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Sample records for effluent toxicity test

  1. Animal alternatives for whole effluent toxicity testing ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since the 1940s, effluent toxicity testing has been utilized to varying degrees in many countries to assess potential ecological impacts and assist in determining necessary treatment options for environmental protection. However, it was only in the early 1980’s that toxicity based effluent assessments and subsequent discharge controls became globally important, when it was recognized that physical and chemical measurements alone did not protect the environment from potential impacts. Consequently, various strategies using different toxicity tests, whole effluent assessment techniques (incorporating bioaccumulation potential and persistence) plus supporting analytical tools have been developed over 30 years of practice. Numerous workshops and meetings have focused on effluent risk assessment through ASTM, SETAC, OSPAR, UK competent authorities, and EU specific country rules. Concurrent with this drive to improve effluent quality using toxicity tests, interest in reducing animal use has risen. The Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) organized and facilitated an international workshop in March 2016 to evaluate strategies for concepts, tools, and effluent assessments and update the toolbox of for effluent testing methods. The workshop objectives were to identify opportunities to use a suite of strategies for effluents, and to identify opportunities to reduce the reliance on animal tests and to determine barriers to implementation of new methodologie

  2. An evaluation of the whole effluent toxicity test method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osteen, D.V.

    1999-01-01

    Whole effluent toxicity (WET) testing has become increasingly more important to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the States in the permitting of wastewater discharges from industry and municipalities. The primary purpose of the WET test is to protect aquatic life by predicting the effect of an effluent on the receiving stream. However, there are both scientific and regulatory concerns that using WET tests to regulate industrial effluents may result in either false positives and/or false negatives. In order to realistically predict the effect of an effluent on the receiving stream, the test should be as representative as possible of the conditions in the receiving stream. Studies (Rand and Petrocelli 1985) suggested several criteria for an ideal aquatic toxicity test organism, one of which is that the organism be indigenous to, or representative of, the ecosystem receiving the effluent. The other component needed in the development of a predictive test is the use of the receiving stream water or similar synthetic water as the control and dilution water in the test method. Use of an indigenous species and receiving water in the test should help reduce the variability in the method and allow the test to predict the effect of the effluent on the receiving stream. The experience with toxicity testing at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has yielded inconclusive data because of the inconsistency and unreliability of the results. The SRS contention is that the WET method in its present form does not adequately mimic actual biological/chemical conditions of the receiving streams and is neither reasonable nor accurate. This paper discusses the rationale for such a position by SRS on toxicity testing in terms of historical permitting requirements, outfall effluent test results, standard test method evaluation, scientific review of alternate test species, and concerns over the test method expressed by other organizations. This paper presents the Savannah River Site

  3. Acute Toxicity Tests Of Brewery Effluent on the Ostracoda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mortality also varied with the concentrations. The toxic effect of brewery effluent on ostracoda, which plays an important role in the aquatic food chain and the possibility that they may be accumulating some of these toxic components, is a matter for concern. Keywords: Toxicity, rewery effluent, Ostracoda, Strandesia, ...

  4. Early Evolution of the Toxicity Identification Evaluation Process: Contributions from the USEPA Effluent Testing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of its whole effluent testing program, the USEPA developed an effects-directed analysis (EDA) approach to identifying the cause of toxicity in toxic effluents or ambient waters, an EDA process termed a “Toxicity Identification Evaluation” (TIE), which is the focus of this...

  5. Refinery water (intake and effluent) quality: Update of 1970s with 1990s toxicity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, P.M.; Paine, M.D.; Moran, T.; Kierstead, T.

    1994-01-01

    The quality of two separate refinery intake waters and effluents was investigated: Petro-Canada (Oakville) and Novacor (Corunna Operations). This study comprised eight different test organized and 22 different toxicity end points, was built on and complemented pioneering 1970s work at the Petro-Canada refinery, and was designed to (a) determine any changes in effluent quality, (b) determine any previously unsuspected effluent toxicity, and (c) determine any potential for chronic toxicity in the effluent. Although Petro-Canada has steadily reduced contaminants in its effluent since the earlier study, toxicity has not changed and no new toxic effects were identified. Effect thresholds for the most sensitive animal species (Daphnia pulex) were 1 to 10% effluent in both studies. The Novacor effluent had lesser effects on biota than the Petro-Canada effluent. Intake waters demonstrated toxicity in some tests. Chronic effects on invertebrates and fish in receiving waters are predicted not to occur in the Novacor effluent is diluted 10- to 20-fold and the Petro-Canada effluent is diluted 50- to 100-fold

  6. Assessing contaminant sensitivity of endangered and threatened aquatic species: Part III. Effluent toxicity tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, F.J.; Hardesty, D.K.; Henke, C.E.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Whites, D.W.; Augspurger, T.; Canfield, T.J.; Mount, D.R.; Mayer, F.L.

    2005-01-01

    Toxicity tests using standard effluent test procedures described by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency were conducted with Ceriodaphnia dubia, fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), and seven threatened and endangered (listed) fish species from four families: (1) Acipenseridae: shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum); (2) Catostomidae; razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus); (3) Cyprinidae: bonytail chub (Gila elegans), Cape Fear shiner (Notropis mekistocholas) Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius), and spotfin chub (Cyprinella monacha); and (4) Poecillidae: Gila topminnow (Poeciliopsis occidentalis). We conducted 7-day survival and growth studies with embryo-larval fathead minnows and analogous exposures using the listed species. Survival and reproduction were also determined with C. dubia. Tests were conducted with carbaryl, ammonia-or a simulated effluent complex mixture of carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol and permethrin at equitoxic proportions. In addition, Cape Fear shiners and spotfin chub were tested using diazinon, copper, and chlorine. Toxicity tests were also conducted with field-collected effluents from domestic or industrial facilities. Bonytail chub and razorback suckers were tested with effluents collected in Arizona whereas effluent samples collected from North Carolina were tested with Cape Fear shiner, spotfin chub, and shortnose sturgeon. The fathead minnow 7-day effluent test was often a reliable estimator of toxic effects to the listed fishes. However, in 21 % of the tests, a listed species was more sensitive than fathead minnows. More sensitive species results varied by test so that usually no species was always more or less sensitive than fathead minnows. Only the Gila topminnow was consistently less sensitive than the fathead minnow. Listed fish species were protected 96% of the time when results for both fathead minnows and C. dubia were considered, thus reinforcing the value of standard whole-effluent

  7. Animal alternatives for whole effluent toxicity testing: Perspectives from a global workshop (presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since the 1940s, effluent toxicity testing has been utilized to varying degrees in many countries to assess potential ecological impacts and assist in determining necessary treatment options for environmental protection. However, it was only in the early 1980’s that toxicit...

  8. Animal alternatives for whole effluent toxicity testing: Perspectives from a global workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since the 1940’s, effluent toxicity testing has been utilized to varying degrees in many countries to assess potential ecological impacts and assist in determining necessary treatment options for environmental protection. However, it was only in the early 1980’s that ...

  9. Use of various acute, sublethal and early life-stage tests to evaluate the toxicity of refinery effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherry, J.; Scott, B.; Dutka, B.

    1997-01-01

    The toxicities of effluents from three Ontario, Canada, refineries were assessed with microbes, plants, invertebrates, and fish. Acute toxicity was assessed by the Microtox test, an assay based on electron transport activity in submitochondrial particles, and Daphnia magna (water flea); growth of Selenastrum capricornutum (alga); growth of Lemna minor (aquatic plant); germination of Lactuca sativa (nonaquatic plant); survival, growth, and maturation of Panagrellus redivivus (nematode); and genotoxicity in the SOS-Chromotest. Only the Microtox test and the submitochondrial particle test detected acute toxicity in the effluent samples. Reduced survival and sublethal responses were caused by some effluents, but not all effluents were toxic, and none caused a response in all of the tests applied. The results suggest that the effluent treatment systems used at Ontario refineries have largely eliminated acute toxicity to the organisms in their test battery. Although reduced survival and sublethal effects were detected in some of the effluents, the effects were minor. Some of the tests provided evidence, albeit weak, of variations in the responses of the test organisms to a temporal series of effluent samples. Not unexpectedly, there were also minor differences in the responses of the tests to effluents from the three refineries. The fathead minnow test seems to be a sensitive indicator of the sublethal toxicity of Ontario refinery effluents

  10. Modified whole effluent toxicity test to assess and decouple wastewater effects from environmental gradients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Sauco

    Full Text Available Environmental gradients and wastewater discharges produce aggregated effects on marine populations, obscuring the detection of human impact. Classical assessment methods do not include environmental effects in toxicity tests designs, which could lead to incorrect conclusions. We proposed a modified Whole Effluent Toxicity test (mWET that includes environmental gradients in addition to effluent dilutions, together with the application of Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMM to assess and decouple those effects. We tested this approach, analyzing the lethal effects of wastewater on a marine sandy beach bivalve affected by an artificial canal freshwater discharge used for rice crops irrigation. To this end, we compared bivalve mortality between canal water dilutions (CWd and salinity controls (SC: without canal water. CWd were prepared by diluting the water effluent (sampled during the pesticide application period with artificial marine water. The salinity gradient was included in the design by achieving the same final salinities in both CWd and SC, allowing us to account for the effects of salinity by including this variable as a random factor in the GLMM. Our approach detected significantly higher mortalities in CWd, indicating potential toxic effects of the effluent discharge. mWET represents an improvement over the internationally standardized WET tests, since it considers environmental variability and uses appropriate statistical analyses.

  11. Testing the toxicity of metals, phenol, effluents, and receiving waters by root elongation in Lactuca sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Jie; Park, Jihae; Kumar Pandey, Lalit; Choi, Soyeon; Lee, Hojun; De Saeger, Jonas; Depuydt, Stephen; Han, Taejun

    2018-03-01

    Phytotoxicity tests using higher plants are among the most simple, sensitive, and cost-effective of the methods available for ecotoxicity testing. In the present study, a hydroponic-based phytotoxicity test using seeds of Lactuca sativa was used to evaluate the water quality of receiving waters and effluents near two industrial sites (Soyo and Daejon) in Korea with respect to the toxicity of 10 metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, Zn) and phenol, and of the receiving waters and effluents themselves. First, the L. sativa hydroponic bioassay was used to determine whether the receiving water or effluents were toxic; then, the responsible toxicant was identified. The results obtained with the L. sativa bioassay ranked the EC 50 toxicities of the investigated metal ions and phenol as: Cd > Ni > Cu > Zn > Hg > phenol > As > Mn > Cr > Pb > Fe. We found that Zn was the toxicant principally responsible for toxicity in Daejeon effluents. The Daejeon field effluent had a higher Zn concentration than permitted by the effluent discharge criteria of the Ministry of Environment of Korea. Our conclusion on the importance of Zn toxicity was supported by the results of the L. sativa hydroponic assay, which showed that the concentration of Zn required to inhibit root elongation in L. sativa by 50% (EC 50 ) was higher in the Daejeon field effluent than that of pure Zn. More importantly, we proved that the L. sativa hydroponic test method can be applied not only as an alternative tool for determining whether a given waste is acceptable for discharge into public water bodies, but also as an alternative method for measuring the safety of aquatic environments using EC 20 values, with respect to the water pollutants investigated (i.e., Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, Zn, and phenol). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. An assessment of whole effluent toxicity testing as a means of regulating waters produced by the oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, S.L.; Bergman, H.L.

    1993-01-01

    Approximately 500 million barrels of produced water are discharged to Wyoming's surface waters by the oil and gas industry. This discharges are of two types: direct and indirect. The direct discharges have been issued NPDES permits requiring whole effluent toxicity testing. Toxicity testing requirements have not been incorporated into permits written for indirect discharges because of the applicability of toxicity testing for regulating these waters has not been determined. Preliminary testing has shown that most produced waters are toxic at the point of discharge because of high concentrations of hydrogen sulfide, but that the toxicity of an indirect discharge is often lost before it reaches a receiving stream. Thus, whole effluent toxicity testing of an indirect discharge may be overly stringent, resulting in treatment or reinjection of the water or closure of the well. Any of these options would have severe economic consequences for oil producers and the state's agricultural industry. The purpose of this study was to determine whether whole effluent toxicity testing actually predicts the in-stream effects of indirect discharges on water quality and benthic invertebrate populations. The authors will report the results of short-term ambient toxicity tests and in-stream bioassessments performed upstream and downstream of six indirect discharges located in four drainages in Wyoming

  13. A WET TALE: TOXICITY OF COMPLEX EFFLUENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This course covers standards, regulations, policy, guidance and technical aspects of implementing the whole effluent toxicity program. The curriculum incorporates rationale and information on WET test requirements from USEPA documents, such as the Technical Support Document for W...

  14. Elimination of Whole Effluent Toxicity NPDES Permit Limits through the Use of an Alternative Testing Species and Reasonable Potential Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PAYNE, W.L.

    2004-01-01

    The cladoceran, Ceriodaphnia dubia (C. dubia), is required by the State of South Carolina to be used in whole effluent toxicity (WET) compliance tests in order to meet limits contained within National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits. Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) experienced WET test failures for no clear reason over a long period of time. Toxicity identification examinations on effluents did not indicate the presence of toxicants; therefore, the WET test itself was brought under suspicion. Research was undertaken with an alternate cladoceran, Daphnia ambigua (D. ambigua). It was determined that this species survives better in soft water, so approval was obtained from regulating authorities to use this ''alternate'' species in WET tests. The result was better test results and elimination of non-compliances. The successful use of D. ambigua allowed WSRC to gain approval from the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) to remove WET limits from the NPDES permit

  15. Investigation of a Brazilian tannery effluent by means of zebra fish (Danio rerio) embryo acute toxicity (FET) test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Otávio Pelegrino; De Oliveira, Danielle Palma

    2017-01-01

    Tannery effluents consist of a complex chemical composition not only limited to primary pollutants, which also require biological detection as these compounds may produce adverse effects. The fish embryo toxicity (FET) test with Danio rerio is an alternative method in hazard and risk assessment for determination of chemical-mediated effects. The aim of this investigation was to use the FET test to detect compounds and consequent effects in Brazilian tannery effluents. Samples were collected from the inlet and outlet of the effluent treatment plant at a tannery located in Restinga, São Paulo, Brazil. The toxicological effects were assessed using FET assay for a period of 144 hr using indices such as (1) coagulation of fertilized eggs, (2) lack of detachment of tail-bud from yolk sac, (3) absence of spontaneous movement, (4) yolk sack edema, (5) malformation of the tail, (6) scoliosis, and (7) deformation of swim bladder in the embryos. Data showed that effluent treatment plant exposure produced acute toxicity in D. rerio embryos as evidenced by coagulation of fertilized eggs in up to 5% of all diluted samples 24 hr post fertilization for inlet effluent samples compared to 100% coagulation for outlet samples. Results demonstrated that these effects may not be attributed to metals, but to other non-detected components, such as dyes, pigments, biocides, carriers, surfactants, or other organic compounds that might be present in these complex mixtures. The use of D. rerio embryos was found to be useful as an additional tool for ecotoxicity testing to assess the potential environmental acute toxicity influence of tannery effluents.

  16. Review of the use of Ceramium tenuicorne growth inhibition test for testing toxicity of substances, effluents, products sediment and soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Britta

    2017-08-01

    A growth inhibition test has been developed based on two clones of the red macroalga Ceramium tenuicorne, one originating from 7 PSU and the other from 20 PSU. The species can be adapted to different salinities and the test can be carried out between 4 and 32 PSU. This test became an ISO standard in 2010 (ISO 107 10) for testing of chemicals and water effluents. In this study new and published data has been compiled on toxicity of single substances, waste waters from pulp mills, leachates from antifouling paints, harbour sediments and soil used for maintenance of leisure boats. The results show that the alga is sensitive to both metals and organic compounds and to biocides used in antifouling paints. By testing leachates from antifouling paints these could be ranked according to their toxicity. Similarly, the toxicity of waste waters from pulp mills was determined and the efficiency of secondary treatment evaluated. Further, the test method proved useful to test the toxicity in sediment samples. Sediments from small town harbours and ship lanes were shown to be harmful and compounds originating from antifouling paints were responsible for a large part of the inhibiting effect. The alga proved to be sensitive to contaminants leaking from boat yard soil. The growth inhibition test is a robust test that has high repeatability and reproducibility and easily can be applied on water, soil and sediment samples without being too costly. The species is found worl-wide in temperate waters, which makes the results relevant for large areas. In the Baltic Sea C. tenuicorne is the most common red alga species and is thus particularly relevant for this area. The overall results show that contaminants from boat activities and the use of antifouling paints in particular pose a threat to the environment.

  17. Major ion toxicity in effluents: A review with permitting recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodfellow, W.L.; Ausley, L.W.; Burton, D.T.; Denton, D.L.; Dorn, P.B.; Grothe, D.R.; Heber, M.A.; Norberg-King, T.J.; Rodgers, J.H. Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Effluent toxicity testing methods have been well defined, but for the most part, these methods do not attempt to segregate the effects of active ionic concentrations and ion imbalances upon test and species performances. The role of various total dissolved solids in effluents on regulatory compliance has emerged during the last few years and has caused confusion in technical assessment and in permitting and compliance issues. This paper assesses the issue of ionic strength and ion imbalance, provides a brief summary of applicable data, presents several case studies demonstrating successful tools to address toxicity resulting from salinity and ion imbalance, and provides recommendations for regulatory and compliance options to manage discharges with salinity/ion imbalance issues. Effluent toxicity resulting from inorganic ion imbalance and the ion concentration of the effluent is pervasive in permitted discharge from many industrial process and municipal discharges where process streams are concentrated, adjusted, or modified. This paper discusses procedures that use weight-of-evidence approaches to identify ion imbalance toxicity, including direct measurement, predictive toxicity models for freshwater, exchange resins, mock effluents, and ion imbalance toxicity with tolerant/susceptible test species. Cost-effective waste treatment control options for a facility whose effluent is toxic because of total dissolved solids (TDS) or because of specific ion(s) are scarce at best. Depending on the discharge situation, TDS toxicity may not be viewed with the same level of concern as other, more traditional, toxicants. These discharge situations often do not require the conservative safety factors required by other toxicants. Selection of the alternative regulatory solutions discussed in this paper may be beneficial, especially because they do not require potentially expensive or high-energy-using treatment options that may be ineffective control options. The information

  18. A toxicity reduction evaluation for an oily waste treatment plant exhibiting episodic effluent toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erten-Unal, M; Gelderloos, A B; Hughes, J S

    1998-07-30

    A Toxicity Reduction Evaluation (TRE) was conducted on the oily wastewater treatment plant (Plant) at a Naval Fuel Depot. The Plant treats ship and ballast wastes, berm water from fuel storage areas and wastes generated in the fuel reclamation plant utilizing physical/chemical treatment processes. In the first period of the project (Period I), the TRE included chemical characterization of the plant wastewaters, monitoring the final effluent for acute toxicity and a thorough evaluation of each treatment process and Plant operating procedures. Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) procedures were performed as part of the overall TRE to characterize and identify possible sources of toxicity. Several difficulties were encountered because the effluent was saline, test organisms were marine species and toxicity was sporadic and unpredictable. The treatability approach utilizing enhancements, improved housekeeping, and operational changes produced substantial reductions in the acute toxicity of the final effluent. In the second period (Period II), additional acute toxicity testing and chemical characterization were performed through the Plant to assess the long-term effects of major unit process improvements for the removal of toxicity. The TIE procedures were also modified for saline wastewaters to focus on suspected class of toxicants such as surfactants. The TRE was successful in reducing acute toxicity of the final effluent through process improvements and operational modifications. The results indicated that the cause of toxicity was most likely due to combination of pollutants (matrix effect) rather than a single pollutant.

