose of the FEMP is to ensure that hazardous wastes are not released, in liquid effluents, to the environment even though the potential to do so is extremely low. The FEMP is to provide a monitoring system that collects representative samples in accordance with industry standards, performs analyses within stringent quality control (QC) requirements, and evaluates the data through the use of comparative analysis with the standards and acceptable environmental models

  3. Effluent treatment efficiency and compliance monitoring in Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effectiveness of effluent treatment at the Eleme Petrochemical Industry, Port Harcourt, Nigeria was monitored weekly for six weeks to assess their level of compliance with the Directorate of Petroleum Resources (DPR) guidelines and standards for environmental safety. Effluent samples were taken from the untreated ...

  4. Operability test procedure for the TK-900 effluent monitoring station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissenfels, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    This procedure will verify that the 221-B liquid effluent monitoring system, installed near the east end of the 6-in. chemical sewer header, functions as intended by design. TK-900B was installed near stairwell 3 in the 221-B electrical gallery by Project W-007H. The system is part of BAT/AKART for the BCE liquid effluent system

  5. Statistical evaluation of effluent monitoring data for the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, C.J.; Johnson, V.G.

    2000-01-01

    The 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) consists of a pair of infiltration basins that receive wastewater originating from the 200 West and 200 East Areas of the Hanford Site. TEDF has been in operation since 1995 and is regulated by State Waste Discharge Permit ST 4502 (Ecology 1995) under the authority of Chapter 90.48 Revised Code of Washington (RCW) and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 173-216. The permit stipulates monitoring requirements for effluent (or end-of-pipe) discharges and groundwater monitoring for TEDF. Groundwater monitoring began in 1992 prior to TEDF construction. Routine effluent monitoring in accordance with the permit requirements began in late April 1995 when the facility began operations. The State Waste Discharge Permit ST 4502 included a special permit condition (S.6). This condition specified a statistical study of the variability of permitted constituents in the effluent from TEDF during its first year of operation. The study was designed to (1) demonstrate compliance with the waste discharge permit; (2) determine the variability of all constituents in the effluent that have enforcement limits, early warning values, and monitoring requirements (WHC 1995); and (3) determine if concentrations of permitted constituents vary with season. Additional and more frequent sampling was conducted for the effluent variability study. Statistical evaluation results were provided in Chou and Johnson (1996). Parts of the original first year sampling and analysis plan (WHC 1995) were continued with routine monitoring required up to the present time

  6. The Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) Facility: Status-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderl, R.A.; Longhurst, G.R.; Pawelko, R.J.; Sharpe, J.P.; Schuetz, S.T.; Petti, D.A.

    2005-01-01

    The Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) Facility, a US DOE National User Facility at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), comprises capabilities and infrastructure to support both tritium and non-tritium research activities important to the development of safe and environmentally friendly fusion energy. Research thrusts include (1) interactions of tritium and deuterium with plasma-facing-component (PFC) materials, (2) fusion safety issues [PFC material chemical reactivity and dust/debris generation, activation product mobilization, tritium behavior in fusion systems], and (3) molten salts and fusion liquids for tritium breeder and coolant applications. This paper updates the status of STAR and the capabilities for ongoing research activities, with an emphasis on the development, testing and integration of the infrastructure to support tritium research activities. Key elements of this infrastructure include a tritium storage and assay system, a tritium cleanup system to process glovebox and experiment tritiated effluent gases, and facility tritium monitoring systems

  7. Groundwater monitoring plan for the Hanford Site 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DB Barnett

    2000-01-01

    Seven years of groundwater monitoring at the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) have shown that the uppermost aquifer beneath the facility is unaffected by TEDF effluent. Effluent discharges have been well below permitted and expected volumes. Groundwater mounding from TEDF operations predicted by various models has not been observed, and waterlevels in TEDF wells have continued declining with the dissipation of the nearby B Pond System groundwater mound. Analytical results for constituents with enforcement limits indicate that concentrations of all these are below Practical Quantitation Limits, and some have produced no detections. Likewise, other constituents on the permit-required list have produced results that are mostly below sitewide background. Comprehensive geochemical analyses of groundwater from TEDF wells has shown that most constituents are below background levels as calculated by two Hanford Site-wide studies. Additionally, major ion proportions and anomalously low tritium activities suggest that groundwater in the aquifer beneath the TEDF has been sequestered from influences of adjoining portions of the aquifer and any discharge activities. This inference is supported by recent hydrogeologic investigations which indicate an extremely slow rate of groundwater movement beneath the TEDF. Detailed evaluation of TEDF-area hydrogeology and groundwater geochemistry indicate that additional points of compliance for groundwater monitoring would be ineffective for this facility, and would produce ambiguous results. Therefore, the current groundwater monitoring well network is retained for continued monitoring. A quarterly frequency of sampling and analysis is continued for all three TEDF wells. The constituents list is refined to include only those parameters key to discerning subtle changes in groundwater chemistry, those useful in detecting general groundwater quality changes from upgradient sources, or those retained for comparison with end

  8. Radioactive effluent monitoring at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, O.D.

    1975-01-01

    The Effluent and Radiation Measurements Laboratory at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has recently upgraded capabilities in the field of monitoring and analysis of radioactive airborne and liquid effluents using the techniques of gamma-ray spectrometry. The techniques and equipment used include remotely-operated, computer-based Ge(Li) spectrometers which obtain data on a real-time basis. Permanent record files are maintained of both the effluent release values and the gamma-ray data from which the release values are calculated. Should values for release levels ever be challenged, the gamma-ray spectral information for any measurement can be recalled and analyzed as needed. Daily effluent release reports are provided to operating personnel which contributes to prompt correction of any operational problems. Monthly, quarterly, and annual reports are compiled which provide inventories of the radionuclides released. A description of the effluent monitoring, reporting and records system developed at INEL for this application will be presented

  9. Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) System Construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, R.T.

    1994-01-01

    The liquid effluent sampling program is part of the effort to minimize adverse environmental impact during the cleanup operation at the Hanford Site. Of the 33 Phase I and Phase II liquid effluents, all streams actively discharged to the soil column will be sampled. The Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) is being developed as the organized information repository facility in support of the liquid effluent monitoring requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement. It is necessary to provide an automated repository into which the results from liquid effluent sampling will be placed. This repository must provide for effective retention, review, and retrieval of selected sample data by authorized persons and organizations. This System Construction document is the aggregation of the DMR P+ methodology project management deliverables. Together they represent a description of the project and its plan through four Releases, corresponding to the definition and prioritization of requirements defined by the user

  10. Stack and area tritium monitoring systems for the tokamak fusion test reactor (TFTR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, G.G.; Meixler, L.D.; Sirsingh, R.A.P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on the TFTR Tritium Stack and Area Monitoring Systems which have been developed to provide the required level of reliability in a cost effective manner consistent with the mission of the Tritium Handling System on TFTR. Personnel protection, environmental responsibility, and tritium containing system integrity have been the considerations in system design. During the Deuterium-Tritium (D-T) experiments on TFTR, tritium will be used for the first time as one of the fuels. Area monitors provide surveillance of the air in various rooms at TFTR. Stack monitors monitor the air at the TFTR test site that is exhausted through the HVAC systems, from the room exhaust stacks and the tritium systems process vents. The philosophies for the implementation of the Stack and Area Tritium Monitoring Systems at TFTR are to use hardwired controls wherever personnel protection is involved, and to take advantage of modern intelligent controllers to provide a distributed system to support the functions of tracking, displaying, and archiving concentration levels of tritium for all of the monitored areas and stacks

  11. Development of a new monitor for tritium in air model TAM-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Bin; Yang Hailan; Wen Xuelian; Zhao Yi; Yang Huaiyuan

    2001-01-01

    The author introduces development of a real-time continuous tritium monitor model TAM-II. The detector of the instrument is comprised of four geometric-symmetry open wall ionization chamber with the effective volume of 2 L, which enables to minimize the remember effect of the ionization chamber due to contamination by the monitored tritium. It is γ background compensation rate is better than 97% in almost all direction. The detector is equipped with a FET static electrometer working in micro-current integration mode. The measurement process of the tritium monitor can be controlled automatically by a micro-processor sheet, such as automatic range changing, data displaying and storing, and data processing. The measuring range is 6 - 10 6 Bq/L. It is especially application for monitoring tritium in off-gas effluence from glove-box or stack of tritium facility and laboratory

  12. Monitoring system of the Tritium Research Laboratory, Sandia Laboratories, Livermore, CA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, W.R.; Hafner, R.S.; Westfall, D.L.; Ristau, R.D.

    1978-11-01

    Automated tritium monitoring is now in use at the Tritium Research Laboratory (TRL). Betatec 100 tritium monitors, along with several Sandia-designed accessories, have been combined with a PDP 11/40 computer to automatically read and record tritium concentrations of room air, containment, and cleanup systems. Each individual monitoring system, in addition to a local display in the area of interest, has a visible/audible display in the control room. Each system is then channeled into the PDP 11/40 computer, providing immediate assessment of the status of the entire laboratory from a central location. Measurement capability ranges from μCi/m 3 levels for room air monitoring to kCi/m 3 levels for glove box and cleanup systems monitoring. In this report the overall monitoring system and its capabilities are discussed, with detailed descriptions given of monitors and their components

  13. Experimental study and phenomenological modeling of the hydrolysis of tritiated sodium: influence of experimental conditions on the tritium distribution in the effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chassery, Aurelien

    2014-01-01

    Within the framework of the decommissioning of fast reactors, several processes are under investigation regarding sodium disposal. One of them rests on the implementation of the sodium-water reaction (SWR), in a controlled and progressive way, to remove residual sodium containing impurities such as sodium hydrides, sodium oxides and tritiated sodium hydrides. Such a hydrolysis releases some amount of energy and produces a liquid effluent, composed of a solution of soda, and a gaseous effluent, composed of hydrogen, steam and an inert gas. The tritium, originally into the sodium as a soluble (T - ) or precipitate form (NaT), will be distributed between the liquid and gaseous effluent, and according to two chemical forms, the tritium hydride HT and the tritiated water HTO. HTO being 10,000 times more radio-toxic than HT, a precise knowledge of the mechanisms governing the distribution of tritium is necessary in order to estimate the exhaust gas releases and design the process needed to treat the off-gas before its release into the environment. An experimental study has been carried out in order to determine precisely the phenomena involved in the hydrolysis. The influence of the experimental conditions on the tritium distribution has been tested. The results of this study leaded to a phenomenological description of the tritiated sodium hydrolysis that will help to predict the composition of the effluents, regarding tritium. (author) [fr

  14. High sensitivity on-line monitor for radioactive effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Toshimi [Tohoku Electric Power Co. Ltd., Sendai (Japan); Ishizuka, Akira; Abe, Eisuke; Inoue, Yasuhiko; Fujii, Masaaki; Kitaguchi, Hiroshi; Doi, Akira

    1983-04-01

    A new approach for a highly sensitive effluent monitor is presented. The free flow type monitor, which consists of a straightener, nozzle, monitoring section and ..gamma..-ray detector, is demonstrated to be effective in providing long term stability. The 160 start-and-stop cycles of effluent discharge were repeated in a 120-h testing period. Results showed a background increase was not observed for the free flow type monitor. The background count rate was calibrated to the lowest detection limit to be 2.2 x 10/sup -2/ Bq/ml for a 300 s measurement time.

  15. Methods of removal of tritium from aqueous effluent: a review of international research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segal, M.G.

    1988-01-01

    Tritium is formed in thermal nuclear reactors both by neutron activation of elements such as deuterium and lithium and by ternary fission in the fuel. It is a weak beta-emitter with a short half-life, 12.3 years, and its radiological significance in reactor discharges is very low. In heavy-water-cooled and -moderated reactors, such as the CANDU stations, the tritium concentration in the moderator is sufficiently high to cause a potential hazard to operators, and so a major research and development programme has been carried out on processes to remove the tritium. Detritiation of light water has also been the subject of major R and D effort world-wide, because reprocessing operations can generate significant quantities of tritium in liquid waste, and high concentrations of tritium may arise in some aqueous streams in fusion reactors. This Report presents a review of the methods that have been proposed, studied and developed for removal of tritium from light and heavy water: the principles of individual methods are discussed, and the current status of their development is reviewed. (author)

  16. An on-line tritium-in-water monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, A.N.; Ratnakaran, M.; Vohra, K.G.

    1985-01-01

    The paper describes the development and operation of a continuous on-line tritium-in-water monitor for the detection of heavy water leaks into the secondary coolant light water of a heavy water power reactor. The heart of the instrument is its plastic scintillator sponge detector, made from 5 μm thick plastic scintillator films. The sponge weighs only about 1 g and is in the form of disc of 48 mm diameter and 8 mm thickness. The total surface area of the films is about 3000 cm 2 . In the coincidence mode of counting, the detector gives 1000 cps for the passage of 3.7 x 10 4 Bq/cm 3 (1 μCi/cm 3 ) of tritiated water. The background in 6 cm thick lead shielding in the laboratory is 0.2 cps, and inside the reactor building it is below 1 cps. The monitor presently scans 18 sample lines in sequence for 5 min each and gives a printout for the activity in each line. (orig.)

  17. An on-line tritium-in-water monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A. N.; Ratnakaran, M.; Vohra, K. G.

    1985-05-01

    The paper describes the development and operation of a continuous on-line tritium-in-water monitor for the detection of heavy water leaks into the secondary coolant light water of a heavy water power reactor. The heart of the instrument is its plastic scintillator sponge detector, made from 5 μm thick plastic scintillator films. The sponge weighs only about 1 g and is in the form of disc of 48 mm diameter and 8 mm thickness. The total surface area of the films is about 3000 cm 2. In the coincidence mode of counting, the detector gives 1000 cps for the passage of 3.7 × 10 4 Bq/cm 3 (1 μCi/cm 3) of tritiated water. The background in 6 cm thick lead shielding in the laboratory is 0.2 cps, and inside the reactor building it is below 1 cps. The monitor presently scans 18 sample lines in sequence for 5 min each and gives a printout for the activity in each line.

  18. Atomics International environmental monitoring and facility effluent annual report, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, J.D.

    1977-01-01

    Environmental and facility effluent radioactivity monitoring at Atomics International (AI) is performend by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Unit of the Health, Safety, and Radiation Services Department. Soil, vegetation, and surface water are routinely sampled to a distance of 10 miles from AI sites. Continuous ambient air sampling and thermoluminescent dosimetry are performed on site for monitoring airborne radioactivity and site ambient radiation levels. Radioactivity in effluents discharged to the atmosphere from AI facilities is continuously sampled and monitored to ensure that levels released to unrestricted areas are within appropriate limits, and to identify processes which may require additional engineering safeguards to minimize radioactivity levels in such effluents. In addition, selected nonradioactive constituents in surface water discharged to unrestricted areas are determined. This report summarizes and discusses monitoring results for 1976. The results of a special soil plutonium survey performed during the year are also summarized

  19. Radiation protection monitoring board of the tritium building at Valduc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herve, J.Y.; Constantin, E.; Cordier, C.; Hudelot, F.

    1990-01-01

    The paper describes briefly the radiation protection in a building where a large amount of tritium is handled. A network of detectors (ionization chambers) gives locally acoustic signals and luminous signals. Data are centralized for tritium management, ventilation and waste disposal [fr

  20. Radioactive and electron microscope analysis of effluent monitor sample lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalski, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    Effluent air sampling at nuclear power plant often leads to the question ''How representative is the sample of the effluent stream?'' Samples from radiation monitors are typically obtained at great distances from the sample nozzle because of high background concerns under postulated accidents. Sample line plateout during normal effluent sampling becomes the major concern. A US Nuclear Regulatory Commission inspection raised a concern that monitors were not collecting representative samples per ANSI standard N13.1. A comprehensive 2-yr study at Beaver Valley was performed during normal effluent releases in two phases: 1) weekly charcoal and glass fiber filter samples were analyzed for radioactivity for 6 months, and 2) nuclepore membrane filter samples were analyzed by electron microscope for 4- and 6-h periods. A specially designed test nozzle was directly inserted into an effluent stream for comparison with the radiation monitor samples. Particle behavior characteristics can be determined during effluent releases using a simple test probe. While particle plateout was the major purpose of the study, other particle behavior characteristics were evident and equally as important. Particle travel through long sample lines can also lead to (a) agglomeration or the coagulation of smaller particles to form larger ones, (b) particle splitting or fracturing upon impact with the sample line interior walls, and (c) resuspension of large particles in sample lines

  1. A risk-based approach to liquid effluent monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, L.C.

    1995-10-01

    DOE Order 5400.1 identifies six objectives of a liquid effluent monitoring program. A strategy is proposed that meets these objective in one of two ways: (1) by showing that effluent concentrations are below concentration limits set by permits or are below concentrations that could cause environmental problems or (2) by showing that concentrations in effluent have not changed from a period when treatment processes were in control and there were no unplanned releases. The intensity of liquid effluent monitoring should be graded to the importance of the source being monitored. This can be accomplished by determining the risk posed by the source. A definition of risk is presented that defines risk in terms of the statistical probability of exceeding a release limit and the time available to recover from an exceedance of a release limit. Three examples are presented that show this approach to grading an effluent monitoring program can be implemented at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and will reduce monitoring requirements.

  2. Optimizing Liquid Effluent Monitoring at a Large Nuclear Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Charissa J.; Johnson, V.G.; Barnett, Brent B.; Olson, Phillip M.

    2003-01-01

    Monitoring data for a centralized effluent treatment and disposal facility at the Hanford Site, a defense nuclear complex undergoing cleanup and decommissioning in southeast Washington State, was evaluated to optimize liquid effluent monitoring efficiency. Wastewater from several facilities is collected and discharged to the ground at a common disposal site. The discharged water infiltrates through 60 m of soil column to the groundwater, which eventually flows into the Columbia River, the second largest river in the contiguous United States. Protection of this important natural resource is the major objective of both cleanup and groundwater and effluent monitoring activities at the Hanford Site. Four years of effluent data were evaluated for this study. More frequent sampling was conducted during the first year of operation to assess temporal variability in analyte concentrations, to determine operational factors contributing to waste stream variability and to assess the probability of exceeding permit limits. Subsequently, the study was updated which included evaluation of the sampling and analysis regime. It was concluded that the probability of exceeding permit limits was one in a million under normal operating conditions, sampling frequency could be reduced, and several analytes could be eliminated, while indicators could be substituted for more expensive analyses. Findings were used by the state regulatory agency to modify monitoring requirements for a new discharge permit. The primary focus of this paper is on the statistical approaches and rationale that led to the successful permit modification and to a more cost-effective effluent monitoring program

  3. A risk-based approach to liquid effluent monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, L.C.

    1995-10-01

    DOE Order 5400.1 identifies six objectives of a liquid effluent monitoring program. A strategy is proposed that meets these objective in one of two ways: (1) by showing that effluent concentrations are below concentration limits set by permits or are below concentrations that could cause environmental problems or (2) by showing that concentrations in effluent have not changed from a period when treatment processes were in control and there were no unplanned releases. The intensity of liquid effluent monitoring should be graded to the importance of the source being monitored. This can be accomplished by determining the risk posed by the source. A definition of risk is presented that defines risk in terms of the statistical probability of exceeding a release limit and the time available to recover from an exceedance of a release limit. Three examples are presented that show this approach to grading an effluent monitoring program can be implemented at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and will reduce monitoring requirements

  4. Development of an on-line tritium monitor with gamma-ray rejection and energy discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, S.A.; Yule, T.J.; Bennett, E.F.

    1981-01-01

    With the prospect of large fusion facilities coming on-line in the not-too-distant future, it is becoming increasingly important that an on-line tritium-monitoring system be developed which is capable of detecting small amounts of released tritium. Since tritium oxide is some 400 times as hazardous as elemental tritium, it is necessary to distinguish between the two in order to properly evaluate the hazard. Presently available on-line instrumentation has marginal sensitivity, is unable to distinguish between the two forms of tritium, and has poor discrimination against background gamma radiation and air activation products. The objective of our program is to develop a monitoring system with the capability of distinguishing between the two forms of tritium, detecting tritium with a sensitivity of a fraction of an MPC/sub a/ (1 MPC/sub a/ = 5. x 10 - 6 Ci/M 3 ) for the oxide, and discriminating against gamma activity and airborne activity other than tritium

  5. Applications of hydrophobic Pt catalysts in separation of tritium from liquid effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionita, Gheorghe; Popescu, Irina; Stefanescu, Ioan; Varlam, Carmen

    2003-01-01

    Hydrophobic Pt catalysts were first prepared and used in deuterium or tritium separation while after their application was extended to chemical reactions occurring in liquid water or saturated humidity environments. Capillary condensing produced at the contact with liquid water or vapors engenders in classical hydrophilic catalysts a decrease in activity what makes them inefficient. Consequently, liquid water 'repealing' catalysts are to be used allowing, at the same time gaseous reactants and reaction products to diffuse to and fro the catalytic active centers. These catalysts were successfully applied in deuterium enrichment and tritium separation based on hydrogen- liquid water isotopic exchange at both pilot and industrial scale. High activity and a prolonged stability were demonstrated and checked in: - detritiation of the heavy water used as both moderator and coolant in CANDU type reactors; removing of tritium from light water recirculated in nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities; removal and recovery of tritium from atmosphere and tritium processing installations. Due to their incontestable advantages the use of these catalysts was recently extended to other chemical processes occurring in the presence of liquid water or in high humidity environment or else when water occurs as a reaction product, such as catalytic hydrogen - oxygen recombination at room temperature or removal of stable organic pollutants from waste waters

  6. Monitoring of noble gas radioisotopes in nuclear power plant effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabat, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    Monitoring of gaseous radionuclides in the effluents of nuclear facilities is an essential requirement in effluent management programs. Since there is no practical way of removing noble gas radioisotopes from air at release pathways, their accurate monitoring is essential for providing appropriate environmental protection. Emitted γ dose-rate is the limiting factor for concentration-time integral of noble gas in gaseous effluents of reactor facilities. The external exposure to the public from a semi-infinite cloud is directly proportional to both the noble gas isotope concentration and the integrated γ energy per disintegration. Both can be directly measured in gaseous effluent pathways with a suitable detector. The capability of NaI(T1), CaF 2 (Eu) and plastic scintillation detectors to measure the γ-Ci.MeV content of noble gas releases was experimentally evaluated. The combination of CaF 2 (Eu) detector in a pressurized through-flow chamber, with a charge integrating scaler well complied with both γ energy response and detection sensitivity requirements. Noble gas source terms and effluent monitoring criteria are discussed, theoretical and experimental results are presented and a practical, on-line noble gas monitoring system is described

  7. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the uranium trioxide facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.J.; Sontag, S.

    1991-11-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plant is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan is the first annual report. It shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated as a minimum every three years. The UO 3 Plant is located in the south-central portion of the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The plant consists of two primary processing buildings and several ancillary facilities. The purpose of the UO 3 Plant is to receive uranyl nitrate hexahydrate (UNH) from the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant, concentrate it, convert the UNH to uranium trioxide (UO 3 ) powder by calcination and package it for offsite shipment. The UO 3 Plant has been placed in a standby mode. There are two liquid discharges, and three gaseous exhaust stacks, and seven building exhausters that are active during standby conditions

  8. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the tank farms facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crummel, G.M.; Gustavson, R.D.; Kenoyer, J.L.; Moeller, M.P.

    1991-11-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan is the first annual report. It shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated as a minimum three years. A variety of liquid wastes are generated in processing treatment, and disposal operations throughout the Hanford Site. The Tank Farms Project serves a major role in Hanford Site waste management activities as the temporary repository for these wastes. Stored wastes include hazardous components regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) and as by-product material regulated under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954. A total of 177 single- and double-shell tanks (SST and DST) have been constructed in the 200 East and 200 West Areas of the Hanford Site. These facilities were constructed to various designs from 1943 to 1986. The Tank Farms Project is comprised of these tanks along with various transfer, receiving, and treatment facilities

  9. Evaluation of groundwater monitoring results at the Hanford Site 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, D.B.

    1998-09-01

    The Hanford Site 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) has operated since June 1995. Groundwater monitoring has been conducted quarterly in the three wells surrounding the facility since 1992, with contributing data from nearby B Pond System wells. Cumulative hydrologic and geochemical information from the TEDF well network and other surrounding wells indicate no discernable effects of TEDF operations on the uppermost aquifer in the vicinity of the TEDF. The lateral consistency and impermeable nature of the Ringold Formation lower mud unit, and the contrasts in hydraulic conductivity between this unit and the vadose zone sediments of the Hanford formation suggest that TEDF effluent is spreading laterally with negligible mounding or downward movement into the uppermost aquifer. Hydrographs of TEDF wells show that TEDF operations have had no detectable effects on hydraulic heads in the uppermost aquifer, but show a continuing decay of the hydraulic mound generated by past operations at the B Pond System. Comparison of groundwater geochemistry from TEDF wells and other, nearby RCRA wells suggests that groundwater beneath TEDF is unique; different from both effluent entering TEDF and groundwater in the B Pond area. Tritium concentrations, major ionic proportions, and lower-than-background concentrations of other species suggest that groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the TEDF bears characteristics of water in the upper basalt confined aquifer system. This report recommends retaining the current groundwater well network at the TEDF, but with a reduction of sampling/analysis frequency and some modifications to the list of constituents sought

  10. On-line liquid-effluent monitoring of sewage at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreicer, M.; Cate, J.L.; Rueppel, D.W.; Huntzinger, C.J.; Gonzalez, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    An automatic on line sewage effluent monitoring system has been developed. A representative fraction of the total waste stream leaving the site is monitored for pH, radiation, and metals as it passes through a detection assembly. This assembly consists of an industrial pH probe, NaI radiation detectors, and an x-ray fluorescence metal detector. A microprocessor collects, reduces and analyzes the data to determine if the levels are acceptable by established environmental limits. Currently, if preset levels are exceeded, a sample of the suspect sewage is automatically collected for further analysis, and an alarm is sent to a station where personnel can be alerted to respond on a 24-hour basis. Since at least four hours pass before LLNL effluent reaches the treatment plant, sufficient time is available to alert emergency personnel, evaluate the situation, and if necessary arrange for diversion of the material to emergency holding basins at the treatment plant. Information on the current system is presented, and progress is reported in developing an on-line tritium monitor as an addition to the assembly

  11. Optimizing liquid effluent monitoring at a large nuclear complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Charissa J; Barnett, D Brent; Johnson, Vernon G; Olson, Phil M

    2003-12-01

    Effluent monitoring typically requires a large number of analytes and samples during the initial or startup phase of a facility. Once a baseline is established, the analyte list and sampling frequency may be reduced. Although there is a large body of literature relevant to the initial design, few, if any, published papers exist on updating established effluent monitoring programs. This paper statistically evaluates four years of baseline data to optimize the liquid effluent monitoring efficiency of a centralized waste treatment and disposal facility at a large defense nuclear complex. Specific objectives were to: (1) assess temporal variability in analyte concentrations, (2) determine operational factors contributing to waste stream variability, (3) assess the probability of exceeding permit limits, and (4) streamline the sampling and analysis regime. Results indicated that the probability of exceeding permit limits was one in a million under normal facility operating conditions, sampling frequency could be reduced, and several analytes could be eliminated. Furthermore, indicators such as gross alpha and gross beta measurements could be used in lieu of more expensive specific isotopic analyses (radium, cesium-137, and strontium-90) for routine monitoring. Study results were used by the state regulatory agency to modify monitoring requirements for a new discharge permit, resulting in an annual cost savings of US dollars 223,000. This case study demonstrates that statistical evaluation of effluent contaminant variability coupled with process knowledge can help plant managers and regulators streamline analyte lists and sampling frequencies based on detection history and environmental risk.

  12. The monitoring system of the Tritium Research Laboratory, Sandia Laboratories, Livermore, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafner, R.S.; Westfall, D.L.; Ristau, R.D.

    1978-01-01

    Computerized tritium monitoring is now in use at the Tritium Research Laboratory (TRL). Betatec 100 tritium monitors, along with several Sandia designed accessories, have been combined with a PDP 11/40 computer to provide maximum personnel and environmental protection. Each individual monitoring system, in addition to a local display in the area of interest, has a visual/audible display in the control room. Each system is then channeled into the PDP 11/40 computer, providing immediate assessment of the status of the entire laboratory from a central location. Measurement capability ranges from uCi/m 3 levels for room air monitoring to KCi/m 3 levels for glove box and process system monitoring. The overall monitoring system and its capabilities will be presented

  13. Effluent and environmental monitoring of Chalk River Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilgrim, T.; De Waele, C.; Gallagher, C. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's (AECL's) Environmental Protection Program has been gathering environmental monitoring data at its Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) for over 60 years. The comprehensive effluent and environmental monitoring program at CRL consists of more than 600 sampling locations, including the Ottawa River, with approximately 60,000 analyses performed on air and liquid effluent parameters each year. Monitoring for a variety of radiological and non-radiological parameters is regularly conducted on various media, including ambient air, foodstuff (e.g. milk, fish, garden produce, large game, and farm animals), groundwater, Ottawa River water and other surface water on and off-site. The purpose of the monitoring program is to verify that past and current radiological and non-radiological emissions derived from AECL operations and activities, such as process water effluent into the Ottawa River, are below regulatory limits and demonstrate that CRL operations do not negatively affect the quality of water on or leaving the site. In fact, ongoing program reports demonstrate that radiological emissions are well below regulatory limits and have been declining for the past five years, and that non-radiological contaminants do not negatively affect the quality of water on and off the site. Two updated Canadian Standards Association (CSA) standards for Effluent and Environmental monitoring have come into effect and have resulted in some changes to the AECL Program. This presentation will discuss effluent and surface water monitoring results, the observed trends, the changes triggered by the CSA standards, and a path forward for the future. (author)

  14. Upgrade to the Tritium Remote Control and Monitoring System for TFTR D and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sichta, P.; Oliaro, G.; Sengupta, S.

    2002-01-01

    Since 1988, the Tritium Remote Control and Monitoring System (TRECAMS) has performed crucial functions in support of D-T [deuterium-tritium] operations of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). Although plasma operations on TFTR were completed in 1997, the need for TRECAMS continued. During this period TRECAMS supported the TFTR tritium systems, the TFTR's Shutdown and Safing phase, and the TFTR Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) project. The most critical function of the TRECAMS in the post-TFTR era has been to provide a real-time indication of the airborne tritium levels in the tritium areas and the (HVAC) stacks. TRECAMS is a critical tool in conducting safe TFTR D and D tritium-line breaks and other tritium-related work activities. Beginning in 1998, the failure rate of the system's hardware sharply increased. Furthermore, the specialized knowledge required to maintain the original software and hardware was diminishing. It soon became apparent that a failure of the TRECAMS could significantly impact the TFTR D and D project's cost and schedule. To preclude this, the TRECAMS hardware and software was upgraded in the year 2000 to use modern components. This paper will describe that successful upgrade, including a review of the engineering processes and our operating experiences with the upgraded system

  15. Graphic overview system for DOE's effluent and environmental monitoring programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burson, Z.G.; Elle, D.R.

    1980-03-01

    The Graphic Overview System is a compilation of photos, maps, overlays, and summary information of environmental programs and related data for each DOE site. The information consists of liquid and airborne effluent release points, on-site storage locations, monitoring locations, aerial survey results, population distributions, wind roses, and other related information. The relationships of different environmental programs are visualized through the use of colored overlays. Trends in monitoring data, effluent releases, and on-site storage data are also provided as a corollary to the graphic display of monitoring and release points. The results provide a working tool with which DOE management (headquarters and field offices) can place in proper perspective key aspects of all environmental programs and related data, and the resulting public impact of each DOE site

  16. Volatile organic monitor for industrial effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laguna, G.R.; Peter, F.J.; Stuart, A.D.; Loyola, V.M.

    1993-07-01

    1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act have created the need for instruments capable of monitoring volatile organic compounds (VOCS) in public air space in an unattended and low cost manner. The purpose of the study was to develop and demonstrate the capability to do long term automatic and unattended ambient air monitoring using an inexpensive portable analytic system at a commercial manufacturing plant site. A gas chromatograph system personal computer hardware, meteorology tower ampersand instruments, and custom designed hardware and software were developed. Comparison with an EPA approved method was performed. The system was sited at an aircraft engines manufacturing site and operated in a completely unattended mode for 60 days. Two VOCs were monitored every 30 minutes during the 24hr day. Large variation in the concentration from 800ppb to the limits of detection of about 10ppb were observed. Work to increase the capabilities of the system is ongoing

  17. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the 3720 Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shields, K.D.; Ballinger, M.Y.

    1999-04-02

    This Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) has been prepared for the Environmental Science Laboratory (3720 Facility) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to meet the requirements in DOE Order 5400.1, ''General Environmental Protection Programs'' This FEMP has been prepared for the 3720 Facility primarily because it has a major (potential to emit >0.1 mrem/yr) emission point for radionuclide air emissions according to the annual National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) assessment performed. This section summarizes the airborne and liquid effluents and the inventory based NESHAP assessment for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterization of effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements. The 3720 Facility provides office and laboratory space for PNNL scientific and engineering staff conducting multidisciplinary research in the areas of materials characterization and testing and waste management. The facility is designed to accommodate the use of radioactive and hazardous materials to conduct these activities. Radioactive material storage and usage occur throughout the facility and include a large number of isotopes. This material is in several forms, including solid, liquid, and dispersible particulate. The facility is in the process of being vacated for shutdown, but is considered a Major Emission Point as of the date of this document approval.

  18. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the 325 Radiochemical Processing Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shields, K.D.; Ballinger, M.Y.

    1999-03-01

    This Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) has been prepared for the 325 Building Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to meet the requirements in DOE Order 5400.1, ''General Environmental Protection Programs.'' This FEMP has been prepared for the RPL primarily because it has a ''major'' (potential to emit >0.1 mrem/yr) emission point for radionuclide air emissions according to the annual National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) assessment performed. This section summarizes the airborne and liquid effluents and the inventory based NESHAP assessment for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterization of effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements. The RPL at PNNL houses radiochemistry research, radioanalytical service, radiochemical process development, and hazardous and radioactive mixed waste treatment activities. The laboratories and specialized facilities enable work ranging from that with nonradioactive materials to work with picogram to kilogram quantities of fissionable materials and up to megacurie quantities of other radionuclides. The special facilities within the building include two shielded hot-cell areas that provide for process development or analytical chemistry work with highly radioactive materials and a waste treatment facility for processing hazardous, mixed radioactive, low-level radioactive, and transuranic wastes generated by PNNL activities

  19. Liquid Effluent Monitoring Program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballinger, M.Y.

    1995-05-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting a program to monitor the waste water from PNL-operated research and development facilities on the Hanford Site. The purpose of the program is to collect data to assess administrative controls and to determine whether discharges to the process sewer meet sewer criteria. Samples have been collected on a regular basis from the major PNL facilities on the Hanford Site since March 1994. A broad range of analyses has been performed to determine the primary constituents in the liquid effluent. The sampling program is briefly summarized in the paper. Continuous monitoring of pH, conductivity, and flow also provides data on the liquid effluent streams. In addition to sampling and monitoring, the program is evaluating the dynamics of the waste stream with dye studies and is evaluating the use of newer technologies for potential deployment in future sampling/monitoring efforts. Information collected to date has been valuable in determining sources of constituents that may be higher than the Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) for the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). This facility treats the waste streams before discharge to the Columbia River

  20. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the 325 Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Applied Chemistry Laboratory (325 Facility) houses radiochemistry research, radioanalytical service, radiochemical process development, and hazardous and mixed hazardous waste treatment activities. The laboratories and specialized facilities enable work ranging from that with nonradioactive materials to work with picogram to kilogram quantities of fissionable materials and up to megacurie quantities of other radionuclides. The special facilities include two shielded hot-cell areas that provide for process development or analytical chemistry work with highly radioactive materials, and a waste treatment facility for processing hazardous, mixed, low-level, and transuranic wastes generated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Radioactive material storage and usage occur throughout the facility and include a large number of isotopes. This material is in several forms, including solid, liquid, particulate, and gas. Some of these materials are also heated during testing which can produce vapors. The research activities have been assigned to the following activity designations: High-Level Hot Cell, Hazardous Waste Treatment Unit, Waste Form Development, Special Testing Projects, Chemical Process Development, Analytical Hot Cell, and Analytical Chemistry. The following summarizes the airborne and liquid effluents and the results of the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) determination for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterization of effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements

  1. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the 325 Radiochemical Processing Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shields, K.D.; Ballinger, M.Y.

    1999-04-02

    This Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) has been prepared for the 325 Building Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to meet the requirements in DOE Order 5400.1, ''General Environmental Protection Programs.'' This FEMP has been prepared for the RPL primarily because it has a ''major'' (potential to emit >0.1 mrem/yr) emission point for radionuclide air emissions according to the annual National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) assessment performed. This section summarizes the airborne and liquid effluents and the inventory based NESHAP assessment for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterization of effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements. The RPL at PNNL houses radiochemistry research, radioanalytical service, radiochemical process development, and hazardous and radioactive mixed waste treatment activities. The laboratories and specialized facilities enable work ranging from that with nonradioactive materials to work with picogram to kilogram quantities of fissionable materials and up to megacurie quantities of other radionuclides. The special facilities within the building include two shielded hot-cell areas that provide for process development or analytical chemistry work with highly radioactive materials and a waste treatment facility for processing hazardous, mixed radioactive, low-level radioactive, and transuranic wastes generated by PNNL activities.

  2. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the 284-E and 284-W power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickels, J.M.; Herman, D.R.

    1992-11-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. A facility effluent monitoring plan determination was performed during calendar year 1991 and the evaluation requires the need for a facility effluent monitoring plan. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements

  3. Fenceline water quality monitoring of effluents from BARC establishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prathibha, P.; Kothai, P.; Saradhi, I.V.; Pandit, G.G.; Puranik, V.D.

    2007-01-01

    Wastewater generated from various sources (industrial, residential, rain water runoff etc.,) is either discharged into water bodies or reused/recycled for various purposes. Continuous monitoring of the wastewater is necessary to check whether these effluents are meeting the stringent limits proposed for discharge into water bodies or recycled/reused. Monitoring of these effluents also helps in designing the wastewater treatment system required to meet the standards. In this paper, water quality monitoring carried out during each quarter of the year 2005 for the effluents discharged from different utilities of BARC into Trombay bay is presented. The results indicate that the Bio-chemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) are in the range of 7.9 to 38.9 mg/l and 29.4 to 78.9 mg/l respectively. The nitrates and sulphates are in the range of 0.5 to 7.2 mg/l and 7.8 to 52.3 mg/l respectively. The water quality data of the parameters analyzed are well within the limits stipulated by Central Pollution Control Board. (author)

  4. Software structure for tritium-in-air monitoring in classified locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionete, Eusebiu Ilarian; Benchea, Dumitru

    2009-01-01

    Full text: In the working areas of heavy water detritiation facilities, were hydrogen gas is generated, the risk of air-hydrogen explosive mixture production is present. This paper gives the description of a software architecture solution for a fixed area tritium-in-air monitoring system suitable to be used in such hazardous locations. Tritium-in-air monitoring system was designed as a distributed system containing a number of fixed tritium in air monitoring units, each of them being composed of an ionisation chamber flow-through type and a fix sampling unit with a number of sample lines and one additional blow line. For each unit, software and hardware architecture structure enable independent performance with a fail-safe concept, remote control operation and data storage in a DCS-DCU module. This software architecture secures the setting possibility of alarm levels for tritium concentration, graphical visualisation and acoustic alarm in the case of level overtaking. The afferent software architecture contains applications in connection with hardware architecture and with a hydrogen detection system: RU-1 software application for control sampling; RU-2 software application for measured values display; RU-3 software application for remote data display; RU-4 software application for SQL conversion server; RU-5 software application for OPC standard conversion. The interconnection of all hardware components, between each PLC and each display unit, between tritium-in-air monitoring units and PLC sampling units will be internally carried out using interfaces. The interconnection between PLCs and tritium-in-air monitoring DCU will be made using a communication network, for instance Ethernet Profibus or RS 485. (authors)

  5. Environmental and effluent monitoring at Lucas Heights Research Laboratories, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, E.L.; Camilleri, A.; Loosz, T.; Farrar, Y.

    1995-12-01

    Results are presented of environmental and effluent monitoring conducted in the vicinity of the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories (LHRL) during 1994. All low level liquid and gaseous effluent discharges complied with existing discharge authorisations and relevant environmental regulations. Potential effective doses to the general public from controlled airborne discharges during this period, were estimated to be less than 0.015 mSv/year for receptor locations on the 1.6 km buffer zone boundary around HIFAR. This value represents 1.5 % of the 1 mSv/year dose limit for long term exposure that is recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council, and 5 % of the site dose constraint of 0.3 mSv/year adopted by ANSTO. 27 refs., 22 tabs., 6 figs

  6. Environmental and effluent monitoring at Lucas Heights Research Laboratories, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, E L; Camilleri, A; Loosz, T; Farrar, Y

    1995-12-01

    Results are presented of environmental and effluent monitoring conducted in the vicinity of the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories (LHRL) during 1994. All low level liquid and gaseous effluent discharges complied with existing discharge authorisations and relevant environmental regulations. Potential effective doses to the general public from controlled airborne discharges during this period, were estimated to be less than 0.015 mSv/year for receptor locations on the 1.6 km buffer zone boundary around HIFAR. This value represents 1.5 % of the 1 mSv/year dose limit for long term exposure that is recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council, and 5 % of the site dose constraint of 0.3 mSv/year adopted by ANSTO. 27 refs., 22 tabs., 6 figs.

  7. Industrial effluent quality, pollution monitoring and environmental management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Maqbool; Bajahlan, Ahmad S; Hammad, Waleed S

    2008-12-01

    Royal Commission Environmental Control Department (RC-ECD) at Yanbu industrial city in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has established a well-defined monitoring program to control the pollution from industrial effluents. The quality of effluent from each facility is monitored round the clock. Different strategic measures have been taken by the RC-ECD to implement the zero discharge policy of RC. Industries are required to pre-treat the effluent to conform pretreatment standards before discharging to central biological treatment plant. Industries are not allowed to discharge any treated or untreated effluent in open channels. After treatment, reclaimed water must have to comply with direct discharge standards before discharge to the sea. Data of industrial wastewater collected from five major industries and central industrial wastewater treatment plant (IWTP) is summarized in this report. During 5-year period, 3,705 samples were collected and analyzed for 43,436 parameters. There were 1,377 violations from pretreatment standards from all the industries. Overall violation percentage was 3.17%. Maximum violations were recorded from one of the petrochemical plants. The results show no significant pollution due to heavy metals. Almost all heavy metals were within RC pretreatment standards. High COD and TOC indicates that major pollution was due to hydrocarbons. Typical compounds identified by GC-MS were branched alkanes, branched alkenes, aliphatic ketones, substituted thiophenes, substituted phenols, aromatics and aromatic alcohols. Quality of treated water was also in compliance with RC direct discharge standards. In order to achieve the zero discharge goal, further studies and measures are in progress.

  8. Environmental monitoring of tritium in air with passive diffusion samplers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, M.J.; Workman, W.J.G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on a field trail in which outdoor air was sampled with an active reference sampler and several passive HTO-in-air samplers simultaneously carried out at Chalk River Laboratories. Both passive and active samplers were changed on an approximately monthly schedule from 1990 September 2 to 1991 April 18. Average temperatures for the sampling intervals ranged from -8.06 degrees C to +15.5 degrees C and HTO-in-air concentrations measured by the active sampler were typically 10 Bq/m 3 . A total of 1290 passive HTO-in-air sampler measurements were made during the seven sampling intervals. The passive samplers used for the field trial were prepared with either tritium-free water or a solution of 50% tritium-free water and 50% ethylene glycol. As expected, the samplers prepared with the water-glycol solution performed more consistently than the samplers prepared with water only. Good agreement between passive and active sampler measurements was observed throughout the field trial

  9. Tritium sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glodic, S.; Boreli, F.

    1993-01-01

    Tritium is the only radioactive isotope of hydrogen. It directly follows the metabolism of water and it can be bound into genetic material, so it is very important to control levels of contamination. In order to define the state of contamination it is necessary to establish 'zero level', i.e. actual global inventory. The importance of tritium contamination monitoring increases with the development of fusion power installations. Different sources of tritium are analyzed and summarized in this paper. (author)

  10. An open-walled ionization chamber appropriate to tritium monitoring for glovebox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhilin; Chang Ruiming; Mu Long; Song Guoyang; Wang Heyi; Wu Guanyin; Wei Xiye

    2010-01-01

    An open-walled ionization chamber is developed to monitor the tritium concentration in gloveboxes in tritium processing systems. Two open walls are used to replace the sealed wall in common ionization chambers, through which the tritium gas can diffuse into the chamber without the aid of pumps and pipelines. Some basic properties of the chamber are examined to evaluate its performance. Results turn out that an open-walled chamber of 1 l in volume shows a considerably flat plateau over 700 V for a range of tritium concentration. The chamber also gives a good linear response to gamma fields over 4 decades under a pressure condition of 1 atm. The pressure dependence characteristics show that the ionization current is only sensitive at low pressures. The pressure influence becomes weaker as the pressure increases mainly due to the decrease in the mean free path of β particles produced by tritium decay. The minimum detection limit of the chamber is 3.7x10 5 Bq/m 3 .

  11. A comparison of methods for monitoring low airborne concentrations of argon-41 and tritium, with MIT-PFC design applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLoughlin, J.C.

    1990-08-01

    Two primary methods, GM- and NaI-detection, of airborne 41 Ar monitoring were compared experimentally to determine the lowest resolvable concentration given reasonable sample sizes. NaI-detectors provided a lower resolvable concentration than GM tubes, primarily due to energy resolution, which greatly reduced background noise. Airborne 3 H collection was compared for two primary collection and one ancillary method (direct condensation). All 3 H detection was performed via liquid scintillation. Tritium collection with water baths yielded higher collection efficiencies than dessicant traps for short sampling durations. As the length of the sampling duration increased, water traps yielded lower collection efficiencies than dessicant traps, primarily due to evaporation of water from the water traps. Direct condensation as a collection method of airborne 3 H was found unsuitable, since large amounts of gas were initially condensed, yet evaporated as the sample's coolant was removed. 41 Ar detection for the MIT-PFC was determined to be best provided by a low 40 K NaI crystal shielded with lead and steel. A Marinelli beaker was used as a monitoring volume to hold the effluent sample. 3 H monitoring at the MIT-PFC was fulfilled with dessicant traps to catalytically separate the [HTO] and [HT] fractions without the use of a carrier gas for the [HT

  12. Management Aspects of Implementing the New Effluent Air Monitoring Standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glissmeyer, John A.; Davis, William E.

    2000-01-01

    The revision to ANSI/HPS N13.1,'Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive substances From the Stacks and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities,' went into effect in January 1999 - replacing the 1969 version of the standard. There are several significant changes from the old version of the standard. The revised standard provides a new paradigm where representative air samples can be collected by extracting the sample from a single point in air streams where the contaminants are well mixed. The revised standard provides specific performance criteria and requirements for the various air sampling processes - program structure, sample extraction, transport, collection, effluent and sample flow measurement, and quality assurance. A graded approach to sampling is recommended with more stringent requirements for stacks with a greater potential to emit. These significant changes in the standard will impact the air monitoring programs at some sites and facilities. The impacts on the air monitor design, operation, maintenance, and quality control processes are discussed.

  13. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the 2724-W Protective Equipment Decontamination Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickels, J.M.; Lavey, G.H.

    1992-12-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1* for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. A facility effluent monitoring plan determination was performed during Calendar Year 1991 and the evaluation requires the need for a facility effluent monitoring plan. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438**. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements

  14. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the plutonium-uranium extraction facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohrasbi, J.; Johnson, D.L.; De Lorenzo, D.S.

    1993-12-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-01. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated at a minimum of every three years

  15. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, C.J.

    1995-10-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure lonq-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated as a minimum every three years

  16. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the plutonium-uranium extraction facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.J.; Sontage, S.

    1991-11-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan is the first annual report. It shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated as a minimum every three years

  17. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the plutonium-uranium extraction facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickels, J.M.; Geiger, J.L.

    1992-11-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. A facility effluent monitoring plan determination was performed during Calendar Year 1991 and the evaluation requires the need for a facility effluent monitoring plan. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified. in. A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements

  18. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the 2724-W Protective Equipment Decontamination Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, G.J.

    1991-11-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1* for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan is the first annual report. It shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updates as a minimum every three years

  19. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the plutonium-uranium extraction facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohrasbi, J.; Johnson, D.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); De Lorenzo, D.S. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, NM (United States)

    1993-12-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-01. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated at a minimum of every three years.

  20. RESULTS OF TRITIUM TRACKING AND GROUNDWATER MONITORING AT THE HANFORD SITE 200 AREA STATE APPROVED LAND DISPOSAL SITE. FISCAL YEAR 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erb, D.B.

    2008-01-01

    The Hanford Site's 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) processes contaminated aqueous wastes derived from Hanford Site facilities. The treated wastewater occasionally contains tritium, which cannot be removed by the ETF prior to the wastewater being discharged to the 200 Area State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS). During the first 11 months of fiscal year 2008 (FY08) (September 1, 2007, to July 31, 2008), approximately 75.15 million L (19.85 million gal) of water were discharged to the SALDS. Groundwater monitoring for tritium and other constituents, as well as water-level measurements, is required for the SALDS by State Waste Discharge Permit Number ST-4500 (Ecology 2000). The current monitoring network consists of three proximal (compliance) monitoring wells and nine tritium-tracking wells. Quarterly sampling of the proximal wells occurred in October 2007 and in January/February 2008, April 2008, and August 2008. The nine tritium-tracking wells, including groundwater monitoring wells located upgradient and downgradient of the SALDS, were sampled in January through April 2008. Water-level measurements taken in the three proximal SALDS wells indicate that a small groundwater mound is present beneath the facility, which is a result of operational discharges. The mound increased in FY08 due to increased ETF discharges from treating groundwater from extraction wells at the 200-UP-l Operable Unit and the 241-T Tank Farm. Maximum tritium activities increased by an order of magnitude at well 699-48-77A (to 820,000 pCi/L in April 2008) but remained unchanged in the other two proximal wells. The increase was due to higher quantities of tritium in wastewaters that were treated and discharged in FY07 beginning to appear at the proximal wells. The FY08 tritium activities for the other two proximal wells were 68,000 pCi/L at well 699-48-77C (October 2007) and 120,000 pCi/L at well 699-48-77D (October 2007). To date, no indications of a tritium incursion from the

  1. Indexed bibliography on tritium: its sources and projections, behavior, measurement and monitoring techniques, health physics aspects, and waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, M.N.; Holoway, C.F.; Houser, B.L.; Jacobs, D.G.

    1975-08-01

    References are presented to the world literature on sources of tritium in the environment, the migration of tritium in the environment and uptake by biological materials, monitoring methods, health aspects, and radioactive waste management. Subject, author, and permuted title indexes are included. (U.S.)

  2. New intelligent monitor for tritium in air measurements - an experimental model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purghel, Lidia; Calin, Marian Romeo; Bartos, Daniel; Serbina, Leonardo; Lupu, Adrian; Lupu, Dan

    2003-01-01

    The statistical discrimination method is an original one, developed and patented in IFIN - HH Bucharest, Magurele, Romania. In frame of the National Research and Development Program MENER, the research for manufacturing and certifying a portable monitor was financed. The method is based on the dependence of the resulting k - factor on the relative values of the ionization current components in a mixed radiation field. The instrumentation consists of a gas flowing ionization chamber (integrated in a sampling circuit), a preamplifier, a data acquisition system and a microcomputer. A special designed software allows for running the monitor on tritium gas (vapors of tritiated water) and on the associated radiation field (i.e. natural radiation background or gamma-ray field). Some performances of the monitor concerning the tritium in relative strong gamma-ray fields are tested and the results reported. (authors)

  3. Tritium Measurements in Slovenia - Chronology Till 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logar, Jasmina Kozar; Vaupotic, Janja; Kobal, Ivan

    2005-01-01

    Almost all the analyses of tritium in Slovenia have been performed by the tritium laboratory at the Jozef Stefan Institute. Nearly 90 % of its measurements have been covered by two national programs, both approved by the Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration: the radioactive monitoring program in the environs of Krsko Nuclear Power Plant (KNPP) and the program of global radioactive contamination monitoring in the environment. These programs include samples of groundwaters, surface waters, precipitation and drinking waters, as well as liquid and gaseous effluents from KNPP. Tritium was determined in some research projects and in hydrological studies of thermal waters, groundwater and coalmine waters. Tritium in the Karst region was mapped as well as the springs of entire territory of Slovenia. Around 5500 samples have been analyzed up to 2004

  4. Long-term tritium monitoring to study river basin dynamics: case of the Danube River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Pradeep; Araguas, Luis; Groening, Manfred; Newman, Brent; Kurttas, Turker; Papesch, Wolfgang; Rank, Dieter; Suckow, Axel; Vitvar, Tomas

    2010-05-01

    During the last five decades, isotope concentrations (O-18, D, tritium) have been extensively measured in precipitation, surface- and ground-waters to derive information on residence times of water in aquifers and rivers, recharge processes, and groundwater dynamics. The unique properties of the isotopes of the water molecule as tracers are especially useful for understanding the retention of water in river basins, which is a key parameter for assessing water resources availability, addressing quality issues, investigating interconnections between surface- and ground-waters, and for predicting possible hydrological shifts related to human activities and climate change. Detailed information of the spatial and temporal changes of isotope contents in precipitation at a global scale was one of the initial aims of the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP), which has provided a detailed chronicle of tritium and stable isotope contents in precipitation since the 1960s. Accurate information of tritium contents resulting of the thermonuclear atmospheric tests in the 1950s and 1960s is available in GNIP for stations distributed world-wide. Use of this dataset for hydrological dating or as an indicator of recent recharge has been extensive in shallow groundwaters. However, its use has been more limited in surface waters, due to the absence of specific monitoring programmes of tritium and stable isotopes in rivers, lakes and other surface water bodies. The IAEA has recently been compiling new and archival isotope data measured in groundwaters, rivers, lakes and other water bodies as part of its web based Water Isotope System for Data Analysis, Visualization and Electronic Retrieval (WISER). Recent additions to the Global Network of Isotopes in Rivers (GNIR) contained within WISER now make detailed studies in rivers possible. For this study, we are re-examining residence time estimates for the Danube in central Europe. Tritium data are available in GNIR from 15

  5. Liquid effluent retention facility final-status groundwater monitoring plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, M.D.; Chou, C.J.; Bjornstad, B.N.

    1997-09-01

    The following sections describe the groundwater-monitoring program for the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF). The LERF is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA). The LERF is included in the open-quotes Dangerous Waste Portion of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit for the Treatment, Storage, and Disposal of Dangerous Waste, Permit WA890008967close quotes, (referred to herein as the Permit) (Ecology 1994) and is subject to final-status requirements for groundwater monitoring (WAC 173-303-645). This document describes a RCRA/WAC groundwater detection-monitoring program for groundwater in the uppermost aquifer system at the LERF. This plan describes the LERF monitoring network, constituent list, sampling schedule, statistical methods, and sampling and analysis protocols that will be employed for the LERF. This plan will be used to meet the groundwater monitoring requirements from the time the LERF becomes part of the Permit and through the post-closure care period, until certification of final closure

  6. Optimization of mass of plastic scintillator film for flow-cell based tritium monitoring: a Monte Carlo study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Arup Singha; Palani Selvam, T.; Raman, Anand; Raja, V.; Chaudhury, Probal

    2014-01-01

    Over the years, various types of tritium-in-air monitors have been designed and developed based on different principles. Ionization chamber, proportional counter and scintillation detector systems are few among them. A plastic scintillator based, flow-cell type online tritium-in-air monitoring system was developed for online monitoring of tritium in air. The value of the scintillator mass inside the cell-volume, which maximizes the response of the detector system, should be obtained to get maximum efficiency. The present study is aimed to optimize the amount of mass of the plastic scintillator film for the flow-cell based tritium monitoring instrument so that maximum efficiency is achieved. The Monte Carlo based EGSnrc code system has been used for this purpose

  7. Modernization of tritium in air monitoring system for CANDU type NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purghel, L.; Iancu, R.; Popescu, M.

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear energy provides at present one third of Europe's electricity with nearly no greenhouse-gas emissions. Sustained efforts are now being conducted to harmonize regulations all over Europe through WENRA and to converge on technical nuclear safety practices within the TSO network ETSON (European Technical Safety Organizations Network). In order to achieve this goals of safety function, IFIN-HH together with CITON developed a new solution to improve the Tritium Monitoring System (TMS) of Cernavoda NPP and the new generation of CANDU type reactors, using Tritium in air Intelligent Monitors (TIM) developed and patented by IFIN-HH. The paper presents a comparative analysis between the technical characteristics of traditional solutions implemented in CANDU type NPP, particularly in Cernavoda NPP Unit 2 and the newly proposed solution. (authors)

  8. The Use of Aquatic Macrophyte Ecotoxicological Assays in Monitoring Coastal Effluent Discharges in Southern Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burridge, T.R.; Karistianos, M.; Bidwell, J

    1999-01-01

    Germination inhibition of zoospores of the aquatic, brown algal macrophyte Ecklonia radiata was employed to assess the toxicity of sewage effluents under short to long term exposure and under modified salinity conditions. The rate of germination inhibition was determined for exposure times between 2 and 48 h in salinity modified and unmodified regimes and under reduced salinity conditions alone. The results indicated that rate of germination inhibition increased with duration of exposure to sewage effluents and to salinity reduction alone, and that response to the effluents may be enhanced under conditions of reduced salinity. Whilst the effect of primary treated effluent was primarily that of toxicity, secondary treated effluent effects appeared to be primarily that of reduced salinity although at a greater rate than would be expected for salinity reduction alone. The assay is suggested to provide a mechanism for monitoring sewage effluent quality and to monitor potential impacts of sewage effluent discharge on kelp communities in southern Australia.

  9. The Use of Aquatic Macrophyte Ecotoxicological Assays in Monitoring Coastal Effluent Discharges in Southern Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burridge, T.R.; Karistianos, M.; Bidwell, J.

    1999-01-01

    Germination inhibition of zoospores of the aquatic, brown algal macrophyte Ecklonia radiata was employed to assess the toxicity of sewage effluents under short to long term exposure and under modified salinity conditions. The rate of germination inhibition was determined for exposure times between 2 and 48 h in salinity modified and unmodified regimes and under reduced salinity conditions alone. The results indicated that rate of germination inhibition increased with duration of exposure to sewage effluents and to salinity reduction alone, and that response to the effluents may be enhanced under conditions of reduced salinity. Whilst the effect of primary treated effluent was primarily that of toxicity, secondary treated effluent effects appeared to be primarily that of reduced salinity although at a greater rate than would be expected for salinity reduction alone. The assay is suggested to provide a mechanism for monitoring sewage effluent quality and to monitor potential impacts of sewage effluent discharge on kelp communities in southern Australia

  10. Modeling PWR systems for monitoring primary-to-secondary leakage using tritium tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peiffer, D.G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses several techniques available for monitoring primary to secondary leakage, focusing on the advantages and disadvantages of each. A mathematical model of Millstone 2 describes the behavior of tritium activity in the secondary plant water when a leak exists. Real data from Millstone 2 illustrate the accuracy and reliability of the model and use of the model to measure the mass of water in the secondary system

  11. Environmental and effluent monitoring at ANSTO sites, 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, E L; Loosz, T

    2002-07-01

    Results are presented of environmental surveillance and effluent monitoring conducted in the calendar year 2001 at the two sites owned and operated by ANSTO at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre (LHSTC) and the National Medical Cyclotron (NMC). All low-level liquid and gaseous effluent discharges complied with existing discharge authorisations and relevant environmental regulations. Potential effective doses to the general public from LHSTC-controlled airborne discharges were estimated for 2001 using the PC-Cream atmospheric dispersion and dosimetry code. The potential effective doses to the public in 2001 were estimated to be less than 0.01 mSv/year for all receptor locations on the LHSTC 1.6 km buffer zone boundary or beyond. This is well below the ALARA objective of 0.02 mSv per year for off-site doses that ANSTO has set and much lower than the public dose limit of 1 mSv per year (above natural background and medical doses) and the natural background dose in Australia of 1.5 mSv per year (Webb et al; 1999). It is concluded that there is no impact on the health of the community as a consequence of operations at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre or the National Medical Cyclotron.

  12. Environmental and effluent monitoring at ANSTO sites, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, E L; Loosz, T; Mokhber-Shahin, L

    1999-07-01

    Results are presented of environmental and effluent monitoring conducted in 1999 at the two sites owned and operated by ANSTO, at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre (LHSTC) and the National Medical Cyclotron (NMC). All low-level liquid and gaseous effluent discharges complied with existing discharge authorisations and relevant environmental regulations. Potential effective doses to the general public from LHSTC controlled airborne discharges were estimated for 1999 using the PC-Cream atmospheric dispersion and dosimetry code. The potential effective doses to the public in 1999 were estimated to be less than 0.010 mSv/year for all receptor locations on the LHSTC 1.6 km buffer zone boundary or beyond. This value represents 1% of the I milli sievert (mSv) per year dose limit for long term exposure that is recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council and 3.3% of the LHSTC site dose constraint of 0.3 mSv/year. It is concluded that there is no impact on the health of the community, staff or the environment as a consequence of operations at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre or the National Medical Cyclotron (authors)

  13. Environmental and effluent monitoring at ANSTO sites 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, E L; Loosz, T; Mokhber-Shahin, L [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Lucas Heights, NSW, Australia, (Australia)

    2000-07-01

    Results are presented of environmental and effluent monitoring conducted in 1999 at the two sites owned and operated by ANSTO, at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre (LHSTC) and the National Medical Cyclotron (NMC). All low-level liquid and gaseous effluent discharges complied with existing discharge authorisations and relevant environmental regulations. Potential effective doses to the general public from LHSTC controlled airborne discharges were estimated for 1999 using the PC-Cream atmospheric dispersion and dosimetry code. The potential effective doses to the public in 1999 were estimated to be less than 0.010 mSv/year for all receptor locations on the LHSTC 1.6 km buffer zone boundary or beyond. This value represents 1% of the 1 millisievert (mSv) per year dose limit for long term exposure that is recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council and 3.3% of the LHSTC site dose constraint of 0.3 mSv/year. It is concluded that there is no impact on the health of the community, staff or the environment as a consequence of operations at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre or the National Medical Cyclotron.

  14. Environmental and effluent monitoring at ANSTO sites, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, E L; Loosz, T; Mokhber-Shahin, L [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai, NSW (Australia)

    2001-07-01

    Results are presented of environmental surveillance and effluent monitoring conducted in the calendar year 2000 at the two sites owned and operated by ANSTO, at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre (LHSTC) and the National Medical Cyclotron (NMC). All low-level liquid and gaseous effluent discharges complied with existing discharge authorisations and relevant environmental regulations. Potential effective doses to the general public from LHSTC controlled airborne discharges were estimated for 2000 using the PC-Cream atmospheric dispersion and dosimetry code. The potential effective doses to the public in 2000 were estimated to be less than 0.01 mSv/year for all receptor locations on the LHSTC 1.6 km buffer zone boundary or beyond. This value represents 1 % of the 1 milli sievert (mSv) per year dose limit for long term exposure that is recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council and 3.3% of the LHSTC site dose constraint of 0.3 mSv/year. It is concluded that there is no impact on the health of the community, staff or the environment as a consequence of operations at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre or the National Medical Cyclotron.

  15. Environmental and effluent monitoring at ANSTO sites, 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, E.L.; Loosz, T.; Mokhber-Shahin, L.

    2001-01-01

    Results are presented of environmental surveillance and effluent monitoring conducted in the calendar year 2000 at the two sites owned and operated by ANSTO, at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre (LHSTC) and the National Medical Cyclotron (NMC). All low-level liquid and gaseous effluent discharges complied with existing discharge authorisations and relevant environmental regulations. Potential effective doses to the general public from LHSTC controlled airborne discharges were estimated for 2000 using the PC-Cream atmospheric dispersion and dosimetry code. The potential effective doses to the public in 2000 were estimated to be less than 0.01 mSv/year for all receptor locations on the LHSTC 1.6 km buffer zone boundary or beyond. This value represents 1 % of the 1 milli sievert (mSv) per year dose limit for long term exposure that is recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council and 3.3% of the LHSTC site dose constraint of 0.3 mSv/year. It is concluded that there is no impact on the health of the community, staff or the environment as a consequence of operations at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre or the National Medical Cyclotron

  16. Environmental and effluent monitoring at ANSTO sites, 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, E.L.; Loosz, T.

    2002-01-01

    Results are presented of environmental surveillance and effluent monitoring conducted in the calendar year 2001 at the two sites owned and operated by ANSTO at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre (LHSTC) and the National Medical Cyclotron (NMC). All low-level liquid and gaseous effluent discharges complied with existing discharge authorisations and relevant environmental regulations. Potential effective doses to the general public from LHSTC-controlled airborne discharges were estimated for 2001 using the PC-Cream atmospheric dispersion and dosimetry code. The potential effective doses to the public in 2001 were estimated to be less than 0.01 mSv/year for all receptor locations on the LHSTC 1.6 km buffer zone boundary or beyond. This is well below the ALARA objective of 0.02 mSv per year for off-site doses that ANSTO has set and much lower than the public dose limit of 1 mSv per year (above natural background and medical doses) and the natural background dose in Australia of 1.5 mSv per year (Webb et al; 1999). It is concluded that there is no impact on the health of the community as a consequence of operations at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre or the National Medical Cyclotron

  17. Environmental and effluent monitoring at ANSTO sites 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, E. L.; Loosz, T.; Mokhber-Shahin, L.

    2000-01-01

    Results are presented of environmental and effluent monitoring conducted in 1999 at the two sites owned and operated by ANSTO, at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre (LHSTC) and the National Medical Cyclotron (NMC). All low-level liquid and gaseous effluent discharges complied with existing discharge authorisations and relevant environmental regulations. Potential effective doses to the general public from LHSTC controlled airborne discharges were estimated for 1999 using the PC-Cream atmospheric dispersion and dosimetry code. The potential effective doses to the public in 1999 were estimated to be less than 0.010 mSv/year for all receptor locations on the LHSTC 1.6 km buffer zone boundary or beyond. This value represents 1% of the 1 millisievert (mSv) per year dose limit for long term exposure that is recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council and 3.3% of the LHSTC site dose constraint of 0.3 mSv/year. It is concluded that there is no impact on the health of the community, staff or the environment as a consequence of operations at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre or the National Medical Cyclotron

  18. Environmental and effluent monitoring at ANSTO sites, 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, E.L.; Loosz, T.; Mokhber-Shahin, L.

    1999-01-01

    Results are presented of environmental and effluent monitoring conducted in 1999 at the two sites owned and operated by ANSTO, at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre (LHSTC) and the National Medical Cyclotron (NMC). All low-level liquid and gaseous effluent discharges complied with existing discharge authorisations and relevant environmental regulations. Potential effective doses to the general public from LHSTC controlled airborne discharges were estimated for 1999 using the PC-Cream atmospheric dispersion and dosimetry code. The potential effective doses to the public in 1999 were estimated to be less than 0.010 mSv/year for all receptor locations on the LHSTC 1.6 km buffer zone boundary or beyond. This value represents 1% of the I milli sievert (mSv) per year dose limit for long term exposure that is recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council and 3.3% of the LHSTC site dose constraint of 0.3 mSv/year. It is concluded that there is no impact on the health of the community, staff or the environment as a consequence of operations at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre or the National Medical Cyclotron (authors)

  19. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the 300 Area Fuels Fabrication Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickels, J.M.; Brendel, D.F.

    1991-11-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP- 0438. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan is the first annual report. It shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring system by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated as a minimum every three years. The Fuel Fabrication Facility in the Hanford 300 Area supported the production reactors from the 1940's until they were shut down in 1987. Prior to 1987 the Fuel Fabrication Facility released both airborne and liquid radioactive effluents. In January 1987 the emission of airborne radioactive effluents ceased with the shutdown of the fuels facility. The release of liquid radioactive effluents have continued although decreasing significantly from 1987 to 1990

  20. Public doses estimation based on effluents data and direct measurements of Tritium in environmental samples at Cernavoda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobric, E.; Popescu, I.; Simionov, V.

    2002-01-01

    The release of any potential radioactive pollutant to the environment during routine operation of a Nuclear Power Plant should be the subject of appropriate controls and assessments. The layout of the Candu reactor and the design of its systems ensure that the radioactive waste quantities are minimized, but small amounts of radioisotopes are continuously discharged at very low concentrations through gaseous and liquid effluents. Radioprotection of the public is based on the principles recommended by ICRP, the protection being mainly achieved by control of the sources of exposure. Source monitoring provide a means of assessing the radiation exposure of population groups, critical groups and individual members of the public. The assessed doses are used to demonstrate the compliance with authorized dose limits - 1 mSv / year in our case - but can also be used for optimization purposes

  1. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DAVIS, W.E.

    2000-03-08

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the U.S. Department of Energy in Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee public safety, or the environment. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether these systems are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan ensures long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and must be updated, as a minimum, every 3 years.

  2. Facility effluent monitoring plan for K area spent fuel storage basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunacek, G.S.

    1996-01-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the U.S. Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400. 1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document was prepared using the specific guidelines identified in WHC-EP-0438-1, A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, and assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan is the second revision to the original annual report. Long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring system shall be ensured with updates of this report whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated at a minimum of every three years

  3. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DAVIS, W.E.

    2000-01-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the U.S. Department of Energy in Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee public safety, or the environment. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether these systems are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan ensures long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and must be updated, as a minimum, every 3 years

  4. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP); FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FRAZIER, T.P.

    1999-01-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the U. S. Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether these systems are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. To ensure the long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems, an update to this facility effluent monitoring plan is required whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document is reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and is updated, at a minimum, every 3 years

  5. Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentile, Charles A.; Parker, John J.; Guttadora, Gregory L.; Ciebiera, Lloyd P.

    2002-01-01

    The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Tritium Systems Group has developed and fabricated an Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System (OTDS), which is designed to reduce tritium surface contamination on various components and items. The system is configured to introduce gaseous ozone into a reaction chamber containing tritiated items that require a reduction in tritium surface contamination. Tritium surface contamination (on components and items in the reaction chamber) is removed by chemically reacting elemental tritium to tritium oxide via oxidation, while purging the reaction chamber effluent to a gas holding tank or negative pressure HVAC system. Implementing specific concentrations of ozone along with catalytic parameters, the system is able to significantly reduce surface tritium contamination on an assortment of expendable and non-expendable items. This paper will present the results of various experimentation involving employment of this system

  6. Design of a Tritium-in-air-monitor using field programmable gate arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNelles, Phillip; Lu, Lixuan

    2015-01-01

    Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) have recently garnered significant interest for certain applications within the nuclear field. Some applications of these devices include Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems, pulse measurement systems, particle detectors and health physics purposes. In CANada Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) nuclear power plants, the use of heavy water (D2O) as the moderator leads to the increased production of Tritium, which poses a health risk and must be monitored by Tritium-In-Air Monitors (TAMs). Traditional TAMs are mostly designed using microprocessors. More recent studies show that FPGAs could be a potential alternative to implement the electronic logic used in radiation detectors, such as the TAM, more effectively. In this paper, an FPGA-based TAM is designed and constructed in a laboratory setting using an FPGA-based cRIO system. New functionalities, such as the detection of Carbon-14 and the addition of noble gas compensation are incorporated into a new FPGA-based TAM. Additionally, all of the standard functions included in the original microprocessor-based TAM, such as tritium detection, gamma compensation, pump and air flow control, and background and thermal drift corrections were also implemented. The effectiveness of the new design is demonstrated through simulations as well as laboratory testing on the prototype system. (author)

  7. Elimination of effect of α-particles in tritium gas monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Yuzuru; Asaoka, Koichi; Manako, Hiroaki; Kumabe, Isao

    1982-01-01

    In order to obtain the high sensitivity in a tritium monitor, a cancellation circuit for α-particles emitted by Rn in air was designed and constructed. The cancellation circuit consists of a differentiating circuit, discriminator, peak-hold circuit and difference amplifier. Pulsed signals induced by α-particles are separated from tritium #betta#-signals by the differentiating circuit and the discriminator. After being shaped by the peak-hold circuit with the same decay time constant as that of the initial α-signals, the α-signals are subtracted from the initial signals by the difference amplifier. The experimental test of this system was carried out, and it was confirmed that the elimination of the effect of α-particles was achieved successfully by the use of this cancellation circuit. (author)

  8. Environmental Monitoring Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, S.W.; Gallegos, G.M.; Surano, K.A.; Lamson, K.C.; Tate, P.J.; Balke, B.K.; Biermann, A.H.; Hoppes, W.G.; Fields, B.C.; Gouveia, F.J.; Berger, R.L.; Miller, F.S.; Rueppel, D.W.; Sims, J.M.

    1992-04-01

    The primary tasks of the environmental monitoring section (EMS) Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) are: effluent monitoring of air, sewer, and NPDES water. Surveillance monitoring of soil, vegetation and foodstuff, water, air particulate, and air tritium. Radiation monitoring, dose assessment, emergency response, quality assurance, and reporting. This report describes LLNL and the monitoring plan

  9. Tritium dosimetry and standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balonov, M.I.

    1983-01-01

    Actual problem of radiation hygiene such as an evaluation of human irradiation hazard due to a contact with tritium compounds both in industrial and public spheres is under discussion. Sources of tritium release to environment are characterized. Methods of tritium radiation monitoring are discussed. Methods of dosimetry of internal human exposure resulted from tritium compounds are developed on the base of modern representations on metbolism and tritium radiobiological effect. A system of standardization of permissible intake of tritium compounds for personnel and persons of population is grounded. Some protection measures are proposed as applied to tritium overdosage

  10. Real-time monitoring/emergency response modeling workstation for a tritium facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawver, B.S.; Sims, J.M.; Baskett, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) we have developed a real-time system to monitor two stacks on our tritium handling facility. The monitors transmit the stack data to a workstation, which computes a three-dimensional numerical model of atmospheric dispersion. The workstation also collects surface and upper air data from meteorological towers and a sodar. The complex meteorological and terrain setting in the Livermore Valley demands more sophisticated resolution of the three-dimensional structure of the atmosphere to reliably calculate plume dispersion than afforded by Gaussian models. We experience both mountain valley and sea breeze flows. To address these complexities, we have implemented the three-dimensional diagnostic MATHEW mass-adjusted wind field and ADPIC particle-in-cell dispersion models on the workstation for use in real-time emergency response modeling. Both MATHEW and ADPIC have shown their utility in a variety of complex settings over the last 15 yr within the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) project. Faster workstations and real-time instruments allow utilization of more complex three-dimensional models, which provides a foundation for building a real-time monitoring and emergency response workstation for a tritium facility. The stack monitors are two ion chambers per stack

  11. Facility effluent monitoring plan for K Area Spent Fuel. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunacek, G.S.

    1995-09-01

    The scope of this document includes program plans for monitoring and characterizing radioactive and nonradioactive hazardous materials discharged in the K Area effluents. This FEMP includes complete documentation for both airborne and liquid effluent monitoring systems that monitor radioactive and nonradioactive hazardous pollutants that could be discharged to the environment under routine and/or upset conditions. This documentation is provided for each K Area facility that uses, generates, releases, or manages significant quantities of radioactive and nonradioactive hazardous materials that could impact public and employee safety and the environment. This FEW describes the airborne and liquid effluent paths and the associated sampling and monitoring systems of the K Area facilities. Sufficient information is provided on the effluent characteristics and the effluent monitoring systems so that a compliance assessment against requirements may be performed. Adequate details are supplied such that radioactive and hazardous material source terms may be related to specific effluent streams which are, in turn, related to discharge points and finally compared to the effluent monitoring system capability

  12. Environmental aspects of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quisenberry, D.R.

    1979-01-01

    The potential radiological implications of environmental tritium releases must be determined in order to develop a programme for dealing with the tritium inventory predicted for the nuclear power industry which, though still in its infancy, produces tritium in megacurie quantities annually. Should the development of fusion power generation become a reality, it will create a potential source for large releases of tritium, much of it in the gaseous state. At present about 90% of the tritium produced enters the environment through gaseous and liquid effluents and is deposited in the hydrosphere as tritiated water. Tritium can be assimilated by plants and animals and organically bound, regardless of the exposure pathway. However, there appears to be no concentration factor relative to hydrogen at any level of food chains analysed to date. The body burden, for man, is dependent on the exposure pathway and tissue-bound fractions are primarily the result of organically bound tritium in food. (author)

  13. Some recent changes in tritium handling and control at Mound Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhinehammer, T.B.

    1976-01-01

    Significant reductions in tritium effluents and personnel exposures at Mound Laboratory have been made during the past 5 yr. Yearly effluents are less than 3 percent of former levels and personnel exposures have been reduced by a factor of 300. Several recent changes which have contributed to these reductions include lowered tritium levels in gloveboxes, and the efficiency and capacity of Mound's new effluent removal system. Personnel exposures have been reduced dramatically by changing to precious metal catalytic converters or oxidizers for use with the glovebox gas purification system. Unlike some former systems using hot copper or proprietary reactants for oxygen removal, a catalyst provides very effective removal of both oxygen and tritium. Both oxygen and tritium can be monitored and, if necessary, increments of hydrogen in argon can be added until the oxygen level is brought down to the desired value

  14. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HUNACEK, G.S.

    2000-01-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US. Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document was prepared using the specific guidelines identified in Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC)-EP-0438-1, ''A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans'', and assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan is the third revision to the original annual report. This document is reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it is updated as necessary

  15. Environmental monitoring at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. 1981 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auyong, M.; Griggs, K.S.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    This report gives methods and results of the 1981 radiation monitoring program at LLL for both radioactive and non-radioactive contamination from gaseous and liquid effluents. Off-site monitoring includes various radionuclides but especially tritium in the ecosystems

  16. Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System test plans releases 2.0 and 3.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guettler, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) is being developed as the organized information repository facility in support of the liquid effluent monitoring requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement. It is necessary to provide an automated repository into which the results from liquid effluent sampling will be placed. This repository must provide for effective retention, review, and retrieval of selected sample data by authorized persons and organizations. This System Architecture document is the aggregation of the DMR P+ methodology project management deliverables. Together they represent a description of the project and its plan through four Releases, corresponding to the definition and prioritization of requirements defined by the user

  17. Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) test plans release 1.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, R.T.

    1994-01-01

    The Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) is being developed as the organized information repository facility in support of the liquid effluent monitoring requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement. It is necessary to provide an automated repository into which the results from liquid effluent sampling will be placed. This repository must provide for effective retention, review, and retrieval of selected sample data by authorized persons and organizations. This System Architecture document is the aggregation of the DMR P+ methodology project management deliverables. Together they represent a description of the project and its plan through four Releases, corresponding to the definition and prioritization of requirements defined by the user

  18. Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System test plans release 1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, R.T.

    1994-01-01

    The Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) is being developed as the organized information repository facility in support of the liquid effluent monitoring requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement. It is necessary to provide an automated repository into which the results from liquid effluent sampling will be placed. This repository must provide for effective retention, review, and retrieval of selected sample data by authorized persons and organizations. This System Architecture document is the aggregation of the DMR P+ methodology project management deliverables. Together they represent a description of the project and its plan through four Releases, corresponding to the definition and prioritization of requirements defined by the user

  19. Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) test plans release 1.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, R.T.

    1994-01-01

    The Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) is being developed as the organized information repository facility in support of the liquid effluent monitoring requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement. It is necessary to provide an automated repository into which the results from liquid effluent sampling will be placed. This repository must provide for effective retention, review, and retrieval of selected sample data by authorized persons and organizations. This System Architecture document is the aggregation of the DMR P+ methodology project management deliverables. Together they represent a description of the project and its plan through four Releases, corresponding to the definition and prioritization of requirements defined by the user

  20. A Low-Level Real-Time In Situ Monitoring System for Tritium in Groundwater and Vadose Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santo, J. T.; Levitt, D. G.

    2002-12-01

    Tritium is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen produced as a by-product of the nuclear fuel cycle. It is also an integral part of the nuclear weapons industry and has been released into the environment through both the production and testing of nuclear weapons. There are many sites across the DOE complex where tritium has been released into the subsurface through the disposal of radioactive waste and at the Nevada Test Site, through the underground testing of nuclear weapons. Numerous DOE facilities have an on-going regulatory need to be able to monitor tritium concentrations in groundwater within deep hydrologic zones and in the shallower non-saturated vadose zone beneath waste disposal pits and shafts and other release sites. Typical access to groundwater is through deep monitoring wells and situated in remote locations. In response to this need, Science and Engineering Associates, Inc. (SEA) and its subcontractor, the University of Nevada Las Vegas (UNLV) Harry Reid Center (HRC) for Environmental Studies has conducted the applied research and engineering and produced a real time, in situ monitoring system for the detection and measurement of low levels of tritium in the groundwater and in the shallower vadose zone. The monitoring system has been deployed to measure tritium in both the vadose zone near a subsurface radioactive waste package and the groundwater in a deep hydrologic reservoir at the Nevada Test Site. The monitoring system has been designed to detect tritium in the subsurface below federal and/or state regulatory limits for safe drinking water and has been successfully demonstrated. The development effort is being funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory and the DOE Nevada Operations Office Advanced Monitoring Systems Initiative (AMSI).

  1. Ceramic BeO exoelectron dosimeters for tritium and radon monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammage, R.B.

    1979-01-01

    An environmental monitoring device with BeO ceramic dosimeters can be used to measure 222 Rn in dwellings. Radon diffuses into a porous hemispheric chamber and the radon daughters are electrostatically collected on aluminized Mylar foil covering the BeO dosimeter that records the alpha activity. A 10:1 signal-to-background ratio results from a radon exposure of only pCi-h/l. This high sensitivity makes accurate radon measurement possible within one day, even at near background levels of a few tenths pCi/l. The BeO exoelectron dosimeter is also uniquely suited for monitoring occupational exposure to insoluble tritium gas. At one-fifth the maximum permissible concentration, exposure for 8 hours gives a 10:1 signal-to-background exoelectron response to the low energy beta rays. Compensation for any exoelectron response caused by photon radiation can be made by reading the thermoluminescence. The tritium exposure produces negligible thermoluminescence. Progress in these and other applications is now totally dependent on achieving reliability and long-term stability of the exoelectron dosimeter

  2. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the 284-E and 284-W power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, D.R.

    1991-11-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP- 0438. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan is the first annual report. It shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated as a minimum every three years. The 284-E and 284-W Power Plants are coal-fired plants used to generate steam. Electricity is not generated at these facilities. The maximum production of steam is approximately 159 t (175 tons)/h at 101 kg (225 lb)/in 2 . Steam generated at these facilities is used in other process facilities (i. e., the B Plant, Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant, 242-A Evaporator) for heating and process operations. The functions or processes associated with these facilities do not have the potential to generate radioactive airborne effluents or radioactive liquid effluents, therefore, radiation monitoring equipment is not used on the discharge of these streams. The functions or processes associated with the production of steam result in the use, storage, management and disposal of hazardous materials

  3. Estimation of radionuclide releases in atmosphere from Cernavoda NPP based on continuous gaseous effluent monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobric, E.; Murgoci, S.; Popescu, I.; Ibadula, R.

    2001-01-01

    Monitoring of gaseous effluents from Cernavoda NPP is performed to assess the environmental impact of the plant operation. The results of the monitoring program are used to evaluate the population doses in order to ensure that the emissions of radionuclides in air are below regulatory limits and radiation doses are maintained ALARA. It complements, but is independent from the Operational Environmental Monitoring Program for Cernavoda NPP. Gaseous effluent monitors provide continuous indication of the radioactivity content in atmospheric emissions. Except for noble gases, these monitors also collect samples for later detailed analysis in the station Health Physics Laboratory. This paper presents the main equipment and the results of the gaseous effluents monitoring program in order to assess the impact of Cernavoda NPP operation and to predict the future releases as function of radionuclides concentrations in CANDU systems, based on the identified trends.(author)

  4. Proposed radioactive liquid effluent monitoring requirements at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jannik, G.T.; Carlton, W.H.; Blunt, B.C.

    1994-01-01

    Clear regulatory guidance exists for structuring a radiological air monitoring program, however, there is no parallel guidance for radiological liquid monitoring. For Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, there are no existing applicable federal regulations, DOE orders, or DOE guidance documents that specify at what levels continuous monitoring, continuous sampling, or periodic confirmatory measurements of radioactive liquid effluents must be made. In order to bridge this gap and to technically justify and document liquid effluent monitoring decisions at DOE's Savannah River Site, Westinghouse Savannah River Company has proposed that a graded, dose-based approach be established, in conjunction with limits on facility radionuclide inventories, to determine the monitoring and sampling criteria to be applied at each potential liquid radioactive effluent point. The graded approach would be similar to--and a conservative extension of--the existing, agreed-upon SRS/EPA-IV airborne effluent monitoring approach documented in WSRC's NESHAP Quality Assurance Project Plan. The limits on facility radionuclide inventories are based on--and are a conservative extension of--the 10 CFR 834, 10 CFR 20, and SCR 61-63 annual limits on discharges to sanitary sewers. Used in conjunction with each other, the recommended source category criteria levels and facility radionuclide inventories would allow for the best utilization of resources and provide consistent, technically justifiable determinations of radioactive liquid effluent monitoring requirements

  5. Tritium emissions reduction facility (TERF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamberger, P.H.; Hedley, W.H.