  19. Effluent testing for the Oak Ridge Toxic Substances Control Act mixed waste incinerator emissions tests of January 16 and 18, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shor, J.T.; Bostick, W.D.; Coroneos, A.C.; Bunch, D.H.; Gibson, L.V.; Hoffmann, D.P.; Shoemaker, J.L.

    1992-02-01

    On January 16 and 18, 1991, special emissions tests were conducted at the Oak Ridge, K-25 Site Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator. Both tests were approximately 6 h long and were performed at TSCA temperatures [1200 degrees C, secondary combustion chamber (SSC)]. Liquid feed and effluent samples were collected every 30 min. A filter was used to collect particles from stack gases to study morphology and composition during the first test. Isokinetic air samples were also taken during the second test. Metals emissions from the second test were evaluated using the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 5 sampling train. The aqueous waste was collected and fed in batches to the Central Neutralization Facility (CNF), where it was treated by iron coprecipitation and polymer flocculation and data were collected. In the first test (1-16-91), the aqueous and organic wastes were fed directly to the kiln or primary combustion chamber (PCC). In the second test (1-18-91), the remaining organic waste from the first test was fed into the SSC, and other organic waste was fed into the PCC. One objective of the two tests was to determine if feeding the same organic waste into the two combustion chambers made a difference in a partitioning of uranium and other metals. No evaluation of radionuclides other than uranium was made. The partition coefficient of uranium to the quench water was 0.3 on January 16 and 0.35 on January 18; so directing Tank 306A to the feed to the primary vs the secondary combustion chamber appears to have made little difference. The partition coefficient of uranium to the stack on January 18 was 0.0039. 5 refs., 15 figs., 26 tabs

  20. Toxicity identification evaluations of produced-water effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, T.C.; Costa, H.J.; Brown, J.S.; Ward, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    Toxicity identification evaluations (TIEs) were performed on 14 produced-water (PW) samples of various salinities from inland and offshore oil- and gas-production facilities operated by different companies in Wyoming, Texas, California, and Louisiana (USA) to evaluate the efficacy of TIE procedures in determining potential toxicants in PW effluents. The research involved acute (24- and 48-h) freshwater and marine toxicity tests on whole PW and PW fractions generated by standard US Environmental Protection Agency and PW-specific fractionation schemes. Factors influencing PW TIEs were investigated, such as the effect of salinity in selecting fractionation manipulations, the effect of toxicity test replication (i.e., reproducibility) in distinguishing changes in toxicities between whole PW and its fractions, and the suitability of different test species in PW TIEs. The results obtained and lessons learned from conducting these PW TIEs are presented in this article. Components, or fractions, contributing to toxicity differed for each PW with no specific fraction being consistently toxic. For most PW samples, toxicity attributed to any one fraction represented only part of the toxicity of the whole sample. However, no more than two fraction types were identified as potential toxicants in any sample. Potential toxicants identified during this study, besides salinity, included acidic and basic organic compound class fractions, particulates removed by filtration at pH 11, ammonia, hydrocarbons, hydrogen sulfide, material removed by pH change, and volatile compounds

  1. UNDERSTANDING AND ACCOUNTING FOR METHOD VARIABILITY IN WHOLE EFFLUENT TOXICITY APPLICATIONS UNDER THE NPDES PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter provides a brief introduction to whole effluent toxicity (WET) testing and describes the regulatory background and context of WET testing. This chapter also describes the purpose of this document and outlines the issues addressed in each chapter.

  2. Toxicity of leather tanning wastewater effluents in sea urchin early development and in marine microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meriç, Süreyya; De Nicola, Elena; Iaccarino, Mario; Gallo, Marialuisa; Di Gennaro, Annamaria; Morrone, Gaetano; Warnau, Michel; Belgiorno, Vincenzo; Pagano, Giovanni

    2005-10-01

    This study was designed to investigate the composition and the toxicity of leather tanning wastewater and conditioned sludge collected at the leather tanning wastewater treatment plant (CODISO) located in Solofra, Avellino (Southern Italy). Samples were analyzed for their conventional parameters (COD, TSS, chromium and ammonia) and for metal content. Effluent samples included raw wastewater, and samples collected following coagulation/flocculation process and biological treatment. A set of toxicity endpoints were tested using sea urchin and marine microalgal bioassays by evaluating acute embryotoxicity, developmental defects, changes in sperm fertilization success and transmissible damage from sperm to the offspring, and changes in algal growth rate. Dose-related toxicity to sea urchin embryogenesis and sperm fertilization success was exerted by effluent or sludge samples according to the following rank: conditioned sludge > coagulated effluent > or = raw influent > effluent from biological treatment. Offspring quality was not affected by sperm exposure to any wastewater or to sludge samples. Algal growth was inhibited by raw or coagulated effluent to a similar extent and, again, the effluent from the biological treatment resulted in a decreased toxicity. The results suggest that coagulated effluent and conditioned sludge result in higher toxicity than raw influent in sea urchin embryos and sperm, whereas the biological wastewater treatment of coagulated effluent, in both sea urchins and algae, cause a substantial improvement of wastewater quality. Hence a final biological wastewater treatment should be operated to minimize any environmental damage from tannery wastewater.

  3. Toxicity of cassava wastewater effluents to African catfish: Clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relative lethal and sublethal toxicity of cassava wastewater effluents from a local food factory were investigated on Clarias gariepinus fingerlings using a renewable static bioassay. The physico-chemical characteristics of the cassava wastewater effluents showed a number of deviations from the standards of the Federal ...

  4. Toxicity identification evaluation methods for identification of toxicants in refinery effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barten, K.A.; Mount, D.R.; Hackett, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    During the last five years, the authors have used Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) methods to characterize and identify the source(s) of toxicity in effluents from dozens of municipal and industrial facilities. In most cases, specific chemicals responsible for toxicity have been identified. Although generally successful, the initial experience was that for several refinery effluents, they were able only to qualitatively characterize the presence of organic toxicants; standard toxicant identification procedures were not able to isolate specific organic chemicals. They believe that organic toxicity in these refinery effluents is caused by multiple organic compounds rather than by just a few; evidence for this includes an inability to isolate toxicity in a small number of fractions using liquid chromatography and the presence of very large numbers of compounds in isolated fractions. There is also evidence that the toxicant(s) may be ionic, in that the toxicity of whole effluent and isolated fractions often show increasing toxicity with decreasing pH. Finally, positive-pressure filtration has also reduced toxicity in some samples. In this presentation the authors summarize their experiences with refinery effluents, focusing on typical patterns they have observed and alternative procedures they have used to better understand the nature of these toxicants

  5. Study of whole effluent acute toxicity test (Daphnia magna as an evaluation of Ministry of Environment and Forestry Decree No. 3 In 2014 concerning industrial performance rank in environmental management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohmah Neng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Only 15% of the industries in Citarum Watershed, specifically in Bandung Regency, West Bandung Regency, Sumedang Regency, Bandung City and Cimahi City, are registered as PROPER industries. They must comply to indicators as set in the Minister of Environment and Forestry Decree No. 3 In 2014 concerning Industrial Performance Rank in Environmental Management, as a requirement to apply for PROPER. Wastewater treatment and management, referencing to Minister of Environment and Forestry Decree No. 5 In 2014 concerning Wastewater Effluent Standards, must be performed to be registered as PROPER industries. Conducting only physical-chemical parameter monitoring of wastewater is insufficient to determine the safety of wastewater discharged into the river, therefore additional toxicity tests involving bioindicator are required to determine acute toxicity characteristic of wastewater. The acute toxicity test quantifies LC50 value based on death response of bioindicators from certain dosage. Daphnia magna was used as bioindicator in the toxicity test and probit software for analysis. In 2015-2016, the number of industries that discharged wastewater exceeding the standard was found greater in non-PROPER industries than in PROPER industries. Based on the toxicity level, both PROPER and non-PROPER industries have toxic properties, however PROPER industries of 2015-2016 is more toxic with LC5096 value reaching 2.79%.

  6. Toxicity evaluation of the effluent of the ammonium diuranate process proceeding from the Uranium Reconversion Cycle (IPEN/CNEN-SP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osti, Silvio Cesar de

    2001-01-01

    This project was developed with the objective to evaluate the acute and chronic toxicity of the ammonium diuranate proceeding from the process used to obtain uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ), substance which is necessary to produce fuel used by the IEA-R1-IPEN reactor. Five acute toxicity tests were done with Daphnia similis in which concentration values of EC(I)50;48h, between 0,39% and 0,57% of the effluent were determined, and other five with Danio rerio in which concentration values of EC(I)50;48h, between 0,06% and 0,07% of the effluent were determined. Three chronic toxicity tests with Selenastrum capricornutum were done, having found NOEC values for concentrations below 0,12% of the effluents. To determine the ion fluoride toxicity in the Daphnia similis, five acute toxicity tests were done in which values of EC(I)50;48h, between 263.90 mgL -1 and 292.82 mgL -1 were found. The acute toxicity tests done with D. similis demonstrated that the effluent toxicity persisted during its storage period. The acute toxicity test with D.rerio and chronic ones with S. capricornutum using the effluents after the ionic-replace treatment, which objective is to recover uranium for reuse, demonstrated the effluent toxicity persistency. (author)

  7. Studies of the ionizing radiation effects on the effluents acute toxicity due to anionic surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, Maria Cristina Franco de

    2004-01-01

    Several studies have shown the negative effects of surfactants, as detergents active substance, when discharged on biological sewage wastewater treatment plants. High toxicity may represent a lower efficiency for biological treatment. When surfactants are in aquatic environment they may induce a loss of grease revetment on birds (feather). Depending on the surfactant concentration, several damages to all biotic systems can happen. Looking for an alternative technology for wastewater treatment, efficient for surfactant removal, the present work applied ionizing radiation as an advanced oxidation process for affluents and effluents from Suzano Treatment Station. Such wastewater samples were submitted to radiation using an electron beam from a Dynamic Electron Beam Accelerator from Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares. In order to assess this proposed treatment efficacy, it was performed acute toxicity evaluation with two test-organisms, the crustacean Daphnia similis and the luminescent bacteria Vibrio fischeri. The studied effluents were: one from a chemical industry (IND), three from sewage plant (affluents - GG, GM and Guaio) and the last biologically treated secondary effluent (EfF), discharged at Tiete river. The applied radiation doses varied from 3 kGy to 50 kGy, being 50 kGy enough for surfactant degradation contained at industrial effluent. For GG, GM and Guaio samples, doses of 6 kGy and 10 kGy were efficient for surfactant and toxicity reduction, representing an average removal that varied from 71.80% to 82.76% and toxicity from 30% to 91% for most the effluents. The final effluent was less toxic than the others and the radiation induced an average 11% removal for anionic surfactant. The industrial effluents were also submitted to an aeration process in order to quantify the contribution of surfactant to the whole sample toxicity, once it was partially removed as foam and several fractions were evaluated for toxicity. (author)

  8. Waste Load Allocation for Whole Effluent Toxicity to Protect Aquatic Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcheson, M. R.

    1992-11-01

    A process is developed to determine a waste load allocation that will implement the narrative criteria for fish and wildlife propagation found in states' water quality standards. The waste load allocation to implement the narrative chronic criterion is determined to be percent effluent at a location in the receiving stream, as opposed to an effluent concentration derived from the numerical waste load allocation process. A typical narrative chronic criterion is "receiving streams shall not exhibit chronic toxicity outside the mixing zone," while a typical numerical chronic criterion is "receiving stream concentration shall not exceed 0.005 μg/L of chlordane outside the mixing zone." Toxicity tests are used to implement narrative criteria, while compliance with numerical criteria involves concentration measurements. It is shown that the appropriate percent effluent is inversely proportional to the dilution factor for chronic toxicity. An appropriate waste load allocation to implement the narrative acute criterion is 100% effluent. Waste load allocation for whole effluent toxicity is feasible. The required independent variables are available to regulatory agencies, and toxicity testing has become routine.

  9. Spatial and temporal distributions of toxicity in receiving waters around an oil effluent discharge site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, P.R.

    1994-01-01

    Distributions of pollutants from a point source discharge within the water column may vary in both time and space. In this study, they examined the spatial and temporal patterns of toxicity from an oil production effluent (produced water) discharge plume using sea urchin fertilization and development bioassays. Specifically, they tested the sensitivity and response patterns of sea urchin gametes and early life stages exposed to receiving waters sampled along a 1 km transact near an active produced water outfall. Fertilization success and development of larvae to the pluteus stage varied significantly with proximity to the outfall, with reduced fertilization and larval development found closer to the outfall. Although estimated toxicity in receiving water samples, based on fertilization success, was variable in time -- perhaps responding to variation in the quantity or make-up of produced water discharges -- the general spatial pattern of toxicity along the sampling transact remained relatively constant. Strong evidence that field toxicity was directly attributable to produced water effluents was provided by sampling the receiving waters while the produced water discharge was not operating. At such a time, no toxicity was found at any of the field sites. Receiving water toxicity data, along with toxicity data from the effluent itself, were used to prepare a ''map'' of effective effluent concentrations along the sampling transect

  10. Toxicity regulation of radioactive liquid waste effluent from CANDU stations - lessons from Ontario's MISA program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, D.W.

    2009-01-01

    Toxicity testing became an issue for Ontario's CANDU stations, when it was required under Ontario's MISA regulations for the Electricity Generation Sector. In initial tests, radioactive liquid waste (RLW) effluent was intermittently toxic to both rainbow trout and Daphnia. Significant differences in RLW toxicity were apparent among stations and contributing streams. Specific treatment systems were designed for three stations, with the fourth electing to use existing treatment systems. Stations now use a combination of chemical analysis and treatment to regulate RLW toxicity. Studies of Ontario CANDU stations provide a basis for minimizing costs and environmental effects of new nuclear stations. (author)

  11. The aquatic toxicity and chemical forms of coke plant effluent cyanide -- Implications for discharge limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garibay, R.; Rupnow, M.; Godwin-Saad, E.; Hall, S.

    1995-01-01

    Cyanide is present in treated cokemaking process waters at concentrations as high as 8.0 mg/L. In assessing options for managing the discharge of a treated effluent, the development and implementation of discharge limits for cyanide became a critical issue. A study was initiated to evaluate possible alternatives to cyanide permit limits at the US Steel Gary Works Facility. The objectives of the study were to: (1) evaluation the forms of cyanide present in coke plant effluent; (2) determine whether these forms of cyanide are toxic to selected aquatic organisms; (3) compare the aquatic toxicity of various chemical forms of cyanide; (4) identify if the receiving water modifies cyanide bioavailability; and (5) confirm, with respect to water quality-based effluent limits, an appropriate analytical method for monitoring cyanide in a coke plant effluent. The results of aquatic toxicity tests and corresponding analytical data are presented. Toxicity tests were conducted with various pure chemical forms of cyanide as well as whole coke plant effluent (generated from a pilot-scale treatment system). Test species included the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Ceriodaphnia dubia (C. dubia) and Daphnia magna (D. magna). Analytical measurements for cyanide included total, weak acid dissociable, diffusible cyanide and selected metal species of cyanide. The findings presented by the paper are relevant with respect to the application of cyanide water quality criteria for a coke plant effluent discharge, the translation of these water quality-based effluent limits to permit limits, and methods for compliance monitoring for cyanide

  12. Long-term evaluation of lethal and sublethal toxicity of industrial effluents using Daphnia magna and Moina macrocopa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xianliang; Kang, Sung-Wook; Jung, Jinho

    2010-06-15

    Acute toxicity and feeding rate inhibition of effluent from a wastewater treatment plant and its adjacent stream water on Daphnia magna and Moina macrocopa were comparatively studied. The acute toxicity of the final effluent (FE) fluctuated greatly over the sampling period from January to August 2009. Toxicity identification results of the FE in July 2009 showed that Cu originating from the Fenton's reagent was likely a key toxicant. In addition, the feeding rate of both species was still inhibited by the FEs in which acute toxicity was not observed. These findings indicate that the feeding response would be a useful tool for monitoring sublethal effects of industrial effluents. For the acute toxicity test, M. macrocopa was more sensitive than D. magna, but the opposite result was true in the case of the feeding rate inhibition. These suggest that different species have different sensitivities to toxic chemicals and to the test methods. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Acute toxicity of cassava mill effluent to the African catfish fingerlings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A bioassay test was performed on the toxic effect of Cassava Mill Effluent to the African Catfish - Heteroclarias Hybrid of Heterobranchus bidorsalis (Male) and Clarias gariepinus (Female). The 96-h LC50 was determined as 50. 12 mgl -1. Exposed fish became darker in colour and showed signs of respiratory distress, ...

  14. THE ROLE OF INORGANIC ION IMBALANCE IN AQUATIC TOXICITY TESTING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effluent toxicity testing methods have been well defined, but to a large part have not attempted to segregate the effects of active ionic concentrations and ion imbalances upon test and species performances. The role that various total dissolved solids in effluents have on regula...

  15. Whole acute toxicity removal from industrial and domestic effluents treated by electron beam radiation: emphasis on anionic surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, M.C.F.; Romanelli, M.F; Sena, H.C.; Pasqualini da Silva, G.; Sampa, M.H.O.; Borrely, S.I.