    1993-01-01

    Tritium handling operations at Mound include production of tritium-containing devices, evaluation of the stability of tritium devices, tritium recovery and enrichment, tritium process development, and research. In doing this work, gaseous process effluents containing 400,000 to 1,000,000 curies per year of tritium are generated. These gases must be decontaminated before they can be discharged to the atmosphere. They contain tritium as elemental hydrogen, as tritium oxide, and as tritium-containing organic compounds at low concentrations (typically near one ppm). The rate at which these gases is generated is highly variable. Some tritium-containing gas is generated at all times. The systems used at Mound for capturing tritium from process effluents have always been based on the open-quotes oxidize and dryclose quotes concept. They have had the ability to remove tritium, regardless of the form it was in. The current system, with a capacity of 1.0 cubic meter of gas per minute, can effectively remove tritium down to part-per-billion levels

  6. STAR facility tritium accountancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawelko, R. J.; Sharpe, J. P.; Denny, B. J.

    2008-01-01

    The Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) facility has been established to provide a laboratory infrastructure for the fusion community to study tritium science associated with the development of safe fusion energy and other technologies. STAR is a radiological facility with an administrative total tritium inventory limit of 1.5 g (14,429 Ci) [1]. Research studies with moderate tritium quantities and various radionuclides are performed in STAR. Successful operation of the STAR facility requires the ability to receive, inventory, store, dispense tritium to experiments, and to dispose of tritiated waste while accurately monitoring the tritium inventory in the facility. This paper describes tritium accountancy in the STAR facility. A primary accountancy instrument is the tritium Storage and Assay System (SAS): a system designed to receive, assay, store, and dispense tritium to experiments. Presented are the methods used to calibrate and operate the SAS. Accountancy processes utilizing the Tritium Cleanup System (TCS), and the Stack Tritium Monitoring System (STMS) are also discussed. Also presented are the equations used to quantify the amount of tritium being received into the facility, transferred to experiments, and removed from the facility. Finally, the STAR tritium accountability database is discussed. (authors)

  7. Distributed process control system for remote control and monitoring of the TFTR tritium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schobert, G.; Arnold, N.; Bashore, D.; Mika, R.; Oliaro, G.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the progress made in the application of a commercially available distributed process control system to support the requirements established for the Tritium REmote Control And Monitoring System (TRECAMS) of the Tokamak Fusion Test REactor (TFTR). The system that will discussed was purchased from Texas (TI) Instruments Automation Controls Division), previously marketed by Rexnord Automation. It consists of three, fully redundant, distributed process controllers interfaced to over 1800 analog and digital I/O points. The operator consoles located throughout the facility are supported by four Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) PDP-11/73 computers. The PDP-11/73's and the three process controllers communicate over a fully redundant one megabaud fiber optic network. All system functionality is based on a set of completely integrated databases loaded to the process controllers and the PDP-11/73's. (author). 2 refs.; 2 figs

  8. Annual environmental monitoring report, January-December 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-03-01

    Non-radioactive monitoring program involved: repair of a leaking waste paint and solvent tank, installation of a pretreatment facility for liquid effluents from a plating shop; and construction discharge. Radioactivity was monitored for air with comparisons to the average annual population dose from neutron radiation and tritium in the waste water effluents

  9. Tritium recapture behavior at a nuclear power reactor due to airborne releases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jason T; Miller, David W; Foster, Doug W

    2008-08-01

    This paper describes the initiatives taken by Cook Nuclear Plant to study the on-site behavior of recaptured tritium released in its airborne effluents. Recapture is the process where a released radioactive effluent, in this case tritium, is brought back on-site through some mechanism. Precipitation, shifts in wind direction, or anthropogenic structures that restrict or alter effluent movement can all lead to recapture. The investigation was started after tritium was detected in the north storm drain outfall. Recent inadvertent tritium releases by several other nuclear power plants, many of which entered the groundwater, have led to increased surveillance and scrutiny by regulatory authorities and the general public. To determine the source of tritium in the outfall, an on-site surface water, well water, rainwater and air-conditioning condensate monitoring program was begun. Washout coefficients were also determined to compare with results reported by other nuclear power plants. Program monitoring revealed detectable tritium concentrations in several precipitation sample locations downwind of the two monitored containment building release vents. Tritium was found in higher concentrations in air-conditioning condensate, with a mean value of 528 Bq L(-1) (14,300 pCi L(-1)). The condensate, and to a lesser extent rainwater, were contributing to the tritium found in the north storm drain outfall. Maximum concentration values for each sample type were used to estimate the most conservative dose. A maximum dose of 1.1 x 10(-10) mSv (1.1 x 10(-8) mrem) total body was calculated to determine the health impact of the tritium detected.

  10. ZEPHYR tritium system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swansiger, W.; Andelfinger, C.; Buchelt, E.; Fink, J.; Sandmann, W.; Stimmelmayr, A.; Wegmann, H.G.; Weichselgartner, H.

    1982-04-01

    The ignition experiment ZEPHYR will need tritium as an essential component of the fuel. The ZEPHYR Tritium Systems are designed as to recycle the fuel directly at the experiment. An amount of tritium, which is significantly below the total throughput, for example 10 5 Ci will be stored in uranium getters and introduced into the torus by a specially designed injection system. The torus vacuum system operates with tritium-tight turbomolecular pumps and multi-stage roots pumps in order to extract and store the spent fuel in intermediate storage tanks at atmospheric pressure. A second high vacuum system, similar in design, serves as to evacuate the huge containments of the neutral injection system. The spent fuel will be purified and subsequently processed by an isotope separation system in which the species D 2 , DT and T 2 will be recovered for further use. This isotope separation will be achieved by a preparative gaschromatographic process. All components of the tritium systems will be installed within gloveboxes which are located in a special tritium handling room. The atmospheres of the gloveboxes and of the tritium rooms are controlled by a tritium monitor system. In the case of a tritium release - during normal operation as well as during an accident - these atmospheres become processed by efficient tritium absorption systems. All ZEPHYR tritium handling systems are designed as to minimize the quantity of tritium released to the environment, so that the stringent German laws on radiological protection are satisfied. (orig.)

  11. A real-time monitoring/emergency response modeling workstation for a tritium facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawver, B.S.; Sims, J.M.; Baskett, R.L.

    1993-07-01

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) we developed a real-time system to monitor two stacks on our tritium handling facility. The monitors transmit the stack data to a workstation which computes a 3D numerical model of atmospheric dispersion. The workstation also collects surface and upper air data from meteorological towers and a sodar. The complex meteorological and terrain setting in the Livermore Valley demands more sophisticated resolution of the three-dimensional structure of the atmosphere to reliably calculate plume dispersion than afforded by Gaussian models. We experience both mountain valley and sea breeze flows. To address these complexities, we have implemented the three-dimensional diagnostic MATHEW mass-adjusted wind field and ADPIC particle-in-cell dispersion models on the workstation for use in real-time emergency response modeling. Both MATHEW and ADPIC have shown their utility in a variety of complex settings over the last 15 years within the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC[1,2]) project

  12. Recovery of tritium from CANDU reactors, its storage and monitoring of its migration in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtslander, W.J.; Osborne, R.V.

    1979-07-01

    Tritium is produced in CANDU heavy water reactors mainly by neutron activation of deuterium. The typical production rate is 2.4 kCi per megawatt-year (89 TBq. per megawatt-year. In Pickering Generating Station the average concentration of tritium in the moderators has reached 16 Ci.kg -1 (0.6 TBq.kg -1 ) and in coolants, 0.5 Ci.kg -1 (0.02 TBq.kg -1 ). Concentrations will continue to increase towards an equilibrium determined by the production rate, the tritium decay rate and heavy water replacement. Tritium removal methods that are being considered for a pilot plant design are catalytic exchange of DTO with D 2 and electrolysis of D 2 O/DTO to provide feed for cryogenic distillation of D 2 /DT/T 2 . Storage methods for the removed tritium - as elemental gas, as metal hydrides and in cements - are also being investigated. Transport of tritiated wastes should not be a particularly difficult problem in light of extensive experience in transporting tritiated heavy water. Methods for determining the presence of tritium in the environment of any tritium handling facility are well established and have the capability of measuring concentrations of tritium down to current ambient values. (author)

  13. Gaseous effluent monitoring and identification using an imaging Fourier transform spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, M.R.; Bennett, C.L.; Fields, D.J.; Hernandez, J.

    1993-10-01

    We are developing an imaging Fourier transform spectrometer for chemical effluent monitoring. The system consists of a 2-D infrared imaging array in the focal plane of a Michelson interferometer. Individual images are coordinated with the positioning of a moving mirror in the Michelson interferometer. A three dimensional data cube with two spatial dimensions and one interferogram dimension is then Fourier transformed to produce a hyperspectral data cube with one spectral dimension and two spatial dimensions. The spectral range of the instrument is determined by the choice of optical components and the spectral range of the focal plane array. Measurements in the near UV, visible, near IR, and mid-IR ranges are possible with the existing instrument. Gaseous effluent monitoring and identification measurements will be primarily in the ``fingerprint`` region of the spectrum, ({lambda} = 8 to 12 {mu}m). Initial measurements of effluent using this imaging interferometer in the mid-IR will be presented.

  14. Improving the performances of hydrophobic catalysts used for tritium recovery and enrichment processes In liquid and gaseous effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, Irina; Ionita, Gheorghe; Varlam, Carmen

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Based on the long experience of the authors in the preparation, testing and evaluation of the performances of hydrophobic catalysts and based also on the reviewed references, this paper presents up-to-date R and D activities on the preparation methods and applications of the hydrophobic catalysts in tritium separation. The objectives of the paper are: (1) how to improve the characteristics and performance of platinum hydrophobic catalysts; (2) to assess and find a new procedure for the preparation of a new improved hydrophobic catalyst. From reviewed references it results that platinum appears to be the most active and efficient catalytic metal while polytetrafluoroethylene is the best wetproofing agent. A new improved hydrophobic Pt-catalyst has been obtained and tests are now underway. The main steps and experimental conditions of preparation are largely discussed. A new wetproofing agent and new binding agents (titanium dioxide, cerium dioxide, zirconium dioxide) with a catalytic role are proposed and tested. The physico-structural parameters of the improved catalyst have been determined and are discussed in detail. The new proposal is a promising for improving the performance of conventional hydrophobic Pt-catalysts. (authors)

  15. Radiological effluent and onsite area monitoring report for the Nevada Test Site (January 1986-December 1986)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, D.A.

    1987-09-01

    This report documents the environmental surveillance program at the Nevada Test Site as conducted by the Department of Energy (DOE) onsite radiological safety contractor from January 1986 through December 1986. It presents results and evaluations of radioactivity measurements in air and water, and of direct gamma radiation exposure rates. It establishes relevant correlations between the data recorded and DOE concentration guides (CG's). External gamma exposure levels and radioactivity in air and water on the Nevada Test Site were low compared to DOE guidelines. The highest average gross beta concentration in air was 0.005% of the DOE concentration guide (CG). The highest average Pu-239 concentration was 7.7% of the standard. The highest average tritium concentration was 0.39% of the standard. Kr-85 concentrations increased slightly from CY-1985 to CY-1986. Xe-133 remained nondetectable with some exceptions. The highest average gross beta concentration in potable water remained within the applicable standard for drinking water. The highest average Pu-239 concentration from contaminated waters was 0.0005% of the concentration guide. The highest average tritium concentration in noncontaminated water was 6% of the level for drinking water required by the National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulation. The amounts of tritium-bearing effluent released to contaminated waste ponds was calculated and reported to DOE Headquarters. Gamma radiation measurements were roughly the same in CY-1986 relative to the previous year. All surveillance results from the Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) indicate that no detectable releases of radioactive materials occurred in that network in 1986. 29 refs., 14 figs., 23 tabs

  16. Tritium sampling and measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, M.J.; McElroy, R.G.; Surette, R.A.; Brown, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    Current methods for sampling and measuring tritium are described. Although the basic techniques have not changed significantly over the last 10 y, there have been several notable improvements in tritium measurement instrumentation. The design and quality of commercial ion-chamber-based and gas-flow-proportional-counter-based tritium monitors for tritium-in-air have improved, an indirect result of fusion-related research in the 1980s. For tritium-in-water analysis, commercial low-level liquid scintillation spectrometers capable of detecting tritium-in-water concentrations as low as 0.65 Bq L-1 for counting times of 500 min are available. The most sensitive method for tritium-in-water analysis is still 3He mass spectrometry. Concentrations as low as 0.35 mBq L-1 can be detected with current equipment. Passive tritium-oxide-in-air samplers are now being used for workplace monitoring and even in some environmental sampling applications. The reliability, convenience, and low cost of passive tritium-oxide-in-air samplers make them attractive options for many monitoring applications. Airflow proportional counters currently under development look promising for measuring tritium-in-air in the presence of high gamma and/or noble gas backgrounds. However, these detectors are currently limited by their poor performance in humidities over 30%. 133 refs

  17. Monitoring quantity and quality of pangasius pond effluent : report of a monitoring program and recommendations for certification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, van der P.G.M.; Poelman, M.; Vo Minh Son,; Duong Nhut Long,; Bosma, R.H.

    2011-01-01

    The quantity and quality of pangasius pond effluent was monitored by means of monthly sampling during a study conducted on four striped catfish farms located in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. The study was undertaken to test the practical implications of the standards and guidelines with regard to

  18. ITER task title - source term data, modelling, and analysis. ITER subtask no. S81TT05/5 (SEP 1-1). Global tritium source term analysis basis document. Subtask 1: operational tritium effluents and releases. Final report (1995 TASK)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalyanam, K.M.

    1996-06-01

    This document represents the final report for the global tritium source term analysis task initiated in 1995. The report presents a room-by-room map/table at the subsystem level for the ITER tritium systems, identifying the major equipment, secondary containments, tritium release sources, duration/frequency of tritium releases and the release pathways. The chronic tritium releases during normal operation, as well as tritium releases due to routine maintenance of the Water Distillation Unit, Isotope Separation System and Primary and Secondary Heat Transport Systems, have been estimated for most of the subsystems, based on the IDR design, the Design Description Documents (April - Jun 1995 issues) and the design updates up to December 1995. The report also outlines the methodology and the key assumptions that are adopted in preparing the tritium release estimates. The design parameters for the ITER Basic Performance Phase (BPP) have been used in estimating the tritium releases shown in the room-by-room map/table. The tritium release calculations and the room-by-room map/table have been prepared in EXCEL, so that the estimates can be refined easily as the design evolves and more detailed information becomes available. (author). 23 refs., tabs

  19. Risk-Based Radioactive Liquid Effluent Monitoring Requirements at the U. S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jannik, G.T.

    2001-01-01

    For Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, clear regulatory guidance exists for structuring radiological air emissions monitoring programs. However, there are no parallel regulations for radiological liquid effluent monitoring programs. In order to bridge this gap and to technically justify liquid effluent monitoring decisions at DOE's Savannah River Site, a graded, risk-basked approach has been established to determine the monitoring and sampling criteria to be applied at each liquid discharge point

  20. Radiation Measurements Laboratory (RML) calibration and assessment of the ATR SPING-3 stack effluent monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeppen, L.D.; Rogers, J.W.; Simpson, O.D.

    1983-12-01

    An evaluation, calibration and assessment of the Eberline SPING-3 ATR stack effluent monitor was conducted. This unit which monitors particulate, iodine and noble gas effluents was producing abnormal results following the initial installation and operational testing. The purposes of this work were to find the causes of the abnormal results and correct them if possible; check the calibrations and adjust them if necessary; and to provide a better in-depth understanding of what the unit is monitoring and how well it performs under this application. Results have shown that there were some problems associated with the unit as initially installed and tested. These problems have been identified and suggested alternatives shown, the monitor was found to be applicable to some extent under the current conditions. The calibrations have been checked and adjustments made. More operation testing and evaluation is needed to assess how well this works under a variety of ATR operating conditions. 2 references, 10 figures, 3 tables

  1. Groundwater Monitoring and Tritium-Tracking Plan for the 200 Area State-Approved Land Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, D. Brent

    2000-08-31

    The 200 Area State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS) is a drainfield which receives treated wastewater, occasionally containing high levels of tritium from treatment of Hanford Site liquid wastes. Only the SALDS proximal wells (699-48-77A, 699-48-77C, and 699-48-77D) have been affected by tritium from the facility thus far; the highest activity observed (2.1E+6 pCi/L) occurred in well 699-48-77D in February 1998. Analytical results of groundwater geochemistry since groundwater monitoring began at the SALDS indicate that all constituents with permit enforcement limits have been below those limits with the exception of one measurement of total dissolved solids (TDS) in 1996. The revised groundwater monitoring sampling and analysis plan eliminates chloroform, acetone, tetrahydrofuran, benzene, and ammonia as constituents. Replicate field measurements will replace laboratory measurements of pH for compliance purposes. A deep companion well to well 699-51-75 will be monitored for tritium deeper in the uppermost aquifer.

  2. Tentative reference method for measurement of tritium in environmental waters. Environmental monitoring series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-12-01

    A tentative reference method for the measurement of tritium in potable and nonpotable environmental water is described. Water samples are treated with sodium hydroxide and potassium permanganate and then a water fraction is separated from interferences by distillation. Two distillation procedures are described, a simple aqueous distillation for samples from potable water sources, and an aqueous-azeotropic-benzene distillation for nonpotable water sources. Alliquots of a designated distillate fraction are measured for tritium activity by liquid scintillation detection. Distillation recovery and counting efficiency factors are determined with tritium standards. Results are reported in picocuries per milliliter

  3. The ITER tritium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glugla, M.; Antipenkov, A.; Beloglazov, S.; Caldwell-Nichols, C.; Cristescu, I.R.; Cristescu, I.; Day, C.; Doerr, L.; Girard, J.-P.; Tada, E.

    2007-01-01

    ITER is the first fusion machine fully designed for operation with equimolar deuterium-tritium mixtures. The tokamak vessel will be fuelled through gas puffing and pellet injection, and the Neutral Beam heating system will introduce deuterium into the machine. Employing deuterium and tritium as fusion fuel will cause alpha heating of the plasma and will eventually provide energy. Due to the small burn-up fraction in the vacuum vessel a closed deuterium-tritium loop is required, along with all the auxiliary systems necessary for the safe handling of tritium. The ITER inner fuel cycle systems are designed to process considerable and unprecedented deuterium-tritium flow rates with high flexibility and reliability. High decontamination factors for effluent and release streams and low tritium inventories in all systems are needed to minimize chronic and accidental emissions. A multiple barrier concept assures the confinement of tritium within its respective processing components; atmosphere and vent detritiation systems are essential elements in this concept. Not only the interfaces between the primary fuel cycle systems - being procured through different Participant Teams - but also those to confinement systems such as Atmosphere Detritiation or those to fuelling and pumping - again procured through different Participant Teams - and interfaces to buildings are calling for definition and for detailed analysis to assure proper design integration. Considering the complexity of the ITER Tritium Plant configuration management and interface control will be a challenging task

  4. Results of the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility biological monitoring program, July 1987--July 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specht, W.L.

    1992-07-01

    As required by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) under NPDES Permit SCO000175, biological monitoring was conducted in Upper Three Runs Creek to determine if discharges from the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility have adversely impacted the biotic community of the receiving stream. Data included in this summary report encompass July 1987 through July 1991. As originally designed, the F/H ETF was not expected to remove all of the mercury from the wastewater; therefore, SCDHEC specified that studies be conducted to determine if mercury was bioaccumulating in aquatic biota. Subsequent to approval of the biological monitoring program, an ion exchange column was added to the F/H ETF specifically to remove mercury, which eliminated mercury from the F/H ETF effluent. The results of the biological monitoring program indicate that at the present rate of discharge, the F/H ETF effluent has not adversely affected the receiving stream with respect to any of the parameters that were measured. The effluent is not toxic at the in-stream waste concentration and there is no evidence of mercury bioaccumulation

  5. Monitoring tritium in air containing other beta-emitters using ion chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalbert, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    A flow-through ionization chamber instrument is described which is capable of measuring tritium in air containing high concentrations of other beta emitters. The instrument employs a separate concentric chamber with a thin common wall opaque only to tritium betas. Currents produced in the two chambers are subtracted leaving only the current due to tritium. With a 1.6-l sampling chamber and an 18-s time constant, tritium concentrations of 10 -6 μCi/ml to 10 -4 μCi/ml are measured with 2 sigma confidence in background beta concentrations of 4 x 10 -5 μCi/ml to 0.4 muCi/ml, respectively. (auth)

  6. Effluent controls and environmental monitoring programs for uranium milling operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maixner, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    Controls will reduce gaseous, particulate, and liquid discharges. Monitoring programs are used to determine effectiveness. The controls and programs discussed are used at Cotter Corporation's Canon City Mill in Colorado. 3 refs

  7. Tritium sources; Izvori tricijuma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glodic, S [Institute of Nuclear Sciences VINCA, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Boreli, F [Elektrotehnicki fakultet, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1993-07-01

    Tritium is the only radioactive isotope of hydrogen. It directly follows the metabolism of water and it can be bound into genetic material, so it is very important to control levels of contamination. In order to define the state of contamination it is necessary to establish 'zero level', i.e. actual global inventory. The importance of tritium contamination monitoring increases with the development of fusion power installations. Different sources of tritium are analyzed and summarized in this paper. (author)

  8. A real-time tritium-in-water monitor for measurement of heavy water leak to the secondary coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathnakaran, M.; Ravetkar, R.M.; Samant, R.K.; Abani, M.C.

    2000-01-01

    The paper describes the development and evaluation of on-line, real-time tritium in water monitor for detection and measurement of heavy water leak to the secondary coolant in a Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor. The detector used for this is a plastic scintillator film, made in the form of sponge and housed in a flow cell which is used for measurement of tritium activity present in heavy water. Two photomultiplier tubes are optically coupled on either face of the flow cell detector and measurement is done in coincidence mode. The sample water is continuously passed through the flow cell detector and a continuous measurement of tritium activity is carried out. It is observed that the impurities in the process water sample are gradually trapped in the flow cell, which affects the transparency of the detector with use. This reduces the sensitivity of the system. In addition, chlorine, which is added in the sample water, to arrest the fungus formation, creates chemiluminescence which interfere the measurement. To improve the sample quality as well as to eliminate the chemiluminescence created by chlorine, sample conditioner consisting of polypropylene candle, activated charcoal and glass fibre filter paper is developed. Polypropylene candle traps particulates above 5 μm pore size, activated charcoal absorbs organic compounds, free chlorine, fungus and turbidity and glass fibre filter paper stops submicron size particles. The measurement is also affected by the interference of dissolved argon-41 in the sample water. A bubbler system developed at BARC is used to strip the dissolved Ar-41 present in the sample which enables the system to measure tritium in presence of this interfering radioactive gas. The microprocessor based electronic system, used in the monitor provides the facility for selection of counting time and thereby improving the counting statistics. Alarm circuit is provided to give timely alarm when the tritium activity concentration exceeds the preset level

  9. Control, monitoring and data acquisition systems in pilot plant for tritium and deuterium separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retevoi, Carmen; Balteanu, Ovidiu Ioan

    1999-01-01

    To achieve the control, monitoring and data acquisition for a pilot plant for tritium and deuterium separation we have developed a system based on computer processing which transfers and treats all the data from the physical system. It consists of six basic elements: 1. a process computer ; 2. a National Instruments Amplifier/Multiplexed - SCXI 1000 with a SCXI 1100 Module with 32 differential input channels; 3. a Honeywell Digital Process Recorder - DPR 250, with 32 universal input, 12 digital input and 12 internal relays; 4. a control system for 4 throttle valves; 5. a National Instruments Data Acquisition board - AT-MIO-16XE-10, with 8 differential channels; 6. a system consisting of up to 20 digital programming current units for carbon RTD's. All the parameters from transducers, sensors and transmitters are introduced into the multiplexer and beyond into the acquisition data board. With LabVIEW soft support (National Instrument product), we made a graphic interface which displays the plant and all the parameters and their points of measure and cumulates all these data into a file. On the other hand all the pressure flow and level values are monitored by the recorder DPR 250, which has a RS232/RS485 port for PC communication. The temperatures are measured with carbon RTD's and a system comprising 20 programming current units connected by RS485 serial bus and a RS485/RS232 converter directly to the serial port of process computer. A special program makes the voltage/temperature conversion. The control system for throttle valves comprises a central unit, which communicates by RS232 bus with 4 controllers commanding 4 stepping motors. Every stepping motor is linked by a reductor to the throttle valve. This system can operate in either manual or automatic mode. The central unit can communicate with process computer via RS232 link. In this way a process computer can receive all the parameters by means of RS232/RS245 link or directly through the multiplexer and

  10. Effluent monitoring Quality Assurance Project Plan for radioactive airborne emissions data. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frazier, T.P.

    1995-12-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for compiling Hanford Site radioactive airborne emissions data. These data will be reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the US Department of Energy, and the Washington State Department of Health. Effluent Monitoring performs compliance assessments on radioactive airborne sampling and monitoring systems. This Quality Assurance Project Plan is prepared in compliance with interim guidelines and specifications. Topics include: project description; project organization and management; quality assurance objectives; sampling procedures; sample custody; calibration procedures; analytical procedures; monitoring and reporting criteria; data reduction, verification, and reporting; internal quality control; performance and system audits; corrective actions; and quality assurance reports

  11. Environmental tritium in trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    The distribution of environmental tritium in the free water and organically bound hydrogen of trees growing in the vicinity of the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL) has been studied. The regional dispersal of HTO in the atmosphere has been observed by surveying the tritium content of leaf moisture. Measurement of the distribution of organically bound tritium in the wood of tree ring sequences has given information on past concentrations of HTO taken up by trees growing in the CRNL Liquid Waste Disposal Area. For samples at background environmental levels, cellulose separation and analysis was done. The pattern of bomb tritium in precipitation of 1955-68 was observed to be preserved in the organically bound tritium of a tree ring sequence. Reactor tritium was discernible in a tree growing at a distance of 10 km from CRNL. These techniques provide convenient means of monitoring dispersal of HTO from nuclear facilities. (author)

  12. Japanese university program on tritium radiobiology and environmental tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Shigefumi

    1989-01-01

    The university program of the tritium study in the Special Research Project of Nuclear Fusion (1980-1989) is now on its 9th year. The study's aim is to assess tritium risk on man and environment for development of Japanese Nuclear Fusion Program. The tritium study begun by establishing various tritium safe-handling devices and methods to protect scientists from tritium contamination. Then, the tritium studies were initiated in three areas: The first was the studies on biological effects of tritiated water, where their RBE values, their modifying factors and mechanisms were investigated. Also, several human monitoring systems for detection of tritium-induced damage were developed. The second was the metabolic studies of tritium, including a daily tritium monitoring system, methods to enhance excretion of tritiated water from body and means to prevent oxidation of tritium gas in the body. The third was the study of environmental tritium. Tritium levels in environmental waters of various types were estimated all-over in Japan and their seasonal or regional variation were analyzed. Last two years, the studies were extended to estimate tritium activities of plants, foods and man in Japan. (author)

  13. Processing and monitoring liquid, radioactive effluents from the Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage Karlsruhe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoehlein, G.; Huppert, K.L.; Winter, M.

    1977-01-01

    The Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage Karlsruhe (WAK) serves as a demonstration plant for the processing of highly-irradiated uranous oxide. The high active waste concentrates find interim storage at the WAK until they are solidified at a later stage. In contrast to this, the slightly- and the medium-active liquid wastes are transported to the decontamination facility of the Nuclear Research Centre Karlsruhe, where they are immediately processed. These liquid wastes contain about 1 per thousand of the activity inventary of the fuel elements processed. Monitoring of the radioactive waste water of the WAK is carried out by the Nuclear Research Centre's department radiation protection and safety. (orig.) [de

  14. Environmental survey near a decommissioning nuclear facility: example of tritium monitoring in the terrestrial environment of Creys-Malville - Environmental survey near a nuclear facility undergoing decommissioning: example of tritium monitoring in the terrestrial environment of Creys-Malville

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, C.; Gontier, G.; Chauveau, J.L. [EDF CIDEN, Division Environnement, 154 Avenue Thiers, 69458 Lyon (France); Pourcelot, L.; Roussel-Debet, S.; Cossonnet, P.C. [IRSN, LERCM Cadarache and LMRE Orsay (France); Jean-Baptiste, P. [LSCE, UMR 1572-CEA/CNRS/UVQS, 91198 Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2014-07-01

    As part of the regulatory environmental monitoring around its nuclear power plants (NPP) in France, EDF carries out more than 40.000 measurements of radionuclides in the environment every year. In addition, EDF performs more detailed radioecological surveys on all of its sites. The purposes of these surveys are: 1/ to control that radioactive discharge limits prescribed by the regulatory authority are respected, 2/ to monitor the environment of the NPPs to verify normal plant operation and to detect all possible failures in power station operation at an early stage and 3/ to establish if there is any increase of radionuclides of anthropogenic origin in the environment and to determine whether this build-up can be attributed to plant operations. Radioecological surveys are conducted in the environment surrounding each of EDF's NPPs. Samples are collected in surrounding ecosystems (terrestrial and aquatic) where the radioactive releases are discharged (liquid and gaseous discharges). These surveys results enable the examination of the spatial distribution and temporal variability of radionuclide activity in the environment throughout the reactors life, from the first fuel load to the decommissioning of the plant. The results from this monitoring have shown that EDF's nuclear power plants have only a minor effect on radionuclide levels in the environment. These results highlight the efficiency of EDF's efforts to minimise its impacts on the environment via an efficient waste management system and high operating standards of its plants. In particular, tritium is subject to special monitoring for more than 30 years; concentrations of free tritium and organically bound tritium in major environmental compartments are therefore well-known in the vicinity of French NPPs. At the end of a reactor's life, EDF has collected a large amount of reference data before decommissioning operations start. During these operations, EDF pursue the radioecological survey

  15. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Balance-of-Plant Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Gervais, Todd L.

    2004-11-15

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operates a number of Research & Development (R&D) facilities for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on the Hanford Site. Facility effluent monitoring plans (FEMPs) have been developed to document the facility effluent monitoring portion of the Environmental Monitoring Plan (DOE 2000) for the Hanford Site. Three of PNNL’s R&D facilities, the 325, 331, and 3720 Buildings, are considered major emission points for radionuclide air sampling, and individual FEMPs were developed for these facilities in the past. In addition, a balance-of-plant (BOP) FEMP was developed for all other DOE-owned, PNNL-operated facilities at the Hanford Site. Recent changes, including shutdown of buildings and transition of PNNL facilities to the Office of Science, have resulted in retiring the 3720 FEMP and combining the 331 FEMP into the BOP FEMP. This version of the BOP FEMP addresses all DOE-owned, PNNL-operated facilities at the Hanford Site, excepting the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory, which has its own FEMP because of the unique nature of the building and operations. Activities in the BOP facilities range from administrative to laboratory and pilot-scale R&D. R&D activities include both radioactive and chemical waste characterization, fluid dynamics research, mechanical property testing, dosimetry research, and molecular sciences. The mission and activities for individual buildings are described in Appendix A. Potential radioactive airborne emissions in the BOP facilities are estimated annually using a building inventory-based approach provided in federal regulations. Sampling at individual BOP facilities is based on a potential-to-emit assessment. Some of these facilities are considered minor emission points and thus are sampled routinely, but not continuously, to confirm the low emission potential. One facility, the 331 Life Sciences Laboratory, has a major emission point and is sampled continuously. Sampling systems are

  16. A simple passive method of collecting water vapour for environmental tritium monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, T.; Fukuda, H.; Ikebe, Y.; Yokoyama, S.

    1995-01-01

    To investigate the average behaviour of tritium in an atmospheric environment, it is necessary to collect water vapour in air over a long period at numerous locations. For the purpose of the study, the passive method was developed: this is handy, low-priced and could collect water vapour in air without motive power. This paper describes the characteristics of the passive collecting method, the performance of water collection in outdoor air and the measurements of tritium concentrations in water samples collected by the passive method. (author)

  17. 1994 Environmental monitoring drinking water and nonradiological effluent programs annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, B.D.; Brock, T.A.; Meachum, T.R.

    1995-10-01

    EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc., initiated monitoring programs for drinking water in 1988 and for nonradiological parameters and pollutants in liquid effluents in 1985. These programs were initiated for the facilities operated by EG ampersand G Idaho for the US Department of Energy at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. On October 1, 1994, Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO) replaced EG ampersand G Idaho as the prime contractor at the INEL and assumed responsibility for these programs. Section I discusses the general site characteristics, the analytical laboratories, and sampling methodology general to both programs. Section 2, the Drinking Water Program, tracks the bacteriological, chemical, and radiological parameters required by State and Federal regulations. This section describes the drinking water monitoring activities conducted at 17 LITCO-operated production wells and 11 distribution systems. It also contains all of the drinking water parameters detected and the regulatory limits exceeded during calendar year 1994. In addition, groundwater quality is discussed as it relates to contaminants identified at the wellhead for LITCO production wells. Section 3 discusses the nonradiological liquid effluent monitoring results for 27 liquid effluent streams. These streams are presented with emphasis on calendar year 1994 activities. All parameter measurements and concentrations were below the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act toxic characteristics limits

  18. Review of the knowledge available to date on the effects of tritium exposure on health and the environment in Canada - a tool to guide regulatory compliance monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, P.A.; Hamlat, M.S.; Lane, R.; Mihok, S.; Reinhardt, P.; Bundy, K.

    2011-01-01

    The use of tritium in CANDU (Canadian Deuterium-Uranium) reactors, in industry to produce self-luminescent lights and paints, in oil and gas exploration, in hospitals for diagnostic tests and radio-therapeutics, and in research makes the control of tritium releases generated by these activities particularly important in Canada. Releases are regulated and carefully monitored by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC). Some special interest and citizen groups, however, claim that the scientific uncertainty regarding the effects of tritium on health and on the environment is such that regulation of the facilities releasing or using tritium may be inadequate. In response to these concerns, the CNSC asked its staff to initiate the 'Tritium Studies' project. As part of the project, the environmental fate of tritium and its health effects were studied through direct field measurements and the review of the latest scientific literature on the subject. The project made it possible to conclude that the tritium radiation protection measures and regulatory mechanisms are adequate in protecting the health and safety of Canadians. (authors)

  19. Calculation of tritium release from reactor's stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhadi, M.

    1996-01-01

    Method for calculation of tritium release from nuclear to environment has been discussed. Part of gas effluent contain tritium in form of HTO vapor released from reactor's stack was sampled using silica-gel. The silica-gel was put in the water to withdraw HTO vapor absorbed by silica-gel. Tritium concentration in the water was measured by liquid scintillation counter of Aloka LSC-703. Tritium concentration in the gas effluent and total release of tritium from reactor's stack during certain interval time were calculated using simple mathematic formula. This method has examined for calculation of tritium release from JRR-3M's stack of JAERI, Japan. From the calculation it was obtained the value of tritium release as much as 4.63 x 10 11 Bq during one month. (author)

  20. Tritium storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hircq, B.

    1990-01-01

    This document represents a synthesis relative to tritium storage. After indicating the main storage particularities as regards tritium, storages under gaseous and solid form are after examined before establishing choices as a function of the main criteria. Finally, tritium storage is discussed regarding tritium devices associated to Fusion Reactors and regarding smaller devices [fr

  1. Tritium waste control: April-September 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamberger, P.H.; Rogers, M.L.

    1983-01-01

    The pilot-scale, water feed cleanup system was used to successfully remove organic and inorganic impurities from Effluent Removal System (ERS) water. Tests with activated carbon traps removed organic impurities to as low as 2.5 ppM total carbon. Traps containing Amberlite resins for removing organic impurities were not successful and actually contaminated the water with higher levels (>2000 ppM) of organics. Gas generation rates caused by radiolysis of tritiated waste materials were determined for polymer and nonpolymer-impregnated tritiated concrete and fixated and nonfixated tritiated waste vacuum pump oil. In addition, the pressure change of hydrogen cover gas over tritiated water on cement-plaster was determined. The test program to measure and compare the release of tritium from tritiated concrete with and without styrene impregnation continued. Tritium permeation data from small test blocks are given. The drum study monitoring the release of tritium from actual burial packages continued. The maximum fractional release rate for the three types of high activity, tritiated liquid waste generated is 2.97 x 10 -5 , and the maximum total permeation is 158 mCi after 8 yr. These two values represent a 13% increase for the past 6 months. Tritium release from the polymer-impregnated, tritiated concrete (PITC) and from the control (non-PITC) remains very low

  2. General principles governing sampling and measurement techniques for monitoring radioactive effluents from nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitoussi, L.

    1978-01-01

    An explanation is given of the need to monitor the release of radioactive gases and liquid effluents from nuclear facilities, with particular emphasis on the ICRP recommendations and on the interest in this problem shown by the larger international organizations. This is followed by a description of the classes of radionuclides that are normally monitored in this way. The characteristics of monitoring 'in line' and 'by sample taking' are described; the disadvantages of in line monitoring and the problem of sample representativity are discussed. There follows an account of the general principles for measuring gaseous and liquid effluents that are applied in the techniques normally employed at nuclear facilities. Standards relating to the specifications for monitoring instruments are at present being devised by the International Electrotechnical Commission, and there are still major differences in national practices, at least as far as measurement thresholds are concerned. In conclusion, it is shown that harmonization of practices and standardization of equipment would probably help to make international relations in the field more productive. (author)

  3. Tritium. Today's and tomorrow's developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazal, S.; Amiard, J.C.; Caussade, Bernard; Chenal, Christian; Hubert, Francoise; Sene, Monique

    2010-01-01

    Radioactive hydrogen isotope, tritium is one of the radionuclides which is the most released in the environment during the normal operation of nuclear facilities. The increase of nuclear activities and the development of future generations of reactors, like the EPR and ITER, would lead to a significant increase of tritium effluents in the atmosphere and in the natural waters, thus raising many worries and questions. Aware about the importance of this question, the national association of local information commissions (ANCLI) wished to make a status of the existing knowledge concerning tritium and organized in 2008 a colloquium at Orsay (France) with an inquiring approach. The scientific committee of the ANCLI, renowned for its expertise skills, mobilized several nuclear specialists to carry out this thought. This book represents a comprehensive synthesis of today's knowledge about tritium, about its management and about its impact on the environment and on human health. Based on recent scientific data and on precise examples, it treats of the overall questions raised by this radionuclide: 1 - tritium properties and different sources (natural and anthropic), 2 - the problem of tritiated wastes management; 3 - the bio-availability and bio-kinetics of the different tritium species; 4 - the tritium labelling of environments; 5 - tritium measurement and modeling of its environmental circulation; 6 - tritium radio-toxicity and its biological and health impacts; 7 - the different French and/or international regulations concerning tritium. (J.S.)

  4. Tritium-v. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Several bibliographical references about tritium are shown. The following aspects are presented: properties, analysis, monitoring, dosimetry reactions, labelling, industrial production, radiological protection, applications to science, technology and industry and some processes to obtain the element. (E.G.) [pt

  5. Environmental and effluent monitoring at Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, E L; Loosz, T; Farrar, Y

    1998-11-01

    Results are presented of environmental and effluent monitoring conducted in the vicinity of the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre (LHSTC) during 1997. All low-level liquid and gaseous effluent discharges complied with existing discharge authorizations and relevant environmental regulations. Potential effective doses to the general public from controlled airborne discharges from HIFAR were estimated utilising the PC-Cream atmospheric dispersion and dosimetry code. The potential effective dose to the public was estimated to be less than 0.010 mSv/year for all receptor locations on the 1.6 km buffer zone boundary around the HIFAR research reactor. This value represents 1% of the 1 mSv/year dose limit for long term exposure that is recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council and 10% of the HIFAR dose constraint of 0.1 mSv/year 24 tabs., 7 figs.; Glossary; Appendices

  6. Environmental and effluent monitoring at Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, E.L.; Loosz, T.; Farrar, Y.

    1997-06-01

    Results are presented of environmental and effluent monitoring conducted in the vicinity of the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre during 1996. All low-level liquid and gaseous effluent discharges complied with existing discharge authorizations and relevant environmental regulations. Potential effective doses to the general public from controlled airborne discharges during this period, were estimated to be less than 0.010 mSv/year for receptor locations on the 1.6 km buffer zone boundary around HIFAR. This value represents 1% of the 1 mSv/year dose limit for long term exposure that is recommended by thr National Health and Medical Research Council and 3.3% of the site dose constraint of 0.3mSv/year adopted by ANSTO. Details of the environmental sample collection and analytical procedures are given in the appendices. (authors). 29 refs., 26 tabs., 6 figs.

  7. Environmental and effluent monitoring at Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, E.L.; Loosz, T.; Farrar, Y.

    1997-06-01

    Results are presented of environmental and effluent monitoring conducted in the vicinity of the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre during 1996. All low-level liquid and gaseous effluent discharges complied with existing discharge authorizations and relevant environmental regulations. Potential effective doses to the general public from controlled airborne discharges during this period, were estimated to be less than 0.010 mSv/year for receptor locations on the 1.6 km buffer zone boundary around HIFAR. This value represents 1% of the 1 mSv/year dose limit for long term exposure that is recommended by thr National Health and Medical Research Council and 3.3% of the site dose constraint of 0.3mSv/year adopted by ANSTO. Details of the environmental sample collection and analytical procedures are given in the appendices. (authors)

  8. Environmental and effluent monitoring at Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, E.L.; Loosz, T.; Farrar, Y

    1998-11-01

    Results are presented of environmental and effluent monitoring conducted in the vicinity of the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre (LHSTC) during 1997. All low-level liquid and gaseous effluent discharges complied with existing discharge authorizations and relevant environmental regulations. Potential effective doses to the general public from controlled airborne discharges from HIFAR were estimated utilising the PC-Cream atmospheric dispersion and dosimetry code. The potential effective dose to the public was estimated to be less than 0.010 mSv/year for all receptor locations on the 1.6 km buffer zone boundary around the HIFAR research reactor. This value represents 1% of the 1 mSv/year dose limit for long term exposure that is recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council and 10% of the HIFAR dose constraint of 0.1 mSv/year

  9. An analysis of the tritium content in fish from Upper Three Runs Creek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    In November of 1988 the F/H-area effluent treatment facility (ETF) began releasing treated waste water to Upper Three Runs Creek. Previous to that time, there has been minimal discharge of plant waste water to this tributary of the Savannah River. The ETF is designed to remove the toxic and radioactive waste materials from the effluent stream and to meet the discharge limits of the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The only radioactive nuclide not removed by the process is tritium. Tritium, an isotope of hydrogen, is chemically associated with the water molecules in the waste stream and can not be economically removed at this time. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the concentration of tritium in the stream water and the concentration of tritium in the fish. Fish collections were made at two locations. The most upstream location was 50 meters downstream from the SRS Road C bridge. This is immediately downstream of the effluent discharge pipe from the ETF. The other location was at the bridge of SRS Road A (SC Highway 125). The water is removed from the fish by freeze drying under vacuum. This study suggests that, on the average, the tritium concentration of fish in Upper Three Runs Creek will be in equilibrium with the tritium in the water of the creek. The water in the fish comes into equilibrium with the water in the stream quite rapidly and it is quite likely that any single fish sampled will be higher or lower in tritium content of an integrated water sample, such as those collected by the Environmental Monitoring samplers. Both the time of sampling and the sampling of a sufficient number of fish is important in obtaining an accurate estimate of the average tritium concentration in the tissue water of the fish

  10. Management of tritium at nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This report presents extending summaries of the works of the participants to an IAEA co-ordinated research programme, ''Handling Tritium - bearing effluents and wastes''. The subjects covered include production of tritium in nuclear power plants (mainly heavy water and light water reactors), as well as at reprocessing plants; removal and enrichment of tritium at nuclear facilities; conditioning methods and characteristics of immobilized tritium of low and high concentration; some potential methods of storage and disposal of tritium. In addition to the conclusions of this three-years work, possible activities in the field are recommended

  11. Development of tritium technology at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.L.; Bartlit, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    The Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is dedicated to the development, demonstration, and interfacing of technologies related to the deuterium-tritium fuel cycle for large scale fusion reactor systems starting with the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) or the International Tokamak Reactor (INTOR). This paper briefly describes the fuel cycle and safety systems at TSTA including the Vacuum Facility, Fuel Cleanup, Isotope Separation, Transfer Pumping, Emergency Tritium Cleanup, Tritium Waste Treatment, Tritium Monitoring, Data Acquisition and Control, Emergency Power and Gas Analysis systems. Discussed in further detail is the experimental program proposed for the startup and testing of these systems

  12. High concentration tritium gas measurement with small volume ionization chambers for fusion fuel gas monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uda, Tatsuhiko; Okuno, Kenji; Matsuda, Yuji; Naruse, Yuji

    1991-01-01

    To apply ionization chambers to fusion fuel gas processing systems, high concentration tritium gas was experimentally measured with small volume 0.16 and 21.6 cm 3 ionization chambers. From plateau curves, the optimum electric field strength was obtained as 100∼200 V/cm. Detection efficiency was confirmed as dependent on the ionization ability of the filled gas, and moreover on its stopping power, because when the range of the β-rays was shortened, the probability of energy loss by collisions with the electrode and chamber wall increased. Loss of ions by recombination was prevented by using a small volume ionization chamber. For example the 0.16 cm 3 ionization chamber gave measurement with linearity to above 40% tritium gas. After the tritium gas measurements, the concentration levels inside the chamber were estimated from their memory currents. Although more than 1/4,000 of the maximum, current was observed as a memory effect, the smaller ionization chamber gave a smaller memory effect. (author)

  13. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Balance-of-Plant Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballinger, M.Y.; Shields, K.D.

    1999-04-02

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operates a number of research and development (R and D) facilities for the Department of Energy on the Hanford Site. According to DOE Order 5400.1, a Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan is required for each site, facility, or process that uses, generates, releases, or manages significant pollutants or hazardous materials. Three of the R and D facilities: the 325, 331, and 3720 Buildings, are considered major emission points for radionuclide air sampling and thus individual Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans (FEMPs) have been developed for them. Because no definition of ''significant'' is provided in DOE Order 5400.1 or the accompanying regulatory guide DOE/EH-0173T, this FEMP was developed to describe monitoring requirements in the DOE-owned, PNNL-operated facilities that do not have individual FEMPs. The remainder of the DOE-owned, PNNL-operated facilities are referred to as Balance-of-Plant (BOP) facilities. Activities in the BOP facilities range from administrative to laboratory and pilot-scale R and D. R and D activities include both radioactive and chemical waste characterization, fluid dynamics research, mechanical property testing, dosimetry research, and molecular sciences. The mission and activities for individual buildings are described in the FEMP.

  14. A new stack effluent monitoring system at the Risoe Hot Cell plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boetter-Jensen, L.; Hedemann Jensen, P.; Lauridsen, B.

    1984-06-01

    This report describes a new stack effluent monitoring system that has been installed at the Hot Cell facility. It is an integrating iodine/particulate system consisting of a γ-shielded flow house in which a continous air sample from the ventilation channel ia sucked through coal and glass filter papers. Activity is accumulated on the filter papers and a thin plastic scintillator detects the β-radiation from the trapped iodine or particulate activity. The stack effluent monitoring system has a two-step regulating function as applied to the ventilation system, first switching it to a recirculating mode, and finally to building-seal after given releases of 131 I. The collection efficiency for iodine in form of elementary iodine (I 2 ) and methyliodide (CH 3 I) has been determined experimentally. The unwanted response from a noble gas release has also been determined from experiments. The noble gas response was determined from puff releases of the nuclide 41 Ar in the concrete cells. It is concluded that the iodine/particulate system is extremely sensitive and that it can easily detect iodine or particulate releases as low as a few MBq. A gamma monitor placed in connection with the iodine/particulate system detects Xe/Kr-releases as low as a few tens of MBq per second. (author)

  15. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Balance-of-Plant Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballinger, M.Y.; Shields, K.D.

    1999-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operates a number of research and development (R and D) facilities for the Department of Energy on the Hanford Site. According to DOE Order 5400.1, a Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan is required for each site, facility, or process that uses, generates, releases, or manages significant pollutants or hazardous materials. Three of the R and D facilities: the 325, 331, and 3720 Buildings, are considered major emission points for radionuclide air sampling and thus individual Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans (FEMPs) have been developed for them. Because no definition of ''significant'' is provided in DOE Order 5400.1 or the accompanying regulatory guide DOE/EH-0173T, this FEMP was developed to describe monitoring requirements in the DOE-owned, PNNL-operated facilities that do not have individual FEMPs. The remainder of the DOE-owned, PNNL-operated facilities are referred to as Balance-of-Plant (BOP) facilities. Activities in the BOP facilities range from administrative to laboratory and pilot-scale R and D. R and D activities include both radioactive and chemical waste characterization, fluid dynamics research, mechanical property testing, dosimetry research, and molecular sciences. The mission and activities for individual buildings are described in the FEMP

  16. EU-wide monitoring survey on emerging polar organic contaminants in wastewater treatment plant effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Robert; Carvalho, Raquel; António, Diana C; Comero, Sara; Locoro, Giovanni; Tavazzi, Simona; Paracchini, Bruno; Ghiani, Michela; Lettieri, Teresa; Blaha, Ludek; Jarosova, Barbora; Voorspoels, Stefan; Servaes, Kelly; Haglund, Peter; Fick, Jerker; Lindberg, Richard H; Schwesig, David; Gawlik, Bernd M

    2013-11-01

    In the year 2010, effluents from 90 European wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were analyzed for 156 polar organic chemical contaminants. The analyses were complemented by effect-based monitoring approaches aiming at estrogenicity and dioxin-like toxicity analyzed by in vitro reporter gene bioassays, and yeast and diatom culture acute toxicity optical bioassays. Analyses of organic substances were performed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) or liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) or gas chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS). Target microcontaminants were pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), veterinary (antibiotic) drugs, perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), organophosphate ester flame retardants, pesticides (and some metabolites), industrial chemicals such as benzotriazoles (corrosion inhibitors), iodinated x-ray contrast agents, and gadolinium magnetic resonance imaging agents; in addition biological endpoints were measured. The obtained results show the presence of 125 substances (80% of the target compounds) in European wastewater effluents, in concentrations ranging from low nanograms to milligrams per liter. These results allow for an estimation to be made of a European median level for the chemicals investigated in WWTP effluents. The most relevant compounds in the effluent waters with the highest median concentration levels were the artificial sweeteners acesulfame and sucralose, benzotriazoles (corrosion inhibitors), several organophosphate ester flame retardants and plasticizers (e.g. tris(2-chloroisopropyl)phosphate; TCPP), pharmaceutical compounds such as carbamazepine, tramadol, telmisartan, venlafaxine, irbesartan, fluconazole, oxazepam, fexofenadine, diclofenac, citalopram, codeine, bisoprolol, eprosartan, the antibiotics trimethoprim, ciprofloxacine, sulfamethoxazole, and clindamycine, the insect repellent N,N'-diethyltoluamide (DEET), the pesticides

  17. Environmental monitoring standardization of effluent from nuclear fuel cycle facilities in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Mili

    1993-01-01

    China has established some environmental monitoring standards of effluent from nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Up to date 33 standards have been issued; 10 to be issued; 11 in drafting. These standards cover sampling, gross activities measurement, analytical methods and management rules and so on. They involve with almost all nuclear fuel cycle facilities and have formed a complete standards system. By the end of the century, we attempt to draft a series of analytical and determination standards in various environmental various medium, they include 36 radionuclides from nuclear fuel cycle facilities. (3 tabs.)

  18. Five years of tritium handling experience at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.V.

    1989-01-01

    The Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory is a facility designed to develop and demonstrate, in full scale, technologies necessary for safe and efficient operation of tritium systems required for tokamak fusion reactors. TSTA currently consists of systems for evacuating reactor exhaust gas with compound cryopumps; for removing impurities from plasma exhaust gas and recovering the chemically-combined tritium; for separating the isotopes of hydrogen; for transfer pumping; or storage of hydrogen isotopes; for gas analysis; and for assuring safety by the necessary control, monitoring, and tritium removal from effluent streams. TSTA also has several small scale experiments to develop and test new equipment and processes necessary for fusion reactors. In this paper, data on component reliability, failure types and rates, and waste quantities are presented. TSTA has developed a Quality Assurance program for preparing and controlling the documentation of the procedures required for the design, purchase, and operation of the tritium systems. Operational experience under normal, abnormal, and emergency conditions is presented. One unique aspect of operations at TSTA is that the design personnel for the TSTA systems are also part of the operating personnel. This has allowed for the relatively smooth transition from design to operations. TSTA has been operated initially as a research facility. As the system is better defined, operations are proceeding toward production modes. The DOE requirements for the operation of a tritium facility like TSTA include personnel training, emergency preparedness, radiation protection, safety analysis, and preoperational appraisals. The integration of these requirements into TSTA operations is discussed. 4 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  19. Distribution and behavior of tritium in the environment near its sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Masami

    1994-01-01

    Of the long-lived radionuclides migrating globally through the environment, tritium was investigated because it is a latent source of detectable pollution in the Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI). Moreover, mass transport in an in situ situation could be studied as well. Discharge rates of tritium from the operation of reactors and reprocessing plants throughout the world are given together with data on the background level of tritium in the environment and the resulting collective effective dose equivalent commitment. The behavior of tritium that has leaked from a heavy water facility in the Kyoto University Research Reactor (KURR) is dealt with by modeling its transport between air, water, and building materials. The spatial distributions of tritium in the air within the facilities of the KURR and KUCA (Kyoto University Critical Assembly), as measured by a convenient monitoring method that uses small water basins as passive samplers also are shown. Tritium discharged as liquid effluents in a reservoir for monitoring and in a retention pond at the KURRI site was monitored, and its behavior clarified by use of a box model and/or a classical dispersion equation. The purpose of this research is to keep radiation exposure to workers and the public as low as reasonably achievable, taking into account economic and social considerations (the ALARA concept). (author)

  20. Tritium handling facilities at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.L.; Damiano, F.A.; Nasise, J.E.

    1975-01-01

    A new tritium facility, recently activated at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, is described. The facility contains a large drybox, associated gas processing system, a facility for handling tritium gas at pressures to approximately 100 MPa, and an effluent treatment system which removes tritium from all effluents prior to their release to the atmosphere. The system and its various components are discussed in detail with special emphasis given to those aspects which significantly reduce personnel exposures and atmospheric releases. (auth)

  1. Recommended radiological controls for tritium operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansfield, G.

    1992-01-01

    This informal report presents recommendations for an adequate radiological protection program for tritium operations. Topics include hazards analysis, facility design, personnel protection equipment, training, operational procedures, radiation monitoring, to include surface and airborne tritium contamination, and program management

  2. Environmental monitoring report, 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Results are reported of the effluent and environmental monitoring programs at the Pinellas Plant during 1974. Sample analyses revealed the on-site sewage treatment facility operated well within State of Florida Standards. Likewise, offsite discharges met the applicable standards for arsenic, biochemical oxygen demand, chlorides, chromium, copper, cyanides, detergents, dissolved oxygen, dissolved solids, fluorides, lead, mercury, nitrogen, oils and greases, phenols, pH, phosphorus, suspended solids, turbidity and zinc. The results of iron and specific conductance analyses showed levels in excess of state standards and are discussed in the body of the report. In addition to the non-radioactive parameters listed above, a small quantity of radioactive tritium oxide was released in the plant's liquid effluent. Small quantities of tritium gas, tritium oxide, and krypton-85 gas were released from the plant during the year. Average ground level concentrations of these radioisotopes were all significantly less than 1 percent of recommended guide for continuous nonoccupational exposure. (U.S.)

  3. Monitoring of gross alpha, gross beta and tritium activities in portuguese drinking waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, I.; Madruga, M.J.; Ferrador, G.O.; Sequeira, M.M.; Oliveira, E.J.; Gomes, A.R.; Rodrigues, F.D.; Carvalho, F.P.

    2006-01-01

    The gross beta and tritium activities in the forty Portuguese drinking waters analyzed using the ISO standard methods (Portuguese Guidelines) are below the guidance levels proposed in the Portuguese Drinking Water Quality Guidelines. In what concerns the gross alpha activity only 18% exceeded the recommended level. In general, it can be concluded that the ingestion of these drinking waters does not create a radiological hazard to the human consumption, however, more detailed analyses will be necessary mainly the determinations of the individual alpha emitters radionuclide concentrations. The minimum gross alpha and gross beta detectable activities by L.S.C. methodology are higher than for the proportional counting technique (ISO method). Higher concentration factors will be needed to reach lower required detection limits. (authors)

  4. IN-SITU TRITIUM BETA DETECTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthold, J.W.; Jeffers, L.A.

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of this three-phase project were to design, develop, and demonstrate a monitoring system capable of detecting and quantifying tritium in situ in ground and surface waters, and in water from effluent lines prior to discharge into public waterways. The tritium detection system design is based on measurement of the low energy beta radiation from the radioactive decay of tritium using a special form of scintillating optical fiber directly in contact with the water to be measured. The system consists of the immersible sensor module containing the optical fiber, and an electronics package, connected by an umbilical cable. The system can be permanently installed for routine water monitoring in wells or process or effluent lines, or can be moved from one location to another for survey use. The electronics will read out tritium activity directly in units of pico Curies per liter, with straightforward calibration. In Phase 1 of the project, we characterized the sensitivity of fluor-doped plastic optical fiber to tritium beta radiation. In addition, we characterized the performance of photomultiplier tubes needed for the system. In parallel with this work, we defined the functional requirements, target specifications, and system configuration for an in situ tritium beta detector that would use the fluor-doped fibers as primary sensors of tritium concentration in water. The major conclusions from the characterization work are: A polystyrene optical fiber with fluor dopant concentration of 2% gave best performance. This fiber had the highest dopant concentration of any fibers tested. Stability may be a problem. The fibers exposed to a 22-day soak in 120 F water experienced a 10x reduction in sensitivity. It is not known whether this was due to the build up of a deposit (a potentially reversible effect) or an irreversible process such as leaching of the scintillating dye. Based on the results achieved, it is premature to initiate Phase 2 and commit to a prototype

  5. IN-SITU TRITIUM BETA DETECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.W. Berthold; L.A. Jeffers

    1998-04-15

    The objectives of this three-phase project were to design, develop, and demonstrate a monitoring system capable of detecting and quantifying tritium in situ in ground and surface waters, and in water from effluent lines prior to discharge into public waterways. The tritium detection system design is based on measurement of the low energy beta radiation from the radioactive decay of tritium using a special form of scintillating optical fiber directly in contact with the water to be measured. The system consists of the immersible sensor module containing the optical fiber, and an electronics package, connected by an umbilical cable. The system can be permanently installed for routine water monitoring in wells or process or effluent lines, or can be moved from one location to another for survey use. The electronics will read out tritium activity directly in units of pico Curies per liter, with straightforward calibration. In Phase 1 of the project, we characterized the sensitivity of fluor-doped plastic optical fiber to tritium beta radiation. In addition, we characterized the performance of photomultiplier tubes needed for the system. In parallel with this work, we defined the functional requirements, target specifications, and system configuration for an in situ tritium beta detector that would use the fluor-doped fibers as primary sensors of tritium concentration in water. The major conclusions from the characterization work are: A polystyrene optical fiber with fluor dopant concentration of 2% gave best performance. This fiber had the highest dopant concentration of any fibers tested. Stability may be a problem. The fibers exposed to a 22-day soak in 120 F water experienced a 10x reduction in sensitivity. It is not known whether this was due to the build up of a deposit (a potentially reversible effect) or an irreversible process such as leaching of the scintillating dye. Based on the results achieved, it is premature to initiate Phase 2 and commit to a prototype

  6. Environmental and effluent monitoring at Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre, 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, E.L.; Loosz, T.; Farrar, Y.; Mokhber-Shahin, L.

    1999-01-01

    Results are presented of environmental and effluent monitoring conducted in the vicinity of the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre (LHSTC) during 1998. All low-level liquid and gaseous effluent discharges complied with existing discharge authorizations and relevant environmental regulations. Potential effective doses to the general public from controlled airborne discharges from HIFAR were estimated utilising the PC-Cream atmospheric dispersion and dosimetry code. The potential effective dose to the public was estimated to be less than 0.010 mSv/year for all receptor locations on the 1.6 km buffer zone boundary around the HIFAR research reactor. This value represents 1% of the 1 mSv/year dose limit for long term exposure that is recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council and 3.3% of the site dose constraint of 0.3 mSv/year approved by the Nuclear Safety Bureau. It is concluded that there is no impact on the health of the community, staff or the environment as a consequence of operations at the LHSTC

  7. Environmental and effluent monitoring at Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, E L; Loosz, T; Farrar, Y; Mokhber-Shahin, L

    1999-07-01

    Results are presented of environmental and effluent monitoring conducted in the vicinity of the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre (LHSTC) during 1998. All low-level liquid and gaseous effluent discharges complied with existing discharge authorizations and relevant environmental regulations. Potential effective doses to the general public from controlled airborne discharges from HIFAR were estimated utilising the PC-Cream atmospheric dispersion and dosimetry code. The potential effective dose to the public was estimated to be less than 0.010 mSv/year for all receptor locations on the 1.6 km buffer zone boundary around the HIFAR research reactor. This value represents 1% of the 1 mSv/year dose limit for long term exposure that is recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council and 3.3% of the site dose constraint of 0.3 mSv/year approved by the Nuclear Safety Bureau. It is concluded that there is no impact on the health of the community, staff or the environment as a consequence of operations at the LHSTC.

  8. Monitoring of low-level radioactive liquid effluent in Tokai reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizutani, Tomoko; Koarashi, Jun; Takeishi, Minoru

    2009-01-01

    The Tokai reprocessing plant (TRP), the first reprocessing plant in Japan, has discharged low-level liquid wastes to the Pacific Ocean since the start of its operation in 1977. We have performed liquid effluent monitoring to realize an appropriate radioactive discharge control. Comparing simple and rapid analytical methods with labor-intensive radiochemical analyses demonstrated that the gross-alpha and gross-beta activities agreed well with the total activities of plutonium isotopes ( 238 Pu and 239+240 Pu) and major beta emitters (e.g., 90 Sr and 137 Cs), respectively. The records of the radioactive liquid discharge from the TRP showed that the normalized discharges of all nuclides, except for 3 H, were three or four orders of magnitude lower than those from the Sellafield and La Hague reprocessing plants. This was probably due to the installation of multistage evaporators in the liquid waste treatment process in 1980. The annual public doses for a hypothetical person were estimated to be less than 0.2 μSv y -1 from the aquatic pathway. Plutonium radioactivity ratios ( 238 Pu/ 239+240 Pu) of liquid effluents were determined to be 1.3-3.7, while those of the seabed sediment samples collected around the discharge point were 0.003-0.059, indicating no remarkable accumulation of plutonium in the regional aquatic environment. Thus, we concluded that there were no significant radiological effects on the public and the aquatic environment during the past 30-year operation of the TRP. (author)

  9. Sampling and monitoring of carbon-14 in gaseous effluents from nuclear facilities - a literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snellman, M.

    1988-12-01

    C-14 compounds produced in the coolant may be released mainly together with off-gas and waste water from the coolant purification and treatment system. In reactors the release of C-14 will occur mainly in gaseous effluents and only a few percent in liquid effluents. Reported releases from BWRs range from 260 to 670 GBq/GW(e) x year and from 90 to 430 GBq/GW(e) x year for PWRs. At BWRs the condenser air ejector contributes the main inplant release pathway, whereas in PWRs the off-gas treatment vents are the main pathway for C-14 release. C-14 sampling methods depend generally on the C-14 being in the form of CO 2 . The off-gas discharges from BWRs are mainly in the form of CO 2 whereas in PWRs a major fraction of the released C-14 is in the form of hydrocarbons or carbon monoxide (generally 80-100%). Sampling systems in PWRs should therefore be equipped with a catalytic oxidizer to convert all C-14 to CO 2 before trapping. The purpose of this study is to provide information on the techniques available for sampling and monitoring C-14

  10. An automated, self-verifying system for monitoring uranium in effluent streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reda, R.J.; Pickett, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    In nuclear facilities such as nuclear fuel fabrication plants, a constant vigil is required to ensure that the concentrations of uranium in process or waste streams do not exceed required specifications. The specifications may be dictated by the process owner, a regulatory agency such as the US Nuclear Regulatory Agency or Environmental Protection Agency, or by criticality safety engineering criteria. Traditionally, uranium monitoring in effluent streams has been accomplished by taking periodic samples of the liquid stream and determining the concentration by chemical analysis. Despite its accuracy, chemical sampling is not timely enough for practical use in continuously flowing systems because of the possibility that a significant quantity of uranium may be discharged between sampling intervals. To completely satisfy regulatory standards, the liquid waste stream must be monitored for uranium on a 100% basis. To this end, an automated, radioisotopic liquid-waste monitoring system was developed by GE Nuclear Energy as an integral part of the uranium conversion and waste recovery operations. The system utilizes passive gamma-ray spectroscopy and is thus a robust, on-line, and nondestructive assay for uranium. The system provides uranium concentration data for process monitoring and assures regulatory compliance for criticality safety. A summary of the principles of system operation, calibration, and verification is presented in this paper

  11. Monitoring of the radioactive liquid effluents discharged from IPEN-CNEN/SP. Optimization of the procedures adopted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, C.R.

    1990-01-01

    The main purpose of a radioactive liquid effluents monitoring of a nuclear installation is to determine the amount of radioactivity discharged to the environment, as well as, to verify if this activity is below the authorized discharge limits established by the competent authority. Although this control has been established on a routine basis since the beginning of operation of the nuclear installations available at IPEN, the growing of such facilities in the last years has implied in an increase in the number of samples to be analyzed. The aim of this work is, therefore, to optimize the procedures adopted in the Environmental Monitoring Division of IPEN-CNEN/SP for the activity measurement of the liquid effluents discharged to the environment. Since these effluents are discharged to Pinheiros river, which presents a high dilution factor, a study is also carried out in order to verify if the activity present can be measured by the equipment available. (author)

  12. Monitoring system in Labview data logging and supervisory control module and Labview 8 with process analyses of the Cryogenic Pilot Plant for Tritium Removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraru, Carmen Maria; Stefan, Iuliana; Balteanu, Ovidiu; Bucur, Ciprian; Stefan, Liviu; Bornea, Anisia; Stefanescu, Ioan

    2008-01-01

    The system responds to the monitoring requirements of the technological processes specific to the nuclear installation that processes radioactive substances, with severe consequences in case of technological failure, as is the case with a tritium processing nuclear plant. The big amount of data that needs to be processed, stored and accessed for real time simulation and optimization demands the achievement of the virtual technologic platform where the data acquiring, control and analysis systems of the technological process can be integrated with an advanced technological monitoring system. Thus, integrated computing and monitoring systems needed for the supervising of the technological process will be effected, to be then continued with optimization of the system, by implementing new and performing methods corresponding to the technological processes within the tritium removal processing nuclear plants. (authors)

  13. Phase 1 Final Report for In-Situ Tritium Beta Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthold, J.W.; Jeffers, L.A.

    1998-04-15

    The objectives of this three-phase project were to design, develop, and demonstrate a monitoring system capable of detecting and quantifying tritium in situ in ground and surface waters, and in water from effluent lines prior to discharge into public waterways. The tritium detection system design is based on measurement of the low energy beta radiation from the radioactive decay of tritium using a special form of scintillating optical fiber directly in contact with the water to be measured. The system consists of the immersible sensor module containing the optical fiber, and an electronics package, connected by an umbilical cable. The system can be permanently installed for routine water monitoring in wells or process or effluent lines, or can be moved from one location to another for survey use. The electronics will read out tritium activity directly in units of pico Curies per liter, with straightforward calibration. In Phase 1 of the project, we characterized the sensitivity of fluor-doped plastic optical fiber to tritium beta radiation. In addition, we characterized the performance of photomultiplier tubes needed for the system. In parallel with this work, we defined the functional requirements, target specifications, and system configuration for an in situ tritium beta detector that would use the fluor-doped fibers as primary sensors of tritium concentration in water. The major conclusions from the characterization work are: A polystyrene optical fiber with fluor dopant concentration of 2% gave best performance. This fiber had the highest dopant concentration of any fibers tested. Stability may be a problem. The fibers exposed to a 22-day soak in 120 F water experienced a 10x reduction in sensitivity. It is not known whether this was due to the build up of a deposit (a potentially reversible effect) or an irreversible process such as leaching of the scintillating dye.

  14. Tritium issues in commercial pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G.

    2008-01-01

    Tritium has become an important radionuclide in commercial Pressurized Water Reactors because of its mobility and tendency to concentrate in plant systems as tritiated water during the recycling of reactor coolant. Small quantities of tritium are released in routine regulated effluents as liquid water and as water vapor. Tritium has become a focus of attention at commercial nuclear power plants in recent years due to inadvertent, low-level, chronic releases arising from routine maintenance operations and from component failures. Tritium has been observed in groundwater in the vicinity of stations. The nuclear industry has undertaken strong proactive corrective measures to prevent recurrence, and continues to eliminate emission sources through its singular focus on public safety and environmental stewardship. This paper will discuss: production mechanisms for tritium, transport mechanisms from the reactor through plant, systems to the environment, examples of routine effluent releases, offsite doses, basic groundwater transport and geological issues, and recent nuclear industry environmental and legal ramifications. (authors)

  15. Handling of tritium-bearing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The generation of nuclear power and reprocessing of nuclear fuel results in the production of tritium and the possible need to control the release of tritium-contaminated effluents. In assessing the need for controls, it is necessary to know the production rates of tritium at different nuclear facilities, the technologies available for separating tritium from different gaseous and liquid streams, and the methods that are satisfactory for storage and disposal of tritiated wastes. The intention in applying such control technologies and methods is to avoid undesirable effects on the environment, and to reduce the radiation burden on operational personnel and the general population. This technical report is a result of the IAEA Technical Committee Meeting on Handling of Tritium-bearing Effluents and Wastes, which was held in Vienna, 4 - 8 December 1978. It summarizes the main topics discussed at the meeting and appends the more detailed reports on particular aspects that were prepared for the meeting by individual participants

  16. Behavior of tritium in the environment. Proceedings series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Fifty papers are presented in these proceedings. Individual items are being entered onto the data base. The papers are grouped into seven sections for purposes of continuity. These sections include: distribution of tritium (7 papers); evaluation of future discharges (3 papers); measurement of tritium (3 papers); tritium in the aquatic environment (10 papers); tritium in the terrestrial environment (13 papers); tritium in man (8 papers); and monitoring of tritium (6 papers). (ERB)

  17. Comparison of balance of tritium activity in waste water from nuclear power plants and at selected monitoring sites in the Vltava River, Elbe River and Jihlava (Dyje) River catchments in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanslík, Eduard; Marešová, Diana; Juranová, Eva; Sedlářová, Barbora

    2017-12-01

    During the routine operation, nuclear power plants discharge waste water containing a certain amount of radioactivity, whose main component is the artificial radionuclide tritium. The amounts of tritium released into the environment are kept within the legal requirements, which minimize the noxious effects of radioactivity, but the activity concentration is well measurable in surface water of the recipient. This study compares amount of tritium activity in waste water from nuclear power plants and the tritium activity detected at selected relevant sites of surface water quality monitoring. The situation is assessed in the catchment of the Vltava and Elbe Rivers, affected by the Temelín Nuclear Power Plant as well as in the Jihlava River catchment (the Danube River catchment respectively), where the waste water of the Dukovany Nuclear Power Plant is discharged. The results show a good agreement of the amount of released tritium stated by the power plant operator and the tritium amount detected in the surface water and highlighted the importance of a robust independent monitoring of tritium discharged from a nuclear power plant which could be carried out by water management authorities. The outputs of independent monitoring allow validating the values reported by a polluter and expand opportunities of using tritium as e.g. tracer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Tritium storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hircq, B.

    1989-01-01

    A general synthesis about tritium storage is achieved in this paper and a particular attention is given to practical application in the Fusion Technology Program. Tritium, storage under gaseous form and solid form are discussed (characteristics, advantages, disadvantages and equipments). The way of tritium storage is then discussed and a choice established as a function of a logic which takes into account the main working parameters

  19. The application of land-based computerized spectrometers for effluent monitoring aboard nuclear powered ships. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamykowski, E.A.

    1975-12-01

    This report assesses the applicability of computer-based, Ge(Li) detector spectroscopy systems as effluent monitors aboard nuclear powered ships. A survey of the principal commercial spectrometers, in light of the expected shipboard use, indicates these systems may be employed for automatic radioisotope analysis in a seagoing environment if adequate protective measures are adopted

  20. TFTR tritium inventory accountability system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saville, C.; Ascione, G.; Elwood, S.; Nagy, A.; Raftopoulos, S.; Rossmassler, R.; Stencel, J.; Voorhees, D.; Tilson, C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the program, PPPL (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory) Material Control and Accountability Plan, that has been implemented to track US Department of Energy's tritium and all other accountable source material. Specifically, this paper details the methods used to measure tritium in various systems at the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor; resolve inventory differences; perform inventory by difference inside the Tokamak; process and measure plasma exhaust and other effluent gas streams; process, measure and ship scrap or waste tritium on molecular sieve beds; and detail organizational structure of the Material Control and Accountability group. In addition, this paper describes a Unix-based computerized software system developed at PPPL to account for all tritium movements throughout the facility. 5 refs., 2 figs

  1. Management of Tritium in ITER Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosanvallon, S.; Benchikhoune, M.; Ciattaglia, S.; Uzan, J. Elbez; Na, B. C.; Taylor, N.; Gastaldi, O.

    2011-01-01

    ITER will use tritium as fuel. Procedures and processes are thus put in place in order to recover the tritium that is not used in the fusion reaction, including from waste and effluents. The tritium thus recovered can be re-injected into the fuel cycle. Moreover, tritium content and thus outgassing may be a safety concern, because of the potential for releases to the environment, both from the facility and from the final disposal (subjected to stringent acceptance criteria in the current waste final disposal). The aim of this paper is to present the measures considered to deal with the specific case of tritium in the liquid and solid waste that will arise from ITER operation and decommissioning. It concerns the processes that are considered from the waste production to its final disposal and in particular: the tritium removal stages (in-situ divertor baking at 350 C and tritium removal from solid waste and liquid and gaseous effluents), the removal of dust contamination (dust containing tritium produced by plasma-wall interaction and by the maintenance/ refurbishment processes) and the measures to enable safe processing and storage of the waste (wall-liner in the hot cell facility to limit concrete contamination and interim storage enabling tritium decay for waste that could not be directly accepted in the host-country final disposal facilities). (authors)

  2. Bioassay guideline 2: guidelines for tritium bioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This guideline is one of a series under preparation by the Federal-Provincial Working Group on Bioassay and In Vivo Monitoring Criteria. In this report tritium compounds have been grouped into four categories for the purpose of calculating Annual Limits on Intake and Investigation Levels: tritium gas, tritiated water, tritium-labelled compounds and nucleic acid precursors

  3. Tritium trick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, W. V.; Zukas, E. G.; Eash, D. T.

    1971-01-01

    Large controlled amounts of helium in uniform concentration in thick samples can be obtained through the radioactive decay of dissolved tritium gas to He3. The term, tritium trick, applies to the case when helium, added by this method, is used to simulate (n,alpha) production of helium in simulated hard flux radiation damage studies.

  4. Preliminary evaluation of the gaseous effluent sampling and monitoring systems at the 291-Z-1 and 296-Z-3 stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwendiman, L.C.; Glissmeyer, J.A.

    1992-04-01

    The 291-Z-1 and 296-Z-3 stack effluent particulate sampling and monitoring systems are being evaluated for compliance with Atlantic Richfield Hanford Company's Interim Criteria for such systems. This evaluation is part of a study by Battelle-Northwest of gaseous effluent sampling systems in ARHCO facilities. This letter report presents a preliminary evaluation of the mentioned facilities and the indicated improvements needed to meet the Interim Criteria so that conceptual design work for improved systems can be initiated. There is currently underway a detailed study at the two stacks including a series of sampling experiments, the findings of which will not be included in this report. The gaseous effluent sampling system at the 291-Z-1 and 296-Z-3 stacks are very dissimilar and will be treated in separate sections of this report. The discussions for each sampling system will include a brief description and a preliminary evaluation of the systems

  5. Basic characteristics of hollow-filament polyimide membrane in gas separation and application to tritium monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Sh.; Suzuki, T.; Kondo, K.; Tega, E.; Shimada, A.; Akahori, S.; Okuno, K.

    2003-01-01

    The separation efficiency of hollow-filament polyimide membranes for 3 H and 41 Ar is preliminarily examined for a potential application to continuous gas monitoring systems for analysis of stack emission from accelerator facilities. The basic gas separation characteristics of the membranes are experimentally investigated, and a preliminary gas monitor design is proposed. The membranes are capable of selectively enriching hydrogen by more than 25 times, with negligible variation with respect to the species of isotope. (author)

  6. Tritium in a deciduous forest adjacent to a commercial shallow land burial site: implications for monitoring to detect radionuclide migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickard, W.H.; Kirby, L.J.

    1983-09-01

    Tritium as tritiated water was measured in the sap taken from the trunks of 26 maple trees growing in the vicinity of the shallow-land, low-level radioactive waste disposal site at Maxey Flats, Kentucky. Tritium values ranged between 10,000 and 290,000 pCi/l with the highest levels measured in sap from trees growing downslope from the burial site's western boundary. Levels of tritium of less than 1000 pCi/l were measured at a distance of 20 kilometers from the site: The source of elevated tritium levels in the vicinity of the disposal site is the evaporator facility which has released tritiated water vapor into the air more or less continuously for 10 years. Another possible source of at least some of the tritium is subterranean leakage from the trenches located near the western boundary. The evaporator facility has been shut down since December 1982. With the shutdown of the evaporator the levels of tritium in tree sap in future years is expected to show a marked decline as the tritiated soil water in the root zone becomes increasingly diluted with fresh rainwater and the residual tritium is dissipated to the air by evaporation and plant transpiration processes. 11 references

  7. Tritium accounting for PHWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, P.S.; Duraisamy, S.

    2012-01-01

    Tritium, the radioactive isotope of hydrogen, is produced as a byproduct of the nuclear reactions in the nuclear power plants. In a Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) tritium activity is produced in the Heat Transport and Moderator systems due to neutron activation of deuterium in heavy water used in these systems. Tritium activity build up occurs in some of the water systems in the PHWR plants through pick up from the plant atmosphere, inadvertent D 2 O ingress from other systems or transfer during processes. The tritium, produced by the neutron induced reactions in different systems in the reactor undergoes multiple processes such as escape through leaks, storage, transfer to external locations, decay, evaporation and diffusion and discharge though waste streams. Change of location of tritium inventory takes place during intentional transfer of heavy water, both reactor grade and downgraded, from one system to another. Tritium accounting is the application of accounting techniques to maintain knowledge of the tritium inventory present in different systems of a facility and to construct activity balances to detect any discrepancy in the physical inventories. It involves identification of all the tritium hold ups, transfers and storages as well as measurement of tritium inventories in various compartments, decay corrections, environmental release estimations and evaluation of activity generation during the accounting period. This paper describes a methodology for creating tritium inventory balance based on periodic physical inventory taking, tritium build up, decay and release estimations. Tritium accounting in the PHWR plants can prove to be an effective regulatory tool to monitor its loss as well as unaccounted release to the environment. (author)

  8. Environmental monitoring report, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The effluent and environmental monitoring programs maintained by the Pinellas Plant are designed to determine the efficiencies of treatment and control mechanisms; to provide measurements of discharge concentrations for comparison with applicable standards; and to assess the concentrations of these discharges in the environment. Site perimeter and off-site air samples for tritium gas and tritium oxide, as well as off-site surface water samples obtained to distances of 9.6 kilometers (6 miles) from the plant site and analyzed for tritium content, showed levels significantly less than 1 / 10 of 1 percent of the recommended guide for continuous nonoccupational exposure. Small sealed plutonium sources are utilized at this site. No plutonium was released to the environment and monitoring data showed environmental background levels

  9. Tritium autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caskey, G.R. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrogen distribution and diffusion within many materials may be investigated by autoradiography if the radioactive isotope tritium is used in the study. Tritium is unstable and decays to helium-3 by emission of a low energy (18 keV) beta particle which may be detected photographically. The basic principles of tritium autoradiography will be discussed. Limitations are imposed on the technique by: (1) the low energy of the beta particles; (2) the solubility and diffusivity of hydrogen in materials; and (3) the response of the photographic emulsion to beta particles. These factors control the possible range of application of tritium autoradiography. The technique has been applied successfully to studies of hydrogen solubility and distribution in materials and to studies of hydrogen damage

  10. Tritium Systems Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cafasso, F.A.; Maroni, V.A.; Smith, W.H.; Wilkes, W.R.; Wittenberg, L.J.

    1978-01-01

    This TSTF proposal has two principal objectives. The first objective is to provide by mid-FY 1981 a demonstration of the fuel cycle and tritium containment systems which could be used in a Tokamak Experimental Power Reactor for operation in the mid-1980's. The second objective is to provide a capability for further optimization of tritium fuel cycle and environmental control systems beyond that which is required for the EPR. The scale and flow rates in TSTF are close to those which have been projected for a prototype experimental power reactor (PEPR/ITR) and will permit reliable extrapolation to the conditions found in an EPR. The fuel concentrations will be the same as in an EPR. Demonstrations of individual components of the deuterium-tritium fuel cycle and of monitoring, accountability and containment systems and of a maintenance methodology will be achieved at various times in the FY 1979-80 time span. Subsequent to the individual component demonstrations--which will proceed from tests with hydrogen (and/or deuterium) through tracer levels of tritium to full operational concentrations--a complete test and demonstration of the integrated fuel processing and tritium containment facility will be performed. This will occur near the middle of FY 1981. Two options were considered for the TSTF: (1) The modification of an existing building and (2) the construction of a new facility

  11. High-resolution Mass Spectrometry of Skin Mucus for Monitoring Physiological Impacts in Fish Exposed to Wastewater Effluent at a Great Lakes AOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    High-resolution mass spectrometry is advantageous for monitoring physiological impacts and contaminant biotransformation products in fish exposed to complex wastewater effluent. We evaluated this technique using skin mucus from male and female fathead minnows (Pimephales promela...

  12. High‐resolution mass spectrometry of skin mucus for monitoring physiological impacts and contaminant biotransformation products in fathead minnows exposed to wastewater effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    High‐resolution mass spectrometry is advantageous for monitoring physiological impacts and contaminant biotransformation products in fish exposed to complex wastewater effluent. We evaluated this technique using skin mucus from male and female fathead minnows (Pimephales pr...

  13. Tritium practices past and present

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gede, V.P.; Gildea, P.D.

    1980-01-01

    History of the production and use of tritium, as well as handling techniques, are reviewed. Handling techniques first used at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory made use of glass vacuum systems and relatively crude ion chambers for monitoring airborne activity. The first use of inert atmosphere glove boxes demonstrated that uptake through the skin could be a serious personnel exposure problem. Growing environmental concerns in the early 1970's resulted in the implementation by the Atomic Energy Commission of a new criteria to limit atmospheric tritium releases to levels as low as practicable. An important result of the new criteria was the development of containment and recovery systems to capture tritium rather than vent it to the atmosphere. The Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, Tritium Research Laboratory containment and decontamination systems are presented as a typical example of this technology. The application of computers to control systems is expected to provide the greatest potential for change in future tritium handling practices

  14. Tritium monitoring within the reactor hall of a DT fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalbert, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Monitoring the reactor hall atmosphere of DT-fueled fusion reactors will probably be performed with conventional ion chamber and proportional counter instruments modified as necessry to deal with the background radiation. Background includes external neutron and gamma radiation and internal beta-gamma radiation from the activated atmosphere. Although locating instruments in remote areas of the reactor hall and adding local shielding and electronic compensation may be feasible, placing the instruments in accessible low-background areas outside of the reactor hall and doing remote sampling is preferable and solves most of the radiation problems. The remaining problem of the activated atmosphere may be solved by recently developed instruments in conjunction with the use of semi-permeable membranes currently under development and evaluation

  15. Analysis of the time dependence of the tritium concentration in the Embalse Rio Tercero lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, F.O.; Bruno, H.A.

    1998-01-01

    In natural uranium and heavy water reactors, tritium is produced mainly as the activation product of the deuterium in the moderator and cooling medium. About 75% of the liquid effluents discharged by nuclear power plants in Argentina correspond to tritium. In the case of the Embalse nuclear power plant, the liquid effluents are discharged into the Rio Tercero reservoir. As its water is used for drinking, 98% of the dose received by the critical group is due to these discharges. A simple mathematical model was developed which predicts the variation in the tritium concentration in the reservoir. It is a complete mixture type model and the entry parameters are the lake volume, entrance volume and discharge volume. The model was solved by means of a Runge-Kutta method of second order. The chosen method is a modified Euler. A good correlation is observed when the values obtained by means of the numeric resolution of the developed model are compared with the values obtained by the tritium measurement made during the 1996 and 1997 environmental monitoring program. (author) [es

  16. Dynamic informational system for control and monitoring the tritium removal pilot plant with data transfer and process analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retevoi, Carmen Maria; Stefan, Iuliana; Balteanu, Ovidiu; Stefan, Liviu

    2005-01-01

    The dynamic informational system with datalogging and supervisory control module includes a motion control module and is a new conception used in tritium removal installation with isotopic exchange and cryogenic distillation. The control system includes an event-driven engine that maintains a real-time database, logs historical data, processes alarm information, and communicates with I/O devices. Also, it displays the operator interfaces and performs tasks that are defined for advanced control algorithms, supervisory control, analysis, and display with data transfer from data acquisition room to the control room. By using the parameters, we compute the deuterium and tritium concentration, respectively, of the liquid at the inlet of the isotopic exchange column and, consequently, we can compute at the outlet of the column, the tritium concentration in the water vapors. (authors)

  17. Recent environmental tritium levels in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwakura, T.; Inoue, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Kasida, Y.