    2004-01-01

    Electron beam radiation has been applied to improve real industrial and domestic effluents received by Suzano wastewater treatment plant. Radiation efficacy has been evaluated as toxicity reduction, using two biological assays. Three sites were sampled and submitted for toxicity assays, anionic surfactant determination and electron beam irradiation. This paper shows the reduction of acute toxicity for both test-organisms, the marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri and the crustacean Daphnia similis. The raw toxic effluents exibitted from 0.6 ppm up to 11.67 ppm for anionic surfactant before being treated by the electron beam. Radiation processing resulted in reduction of the acute toxicity as well as surfactant removal. The final biological effluent was in general less toxic than other sites but the presence of anionic surfactants was evidenced

  16. Whole acute toxicity removal from industrial and domestic effluents treated by electron beam radiation: emphasis on anionic surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, M.C.F. E-mail: mariacristinafm@uol.com.br; Romanelli, M.F; Sena, H.C.; Pasqualini da Silva, G.; Sampa, M.H.O.; Borrely, S.I

    2004-10-01

    Electron beam radiation has been applied to improve real industrial and domestic effluents received by Suzano wastewater treatment plant. Radiation efficacy has been evaluated as toxicity reduction, using two biological assays. Three sites were sampled and submitted for toxicity assays, anionic surfactant determination and electron beam irradiation. This paper shows the reduction of acute toxicity for both test-organisms, the marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri and the crustacean Daphnia similis. The raw toxic effluents exibitted from 0.6 ppm up to 11.67 ppm for anionic surfactant before being treated by the electron beam. Radiation processing resulted in reduction of the acute toxicity as well as surfactant removal. The final biological effluent was in general less toxic than other sites but the presence of anionic surfactants was evidenced.

  17. Reducing the toxicity of refinery effluent using seed extract and micro porous carbon from seed husks of moringa oleifera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gbem, T. T.; Balogun, J. K.; Lawal, F. A.

    1998-01-01

    Contamination of the environment with industrial chemicals and/or effluent has become a major problem. In this study, the toxicity of an NNPC refinery effluent was tested by exposing a commonly occurring invertebrate, Chironomus sp. (early larva stage) using the 96-h static bioassay to establish the LC 5 0 value. Seed extract from a widely distributed tropical plant, moringa oleifera was used to treat the effluent employing a modified laboratory jar test procedure. Hardness and alkalinity were reduced to between 19 and 30% with reduction found to be dose-dependent. Adsorption isotherms were established and were found to approximate the Langmuir type. Char from M. oleifera seed husks was also used to test the sorption of toxicants. A single toxicant from the effluent phenol, was used for sorption studies using pseudo-equilibrium batch contact experiments. Sorption was found to obey a Freundlich type adsorption isotherm (of the form q = KC), Retesting the toxicity of the effluent by re-introducing a different set of the test organism after treatment yielded no significant mortality. Moringa oleifera seed extract, char and possibly activated carbon from seed husks hold a promise to further reduction of the toxicity of refinery effluent

  18. Evaluation of toxicity and removal of color in textile effluent treated with electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morais, Aline Viana de

    2015-01-01

    The textile industry is among the main activities Brazil, being relevant in number of jobs, quantity and diversity of products and mainly by the volume of water used in industrial processes and effluent generation. These effluents are complex mixtures which are characterized by the presence of dyes, surfactants, metal sequestering agents, salts and other potentially toxic chemicals for the aquatic biota. Considering the lack of adequate waste management to these treatments, new technologies are essential in highlighting the advanced oxidation processes such as ionizing radiation electron beam. This study includes the preparation of a standard textile effluent chemical laboratory and its treatment by electron beam from electron accelerator in order to reduce the toxicity and intense staining resulting from Cl. Blue 222 dye. The treatment caused a reduction in toxicity to exposed organisms with 34.55% efficiency for the Daphnia similis micro crustacean and 47.83% for Brachionus plicatilis rotifer at a dose of 2.5 kGy. The Vibrio fischeri bacteria obtained better results after treatment with a dose of 5 kGy showing 57.29% efficiency. Color reduction was greater than 90% at a dose of 2.5 kGy. This experiment has also carried out some preliminary tests on the sensitivity of the D. similis and V. fischeri organisms to exposure of some of the products used in this bleaching and dyeing and two water reuse simulations in new textile processing after the treating the effluent with electron beam. (author)

  19. TOXICITY OF INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT ON TOTAL CHLOROPHYLL CONTENT OF CERTAIN AQUATIC MACROPHYTES

    OpenAIRE

    Singh Priti; Vishen Ashish; Wadhwani R; Pandey Y.N

    2012-01-01

    To assess the toxicity of industrial effluents on certain macrophytes, the total chlorophyll content of free floating, submerged and emergent macrophytes were estimated in concentrations of industrial effluents at varying exposure duration. The result revealed reduction in total chlorophyll content of exposed macrophytes at higher concentrations of industrial effluents on prolonged duration.

  20. Supercritical water oxidation test bed effluent treatment study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, C.M.

    1994-04-01

    This report presents effluent treatment options for a 50 h Supercritical Water Test Unit. Effluent compositions are calculated for eight simulated waste streams, using different assumed cases. Variations in effluent composition with different reactor designs and operating schemes are discussed. Requirements for final effluent compositions are briefly reviewed. A comparison is made of two general schemes. The first is one in which the effluent is cooled and effluent treatment is primarily done in the liquid phase. In the second scheme, most treatment is performed with the effluent in the gas phase. Several unit operations are also discussed, including neutralization, mercury removal, and evaporation

  1. Toxicity Estimation Software Tool (TEST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Toxicity Estimation Software Tool (TEST) was developed to allow users to easily estimate the toxicity of chemicals using Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships (QSARs) methodologies. QSARs are mathematical models used to predict measures of toxicity from the physical c...

  2. Toxicity Identification and Evaluation for the Effluent from Wastewater Treatment Plant in Industrial Complex using D.magna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Keum, H.; Chun Sang, H.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, the interests on the impacts of industrial wastewater on aquatic ecosystem have increased with concern about ecosystem protection and human health. Whole effluent toxicity tests are used to monitor toxicity by unknown toxic chemicals as well as conventional pollutants from industrial effluent discharges. This study describes the application of TIE (toxicity identification evaluation) procedures to an acutely toxic effluent from a wastewater treatment plant in industrial complex which was toxic to Daphnia magna. In TIE phase I (characterization step), the toxic effects by heavy metals, organic compounds, oxidants, volatile organic compounds, suspended solids and ammonia were screened and revealed that the source of toxicity is far from these toxicants group. Chemical analysis (TIE phase II) on TDS showed that the concentration of chloride ion (6,900 mg/L) was substantially higher than that predicted from EC50 for D. magna. In confirmation step (TIE phase III), chloride ion was demonstrated to be main toxicant in this effluent by the spiking approach, species sensitivity approach and deletion approach. Calcium, potassium, magnesium, sodium, fluorine, sulfate ion concentration (450, 100, 80, 5,300, 0.66, 2,200mg/L) was not shown toxicity from D. magna. Finally, we concluded that chloride was the most contributing toxicant in the waste water treatment plant. Further research activities are needed for technical support of toxicity identification and evaluation on the various types of wastewater treatment plant discharge in Korea. Keywords : TIE, D. magna, Industrial waste water Acknowledgement This research was supported by a grant (15IFIP-B089908-02) from Plant Research Program funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government

  3. The effect of toxic loads on effluent purification systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cillie, G.C.; Hart, O.O.; Davies, T.R.; Hassett, A.J.

    1977-04-01

    Deterioration of the performance of biological wastewater treatment plants at Daspoort Sewage Works, Pretoria, South Africa, during 1975 was attributed to toxic material in the sewage. Unusually high concentrations of mercury, phenol, chromium, and an organophosphorus compound were detected. These substances singly or in combination could have been responsible for the deterioration. Data from the biological plants and research units at Daspoort are collected and reviewed to evaluate the water quality effects of the period of low performance. Encystation by peritrichous ciliates caused high bacteria counts in biofilter effluents. Nitrification declined rapidly and recovery was delayed, while carbon oxidation was affected to a limited extent. The water product was of the same quality throughout, even when the influent was little better than settled sewage. (12 graphs, 4 references, 3 tables)

  4. Portable, accurate toxicity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabate, R.W.; Stiffey, A.V.; Dewailly, E.L.; Hinds, A.A.; Vieaux, G.J.

    1994-01-01

    Ever tightening environmental regulations, severe penalties for non-compliance, and expensive remediation costs have stimulated development of methods to detect and measure toxins. Most of these methods are bioassays that must be performed in the laboratory; none previously devised has been truly portable. The US Army, through the Small Business Innovative Research program, has developed a hand-held, field deployable unit for testing toxicity of battlefield water supplies. This patented system employs the measurable quenching, in the presence of toxins, of the natural bioluminescence produced by the marine dinoflagellate alga Pyrocystis lunula. The procedure's inventor used it for years to measure toxicity concentrations of chemical warfare agents actually, their simulants, primarily in the form of pesticides and herbicides plus assorted toxic reagents, waterbottom samples, drilling fluids, even blood. While the procedure is more precise, cheaper, and faster than most bioassays, until recently it was immobile. Now it is deployable in the field. The laboratory apparatus has been proven to be sensitive to toxins in concentrations as low as a few parts per billion, repeatable within a variation of 10% or less, and unlike some other bioassays effective in turbid or colored media. The laboratory apparatus and the hand-held tester have been calibrated with the EPA protocol that uses the shrimplike Mysidopsis bahia. The test organism tolerates transportation well, but must be rested a few hours at the test site for regeneration of its light-producing powers. Toxicity now can be measured confidently in soils, water columns, discharge points, and many other media in situ. Most significant to the oil industry is that drilling fluids can be monitored continuously on the rig

  5. Toxicity effects of nickel electroplating effluents treated by photoelectrooxidation in the industries of the Sinos River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benvenuti, T; Rodrigues, Mas; Arenzon, A; Bernardes, A M; Zoppas-Ferreira, J

    2015-05-01

    The Sinos river Basin is an industrial region with many tanneries and electroplating plants in southern Brazil. The wastewater generated by electroplating contains high loads of salts and metals that have to be treated before discharge. After conventional treatment, this study applied an advanced oxidative process to degrade organic additives in the electroplating bright nickel baths effluent. Synthetic rinsing water was submitted to physical-chemical coagulation for nickel removal. The sample was submitted to ecotoxicity tests, and the effluent was treated by photoelectrooxidation (PEO). The effects of current density and treatment time were evaluated. The concentration of total organic carbon (TOC) was 38% lower. The toxicity tests of the effluent treated using PEO revealed that the organic additives were partially degraded and the concentration that is toxic for test organisms was reduced.

  6. Toxicity effects of nickel electroplating effluents treated by photoelectrooxidation in the industries of the Sinos River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Benvenuti

    Full Text Available The Sinos river Basin is an industrial region with many tanneries and electroplating plants in southern Brazil. The wastewater generated by electroplating contains high loads of salts and metals that have to be treated before discharge. After conventional treatment, this study applied an advanced oxidative process to degrade organic additives in the electroplating bright nickel baths effluent. Synthetic rinsing water was submitted to physical-chemical coagulation for nickel removal. The sample was submitted to ecotoxicity tests, and the effluent was treated by photoelectrooxidation (PEO. The effects of current density and treatment time were evaluated. The concentration of total organic carbon (TOC was 38% lower. The toxicity tests of the effluent treated using PEO revealed that the organic additives were partially degraded and the concentration that is toxic for test organisms was reduced.

  7. Toxicities of sediments below 10 effluent outfalls to near-coastal areas of the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M.; Weber, D.; Stanley, R.

    1995-01-01

    The chemical quality and toxicities of sediments collected in the receiving waters below 10 wastewater outfalls to Northwest Florida coastal areas were evaluated at multiple stations during 1994--1996. Eight types of toxicity tests using 11 test species were used to assess acute and chronic toxicity of the sediments collected below industrial, municipal, power generation and pulp mill outfalls. The primary objectives of the study were to evaluate the relative ability of different assessment procedures to detect toxicity and to provide some much-needed perspective on the impact of major point sources on sediment quality in Gulf of Mexico estuaries. The major chemical contaminants were heavy metals and PAHs. Acute and chronic toxicities were noted. Results of tests with sediment collected at the same location but several months later often differed. The most sensitive species were mysids and an estuarine amphipod. The least sensitive species were fish and macrophyte seedlings. There was poor correlation of effluent toxicity to sediment toxicity in the receiving water. Toxicity of the effluents was greater than that of the sediments. Overall, the unavailability of relevant chronic toxicity methods, uncertain criteria for choice of control stations, lack of guidance on frequency of testing and the dynamic physical and chemical characteristics of sediments are factors that need consideration if sediment monitoring is to be part of the NPDES regulatory process

  8. An assessment of Microtox trademark as a biomonitoring tool for whole effluent testing for Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zachritz, W.H. II; Morrow, J.

    1994-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has special discharge problems relating to potential radioactive content of the effluent discharge waters. Because of this all testing must be performed on-site and results must be rapidly determined. There is a need to examine the development of a real-time procedure for effluent biomonitoring to met these site limitations. The Microtox trademark unit for toxicity testing is a microbially-based test system that shows great promise to be used for WET testing. The overall goal of this study is to develop an acceptable protocol for operational biomonitoring using the Microtox trademark toxicity test for LANL. The specific objectives include: development of an appropriate toxicity testing protocol using the Microtox trademark toxicity test for whole effluent toxicity testing and evaluation of the protocol based on factors such as sensitivity, response time, cost of analysis, and simplicity of operation

  9. NEW METHOD FOR DETERMINING EFFLUENT TOXICITY USING DUCKWEED (LEMNA MINOR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckweed (Lemna minor), a small vascular plant, grows rapidly, is sensitive to a wide variety of toxicants and is easy to culture. ethod is described that measures duckweed frond growth and chlorophyll levels as indicators of growth inhibition. he method requires a small testing ...

  10. Dose-Time Effect of Crude Oil and Hydro-test Effluent on Freshwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work was undertaken to investigate the dose-time effect of crude oil and hydro-test effluent on freshwater and brackish water habitats. The species used for the acute toxicity were freshwater fish, Tilapia guineenis (fry) and a brackish water shrimp, Palaemonetes africanus. Test results indicated that the brackish water ...

  11. Predicting refinery effluent toxicity on the basis of hydrocarbon composition determined by GCxGC analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whale, G. [and others

    2013-04-15

    A high resolution analytical method for determining hydrocarbon blocks in petroleum products by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC) was used for the analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons extracted from refinery effluents. From 105 CONCAWE refineries in Europe 111 refinery effluents were collected in the period June 2008 to March 2009 (CONCAWE, 2010). The effluents were analysed for metals, standard effluent parameters (including Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), oil in water (OiW), GCxGC speciated hydrocarbons, BTEX (Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Xylenes) and volatile organic compounds. This report describes the subsequent analysis of the GCxGC data, as described in hydrocarbon blocks, and uses the PETROTOX model, to predict the environmental toxicity (i.e. ecotoxicity) of the discharged effluents. A further analysis was undertaken to address the potential environmental impact of these predicted effects initially using default dilution factors and then,when necessary site specific factors. The report describes all the methods used to arrive at the predictions, and shows that for the majority of refinery effluents direct toxicity effects in the effluents are not anticipated. Furthermore, when applying either the EU Risk Assessment Technical Guidance Document (TGD) default dilution factors or site specific dilution factors, none of the refineries are predicted to exerting either acute or chronic toxicity to organisms in the receiving aquatic environment, based on their hydrocarbon composition present in the effluent samples.

  12. Identification and treatment of lithium as the primary toxicant in a groundwater treatment facility effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kszos, L.A.; Crow, K.R.

    1996-01-01

    6 Li is used in manufacturing nuclear weapons, shielding, and reactor control rods. Li compounds have been used at DOE facilities and Li-contaminated waste has historically been land disposed. Seep water from burial grounds near Y-12 contain small amounts of chlorinated hydrocarbons, traces of PCBs, and 10-19 mg/L Li. Seep treatment consists of oil-water separation, filtration, air stripping, and carbon adsorption. Routine biomonitoring tests using fathead minnows and Ceriodaphniadubia are conducted. Evaluation of suspected contaminants revealed that toxicity was most likely due to Li. Laboratory tests showed that 1 mg Li/L reduced the survival of both species; 0.5 mg Li/L reduced Ceriodaphnia reproduction and minnow growth. However, the toxicity was greatly reduced in presence of sodium (up to 4 mg Li/L, Na can fully negate the toxic effect of Li). Because of the low Na level discharged from the treatment facility, Li removal from the ground water was desired. SuperLig reg-sign columns were used (Li-selective organic macrocycle bonded to silica gel). Bench-scale tests showed that the material was very effective for removing Li from the effluent, reducing the toxicity

  13. Handling effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipers, L.R.; Allen, G.C.

    1992-01-01

    A variety of approaches for handling effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests in an environmentally acceptable manner are discussed. The functional requirements of effluent treatment are defined and concept options are presented within the framework of these requirements. System concepts differ primarily in the choice of fission-product retention and waste handling concepts. The concept options considered range from closed cycle (venting the exhaust to a closed volume or recirculating the hydrogen in a closed loop) to open cycle (real time processing and venting of the effluent). This paper reviews the different methods to handle effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests

  14. Effluent treatment options for nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipers, L.R.; Brockmann, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    A variety of approaches for handling effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests in an environmentally acceptable manner are discussed. The functional requirements of effluent treatment are defined and concept options are presented within the framework of these requirements. System concepts differ primarily in the choice of fission-product retention and waste handling concepts. The concept options considered range from closed cycle (venting the exhaust to a closed volume or recirculating the hydrogen in a closed loop) to open cycle (real time processing and venting of the effluent). This paper reviews the strengths and weaknesses of different methods to handle effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests

  15. EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY PEROXIDE DESTRUCTION CATALYST TESTING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HALGREN DL

    2008-01-01

    The 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) main treatment train includes the peroxide destruction module (PDM) where the hydrogen peroxide residual from the upstream ultraviolet light/hydrogen peroxide oxidation unit is destroyed. Removal of the residual peroxide is necessary to protect downstream membranes from the strong oxidizer. The main component of the PDM is two reaction vessels utilizing granular activated carbon (GAC) as the reaction media. The PDM experienced a number of operability problems, including frequent plugging, and has not been utilized since the ETF changed to groundwater as the predominant feed. The unit seemed to be underperforming in regards to peroxide removal during the early periods of operation as well. It is anticipated that a functional PDM will be required for wastewater from the vitrification plant and other future streams. An alternate media or methodology needs to be identified to replace the GAC in the PDMs. This series of bench scale tests is to develop information to support an engineering study on the options for replacement of the existing GAC method for peroxide destruction at the ETF. A number of different catalysts will be compared as well as other potential methods such as strong reducing agents. The testing should lead to general conclusions on the viability of different catalysts and identify candidates for further study and evaluation

  16. 200 Area treated effluent disposal facility operational test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, A.F.