    1982-01-01

    Data of the tritium surveillance program are summarized for the period of 1967 through 1980. Samples of surface water, tap water, coastal sea water and ground water were collected from environs of commercial nuclear power plants and nuclear facilities, and were analyzed by liquid scintillation counting. Although the results show some differences in tritium concentrations in water samples from various part of the country, there is a general tendency of the concentration in surface waters to decline as a function of time. This implies that environmental waters in Japan generally have not been influenced by the discharged effluents of the facilities or the stations with regard to tritium contamination and that the tritium content of precipitation still plays the dominant role in reflecting annual variation of tritium concentration in surface waters. (J.P.N.)

  18. The tritium and the controlled fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leger, D.; Rouyer, J.L.

    1986-04-01

    It is shown how tritium is used how it is circulating in a fusion reactor. The great functions of tritium circuits are detailed: reprocessing of burnt gases, reprocessing of gases coming from neutral injectors, reprocessing from gaseous wastes, detritiation of cooling fluids. Current technologic developments are quoted. Then tritium confinement and containment, in normal or accidental situations, are displayed. Limitation devices of effluents and release for normal operating (noticeably the reprocessing systems of atmosphere) and safety and protection systems in case of accident are described [fr

  19. Clinical Validation of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Imipenem in Spent Effluent in Critically Ill Patients Receiving Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Aiping; Li, Zhe; Yu, Junxian; Li, Ren; Cheng, Sheng; Duan, Meili; Bai, Jing

    2016-01-01

    The primary objective of this pilot study was to investigate whether the therapeutic drug monitoring of imipenem could be performed with spent effluent instead of blood sampling collected from critically ill patients under continuous renal replacement therapy. A prospective open-label study was conducted in a real clinical setting. Both blood and effluent samples were collected pairwise before imipenem administration and 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 h after imipenem administration. Plasma and effluent imipenem concentrations were determined by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters of blood and effluent samples were calculated. Eighty-three paired plasma and effluent samples were obtained from 10 patients. The Pearson correlation coefficient of the imipenem concentrations in plasma and effluent was 0.950 (Pimipenem concentration ratio was 1.044 (95% confidence interval, 0.975 to 1.114) with Bland-Altman analysis. No statistically significant difference was found in the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters tested in paired plasma and effluent samples with Wilcoxon test. Spent effluent of continuous renal replacement therapy could be used for therapeutic drug monitoring of imipenem instead of blood sampling in critically ill patients.

  20. Europe-wide survey of estrogenicity in wastewater treatment plant effluents: the need for the effect-based monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarošová, Barbora; Erseková, Anita; Hilscherová, Klára; Loos, Robert; Gawlik, Bernd M; Giesy, John P; Bláha, Ludek

    2014-09-01

    A pan-European monitoring campaign of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents was conducted to obtain a concise picture on a broad range of pollutants including estrogenic compounds. Snapshot samples from 75 WWTP effluents were collected and analysed for concentrations of 150 polar organic and 20 inorganic compounds as well as estrogenicity using the MVLN reporter gene assay. The effect-based assessment determined estrogenicity in 27 of 75 samples tested with the concentrations ranging from 0.53 to 17.9 ng/L of 17-beta-estradiol equivalents (EEQ). Approximately one third of municipal WWTP effluents contained EEQ greater than 0.5 ng/L EEQ, which confirmed the importance of cities as the major contamination source. Beside municipal WWTPs, some treated industrial wastewaters also exhibited detectable EEQ, indicating the importance to investigate phytoestrogens released from plant processing factories. No steroid estrogens were detected in any of the samples by instrumental methods above their limits of quantification of 10 ng/L, and none of the other analysed classes of chemicals showed correlation with detected EEQs. The study demonstrates the need of effect-based monitoring to assess certain classes of contaminants such as estrogens, which are known to occur at low concentrations being of serious toxicological concern for aquatic biota.

  1. Tritium immobilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridger, N.J.

    1982-01-01

    Tritium is immobilised for long term storage by absorption in a hydridable/tritidable material, such as zirconium. A gas permeable container is packed with the material in the form of sponge fragments, rods or tubes, and a gaseous mixture of hydrogen and tritium introduced into the container whilst the container is at a temperature of about 600 deg C or above. Thermal expansion of the material during reaction with the gaseous mixture compacts the material into a coherent body in the container relatively free from finely divided hydride/ tritide material. (author)

  2. Turkey Point tritium. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostlund, H.G.; Dorsey, H.G.

    1976-01-01

    In 1972-73 the Florida Power and Light Company (FPL) began operation of two nuclear reactors at Turkey Point on lower Biscayne Bay. One radioactive by-product resulting from the operation of the nuclear reactors, tritium, provides a unique opportunity to study transport and exchange processes on a local scale. Since the isotope in the form of water is not removed from the liquid effluent, it is discharged to the cooling canal system. By studying its residence time in the canal and the pathways by which it leaves the canals, knowledge of evaporative process, groundwater movement, and bay exchange with the ocean can be obtained. Preliminary results obtained from measurement of tritium levels, both in the canal system and in the surrounding environment are discussed. Waters in lower Biscayne Bay and Card and Barnes Sounds receive only a small portion of the total tritium produced by the nuclear plant. The dominating tritium loss most likely is through evaporation from the canals. The capability of measuring extremely low HTO levels allows the determination of the evaporation rate experimentally by measuring the tritium levels of air after having passed over the canals

  3. Effluent standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisler, G C [Pennsylvania State University (United States)

    1974-07-01

    At the conference there was a considerable interest in research reactor standards and effluent standards in particular. On the program, this is demonstrated by the panel discussion on effluents, the paper on argon 41 measured by Sims, and the summary paper by Ringle, et al. on the activities of ANS research reactor standards committee (ANS-15). As a result, a meeting was organized to discuss the proposed ANS standard on research reactor effluents (15.9). This was held on Tuesday evening, was attended by members of the ANS-15 committee who were present at the conference, participants in the panel discussion on the subject, and others interested. Out of this meeting came a number of excellent suggestions for changes which will increase the utility of the standard, and a strong recommendation that the effluent standard (15.9) be combined with the effluent monitoring standard. It is expected that these suggestions and recommendations will be incorporated and a revised draft issued for comment early this summer. (author)

  4. Tritium inventories and tritium safety design principles for the fuel cycle of ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristescu, I.R.; Cristescu, I.; Doerr, L.; Glugla, M.; Murdoch, D.

    2007-01-01

    Within the tritium plant of ITER a total inventory of about 2-3 kg will be necessary to operate the machine in the DT phase. During plasma operation, tritium will be distributed in the different sub-systems of the fuel cycle. A tool for tritium inventory evaluation within each sub-system of the fuel cycle is important with respect to both the process of licensing ITER and also for operation. It is very likely that measurements of total tritium inventories may not be possible for all sub-systems; however, tritium accounting may be achieved by modelling its hold-up within each sub-system and by validating these models in real-time against the monitored flows and tritium streams between the sub-systems. To get reliable results, an accurate dynamic modelling of the tritium content in each sub-system is necessary. A dynamic model (TRIMO) for tritium inventory calculation reflecting the design of each fuel cycle sub-systems was developed. The amount of tritium needed for ITER operation has a direct impact on the tritium inventories within the fuel cycle sub-systems. As ITER will function in pulses, the main characteristics that influence the rapid tritium recovery from the fuel cycle as necessary for refuelling are discussed. The confinement of tritium within the respective sub-systems of the fuel cycle is one of the most important safety objectives. The design of the deuterium/tritium fuel cycle of ITER includes a multiple barrier concept for the confinement of tritium. The buildings are equipped with a vent detritiation system and re-circulation type room atmosphere detritiation systems, required for tritium confinement barrier during possible tritium spillage events. Complementarily to the atmosphere detritiation systems, in ITER a water detritiation system for tritium recovery from various sources will also be operated

  5. Universal tritium transmitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordaro, J. V.; Wood, M.

    2008-01-01

    At the Savannah River Site and throughout the National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA) tritium is measured using Ion or Kanne Chambers. Tritium flowing through an Ion Chamber emits beta particles generating current flow proportional to tritium radioactivity. Currents in the 1 x 10 -15 A to 1 x 10 -6 A are measured. The distance between the Ion Chamber and the electrometer in NNSA facilities can be over 100 feet. Currents greater than a few micro-amperes can be measured with a simple modification. Typical operating voltages of 500 to 1000 Volts and piping designs require that the Ion Chamber be connected to earth ground. This grounding combined with long cable lengths and low currents requires a very specialized preamplifier circuit. In addition, the electrometer must be able to supply 'fail safe' alarm signals which are used to alert personnel of a tritium leak, trigger divert systems preventing tritium releases to the environment and monitor stack emissions as required by the United States federal Government and state governments. Ideally the electrometer would be 'self monitoring'. Self monitoring would reduce the need for constant checks by maintenance personnel. For example at some DOE facilities monthly calibration and alarm checks must be performed to ensure operation. NNSA presently uses commercially available electrometers designed specifically for this critical application. The problems with these commercial units include: ground loops, high background currents, inflexibility and susceptibility to Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) which includes RF and Magnetic fields. Existing commercial electrometers lack the flexibility to accommodate different Ion Chamber designs required by the gas pressure, type of gas and range. Ideally the electrometer could be programmed for any expected gas, range and high voltage output. Commercially available units do not have 'fail safe' self monitoring capability. Electronics used to measure extremely low current must have

  6. Tritium environmental transport studies at TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, P.D.; Dolan, T.J.; Longhurst, G.R.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental tritium concentrations will be measured near the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) to help validate dynamic models of tritium transport in the environment. For model validation the database must contain sequential measurements of tritium concentrations in key environmental compartments. Since complete containment of tritium is an operational goal, the supplementary monitoring program should be able to glean useful data from an unscheduled acute release. Portable air samplers will be used to take samples automatically every 4 hours for a weak after an acute release, thus obtaining the time resolution needed for code validation. Samples of soil, vegetation, and foodstuffs will be gathered daily at the same locations as the active air monitors. The database may help validate the plant/soil/air part of tritium transport models and enhance environmental tritium transport understanding for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER)

  7. Tritium environmental transport studies at TFTR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, P. D.; Dolan, T. J.; Longhurst, G. R.

    1993-06-01

    Environmental tritium concentrations will be measured near the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) to help validate dynamic models of tritium transport in the environment. For model validation the database must contain sequential measurements of tritium concentrations in key environmental compartments. Since complete containment of tritium is an operational goal, the supplementary monitoring program should be able to glean useful data from an unscheduled acute release. Portable air samplers will be used to take samples automatically every 4 hours for a week after an acute release, thus obtaining the time resolution needed for code validation. Samples of soil, vegetation, and foodstuffs will be gathered daily at the same locations as the active air monitors. The database may help validate the plant/soil/air part of tritium transport models and enhance environmental tritium transport understanding for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER).

  8. Modeling tritium transport in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A model of tritium transport in the environment near an atmospheric source of tritium is presented in the general context of modeling material cycling in ecosystems. The model was developed to test hypotheses about the process involved in tritium cycling. The temporal and spatial scales of the model were picked to allow comparison to environmental monitoring data collected in the vicinity of the Savannah River Plant. Initial simulations with the model showed good agreement with monitoring data, including atmospheric and vegetation tritium concentrations. The model can also simulate values of tritium in vegetation organic matter if the key parameter distributing the source of organic hydrogen is varied to fit the data. However, because of the lack of independent conformation of the distribution parameter, there is still uncertainty about the role of organic movement of tritium in the food chain, and its effect on the dose to man

  9. Results of tritium tests performed on Sandia Laboratories decontamination system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gildea, P.D.; Wall, W.R.; Gede, V.P.

    1978-05-01

    The Tritium Research Laboratory (TRL), a facility for performing experiments using gram amounts of tritium, became operational on October 1, 1977. As secondary containment, the TRL employs sealed glove boxes connected on demand to two central decontamination systems, the Gas Purification System and the Vacuum Effluent Recovery System. Performance tests on these systems show the tritium removal systems can achieve concentration reduction factors (ratio of inlet to exhaust concentrations) much in excess of 1000 per pass at inlet concentrations of 1 part per million or less for both tritium and tritiated methane

  10. In-line monitoring of effluents from HTGR fuel particle preparation processes using a time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.A.; Costanzo, D.A.; Stinton, D.P.; Carpenter, J.A.; Rainey, W.T. Jr.; Canada, D.C.; Carter, J.A.

    1976-08-01

    The carbonization, conversion, and coating processes in the manufacture of HTGR fuel particles have been studied with the use of a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Non-condensable effluents from these fluidized-bed processes have been monitored continuously from the beginning to the end of the process. The processes which have been monitored are these: uranium-loaded ion exchange resin carbonization, the carbothermic reduction of UO 2 to UC 2 , buffer and low temperature isotropic pyrocarbon coatings of fuel kernels, SiC coating of the kernels, and high-temperature particle annealing. Changes in concentrations of significant molecules with time and temperature have been useful in the interpretation of reaction mechanisms and optimization of process procedures

  11. Pinellas Plant environmental monitoring report, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-03-01

    The effluent and environmental monitoring programs maintained by the Pinellas Plant are designed to determine the efficiencies of treatment and control mechanisms, to provide measurements of discharge concentrations for comparison with applicable standards, and to assess the concentrations of these discharges in the environment. Small quantities of tritium gas, tritium oxide, carbon-14 labeled solvent and krypton-85 gas were released from the plant during the year. Average maximum ground level concentrations of these radioisotopes were all significantly less than 1/10 of 1% of the standard for continuous nonoccupational exposure. Off-site releases of liquid effluents were analyzed for compliance with the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued for this site. Analyses were performed for biochemical oxygen demand, suspended solids, fecal coliform bacteria, pH, nitrogen, phosphorus, arsenic, chlorides, chromium, copper, cyanides, detergents, fluorides, iron, lead, mercury, oil plus greases, phenols, turbidity and zinc. Excursions above permit limits were experienced in the results for suspended solids, fecal coliforms, iron and mercury. In addition to the non-radioactive parameters listed, a small quantity of radioactive tritium oxide was released in the effluent. Analyses showed the average concentration was 0.43% of the nonoccupational standard. Site perimeter and off-site air samples for tritium gas and tritium oxide, as well as off-site surface water samples obtained to distance of 9.6 kilometers from the plant site and analyzed for tritium content, showed levels significantly less than 1/10 of 1% of the standard for continuous nonoccupational exposure. Calculation were made to determine the radiation doses resulting from releases of tritium oxide, krypton-85 and carbon-14 to: an individual at the site boundary; individuals in the closest residential area; and the population within 80 kilometers (50 miles) of the plant site

  12. Method and device for processing aqueous effluents containing tritiated water, electrode used in that device and its fabrication process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellanger, G.; Giroux, P.

    1983-01-01

    In this process an electrolyte, such as sodium hydroxide, is added to the effluent and the solution is electrolysed to obtain gaseous tritium. The electrolytic cell includes a cathode made with a metal facilitating tritium diffusion, e.g. Pd-Ag alloy. The cathode constitutes a separation wall between the electrolysed solution and a compartment where tritium is recovered after diffusion through the cathode. Application is made for tritium recovery in effluents coming from spent fuel reprocessing [fr

  13. Mapping of tritium in drinking water from various Indian states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Chirag A.; Baburajan, A.; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    The tritium in fresh water used for drinking purpose across five state of India was analyzed for tritium activity. The tritium data obtained were compared with the monitoring data of tritium in drinking water sources at Tarapur site, which houses a number of nuclear facilities. It is observed that the tritium activity in the water sample from various out station locations were in the range of < 0.48 to 1.33 Bq/l. The tritium value obtained in the drinking water sources at Tarapur was found to be in the range of 0.91 to 3.10 Bq/l. The monitoring of tritium in drinking water from Tarapur and from various out station location indicate that the level is negligible compared to the USEPA limit of 10000 Bq/l and the contribution of operation nuclear facilities to the tritium activity in drinking water source at Tarapur is insignificant. (author)

  14. AAEC tritium list no. 5 1981-1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calf, G.E.; Stokes, R.C.

    1983-06-01

    Details are given of the concentration of the environmental isotope tritium in monthly precipitation samples taken at 16 stations, situated throughout Australia, during the period 1981-1982. Tritium levels in Australia have now been estimated for 13 years. The results show a significant decrease in tritium concentration in rainfall at all monitoring stations

  15. Behaviour of tritium in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Full text: There is considerable interest in the behaviour of radionuclides of global character that may be released to the environment through the development of nuclear power. Tritium is of particular interest due to its direct incorporation into water and organic tissue. Although there has been a large decrease (more than ten times) in tritium concentration since the stopping of nuclear weapons tests in the atmosphere, the construction in the near future of many water reactors and in the far future of fusion reactors could increase the present levels. Progress has been made during recent years in the assessment of tritium distribution, in detection methods and in biological studies While several meetings have given scientists an opportunity to present papers on tritium, no specific symposium on this topic has been organized by the IAEA since 1961. Thus the purpose of the meeting was to review recent advances and to report on the practical aspects of tritium utilization and monitoring. The symposium was jointly organized with OECD/NEA, in co-operation with the US Department of Energy and the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Papers were presented on distribution of tritium, evaluation of future discharges, measurement of tritium, tritium in the aquatic environment, tritium in the terrestrial environment, tritium in man and monitoring of tritium Very interesting papers were given on distribution of tritium and participants got a good idea of the circulation of this radionuclide Some new data were provided on tritium pollution from luminous compounds and we learnt that the tritium release of the Swiss luminous compounds industry is of the same order of magnitude as the tritium release of Windscale. Projections indicate that, in the USA, the total quantity of tritium contained in discarded digital watches will be equal, approximately ten years in the future, to the release of nuclear power reactors Whereas nuclear reactor discharges are controlled there is no control

  16. HYLIFE-II tritium management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhurst, G.R.; Dolan, T.J.

    1993-06-01

    The tritium management system performs seven functions: (1) tritium gas removal from the blast chamber, (2) tritium removal from the Flibe, (3) tritium removal from helium sweep gas, (4) tritium removal from room air, (5) hydrogen isotope separation, (6) release of non-hazardous gases through the stack, (7) fixation and disposal of hazardous effluents. About 2 TBq/s (5 MCi/day) of tritium is bred in the Flibe (Li 2 BeF 4 ) molten salt coolant by neutron absorption. Tritium removal is accomplished by a two-stage vacuum disengager in each of three steam generator loops. Each stage consists of a spray of 0.4 mm diameter, hot Flibe droplets into a vacuum chamber 4 m in diameter and 7 m tall. As droplets fall downward into the vacuum, most of the tritium diffuses out and is pumped away. A fraction Φ∼10 -5 of the tritium remains in the Flibe as it leaves the second stage of the vacuum disengager, and about 24% of the remaining tritium penetrates through the steam generator tubes, per pass, so the net leakage into the steam system is about 4.7 MBq/s (11 Ci/day). The required Flibe pumping power for the vacuum disengager system is 6.6 MW. With Flibe primary coolant and a vacuum disengager, an intermediate coolant loop is not needed to prevent tritium from leaking into the steam system. An experiment is needed to demonstrate vacuum disengager operation with Flibe. A secondary containment shell with helium sweep gas captures the tritium permeating out of the Flibe ducts, limiting leaks there to about 1 Ci/day. The tritium inventory in the reactor is about 190 g, residing mostly in the large Flibe recirculation duct walls. The total cost of the tritium management system is 92 M$, of which the vacuum disengagers cost = 56%, the blast chamber vacuum system = 15%, the cryogenic plant = 9%, the emergency air cleanup and waste treatment systems each = 6%, the protium removal system = 3%, and the fuel storage system and inert gas system each = 2%

  17. Magmatic tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goff, F.; Aams, A.I.; McMurtry, G.M.; Shevenell, L.; Pettit, D.R.; Stimac, J.A.; Werner, C.

    1997-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Detailed geochemical sampling of high-temperature fumaroles, background water, and fresh magmatic products from 14 active volcanoes reveal that they do not produce measurable amounts of tritium ( 3 H) of deep origin ( 2 O). On the other hand, all volcanoes produce mixtures of meteoric and magmatic fluids that contain measurable 3 H from the meteoric end-member. The results show that cold fusion is probably not a significant deep earth process but the samples and data have wide application to a host of other volcanological topics

  18. Monsanto Mound Laboratory tritium waste control technology development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bixel, J.C.; Kershner, C.J.; Rhinehammer, T.B.

    1975-01-01

    Over the past four years, implementation of tritium waste control programs has resulted in a 30-fold reduction in the gaseous tritium effluents from Mound Laboratory. However, to reduce tritium waste levels to the ''as low as practicable'' guideline poses problems that are beyond ready solution with state-of-the-art tritium control technology. To meet this advanced technology need, a tritium waste control technology program was initiated. Although the initial thrust of the work under this program was oriented toward development of gaseous effluent treatment systems, its natural evolution has been toward the liquid waste problem. It is thought that, of all the possible approaches to disposal of tritiated liquid wastes, recovery offers the greatest advantages. End products of the recovery processes would be water detritiated to a level below the Radioactivity Concentration Guide (RCG) or detritiated to a level that would permit safe recycle in a closed loop operation and enriched tritium. The detritiated water effluent could be either recycled in a closed loop operation such as in a fuel reprocessing plant or safely released to the biosphere, and the recovered tritium could be recycled for use in fusion reactor studies or other applications

  19. Continuous monitoring of bisulfide variation in microdialysis effluents by on-line droplet-based microfluidic fluorescent sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaocui; Xu, Lei; Wu, Tongbo; Xu, Anqin; Zhao, Meiping; Liu, Shaorong

    2014-05-15

    We demonstrate a novel fluorescent sensor for real-time and continuous monitoring of the variation of bisulfide in microdialysis effluents by using a nanoparticle-glutathione-fluorescein isothiocyanate (AuNP-GSH-FITC) probe coupled with on-line droplet-based microfluidic chip. The AuNP-GSH-FITC fluorescent probe was firstly developed and used for bisulfide detection in bulk solution by quantitative real-time PCR, which achieved a linear working range from 0.1 μM to 5.0 μM and a limit of detection of ~50 nM. The response time was less than 2 min. With the aid of co-immobilized thiol-polyethylene glycol, the probe exhibited excellent stability and reproducibility in high salinity solutions, including artificial cerebrospinal fluids (aCSF). By adding 0.1% glyoxal to the probe solution, the assay allowed quantification of bisulfide in the presence of cysteine at the micro-molarity level. Using the AuNP-GSH-FITC probe, a droplet-based microfluidic fluorescent sensor was further constructed for online monitoring of bisulfide variation in the effluent of microdialysis. By using fluorescence microscope-charge-coupled device camera as the detector, the integrated microdialysis/microfluidic chip device achieved a detection limit of 2.0 μM and a linear response from 5.0 μM to 50 μM for bisulfide in the tested sample. The method was successfully applied for the on-line measurement of bisulfide variation in aCSF and serum samples. It will be a very useful tool for tracking the variation of bisulfide or hydrogen sulfide in extracellular fluids. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Release of tritium from fuel and collection for storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, L.L.; Trevorrow, L.E.

    1976-04-01

    Recent work is reviewed on the technology that has been suggested as applicable to collection and storage of tritium in anticipation of the necessity of that course of action. Collection technology and procedures must be adapted to the tritium-bearing effluent and to the facility from which it emerges. Therefore, this discussion of tritium collection technology includes some information on the processes from which release is expected to occur, the amounts, the nature of the effluent media, and the form in which tritium appears. Recent work on collection and storage concepts has explored, both by experimentation and by feasibility analyses, the operations generally aimed at producing recycle, collection, or storage of tritium from these streams. Storage concepts aimed specifically at tritium involve plans to store volumes ranging from that of the entire effluent stream to only that of a small volume of a concentrate. Decisions between storage of unconcentrated streams and storage of concentrates are expected to be made largely by weighing the cost of storage space against the cost of concentration. The storage of tritium concentrate requires the selection of a form of tritium possessing physical and chemical properties appropriate for the expected storage conditions. This selection of an appropriate storage form has occupied a major portion of recent work concerned with tritium storage concepts. In summary, within the context of present regulations and expected amounts of waste tritium; this waste can be disposed of by dilution and dispersal to the environment. In the future, however, more restrictive regulations might be introduced that could be satisfied only by some collection and storage operations. Technology for this practice is not now available, and the present discussion reviews recent activities devoted to its development

  1. Simulation study of intentional tritium release experiments in the caisson assembly for tritium safety at the TPL/JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwai, Y.; Hayashi, T.; Kobayashi, K.; Nishi, M.

    2001-01-01

    At the Tritium Process Laboratory (TPL) in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), Caisson assembly for tritium safety study (CATS) with 12 m 3 of large airtight vessel (Caisson) was fabricated for confirmation and enhancement of fusion reactor safety to estimate the tritium behavior in the case, where the tritium leak accident should happen. One of the principal objectives of the present studies is the establishment of simulation method to predict the tritium behavior after the tritium leak accident should happen in a ventilated room. As for the understanding of initial tritium behavior until the tritium concentration become steady, the precise estimation of local flow rate in a room and time-dependent release behavior from the leak point are essential to predict the tritium behavior by simulation code. The three-dimensional eddy flow model considering, tritium-related phenomena was adopted to estimate the local flow rate in the 50 m 3 /h ventilated Caisson. The time-dependent tritium release behavior from the sample container was calculated by residence time distribution function. The calculated tritium concentrations were in good agreement with the experimental observations. The primary removal tritium behavior was also investigated by another code. Tritium gas concentrations decreased logarithmically to the time by ventilation. These observations were understandable by the reason that the flow in the ventilated Caisson was regarded as the perfectly mixing flow. The concentrations of tritiated water measured, and indications of tritium concentration by tritium monitors became gradually flat. This phenomena called 'tritium soaking effect' was found to be reasonably explained by considering the contribution of the exhaustion velocity by ventilation system, and the adsorption and desorption reaction rate of tritiated water on the wall material which is SUS 304. The calculated tritium concentrations were in good agreement with the experimental observations

  2. Tritium surveillance around nuclear facilities in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Y.; Kasida, Y.

    1978-01-01

    In order to measure the tritium levels in the environmental water around the nuclear facilities, the tritium surveillance program began in 1967 locally at Tsuruga and Mihama districts. Nowadays it has been expanded to the ten commercial nuclear power stations and three nuclear facilities. For samples whose tritium concentration is believed less than about 100 pCi/l, they were electrolytically enriched, and then counted by the liquid scintillation counter. Some of samples believed higher than 100 pCi/l were analysed without any enrichment by the low background liquid scintillation counters, Aloka LB 600 or Aloka LB 1. The results of each station are listed in Table. The sampling points corresponding to each results are shown in Figure. Tritium from the effluent was not reflected in all the land water and the tap water around the nuclear power stations and the nuclear facilities. Tritium concentration in rivers, streams, and reservoirs (pools) decreased exponentially from about 600 pCi/l in 1967 to about 150 pCi/l in 1972 at Tsuruga and Mihama, and 360 pCi/l in 1968 to 120 pCi/l in 1973 at Genkai, with the half life of about 2.5 years in both cases. After around 1972, tritium levels of river system in all districts of Japan kept nearly constant up to the end of 1975 and they were in the range from 100 to 300 pCi/l corresponding to the districts. Thereafter, it seems to start to decrease again in 1976. Sea water sampled at the intake of the station or on the seashore far from the outlet was regarded not to be influenced by the effluent from the nuclear reactors or facilities. Tritium concentration in these coastal waters decreased from 100 - 300 pCi/l in 1971 to 30 - 40 pCi/l in 1972 in Fukushima, Ibaraki and Fukui prefectures. (author)

  3. Tritium accountancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avenhaus, R.; Spannagel, G.

    1995-01-01

    Conventional accountancy means that for a given material balance area and a given interval of time the tritium balance is established so that at the end of that interval of time the book inventory is compared with the measured inventory. In this way, an optimal effectiveness of accountancy is achieved. However, there are still further objectives of accountancy, namely the timely detection of anomalies as well as the localization of anomalies in a major system. It can be shown that each of these objectives can be optimized only at the expense of the others. Recently, Near-Real-Time Accountancy procedures have been studied; their methodological background as well as their merits will be discussed. (orig.)

  4. Groundwater monitoring plan: 200 Areas treated effluent disposal facility (Project W-049H)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, D.B.; Davis, J.D.; Collard, L.B.; Freeman, P.B.; Chou, C.J.

    1995-04-01

    This groundwater monitoring plan provides information that supports the US Department of Energy's application (DOE-RL 1994) for waste water discharge permit No. WA-ST-4502 from the State of Washington, under the auspices of Washington Administrative Code 173-216. The monitoring plan has two functions: (1) to summarize the results of a 3-yr characterization of the current hydrogeology and groundwater quality of the discharge site and (2) to provide plans for evaluating the effects of the facility's operation on groundwater quality and document compliance with applicable groundwater quality standards. Three wells were drilled to define the stratigraphy, evaluate sediment characteristics, and establish a groundwater monitoring net work for the discharge facility. These wells monitor groundwater quality upgradient and downgradient in the uppermost aquifer. This report proposes plans for continuing the monitoring of groundwater quality and aquifer characteristics after waste water discharges begin

  5. Disposal of tritiated effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, K.; Bruecher, H.

    1981-06-01

    After some introductory remarks on the origin of tritium, its properties and its behaviour in a reprocessing plant three alternative methods for the disposal of tritiated effluents produced during reprocessing are described (deep well injection, in-situ solidification, deep-sea dumping) and compared with each other under various aspects. The study is based on the concept of a 1400 t/a reprocessing plant for LWR fuel, which annually produces 3000 m 3 of tritiated waste water with a tritium content of 6.5 x 10 12 Bq/m 3 as well as a residual fission product and actinide content. An assessment of the three methods under the aspects of simplicity, reliability, safety, costs, state of development and materials handling revealed advantages in favour of 'injection', followed by 'dumping' and 'in-situ solidification'. (orig./HP) [de

  6. Tritium formation and elimination in light-water electronuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolle, L.; Bazin, J.

    1977-01-01

    In light-water reactors, the tritium balance should be considered from both the working constraint and environmental pollution aspects. In light-water electronuclear stations with pressurized reactors using boric acid in solution for reactivity control, the amounts of tritium formed in the primary circuit are worthy of note. The estimations concerning the tritium production in a hypothetical 1000 MWe reactor are discussed. In the tritium build-up, the part which takes the tritium formed by fission in the fuel, owing to diffusion through cladding, is still difficult to estimate. The tritium balance in different working nuclear power stations are consequently of interest. But the tritium produced by ternary fission in the fuel is always much more abundant, and remains almost entirely confined in the uranium oxide if the fuel is clad with zircaloy. The annual quantity stored in the fuel elements is more than 20 times larger than that of the built up free tritium in the primary circuit water of a reactor. It reaches about 12,400 Ci in the hypothetical reactor. In the presently operated reprocessing plants, tritium is all going over in the effluents, and is almost entirely released in the environment. Taking into account the increasing quantities of high irradiated fuel to be reprocessed, it seems necessary to develop separation processes. Development work and tests have been achieved jointly by CEA and SAINT-GOBAIN TECHNIQUES NOUVELLES in order to: contain the tritium in the high activity part of the plant; and keep small the tritiated effluent volume, about 300 liters per ton of reprocessed uranium. It is then possible to envisage a storage for decay of isotopic separation processes. Such separation processes have been estimated by CEA assuming a daily output of 1500 liters of water containing 2,3 Ci.1 -1 of tritium, the desired decontamination factor being 100 [fr

  7. Development of tritium technology for the United States magnetic fusion energy program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.L.; Wilkes, W.R.

    1980-01-01

    Tritium technology development for the DOE fusion program is taking place principally at three laboratories, Mound Facility, Argonne National Laboratory and the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. This paper will review the major aspects of each of the three programs and look at aspects of the tritium technology being developed at other laboratories within the United States. Facilities and experiments to be discussed include the Tritium Effluent Control Laboratory and the Tritium Storage and Delivery System for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor at Mound Facility; the Lithium Processing Test Loop and the solid breeder blanket studies at Argonne; and the Tritium Systems Test Assembly at Los Alamos

  8. Investigation of tritium in groundwater at Site 300

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buddemeier, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    In 1984, landfill monitoring wells at Site 300, a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) explosive test site, revealed the presence of groundwater contaminated with tritium. These tritium levels were in excess of the State of California drinking water standard. A major investigation was initiated that included a search of records concerning tritium use, disposal, and previous analyses, and a survey of tritium levels in soil, vegetation, and water in contaminated and potentially contaminated areas. Over 50 boreholes were drilled for this investigation to characterize the local hydrogeology and tritium distributions, and a network of soil moisture and groundwater monitoring points was installed. This report presents the work completed through the end of September 1985: the records search; records for drilling completed as part of this study; characterization of the geology, hydrology, and tritium distributions in the contaminated area; and an initial assessment of the probable tritium sources, pathways, and migration rates. 19 refs

  9. Investigation of tritium in groundwater at Site 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buddemeier, R.W.

    1985-12-30

    In 1984, landfill monitoring wells at Site 300, a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) explosive test site, revealed the presence of groundwater contaminated with tritium. These tritium levels were in excess of the State of California drinking water standard. A major investigation was initiated that included a search of records concerning tritium use, disposal, and previous analyses, and a survey of tritium levels in soil, vegetation, and water in contaminated and potentially contaminated areas. Over 50 boreholes were drilled for this investigation to characterize the local hydrogeology and tritium distributions, and a network of soil moisture and groundwater monitoring points was installed. This report presents the work completed through the end of September 1985: the records search; records for drilling completed as part of this study; characterization of the geology, hydrology, and tritium distributions in the contaminated area; and an initial assessment of the probable tritium sources, pathways, and migration rates. 19 refs.

  10. 2009 EVALUATION OF TRITIUM REMOVAL AND MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LUECK KJ; GENESSE DJ; STEGEN GE

    2009-02-26

    Since 1995, a state-approved land disposal site (SALDS) has received tritium contaminated effluents from the Hanford Site Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Tritium in this effluent is mitigated by storage in slow moving groundwater to allow extended time for decay before the water reaches the site boundary. By this method, tritium in the SALDS is isolated from the general environment and human contact until it has decayed to acceptable levels. This report contains the 2009 update evaluation of alternative tritium mitigation techniques to control tritium in liquid effluents and groundwater at the Hanford site. A thorough literature review was completed and updated information is provided on state-of-the-art technologies for control of tritium in wastewaters. This report was prepared to satisfy the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-026-07B (Ecology, EPA, and DOE 2007). Tritium separation and isolation technologies are evaluated periodically to determine their feasibility for implementation to control Hanford site liquid effluents and groundwaters to meet the Us. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40 CFR 141.16, drinking water maximum contaminant level (MCL) for tritium of 20,000 pOll and/or DOE Order 5400.5 as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) policy. Since the 2004 evaluation, there have been a number of developments related to tritium separation and control with potential application in mitigating tritium contaminated wastewater. These are primarily focused in the areas of: (1) tritium recycling at a commercial facility in Cardiff, UK using integrated tritium separation technologies (water distillation, palladium membrane reactor, liquid phase catalytic exchange, thermal diffusion), (2) development and demonstration of Combined Electrolysis Catalytic Exchange (CECE) using hydrogen/water exchange to separate tritium from water, (3) evaporation of tritium contaminated water for dispersion in the

  11. Regular control of monitors for effluents from nuclear power plant stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroem, L.

    1979-01-01

    The report describes a test procedure for emission monitoring devices for nuclear power plants. The follosing procedures are described, inspection, determination of the air flow through the stack, measurement and adjustment of the flow in the stack loop, measurement and adjustment of flow and density in the measuring loop, calibration of the gas detector, efficiency of sampling of methyliodide and aerosol. (K.K.)

  12. Environmental monitoring report, 1980: Pinellas Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-03-01

    Results of the monitoring program at the Pinellas Plant are described. Small quantities of tritium gas, tritium oxide, carbon-14 labeled solvent and krypton-85 gas were released from the plant during the year. Average maximum ground level concentrations of these radioisotopes were all significantly less than 0.1% of the recommended guide for continuous nonoccupational exposure. Off-site releases of liquid effluents were analyzed for compliance with the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES). Analyses were performed for biochemical oxygen demand, suspended solids, fecal coliform bacteria, pH, nitrogen, phosphorus, arsenic, chlorides, chromium, copper, cyanides, detergents, fluorides, iron, lead, mercury, oil plus greases, phenols, turbidity, and zinc. In addition to the non-radioactive parameters listed above, a small quantity of radioactive tritium oxide was released in the effluent. Analyses showed the average concentration was 0.20% of the nonoccupational exposure guide. Site perimeter and off-site air samples for tritium gas and tritium oxide, as well as off-site surface water samples obtained to distance of 9.6 kilometers (6 miles) from the plant site and analyzed for tritium content, showed levels significantly less than 0.1% of the recommended guide for continuous nonoccupational exposure. Small sealed plutonium sources containing approximately 80% plutonium-238 oxide and 20% plutonium-239 oxide and other isotopes, are utilized at this site. No plutonium was released to the environment.Calculations were made to determine the radiation doses resulting from releases of tritium oxide, 85 Kr, and 14 C to: an individual at the site boundary; individuals in the closest residential area; and the population within 80 kilometers (50 miles) of the plant site. The total dose commitment to the population residing within 80 kilometers was determined to be 0.55 man-rem as compared to the annual dose from natural radiation of 223,165 man-rem

  13. Pinellas Plant environmental monitoring report, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-04-01

    The results of the effluent and environmental monitoring programs are presented. Small quantities of tritium gas, tritium oxide, carbon-14 labeled solvent and krypton-85 gas were released from the plant during the year. Average maximum ground level concentrations of these radioisotopes were all less than 3/10 of 1 percent of the standard for continuous nonoccupational exposure. The plant's combined sanitary and industrial liquid effluents were analyzed for arsenic, barium, biochemical oxygen demand, boron, cadmium, total chromium, trivalent chromium, hexavalent chromium, copper, cyanide, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, phenolics, selenium, silver, sulfides, suspended solids and zinc. Small quantities of radioactive tritium were released to the POTW and from the East Pond. Analyses showed the levels were less than 1/10 of one percent of the applicable standards. Site perimeter and off-site air samples for tritium gas and tritium oxide, as well as off-site surface water samples obtained to distance of 9.6 kilometers (6 miles) from the plant site and analyzed for tritium content, showed levels significantly less than 1/10 of 1 percent of the standard for continuous nonoccupational exposure. Calculations were made to determine the radiation doses resulting from releases of tritium oxide, krypton-85 and carbon-14. The calculated doses are exceedingly small when compared to the applicable standards. The total dose commitment to the population residing within 80 kilometers (50 miles) was determined to be 0.40 man-rem as compared to the annual dose from natural radiation of 243,117 man-rem. 10 references, 3 figures, 12 tables

  14. Tritium handling experience at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suppiah, S.; McCrimmon, K.; Lalonde, S.; Ryland, D.; Boniface, H.; Muirhead, C.; Castillo, I. [Atomic Energy of Canad Limited - AECL, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    2015-03-15

    Canada has been a leader in tritium handling technologies as a result of the successful CANDU reactor technology used for power production. Over the last 50 to 60 years, capabilities have been established in tritium handling and tritium management in CANDU stations, tritium removal processes for heavy and light water, tritium measurement and monitoring, and understanding the effects of tritium on the environment. This paper outlines details of tritium-related work currently being carried out at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL). It concerns the CECE (Combined Electrolysis and Catalytic Exchange) process for detritiation, tritium-compatible electrolysers, tritium permeation studies, and tritium powered batteries. It is worth noting that AECL offers a Tritium Safe-Handling Course to national and international participants, the course is a mixture of classroom sessions and hands-on practical exercises. The expertise and facilities available at AECL is ready to address technological needs of nuclear fusion and next-generation nuclear fission reactors related to tritium handling and related issues.

  15. Hybrid monitoring of environmental radioactivity as a perspective approach to rapid control and prediction of environmental contamination due to NPP wastes and effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eremeev, I.S.; Eremenko, V.A.; Zhernov, V.S.; Makarov, Yu.A.; Matveev, V.V.; Ryzhov, N.V.; Ryazanov, V.V.; Skatkin, V.M.

    1985-01-01

    Conseptucal model of the system of hybride monitoring of environmental radioactivity due to NPP wastes and effluents is proposed. The model a combination of measuring and simulating monitoring, provides correlation of methods and aims of simulation of environmental contamination spread methods and means of monitoring of its factual distribution in space, methods of separation of technogeneous signals from natural radiation background and provision of the given degree of reliability of results of information processing, in particular periodic coorection, model adaptation according to the factual measurement data

  16. Generation of gaseous tritium standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohorst, F.A.

    1994-09-01

    The determination of aqueous and non-aqueous tritium in gaseous samples is one type of determination often requested of radioanalytical laboratories. This determination can be made by introducing the sample as a gas into a sampling train containing two silica gel beds separated by.a catalytic oxidizer bed. The first bed traps tritiated water. The sample then passes into and through the oxidizer bed where non-aqueous tritium containing species are oxidized to water and other products of combustion. The second silica gel bed then traps the newly formed tritiated water. Subsequently, silica gel is removed to plastic bottles, deionized water is added, and the mixture is permitted to equilibrate. The tritium content of the equilibrium mixture is then determined by conventional liquid scintillation counting (LSC). For many years, the moisture content of inert, gaseous samples has been determined using monitors which quantitatively electrolyze the moisture present after that moisture has been absorbed by phosphorous pentoxide or other absorbents. The electrochemical reaction is quantitative and definitive, and the energy consumed during electrolysis forms the basis of the continuous display of the moisture present. This report discusses the experimental evaluation of such a monitor as the basis for a technique for conversion of small quantities of SRMs of tritiated water ( 3 HOH) into gaseous tritium standards ( 3 HH)

  17. Source terms for airborne effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomeke, J.O.; Perona, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    The origin and nature of fuel cycle wastes are discussed with regard to high-level wastes, cladding, noble gases, iodine, tritium, 14 C, low-level and intermediate-level transuranic wastes, non-transuranic wastes, and ore tailings. The current practice for gaseous effluent treatment is described for light water reactors and high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. Other topics discussed are projections of nuclear power generation; projected accumulation of gaseous wastes; the impact of nuclear fuel cycle centers; and global buildup of airborne effluents

  18. 1993 Effluent and environmental monitoring report for the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory, Pittsburgh Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The results of the radiological and non-radiological environmental monitoring programs for 1993 at the Bettis-Pittsburgh Site are presented. The results obtained from the monitoring programs demonstrate that the existing procedures ensured that environmental releases during 1993 were in accordance with applicable Federal and State regulations. Evaluation of the environmental data indicates that the current operations at the Site continue to have no adverse effect on the quality of the environment. A conservative assessment of radiation exposure to the general public as a result of Site operations demonstrated that the dose received by any member of the public was well below the most restrictive dose limits established by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the US Department of Energy

  19. 1985 Effluent and environmental monitoring report for the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The results of the radiological and non-radiological environmental monitoring programs for 1985 at the Bettis Laboratory are presented. The results obtained from the monitoring programs demonstrate that the existing procedures ensure that all environmental releases during 1985 were in accordance with applicable State and Federal regulations. Evaluation of the environmental data indicates that operation of the Laboratory continued to have no adverse effect on the quality of the environment. Furthermore, a conservative assessment of radiation exposure to the general public as a result of Laboratory operations demonstrated that the dose received by any member of the public was well below the most restrictive dose limits prescribed by the Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Energy

  20. 1992 Effluent and environmental monitoring report for the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory Pittsburgh Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The results of the radiological and non-radiological environmental monitoring programs for 1992 at the Bettis-Pittsburgh Site are presented. The results obtained from the monitoring programs demonstrate that the existing procedures ensured that environmental releases during 1992 were in accordance with applicable Federal and State regulations. Evaluation of the environmental data indicates that operation of the Laboratory continues to have no adverse effect on the quality of the environment. A conservative assessment of radiation exposure to the general public as a result of Laboratory operations demonstrated that the dose received by any member of the public was well below the most restrictive dose limits established by the Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Energy

  1. 1993 Effluent and environmental monitoring report for the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory, Pittsburgh Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    The results of the radiological and non-radiological environmental monitoring programs for 1993 at the Bettis-Pittsburgh Site are presented. The results obtained from the monitoring programs demonstrate that the existing procedures ensured that environmental releases during 1993 were in accordance with applicable Federal and State regulations. Evaluation of the environmental data indicates that the current operations at the Site continue to have no adverse effect on the quality of the environment. A conservative assessment of radiation exposure to the general public as a result of Site operations demonstrated that the dose received by any member of the public was well below the most restrictive dose limits established by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the US Department of Energy.

  2. 1992 Effluent and environmental monitoring report for the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory Pittsburgh Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    The results of the radiological and non-radiological environmental monitoring programs for 1992 at the Bettis-Pittsburgh Site are presented. The results obtained from the monitoring programs demonstrate that the existing procedures ensured that environmental releases during 1992 were in accordance with applicable Federal and State regulations. Evaluation of the environmental data indicates that operation of the Laboratory continues to have no adverse effect on the quality of the environment. A conservative assessment of radiation exposure to the general public as a result of Laboratory operations demonstrated that the dose received by any member of the public was well below the most restrictive dose limits established by the Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Energy.

  3. Tritium activities in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gierszewski, P.

    1995-01-01

    Canadian tritium activites comprise three major interests: utilites, light manufacturers, and fusion. There are 21 operating CANDU reactors in Canada; 19 with Ontario Hydro and one each with Hydro Quebec and New Brunswick Power. There are two light manufacturers, two primary tritium research facilities (at AECL Chalk River and Ontario Hydro Technologies), and a number of industry and universities involved in design, construction, and general support of the other tritium activities. The largest tritum program is in support of the CANDU reactors, which generate tritium in the heavy water as a by-product of normal operation. Currently, there are about 12 kg of tritium locked up in the heavy water coolant and moderator of these reactors. The fusion work is complementary to the light manufacturing, and is concerned with tritium handling for the ITER program. This included design, development and application of technologies related to Isotope Separation, tritium handling, (tritiated) gas separation, tritium-materials interaction, and plasma fueling

  4. Operational experience of gaseous effluent treatment at the Eurochemic reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osipenco, A.; Detilleux, E.

    1977-01-01

    The EUROCHEMIC fuel reprocessing plant applies the PUREX flow sheet. Two particular features of the plant influence gaseous and liquid effluents: chemical decanning and the ability to process a wide range of fuels, uranium metal or oxide, having an initial enrichment typical of power reactors (up to 5%) or material testing reactors (up to 93%). The ventilation circuits, treatment plant and monitoring equipment for gaseous releases are briefly described. No retention facilities for rare gases, tritium, or carbon-14 are provided. The releases are monitored for krypton-85, iodine-131, alpha and beta-gamma aerosols and tritium. Between 1966 and 1974 the plant processes about 200 tonnes of power reactor fuel, from which about 0.7 tonnes of plutonium and 1.5 tonnes of highly enriched uranium were separated. The most important points in the operation of the gas cleaning equipment are indicated: efficiency, operational reliability, incidents, etc.. Actual discharges as measured are compared with the limits set in the operation licence. Using the atmospheric diffusion coefficients, the dose commitment is estimated. The low level liquid effluents are passed, after neutralization, to the treatment plant of the Belgian nuclear center CEN/SCK. However, if the activity exceeds the limit set by the CEN/SCK, the effluents are concentrated by evaporation and stored on the EUROCHEMIC site. (orig.) [de

  5. Environmental monitoring report, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The Pinellas Plant is operated for the U. S. Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) by the Neutron Devices Department of the General Electric Company. The plant's 1100 employees are engaged in the design, development, and manufacture of special electronic and mechanical nuclear weapons components. The effluent and environmental monitoring programs maintained by the Pinellas Plant are designed to determine the efficiencies of treatment and control mechanisms, to provide measurements of discharge concentrations for comparison with applicable standards, and to assess the effect of these discharges on the environment. Small quantities of tritium gas, tritium oxide, and krypton-85 gas were released from the plant during the year. Average ground level concentrations of these radioisotopes were all significantly less than 1/10 of 1 percent of the recommended guide for continuous nonoccupational exposure

  6. The Tritium White Paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This publication proposes a synthesis of the activities of two work-groups between May 2008 and April 2010. It reports the ASN's (the French Agency for Nuclear Safety) point of view, describes its activities and actions, and gives some recommendations. It gives a large and detailed overview of the knowledge status on tritium: tritium source inventory, tritium origin, management processes, capture techniques, reduction, tritium metrology, impact on the environment, impacts on human beings

  7. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: Water Effluent Charts Details

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Detailed Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) data supporting effluent charts for one Clean Water Act discharge permit. Includes effluent parameters, amounts discharged...

  8. Regulating Effluents From India’s Textile Sector: New Commands and Compliance Monitoring for Zero Liquid Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Grönwall

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2016 large parts of India had experienced failing monsoons for two consecutive years. Textiles production was a natural target in the quest for solutions when re-distribution of water between sectors became imperative, and it seemed likely that the zero liquid discharge (ZLD approach would be mainstreamed nationwide. However, when amended standards for discharge of effluents were enacted it was without strict requirements for reuse of water in-house; the legislator chose to make ZLD applicable only to large units and refrained from making it mandatory. The carrying capacity of the environment in sensitive or otherwise critical areas may henceforth be taken into account by the executive, but the textile sector’s wastewater is not yet regarded the resource that a circular economy calls for. This paper examines the command-side of regulation by shedding light on the applicable law, the reform steps taken in 2014–16 and how judicial interventions influenced these. It also seeks to contribute to the understanding of enforcement control by discussing what role court-established committees are playing in implementation and monitoring of compliance, based on an in-depth case study of Tirupur, India’s ‘knit city’.

  9. TFTR tritium handling concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garber, H.J.

    1976-01-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor, to be located on the Princeton Forrestal Campus, is expected to operate with 1 to 2.5 MA tritium--deuterium plasmas, with the pulses involving injection of 50 to 150 Ci (5 to 16 mg) of tritium. Attainment of fusion conditions is based on generation of an approximately 1 keV tritium plasma by ohmic heating and conversion to a moderately hot tritium--deuterium ion plasma by injection of a ''preheating'' deuterium neutral beam (40 to 80 keV), followed by injection of a ''reacting'' beam of high energy neutral deuterium (120 to 150 keV). Additionally, compressions accompany the beam injections. Environmental, safety and cost considerations led to the decision to limit the amount of tritium gas on-site to that required for an experiment, maintaining all other tritium in ''solidified'' form. The form of the tritium supply is as uranium tritide, while the spent tritium and other hydrogen isotopes are getter-trapped by zirconium--aluminum alloy. The issues treated include: (1) design concepts for the tritium generator and its purification, dispensing, replenishment, containment, and containment--cleanup systems; (2) features of the spent plasma trapping system, particularly the regenerable absorption cartridges, their integration into the vacuum system, and the handling of non-getterables; (3) tritium permeation through the equipment and the anticipated releases to the environment; (4) overview of the tritium related ventilation systems; and (5) design bases for the facility's tritium clean-up systems

  10. Quantitative real-time monitoring of dryer effluent using fiber optic near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, S C; Walker, D S

    2000-09-01

    This paper describes a method for real-time quantitation of the solvents evaporating from a dryer. The vapor stream in the vacuum line of a dryer was monitored in real time using a fiber optic-coupled acousto-optic tunable filter near-infrared (AOTF-NIR) spectrometer. A balance was placed in the dryer, and mass readings were recorded for every scan of the AOTF-NIR. A partial least-squares (PLS) calibration was subsequently built based on change in mass over change in time for solvents typically used in a chemical manufacturing plant. Controlling software for the AOTF-NIR was developed. The software collects spectra, builds the PLS calibration model, and continuously fits subsequently collected spectra to the calibration, allowing the operator to follow the mass loss of solvent from the dryer. The results indicate that solvent loss can be monitored and quantitated in real time using NIR for the optimization of drying times. These time-based mass loss values have also been used to calculate "dynamic" vapor density values for the solvents. The values calculated are in agreement with values determined from the ideal gas law and could prove valuable as tools to measure temperature or pressure indirectly.

  11. Tips for the fabrication of temporary tritium experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binning, K.E.; Jenkins, E.M.

    1988-01-01

    The Tritium System Test Assembly (TSTA) is a facility built for the demonstration of tritium handling systems necessary for tritium-burning fusion reactors. The facility has been in operation handling tritium for four years. The current inventory of tritium is approximately one hundred grams, with DOE approval for a maximum inventory of two hundred grams. Not all experiments performed at TSTA require the operation of the main process loop. During the last four years, many small scale experiments have been performed to test the compatibility and operation of tritium processing components in small self-contained experimental packages. These packages are fabricated inside secondary containment gloveboxes and can be operated for hours or months with little monitoring. Construction of these packages need to be tritium compatible, inexpensive, easy to build, and versatile. This paper discusses some of the problems and remedies encountered during the building of temporary experiments

  12. Tips for the fabrication of temporary tritium experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binning, K.E.; Jenkins, E.M.

    1988-01-01

    The Tritium System Test Assembly (TSTA) is a facility built for the demonstration of tritium handling systems necessary for tritium-burning fusion reactors. The facility has been in operation handling tritium for four years. The current inventory of tritium is approximately one hundred grams with DOE approval exists for a maximum inventory of two hundred grams. Not all experiments performed at TSTA require the operation of the main process loop. During the last four years, many small scale experiments have been performed to test the compatibility and operation of tritium processing components in small self-contained experimental packages. These packages are fabricated inside secondary containment gloveboxes and can be operated for hours or months with little monitoring. Construction of these packages need to be tritium compatible, inexpensive, easy to build, and versatile. This paper discusses some of the problems and remedies encountered during the building of temporary experiments

  13. Effluent Monitoring System Design for the Proton Accelerator Research Center of PEFP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jun Yeon; Mun, Kyeong Jun; Cho, Jang Hyung; Jo, Jeong Hee

    2010-01-01

    Since host site host site was selected Gyeong-ju city in January, 2006. we need design revision of Proton Accelerator research center to reflect on host site characteristics and several conditions. Also the IAC recommended maximization of space utilization and construction cost saving. After GA(General Arrangement) is made a decision, it is necessary to evaluate the radiation analysis of every controlled area in the proton accelerator research center such as accelerator tunnel, Klystron gallery, beam experimental hall, target rooms and ion beam application building to keep dose rate below the ALARA(As Low As Reasonably achievable) objective. Our staff has reviewed and made a shielding design of them. In this paper, According to accelerator operation mode and access conditions based on radiation analysis and shielding design, we made the exhaust system configuration of controlled area in the proton accelerator research center. Also, we installed radiation monitor and set its alarm value for each radiation area

  14. Sources of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.E.; Easterly, C.E.

    1980-12-01

    A review of tritium sources is presented. The tritium production and release rates are discussed for light water reactors (LWRs), heavy water reactors (HWRs), high temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGRs), liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs), and molten salt breeder reactors (MSBRs). In addition, release rates are discussed for tritium production facilities, fuel reprocessing plants, weapons detonations, and fusion reactors. A discussion of the chemical form of the release is included. The energy producing facilities are ranked in order of increasing tritium production and release. The ranking is: HTGRs, LWRs, LMFBRs, MSBRs, and HWRs. The majority of tritium has been released in the form of tritiated water

  15. A Survey of Tritium in Irish Seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currivan, L.; Kelleher, K.; McGinnity, P.; Wong, J.; McMahon, C.

    2013-07-01

    This report provides a comprehensive record of the study and measurements of tritium in Irish seawater undertaken by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland RPII. The majority of the samples analysed were found to have tritium concentrations below the limit of detection and a conservative assessment of radiation dose arising showed a negligible impact to the public. Tritium is discharged in large quantities from various nuclear facilities, and mostly in liquid form. For this reason it is included in the list of radioactive substances of interest to the OSPAR (Oslo-Paris) Convention to protect the marine environment of the North-East Atlantic. To fulfil its role within OSPAR, to provide technical support to the Irish Government, RPII carried out a project to determine the levels of tritium in seawater from around the Irish coast to supplement its routine marine monitoring programme. A total of 85 seawater samples were collected over a three year period and analysed at the RPII's laboratory. Given that the operational discharges for tritium from the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at Sellafield, UK, are expected to increase due to current and planned decommissioning activities RPII will continue to monitor tritium levels in seawater around the Irish coast, including the Irish Sea, as part of its routine marine monitoring programme

  16. Tritium pellet injector results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, P.W.; Bauer, M.L.; Baylor, L.R.; Deleanu, L.E.; Fehling, D.T.; Milora, S.L.; Whitson, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Injection of solid tritium pellets is considered to be the most promising way of fueling fusion reactors. The Tritium Proof-of- Principle (TPOP) experiment has demonstrated the feasibility of forming and accelerating tritium pellets. This injector is based on the pneumatic pipe-gun concept, in which pellets are formed in situ in the barrel and accelerated with high-pressure gas. This injector is ideal for tritium service because there are no moving parts inside the gun and because no excess tritium is required in the pellet production process. Removal of 3 He from tritium to prevent blocking of the cryopumping action by the noncondensible gas has been demonstrated with a cryogenic separator. Pellet velocities of 1280 m/s have been achieved for 4-mm-diam by 4-mm-long cylindrical tritium pellets with hydrogen propellant at 6.96 MPa (1000 psi). 10 refs., 10 figs

  17. Monitoring of tritium, 60Co and 137Cs in the vicinity of the warm water outlet of the Paks Nuclear Power Plant, Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janovics, R; Bihari, Á; Papp, L; Dezső, Z; Major, Z; Sárkány, K E; Bujtás, T; Veres, M; Palcsu, L

    2014-02-01

    Danube water, sediment and various aquatic organisms (snail, mussel, predatory and omnivorous fish) were collected upstream (at a background site) and downstream of the outlet of the warm water channel of Paks Nuclear Power Plant. Gamma emitters, tissue free-water tritium (TFWT) and total organically-bound tritium (T-OBT) measurements were performed. A slight contribution of the power plant to the natural tritium background concentration was measured in water samples from the Danube section downstream of the warm water channel. Sediment samples also contained elevated tritium concentrations, along with a detectable amount of (60)Co. In the case of biota samples, TFWT exhibited only a very slight difference compared to the tritium concentration of the Danube water, however, the OBT was higher than the tritium concentration in the Danube, independent of the origin of the samples. The elevated OBT concentration in the mollusc samples downstream of the warm water channel may be attributed to the excess emission from the nuclear power plant. The whole data set obtained was used for dose rate calculations and will be contributed to the development of the ERICA database. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Tritium Level in Romanian Precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varlam, C.; Stefanescu, I.; Faurescu, I.; Bogdan, D.; Soare, A. [Institute for Cryogenic and Isotope Technologies, Rm. Valcea (Romania); Duliu, O. G. [Faculty of Physics, University of Bucharest, Magurele (Romania)

    2013-07-15

    Romania is one of the countries that has no station included in GNIP (Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation) on its territory. This paper presents results regarding the tritium concentration in precipitation for the period 1999-2009. The precipitation fell at the Institute for cryogenic and Isotope technologies (geographical coordinates: altitude 237 m, latitude 45{sup o}02'07' N, longitude 24{sup o}17'03' E) an was collected both individually and as a composite average of each month. It was individually measured and the average was calculated and compared with the tritium concentration measured in the composite sample. tritium concentration levels ranged from 9.9 {+-} 2.1 TU for 2004 and 13.7 {+-} 2.2 TU for 2009. Comparing the arithmetic mean values with the weighted mean for the period of observation, it was noticed that the higher absolute values of the weighted means were constant. It was found that for the calculated monthly average for the period of observation (1999-2009), the months with the maximum tritium concentration are the same as the months with the maximum amount of precipitation. This behaviour is typical for the monitored location. (author)

  19. Tritium release experiments with CATS and numerical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munakata, Kenzo; Wajima, Takaaki; Hara, Keisuke; Wada, Kohei; Takeishi, Toshiharu; Shinozaki, Yohei; Mochizuki, Kazuhiro; Katekari, Kenichi; Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Iwai, Yasunori; Hayashi, Takumi; Yamanishi, Toshihiko

    2010-01-01

    In D-T fusion power plants, large amounts of tritium would be handled. Tritium is the radioisotope of protium, and is easily taken into the human body, and thus the behavior of tritium accidentally released in fusion power plants should be studied for the safety design and radioprotection of workers. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the behavior of tritium released into large rooms with objectives, since complex flow fields should exist in such rooms and they could influence the ventilation of the air containing released tritium. Thus, tritium release experiments were conducted using Caisson Assembly for Tritium Safety Study (CATS) in TPL/JAEA. Some data were taken for tritium behavior in the ventilated area and response of tritium monitors. In the experiments, approximately 17 GBq of tritium was released into Caisson with the total volume of 12 m 3 , and the room was ventilated at the rate of 12 m 3 /h after release of tritium. It was found that placement of an objective in the vessel substantially affects decontamination efficiency. With regard to an experimental result, numerical calculation was performed and the experimental result and the result of numerical calculation were compared, which indicates that experimental results are qualitatively reproduced by numerical calculation. However, further R and D needs to be carried out for quantitative reproduction of the experimental results.

  20. Tritium release experiments with CATS and numerical simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munakata, Kenzo, E-mail: kenzo@gipc.akita-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Engineering and Resource Sciences, Akita University, Tegata-gakuen-cho 1-1, Akita 010-8502 (Japan); Wajima, Takaaki; Hara, Keisuke; Wada, Kohei [Faculty of Engineering and Resource Sciences, Akita University, Tegata-gakuen-cho 1-1, Akita 010-8502 (Japan); Takeishi, Toshiharu; Shinozaki, Yohei; Mochizuki, Kazuhiro; Katekari, Kenichi [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Science, Kyushu University, Hakozaki 6-10-1, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Iwai, Yasunori; Hayashi, Takumi; Yamanishi, Toshihiko [Tritium Technology Group, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2010-12-15

    In D-T fusion power plants, large amounts of tritium would be handled. Tritium is the radioisotope of protium, and is easily taken into the human body, and thus the behavior of tritium accidentally released in fusion power plants should be studied for the safety design and radioprotection of workers. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the behavior of tritium released into large rooms with objectives, since complex flow fields should exist in such rooms and they could influence the ventilation of the air containing released tritium. Thus, tritium release experiments were conducted using Caisson Assembly for Tritium Safety Study (CATS) in TPL/JAEA. Some data were taken for tritium behavior in the ventilated area and response of tritium monitors. In the experiments, approximately 17 GBq of tritium was released into Caisson with the total volume of 12 m{sup 3}, and the room was ventilated at the rate of 12 m{sup 3}/h after release of tritium. It was found that placement of an objective in the vessel substantially affects decontamination efficiency. With regard to an experimental result, numerical calculation was performed and the experimental result and the result of numerical calculation were compared, which indicates that experimental results are qualitatively reproduced by numerical calculation. However, further R and D needs to be carried out for quantitative reproduction of the experimental results.

  1. ITER Dynamic Tritium Inventory Modeling Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristescu, Ioana-R.; Doerr, L.; Busigin, A.; Murdoch, D.

    2005-01-01

    A tool for tritium inventory evaluation within each sub-system of the Fuel Cycle of ITER is vital, with respect to both the process of licensing ITER and also for operation. It is very likely that measurements of total tritium inventories may not be possible for all sub-systems, however tritium accounting may be achieved by modeling its hold-up within each sub-system and by validating these models in real-time against the monitored flows and tritium streams between the systems. To get reliable results, an accurate dynamic modeling of the tritium content in each sub-system is necessary. In order to optimize the configuration and operation of the ITER fuel cycle, a dynamic fuel cycle model was developed progressively in the decade up to 2000-2001. As the design for some sub-systems from the fuel cycle (i.e. Vacuum pumping, Neutral Beam Injectors (NBI)) have substantially progressed meanwhile, a new code developed under a different platform to incorporate these modifications has been developed. The new code is taking over the models and algorithms for some subsystems, such as Isotope Separation System (ISS); where simplified models have been previously considered, more detailed have been introduced, as for the Water Detritiation System (WDS). To reflect all these changes, the new code developed inside EU participating team was nominated TRIMO (Tritium Inventory Modeling), to emphasize the use of the code on assessing the tritium inventory within ITER

  2. Tritium levels in milk in the vicinity of chronic tritium releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Goff, P.; Guétat, Ph.; Vichot, L.; Leconte, N.; Badot, P.M.; Gaucheron, F.; Fromm, M.

    2016-01-01

    Tritium is the radioactive isotope of hydrogen. It can be integrated into most biological molecules. Even though its radiotoxicity is weak, the effects of tritium can be increased following concentration in critical compartments of living organisms. For a better understanding of tritium circulation in the environment and to highlight transfer constants between compartments, we studied the tritiation of different agricultural matrices chronically exposed to tritium. Milk is one of the most frequently monitored foodstuffs in the vicinity of points known for chronic release of radionuclides firstly because dairy products find their way into most homes but also because it integrates deposition over large areas at a local scale. It is a food which contains all the main nutrients, especially proteins, carbohydrates and lipids. We thus studied the tritium levels of milk in chronic exposure conditions by comparing the tritiation of the main hydrogenated components of milk, first, component by component, then, sample by sample. Significant correlations were found between the specific activities of drinking water and free water of milk as well as between the tritium levels of cattle feed dry matter and of the main organic components of milk. Our findings stress the importance of the metabolism on the distribution of tritium in the different compartments. Overall, dilution of hydrogen in the environmental compartments was found to play an important role dimming possible isotopic effects even in a food chain chronically exposed to tritium. - Highlights: • Tritium can be incorporated in all the hydrogenated components of milk. • Components' isotopic ratios T/H of chronically exposed milk remain in the same range. • In environmental conditions, distribution of tritium in milk components varies. • Metabolism plays a role in the distribution of tritium in the components of milk. • In environmental conditions, dilution of hydrogen dims possible isotopic effects.

  3. Volatilized tritiated water vapor in the vicinity of exposed tritium contaminated groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, D.L.; Carlton, B.; Hunter, C.; McAdams, T.

    1994-01-01

    Water vapor tritium concentrations in air above a known source of tritiated water can be estimated. Estimates should account for the mechanisms of evaporation and condensation at the water surface and water species exchange, and are typically applicable under a broad range of wind, temperature and humidity conditions. An estimate of volatilized tritium water vapor was made for a known outcropping of tritium contaminated groundwater at the Savannah River Site (SRS) old F-Area effluent stream. In order to validate this estimate and the associated dose calculation, sampling equipment was fabricated, tested, and installed at the effluent stream. The estimate and the dose calculation were confirmed using data from samples collected

  4. Tritium levels in milk in the vicinity of chronic tritium releases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goff, P; Guétat, Ph; Vichot, L; Leconte, N; Badot, P M; Gaucheron, F; Fromm, M

    2016-01-01

    Tritium is the radioactive isotope of hydrogen. It can be integrated into most biological molecules. Even though its radiotoxicity is weak, the effects of tritium can be increased following concentration in critical compartments of living organisms. For a better understanding of tritium circulation in the environment and to highlight transfer constants between compartments, we studied the tritiation of different agricultural matrices chronically exposed to tritium. Milk is one of the most frequently monitored foodstuffs in the vicinity of points known for chronic release of radionuclides firstly because dairy products find their way into most homes but also because it integrates deposition over large areas at a local scale. It is a food which contains all the main nutrients, especially proteins, carbohydrates and lipids. We thus studied the tritium levels of milk in chronic exposure conditions by comparing the tritiation of the main hydrogenated components of milk, first, component by component, then, sample by sample. Significant correlations were found between the specific activities of drinking water and free water of milk as well as between the tritium levels of cattle feed dry matter and of the main organic components of milk. Our findings stress the importance of the metabolism on the distribution of tritium in the different compartments. Overall, dilution of hydrogen in the environmental compartments was found to play an important role dimming possible isotopic effects even in a food chain chronically exposed to tritium. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Organically bound tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diabate, S.; Strack, S.

    1993-01-01

    Tritium released into the environment may be incorporated into organic matter. Organically bound tritium in that case will show retention times in organisms that are considerably longer than those of tritiated water which has significant consequences on dose estimates. This article reviews the most important processes of organically bound tritium production and transport through food networks. Metabolic reactions in plant and animal organisms with tritiated water as a reaction partner are of great importance in this respect. The most important production process, in quantitative terms, is photosynthesis in green plants. The translocation of organically bound tritium from the leaves to edible parts of crop plants should be considered in models of organically bound tritium behavior. Organically bound tritium enters the human body on several pathways, either from the primary producers (vegetable food) or at a higher tropic level (animal food). Animal experiments have shown that the dose due to ingestion of organically bound tritium can be up to twice as high as a comparable intake of tritiated water in gaseous or liquid form. In the environment, organically bound tritium in plants and animals is often found to have higher specific tritium concentrations than tissue water. This is not due to some tritium enrichment effects but to the fact that no equilibrium conditions are reached under natural conditions. 66 refs

  6. Tritium volume activity in natural waters of NPP Temelin region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomasek, M; Wilhelmova, L [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Rep., Prague (Czech Republic). Nuclear Physics Inst., Dept. of Radiation Dosimetry

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the results of tritium measurement in selected rivers of NPP Temelin before its operation obtained during the period 1991-1994. Particular attention is paid to Vltava river into which liquid effluents will be discharged and which is also utilized as a drinking water supply for the capital Prague. Samples from the Vltava river were collected near the mouth of NPP waste canal (point Hladna)and in front of the intake into Prague water works (point Podoli). Tritium content was analysed also in surface waters of Paleckuv, Temelinsky and Strouha streams which can be affected by gaseous effluents due to atmospheric removal processes. Tritium activity was measured with Tric-Carb 1050 TR/LL liquid scintillation counter. The mean annual tritium activities of investigated river waters varied within 1.9-3.0 Bq/l during the period 1991-1994 and that their trend has been slowly decreasing. This fact, as well as seasonal variability, suggests, that tritium level in the surface waters of studied region is largely governed by this radionuclide global atmospheric fallout. The results of this work indicate the trend of background tritium in examined natural waters and make possible the evaluation of their potential future contamination. (J.K.) 1 tab., 2 figs., 4 refs.

  7. Emergency response monitoring activities and environmental impact of the K-Reactor aqueous tritium release of December 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamby, D.M.; Addis, R.P.; Beals, D.M.; Cadieux, J.R.; Carlton, W.H.; Dunn, D.L.; Hall, G.; Hayes, D.W.; Lorenz, R.; Kantelo, M.V.; Taylor, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    Approximately 150 gallons of tritiated water leaked from one of the K-Reactor heat exchangers between December 22 and December 25, 1991. Upon notification, the Environmental Technology Section (ETS) activated its emergency response team to provide predictions of river concentrations, transport times, and radiological effects to downstream water users. Additionally, within a few days of the release, ETS and the Environmental Monitoring Section (EMS) began a comprehensive program to collect and analyze surface water samples from SRS down to the Savannah River estuary. The TRAC mobile laboratory was deployed to the Beaufort-Jasper water treatment plant to provide initial analyses for downriver water samples. This document discusses the results of the sampling activities. Concentration levels are provided along with hypothetical maximum individual doses

  8. INEEL Liquid Effluent Inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Major, C.A.

    1997-06-01

    The INEEL contractors and their associated facilities are required to identify all liquid effluent discharges that may impact the environment at the INEEL. This liquid effluent information is then placed in the Liquid Effluent Inventory (LEI) database, which is maintained by the INEEL prime contractor. The purpose of the LEI is to identify and maintain a current listing of all liquid effluent discharge points and to identify which discharges are subject to federal, state, or local permitting or reporting requirements and DOE order requirements. Initial characterization, which represents most of the INEEL liquid effluents, has been performed, and additional characterization may be required in the future to meet regulations. LEI information is made available to persons responsible for or concerned with INEEL compliance with liquid effluent permitting or reporting requirements, such as the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, Wastewater Land Application, Storm Water Pollution Prevention, Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures, and Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment. The State of Idaho Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Program also needs the information for tracking liquid effluent discharges at the INEEL. The information provides a baseline from which future liquid discharges can be identified, characterized, and regulated, if appropriate. The review covered new and removed buildings/structures, buildings/structures which most likely had new, relocated, or removed LEI discharge points, and at least 10% of the remaining discharge points.

  9. Environmental monitoring report, 1978: Pinellas Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-04-01

    Effluent and environmental monitoring programs maintained by the Pinellas Plant are designed to determine efficiencies of treatment and control mechanisms; to provide measurements of discharge concentrations for comparison with applicable standards; and to assess the concentrations of these discharges in the environment. Small quantities of tritium gas, tritium oxide and krypton-85 gas were released from the plant during the year. Average maximum ground level concentrations of these radioisotopes were all significantly less than 1/10 of 1 percent of the recommended guide for continuous nonoccupational exposure. Off-site releases of liquid effluents were analyzed for compliance with NPDES permit issues for this site by the U.S. Environmental protection Agency. Analyses were performed fo biochemical oxygen demand, suspended solids, fecal coliform bacteria, pH, nitrogen, phosphorus, arsenic, chlorides, chromium, copper, cyanides, detergents, fluorides, iron, lead, mercury, oil plus greases, phenols, turbidity and zinc. All results with the exception of suspended solids were well within permit limits. Site perimeter and off-site air samples for tritium gas and tritium oxide, as well as off-site surface water samples obtained to distances of 9.6 kilometers from the plant site and analyzed for tritium content, showed levels significantly less than 1/10 of 1 percent of the recommended guide for continuous nonoccupational exposure. Calculations were made to determine the radiation doses resulting from releases of tritium oxide and krypton-85 to: an individual at the site boundary; individuals in the closest residential area; and the population within 80 kilometers of the plant site. Calculated doses are exceedingly small when compared to the recommended standards. The total dose commitment to the population residing within 80 kilometers was determined to be 0.40 man-rem as compared to annual dose from natural radiation of 210,747 man-rem

  10. Application of proton-conducting ceramics and polymer permeable membranes for gaseous tritium recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asakura, Yamato; Sugiyama, Takahiko; Kawano, Takao; Uda, Tatsuhiko; Tanaka, Masahiro; Tsuji, Naruhito; Katahira, Koji; Iwahara, Hiroyasu

    2004-01-01

    In order to carry out deuterium plasma experiments on the Large Helical Device (LHD), the National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS) is planning to install a system for the recovery of tritium from exhaust gas and effluent liquid. As well as adopting proven conventional tritium recovery systems, NIFS is planning to apply the latest technologies such as proton-conducting ceramics and membrane-type dehumidifiers in an overall strategy to ensure minimal risk in the tritium recovery process. Application of these new technologies to the tritium recovery system for the LHD deuterium plasma experiment is evaluated quantitatively using recent experimental data. (author)

  11. Confinement and Tritium Stripping Systems for APT Tritium Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, R.H. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Heung, L.K.

    1997-10-20

    This report identifies functions and requirements for the tritium process confinement and clean-up system (PCCS) and provides supporting technical information for the selection and design of tritium confinement, clean-up (stripping) and recovery technologies for new tritium processing facilities in the Accelerator for the Production of Tritium (APT). The results of a survey of tritium confinement and clean-up systems for large-scale tritium handling facilities and recommendations for the APT are also presented.

  12. Confinement and Tritium Stripping Systems for APT Tritium Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, R.H.; Heung, L.K.

    1997-01-01

    This report identifies functions and requirements for the tritium process confinement and clean-up system (PCCS) and provides supporting technical information for the selection and design of tritium confinement, clean-up (stripping) and recovery technologies for new tritium processing facilities in the Accelerator for the Production of Tritium (APT). The results of a survey of tritium confinement and clean-up systems for large-scale tritium handling facilities and recommendations for the APT are also presented

  13. Tritium Decay Helium-3 Effects in Tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Merrill, B. J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-06-01

    A critical challenge for long-term operation of ITER and beyond to a Demonstration reactor (DEMO) and future fusion reactor will be the development of plasma-facing components (PFCs) that demonstrate erosion resistance to steady-state/transient heat fluxes and intense neutral/ion particle fluxes under the extreme fusion nuclear environment, while at the same time minimizing in-vessel tritium inventories and permeation fluxes into the PFC’s coolant. Tritium will diffuse in bulk tungsten at elevated temperatures, and can be trapped in radiation-induced trap site (up to 1 at. % T/W) in tungsten [1,2]. Tritium decay into helium-3 may also play a major role in microstructural evolution (e.g. helium embrittlement) in tungsten due to relatively low helium-4 production (e.g. He/dpa ratio of 0.4-0.7 appm [3]) in tungsten. Tritium-decay helium-3 effect on tungsten is hardly understood, and its database is very limited. Two tungsten samples (99.99 at. % purity from A.L.M.T. Co., Japan) were exposed to high flux (ion flux of 1.0x1022 m-2s-1 and ion fluence of 1.0x1026 m-2) 0.5%T2/D2 plasma at two different temperatures (200, and 500°C) in Tritium Plasma Experiment (TPE) at Idaho National Laboratory. Tritium implanted samples were stored at ambient temperature in air for more than 3 years to investigate tritium decay helium-3 effect in tungsten. The tritium distributions on plasma-exposed was monitored by a tritium imaging plate technique during storage period [4]. Thermal desorption spectroscopy was performed with a ramp rate of 10°C/min up to 900°C to outgas residual deuterium and tritium but keep helium-3 in tungsten. These helium-3 implanted samples were exposed to deuterium plasma in TPE to investigate helium-3 effect on deuterium behavior in tungsten. The results show that tritium surface concentration in 200°C sample decreased to 30 %, but tritium surface concentration in 500°C sample did not alter over the 3 years storage period, indicating possible tritium

  14. Tritium in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schober, T.

    1990-01-01

    In this Chapter a review is given of some of the important features of metal tritides as opposed to hydrides and deuterides. After an introduction to the topics of tritium and tritium in metals information will be presented on a variety of metal-tritium systems. Of main interest here are the differences from the classic hydrogen behavior; the so called isotope effect. A second important topic is that of aging effects produced by the accumulation of 3 He in the samples. (orig.)

  15. High-pressure tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffin, D.O.

    1976-01-01

    Some solutions to problems of compressing and containing tritium gas to 200 MPa at 700 0 K are discussed. The principal emphasis is on commercial compressors and high-pressure equipment that can be easily modified by the researcher for safe use with tritium. Experience with metal bellows and diaphragm compressors has been favorable. Selection of materials, fittings, and gauges for high-pressure tritium work is also reviewed briefly

  16. Refurbishing tritium contaminated ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, K.E.; Carnevale, R.H.; McCormack, B.E.; Stevenson, T.; Halle, A. von

    1995-01-01

    Extended tritium experimentation on TFTR has necessitated refurbishing Neutral Beam Long Pulse Ion Sources (LPIS) which developed operational difficulties, both in the TFTR Test Cell and later, in the NB Source Refurbishment Shop. Shipping contaminated sources off-site for repair was not permissible from a transport and safety perspective. Therefore, the NB source repair facility was upgraded by relocating fixtures, tooling, test apparatus, and three-axis coordinate measuring equipment; purchasing and fabricating fume hoods; installing exhaust vents; and providing a controlled negative pressure environment in the source degreaser/decon area. Appropriate air flow monitors, pressure indicators, tritium detectors and safety alarms were also included. The effectiveness of various decontamination methods was explored while the activation was monitored. Procedures and methods were developed to permit complete disassembly and rebuild of an ion source while continuously exhausting the internal volume to the TFTR Stack to avoid concentrations of tritium from outgassing and minimize personnel exposure. This paper presents upgrades made to the LPIS repair facility, various repair tasks performed, and discusses the effectiveness of the decontamination processes utilized

  17. Analysis and speciation of the tritium in environmental matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacchetta, Audrey

    2014-01-01

    This study deals with environmental monitoring. The main aims are (i) the optimisation of the analytical procedure for the tritium in organic form determination, and (ii) the identification of the tritium bearing molecules which are responsible for its transfer from the environment to man. The study was divided into three stages. First an analytical method was developed to determine hydrogen content of several samples, which is a key element to calculate accurate organically bound tritium activities. Secondly, the impact of the organically bound tritium fractions separation (labile exchange) for the determination of the representative fraction of the level of environmental tritium activity was then evaluated. For that, the amount of solubilised sample was estimated. Finally, the speciation of tritium in environmental samples was investigated. Several molecules classes and organic compounds dissolved in the labile exchanges solvent were identified. The results show that the distribution of tritium in organisms depends on both properties of the chemical bond in which it is involved and chemical properties of tritium bearing molecules. The identified compounds belong to the molecules classes such as carbohydrates or amino acids, constitutive of living organisms. It would now be of interest to study the tritium distribution in an environmental sample to target molecules of interest and study the impact of tritium from the environment to man. (author) [fr

  18. On the mechanism of biological activation by tritium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozhko, T V; Badun, G A; Razzhivina, I A; Guseynov, O A; Guseynova, V E; Kudryasheva, N S

    2016-06-01

    The mechanism of biological activation by beta-emitting radionuclide tritium was studied. Luminous marine bacteria were used as a bioassay to monitor the biological effect of tritium with luminescence intensity as the physiological parameter tested. Two different types of tritium sources were used: HTO molecules distributed regularly in the surrounding aqueous medium, and a solid source with tritium atoms fixed on its surface (tritium-labeled films, 0.11, 0.28, 0.91, and 2.36 MBq/cm(2)). When using the tritium-labeled films, tritium penetration into the cells was prevented. The both types of tritium sources revealed similar changes in the bacterial luminescence kinetics: a delay period followed by bioluminescence activation. No monotonic dependences of bioluminescence activation efficiency on specific radioactivities of the films were found. A 15-day exposure to tritiated water (100 MBq/L) did not reveal mutations in bacterial DNA. The results obtained give preference to a "non-genomic" mechanism of bioluminescence activation by tritium. An activation of the intracellular bioluminescence process develops without penetration of tritium atoms into the cells and can be caused by intensification of trans-membrane cellular processes stimulated by ionization and radiolysis of aqueous media. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Overview of tritium systems for the Compact Ignition Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlit, J.R.; Gruetzmacher, K.M.; Fleming, R.B.

    1987-01-01

    The Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) is being designed at several laboratories to produce and study fully ignited plasma discharges. The tritium systems which will be needed for CIT include fueling systems and radiation monitoring and safety systems. Design of the tritium systems is the responsibility of the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Major new tritium systems for CIT include a pellet injector, an air detritiation system and a glovebox atmosphere detritiation system. The pellet injector is being developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 7 refs., 2 figs

  20. Tritium release during inspection of reactor 'RA' at 'Vinca' institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sipka, V.; Miljevic, N.; Grsic, Z.; Todorovic, D.; Radenkovic, M.

    1997-01-01

    Tritium content in daily precipitation, atmospheric water vapor inside of the reactor hall and around 'Vinca' Institute as well as in soil up to 800 m distance was monitoring during the regular inspection of the fuel channels. Tritium activity in the reactor hall air moisture was in the range from 0.022 to 6.7 MBq/m 3 . Tritium content in soil moisture between 12.7 and 530.9 Bq/l indicate a certain contamination due to tritium release in the environment, depending on the depth and distance from the place of release (author) [sr

  1. Health Physics aspects of the use of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, E.B.M.

    1982-01-01

    The health physics aspects of the use of tritium in university laboratories and similar establishments are considered. These aspects include discussion on the behaviour and hazards of tritium in the body, derived limits for contamination, monitoring methods, designation of workers, medical and dosimetric supervision, classification of laboratories, safety precautions, accidents and decontamination, and waste disposal. The radiation hazards from some special uses of tritium, e.g. tritium foil sources, luminous devices, gaseous light sources, are also considered. It was concluded that little harm is likely to come from careful handling of tritium labelled compounds at the millicurie level in a research laboratory. It would, however, be most unwise to be complacent about the use of tritium at the curie level, particularly when high specific activities, organic compounds and chronic exposure over long periods are involved. (U.K.)

  2. Tritium control: October 1982-March 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamberger, P.H.; Rogers, M.L.

    1983-01-01

    Surveys in gloveboxes indicated surface activity on stainless steel and its apparent dependence on time and atmospheric tritium levels. Surveys in fumehoods were completed to investigate the extent of surface contamination on surfaces of various materials. Gas generation rates caused by radiolysis of tritiated waste materials were determined for polymer and nonpolymer-impregnated tritiated concrete and fixated and nonfixated tritiated waste vacuum pump oil. In addition, the pressure change of hydrogen cover gas over tritiated water on cement-plaster was determined. The test program to measure and compare the release of tritium from tritiated concrete with and without styrene impregnation continued. Tritium permeation data from small test blocks are given. The drum study monitoring the release of tritium from actual burial packages continued. The maximum fractional release rate for the three types of high activity, tritiated liquid waste generated is 5.1 x 10 -5 , and the maximum total permeation is 179 mCi after 8.5 yr. These two values represent a 13% increase for the past 6 months. Tritium release from the polymer-impregnated, tritiated concrete (PITC) and from the control (non-PITC) remains very low. The Emergency Containment System (ECS), an automatically actuated system developed at Mound to remove tritium from room air, has been modified and upgraded to support new applications. The leakage rate in the ECS area has been lowered, a fast-start system installed for greater conversion efficiency at startup, and the alumina beds regenerated

  3. A tritium vessel cleanup experiment in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caorlin, M.; Kamperschroer, J.; Owens, D.K.; Voorhees, D.; Mueller, D.; Ramsey, A.T.; La Marche, P.H.; Loughlin, M.J.