    1995-01-01

    This document reports the results of the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (200 Area TEDF) operational testing activities. These completed operational testing activities demonstrated the functional, operational and design requirements of the 200 Area TEDF have been met

  17. Root length of aquatic plant, Lemna minor L., as an optimal toxicity endpoint for biomonitoring of mining effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalapillai, Yamini; Vigneault, Bernard; Hale, Beverley A

    2014-10-01

    Lemna minor, a free-floating macrophyte, is used for biomonitoring of mine effluent quality under the Metal Mining Effluent Regulations (MMER) of the Environmental Effects Monitoring (EEM) program in Canada and is known to be sensitive to trace metals commonly discharged in mine effluents such as Ni. Environment Canada's standard toxicity testing protocol recommends frond count (FC) and dry weight (DW) as the 2 required toxicity endpoints-this is similar to other major protocols such as those by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)-that both require frond growth or biomass endpoints. However, we suggest that similar to terrestrial plants, average root length (RL) of aquatic plants will be an optimal and relevant endpoint. As expected, results demonstrate that RL is the ideal endpoint based on the 3 criteria: accuracy (i.e., toxicological sensitivity to contaminant), precision (i.e., lowest variance), and ecological relevance (metal mining effluents). Roots are known to play a major role in nutrient uptake in conditions of low nutrient conditions-thus having ecological relevance to freshwater from mining regions. Root length was the most sensitive and precise endpoint in this study where water chemistry varied greatly (pH and varying concentrations of Ca, Mg, Na, K, dissolved organic carbon, and an anthropogenic organic contaminant, sodium isopropyl xanthates) to match mining effluent ranges. Although frond count was a close second, dry weight proved to be an unreliable endpoint. We conclude that toxicity testing for the floating macrophyte should require average RL measurement as a primary endpoint. © 2014 SETAC.

  18. Toxicity on aquatic organisms exposed to secondary effluent disinfected with chlorine, peracetic acid, ozone and UV radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Juliana Berninger; Rodgher, Suzelei; Daniel, Luiz Antonio; Espíndola, Evaldo Luiz Gaeta

    2014-11-01

    The toxic potential of four disinfectant agents (chlorine, ozone, peracetic acid and UV radiation), used in the disinfection of urban wastewater, was evaluated with respect to four aquatic organisms. Disinfection assays were carried out with wastewater from the city of Araraquara (São Paulo State, Brazil), and subsequently, toxicity bioassays were applied in order to verify possible adverse effects to the cladocerans (Ceriodaphnia silvestrii and Daphnia similis), midge larvae Chironomus xanthus and fish (Danio rerio). Under the experimental conditions tested, all the disinfectants were capable of producing harmful effects on the test organisms, except for C. xanthus. The toxicity of the effluent to C. silvestrii was observed to increase significantly as a result of disinfection using 2.5 mg L(-1) chlorine and 29.9 mg L(-1) ozone. Ozonation and chlorination significantly affected the survival of D. similis and D. rerio, causing mortality of 60 to 100 % in comparison to the non-disinfected effluent. In experiments with effluent treated with peracetic acid (PAA) and UV radiation, a statistically significant decrease in survival was only detected for D. rerio. This investigation suggested that the study of the ideal concentrations of disinfectants is a research need for ecologically safe options for the treatment of wastewater.

  19. Toxicity of effluents from gasoline stations oil-water separators to early life stages of zebrafish Danio rerio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Romulo Nepomuceno; Mariz, Célio Freire; Paulo, Driele Ventura de; Carvalho, Paulo S M

    2017-07-01

    Used petroleum hydrocarbons and gasoline stations runoff are significant sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to aquatic ecosystems. Samples of the final effluent of oil-water-separators were collected at gasoline stations in the metropolitan region of Recife, Brazil, before release to sewage or rainwater systems. Effluent soluble fractions (ESF) were prepared and bioassays were performed according to the Fish Embryo Toxicity Test. The test involved exposing zebrafish Danio rerio embryos to dilutions of the ESFs for 96 h, with daily examination of lethality and sublethal morphological effects integrated through the General Morphology Score (GMS), based on the achievement of developmental hallmarks. Frequencies of abnormalities were recorded after exposures. ESF LC50-96h (lethal concentration to 50% of exposed embryos) in the most toxic effluent achieved 8.9% (v/v), equivalent to 11 μg phenanthrene equivalents L -1 . GMS scores indicated significantly delayed embryo-larval development at ESF dilutions of 10% and 20% from effluents of all gas stations. Major abnormalities detected after the 96 h exposure included the presence of a yolk sac not fully absorbed coupled with the lack of an inflated swim bladder, lack of both pectoral fins, and the failure to develop a protruding mouth. Effective equivalent PAH concentrations that induce a 50% frequency of larvae without an inflated swim bladder (EC50) were 4.9 μg phenanthrene L -1 , 21.8 μg naphthalene L -1 , and 34.1 μg chrysene L -1 . This study shows that PAHs in ESFs from gas stations oil water separators are toxic to zebrafish, contributing to the toxicity of urban storm waters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Toxicity of two effluents from agricultural activity: Comparing the genotoxicity of sugar cane and orange vinasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Camila Fernandes H; Souza, Raphael B de; de Souza, Cleiton Pereira; Christofoletti, Cintya Ap; Fontanetti, Carmem S

    2017-08-01

    Vinasse, produced by several countries as a by-product of agricultural activity, has different alternatives for its reuse, mainly fertirrigation. Several monocultures, such as sugar cane and orange crops, produce this effluent. Sugar cane vinasse is already widely used in fertirrigation and orange vinasse has potential for this intention. However, its use as a fertilizer has caused great concern. Thus, ecotoxicological evaluation is extremely important in order to assess the possible effects on the environment. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the potential toxicity of vinasse of two different crops: sugar cane and orange. For this purpose, bioassays with Allium cepa as a test organism were performed with two vinasse dilutions (2.5% and 5%) to detect chromosomal aberrations and micronucleus induction. The results showed that both types of vinasse are able to induce chromosomal aberrations in meristematic cells, mainly nuclear and anaphasic bridges, suggesting genotoxic potential. The induction of micronuclei in cells of the F 1 region suggests that the two residues have mutagenic potential. Thus, caution is advised when applying these effluents in the environment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Treatment of textile effluent in a developed phytoreactor with immobilized bacterial augmentation and subsequent toxicity studies on Etheostoma olmstedi fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watharkar, Anuprita D.; Khandare, Rahul V.; Waghmare, Pankajkumar R.; Jagadale, Ashwini D.; Govindwar, Sanjay P.; Jadhav, Jyoti P.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A phytoreactor was developed and augmented with immobilized bacteria. • This consortium showed enhanced treatment than the individual species. • Oxido-reductases from P. crinitum and B. pumilus could decolorize the effluent. • Characterization of effluent samples endorsed the efficacy of consortial strategy. • Toxicity studies revealed the less toxic nature of the consortium treated effluent. - Abstract: A static hydroponic bioreactor using nursery grown plants of Pogonatherum crinitum along with immobilized Bacillus pumilus cells was developed for the treatment of textile wastewater. Independent reactors with plants and immobilized cells were also kept for performance and efficacy evaluation. The effluent samples characterized before and after their treatment showed that the plant–bacterial consortium reactor was more efficient than those of individual plant and bacterium reactors. COD, BOD, ADMI, conductivity, turbidity, TDS and TSS of the textile effluent was found to be reduced by 78, 70, 93, 4, 90, 13 and 70% respectively within 12 d by the consortial set. HPTLC analysis revealed the transformation of the textile effluent to new products. The phytotoxicity study on Phaeseolus mungo and Sorghum vulgare seeds showed reduced toxicity of treated effluents. The animal toxicity study performed on Etheostoma olmstedi fishes showed the toxic nature of untreated effluent giving extreme stress to fishes leading to death. Histology of fish gills exposed to treated effluent was found to be less affected. The oxidative stress related enzymes like superoxide dismutase and catalase were found to show decreased activities and less lipid peroxidation in fishes exposed to treated effluent

  2. Treatment of textile effluent in a developed phytoreactor with immobilized bacterial augmentation and subsequent toxicity studies on Etheostoma olmstedi fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watharkar, Anuprita D. [Department of Biotechnology, Shivaji University, Kolhapur (India); Khandare, Rahul V. [School of Life Sciences, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon (India); Waghmare, Pankajkumar R.; Jagadale, Ashwini D.; Govindwar, Sanjay P. [Department of Biochemistry, Shivaji University, Kolhapur (India); Jadhav, Jyoti P., E-mail: jpj_biochem@unishivaji.ac.in [Department of Biotechnology, Shivaji University, Kolhapur (India); Department of Biochemistry, Shivaji University, Kolhapur (India)

    2015-02-11

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A phytoreactor was developed and augmented with immobilized bacteria. • This consortium showed enhanced treatment than the individual species. • Oxido-reductases from P. crinitum and B. pumilus could decolorize the effluent. • Characterization of effluent samples endorsed the efficacy of consortial strategy. • Toxicity studies revealed the less toxic nature of the consortium treated effluent. - Abstract: A static hydroponic bioreactor using nursery grown plants of Pogonatherum crinitum along with immobilized Bacillus pumilus cells was developed for the treatment of textile wastewater. Independent reactors with plants and immobilized cells were also kept for performance and efficacy evaluation. The effluent samples characterized before and after their treatment showed that the plant–bacterial consortium reactor was more efficient than those of individual plant and bacterium reactors. COD, BOD, ADMI, conductivity, turbidity, TDS and TSS of the textile effluent was found to be reduced by 78, 70, 93, 4, 90, 13 and 70% respectively within 12 d by the consortial set. HPTLC analysis revealed the transformation of the textile effluent to new products. The phytotoxicity study on Phaeseolus mungo and Sorghum vulgare seeds showed reduced toxicity of treated effluents. The animal toxicity study performed on Etheostoma olmstedi fishes showed the toxic nature of untreated effluent giving extreme stress to fishes leading to death. Histology of fish gills exposed to treated effluent was found to be less affected. The oxidative stress related enzymes like superoxide dismutase and catalase were found to show decreased activities and less lipid peroxidation in fishes exposed to treated effluent.

  3. Bacterial removal of toxic phenols from an industrial effluent

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-04

    Jul 4, 2008 ... Chlorinated phenols, widely used in industries, are of growing concern owing to their high toxicity, .... phenol-degradation ability of bacterial isolate at the high phenol .... ed virtually no decrease in the respiratory response over.

  4. Toxicity evaluation of the process effluent streams of a petrochemical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, J L R; Dezotti, M; Sant'Anna, G L

    2007-02-01

    The physico-chemical characteristics and the acute toxicity of several wastewater streams, generated in the industrial production of synthetic rubber, were determined. The acute toxicity was evaluated in bioassays using different organisms: Danio rerio (fish), Lactuca sativa (lettuce) and Brachionus calyciflorus (rotifer). The removal of toxicity attained in the industrial wastewater treatment plant was also determined upstream and downstream of the activated sludge process. The results obtained indicate that the critical streams in terms of acute toxicity are the effluents from the liquid polymer unit and the spent caustic butadiene washing stage. The biological treatment was able to partially remove the toxicity of the industrial wastewater. However, a residual toxicity level persisted in the biotreated wastewater. The results obtained with Lactuca sativa showed a high degree of reproducibility, using root length or germination index as evaluation parameters. The effect of volatile pollutants on the toxicity results obtained with lettuce seeds was assessed, using ethanol as a model compound. Modifications on the assay procedure were proposed. A strong correlation between the toxic responses of Lactuca sativa and Danio rerio was observed for most industrial effluent streams.

  5. Toxicity assays applied for evaluation of ionizing radiation and zeolites adsorption as treatment technologies for coloured effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higa, Marcela Cantelli

    2008-01-01

    Textile industry is one raising commercial activity in Brazil. This activity has been generating important environmental interferences such as colour and bad biological effects into aquatic environment. Liquid textile effluents are toxic to lived organisms and may present low biological degradability. Although foreseen at federal regulation, the effluent quality is not controlled by toxicity assays in the country. These assays are carried out to determine the potential effects of chemical substances and effluents to cause negative effects to the exposed organisms. The present work aimed whole toxicity evaluation as well as the applicability of two different treatment techniques: ionizing radiation and zeolite adsorption. The efficacy of them were evaluated using eco toxicity bases and real effluents. Two different industries from Sao Paulo State contributed to this project supplying their real effluents. The samples were collected at a Textile Industry and at a Chemical Industry (dying producer) and after the measurement of whole toxicity the samples were submitted to treatments. Toxicity assays were carried out for Daphnia similis and for Vibrio fischeri. Sample irradiations were performed at an Electron Beam Accelerator at CTR/IPEN. Zeolites treatment is an P and D activity from CQMA/IPEN which contributed to this Project. Zeolites v/ere prepared from fly ash previously being used as an adsorber material. Both treatments (electron irradiation and zeolite adsorption) resulted on important toxicity and colour reduction. Concerning irradiation the effluents from chemical industry required higher radiation doses than that from textile activity. The radiation dose to be suggested is 40 kGy (toxicity reduction > 60%) for the chemical effluents and 0.5 kGy for the textile effluents (toxicity reduction > 90%). When zeolite adsorption was evaluated the Z1M6 resulted in 85%o v/hole toxicity reduction and ZC6 resulted in very low efficiency for the effluents of chemical

  6. assessment of the toxicity of radiographic developer effluent

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stephen

    ASSESSMENT OF THE TOXICITY OF RADIOGRAPHIC DEVELOPER ... as a source of food (protein), sporting tools for anglers; and a vital part of the ecosystem (tertiary ... in estuaries and coastal waters which because of the ... particularly vulnerable (Dicks, 1983; Health 1987). .... discharges into the marine and coastal.

  7. An example of toxic effluents treatment: nuclear waste vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moncouyoux, J.P.; Teulon, F.

    1993-01-01

    The management of radioactive waste has to aim to avoid to bring nuisances to future generations whom industrial people, public authorities would be responsible. The French way of doing in radioactive waste storage is called multi-barriers, to forbid or limit radionuclides migration to the biosphere. This containment system is composed of three barriers: the waste packaging, the storage and the site or geological barrier. This way of doing can also be used for toxic industrial waste. 4 refs

  8. Toxicity evaluation of textile effluents and role of native soil bacterium in biodegradation of a textile dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sana; Malik, Abdul

    2018-02-01

    Water pollution caused by the discharge of hazardous textile effluents is a serious environmental problem worldwide. In order to assess the pollution level of the textile effluents, various physico-chemical parameters were analyzed in the textile wastewater and agricultural soil irrigated with the wastewater (contaminated soil) using atomic absorption spectrophotometer and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis that demonstrated the presence of several toxic heavy metals (Ni, Cu, Cr, Pb, Cd, and Zn) and a large number of organic compounds. Further, in order to get a comprehensive idea about the toxicity exerted by the textile effluent, mung bean seed germination test was performed that indicated the reduction in percent seed germination and radicle-plumule growth. The culturable microbial populations were also enumerated and found to be significantly lower in the wastewater and contaminated soil than the ground water irrigated soil, thus indicating the biotic homogenization of indigenous microflora. Therefore, the study was aimed to develop a cost effective and ecofriendly method of textile waste treatment using native soil bacterium, identified as Arthrobacter soli BS5 by 16S rDNA sequencing that showed remarkable ability to degrade a textile dye reactive black 5 with maximum degradation of 98% at 37 °C and pH in the range of 5-9 after 120 h of incubation.

  9. 200 area effluent treatment facility opertaional test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, A.F.

    1995-01-01

    This document reports the results of the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (200 Area ETF) operational testing activities. These Operational testing activities demonstrated that the functional, operational and design requirements of the 200 Area ETF have been met and identified open items which require retesting

  10. Testing for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Systems: Identification of Technologies for Effluent Treatment in Test Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Key steps to ensure identification of relevant effluent treatment technologies for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) testing include the following. 1. Review of...

  11. A Miniscale Algal Toxicity Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arensberg, Pia; Hemmingsen, Vicky H.; Nyholm, Niels

    1995-01-01

    A simple miniscale (approx. 1 - 2.5 ml) toxicity test procedure with the freshwater green algaSelenastrum capricornutum is described. The procedure fulfils the validity criteria of the ISO (International Association for Standardization) standard test protocol. Practically identical concentration-...... days to 2 days (minitest as well as larger volume tests) in order to avoid excessive biomass growth. Shortening tests to 2 days appears necessary if light intensity and temperature are near the upper limits of the intervals stated in the ISO standard.......A simple miniscale (approx. 1 - 2.5 ml) toxicity test procedure with the freshwater green algaSelenastrum capricornutum is described. The procedure fulfils the validity criteria of the ISO (International Association for Standardization) standard test protocol. Practically identical concentration......-response curves were obtained with the ISO standard test and the minitest for potassium dichromate and 3,5-dichlorophenol. The minitest is conveniently carried out using 2.5 ml test volume in 20 ml glass scintillation vials, placed on a microplate shaker or on an ordinary shaking table, but smaller containers...

  12. Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) of Belford Roxo industrial plant effluent and its contribution in water quality of downstream of Sarapui River, Iguacu River sub-basin, Baia da Guanabara Basin, RJ, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, Luiz Eduardo Botelho

    2006-01-01

    The quality of Belford Roxo Industrial Plant effluent and water from Sarapui River were evaluated with Daphnia similis, Ceriodaphnia dubia and Danio rerio acute and chronic toxicity tests. In association with the ecotoxicological monitoring, the Toxicity Identification Evaluation procedure were performed and the identification of the toxic compounds was possible. The Chloride ion was identified as the major toxic compound in the effluent with additional effects of Metals, Ammonium and Sulfide. For the Sarapui River, the compounds of Phosphorus and Nitrogen were identified as the major toxic compounds with addictive effects of Metals, Ammonium and Sulfide. Although the environmental impact estimation based on the effluent toxicity suggests a minor impact on the water quality of Sarapui River, this was already sufficiently contaminated to make impracticable the establishment of an aquatic community. The constant discharge of untreated sludge promotes the eutrophication of this water body and makes impossible the equilibrium of this ecosystem. (author)

  13. Indicators of Ceriodaphnia dubia chronic toxicity test performance and sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosebrock, M.M.; Bedwell, N.J.; Ausley, L.W. [North Carolina Division of Environmental Management, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The North Carolina Division of Environmental Management has begun evaluation of the sensitivity of test results used for measuring chronic whole effluent toxicity in North Carolina wastewater discharges. Approximately 67% of 565 facilities required to monitor toxicity by an NPDES permit perform a Ceriodaphnia dubia chronic, single effluent concentration (pass/fail) analysis. Data from valid Ceriodaphnia dubia chronic pass/fail tests performed by approximately 20 certified biological laboratories and submitted by North Carolina NPDES permittees were recorded beginning January 1992. Control and treatment reproduction data from over 2,500 tests submitted since 1992 were analyzed to determine the minimum significant difference (MSD) at a 99% confidence level for each test and the percent reduction from the control mean that the MSD represents (%MSD) for each certified laboratory. Initial results for the 20 laboratories indicate that the average intralaboratory percent MSD ranges 12.72% (n = 367) to 34.91% (n = 7) with an average of 23.08%. Additionally, over 3,800 tests were analyzed to determine the coefficient of variation (CV) for control reproduction for each test and the average for each certified biological laboratory. Preliminary review indicates that average interlaboratory control reproduction CV values range from 10.59% (n = 367) to 31.08% (n = 572) with a mean of 20.35%. The statistics investigated are indicators of intra/interlaboratory performance and sensitivity of Ceriodaphnia chronic toxicity analyses.