    1995-03-01

    A simple tritium cleanup experiment was carried out in TFTR following the initial high power deuterium-tritium discharges in December 1993. A series of 34 ohmic and deuterium neutral beam fueled shots was used to study the removal of tritium implanted into the wall and limiters. A very large plasma was created in each discharge to ''scrub'' an area as large as possible. Beam-fueled shots at 2.5 to 7.5 MW of injected power were used to monitor tritium concentration levels in the plasma by detection of DT-neutrons. The neutron signal decreased by a factor of 4 during the experiment, remaining well above the expected T-burnup level. The amount of tritium recovered at the end of the cleanup was about 8% of the amount previously injected with high power DT discharges. The experience gained suggests that measurements of tritium inventory in the torus are very difficult to execute and require dedicated systems with overall accuracy of 1%

  4. Radionuclide Basics: Tritium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tritium is a hydrogen atom that has two neutrons in the nucleus and one proton. It is radioactive and behaves like other forms of hydrogen in the environment. Tritium is produced naturally in the upper atmosphere and as a byproduct of nuclear fission.

  5. Tritium Issues in Next Step Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C.H. Skinner; G. Federici

    2001-01-01

    Tritium issues will play a central role in the performance and operation of next-step deuterium-tritium (DT) burning plasma tokamaks and the safety aspects associated with tritium will attract intense public scrutiny. The orders-of-magnitude increase in duty cycle and stored energy will be a much larger change than the increase in plasma performance necessary to achieve high fusion gain and ignition. Erosion of plasma-facing components will scale up with the pulse length from being barely measurable on existing machines to centimeter scale. Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE) devices with carbon plasma-facing components will accumulate tritium by co-deposition with the eroded carbon and this will strongly constrain plasma operations. We report on a novel laser-based method to remove co-deposited tritium from carbon plasma-facing components in tokamaks. A major fraction of the tritium trapped in a co-deposited layer during the deuterium-tritium (DT) campaign on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) was released by heating with a scanning laser beam. This technique offers the potential for tritium removal in a next-step DT device without the use of oxidation and the associated deconditioning of the plasma-facing surfaces and expense of processing large quantities of tritium oxide. The operational lifetime of alternative materials such as tungsten has significant uncertainties due to melt layer loss during disruptions. Production of dust and flakes will need careful monitoring and minimization, and control and accountancy of the tritium inventory will be critical issues. Many of the tritium issues in Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) are similar to MFE, but some, for example those associated with the target factory, are unique to IFE. The plasma-edge region in a tokamak has greater complexity than the core due to lack of poloidal symmetry and nonlinear feedback between the plasma and wall. Sparse diagnostic coverage and low dedicated experimental run time has hampered the

  6. Tritium Issues in Next Step Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.H. Skinner; G. Federici

    2001-09-05

    Tritium issues will play a central role in the performance and operation of next-step deuterium-tritium (DT) burning plasma tokamaks and the safety aspects associated with tritium will attract intense public scrutiny. The orders-of-magnitude increase in duty cycle and stored energy will be a much larger change than the increase in plasma performance necessary to achieve high fusion gain and ignition. Erosion of plasma-facing components will scale up with the pulse length from being barely measurable on existing machines to centimeter scale. Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE) devices with carbon plasma-facing components will accumulate tritium by co-deposition with the eroded carbon and this will strongly constrain plasma operations. We report on a novel laser-based method to remove co-deposited tritium from carbon plasma-facing components in tokamaks. A major fraction of the tritium trapped in a co-deposited layer during the deuterium-tritium (DT) campaign on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) was released by heating with a scanning laser beam. This technique offers the potential for tritium removal in a next-step DT device without the use of oxidation and the associated deconditioning of the plasma-facing surfaces and expense of processing large quantities of tritium oxide. The operational lifetime of alternative materials such as tungsten has significant uncertainties due to melt layer loss during disruptions. Production of dust and flakes will need careful monitoring and minimization, and control and accountancy of the tritium inventory will be critical issues. Many of the tritium issues in Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) are similar to MFE, but some, for example those associated with the target factory, are unique to IFE. The plasma-edge region in a tokamak has greater complexity than the core due to lack of poloidal symmetry and nonlinear feedback between the plasma and wall. Sparse diagnostic coverage and low dedicated experimental run time has hampered the

  7. In-vessel tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Yoshio; Ohya, Kaoru; Ashikawa, Naoko; Ito, Atsushi M.; Kato, Daiji; Kawamura, Gakushi; Takayama, Arimichi; Tomita, Yukihiro; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Ono, Tadayoshi; Kawashima, Hisato; Shimizu, Katsuhiro; Takizuka, Tomonori; Nakano, Tomohide; Nakamura, Makoto; Hoshino, Kazuo; Kenmotsu, Takahiro; Wada, Motoi; Saito, Seiki; Takagi, Ikuji; Tanaka, Yasunori; Tanabe, Tetsuo; Yoshida, Masafumi; Toma, Mitsunori; Hatayama, Akiyoshi; Homma, Yuki; Tolstikhina, Inga Yu.

    2012-01-01

    The in-vessel tritium research is closely related to the plasma-materials interaction. It deals with the edge-plasma-wall interaction, the wall erosion, transport and re-deposition of neutral particles and the effect of neutral particles on the fuel recycling. Since the in-vessel tritium shows a complex nonlinear behavior, there remain many unsolved problems. So far, behaviors of in-vessel tritium have been investigated by two groups A01 and A02. The A01 group performed experiments on accumulation and recovery of tritium in thermonuclear fusion reactors and the A02 group studied theory and simulation on the in-vessel tritium behavior. In the present article, outcomes of the research are reviewed. (author)

  8. Protection against tritium radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bal, Georges

    1964-05-01

    This report presents the main characteristics of tritium, describes how it is produced as a natural or as an artificial radio-element. It outlines the hazards related to this material, presents how materials and tools are contaminated and decontaminated. It addresses the issue of permissible maximum limits: factors of assessment of the risk induced by tritium, maximum permissible activity in body water, maximum permissible concentrations in the atmosphere. It describes the measurement of tritium activity: generalities, measurement of gas activity and of tritiated water steam, tritium-induced ionisation in an ionisation chamber, measurement systems using ionisation chambers, discontinuous detection of tritium-containing water in the air, detection of surface contamination [fr

  9. Tritium fuel cycle modeling and tritium breeding analysis for CFETR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hongli; Pan, Lei; Lv, Zhongliang; Li, Wei; Zeng, Qin, E-mail: zengqin@ustc.edu.cn

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • A modified tritium fuel cycle model with more detailed subsystems was developed. • The mean residence time method applied to tritium fuel cycle calculation was updated. • Tritium fuel cycle analysis for CFETR was carried out. - Abstract: Attaining tritium self-sufficiency is a critical goal for fusion reactor operated on the D–T fuel cycle. The tritium fuel cycle models were developed to describe the characteristic parameters of the various elements of the tritium cycle as a tool for evaluating the tritium breeding requirements. In this paper, a modified tritium fuel cycle model with more detailed subsystems and an updated mean residence time calculation method was developed based on ITER tritium model. The tritium inventory in fueling system and in plasma, supposed to be important for part of the initial startup tritium inventory, was considered in the updated mean residence time method. Based on the model, the tritium fuel cycle analysis of CFETR (Chinese Fusion Engineering Testing Reactor) was carried out. The most important two parameters, the minimum initial startup tritium inventory (I{sub m}) and the minimum tritium breeding ratio (TBR{sub req}) were calculated. The tritium inventories in steady state and tritium release of subsystems were obtained.

  10. Lessons learned from a review of post-accident sampling systems, high range effluent monitors and high concentration particulate iodine samplers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, A.P.; Knox, W.H.; White, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    Post-accident sampling systems (PASS), high range gaseous effluent monitors and sampling systems for particulates and iodine in high concentrations have been reviewed at twenty-one licensee sites in Region I of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission which includes fifteen BWR's and fourteen PWR's. Although most of the installed PASS met the criteria, the highest operational readiness was found in on-line systems that were also used for routine sampling and analysis. The detectors used in the gaseous effluent monitors included external ion chambers, GM tubes, organic scintillators and Cd-Te solid state crystals. Although all were found acceptable, each had its own inherent limitations in the conversion of detector output to the time varying concentration of a post-accident mixture of noble gases. None of the installed particulate and iodine samplers fully met all of the criteria. Their principal limitations included a lack of documentation showing that they could obtain a representative sample and that many of them would collect of an excessive amount of activity at the design criteria. 10 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs

  11. Tritium breeding in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.A.

    1982-10-01

    Key technological problems that influence tritium breeding in fusion blankets are reviewed. The breeding potential of candidate materials is evaluated and compared to the tritium breeding requirements. The sensitivity of tritium breeding to design and nuclear data parameters is reviewed. A framework for an integrated approach to improve tritium breeding prediction is discussed with emphasis on nuclear data requirements

  12. Tritium permeation through iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagi, Hideki; Hayashi, Yasunori

    1989-01-01

    An experimental method for measuring diffusion coefficients and permeation rates of tritium in metals around room temperature has been established, and their values in iron have been obtained by using the method. Permeation rates of tritium and hydrogen through iron were measured by the electrochemical method in which a tritiated aqueous solution was used as a cathodic electrolyte. Tritium and hydrogen were introduced from one side of a membrane specimen by cathodic polarization, while at the other side of the specimen the permeating tritium and hydrogen were extracted by potentiostatical ionization. The amount of permeated hydrogen was obtained by integrating the anodic current, and that of tritium was determined by measuring the radioactivity of the electrolyte sampled from the extraction side. Diffusion coefficients of tritium (D T ) and hydrogen (D H ) were determined from the time lag of tritium and hydrogen permeation. D T =9x10 -10 m 2 /s and D H =4x10 -9 m 2 /s at 286 K for annealed iron specimens. These values of D T and D H were compared with the previous data of the diffusion coefficients of hydrogen and deuterium, and the isotope effect in diffusion was discussed. (orig.)

  13. The releases of krypton-85 and tritium to the environment and tritium to krypton-85 ratios as source indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, K.J.P.; Roether, W.

    1975-01-01

    More than 95% of the krypton-85 that is at present observed in the environment on a global scale originates from the combined releases following nuclear-power generation and plutonium production, while atmospheric fusion-bomb testing accounts for the same percentage of the global tritium. The global inventories at the end of 1973 were 55 MCi (estimated uncertainty +- 10%) of krypton-85, and 2900 MCi (+- 25%) of tritium. From the excess of the global krypton-85 inventory over the amounts accounted for by the sources other than plutonium production, it is concluded that 130 tonnes of plutonium-239 have been produced up to 1970. Pronounced fractionation occurs between atmosphere and hydrosphere, in the sense that the concentration of krypton-85 is lowered, and that of tritium (being overwhelmingly in the form of a water molecule, HTO) is greatly increased, in the hydrosphere. Largely as a consequence of this fractionation, the environmental tritium to krypton-85 ratios cover a wide range, with values lowest in the troposphere (typical order of magnitude 10 -1 Ci/Ci) and highest in continental surface water (of the order of 10 5 ). Preliminary oceanic krypton-85 data are reported, which indicate that the concentration decrease with depth in the ocean is very similar for both nuclides. Effluents from nuclear power reactors and reprocessing plants have tritium to krypton-85 ratios that do not differ markedly from those found at present in the troposphere; on the other hand, the very high ratios that are typical of the hydrosphere may offer opportunities of detecting such effluents in the hydrosphere on the basis of tritium to krypton-85 ratios. Considerable uncertainties in the ratios of the effluents have, however, to be anticipated, arising from varying, and fluctuating, fractionation between the two nuclides in the release processes. (author)

  14. Tritium technology. A Canadian overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmings, R.L. [Canatom NPM (Canada)

    2002-10-01

    An overview of the various tritium research and operational activities in Canada is presented. These activities encompass tritium processing and recovery, tritium interactions with materials, and tritium health and safety. Many of these on-going activities form a sound basis for the tritium use and handling aspects of the ITER project. Tritium management within the CANDU heavy water reactor, associated detritiation facilities, research and development facilities, and commercial industry and improving the understanding of tritium behaviour in humans and the environment remain the focus of a long-standing Canadian interest in tritium. While there have been changes in the application of this knowledge and experience over time, the operating experience and the supporting research and development continue to provide for improved plant and facility operations, an improved understanding of tritium safety issues, and improved products and tools that facilitate tritium management. (author)

  15. Tritium technology. A Canadian overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemmings, R.L.

    2002-01-01

    An overview of the various tritium research and operational activities in Canada is presented. These activities encompass tritium processing and recovery, tritium interactions with materials, and tritium health and safety. Many of these on-going activities form a sound basis for the tritium use and handling aspects of the ITER project. Tritium management within the CANDU heavy water reactor, associated detritiation facilities, research and development facilities, and commercial industry and improving the understanding of tritium behaviour in humans and the environment remain the focus of a long-standing Canadian interest in tritium. While there have been changes in the application of this knowledge and experience over time, the operating experience and the supporting research and development continue to provide for improved plant and facility operations, an improved understanding of tritium safety issues, and improved products and tools that facilitate tritium management. (author)

  16. Metabolism and dosimetry of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.L.; Johnson, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    This document was prepared as a review of the current knowledge of tritium metabolism and dosimetry. The physical, chemical, and metabolic characteristics of various forms of tritium are presented as they pertain to performing dose assessments for occupational workers and for the general public. For occupational workers, the forms of tritium discussed include tritiated water, elemental tritium gas, skin absorption from elemental tritium gas-contaminated surfaces, organically bound tritium in pump oils, solvents and other organic compounds, metal tritides, and radioluminous paints. For the general public, age-dependent tritium metabolism is reviewed, as well as tritiated water, elemental tritium gas, organically bound tritium, organically bound tritium in food-stuffs, and tritiated methane. 106 refs

  17. Experience in handling concentrated tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtslander, W.J.

    1985-12-01

    The notes describe the experience in handling concentrated tritium in the hydrogen form accumulated in the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories Tritium Laboratory. The techniques of box operation, pumping systems, hydriding and dehydriding operations, and analysis of tritium are discussed. Information on the Chalk River Tritium Extraction Plant is included as a collection of reprints of papers presented at the Dayton Meeting on Tritium Technology, 1985 April 30 - May 2

  18. Problems of anthropogenic tritium limitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kochetkov О.A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article contains the current situation in respect to the environmental concentrations of anthropogenic and natural tritium. There are presented and analyzed domestic standards for НТО of all Radiation Safety Standards (NRB, as well as the regulations analyzed for tritium in drinking water taken in other countries today. This article deals with the experience of limitation of tritium and focuses on the main problem of rationing of tritium — rationing of organically bound tritium.

  19. Tritium dynamics in soils and plants at a tritium processing facility in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihok, S.; St-Amanat, N.; Kwamena, N.O. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (Canada); Clark, I.; Wilk, M.; Lapp, A. [University of Ottawa (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    The dynamics of tritium released as tritiated water (HTO) have been studied extensively with results incorporated into environmental models such as CSA N288.1 used for regulatory purposes in Canada. The dispersion of tritiated gas (HT) and rates of oxidation to HTO have been studied under controlled conditions, but there are few studies under natural conditions. HT is a major component of the tritium released from a gaseous tritium light manufacturing facility in Canada (CNSC INFO-0798). To support the improvement of models, a garden was set up in one summer near this facility in a spot with tritium in air averaging ∼ 5 Bq/m{sup 3} HTO (passive diffusion monitors). Atmospheric stack releases (575 GBq/week) were recorded weekly. HT releases occur mainly during working hours with an HT:HTO ratio of 2.6 as measured at the stack. Soils and plants (leaves/stems and roots/tubers) were sampled for HTO and organically-bound tritium (OBT) weekly. Active day-night monitoring of air was conducted to interpret tritium dynamics relative to weather and solar radiation. The experimental design included a plot of natural grass/soil, contrasted with grass (sod) and Swiss chard, pole beans and potatoes grown in barrels under different irrigation regimes (in local topsoil at 29 Bq/L HTO, 105 Bq/L OBT). All treatments were exposed to rain (80 Bq/L) and atmospheric releases of tritium (weekdays), and reflux of tritium from soils (initial conditions of 284 Bq/L HTO, 3,644 Bq/L OBT) from 20 years of operations. Three irrigation regimes were used for barrel plants to mimic home garden management: rain only, low tritium tap water (5 Bq/L), and high tritium well water (mean 10,013 Bq/L). This design provided a range of plants and starting conditions with contrasts in initial HTO/OBT activity in soils, and major tritium inputs from air versus water. Controls were two home gardens far from any tritium sources. Active air monitoring indicated that the plume was only occasionally present for

  20. Tritium contamination experience in an operational D-T fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentile, C.A.; Ascione, G.

    1994-01-01

    During December 1993, the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) injected a mixture of deuterium and tritium in the TFTR vacuum vessel for the purpose of creating D-T plasmas. The tritium used in these D-T plasmas was stored, delivered and processed in the TFTR tritium facility that includes the tritium vault, waste handling area, clean-up area, and gas holding tank room. During this time period, several components in the tritium process system were found to have tritium leaks which led to tritium deposition on process skids, components and floor area. Radiological surveys of surfaces contaminated with tritium oxide indicate a decrease in surface contamination in time (on the order of 12 to 36 hours) as the result of room ventilation. In instances where the facility HVAC system was maintained in the purge mode, a dramatic decrease in surface contamination was observed. Areas contaminated with tritium oxide (> 16.6 Bq/100 cm 2 ) were found to be clean ( 2 ) after several hours of continuous purging by the facility HVAC system. In instances where relative humidity was not decreased, the tritium surface contamination was found to be attenuated. During the months of December 1993, January and February 1994 tritium leaking components were either replaced, redesigned or repaired. During this time period, data were collected in the form of contamination surveys, real time tritium monitor output, and HVAC configuration indicating the correlation of purge ventilation leading to a decrease in tritium oxide surface contamination

  1. Tritium Systems Test Assembly operator training program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerstiens, F.L.

    1985-01-01

    Proper operator training is needed to help ensure the safe operation of fusion facilities by personnel who are qualified to carry out their assigned responsibilities. Operators control and monitor the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) during normal, emergency, and maintenance phases. Their performance is critical both to operational safety, assuring no release of tritium to the atmosphere, and to the successful simulation of the fusion reaction progress. Through proper training we are helping assure that TSTA facility operators perform their assignments in a safe and efficient manner and that the operators maintain high levels of operational proficiency through continuing training, retraining, requalification, and recertification

  2. Measurement of tritium in dial painting industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawant, J.V.; Rudran, Kamala

    1995-01-01

    Tritium in the form of polystyrene is used coated on zinc sulphide as the active component for the manufacture of self-luminous paint. To study the radiological implication of airborne tritium in the luminous paint industry air monitoring study was conducted by cold strip method and Andersen method. Airborne particulate in different locations in luminous paint (LP) building and background areas were observed to be associated with activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) of 1.8 to 5.0 um. Dose to soft tissue and lungs and effective whole body dose were evaluated. (author). 6 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs., 2 ills

  3. High-resolution mass spectrometry of skin mucus for monitoring physiological impacts and contaminant biotransformation products in fathead minnows exposed to wastewater effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosley, Jonathan D; Ekman, Drew R; Cavallin, Jenna E; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Ankley, Gerald T; Collette, Timothy W

    2018-03-01

    High-resolution mass spectrometry is advantageous for monitoring physiological impacts and contaminant biotransformation products in fish exposed to complex wastewater effluent. We evaluated this technique using skin mucus from male and female fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to control water or treated wastewater effluent at 5, 20, and 100% levels for 21 d, using an on-site, flow-through system providing real-time exposure. Both sex-specific and non-sex-specific responses were observed in the mucus metabolome, the latter suggesting the induction of general compensatory pathways for xenobiotic exposures. Altogether, 85 statistically significant treatment-dependent metabolite changes were observed out of the 310 total endogenous metabolites that were detected (156 of the 310 were annotated). Partial least squares-regression models revealed strong covariances between the mucus metabolomes and up-regulated hepatic messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) transcripts reported previously for these same fish. These regression models suggest that mucus metabolomic changes reflected, in part, processes by which the fish biotransformed xenobiotics in the effluent. In keeping with this observation, we detected a phase II transformation product of bisphenol A in the skin mucus of male fish. Collectively, these findings demonstrate the utility of mucus as a minimally invasive matrix for simultaneously assessing exposures and effects of environmentally relevant mixtures of contaminants. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:788-796. Published 2017 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. Published 2017 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

  4. Effluent Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effluent guidelines are national standards for wastewater discharges to surface waters and municipal sewage treatment plants. We issue the regulations for industrial categories based on the performance of treatment and control technologies.

  5. Tritium systems concepts for the next European torus (NET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, S.K.; Bagli, K.S.; Busigin, A.; Kveton, O.K.; Dombra, A.H.; Miller, A.I.

    1986-09-01

    The study deals with the design of the various tritium processing facilities that will be required for the Next European Torus (NET) design. The reference data for the design of the NET Tritium Systems was provided by the NET team. Significant achievements of this study were: (a) Identification of new ways of handling some problems for example: 1) Recovery of tritium from the helium purge of the lithium-ceramic blanket using a novel Adsoprtion and Catalytic Exchange Process, 2) A new way of combining fuel component separation and coolant water detritiation using cryogenic distillation, 3) The use of parasitic refrigeration for the cryogenic isotope separation, 4) Tritium extraction from effluent gas streams at their respective sources, 5) Attempt to eliminate the need for Air Cleanup Systems. (b) Identification of uncertainties, for example: composition of plasma exhaust, required helium purge rate of Li-Pb for tritium recovery, uncertainty in requirements for decontaminating blanket sectors, etc. (c) Review of ways to limit tritium permeation into steam by swamping with hydrogen and to provide quantitative estimates for this permeation

  6. Tritium permeation and recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, R.A.; Hamilton, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    The paper is an appendix to a study of the reactor relevance of the NET design concept. The latter study examines whether the technologies and design principles proposed for NET can be directly extrapolated to a demonstration (DEMO) reactor. In this appendix, tritium transport in the DEMO breeding blanket is considered with emphasis on the permeation rate from the lithium-lead breeder into the coolant. A computational model used to calculate the tritium transport in the breeder blanket is described. Results are reported for the tritium transport in the NET/INTOR type blanket as well as the DEMO blanket in order to provide a comparison. In addition, results are presented for the helium coolant tritium extraction analysis. (U.K.)

  7. Tritium protective clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, T.P.; Easterly, C.E.

    1979-06-01

    Occupational exposures to radiation from tritium received at present nuclear facilities and potential exposures at future fusion reactor facilities demonstrate the need for improved protective clothing. Important areas relating to increased protection factors of tritium protective ventilation suits are discussed. These areas include permeation processes of tritium through materials, various tests of film permeability, selection and availability of suit materials, suit designs, and administrative procedures. The phenomenological nature of film permeability calls for more standardized and universal test methods, which would increase the amount of directly useful information on impermeable materials. Improvements in suit designs could be expedited and better communicated to the health physics community by centralizing devlopmental equipment, manpower, and expertise in the field of tritium protection to one or two authoritative institutions

  8. Tritium breeding blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.; Billone, M.; Gohar, Y.; Baker, C.; Mori, S.; Kuroda, T.; Maki, K.; Takatsu, H.; Yoshida, H.; Raffray, A.; Sviatoslavsky, I.; Simbolotti, G.; Shatalov, G.

    1991-01-01

    The terms of reference for ITER provide for incorporation of a tritium breeding blanket with a breeding ratio as close to unity as practical. A breeding blanket is required to assure an adequate supply of tritium to meet the program objectives. Based on specified design criteria, a ceramic breeder concept with water coolant and an austenitic steel structure has been selected as the first option and lithium-lead blanket concept has been chosen as an alternate option. The first wall, blanket, and shield are integrated into a single unit with separate cooling systems. The design makes extensive use of beryllium to enhance the tritium breeding ratio. The design goals with a tritium breeding ratio of 0.8--0.9 have been achieved and the R ampersand D requirements to qualify the design have been identified. 4 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Tritium in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vichot, L.; Losset, Y.

    2009-01-01

    The presence of tritium in the environment stems from its natural production by cosmic rays, from the fallout of the nuclear weapon tests between 1953 and 1964, and locally from nuclear industry activities. A part of the tritiated water contained in the foliage of plants is turned into organically bound tritium (OBT) by photosynthesis. The tritium of OBT, that is not exchangeable and then piles up in the plant, can be used as a marker of the past. It has been shown that the quantity of OBT contained in the age-rings of an oak that grew near the CEA center of Valduc was directly correlated with the tritium releases of the center. (A.C.)

  10. Tritium waste package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossmassler, Rich; Ciebiera, Lloyd; Tulipano, Francis J.; Vinson, Sylvester; Walters, R. Thomas

    1995-01-01

    A containment and waste package system for processing and shipping tritium xide waste received from a process gas includes an outer drum and an inner drum containing a disposable molecular sieve bed (DMSB) seated within outer drum. The DMSB includes an inlet diffuser assembly, an outlet diffuser assembly, and a hydrogen catalytic recombiner. The DMSB absorbs tritium oxide from the process gas and converts it to a solid form so that the tritium is contained during shipment to a disposal site. The DMSB is filled with type 4A molecular sieve pellets capable of adsorbing up to 1000 curies of tritium. The recombiner contains a sufficient amount of catalyst to cause any hydrogen add oxygen present in the process gas to recombine to form water vapor, which is then adsorbed onto the DMSB.

  11. Tritium protective clothing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, T. P.; Easterly, C. E.

    1979-06-01

    Occupational exposures to radiation from tritium received at present nuclear facilities and potential exposures at future fusion reactor facilities demonstrate the need for improved protective clothing. Important areas relating to increased protection factors of tritium protective ventilation suits are discussed. These areas include permeation processes of tritium through materials, various tests of film permeability, selection and availability of suit materials, suit designs, and administrative procedures. The phenomenological nature of film permeability calls for more standardized and universal test methods, which would increase the amount of directly useful information on impermeable materials. Improvements in suit designs could be expedited and better communicated to the health physics community by centralizing devlopmental equipment, manpower, and expertise in the field of tritium protection to one or two authoritative institutions.

  12. A real-time positron monitor for the estimation of stack effluent releases from PET medical cyclotron facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, Bhaskar.

    2002-01-01

    Large activities of short-lived positron emitting radiopharmaceuticals are routinely manufactured by modern Medical Cyclotron facilities for positron emission tomography (PET) applications. During radiochemical processing, a substantial fraction of the volatile positron emitting radiopharmaceuticals are released into the atmosphere. An inexpensive, fast response positron detector using a simple positron-annihilation chamber has been developed for real-time assessment of the stack release of positron emitting effluents at the Australian National Medical Cyclotron. The positron detector was calibrated by using a 3.0 ml (1.50 MBq) aliquot of 18 FDG and interfaced to an industrial standard datalogger for the real-time acquisition of stack release data

  13. Thin film tritium dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Paul R.

    1976-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for tritium dosimetry. A dosimeter comprising a thin film of a material having relatively sensitive RITAC-RITAP dosimetry properties is exposed to radiation from tritium, and after the dosimeter has been removed from the source of the radiation, the low energy electron dose deposited in the thin film is determined by radiation-induced, thermally-activated polarization dosimetry techniques.

  14. Management of tritium wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisalu, J.; Mellow, D.G.; Pennington, J.D.; Thompson, H.M.; Wood, E.

    1991-07-01

    This work provides a review of the management of tritium wastes with particular reference to current practice, possible alternatives and to the implications of any alternatives considered. It concludes that reduction in UK emissions from nuclear industry is feasible but at a cost out of all proportion to the reduction in dose commitment achievable. Commercial usage of tritium involves importation at several times the UK nuclear production level although documentation is sparse. (author)

  15. PRODUCTION OF TRITIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenks, G.H.; Shapiro, E.M.; Elliott, N.; Cannon, C.V.

    1963-02-26

    This invention relates to a process for the production of tritium by subjecting comminuted solid lithium fluoride containing the lithium isotope of atomic mass number 6 to neutron radiation in a self-sustaining neutronic reactor. The lithium fiuoride is heated to above 450 deg C. in an evacuated vacuum-tight container during radiation. Gaseous radiation products are withdrawn and passed through a palladium barrier to recover tritium. (AEC)

  16. Incorporation of tritium from wrist watches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenhofer, F.; Pock, K.

    1995-01-01

    Watches are consumer products and are subject to the regulations that control food and consumer products. Elevated concentrations of tritium were found in the urine of persons who wore wrist watches with luminous dials and plastic cases. High emission of tritium from these watches were observed. In an experiment, a volunteer wore a watch with high emissions and the build-up of the tritium concentration in urine was monitored, as well as the decline after removing the watch. Possible pathways for the incorporation and its mechanism are considered. In spite of the relatively high activity concentrations observed, the dose is negligible. On the other hand, the principle 'ALARA' can be achieved without any costs by simply choosing other types of watches. (author). 12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Tritium releases, birth defects and infant deaths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The AECB has published a report 'Tritium releases from the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station and Birth Defects and Infant Mortality in Nearby Communities 1971-1988' (report number INFO-0401). This presents the results of a detailed analysis of deaths and birth defects occurring in infants born to mothers living in the area (25 Km radius) of the Pickering nuclear power plant, over an 18-year period. The analysis looked at the frequency of these defects and deaths in comparison to the general rate for Ontario, and also in relation to airborne and waterborne releases of tritium from the power plant. The overall conclusion was that the rates of infant death and birth defects were generally not higher in the study population than in all of Ontario. There was no prevalent relationship between these deaths and defects and tritium releases measured either at the power plant or by ground monitoring stations t some distance from the facility

  18. Tritium in water ecosystems of Ural

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chebotina, M.Ya.; Nikolin, O.A.

    2005-01-01

    The paper provides the data on tritium monitoring in water ecosystems of the Ural region. The study area comprises the Beloyarsk Atomic Power Plant (cooling reservoir and the Olkhovsk bog-river ecosystem), a territory around the 'Mayak' Enterprise, and control territory, for comparison, located in the North of Sverdlovsk region. It was found that a large area in the Ural region, particularly near the power plant and the 'Mayak,, was characterized by increased tritium content in water as compared with technogenic background is typical for control areas. It may be considered that nearly all the tritium within the study area including control ones are of anthropogenic origin taking into account the act that the global background level for the radionuclide is 1 Bq/l.(author)

  19. Tritium in the Savannah River Site environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Bauer, L.R.; Hayes, D.W.; Marter, W.L.; Zeigler, C.C.; Stephenson, D.E.; Hoel, D.D.; Hamby, D.M.

    1991-05-01

    Tritium is released to the environment from many of the operations at the Savannah River Site. The releases from each facility to the atmosphere and to the soil and streams, both from normal operations and inadvertent releases, over the period of operation from the early 1950s through 1988 are presented. The fate of the tritium released is evaluated through environmental monitoring, special studies, and modeling. It is concluded that approximately 91% of the tritium remaining after decay is now in the oceans. A dose and risk assessment to the population around the site is presented. It is concluded that about 0.6 fatal cancers may be associated with the tritium released during all the years of operation to the population of about 625,000. This same population (based on the overall US cancer statistics) is expected to experience about 105,000 cancer fatalities from all types of cancer. Therefore, it is considered unlikely that a relationship between any of the cancer deaths occurring in this population and releases of tritium from the SRS will be found.

  20. Tritium in the Savannah River Site environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Bauer, L.R.; Hayes, D.W.; Marter, W.L.; Zeigler, C.C.; Stephenson, D.E.; Hoel, D.D.; Hamby, D.M.

    1991-05-01

    Tritium is released to the environment from many of the operations at the Savannah River Site. The releases from each facility to the atmosphere and to the soil and streams, both from normal operations and inadvertent releases, over the period of operation from the early 1950s through 1988 are presented. The fate of the tritium released is evaluated through environmental monitoring, special studies, and modeling. It is concluded that approximately 91% of the tritium remaining after decay is now in the oceans. A dose and risk assessment to the population around the site is presented. It is concluded that about 0.6 fatal cancers may be associated with the tritium released during all the years of operation to the population of about 625,000. This same population (based on the overall US cancer statistics) is expected to experience about 105,000 cancer fatalities from all types of cancer. Therefore, it is considered unlikely that a relationship between any of the cancer deaths occurring in this population and releases of tritium from the SRS will be found

  1. Tritium in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badyaev, V.V.; Egorov, Yu.A.; Sklyarov, V.P.; Stegachev, G.V.

    1981-01-01

    The problem of tritium formation during NPP operation is considered on the basis of available published data. Tritium characteristics are given, sources of the origin of natural and artificial tritium are described. NPP contribution to the total tritium amount in the environment is determined, as well as contribution of each process in the reactor to the quantity of tritium, produced at the NPP. Thermal- and fast-neutron reactions with tritium production are shown, their contribution to the total amount of tritium in a coolant is estimated, taking into account the type of reactor. Data on tritium content in NPP wastes and in the air of working premises are presented. Methods for sampling and sample preparation to measurements as well as the appropriate equipment are considered. Design of the gas-discharge counter of internal filling, used for measuring tritium activity in samples is described [ru

  2. TSTA loop operation with 100 grams-level of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hiroshi; Fukui, Hiroshi; Hirata, Shingo

    1988-12-01

    A fully integrated loop operation test of Tritium systems Test Assembly (TSTA) with 107 grams of tritium was completed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in June, 1988. In this test, a compound cryopump with a charcoal panel was incorporated into the main process loop for the first time. The objectives were (i) to demonstrate the compound cryopump system with different flow rates and impurities, (ii) to demonstrate the regeneration of the compound cryopump system, (iii) to accumulate operating experience with other process systems such as the fuel cleanup system, the isotope separation system, the tritium supply and recovery system, etc. and (iv) to improve the data-base on TSTA safety systems such as the secondary containment system, tritium waste treatment system and tritium monitoring system. This report briefly describes characteristics of the main subsystems observed during the milestone run. (author)

  3. Treatment of tritiated exhaust gases at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutter, E.; Besserer, U. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany); Jacqmin, G. [NUKEM GmbH, Industreistr, Alzenau (Germany)

    1995-02-01

    The Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK) accomplished commissioning; tritium involving activities will start this year. The laboratory is destined mainly to investigating processing of fusion reactor fuel and to developing analytic devices for determination of tritium and tritiated species in view of control and accountancy requirements. The area for experimental work in the laboratory is about 800 m{sup 2}. The tritium infrastructure including systems for tritium storage, transfer within the laboratory and processing by cleanup and isotope separation methods has been installed on an additional 400 m{sup 2} area. All tritium processing systems (=primary systems), either of the tritium infrastructure or of the experiments, are enclosed in secondary containments which consist of gloveboxes, each of them connected to the central depressurization system, a part integrated in the central detritiation system. The atmosphere of each glovebox is cleaned in a closed cycle by local detritiation units controlled by two tritium monitors. Additionally, the TLK is equipped with a central detritiation system in which all gases discharged from the primary systems and the secondary systems are processed. All detritiation units consist of a catalyst for oxidizing gaseous tritium or tritiated hydrocarbons to water, a heat exchanger for cooling the catalyst reactor exhaust gas to room temperature, and a molecular sieve bed for adsorbing the water. Experiments with tracer amounts of tritium have shown that decontamination factors >3000 can be achieved with the TLK detritiation units. The central detritiation system was carefully tested and adjusted under normal and abnormal operation conditions. Test results and the behavior of the tritium barrier preventing tritiated exhaust gases from escaping into the atmosphere will be reported.

  4. Tritium Assay and Dispensing of KEPRI Tritium Lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, S. H.; Song, K. M.; Lee, S. K.; Lee, K.W.; Ko, B. W.

    2009-01-01

    The Wolsong Tritium Removal Facility(WTRF) has been constructed to reduce tritium levels in the heavy water systems and environmental emissions at the site. The WTRF was designed to process 100 kg/h of heavy water with the overall tritium extraction efficiency of 97% per single pass and to produce ∼700 g of tritium as T2 per year at the feed concentration of 0.37 TBq/kg. The high purity tritium greater than 99% is immobilized as a metal hydride to secure its long term storage. The recovered tritium will be made available for industrial uses and some research applications in the future. Then KEPRI is constructing the tritium lab. to build-up infrastructure to support tritium research activities and to support tritium control and accountability systems for tritium export. This paper describes the initial phases of the tritium application program including the laboratory infrastructure to support the tritium related R and D activities and the tritium controls in Korea

  5. Silicon Carbide as a tritium permeation barrier in tungsten plasma-facing components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, G. M.; Durrett, M. G.; Hoover, K. W.; Kesler, L. A.; Whyte, D. G.

    2015-03-01

    The control of tritium inventory is of great importance in future fusion reactors, not only from a safety standpoint but also to maximize a reactor's efficiency. Due to the high mobility of hydrogenic species in tungsten (W) one concern is the loss of tritium from the system via permeation through the tungsten plasma-facing components (PFC). This can lead to loss of tritium through the cooling channels of the wall thereby mandating tritium monitoring and recovery methods for the cooling system of the first wall. The permeated tritium is then out of the fuel cycle and cannot contribute to energy production until it is recovered and recycled into the system.

  6. Chemical forms and discharge ratios to stack and sea of tritium from Tokai Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikami, Satoshi; Akiyama, Kiyomitsu; Miyabe, Kenjiro

    2002-03-01

    Chemical forms and discharge ratios to stack and sea of tritium form Tokai Reprocessing Plant of Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) were investigated by analyzing monitoring data. It was ascertained that approximately 70-80% of tritium discharged from the main stack was tritiated water vapor (HTO) and approximately 20-30% was tritiated hydrogen (HT) as a result of analyzing the data taken from reprocessing campaign's in 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 2000 and 2001, and also that the amount of tritium released from the stack was less than 1% of tritium inventory in spent fuel and the amount of tritium released into sea was approximately 20-40% of inventory. (author)

  7. Comparison of tritium production facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Kaihui; Huang Jinhua

    2002-01-01

    Detailed investigation and research on the source of tritium, tritium production facilities and their comparison are presented based on the basic information about tritium. The characteristics of three types of proposed tritium production facilities, i.e., fissile type, accelerator production tritium (APT) and fusion type, are presented. APT shows many advantages except its rather high cost; fusion reactors appear to offer improved safety and environmental impacts, in particular, tritium production based on the fusion-based neutron source costs much lower and directly helps the development of fusion energy source

  8. A simple trapping method of exhaled water using an ice-cooled tube to monitor the tritium level in human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogawa, Norio; Makide, Yoshihiro

    1994-01-01

    A convenient and efficient method is developed for the trapping of water in exhaled air. A bent-V-shaped glass sampling tube was immersed in iced water and exhaled air was introduced into the tube through a plastic straw. The trapping efficiency of exhaled water was equivalent to those with more complex and troublesome methods. Using anywhere available ice, the water in exhaled air can be rapidly collected with this method and the tritium level in the body will be quickly obtained. (author)

  9. Tritium removal: a preliminary evaluation of several getters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenfelder, C.W.; West, L.A.

    1975-11-01

    The removal of hydrogen isotopes from flowing gas streams is an important aspect of CTR technology for both decontamination and tritium recovery from plasma exhausts. Several getters have been evaluated for their tritium scrubbing potential at the parts per billion level. Measurements of total capacity and dynamic response have been made for barium, erbium, palladium dispersed on molecular sieve, General Electric H-36 (zirconium alloy), Union Carbide Y-993 (PdMnO 2 ), Societa Apparecchi Electtrici e Scientifici Getters ST101 (Zr--Al), ST171, and ST181, and a Sandia developed organic material, dimerized phenyl propargyl ether (DPPE). Preliminary flow studies were conducted by passing mixtures of either hydrogen or deuterium diluted with argon through packed beds containing the getter and periodically sampling the effluent with a gas chromatograph sensitive to 500 ppB H 2 . The results of this work, similar flow experiments using tritium and total capacity measurements are presented in the text

  10. Tritium concentration in ambient air around Kaiga Nuclear Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas S Kamath

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Tritium (3H is one of the important long-lived radioisotopes in the gaseous effluent from nuclear power plants. In this article, we present the results of 3H monitoring in ambient air samples around the Kaiga Nuclear Power Plant, on the West Coast of India. Air samples were collected by moisture condensation method and the 3H concentration was determined by liquid scintillation spectrometry. The 3H concentration in the 2.3–15 km zone of the power plant varied in the range of <0.04–6.64 Bq m−3 with a median of 0.67 Bq m−3. The samples collected from the 2.3–5 km zone of the power plant exhibit marginally higher concentration when compared to the 5–10 km and 10–15 km zones, which is as expected. The values observed in the present study for Kaiga region are similar to those reported from other nuclear power plants, both within India and other parts of the world.

  11. Tritium production distribution in the accelerator production of tritium device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidman, R.B.

    1997-11-01

    Helium-3 ( 3 He) gas is circulated throughout the accelerator production of tritium target/blanket (T/B) assembly to capture neutrons and convert 3 He to tritium. Because 3 He is very expensive, it is important to know the tritium producing effectiveness of 3 He at all points throughout the T/B. The purpose of this paper is to present estimates of the spatial distributions of tritium production, 3 He inventory, and the 3 He FOM

  12. The valley system of the Jihlava river and Mohelno reservoir with enhanced tritium activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simek, P; Kořínková, T; Svetlik, I; Povinec, P P; Fejgl, M; Malátová, I; Tomaskova, L; Stepan, V

    2017-01-01

    The Dukovany nuclear power plant (NPP Dukovany) releases liquid effluents, including HTO, to the Mohelno reservoir, located in a deep valley. Significantly enhanced tritium activities were observed in the form of non-exchangeable organically bound tritium in the surrounding biota which lacks direct contact with the water body. This indicates a tritium uptake by plants from air moisture and haze, which is, besides the uptake by roots from soil, one of the most important mechanisms of tritium transfer from environment to plants. Results of a pilot study based on four sampling campaigns in 2011-2015 are presented and discussed, with the aim to provide new information on tritium transport in the Mohelno reservoir - Jihlava River - plants ecosystems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Verification of tritium production evaluation procedure using Monte Carlo code MCNP for in-pile test of fusion blanket with JMTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, Y. E-mail: nagao@jmtr.oarai.jaeri.go.jp; Nakamichi, K.; Tsuchiya, M.; Ishitsuka, E.; Kawamura, H

    2000-11-01

    To evaluate exactly the total amount of tritium production in tritium breeding materials during in-pile test with JMTR, the 'tritium monitor' has been produced and evaluation of total tritium generation was done by using 'tritium monitor' in preliminary in-pile mock-up, and verification of procedure concerning tritium production evaluation was conducted by using Monte Carlo code MCNP and nuclear cross section library of FSXLIBJ3R2. Li-Al alloy (Li 3.4 wt.%, 95.5% enrichment of {sup 6}Li) was selected as tritium monitor material for the evaluation on the total amount of tritium production in high {sup 6}Li enriched materials. From the results of preliminary experiment, calculated amounts of total tritium production at each 'tritium monitor', which was installed in the preliminary in-pile mock-up, were about 50-290% higher than the measured values. Concerning tritium measurement, increase of measurement error in tritium leak form measuring system to measure small amount of tritium (0.2-0.7 mCi in tritium monitor) was found in the results of present experiment. The tendency for overestimation of calculated thermal neutron flux in the range of 1-6x10{sup 13} n cm{sup -2} per s was found in JMTR and the reason may be due to the beryllium cross section data base in JENDL3.2.