  14. Evaluation of toxic metals in the industrial effluents and their segregation through peanut husk fence for pollution abatement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husaini, S.N.; Zaidi, J.H.; Matiullah; Akram, M.

    2011-01-01

    The industrial pollution is exponentially growing in the developing countries due to the discharge of untreated effluents from the industries in the open atmosphere. This may cause severe health hazards in the general public. To reduce this effect, it is essential to remove the toxic and heavy metals from the effluents before their disposal into the biosphere. In this context, samples of the effluents were collected from the textile/yarn, ceramics and pulp/paper industries and the concentrations of the toxic metal ions were determined using neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique. The observed concentration values of the As, Cr and Fe ions, in the unprocessed industrial effluents, were 4.91 ± 0.8, 9.67 ± 0.7 and 9.71 ± 0.8 mg/L, respectively which was well above the standard recommended limits (i.e. 1.0, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/L, respectively). In order to remove the toxic metal ions from the effluents, the samples were treated with pea nut husk fence. After this treatment, 91.5% arsenic, 81.9% chromium and 66.5% iron metal ions were successfully removed from the effluents. Then the treated effluents contained concerned toxic metal ions concentrations within the permissible limits as recommended by the national environmental quality standards (NEQS). (author)

  15. Effluent treatment for nuclear thermal propulsion ground testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipers, Larry R.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives are to define treatment functions, review concept options, discuss PIPET effluent treatment system (ETS), and outline future activities. The topics covered include the following: reactor exhaust; effluent treatment functions; effluent treatment categories; effluent treatment options; concept evaluation; PIPETS ETS envelope; PIPET effluent treatment concept; and future activities.

  16. Acute and chronic toxicity of effluent water from an abandoned uranium mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, S C; Pereira, R; Gonçalves, F

    2007-08-01

    Inactive or abandoned mines represent a significant source of environmental, chemical, physical, and aesthetic impact. Among concerning situations, the occurrence of abandoned or semi-abandoned mine-associated ponds (for sedimentation of solids, for effluent neutralization, or for washing the ore) is a common feature in this type of system. These ponds are a source of contamination for the groundwater resources and adjacent soils, because they lack appropriate impermeabilization. The use of this water for agriculture may also pose chronic risks to humans. In Portugal, these problems have been diagnosed and some remediation projects have been developed. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the acute and chronic toxicity of water samples collected from the aquatic system surrounding an abandoned uranium mine (Cunha Baixa, Mangualde, Central Portugal). The present study focuses on the water compartment, whose toxicity was evaluated by means of standard toxicity assays using two Daphnia species (D. longispina and D. magna). Three different ponds were used in the characterization of the aquatic system from Cunha Baixa mine: a reference pond (Ref), a mine effluent treatment pond (T), and a mine pit pond (M). Metal analyses performed in the water samples from these ponds showed values that, in some cases, were much higher than maximum recommendable values established (especially Al, Mn) by Portuguese legislation for waters for crop irrigation. Acute toxicity was only observed in the mine pit pond, with EC(50) values of 28.4% and 50.4% for D. longispina and D. magna, respectively. The significant impairment of chronic endpoints, translated in reductions in the population growth rate for both species, gives rise to concerns regarding the potential risks for aquatic zooplanktonic communities, from local receiving waters, potentially exposed to point source discharges of the treated and nontreated effluent from Cunha Baixa uranium mine.

  17. Biological assays for aquatic toxicity testing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Slabbert, JL

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available and management purposes of effluents. If receiving water is used for drinking water purposes, the Ames Salmonella mutagenicity and toad embryo teratogenicity tests should be included in the battery of tests. Some of the rapid microbiotests, the petrozoan oxygen...

  18. Reproductive toxicity testing of vaccines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdier, Francois; Barrow, Paul C.; Burge, Joeelle

    2003-01-01

    Vaccines play a major role in the prevention of human birth defects by protecting the pregnant woman from teratogenic or otherwise harmful infections. Until now, it has not been common practice to perform preclinical developmental toxicity tests for new vaccines. Despite the excellent safety record of vaccines, increased attention is now being given to the feasibility of screening new vaccines for developmental hazards in animals before their use in humans. Contrary to previous assumptions, many vaccines are now given to potentially pregnant women. Any new components of the vaccine formulation (adjuvants, excipients, stabilisers, preservatives, etc...) could also be tested for influences on development, although based on past experience the risks are limited by the very low dosages used. The conferred immunity following vaccination lasts for several years. Therefore, the developing conceptus may theoretically be exposed to the induced antibodies and/or sensitised T-cells, even if the pregnant woman was last vaccinated during childhood (particularly if she encounters the antigen during pregnancy through exposure to infection). However, it should be kept in mind that viral or bacterial infections represent a higher risk for a pregnant woman than the potential adverse effects related to vaccination or the associated immune response. Non-clinical safety studies may be employed as an aid for hazard identification. In these studies interactions of the vaccine with the maternal immune system or with the developmental systems of the offspring are considered. Post-natal examinations are necessary to detect all possible manifestations of developmental toxicity, such as effects on the immune system. Species selection for the preclinical studies is based on immunogenicity to the vaccine and the relative timing and rate of transfer of maternal antibodies to the offspring. A single study design is proposed for the pre- and post-natal developmental assessments of vaccines in

  19. Development of biodegradation testing within a whole effluent assessment scheme: petrochemical application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leonards, P.E.G.; Postma, J.F.

    2007-01-01

    This study was performed for Concawe to obtain information on the development of an approach for assessing biodegradation of petrochemical effluents and the impact on assessing the toxicity and potential to bioaccumulate of the constituents. Whole Effluent Assessments (WEA) are being investigated as

  20. Evaluation of Daphnia ambigua for Routine Aquatic Toxicity Testing at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specht, W.L.; Harmon, S.M.

    1997-09-01

    Short-term whole effluent toxicity testing, which is currently a requirement of the U.S. EPA's National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES), commonly uses the cladoceran species Ceriodaphnia dubia. Despite the advantages to using a common test species to model the toxic effects of effluents, it could be argued that toxicity test results would be more meaningful if a wider variety of test organisms were commonly used. One particular argument against C. dubia is that tests conducted with this species do not always reflect local, site-specific conditions. The careful selection and use of an indigenous test species would produce a more realistic model of local instream effects and would account for regional differences in water quality. Permitted effluent discharges from Savannah River Site (SRS), a government weapons facility operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, require toxicity testing with C. dubia. However, water quality in these receiving streams is markedly different (lower pH and hardness) from standard laboratory water used for the culturing and testing of C. dubia, and it has been shown that this receiving water presents varying degrees of toxicity to C. dubia. Based on these results, it is possible that toxic effects observed during an effluent study could be the result of test organism stress from the dilution water and not the effects of SRS effluents. Therefore, this study addressed the substitution of C. dubia with an indigenous cladoceran species, Daphnia ambigua for routine regulatory testing at SRS. Given the indigenous nature of this species, combined with the fact that it has been successfully cultured by other investigators, D. ambigua was ideal for consideration as a replacement for C. dubia, but further study of the overall success and sensitivity of laboratory-reared D. ambigua was required. This investigation determined that D. ambigua could be laboratory cultured with only minimal changes to established regulatory protocol and

  1. Development of standardized bioassay protocols for the toxicity assessment of waste, manufactured products, and effluents in Latin America: Venezuela, a Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriquez-Grau, J.

    1993-01-01

    The present status of the toxicity assessment of industrial products in Latin America is well below North America/EC standards. As an example, most of Latin America regulatory laws regarding effluent discharge are still based upon concentration limits of certain major pollutants, and BOD/COD measurements; no reference is made to the necessity of aquatic bioassay toxicity data. Aware of this imperative need, the Venezuelan Petroleum Industry (PDVSA), through its R ampersand D Corporative branch (INTEVEP) gave priority to the development of standardized acute/sublethal toxicity test protocols as sound means of evaluating their products and wastes. Throughout this presentation, the Venezuelan case will be studied, showing strategies undertaken to accelerate protocol development. Results will show the assessment of 14 different protocols encompassing a variety of species of aquatic/terrestrial organisms, and a series of toxicity test endpoints including mortality, reproductive, biological and immunological measurements, most of which are currently in use or being developed. These protocols have already yielded useful results in numerous cases where toxicity assessment was required, including evaluations of effluent, oil dispersants, drilling fluids, toxic wastes, fossil fuels and newly developed products. The Venezuelan case demonstrates that the integration of Industry, Academia and Government, which is an essential part of SETAC's philosophy, is absolutely necessary for the successful advancement of environmental scientific/regulatory issues

  2. Concentrations and Toxic Equivalency of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Polish Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbaniak, Magdalena; Kiedrzyńska, Edyta

    2015-10-01

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are widely recognized as important sources of toxic contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). An example is given in the present paper, where concentrations of 12 dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs) congeners were investigated in effluents from 14 WWTPs of different sizes, using gas chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry. The results obtained demonstrate that the smallest WWTPs are characterized by the highest total dl-PCB concentration of 102.69 pg/L, roughly twice those of medium-size and large WWTPs, i.e. 41.14 and 48.29 pg/L, respectively. In all cases, the concentrations obtained were generated mostly by increased contributions of PCB-77, PCB-105 and PCB-118 which constituted 48 %-59 % of the mean dl-PCB concentration. The results also reveal a predominance of mono-ortho over non-ortho PCBs. All three types of WWTP effluent were found to have similar toxic equivalency (TEQ) values, ranging from 0.31 for large to 0.37 pg TEQ/L for medium WWTPs.

  3. Electron beam irradiation of textile effluents and non-ionic ethoxylated surfactant for toxicity and color removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sole, Stephanie V. Del; Garcia, Vanessa S.G.; Boiani, Nathalia F.; Rosa, Jorge M.; Andrade e Silva, Leonardo G. de; Borrely, Sueli I.

    2017-01-01

    Textile industry has an expressive scenario in the world economy and Brazil is the 5"t"h in the textile production. By 2015, Brazilian textile production represented US $ 39.3 billion, accounting for more than 1.8 million tons of fabric (ABIT, 2017). The effluents from textile industry are highlighted by quantity of wastewater discharged and variety of substances (dyes, bleaching agents, surfactants, salts, acids, among others). Such compounds often prove to be toxic to aquatic biota. This present study aims to assess toxicity of whole effluents, before and after irradiation (by electron beam accelerator, EBI). In addition, the reduction of the effluent color after irradiation is also very important. Daphnia similis and Vibrio fischeri were the biological systems applied for toxicity evaluations. Previous results demonstrated the surfactant as the main toxic compound, in the untreated and irradiated forms, EC 50 = 0.44 ppm ± 0.02 (untreated); EC 50 = 0.46 % ± 0.07 (irradiated). The irradiation was effective in reducing the color of the effluent, starting from 0.5 kGy. EB radiation may be proposed as an alternative treatment for the final effluent from textile processing, mainly for reuse purposes. (author)

  4. Electron beam irradiation of textile effluents and non-ionic ethoxylated surfactant for toxicity and color removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sole, Stephanie V. Del; Garcia, Vanessa S.G.; Boiani, Nathalia F.; Rosa, Jorge M.; Andrade e Silva, Leonardo G. de; Borrely, Sueli I., E-mail: vanessagranadeiro@gmail.com, E-mail: steh.vdsole@gmail.com, E-mail: jotarosa@hotmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); SENAI, Faculdade de Tecnologia Antoine Skaf, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    Textile industry has an expressive scenario in the world economy and Brazil is the 5{sup th} in the textile production. By 2015, Brazilian textile production represented US $ 39.3 billion, accounting for more than 1.8 million tons of fabric (ABIT, 2017). The effluents from textile industry are highlighted by quantity of wastewater discharged and variety of substances (dyes, bleaching agents, surfactants, salts, acids, among others). Such compounds often prove to be toxic to aquatic biota. This present study aims to assess toxicity of whole effluents, before and after irradiation (by electron beam accelerator, EBI). In addition, the reduction of the effluent color after irradiation is also very important. Daphnia similis and Vibrio fischeri were the biological systems applied for toxicity evaluations. Previous results demonstrated the surfactant as the main toxic compound, in the untreated and irradiated forms, EC 50 = 0.44 ppm ± 0.02 (untreated); EC 50 = 0.46 % ± 0.07 (irradiated). The irradiation was effective in reducing the color of the effluent, starting from 0.5 kGy. EB radiation may be proposed as an alternative treatment for the final effluent from textile processing, mainly for reuse purposes. (author)

  5. Hospital and urban effluent waters as a source of accumulation of toxic metals in the sediment receiving system of the Cauvery River, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarajan, Naresh; Laffite, Amandine; Ngelikoto, Patience; Elongo, Vicky; Prabakar, Kandasamy; Mubedi, Josué I; Piana, Pius T M; Wildi, Walter; Poté, John

    2015-09-01

    Hospital and urban effluents contain a variety of toxic and/or persistent substances in a wide range of concentrations, and most of these compounds belong to the group of emerging contaminants. The release of these substances into the aquatic ecosystem can lead to the pollution of water resources and may place aquatic organisms and human health at risk. Sediments receiving untreated and urban effluent waters from the city of Tiruchirappalli in the state of Tamil Nadu, India, are analyzed for potential environmental and human health risks. The sediment samples were collected from five hospital outlet pipes (HOP) and from the Cauvery River Basin (CRB) both of which receive untreated municipal effluent waters (Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, India). The samples were characterized for grain size, organic matter, toxic metals, and ecotoxicity. The results highlight the high concentration of toxic metals in HOP, reaching values (mg kg(-1)) of 1851 (Cr), 210 (Cu), 986 (Zn), 82 (Pb), and 17 (Hg). In contrast, the metal concentrations in sediments from CRB were lower than the values found in the HOP (except for Cu, Pb), with maximum values (mg kg(-1)) of 75 (Cr), 906 (Cu), 649 (Zn), 111 (Pb), and 0.99 (Hg). The metal concentrations in all sampling sites largely exceed the Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs) and the Probable Effect Concentration (PEC) for the Protection of Aquatic Life recommendation. The ecotoxicity test with ostracods exposed to the sediment samples presents a mortality rate ranging from 22 to 100 % (in sediments from HOP) and 18-87 % (in sediments from CRB). The results of this study show the variation of toxic metal levels as well as toxicity in sediment composition related to both the type of hospital and the sampling period. The method of elimination of hospital and urban effluents leads to the pollution of water resources and may place aquatic organisms and human health at risk.

  6. The genotoxicity and systemic toxicity of a pharmaceutical effluent in Wistar rats may involve oxidative stress induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace O. Adeoye

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is scarcity of information on the possible mechanisms of pharmaceutical effluent induced genotoxicity and systemic toxicity. This study investigated the genotoxicity and systemic toxicity of a pharmaceutical effluent in Wistar rats. Rats were orally treated with 5–50% concentrations of the effluent for 28 days. At post-exposure, blood, liver, kidney and bone marrow cells were examined for alterations in serum biochemical parameters and hematological indices, histopathological lesions and micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes formation (MNPCE. The effluent caused concentration independent significant (p < 0.05 alterations in aspartate (AST and alanine (ALT aminotransferases, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, malondialdehyde (MDA, total and direct bilirubin and creatinine. There was reduction in red blood count (RBC, hemoglobin concentration (HGB, platelets, percentage hematocrit (HCT, white blood count (WBC and mean corpuscle hemoglobin (MCH except mean corpuscle hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, which increased in the treated rats. Histopathological lesions observed in the liver and kidney of the effluent treated rats were thinning of the hepatic cord, kuffer cell hyperplasia, vacuolation of the hepatocytes and renal cells, multifocal inflammatory changes, necrosis and congestion of the renal blood vessels and central vein. MNPCE significantly increase in the bone marrow of the treated rats compared to the negative control. The concentration of some toxic metals and anions in the effluent were above standard permissible limits. These findings showed that the pharmaceutical effluent caused somatic DNA damage and systemic toxicity in rats may involve induction of oxidative stress, suggesting environmental contamination and health risks in wildlife and humans.

  7. Removal of toxic uranium from synthetic nuclear power reactor effluents using uranyl ion imprinted polymer particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preetha, Chandrika Ravindran; Gladis, Joseph Mary; Rao, Talasila Prasada; Venkateswaran, Gopala

    2006-05-01

    Major quantities of uranium find use as nuclear fuel in nuclear power reactors. In view of the extreme toxicity of uranium and consequent stringent limits fixed by WHO and various national governments, it is essential to remove uranium from nuclear power reactor effluents before discharge into environment. Ion imprinted polymer (IIP) materials have traditionally been used for the recovery of uranium from dilute aqueous solutions prior to detection or from seawater. We now describe the use of IIP materials for selective removal of uranium from a typical synthetic nuclear power reactor effluent. The IIP materials were prepared for uranyl ion (imprint ion) by forming binary salicylaldoxime (SALO) or 4-vinylpyridine (VP) or ternary SALO-VP complexes in 2-methoxyethanol (porogen) and copolymerizing in the presence of styrene (monomer), divinylbenzene (cross-linking monomer), and 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (initiator). The resulting materials were then ground and sieved to obtain unleached polymer particles. Leached IIP particles were obtained by leaching the imprint ions with 6.0 M HCl. Control polymer particles were also prepared analogously without the imprint ion. The IIP particles obtained with ternary complex alone gave quantitative removal of uranyl ion in the pH range 3.5-5.0 with as low as 0.08 g. The retention capacity of uranyl IIP particles was found to be 98.50 mg/g of polymer. The present study successfully demonstrates the feasibility of removing uranyl ions selectively in the range 5 microg - 300 mg present in 500 mL of synthetic nuclear power reactor effluent containing a host of other inorganic species.

  8. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the fast flux test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickels, J.M.; Dahl, N.R.

    1992-11-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in US Department of Energy Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could affect employee or public safety or the environment. A Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan determination was performed during calendar year 1991 and the evaluation requires the need for a facility effluent monitoring plan. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements

  9. Effluent testing for the Oak Ridge Mixed Waste Incinerator: Emissions test for August 27, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostick, W.D.; Bunch, D.H.; Gibson, L.V.; Hoffmann, D.P.; Shoemaker, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    On August 27, 1990, a special emissions test was performed at the K-1435 Toxic Substance Control Act Mixed Waste Incinerator. A sampling and analysis plan was implemented to characterize the incinerator waste streams during a 6 hour burn of actual mixed waste. The results of this characterization are summarized in the present report. Significant among the findings is the observation that less than 3% of the uranium fed to the incinerator kiln was discharged as stack emission. This value is consistent with the estimate of 4% or less derived from long-term mass balance of previous operating experience and with the value assumed in the original Environmental Impact Statement. Approximately 1.4% of the total uranium fed to the incinerator kiln appeared in the aqueous scrubber blowdown; about 85% of the total uranium in the aqueous waste was insoluble (i.e., removable by filtration). The majority of the uranium fed to the incinerator kiln appeared in the ash material, apparently associated with phosphorous as a sparingly-soluble species. Many other metals of potential regulatory concern also appeared to concentrate in the ash as sparingly-soluble species, with minimal partition to the aqueous waste. The aqueous waste was discharged to the Central Neutralization Facility where it was effectively treated by coprecipitation with iron. The treated, filtered aqueous effluent met Environmental Protection Agency interim primary drinking water standards for regulated metals. 4 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs

  10. Effluent testing for the Oak Ridge mixed waste incinerator: Emissions test for August 27, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostick, W.D.; Bunch, D.H.; Gibson, L.V.; Hoffmann, D.P.; Shoemaker, J.L.

    1990-12-01

    On August 27, 1990, a special emissions test was performed at the K-1435 Toxic Substance Control Act Mixed Waste Incinerator. A sampling and analysis plan was implemented to characterize the incinerator waste streams during a 6 hour burn of actual mixed waste. The results of this characterization are summarized in the present report. Significant among the findings is the observation that less than 3% of the uranium fed to the incinerator kiln was discharged as stack emission. This value is consistent with the estimate of 4% or less derived from long-term mass balance of previous operating experience and with the value assumed in the original Environmental Impact Statement. Approximately 1.4% of the total uranium fed to the incinerator kiln appeared in the aqueous scrubber blowdown; about 85% of the total uranium in the aqueous waste was insoluble (i.e., removable by filtration). The majority of the uranium fed to the incinerator kiln appeared in the ash material, apparently associated with phosphorous as a sparingly-soluble species. Many other metals of potential regulatory concern also appeared to concentrate in the ash as sparingly-soluble species, with minimal partition to the aqueous waste. The aqueous waste was discharged to the Central Neutralization Facility where it was effectively treated by coprecipitation with iron. The treated, filtered aqueous effluent met Environmental Protection Agency interim primary drinking water standards for regulated metals

  11. Biotoxicity assessment and toxicity mechanism on coal gasification wastewater (CGW): A comparative analysis of effluent from different treatment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Weiwei; Han, Yuxing; Xu, Chunyan; Han, Hongjun; Zhu, Hao; Li, Kun; Zheng, Mengqi

    2018-05-04

    Even though coal gasification wastewater (CGW) treated by various biochemical treatment processes generally met the national discharge standard, its potential biotoxicity was still unknown. Therefore, in this study, bioassay with Tetrahymena thermophila (T. thermophila) was conducted to comprehensively evaluate the variation of biotoxicity in raw CGW and the treated effluent from lab-scale micro-electrolysis integrated with biological reactor (MEBR), single iron-carbon micro-electrolysis (ICME) and conventional activated sludge (CAS) processes. The results illustrated that raw CGW presented intensive acute toxicity with 24 h EC 50 value of 8.401% and toxic unit (TU) value of 11.90. Moreover, it performed significant cell membrane destruction and DNA damage even at 10% dilution concentration. The toxicant identification results revealed that multiple toxic polar compounds such as phenolic, heterocyclic and polycyclic aromatic compounds were the main contributors for biotoxicity. Furthermore, these compounds could accelerate oxidative stress, thereby inducing oxidative damage of cell membrane and DNA. As for treated effluent, TU value was decreased by 90.58% in MEBR process. An effective biotoxicity reduction was achieved in MEBR process owing to high removal efficiency in polar organic toxicants. In contrast, effluent from ICME and CAS processes presented relatively high acute toxicity and genotoxicity, because various heterocyclic and polycyclic aromatic compounds were difficult to be degraded in these processes. Therefore, it was suggested that MEBR was a potential and feasible process for improving CGW treatment and minimizing ecological risk. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Sediment toxicity testing with the amphipod Ampelisca abdita in Calcasieu Estuary, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, M.S.; Crocker, P.A.; McKenna, K.M.; Petrocelli, E.A.; Scott, K.J.; Demas, C.R.

    1996-01-01

    Discharges from chemical and petrochemical manufacturing facilities have contaminated portions of Louisiana's Calcasieu River estuary with a variety of organic and inorganic contaminants. As part of a special study, sediment toxicity testing was conducted to assess potential impact to the benthic community. Ten-day flow-through sediment toxicity tests with the amphipod Ampelisca abdita revealed significant toxicity at 68% (26 of 38) of the stations tested. A. abdita mortality was highest in the effluent-dominated bayous, which are tributaries to the Calcasieu River. Mortality was correlated with total heavy metal and total organic compound concentrations in the sediments. Ancillary experiments showed that sediment interstitial water salinity as low as 2.5 o/o-o did not significantly affect A. abdita's, response in the flow-through system; sediment storage for 7 weeks at 4??C did not significantly affect toxicity. Sediment toxicity to A. abdita was more prevalent than receiving water toxicity using three short-term chronic bioassays. Results suggest that toxicity testing using this amphipod is a valuable tool when assessing sediments containing complex contaminant mixtures and for assessing effects of pollutant loading over time. In conjunction with chemical analyses, the testing indicated that the effluent-dominated, brackish bayous (Bayou d'Inde and Bayou Verdine) were the portions of the estuary most impacted by toxicity.

  13. PEROXIDE DESTRUCTION TESTING FOR THE 200 AREA EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halgren, D.L.

    2010-01-01

    The hydrogen peroxide decomposer columns at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) have been taken out of service due to ongoing problems with particulate fines and poor destruction performance from the granular activated carbon (GAC) used in the columns. An alternative search was initiated and led to bench scale testing and then pilot scale testing. Based on the bench scale testing three manganese dioxide based catalysts were evaluated in the peroxide destruction pilot column installed at the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The ten inch diameter, nine foot tall, clear polyvinyl chloride (PVC) column allowed for the same six foot catalyst bed depth as is in the existing ETF system. The flow rate to the column was controlled to evaluate the performance at the same superficial velocity (gpm/ft 2 ) as the full scale design flow and normal process flow. Each catalyst was evaluated on peroxide destruction performance and particulate fines capacity and carryover. Peroxide destruction was measured by hydrogen peroxide concentration analysis of samples taken before and after the column. The presence of fines in the column headspace and the discharge from carryover was generally assessed by visual observation. All three catalysts met the peroxide destruction criteria by achieving hydrogen peroxide discharge concentrations of less than 0.5 mg/L at the design flow with inlet peroxide concentrations greater than 100 mg/L. The Sud-Chemie T-2525 catalyst was markedly better in the minimization of fines and particle carryover. It is anticipated the T-2525 can be installed as a direct replacement for the GAC in the peroxide decomposer columns. Based on the results of the peroxide method development work the recommendation is to purchase the T-2525 catalyst and initially load one of the ETF decomposer columns for full scale testing.

  14. Operability test procedure for the TK-900 effluent monitoring station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissenfels, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    This procedure will verify that the 221-B liquid effluent monitoring system, installed near the east end of the 6-in. chemical sewer header, functions as intended by design. TK-900B was installed near stairwell 3 in the 221-B electrical gallery by Project W-007H. The system is part of BAT/AKART for the BCE liquid effluent system

  15. Rethinking developmental toxicity testing: Evolution or revolution?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scialli, Anthony R; Daston, George; Chen, Connie; Coder, Prägati S; Euling, Susan Y; Foreman, Jennifer; Hoberman, Alan M; Hui, Julia; Knudsen, Thomas; Makris, Susan L; Morford, LaRonda; Piersma, Aldert H; Stanislaus, Dinesh; Thompson, Kary E

    2018-01-01

    Current developmental toxicity testing adheres largely to protocols suggested in 1966 involving the administration of test compound to pregnant laboratory animals. After more than 50 years of embryo-fetal development testing, are we ready to consider a different approach to human developmental

  16. Toxicity bioassay of municipal sewage effluents using seaweed. Kaiso wo kyoshi seibutsu to shita toshi gesui shorisui no seibutsu kentei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, T [Tokyo University of Fisheries, Tokyo (Japan); Miura, A [Aomori University, Aomori (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1993-05-01

    This paper describes the result of a toxicity test by means of a shaking culture on municipal sewage effluents using seaweed as a test living organism. Dead cells of porphyra yezoensis (nori) have emerged more specifically with the addition of non-disinfected secondary treated water at about 1% and with the lower the salt content. This phenomenon is thought to be an antagonism among growth accelerating substances for porphyra thallus, growth inhibiting substances, and salt content, one of the important characteristics of non-disinfected treated water. As a result of culture test on ripe seawater added with chlorine-disinfected secondary treated water, it was found that the growth of porphyra yezoensis (nori) is governed completely by concentrations of free chlorine added to the treated water, but very little by the treated water addition factor. Substances with very strong growth inhibition power, including NH4Cl, are generated in the chlorine-disinfected secondary treated water. It was disclosed that growth ratios of giant kelps at different factors of addition of non-disinfected secondary treated water change with the sampling time; water quality of the treated sewage water changes from one hour to another; and there are two time bands that show the growth ratio of about the same extent and a time band that shows a transition growth ratio. 60 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Selection of a bioassay battery to assess toxicity in the affluents and effluents of three water-treatment plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Bohórquez-Echeverry

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of water quality includes the analysis of both physical-chemical and microbiological parameters. However,none of these evaluates the biological effect that can be generated in ecosystems or humans. In order to define the most suitable organismsto evaluate the toxicity in the affluent and effluent of three drinking-water treatment plants, five acute toxicity bioassays were used,incorporating three taxonomic groups of the food chain. Materials and methods. The bioassays used were Daphnia magna and Hydraattenuata as animal models, Lactuca sativa and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata as plant models, and Photobacterium leioghnathi asbacterial model. To meet this objective, selection criteria of the organisms evaluated and cluster analysis were used to identify the mostsensitive in the affluent and effluent of each plant. Results. All organisms are potentially useful in the assessment of water quality bymeeting four essential requirements and 17 desirable requirements equivalent to 100% acceptability, except P. leioghnathi which doesnot meet two essential requirements that are the IC50 for the toxic reference and the confidence interval. The animal, plant and bacterialmodels showed different levels of sensitivity at the entrance and exit of the water treatment systems. Conclusions. H. attenuata, P.subcapitata and P. leioghnathi were the most effective organisms in detecting toxicity levels in the affluents and D. magna, P. subcapitataand P. leioghnathi in the effluents.

  18. Anaerobic biodegradability and methanogenic toxicity of key constituents in copper chemical mechanical planarization effluents of the semiconductor industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Jeremy; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Zhou, Michael; Ogden, Kimberly L; Field, Jim A

    2005-06-01

    Copper chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) effluents can account for 30-40% of the water discharge in semiconductor manufacturing. CMP effluents contain high concentrations of soluble copper and a complex mixture of organic constituents. The aim of this study is to perform a preliminary assessment of the treatability of CMP effluents in anaerobic sulfidogenic bioreactors inoculated with anaerobic granular sludge by testing individual compounds expected in the CMP effluents. Of all the compounds tested (copper (II), benzotriazoles, polyethylene glycol (M(n) 300), polyethylene glycol (M(n) 860) monooleate, perfluoro-1-octane sulfonate, citric acid, oxalic acid and isopropanol) only copper was found to be inhibitory to methanogenic activity at the concentrations tested. Most of the organic compounds tested were biodegradable with the exception of perfluoro-1-octane sulfonate and benzotriazoles under sulfate reducing conditions and with the exception of the same compounds as well as Triton X-100 under methanogenic conditions. The susceptibility of key components in CMP effluents to anaerobic biodegradation combined with their low microbial inhibition suggest that CMP effluents should be amenable to biological treatment in sulfate reducing bioreactors.

  19. Combination of physico-chemical analysis, Allium cepa test system and Oreochromis niloticus erythrocyte based comet assay/nuclear abnormalities tests for cyto-genotoxicity assessments of treated effluents discharged from textile industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemachandra, Chamini K; Pathiratne, Asoka

    2016-09-01

    Bioassays for cyto-genotoxicity assessments are generally not required in current textile industry effluent discharge management regulations. The present study applied in vivo plant and fish based toxicity tests viz. Allium cepa test system and Oreochromis niloticus erythrocyte based comet assay and nuclear abnormalities tests in combination with physico-chemical analysis for assessing potential cytotoxic/genotoxic impacts of treated textile industry effluents reaching a major river (Kelani River) in Sri Lanka. Of the treated effluents tested from two textile industries, color in the Textile industry 1 effluents occasionally and color, biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand in the Textile industry 2 effluents frequently exceeded the specified Sri Lankan tolerance limits for discharge of industrial effluents into inland surface waters. Exposure of A. cepa bulbs to 100% and 12.5% treated effluents from both industries resulted in statistically significant root growth retardation, mito-depression, and induction of chromosomal abnormalities in root meristematic cells in comparison to the dilution water in all cases demonstrating cyto-genotoxicity associated with the treated effluents. Exposure of O. niloticus to the 100% and 12.5% effluents, resulted in erythrocytic genetic damage as shown by elevated total comet scores and induction of nuclear abnormalities confirming the genotoxicity of the treated effluents even with 1:8 dilution. The results provide strong scientific evidence for the crucial necessity of incorporating cyto-genotoxicity impact assessment tools in textile industry effluent management regulations considering human health and ecological health of the receiving water course under chronic exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Dose-Time Effect of Crude Oil and Hydro-test Effluent on Freshwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) and a brackish water shrimp, Palaemonetes africanus. Test results indicated that the brackish water juvenile shrimps were more sensitive to the mixture of the hydro-test effluent and crude oil than the freshwater habitat. This could be ...

  1. Trouble in paradise. Did Chinese solar producer Jinko Solar pollute water with toxic effluents?; Aerger im Paradies. Hat der chinesische Solarkonzern Jinko Solar Giftstoffe ins Abwasser geleitet?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siemer, Jochen

    2011-10-15

    When neighbours protested against toxic effluents emitted by a Chinese industrial plant, this received international attention, especially as the plant in question is producing solar cells for Jinko Solar at Haining. However, the real facts are impossible to obtain.

  2. Mollusc reproductive toxicity tests - Development and validation of test guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ducrot, Virginie; Holbech, Henrik; Kinnberg, Karin Lund

    . Draft standard operating procedures (SOPs) have been designed based upon literature and expert knowledge from project partners. Pre-validation studies have been implemented to validate the proposed test conditions and identify issues in performing the SOPs and analyzing test results. Pre-validation work......The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development is promoting the development and validation of mollusc toxicity tests within its test guidelines programme, eventually aiming for the standardization of mollusc apical toxicity tests. Through collaborative work between academia, industry...... and stakeholders, this study aims to develop innovative partial life-cycle tests on the reproduction of the freshwater gastropods Potamopyrgus antipodarum and Lymnaea stagnalis, which are relevant candidate species for the standardization of mollusc apical toxicity tests assessing reprotoxic effects of chemicals...

  3. Assessment of wastewater treatment plant effluent on fish reproduction utilizing the adverse outcome pathway conceptual framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are a known contributor of chemical mixture inputs into the environment. Whole effluent testing guidelines were developed to screen these complex mixtures for acute toxicity. However, efficient and cost-effective approaches for screenin...

  4. Estimation of toxicity using the Toxicity Estimation Software Tool (TEST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tens of thousands of chemicals are currently in commerce, and hundreds more are introduced every year. Since experimental measurements of toxicity are extremely time consuming and expensive, it is imperative that alternative methods to estimate toxicity are developed.

  5. Test systems to identify reproductive toxicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riecke, K; Stahlmann, R

    2000-09-01

    Experience with drugs and other xenobiotics indicates that both animal testing and epidemiological studies are necessary to provide adequate data for an estimation of risks that might be associated with exposure to a chemical substance. In this review, the pros and cons of test systems for reproductive toxicity are discussed. Usually, several studies are performed to cover the different phases of the reproductive cycle. In the preclinical development of drugs, the three so-called 'segment testing protocols' have been used for several decades now. More recently, new testing concepts have been accepted internationally which include more flexibility in implementation. Several examples of compounds with the potential for reproductive toxicity are presented in more detail in a discussion of some pitfalls of the tests for fertility (phthalates and fluoroquinolones), teratogenicity (acyclovir and protease inhibitors) and postnatal developmental toxicity (fluoroquinolones). In addition, important aspects of kinetics and metabolism as a prerequisite for a rational interpretation of results from toxicological studies are briefly discussed. In vitro assays are useful for supplementing the routinely used in vivo approaches or for studying an expected or defined effect, but they are not suitable for revealing an unknown effect of a chemical on the complex reproductive process.

  6. Reduction of dioxin-like toxicity in effluents by additional wastewater treatment and related effects in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Diana; Benisek, Martin; Blaha, Ludek; Dondero, Francesco; Giesy, John P; Köhler, Heinz-R; Richter, Doreen; Scheurer, Marco; Triebskorn, Rita

    2016-10-01

    Efficiency of advanced wastewater treatment technologies to reduce micropollutants which mediate dioxin-like toxicity was investigated. Technologies compared included ozonation, powdered activated carbon and granular activated carbon. In addition to chemical analyses in samples of effluents, surface waters, sediments, and fish, (1) dioxin-like potentials were measured in paired samples of effluents, surface waters, and sediments by use of an in vitro biotest (reporter gene assay) and (2) dioxin-like effects were investigated in exposed fish by use of in vivo activity of the mixed-function, monooxygenase enzyme, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) in liver. All advanced technologies studied, based on degradation or adsorption, significantly reduced dioxin-like potentials in samples and resulted in lesser EROD activity in livers of fish. Results of in vitro and in vivo biological responses were not clearly related to quantification of targeted analytes by use of instrumental analyses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Using combined bio-omics methods to evaluate the complicated toxic effects of mixed chemical wastewater and its treated effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yan; Deng, Yongfeng; Zhao, Yanping; Ren, Hongqiang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Mice exposed to mixed chemical wastewater and its treated effluent for 90 days. • Hepatic transcriptomic alterations were analyzed by digital gene expression. • Serum metabolomic alterations were analyzed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance. • The water samples induced disruption of lipid metabolism and hepatotoxicity. • Omics approaches are valuable to evaluate the complicated toxicity of wastewater. - Abstract: Mixed chemical wastewaters (MCWW) from industrial park contain complex mixtures of trace contaminants, which cannot be effectively removed by wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) and have become an unignored threat to ambient environment. However, limited information is available to evaluate the complicated toxic effects of MCWW and its effluent from wastewater treatment plant (WTPE) from the perspective of bio-omics. In this study, mice were exposed to the MCWW and WTPE for 90 days and distinct differences in the hepatic transcriptome and serum metabolome were analyzed by digital gene expression (DGE) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H-NMR) spectra, respectively. Our results indicated that disruption of lipid metabolism in liver and hepatotoxicity were induced by both MCWW and WTPE exposure. WTPE is still a health risk to the environment, which is in need of more attention. Furthermore, we demonstrated the potential ability of bio-omics approaches for evaluating toxic effects of MCWW and WTPE

  8. Using combined bio-omics methods to evaluate the complicated toxic effects of mixed chemical wastewater and its treated effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yan; Deng, Yongfeng; Zhao, Yanping; Ren, Hongqiang, E-mail: hqren@nju.edu.cn

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Mice exposed to mixed chemical wastewater and its treated effluent for 90 days. • Hepatic transcriptomic alterations were analyzed by digital gene expression. • Serum metabolomic alterations were analyzed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance. • The water samples induced disruption of lipid metabolism and hepatotoxicity. • Omics approaches are valuable to evaluate the complicated toxicity of wastewater. - Abstract: Mixed chemical wastewaters (MCWW) from industrial park contain complex mixtures of trace contaminants, which cannot be effectively removed by wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) and have become an unignored threat to ambient environment. However, limited information is available to evaluate the complicated toxic effects of MCWW and its effluent from wastewater treatment plant (WTPE) from the perspective of bio-omics. In this study, mice were exposed to the MCWW and WTPE for 90 days and distinct differences in the hepatic transcriptome and serum metabolome were analyzed by digital gene expression (DGE) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H-NMR) spectra, respectively. Our results indicated that disruption of lipid metabolism in liver and hepatotoxicity were induced by both MCWW and WTPE exposure. WTPE is still a health risk to the environment, which is in need of more attention. Furthermore, we demonstrated the potential ability of bio-omics approaches for evaluating toxic effects of MCWW and WTPE.

  9. Evaluation of toxicity and removal of color in textile effluent treated with electron beam; Avaliacao da toxicidade e remocao da cor de um efluente textil tratado com feixe de eletrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morais, Aline Viana de

    2015-07-01

    The textile industry is among the main activities Brazil, being relevant in number of jobs, quantity and diversity of products and mainly by the volume of water used in industrial processes and effluent generation. These effluents are complex mixtures which are characterized by the presence of dyes, surfactants, metal sequestering agents, salts and other potentially toxic chemicals for the aquatic biota. Considering the lack of adequate waste management to these treatments, new technologies are essential in highlighting the advanced oxidation processes such as ionizing radiation electron beam. This study includes the preparation of a standard textile effluent chemical laboratory and its treatment by electron beam from electron accelerator in order to reduce the toxicity and intense staining resulting from Cl. Blue 222 dye. The treatment caused a reduction in toxicity to exposed organisms with 34.55% efficiency for the Daphnia similis micro crustacean and 47.83% for Brachionus plicatilis rotifer at a dose of 2.5 kGy. The Vibrio fischeri bacteria obtained better results after treatment with a dose of 5 kGy showing 57.29% efficiency. Color reduction was greater than 90% at a dose of 2.5 kGy. This experiment has also carried out some preliminary tests on the sensitivity of the D. similis and V. fischeri organisms to exposure of some of the products used in this bleaching and dyeing and two water reuse simulations in new textile processing after the treating the effluent with electron beam. (author)

  10. Radiological effluents released from US continental tests, 1961 through 1992. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoengold, C.R.; DeMarre, M.E.; Kirkwood, E.M.

    1996-08-01

    This report documents all continental tests from September 15, 1961, through September 23, 1992, from which radioactive effluents were released. The report includes both updated information previously published in the publicly available May, 1990 report, DOE/NV-317, ''Radiological Effluents Released from Announced US Continental Tests 1961 through 1988'', and effluent release information on formerly unannounced tests. General information provided for each test includes the date, time, location, type of test, sponsoring laboratory and/or agency or other sponsor, depth of burial, purpose, yield or yield range, extent of release (onsite only or offsite), and category of release (detonation-time versus post-test operations). Where a test with simultaneous detonations is listed, location, depth of burial and yield information are given for each detonation if applicable, as well as the specific source of the release. A summary of each release incident by type of release is included. For a detonation-time release, the effluent curies are expressed at R+12 hours. For a controlled releases from tunnel-tests, the effluent curies are expressed at both time of release and at R+12 hours. All other types are listed at the time of the release. In addition, a qualitative statement of the isotopes in the effluent is included for detonation-time and controlled releases and a quantitative listing is included for all other types. Offsite release information includes the cloud direction, the maximum activity detected in the air offsite, the maximum gamma exposure rate detected offsite, the maximum iodine level detected offsite, and the maximum distance radiation was detected offsite. A release summary incudes whatever other pertinent information is available for each release incident. This document includes effluent release information for 433 tests, some of which have simultaneous detonations. However, only 52 of these are designated as having offsite releases

  11. Radiological effluents released from US continental tests, 1961 through 1992. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoengold, C.R.; DeMarre, M.E.; Kirkwood, E.M.

    1996-08-01

    This report documents all continental tests from September 15, 1961, through September 23, 1992, from which radioactive effluents were released. The report includes both updated information previously published in the publicly available May, 1990 report, DOE/NV-317, ``Radiological Effluents Released from Announced US Continental Tests 1961 through 1988``, and effluent release information on formerly unannounced tests. General information provided for each test includes the date, time, location, type of test, sponsoring laboratory and/or agency or other sponsor, depth of burial, purpose, yield or yield range, extent of release (onsite only or offsite), and category of release (detonation-time versus post-test operations). Where a test with simultaneous detonations is listed, location, depth of burial and yield information are given for each detonation if applicable, as well as the specific source of the release. A summary of each release incident by type of release is included. For a detonation-time release, the effluent curies are expressed at R+12 hours. For a controlled releases from tunnel-tests, the effluent curies are expressed at both time of release and at R+12 hours. All other types are listed at the time of the release. In addition, a qualitative statement of the isotopes in the effluent is included for detonation-time and controlled releases and a quantitative listing is included for all other types. Offsite release information includes the cloud direction, the maximum activity detected in the air offsite, the maximum gamma exposure rate detected offsite, the maximum iodine level detected offsite, and the maximum distance radiation was detected offsite. A release summary incudes whatever other pertinent information is available for each release incident. This document includes effluent release information for 433 tests, some of which have simultaneous detonations. However, only 52 of these are designated as having offsite releases.

  12. Enhanced treatment of secondary municipal wastewater effluent: comparing (biological) filtration and ozonation in view of micropollutant removal, unselective effluent toxicity, and the potential for real-time control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chys, Michael; Demeestere, Kristof; Ingabire, Ange Sabine; Dries, Jan; Van Langenhove, Herman; Van Hulle, Stijn W H

    2017-07-01

    Ozonation and three (biological) filtration techniques (trickling filtration (TF), slow sand filtration (SSF) and biological activated carbon (BAC) filtration) have been evaluated in different combinations as tertiary treatment for municipal wastewater effluent. The removal of 18 multi-class pharmaceuticals, as model trace organic contaminants (TrOCs), has been studied. (Biological) activated carbon filtration could reduce the amount of TrOCs significantly (>99%) but is cost-intensive for full-scale applications. Filtration techniques mainly depending on biodegradation mechanisms (TF and SSF) are found to be inefficient for TrOCs removal as a stand alone technique. Ozonation resulted in 90% removal of the total amount of quantified TrOCs, but a post-ozonation step is needed to cope with an increased unselective toxicity. SSF following ozonation showed to be the only technique able to reduce the unselective toxicity to the same level as before ozonation. In view of process control, innovative correlation models developed for the monitoring and control of TrOC removal during ozonation, are verified for their applicability during ozonation in combination with TF, SSF or BAC. Particularly for the poorly ozone reactive TrOCs, statistically significant models were obtained that correlate TrOC removal and reduction in UVA 254 as an online measured surrogate parameter.

  13. Closure report for CAU 93: Area 6 steam cleaning effluent ponds, Nevada Test Site. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    The Steam Cleaning Effluent Ponds (SCEP) waste unit is located in Area 6 at the Nevada Test Site. The SCEPs are evaporation basins formerly used for the disposal of untreated liquid effluent discharged from steam cleaning activities associated with Buildings 6-623 and 6-800. This report contains Appendix B which provides all of the laboratory summary data sheets for the Area 6 SCEPs closure activities

  14. Closure report for CAU 93: Area 6 steam cleaning effluent ponds, Nevada Test Site. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The Steam Cleaning Effluent Ponds (SCEP) waste unit is located in Area 6 at the Nevada Test Site. The SCEPs are evaporation basins formerly used for the disposal of untreated liquid effluent discharged from steam cleaning activities associated with Buildings 6-623 and 6-800. This report contains Appendix B which provides all of the laboratory summary data sheets for the Area 6 SCEPs closure activities.

  15. Predictive acute toxicity tests with pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, V K

    1983-01-01

    By definition pesticides are biocidal products and this implies a probability that pesticides may be acutely toxic to species other than the designated target species. The ways in which pesticides are manufactured, formulated, packaged, distributed and used necessitates a potential for the exposure of non-target species although the technology exists to minimize adventitious exposure. The occurrence of deliberate exposure of non-target species due to the misuse of pesticides is known to happen. The array of predictive acute toxicity tests carried out on pesticides and involving the use of laboratory animals can be justified as providing data on which hazard assessment can be based. This paper addresses the justification and rationale of this statement.

  16. Microfluidics for Antibiotic Susceptibility and Toxicity Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Dai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The recent emergence of antimicrobial resistance has become a major concern for worldwide policy makers as very few new antibiotics have been developed in the last twenty-five years. To prevent the death of millions of people worldwide, there is an urgent need for a cheap, fast and accurate set of tools and techniques that can help to discover and develop new antimicrobial drugs. In the past decade, microfluidic platforms have emerged as potential systems for conducting pharmacological studies. Recent studies have demonstrated that microfluidic platforms can perform rapid antibiotic susceptibility tests to evaluate antimicrobial drugs’ efficacy. In addition, the development of cell-on-a-chip and organ-on-a-chip platforms have enabled the early drug testing, providing more accurate insights into conventional cell cultures on the drug pharmacokinetics and toxicity, at the early and cheaper stage of drug development, i.e., prior to animal and human testing. In this review, we focus on the recent developments of microfluidic platforms for rapid antibiotics susceptibility testing, investigating bacterial persistence and non-growing but metabolically active (NGMA bacteria, evaluating antibiotic effectiveness on biofilms and combinatorial effect of antibiotics, as well as microfluidic platforms that can be used for in vitro antibiotic toxicity testing.

  17. Toxicity of Uranium Adsorbent Materials using the Microtox Toxicity Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jiyeon [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jeters, Robert T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gill, Gary A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kuo, Li-Jung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bonheyo, George T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Marine Sciences Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated the toxicity of a diverse range of natural and synthetic materials used to extract uranium from seawater. The uranium adsorbent materials are being developed as part of the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, Fuel Resources Program. The goal of this effort was to identify whether deployment of a farm of these materials into the marine environment would have any toxic effects on marine organisms.

  18. On the possibility of using biological toxicity tests to monitor the work of wastewater treatment plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorić Jelena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to ascertain the possibility of using biological toxicity tests to monitor influent and effluent wastewaters of wastewater treatment plants. The information obtained through these tests is used to prevent toxic pollutants from entering wastewater treatment plants and discharge of toxic pollutants into the recipient. Samples of wastewaters from the wastewater treatment plants of Kragujevac and Gornji Milanovac, as well as from the Lepenica and Despotovica Rivers immediately before and after the influx of wastewaters from the plants, were collected between October 2004 and June 2005. Used as the test organism in these tests was the zebrafish Brachydanio rerio Hamilton - Buchanon (Cyprinidae. The acute toxicity test of 96/h duration showed that the tested samples had a slight acutely toxic effect on B. rerio, except for the sample of influent wastewater into the Cvetojevac wastewater treatment plant, which had moderately acute toxicity, indicating that such water should be prevented from entering the system in order to eliminate its detrimental effect on the purification process.

  19. Using Py-GC/MS to fingerprint additives associated with paper mill effluent toxicity episodes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sithole, Bruce

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available techniques applicable to mill effluents such as gas chromatography. Py-GC/MS is a powerful analytical technique that can be used to fingerprint these additives. The presence of the additives is confirmed by fingerprint pyrograms of the additives (or...

  20. EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY (ETF) WASTE STREAM STABILIZATION TESTING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    COOKE; LOCKREM; AVILA; KOCI

    2005-01-01

    toxicity characteristic leaching procedure testing on samples of dry cementitious formulation spiked with selected metals will also be presented

  1. Development of Cardiovascular and Neurodevelopmental Metrics as Sublethal Endpoints for the Fish Embryo Toxicity Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzykwa, Julie C; Olivas, Alexis; Jeffries, Marlo K Sellin

    2018-06-19

    The fathead minnow fish embryo toxicity (FET) test has been proposed as a more humane alternative to current toxicity testing methods, as younger organisms are thought to experience less distress during toxicant exposure. However, the FET test protocol does not include endpoints that allow for the prediction of sublethal adverse outcomes, limiting its utility relative to other test types. Researchers have proposed the development of sublethal endpoints for the FET test to increase its utility. The present study 1) developed methods for previously unmeasured sublethal metrics in fathead minnows (i.e., spontaneous contraction frequency and heart rate) and 2) investigated the responsiveness of several sublethal endpoints related to growth (wet weight, length, and growth-related gene expression), neurodevelopment (spontaneous contraction frequency, and neurodevelopmental gene expression), and cardiovascular function and development (pericardial area, eye size and cardiovascular related gene expression) as additional FET test metrics using the model toxicant 3,4-dichloroaniline. Of the growth, neurological and cardiovascular endpoints measured, length, eye size and pericardial area were found to more responsive than the other endpoints, respectively. Future studies linking alterations in these endpoints to longer-term adverse impacts are needed to fully evaluate the predictive power of these metrics in chemical and whole effluent toxicity testing. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Tests of the use of cation exchange organic resins for the decontamination of radioactive aqueous effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdrez, Jean; Girault, Jacques; Wormser, Gerald

    1962-01-01

    The authors report tests performed in laboratory and results obtained during an investigation of the use of synthetic ion exchangers for the decontamination of radioactive effluents of moderate activity level and with a non neglectable salt loading. Resins are used under sodium form and regenerated after each fixing operation. Once decontaminated and free of its disturbing ions, the regenerating agent (NaCl) is used for several operations. The authors present the used resins, the treated effluents, describe the tests, and discuss the obtained results [fr

  3. TEST (Toxicity Estimation Software Tool) Ver 4.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Toxicity Estimation Software Tool (T.E.S.T.) has been developed to allow users to easily estimate toxicity and physical properties using a variety of QSAR methodologies. T.E.S.T allows a user to estimate toxicity without requiring any external programs. Users can input a chem...

  4. Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) of Belford Roxo industrial plant effluent and its contribution in water quality of downstream of Sarapui River, Iguacu River sub-basin, Baia da Guanabara Basin, RJ, Brazil; Avaliacao e identificacao da toxicidade (Toxity Identification Evaluation - TIE) do efluente liquido do polo industrial de Belford Roxo, RJ, e sua contribuicao na qualidade das aguas do corso inferior do Rio Sarapui, sub-bacia do Rio Iguacu, Bacia da Baia da Guanabara, RJ, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Luiz Eduardo Botelho

    2006-07-01

    The quality of Belford Roxo Industrial Plant effluent and water from Sarapui River were evaluated with Daphnia similis, Ceriodaphnia dubia and Danio rerio acute and chronic toxicity tests. In association with the ecotoxicological monitoring, the Toxicity Identification Evaluation procedure were performed and the identification of the toxic compounds was possible. The Chloride ion was identified as the major toxic compound in the effluent with additional effects of Metals, Ammonium and Sulfide. For the Sarapui River, the compounds of Phosphorus and Nitrogen were identified as the major toxic compounds with addictive effects of Metals, Ammonium and Sulfide. Although the environmental impact estimation based on the effluent toxicity suggests a minor impact on the water quality of Sarapui River, this was already sufficiently contaminated to make impracticable the establishment of an aquatic community. The constant discharge of untreated sludge promotes the eutrophication of this water body and makes impossible the equilibrium of this ecosystem. (author)

  5. Closure report for CAU 93: Area 6 steam cleaning effluent ponds, Nevada Test Site. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    The Steam Cleaning Effluent Ponds (SCEP) waste unit is located in Area 6 at the Nevada Test Site. The SCEPs are evaporation basins formerly used for the disposal of untreated liquid effluent discharged from steam cleaning activities associated with Buildings 6-623 and 6-800. This closure report documents the strategy and analytical results that support the clean closure or closure in place of each of the components within CAU 93. In addition, the report documents all deviations from the approved closure plan and provides rationale for all deviations

  6. Fungal bio-treatment of spruce wood with Trametes versicolor for pitch control: Influence on extractive contents, pulping process parameters, paper quality and effluent toxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van T.A.; Kuster, B.; Claassen, F.W.; Tienvieri, T.; Bertaud, F.; Lennon, G.; Petit-Concil, M.; Sierra-Alvarez, R.

    2007-01-01

    Lipophilic low molar-mass constituents in wood chips for the paper industry result in low quality pulp, pitch deposition, and effluent toxicity. New biotechnological solutions such as fungal pre-treatment of wood chips can reduce pitch problems. This laboratory-scale study focuses on the potential

  7. Quick, portable toxicity testing of marine or terrigenous fluids, sediments, or chemicals with bioluminescent organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabate, R.W.; Stiffey, A.V.; Dewailly, E.L.

    1995-01-01

    A hand-held, battery-operated instrument, which measures bioluminescence inhibition of the microscopic marine dinoflagellate Pyrocystis lunula, is capable of field-testing substances for toxicity. The organism is sensitive to ppb of strong toxicants. It tolerates some solvents in concentrations necessary for testing lipophylic samples. A test consumes only micrograms of sample. This method requires no adjustments for salinity, pH, color, or turbidity. It has been used successfully to test oil-well drilling fluids, brines produced with oil, waters and sediments from streams and lakes and petroleum-plant effluents containing contaminants such as benzene. The test is non-specific; however, if the substance is known, the end-point effects a direct measurement of its concentration. One-hour toxicity screening tests in the field produce results comparable to the standard four-hour laboratory test. Keeping the sample in the dark during incubation and testing, together with shortness of the overall procedure, eliminates anomalies from light-sensitive substances. Day-to-day variation, as well as among test replicates, is less than 10%. This quick method yields results comparable with a quick test that uses Photobacterium phosphoria, and with 96-hour tests that use Mysidopsis bahia, Artemia salina, Gonyaulax polyedra, Pimephales promelas, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and Cyprinodon variegatus

  8. 78 FR 66700 - Toxic Substances Control Act Chemical Testing; Receipt of Test Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... additive for food Rat--Up-and-Down processing, and as Procedure. ingredient in aluminum Micronucleus Test... Toxicity to Fish; Acute Toxicity to Daphnia; Toxicity to Algae; Acute Toxicity to Mammals; Bacterial..., cold Study in Zebra Fish set, and sheet-fed (Brachydanio rerio). applications. Acute Toxicity Study in...

  9. 40 CFR 414.91 - Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that use...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., production, and sampling and analysis information. Effluent characteristics Effluent limitations BAT and NSPS...-Dinitrophenol 123 71 2,4-Dinitrotoluene 285 113 2,6-Dinitrotoluene 641 255 Ethylbenzene 108 32 Fluoranthene 68...

  10. 40 CFR 414.101 - Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., production, and sampling and analysis information. Effluent characteristics BAT effluent limitations and NSPS... phthalate 47 19 4,6-Dinitro-o-cresol 277 78 2,4-Dinitrophenol 4,291 1,207 Ethylbenzene 380 142 Fluoranthene...

  11. Simple test guidelines for screening oilspill sorbents for toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blenkinsopp, S.A.; Sergy, G.; Doe, K.; Jackman, P.; Huybers, A.

    1998-01-01

    Environment Canada's Emergencies Science Division has established a program to develop a standard test method suitable for evaluating the toxicity of common sorbent materials. Sorbents are used to absorb or adsorb spilled oil and other hazardous materials. They vary widely in composition and packaging. They are often treated with oleophilic and hydrophobic compounds to improve performance and have been used in large quantities during oil spills. Until now, their potential toxicity has never been considered. Three tests have been evaluated to determine how appropriate they are in screening the toxicity of sorbents. Seven toxicity test recommendations for sorbents were presented. 7 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  12. Summary report of bioassays for the city of Hollywood water plant membrane reject water as it mixed with WWTP effluent in an ocean outfall environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fergen, R.E.; Vinci, P.; Bloetscher, F.

    1999-07-01

    A special bioassay study was conducted to review the impact of the City of Hollywood's Membrane Softening Water Treatment Plant (WRP) reject water as it mixes with the City's Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) effluent. Three sampling periods occurred during 1997. The purpose of this study was to determine potential toxicity of the WTP reject water, pre-chlorinated effluent, and combined effluent, and to demonstrate if the combined effluent was acceptable for ocean discharge on the basis of no potential toxicity. Effluent was acceptable for ocean discharge on the basis of no potential toxicity. Effluent samples were collected at six sampling points; three were in the plant, while the other three were along the outfall pipeline. Definitive, static renewal bioassay tests were performed using Mysidopsis bahia and Menidia beryllina as indicators of potential toxicity. The bioassay tests at 30% effluent concentration indicate that there is not potential toxicity for the pre-chlorinated WTP effluent, WTP reject water, dechlorinate combined effluent at the plant, and chlorinated combined effluent at Holland Park, the riser, and the terminus. The results indicate that the WTP reject water (100%) is not toxic to Menidia beryllina but was toxic to Mysidopsis bahia. When combined with the WWRP effluent, the reject water's impact on the potential toxicity of the commingled effluent was insignificant. All of the tests indicate the combined effluents are not toxic to the species tested at the 30% effluent level. Therefore, potential toxicity concerns were not demonstrated for this outfall discharge and did not prevent FDEP from issuing a permit to the City of Hollywood for the disposal of the combined effluent. Furthermore, these results, in combination with the previous results, indicated that individual bioassay testing for the reject water for regulatory compliance is not required.

  13. In Vitro Toxicity testing in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin L Roggen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The National Research Council (NRC article Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A vision and A Strategy (National Research Council, 2007 was written to bring attention to the application of scientific advances for use in toxicity tests so that chemicals can be tested in a more time and cost efficient manner while providing a more relevant and mechanistic insight into the toxic potential of a compound.Development of tools for in vitro toxicity testing constitutes an important activity of this vision and contributes to the provision of test systems as well as data that are essential for the development of computer modelling tools for e.g. system biology, physiologically-based modelling. This article intends to highlight some of the issues that have to be addressed in order to make in vitro toxicity testing a reality in the 21st century.

  14. Efficacy of Allium cepa test system for screening cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of industrial effluents originated from different industrial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathiratne, Asoka; Hemachandra, Chamini K; De Silva, Nimal

    2015-12-01

    Efficacy of Allium cepa test system for screening cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of treated effluents originated from four types of industrial activities (two textile industries, three rubber based industries, two common treatment plants of industrial zones, and two water treatment plants) was assessed. Physico-chemical parameters including the heavy metal/metalloid levels of the effluents varied depending on the industry profile, but most of the measured parameters in the effluents were within the specified tolerance limits of Sri Lankan environmental regulations for discharge of industrial effluents into inland surface waters. In the A. cepa test system, the undiluted effluents induced statistically significant root growth retardation, mitosis depression, and chromosomal aberrations in root meristematic cells in most cases in comparison to the dilution water and upstream water signifying effluent induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Ethyl methane sulphonate (a mutagen, positive control) and all the effluents under 1:8 dilution significantly induced total chromosomal aberrations in root meristematic cells in comparison to the dilution water and upstream water indicating inadequacy of expected 1:8 dilutions in the receiving waters for curtailing genotoxic impacts. The results support the use of a practically feasible A. cepa test system for rapid screening of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of diverse industrial effluents discharging into inland surface waters.

  15. A chronic toxicity test protocol using Caridina nilotica (Decapoda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salinization of freshwater resources is an increasing global problem, yet there is a paucity of chronic salinity tolerance data linked to very few chronic toxicity test protocols. This research aimed to generate a chronic toxicity test protocol and protective salinity tolerance data for the indigenous South African freshwater shrimp ...

  16. Effects of untreated hospital effluents on the accumulation of toxic metals in sediments of receiving system under tropical conditions: case of South India and Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubedi, Josué Ilunga; Devarajan, Naresh; Le Faucheur, Séverine; Mputu, John Kayembe; Atibu, Emmanuel K; Sivalingam, Periyasamy; Prabakar, Kandasamy; Mpiana, Pius T; Wildi, Walter; Poté, John

    2013-10-01

    Physicochemical and ecotoxicological analyses have been performed to assess the quality of sediments receiving untreated hospital effluents from Indian and Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) hospitals. The sediments were collected monthly and characterized for grain size, organic matter, total organic carbon, total carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, toxic metals and ecotoxicity. The results highlight the high concentration of toxic metals from the Indian hospital effluent receiving systems, especially for Cr, Cu, As, Zn and Hg. On the other hand, the metal concentrations in the sediment receiving system from DRC are low (e.g. maximum Hg and Zn concentration were 0.46 and 48.84 mg kg(-1) respectively). Ostracods exposed to sediment samples H2 (September month sample) and H3 (June and September month samples) were found dead after 6d of exposure whereas the higher mortality rate for Congo sediments was 23% but was accompanied with 33 ± 7% of growth inhibition. The results of this study show the variation of sediment composition on toxic metal levels as well as toxicity related to both, the type of hospitals and the sampling period. Additionally, hospital effluent disposal practices at the study sites can lead to the pollution of water resources and may generate risks for aquatic organisms and human health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Microorganism mediated biosynthesis of metal chalcogenides; a powerful tool to transform toxic effluents into functional nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vena, M. Paula; Jobbágy, Matías; Bilmes, Sara A., E-mail: sarabil@qi.fcen.uba.ar

    2016-09-15

    Cadmium contained in soil and water can be taken up by certain crops and aquatic organisms and accumulate in the food-chain, thus removal of Cd from mining or industrial effluents – i.e. Ni-Cd batteries, electroplating, pigments, fertilizers – becomes mandatory for human health. In parallel, there is an increased interest in the production of luminescent Q-dots for applications in bioimaging, sensors and electronic devices, even the present synthesis methods are economic and environmentally costly. An alternative green pathway for producing Metal chalcogenides (MC: CdS, CdSe, CdTe) nanocrystals is based on the metabolic activity of living organisms. Intracellular and extracellular biosynthesis of can be achieved within a biomimetic approach feeding living organisms with Cd precursors providing new routes for combining bioremediation with green routes for producing MC nanoparticles. In this mini-review we present the state-of-the-art of biosynthesis of MC nanoparticles with a critical discussion of parameters involved and protocols. Few existing examples of scaling-up are also discussed. A modular reactor based on microorganisms entrapped in biocompatible mineral matrices – already proven for bioremediation of dissolved dyes – is proposed for combining both Cd-depletion and MC nanoparticle's production. - Highlights: • Removal of heavy metals by living matter is feasible trough biosorption and bioaccumulation • Algae, fungi, bacteria and yeasts can synthesize CdS, CdSe and CdTe Q-dots • Encapsulation of microorganisms in mineral gels provides building blocks for reactor design. • Depletion of Cd with production of Q-dots can be achieved with modular bioreactors with entrapped cells.

  18. Mixture toxicity of wood preservative products in the fish embryo toxicity test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coors, Anja; Dobrick, Jan; Möder, Monika; Kehrer, Anja

    2012-06-01

    Wood preservative products are used globally to protect wood from fungal decay and insects. We investigated the aquatic toxicity of five commercial wood preservative products, the biocidal active substances and some formulation additives contained therein, as well as six generic binary mixtures of the active substances in the fish embryo toxicity test (FET). Median lethal concentrations (LC50) of the single substances, the mixtures, and the products were estimated from concentration-response curves and corrected for concentrations measured in the test medium. The comparison of the experimentally observed mixture toxicity with the toxicity predicted by the concept of concentration addition (CA) showed less than twofold deviation for all binary mixtures of the active substances and for three of the biocidal products. A more than 60-fold underestimation of the toxicity of the fourth product by the CA prediction was detected and could be explained fully by the toxicity of one formulation additive, which had been labeled as a hazardous substance. The reason for the 4.6-fold underestimation of toxicity of the fifth product could not be explained unambiguously. Overall, the FET was found to be a suitable screening tool to verify whether the toxicity of formulated wood preservatives can reliably be predicted by CA. Applied as a quick and simple nonanimal screening test, the FET may support approaches of applying component-based mixture toxicity predictions within the environmental risk assessment of biocidal products, which is required according to European regulations. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  19. Immunotoxicity, genotoxicity and epigenetic toxicity of nanomaterials: New strategies for toxicity testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusinska, Maria; Tulinska, Jana; El Yamani, Naouale; Kuricova, Miroslava; Liskova, Aurelia; Rollerova, Eva; Rundén-Pran, Elise; Smolkova, Bozena

    2017-11-01

    The unique properties of nanomaterials (NMs) are beneficial in numerous industrial and medical applications. However, they could also induce unintended effects. Thus, a proper strategy for toxicity testing is essential in human hazard and risk assessment. Toxicity can be tested in vivo and in vitro; in compliance with the 3Rs, alternative strategies for in vitro testing should be further developed for NMs. Robust, standardized methods are of great importance in nanotoxicology, with comprehensive material characterization and uptake as an integral part of the testing strategy. Oxidative stress has been shown to be an underlying mechanism of possible toxicity of NMs, causing both immunotoxicity and genotoxicity. For testing NMs in vitro, a battery of tests should be performed on cells of human origin, either cell lines or primary cells, in conditions as close as possible to an in vivo situation. Novel toxicity pathways, particularly epigenetic modification, should be assessed along with conventional toxicity testing methods. However, to initiate epigenetic toxicity screens for NM exposure, there is a need to better understand their adverse effects on the epigenome, to identify robust and reproducible causal links between exposure, epigenetic changes and adverse phenotypic endpoints, and to develop improved assays to monitor epigenetic toxicity. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Pilot-scale ultrafiltration testing for the F and H area effluent treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessler, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    An F and H Area Effluent Treatment Facility (F/H ETF) is being designed to treat low activity aqueous effluents which are produced from F and H Area daily operations. The treatment scheme for the F/H ETF will include pretreatment (pH adjustment and filtration) followed by Reverse Osmosis and/or Ion Exchange to remove dissolved species. Several alternative treatment processes are being considered for the F/H ETF. One of the alternatives in the pretreatment step is tubular Ultrafiltration (UF), using a dynamically formed zirconium oxide membrane supported on a porous stainless steel backing. Pilot-scale testing with a single membrane module (13 ft 2 area) and 200-Area effluent simulant has demonstrated that UF is a viable filtration option for the F/H ETF. UF testing at TNX has defined the operating conditions necessary for extended operation and also demonstrated excellent filtration performance (filtrate SDI 2 /day) flux and will provide excellent pretreatment for both reverse osmosis and ion exchange. 2 refs

  1. Acute oral toxicity test of chemical compounds in silkworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Kimihito; Nishida, Satoshi; Sugita, Takuya; Ueki, Takuro; Matsumoto, Yasuhiko; Okumura, Hidenobu; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2016-02-01

    This study performed an acute oral toxicity test of 59 compounds in silkworms. These compounds are listed in OECD guidelines as standard substances for a cytotoxicity test, and median lethal dose (LD(50)) werecalculated for each compound. Acute oral LD(50) values in mammals are listed in OECD guidelines and acute oral LD(50) values in silkworms were determined in this study. R(2) for the correlation between LD(50) values in mammals and LD(50) values in silkworms was 0.66. In addition, the acute oral toxicity test in silkworms was performed by two different facilities, and test results from the facilities were highly reproducible. These findings suggest that an acute oral toxicity test in silkworms is a useful way to evaluate the toxicity of compounds in mammals.

  2. Test of active coal capacity for retaining gaseous effluents contaminated by 131 I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campeanu, Catalina; Cruceru, Madalina; Neacsu, Elena

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to test the retaining capacity of the active coal of the filters for gaseous effluents contaminated by 131 I. The active coal filters are design for equipping ventilation installations of nuclear plants in which radioactive iodine and combination of it were produced and handled. Such active coal filters are provided also to sorbonnes for radiochemical and physical handling of radioactive iodine. Testing the retaining capacity of active coal for filters is an obvious step, particularly, when the material was stored long time after preparation

  3. 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility operational test specification. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, A.F.

    1995-01-01

    This document identifies the test specification and test requirements for the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (200 Area TEDF) operational testing activities. These operational testing activities, when completed, demonstrate the functional, operational and design requirements of the 200 Area TEDF have been met. The technical requirements for operational testing of the 200 Area TEDF are defined by the test requirements presented in Appendix A. These test requirements demonstrate the following: pump station No.1 and associated support equipment operate both automatically and manually; pump station No. 2 and associated support equipment operate both automatically and manually; water is transported through the collection and transfer lines to the disposal ponds with no detectable leakage; the disposal ponds accept flow from the transfer lines with all support equipment operating as designed; and the control systems operate and status the 200 Area TEDF including monitoring of appropriate generator discharge parameters

  4. Evaluating the Zebrafish Embryo Toxicity Test for Pesticide ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given the numerous chemicals used in society, it is critical to develop tools for accurate and efficient evaluation of potential risks to human and ecological receptors. Fish embryo acute toxicity tests are 1 tool that has been shown to be highly predictive of standard, more resource-intensive, juvenile fish acute toxicity tests. However, there is also evidence that fish embryos are less sensitive than juvenile fish for certain types of chemicals, including neurotoxicants. The utility of fish embryos for pesticide hazard assessment was investigated by comparing published zebrafish embryo toxicity data from pesticides with median lethal concentration 50% (LC50) data for juveniles of 3 commonly tested fish species: rainbow trout, bluegill sunfish, and sheepshead minnow. A poor, albeit significant, relationship (r2 = 0.28; p embryo and juvenile fish toxicity when pesticides were considered as a single group, but a much better relationship (r2 = 0.64; p embryo toxicity test endpoints are particularly insensitive to neurotoxicants. These results indicate that it is still premature to replace juvenile fish toxicity tests with embryo-based tests such as the Organisation for Economic Co-op

  5. 40 CFR 797.1930 - Mysid shrimp acute toxicity test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... test organisms and eliminating loss of organisms in outflow water. (6) “Static system” means a test..., procedures, and mysids from the same population or culture container, except that none of the chemical is... in chronic toxicity tests should originate from laboratory cultures in order to ensure the...

  6. Organophosphorus insecticides: Toxic effects and bioanalytical tests for evaluating toxicity during degradation processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Mirjana B.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphorus insecticides have been the most applied group of insecticides for the last two decades. Their main toxic effects are related to irreversible inactivation of acetylcholinesterase (AChE. Actually, they covalently bind to serine OH group in the enzyme active site forming phosphorylated enzyme that cannot hydrolyze acetylcholine. Organophosphorus insecticides in the environment undergo the natural degradation pathway including mainly homogeneous and heterogeneous hydrolysis (especially at high pH generating non-inhibiting products. Additionally, thio organophosphates are easily oxidized by naturally present oxidants and UV light, forming more toxic and stable oxons. Thus, oxidative degradation procedures, generally referred as advanced oxidation processes (AOP, have been applied for their efficient removal from contaminated waters. The most applied bioassays to monitor the organophosphate toxicity i.e. the detoxification degree during AOP are Vibrio fischeri and AChE bioassays. Vibrio fischeri toxicity test exploits bioluminescence as the measure of luciferase activity of this marine bacterium, whereas AChE bioassay is based on AChE activity inhibition. Both bioanalytical techniques are rapid (several minutes, simple, sensitive and reproducible. Vibrio fischeri test seems to be a versatile indicator of toxic compounds generated in AOP for organophosphorus insecticides degradation. However, detection of neurotoxic AChE inhibitors, which can be formed in AOP of some organophosphates, requires AChE bioassays. Therefore, AChE toxicity test is more appropriate for monitoring the degradation processes of thio organophosphates, because more toxic oxo organophosphates might be formed and overlooked by Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence inhibition. In addition, during organophosphates removal by AOP, compounds with strong genotoxic potential may be formed, which cannot be detected by standard toxicity tests. For this reason, determination of

  7. Implications of Animal Welfare on Toxicity Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Otto A.

    1993-01-01

    The testing strategy for chemical substances is discussed with regard to obtaining improved quality of data for health assessment while respecting the ethical responsibility for consideration of the welfare of the animals involved. Ensuring animal welfare without indulging too much in anthropomor......The testing strategy for chemical substances is discussed with regard to obtaining improved quality of data for health assessment while respecting the ethical responsibility for consideration of the welfare of the animals involved. Ensuring animal welfare without indulging too much...

  8. Effect of