  14. Verification of tritium production evaluation procedure using Monte Carlo code MCNP for in-pile test of fusion blanket with JMTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagao, Y.; Nakamichi, K.; Tsuchiya, M.; Ishitsuka, E.; Kawamura, H.

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate exactly the total amount of tritium production in tritium breeding materials during in-pile test with JMTR, the 'tritium monitor' has been produced and evaluation of total tritium generation was done by using 'tritium monitor' in preliminary in-pile mock-up, and verification of procedure concerning tritium production evaluation was conducted by using Monte Carlo code MCNP and nuclear cross section library of FSXLIBJ3R2. Li-Al alloy (Li 3.4 wt.%, 95.5% enrichment of 6 Li) was selected as tritium monitor material for the evaluation on the total amount of tritium production in high 6 Li enriched materials. From the results of preliminary experiment, calculated amounts of total tritium production at each 'tritium monitor', which was installed in the preliminary in-pile mock-up, were about 50-290% higher than the measured values. Concerning tritium measurement, increase of measurement error in tritium leak form measuring system to measure small amount of tritium (0.2-0.7 mCi in tritium monitor) was found in the results of present experiment. The tendency for overestimation of calculated thermal neutron flux in the range of 1-6x10 13 n cm -2 per s was found in JMTR and the reason may be due to the beryllium cross section data base in JENDL3.2

  15. Modeling the Radiological Impact of Tritium in Sewage Sludge Being Used as Fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venter, A.; Smith, G.

    2005-01-01

    A study was undertaken to assess the radiological impact on humans via the foodchain resulting from the presence of tritium and C-14 in sewage sludge being used as fertilizer on agricultural land. The key endpoint of the assessment was the annual individual dose to an average member of potential critical groups. As part of the assessment, a model was developed to simulate the distribution of tritium between sewage sludge and effluent in the sewage treatment plant, the release of tritium upon sludge decomposition and subsequent uptake by plants and animals. The modeling assumptions, as well as key parameters and parameter values will be discussed in this paper

  16. Overview of R and D activities on tritium processing and handling technology in JAEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanishi, Toshihiko, E-mail: yamanishi.toshihiko@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Nakamura, Hirofumi; Kawamura, Yoshinori; Iwai, Yasunori; Isobe, Kanetsugu; Oyaidsu, Makoto; Yamada, Masayuki; Suzuki, Takumi; Hayashi, Takumi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The tritium technologies have been studied at Tritium Process Laboratory of JAEA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A monitoring method for the blanket system of a fusion reactor have been studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Basic studies on the tritium behavior in confinement system have been carried out. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Studies on the detritiation have been carried out as another significant activity. - Abstract: In JAEA, the tritium processing and handling technologies have been studied at TPL (Tritium Process Laboratory). The main R and D activities are: the tritium processing technology for the blanket recovery systems; the basic tritium behavior in confinement materials; and detritiation and decontamination. The R and D activities on tritium processing and handling technologies for a demonstration reactor (DEMO) are also planned to be carried out in the broader approach (BA) program by JAEA with Japanese universities. The ceramic proton conductor has been studied as a possible tritium processing method for the blanket system. The BIXS method has also been studied as a monitoring of tritium in the blanket system. The hydrogen transfer behavior from water to metal has been studied as a function of temperature. As for the behavior of high concentration tritium water, it was observed that the formation of the oxidized layer was prevented by the presence of tritium in water (0.23 GBq/cc). A new hydrophobic catalyst has been developed for the conversion of tritium to water. The catalyst could convert tritium to water at room temperature. A new Nafion membrane has also been developed by gamma ray irradiation to get the strong durability for tritium.

  17. Tritium analysis at TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voorhees, D.R.; Rossmassler, R.L.; Zimmer, G.

    1995-01-01

    The tritium analytical system at TFRR is used to determine the purity of tritium bearing gas streams in order to provide inventory and accountability measurements. The system includes a quadrupole mass spectrometer and beta scintillator originally configured at Monsanto Mound Research Laboratory in the late 1970's and early 1980's. The system was commissioned and tested between 1991 and 1992 and is used daily for analysis of calibration standards, incoming tritium shipments, gases evolved from uranium storage beds and measurement of gases returned to gas holding tanks. The low resolution mass spectrometer is enhanced by the use of a metal getter pump to aid in resolving the mass 3 and 4 species. The beta scintillator complements the analysis as it detects tritium bearing species that often are not easily detected by mass spectrometry such as condensable species or hydrocarbons containing tritium. The instruments are controlled by a personal computer with customized software written with a graphical programming system designed for data acquisition and control. A discussion of the instrumentation, control systems, system parameters, procedural methods, algorithms, and operational issues will be presented. Measurements of gas holding tanks and tritiated water waste streams using ion chamber instrumentation are discussed elsewhere

  18. Preparation of Tritium from irradiated lithium compounds (study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the present study is the selection of a certain scheme for release, collection, measurement and analysis of Tritium as produced in Lithium compounds (Li 2 O, LiOH, Li 2 CO 3 LiF and some Lithium alloys) in accordance with the 6 Li(n, α)T reaction. Tritium technology is of vital concern to power reactor programmes as well as to fusion technology. Meanwhile the fields of activity include, tritium generation and mangement in fission and fusion reactors; enviromental studies, release modeling HT/HTO conversion and dose assessments, absorption/ deabsorption, monitoring and plant design; research and development, labeling, compatibility and physical chemical properties

  19. Tritium - is it underestimated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitlock, G.D.

    1980-01-01

    Practical experience in the use of the Whitlock Tritium Meter in various laboratories and industrial establishments throughout the world has shown that:-a) Measurements by smear/wipe tests can often be in error by three orders of magnitude or more; b) Sub-visual surface scratches (8μ deep) are radiologically important; c) Volatile forms of tritium exist in 20% to 30% of establishments visited. It is concluded that a) the widespread use of smear/wipe techniques for the assessment of 3 H surface contamination based on the assumption that 10% of removable activity is collected by the smear/wipe should be re-examined and b) tritium surface contamination assessed as 'fixed' can contain volatile fractions with a hazard potential which may be considerably greater than the hazard from removable activity at present covered by maximum permissible level recommendations. (H.K.)

  20. Tritium in HTR systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinwarz, W.

    1987-07-01

    Starting from the basis of the radiological properties of tritium, the provisions of present-day radiation protection legislation are discussed in the context of the handling of this radionuclide in HTR plants. Tritium transportation is then followed through from the place of its creation up until the sink, i.e. disposal and/or environmental route, and empirical values obtained in experiments and in plant operation translated into guidelines for plant design and planning. The use of the example of modular HTR plants permits indication that environmental contamination via the 'classical' routes of air and water emissions, and contamination of products, and resulting consumer exposure, are extremely low even on the assumption of extreme conditions. This leads finally to a requirement that the expenditure for implementation of measures for further reduction of tritium activity rates be measured against low radiological effect. (orig.) [de

  1. Atmospheric tritium. Measurement and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frejaville, Gerard

    1967-02-01

    The possible origins of atmospheric tritium are reviewed and discussed. A description is given of enrichment (electrolysis and thermal diffusion) and counting (gas counters and liquid scintillation counters) processes which can be used for determining atmospheric tritium concentrations. A series of examples illustrates the use of atmospheric tritium for resolving a certain number of hydrological and glaciological problems. (author) [fr

  2. Handling of tritium at TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, C.W.; Howe, H.J.; Yemin, L.; Lind, K.

    1977-01-01

    Some of the engineering approaches taken at TFTR for the tritium control systems are discussed as the requirements being placed on the tritium systems by the operating scenarios of the Tokamak. The tritium control systems presently being designed for TFTR will limit the annual release to the environment to less than 100 curies

  3. USERDA effluent data collection and reporting program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elle, D.R.; Schoen, A.A.

    1978-01-01

    Effluent and environmental monitoring has been conducted at United States Energy Research and Development Administration (formerly United States Atomic Energy Commission) facilities and sites virtually since the inception of atomic energy research and development. In 1971, computer systems were developed that permitted storage of information and data characterizing each effluent and onsite discharge point and relevant information on sources, effluent treatment and control systems, and discharge data, and serve as ERDA's computer-based management information systems for compiling waste discharge control and monitoring data on radioactivity released as airborne or liquid effluents or liquid discharges to onsite retention basins at ERDA facilities. The information systems and associated data outputs have proved to be an effective internal management tool for identifying effluent control problem areas and for surveying an agencywide Radioactive Effluent Reduction Program. The trend data facilitate the detection of gradual changes in the effectiveness of waste treatment systems, and errors or oversights in monitoring and data handling. Other computer outputs are useful for identifying effluent release points that have significantly higher or lower concentrations or quantities in the discharge stream than were measured the previous year. The year-to-year trend reports and the extensive computer edit and error checks have improved the reliability of the reported effluent data. Adoption of a uniform, centralized reporting system has improved the understanding and credibility of effluent data, and has allowed management to evaluate the effectiveness of effluent control practices at ERDA facilities. (author)

  4. Assessment of the cryogenic distillation system in Cernavoda tritium removal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasca, Gheorghe; Draghia, Mirela; Porcariu, Florina; Ana, George

    2010-01-01

    Full text: This paper aims at presenting an assessment of the Cryogenic Distillation system (CD) in the Cernavoda Tritium Removal Facility (CTRF). The cryogenic distillation system is one of the key components of the CTRF which comprises other systems as: the liquid phase catalytic exchange system, designed to transfer tritium from heavy water to a deuterium stream to be fed into the CD system; the atmosphere detritiation system; the tritium recovery system; the tritium/hydrogen monitoring system; the central interlocking system; the tritium extraction and storage system. Thus, the need to build a tritium separation and recovery system results from economic opportunities offered both by heavy water reuse and tritium production, but, at the same time, it offers an alternative for the storage of tritiated heavy water as radioactive waste. (authors)

  5. Groundwater screening evaluation/monitoring plan: 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (Project W-049H). Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, D.B.; Davis, J.D.; Collard, L.B.; Freeman, P.B.; Chou, C.J.

    1995-05-01

    This report consists of the groundwater screening evaluation required by Section S.8 of the State Waste Discharge Permit for the 200 Area TEDF. Chapter 1.0 describes the purpose of the groundwater monitoring plan. The information in Chapter 2.0 establishes a water quality baseline for the facility and is the groundwater screening evaluation. The following information is included in Chapter 2.0: Facility description;Well locations, construction, and development data; Geologic and hydrologic description of the site and affected area; Ambient groundwater quality and current use; Water balance information; Hydrologic parameters; Potentiometric map, hydraulic gradients, and flow velocities; Results of infiltration and hydraulic tests; Groundwater and soils chemistry sampling and analysis data; Statistical evaluation of groundwater background data; and Projected effects of facility operation on groundwater flow and water quality. Chapter 3.0 defines, based on the information in Chapter 2.0, how effects of the TEDF on the environment will be evaluated and how compliance with groundwater quality standards will be documented in accordance with the terms and conditions of the permit. Chapter 3.0 contains the following information: Media to be monitored; Wells proposed as the point of compliance in the uppermost aquifer; Basis for monitoring well network and evidence of monitoring adequacy; Contingency planning approach for vadose zone monitoring wells; Which field parameters will be measured and how measurements will be made; Specification of constituents to be sampled and analyzed; and Specification of the sampling and analysis procedures that will be used. Chapter 4.0 provides information on how the monitoring results will be reported and the proposed frequency of monitoring and reporting. Chapter 5.0 lists all the references cited in this monitoring plan. These references should be consulted for additional or more detailed information

  6. Tritium in rad waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandhi, P.M.; Ali, S.S.; Mathur, R.K.; Rastogi, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    Radioactive waste arising from PHWR's are invariably contaminated with tritium activity. Their disposal is crucial as it governs the manner and extent of radioactive contamination of human environment. The technique of tritium measurement and its application plays an important role in assessing the safety of the disposal system. Thus, typical applications involving tritium measurements include the evaluation of a site for solid waste burial facility and evaluation of a water body for liquid waste dispersal. Tritium measurement is also required in assessing safe air route dispersal of tritium. (author)

  7. ARIES-I tritium system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sze, D.K.; Tam, S.W.; Billone, M.C.; Hassanein, A.M.; Martin, R.

    1990-09-01

    A key safety concern in a D-T fusion reactor is the tritium inventory. There are three components in a fusion reactor with potentially large inventories, i.e., the blanket, the fuel processing system and the plasma facing components. The ARIES team selected the material combinations, decided the operating conditions and refined the processing systems, with the aiming of minimizing the tritium inventories and leakage. The total tritium inventory for the ARIES-I reactor is only 700 g. This paper discussed the calculations and assumptions we made for the low tritium inventory. We also addressed the uncertainties about the tritium inventory. 13 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Tritium breeding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollenberg, G.W.; Johnson, C.E.; Abdou, M.

    1984-03-01

    Tritium breeding materials are essential to the operation of D-T fusion facilities. Both of the present options - solid ceramic breeding materials and liquid metal materials are reviewed with emphasis not only on their attractive features but also on critical materials issues which must be resolved

  9. Tritium breeding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollenberg, G.W.; Johnson, C.E.; Abdou, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Tritium breeding materials are essential to the operation of D-T fusion facilities. Both of the present options - solid ceramic breeding materials and liquid metal materials are reviewed with emphasis not only on their attractive features but also on critical materials issues which must be resolved

  10. Properties of tritium and its compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belovodskij, L.F.; Gaevoj, V.K.; Grishmanovskij, V.I.

    1985-01-01

    Ways of tritium preparation and different aspects of its application are considered. Physicochemical properties of this isotope and some compounds of it - tritium oxides, lithium, titanium, zirconium, uranium tritides, tritium organic compounds - are discussed. In particular, diffusion of tritium and its oxide through different materials, tritium oxidation processes, decomposition of tritium-containing compounds under the action of self-radiation are considered. Main radiobiological tritium properties are described

  11. Use of tritium and sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, Hiroshi

    1997-01-01

    There are many kinds of tritium, sources in the environment. The maximum inventory of them is the nuclear tests, although the atmospheric nuclear test has not been carried out since 1981. So that the inventory originated from them will decrease. By the latest data in 1989, the total amount of released tritium was about 24 PBq/yr by the use of atomic energy in the world. The maximum source was the heavy water moderated reactors, for example, CANDU reactor. In the future, large amount of tritium inventory may be the fusion reactor. The test of JET (Joint European Torus) released about 600 GBq of tritium until March in 1992. 80-90% of them were tritium water (HTO). The amount of tritium released from industries and medicine are limited. Although ITER has a large amount of tritium inventory, the amount of release is seemed not to be larger than other nuclear power facility. (S.Y.)

  12. Technical review of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant non-radiological effluent and environmental monitoring program. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-02-01

    Based on information reviewed in July 1985, Y-12 has some very strong areas such as chain-of-custody forms and compliance work on the new NPDES permit. The recommendations are divided into eighteen categories. Each recommendation is also divided into major or minor categories as an indication of the resources estimated to complete this recommendation. The areas needing the most improvement are air monitoring, QA/QC, field procedures, documentation, groundwater sampling, spill prevention control and countermeasures plan and biological monitoring. Recommendations are tabulated by category and by priority.

  13. Tritium transport calculations for the IFMIF Tritium Release Test Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freund, Jana, E-mail: jana.freund@kit.edu; Arbeiter, Frederik; Abou-Sena, Ali; Franza, Fabrizio; Kondo, Keitaro

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Delivery of material data for the tritium balance in the IFMIF Tritium Release Test Module. • Description of the topological models in TMAP and the adapted fusion-devoted Tritium Permeation Code (FUS-TPC). • Computation of release of tritium from the breeder solid material into the purge gas. • Computation of the loss of tritium over the capsule wall, rig hull, container wall and purge gas return line. - Abstract: The IFMIF Tritium Release Test Module (TRTM) is projected to measure online the tritium release from breeder ceramics and beryllium pebble beds under high energy neutron irradiation. Tritium produced in the pebble bed of TRTM is swept out continuously by a purge gas flow, but can also permeate into the module's metal structures, and can be lost by permeation to the environment. According analyses on the tritium inventory are performed to support IFMIF plant safety studies, and to support the experiment planning. This paper describes the necessary elements for calculation of the tritium transport in the Tritium Release Test Module as follows: (i) applied equations for the tritium balance, (ii) material data from literature and (iii) the topological models and the computation of the five different cases; namely release of tritium from the breeder solid material into the purge gas, loss of tritium over the capsule wall, rig hull, container wall and purge gas return line in detail. The problem of tritium transport in the TRTM has been studied and analyzed by the Tritium Migration Analysis Program (TMAP) and the adapted fusion-devoted Tritium Permeation Code (FUS-TPC). TMAP has been developed at INEEL and now exists in Version 7. FUS-TPC Code was written in MATLAB with the original purpose to study the tritium transport in Helium Cooled Lead Lithium (HCLL) blanket and in a later version the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) blanket by [6] (Franza, 2012). This code has been further modified to be applicable to the TRTM. Results from the

  14. Tritium transport calculations for the IFMIF Tritium Release Test Module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freund, Jana; Arbeiter, Frederik; Abou-Sena, Ali; Franza, Fabrizio; Kondo, Keitaro

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Delivery of material data for the tritium balance in the IFMIF Tritium Release Test Module. • Description of the topological models in TMAP and the adapted fusion-devoted Tritium Permeation Code (FUS-TPC). • Computation of release of tritium from the breeder solid material into the purge gas. • Computation of the loss of tritium over the capsule wall, rig hull, container wall and purge gas return line. - Abstract: The IFMIF Tritium Release Test Module (TRTM) is projected to measure online the tritium release from breeder ceramics and beryllium pebble beds under high energy neutron irradiation. Tritium produced in the pebble bed of TRTM is swept out continuously by a purge gas flow, but can also permeate into the module's metal structures, and can be lost by permeation to the environment. According analyses on the tritium inventory are performed to support IFMIF plant safety studies, and to support the experiment planning. This paper describes the necessary elements for calculation of the tritium transport in the Tritium Release Test Module as follows: (i) applied equations for the tritium balance, (ii) material data from literature and (iii) the topological models and the computation of the five different cases; namely release of tritium from the breeder solid material into the purge gas, loss of tritium over the capsule wall, rig hull, container wall and purge gas return line in detail. The problem of tritium transport in the TRTM has been studied and analyzed by the Tritium Migration Analysis Program (TMAP) and the adapted fusion-devoted Tritium Permeation Code (FUS-TPC). TMAP has been developed at INEEL and now exists in Version 7. FUS-TPC Code was written in MATLAB with the original purpose to study the tritium transport in Helium Cooled Lead Lithium (HCLL) blanket and in a later version the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) blanket by [6] (Franza, 2012). This code has been further modified to be applicable to the TRTM. Results from the

  15. Tritium determination in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavini, Ricardo M.

    2008-01-01

    An analytical procedure for the determination of tritium in water is described in this paper. The determination is carried out in presence of other radionuclides, such as Fe-55, Ni-63, Mn-54, Zn-65, Co-60, Cd-109, Sr-90, Cs-134 and Cs-137. The method consists in a simple distillation stage prior to measurement by liquid scintillation counting. The samples containing beta and gamma emitters are conditioned with a (NO 3 ) 2 Pb solution and Na(OH) up to pH = 7 - 8. This produces lead hydroxide precipitation that allows fixing volatile elements, which could be transported together with tritium, and may increase the extinction degree of the sample or interfere with the counting process. Special attention must be paid if presence of Fe-55 (E max ∼ 5.95 keV) is suspected as it might not be distinguished from tritium (E max ∼ 18 keV), leading to an overestimation of tritium activity. Different tests were carried to obtain the optimum method conditions, to achieve the purification of the tritium and a pH near to 7 in the distilled. The detection limit (2σ) was 8.0 Bq/l and the distillation performance was 98.3 %. This technique was applied to water samples containing Fe-55 and other gamma radionuclides in 1M hydrochloric acid media in successive Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) intercomparison programs. The results obtained were very satisfactory and are presented in this paper. (author)

  16. Spatial distribution of tritium in the Rawatbhata Rajasthan site environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GilI, Rajpal; Tiwari, S.N.; Gocher, A.K.; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    Tritium is one of the most environmentally mobile radionuclides and hence has high potential for migration into the different compartments of environment. Tritium from nuclear facilities at RAPS site is released into the environment through 93 m and 100 m high stack mainly as tritiated water (HTO). The released tritium undergoes dilution and dispersion and then follows the ecological pathway of water molecule. Environmental Survey Laboratory of Health Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), located at Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS) site is continuously monitoring the concentration of tritium in the environment to ensure the public safety. Atmospheric tritium activity during the period (2009-2013) was measured regularly around Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS). Data collected showed a large variation of H-3 concentration in air fluctuating in the range of 0.43 - 5.80 Bq.m -3 at site boundary of 1.6 km. This paper presents the result of analyses of tritium in atmospheric environment covering an area up to 20 km radius around RAPS site. Large number of air moisture samples were collected around the RAPS site, for estimating tritium in atmospheric environment to ascertain the atmospheric dispersion and computation of radiation dose to the public

  17. Tritium pollution in the Swiss luminous compound industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krejci, K.; Zeller, Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The Swiss luminous compound industry is an important consumer of tritium. About 350kCi go into production of tritium gas-filled light sources and 40kCi into production of tritium luminous compound annually. To illustrate the pollution problem, a factory is mentioned that handles 200kCi annually and a chain of luminizers, processing 20kCi over the same period as tritium luminous compound. This material is manufactured by coating phosphors with tritiated polystyrene having a specific activity up to 200Ci/g. Because of the high specific activity, the radiation damage produces an average activity release of 5.2% annually, which is one of the main reasons for public and occupational exposure. The processing of large quantities of tritium gas requires special equipment, such as units made entirely of stainless steel for purification and hydrogenation, oxidation systems for highly contaminated air, glove boxes, ventilation and monitoring systems. Nevertheless, contamination of air, surfaces, water and workers cannot be avoided. Only in a few cases were MPC-values for tritium content in urine of workers exceeded. From these results, biological half-lives between 5-15 days were estimated. Regular medical examinations showed no significant influence in blood picture parameters, except in one single case with a tritium concentration in urine of 2.8mCi/litre. Entirely different problems arise in most luminizing factories where luminous paint is processed as an open radioactive source. (author)

  18. Consideration of disposal alternatives for tritium-contaminated wastewater streams at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, E.D.

    1988-03-01

    Small quantities of tritium are produced as an undesirable by-product of the operation of light-water reactors. At the US Department of Energy Hanford Site in Washington State, some tritium has been discharged to the environment in low-level liquid and gaseous wastes from the N Reactor plant, but more than 97% of the tritium stays typically within the irradiated fuel as it is delivered for reprocessing. During fuel reprocessing, the tritium is distributed in the process streams, and most of the tritium is presently released to the soil column with excess process condensates from the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant. On an annual basis, approximately 1 g of tritium is discharged in more than 1 x 10 6 L of process condensate water. Principal tritium release points and quantities are presented in section 4.0. The present study is intended to identify and evaluate alternate methods of tritium control and disposal that might merit additional study or development for potential application to Hanford Site effluents. 30 refs., 15 figs., 5 tabs

  19. Tritium in the aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaylock, B.G.; Hoffman, F.O.; Frank, M.L.

    1986-02-01

    Tritium is of environmental importance because it is released from nuclear facilities in relatively large quantities and because it has a half life of 12.26 y. Most of the tritium released into the atmosphere eventually reaches the aqueous environment, where it is rapidly taken up by aquatic organisms. This paper reviews the current literature on tritium in the aquatic environment. Conclusions from the review, which covered studies of algae, aquatic macrophytes, invertebrates, fish, and the food chain, were that aquatic organisms incorporate tritium into their tissue-free water very rapidly and reach concentrations near those of the external medium. The rate at which tritium from tritiated water is incorporated into the organic matter of cells is slower than the rate of its incorporation into the tissue-free water. If organisms consume tritiated food, incorporation of tritium into the organic matter is faster, and a higher tritium concentration is reached than when the organisms are exposed to only tritiated water alone. Incorporation of tritium bound to molecules into the organic matter depends on the chemical form of the ''carrier'' molecule. No evidence was found that biomagnification of tritium occurs at higher trophic levels. Radiation doses from tritium releases to large populations of humans will most likely come from the consumption of contaminated water rather than contaminated aquatic food products

  20. Tritium breeders and tritium permeation barrier coatings for fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamawaki, Michio; Kawamura, Hiroshi; Tsuchiya, Kunihiko

    2004-01-01

    A state of R and D of tritium breeders and tritium permeation barrier coatings for fusion reactor is explained. A list of candidate for tritium breeders consists of ceramics containing lithium, for examples, Li 2 O, Li 2 TiO 3 , Li 2 ZrO 3 , Li 4 SiO 4 and LiAlO 2 . The characteristics and form are described. The optimum particle size is from 1 to 10 μm. The production technologies of tritium breeders in the world are stated. Characteristics of ceramics with lithium as tritium breeders are compared. TiC, TiN/TiC, Al 2 O 3 and Cr 2 O 3 -SiO 2 -P 2 O 5 are tritium permeation barrier coating materials. These production methods and evaluation of characteristics are explained. (S.Y.)

  1. Assessment of tritium in the Savannah River Site environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlton, W.H.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Bauer, L.R.

    1993-10-01

    This report is the first revision to a series of reports on radionuclides inn the SRS environment. Tritium was chosen as the first radionuclide in the series because the calculations used to assess the dose to the offsite population from SRS releases indicate that the dose due to tritium, through of small consequence, is one of the most important the radionuclides. This was recognized early in the site operation, and extensive measurements of tritium in the atmosphere, surface water, and ground water exist due to the effort of the Environmental Monitoring Section. In addition, research into the transport and fate of tritium in the environment has been supported at the SRS by both the local Department of Energy (DOE) Office and DOE's Office of Health and Environmental Research

  2. Assessment of tritium in the Savannah River Site environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlton, W.H.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Bauer, L.R. [and others

    1993-10-01

    This report is the first revision to a series of reports on radionuclides inn the SRS environment. Tritium was chosen as the first radionuclide in the series because the calculations used to assess the dose to the offsite population from SRS releases indicate that the dose due to tritium, through of small consequence, is one of the most important the radionuclides. This was recognized early in the site operation, and extensive measurements of tritium in the atmosphere, surface water, and ground water exist due to the effort of the Environmental Monitoring Section. In addition, research into the transport and fate of tritium in the environment has been supported at the SRS by both the local Department of Energy (DOE) Office and DOE`s Office of Health and Environmental Research.

  3. Development of a wide-range tritium-concentration detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, F.; Zhe, L.; Shicheng, L.; Jiangfeng, S.; Deli, L. [China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang (China)

    2015-03-15

    According to the requirements of the tritium related systems of the TBM (Test Blanket Module) for monitoring the on-line tritium concentration, a wide-range tritium-concentration detector has been developed to measure the tritium concentration in the range of 10{sup 4} Bq/ml - 5*10{sup 8} Bq/ml. This detector is combined with a low-memory helium ionization chamber. The weak current signal collected in the ionization chamber is converted to the voltage signal by an I-V converter. The minimum weak current which the detector could be measured is 10{sup -14} A. The performance of the background current and the current response linearity of the prototype have been tested. The test result indicates that the linear response of the current signal of the prototype without connecting the ionization chamber is good. The linear correlation coefficient is R{sup 2} = 0.998.

  4. Development of a wide-range tritium-concentration detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, F.; Zhe, L.; Shicheng, L.; Jiangfeng, S.; Deli, L.

    2015-01-01

    According to the requirements of the tritium related systems of the TBM (Test Blanket Module) for monitoring the on-line tritium concentration, a wide-range tritium-concentration detector has been developed to measure the tritium concentration in the range of 10 4 Bq/ml - 5*10 8 Bq/ml. This detector is combined with a low-memory helium ionization chamber. The weak current signal collected in the ionization chamber is converted to the voltage signal by an I-V converter. The minimum weak current which the detector could be measured is 10 -14 A. The performance of the background current and the current response linearity of the prototype have been tested. The test result indicates that the linear response of the current signal of the prototype without connecting the ionization chamber is good. The linear correlation coefficient is R 2 = 0.998

  5. Migration of tritium from a nuclear waste burial site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, R.H.

    1975-09-01

    The Savannah River Plant (SRP) has routinely and continuously monitored the local environment (land, water, air, flora, and fauna) since 1951. As part of this intensive program, a three-part study was made to assess the tritium migration from an onsite burial ground for solid nuclear wastes and the resulting dose-to-man. A major source of tritium is buried, massive, Li-Al residues (referred to as melts) from the thermal extraction step in the SRP tritium production process. A melt with its extraction crucible and lid were immersed in water to measure the amounts of tritium released as HTO and HT to the water and to air. The result was a rapid release of 23 curies, of which approximately 99 percent was HTO that remained in the immersion water, and 1 percent was HT that passed into the air. (auth)

  6. Secondary containment system for a high tritium research cryostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsugawa, R.T.; Fearon, D.; Souers, P.C.; Hickman, R.G.; Roberts, P.E.

    1976-01-01

    A 4.2- to 300-K liquid helium cryostat has been constructed for cryogenic samples of D--T containing up to 4 x 10 14 dis/s (10,000 Ci) of tritium radioactivity. The cryostat is enclosed in a secondary box, which acts as the ultimate container in case of a tritium release. Dry argon is flushed through the box, and the box atmosphere is monitored for tritium, oxygen, and water vapor. A rupture disk and abort tank protect the box atmosphere in case the sample cell breaks. If tritium breaks into the box, a powdered uranium getter trap reduces the 4 x 10 14 dis/s (10,000 Ci) to 4 x 10 9 dis/s (0.1 Ci) in 24 h. A backup palladium--zeolite getter system goes into operation if an overabundance of oxygen contaminates the uranium getter

  7. Investigations of the applicability of a new accountancy tool in a closed tritium loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebenhöch, S., E-mail: sylvia.ebenhoech@kit.edu; Niemes, S.; Priester, F.; Röllig, M.

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • We have set up a new test device for measuring of tritiated gas samples. • The device is very compact and easy and reliable in operation. • Easy integration in flow-through systems. • The device has been operated at Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe for several months. • The lower detection limit has been improved with regard to predecessors experiments. - Abstract: A commonly used activity monitoring method for tritium accountancy and process monitoring in tritium technology is ionization counting. Despite the wide use of ionization chambers (IC), they have several drawbacks like a strong gas species and pressure dependency. Furthermore, if compact systems are needed, there is also the necessity for process gas pressures >10 kPa. To encounter these drawbacks, the TRitium Activity Chamber Experiment (TRACE) has been developed at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK) as a compact tritium monitor based on the beta induced X-ray spectrometry (BIXS) principle. TRACE can be used as an accountancy tool in tritium-processing facilities like the KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino (KATRIN) experiment. In contrast to ICs TRACE shows a linear response to pressure changes up to approx. 1 kPa. The results of performed flow-through measurements confirm that TRACE is a complement for ICs in the low-pressure regime. Furthermore the gas species dependency of TRACE is investigated both with tritium measurements and with Monte Carlo simulations.

  8. Bacterial community shift for monitoring the co-composting of oil palm empty fruit bunch and palm oil mill effluent anaerobic sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainudin, Mohd Huzairi Mohd; Ramli, Norhayati; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Shirai, Yoshihito; Tashiro, Kosuke; Sakai, Kenji; Tashiro, Yukihiro

    2017-06-01

    A recently developed rapid co-composting of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) and palm oil mill effluent (POME) anaerobic sludge is beginning to attract attention from the palm oil industry in managing the disposal of these wastes. However, a deeper understanding of microbial diversity is required for the sustainable practice of the co-compositing process. In this study, an in-depth assessment of bacterial community succession at different stages of the pilot scale co-composting of OPEFB-POME anaerobic sludge was performed using 454-pyrosequencing, which was then correlated with the changes of physicochemical properties including temperature, oxygen level and moisture content. Approximately 58,122 of 16S rRNA gene amplicons with more than 500 operational taxonomy units (OTUs) were obtained. Alpha diversity and principal component analysis (PCoA) indicated that bacterial diversity and distributions were most influenced by the physicochemical properties of the co-composting stages, which showed remarkable shifts of dominant species throughout the process. Species related to Devosia yakushimensis and Desemzia incerta are shown to emerge as dominant bacteria in the thermophilic stage, while Planococcus rifietoensis correlated best with the later stage of co-composting. This study proved the bacterial community shifts in the co-composting stages corresponded with the changes of the physicochemical properties, and may, therefore, be useful in monitoring the progress of co-composting and compost maturity.

  9. Importance of benthonic marine flora monitoring in the liquid effluent discharge form Angra-1 Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloise, G.C.; Araujo Costa, D. de

    1994-01-01

    Angra-1 Nuclear Power Plant use sea water to condenser the steam of the secondary circuit. This water capted from Itaorna bay is chlorined and discharged more heater in Piraquara de Fora small bay. The temperature, chlorinade concentration, marine flora and fauna are monitored frequently with the intend of value the impact caused by this discharge to marine environment. The macroscopic marines algae is very sensible to environment temperature variations, constitutes on of the main rink in the food chain and stay every time attach at the bottom. Because of this facts they are considered an important bio indicators. (author). 5 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  10. Application of crown ethers to selective extraction and quantitative analysis of technetium 99, iodine 129 and cesium 135 in effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paviet, P.

    1992-01-01

    Properties of crown ethers are first recalled. Then extraction of technetium 99 is studied in actual radioactive effluents. Quantitative analysis is carried out by liquid scintillation and interference of tritium is corrected. Iodine 129 is extracted from radioactive effluents and determined by gamma spectrometry. Finally cesium 135 is extracted and determined by thermo ionization mass spectroscopy

  11. Metabolism of organically bound tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, C.C.

    1984-01-01

    The classic methodology for estimating dose to man from environmental tritium ignores the fact that organically bound tritium in foodstuffs may be directly assimilated in the bound compartment of tissues without previous oxidation. We propose a four-compartment model consisting of a free body water compartment, two organic compartments, and a small, rapidly metabolizing compartment. The utility of this model lies in the ability to input organically bound tritium in foodstuffs directly into the organic compartments of the model. We found that organically bound tritium in foodstuffs can increase cumulative total body dose by a factor of 1.7 to 4.5 times the free body water dose alone, depending on the bound-to-loose ratio of tritium in the diet. Model predictions are compared with empirical measurements of tritium in human urine and tissue samples, and appear to be in close agreement. 10 references, 4 figures, 3 tables

  12. Effects of tritium in elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapp, P.E.

    1982-01-01

    Elastomers are used as flange gaskets in the piping system of the Savannah River Plant tritium facilities. A number of elastomers is being examined to identify those compounds more radiation-resistant than the currently specified Buna-N rubber and to study the mechanism of tritium radiation damage. Radiation resistance is evaluated by compression set tests on specimens exposed to about 1 atm tritium for several months. Initial results show that ethylene-propylene rubber and three fluoroelastomers are superior to Buna-N. Off-gassing measurements and autoradiography show that retained surface absorption of tritium varies by more than an order of magnitude among the different elastomer compounds. Therefore, tritium solubility and/or exchange may have a role in addition to that of chemical structure in the damage process. Ongoing studies of the mechanism of radiation damage include: (1) tritium absorption kinetics, (2) mass spectroscopy of radiolytic products, and (3) infrared spectroscopy

  13. 1985 environmental monitoring report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, L.E.; Miltenberger, R.P.; Naidu, J.R. (eds.)

    1986-04-01

    The environmental monitoring program is designed to determine that BNL facilities operate such that the applicable environmental standards and effluent control requirements have been met. The data were evaluated using the appropriate environmental regulatory criteria. The environmental levels of radioactivity and other pollutants found in the vicinity of BNL during 1985 are summarized in this report. Detailed data are not included in the main body of the report, but are tabulated and presented in Appendix D. The environmental data include external radiation levels; radioactive air particulates; tritium concentrations; the amounts and concentrations of radioactivity in and the water quality of the stream into which liquid effluents are released; the water quality of the potable supply wells; the concentrations of radioactivity in biota from the stream; the concentrations of radioactivity in and the water quality of ground waters underlying the Laboratoy; concentrations of radioactivity in milk samples obtained in the vicinity of the Laboratory; and the 1984 strontium-90 data which was not available for inclusion in the 1984 Environmental Monitoring Report. In 1985, the results of the surveillance program demonstraed that the Laboratory has operated within the applicable environmental standards.

  14. Tritium Storage Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowgill, Donald F.; Luo, Weifang; Smugeresky, John E.; Robinson, David B.; Fares, Stephen James; Ong, Markus D.; Arslan, Ilke; Tran, Kim L.; McCarty, Kevin F.; Sartor, George B.; Stewart, Kenneth D.; Clift, W. Miles

    2008-01-01

    Nano-structured palladium is examined as a tritium storage material with the potential to release beta-decay-generated helium at the generation rate, thereby mitigating the aging effects produced by enlarging He bubbles. Helium retention in proposed structures is modeled by adapting the Sandia Bubble Evolution model to nano-dimensional material. The model shows that even with ligament dimensions of 6-12 nm, elevated temperatures will be required for low He retention. Two nanomaterial synthesis pathways were explored: de-alloying and surfactant templating. For de-alloying, PdAg alloys with piranha etchants appeared likely to generate the desired morphology with some additional development effort. Nano-structured 50 nm Pd particles with 2-3 nm pores were successfully produced by surfactant templating using PdCl salts and an oligo(ethylene oxide) hexadecyl ether surfactant. Tests were performed on this material to investigate processes for removing residual pore fluids and to examine the thermal stability of pores. A tritium manifold was fabricated to measure the early He release behavior of this and Pd black material and is installed in the Tritium Science Station glove box at LLNL. Pressure-composition isotherms and particle sizes of a commercial Pd black were measured.

  15. Toxicity of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobson, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    Among radionuclides of importance in atomic energy, 3 H has relatively low toxicity. The main health and environmental worry is the possibility that significant biological effects may follow from protracted exposure to low concentrations in water. To examine this possible hazard and measure toxicity at low tritium concentrations, chronic exposure studies were done on mice and monkeys. During vulnerable developmental periods animals were exposed to 3 HOH, and mice were exposed also to 60 Co gamma irradiation and energy-related chemical agents. The biological endpoint measured was the irreversible loss of female germ cells. Effects from tritium were observed at surprisingly low concentrations where 3 H was found more damaging than previously thought. Comparisons between tritium and gamma radiation showed the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) to be greater than 1 and to reach approximately 3 at very low exposures. For perspective, other comparisons were made: between radiation and chemical agents, which revealed parallels in action on germ cells, and between pre- and postnatal exposure, which warn of possible special hazard to the fetus from both classes of energy-related byproducts

  16. Biological effects of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieto, M.

    1985-01-01

    The aim of this project is to study the thermal effects on proliferation activity in the intestinal epithelium of the goldfish acclimated at different temperatures (stationary state). The cell division occurs only at certain phases of the circadian cycle when the proliferative activity is synchronized or trained by an environmental factor such as light-dark cycle. Another aspect of the project is the study of the biological effects, non-stochastic, on cell kinetics in animals chronically exposed to low dose rates or tritium and gamma rays from 60 CO, used as a standard radiation. The influence on the accumulated dose per cell and cycle cell in function of the duration of the cell cycle at different acclimation temperatures should be considered. To calculate the risk of tritium contamination from nuclear power plants (radiation exposure), the organic tissue-bond is of decisive importance due to the long turnover of the organic tissue-bond in organisms favouring transport of tritium to other organisms of the ecosystem and to man. (author)

  17. Tritium removal and retention device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, R.F.; Durigon, D.D.

    1980-01-01

    A device is provided for removing and retaining tritium from a gaseous medium, and also a method of manufacturing the device. The device, consists of an inner core of zirconium alloy, preferably Zircaloy-4, and an outer adherent layer of nickel which acts as a selective and protective window for passage of tritium. The tritium then reacts with or is absorbed by the zirconium alloy, and is retained until such time as it is desirable to remove it during reprocessing. (auth)

  18. An overview of tritium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Kaihui; Huang Jinghua; Feng Kaiming

    2002-01-01

    The characteristics of three types of proposed tritium production facilities, fissile type, accelerator production tritium (APT), and fusion type, are presented. The fissile reactors, especially commercial light water reactor, use comparatively mature technology and are designed to meet current safety and environmental guidelines. Conversely, APT shows many advantages except its rather high cost, while fusion reactors appear to offer improved safety and environmental impact, in particular, tritium production based on the fusion-based neutron source. However, its cost keeps unknown

  19. Tritium safety issues for TFCX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, H.J.; Piet, S.J.; Merrill, B.J.

    1985-01-01

    Estimated tritium releases from the Tokamak Fusion Core Experiment are compared to the expected limits. A reaction kinetics model is described that predicts the conversion of tritium to the oxide form in free space. An analysis of the required capacity of the Emergency Tritium Cleanup System is also presented. The conclusions of this work are expected to be applicable to other experimental fusion devices that are now being considered

  20. Tritium behavior in ITER beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhurst, G.R.

    1990-10-01

    The beryllium neutron multiplier in the ITER breeding blanket will generate tritium through transmutations. That tritium constitutes a safety hazard. Experiments evaluating tritium storage and release mechanisms have shown that most of the tritium comes out in a burst during thermal ramping. A small fraction of retained tritium is released by thermally activated processes. Analysis of recent experimental data shows that most of the tritium resides in helium bubbles. That tritium is released when the bubbles undergo swelling sufficient to develop porosity that connects with the surface. That appears to occur when swelling reaches about 10--15%. Other tritium appears to be stored chemically at oxide inclusions, probably as Be(OT) 2 . That component is released by thermal activation. There is considerable variation in published values for tritium diffusion through the beryllium and solubility in it. Data from experiments using highly irradiated beryllium from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory showed diffusivity generally in line with the most commonly accepted values for fully dense material. Lower density material, planned for use in the ITER blanket may have very short diffusion times because of the open structure. The beryllium multiplier of the ITER breeding blanket was analyzed for tritium release characteristics using temperature and helium production figures at the midplane generated in support of the ITER Summer Workshop, 1990 in Garching. Ordinary operation, either in Physics or Technology phases, should not result in the release of tritium trapped in the helium bubbles. Temperature excursions above 600 degree C result in large-scale release of that tritium. 29 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs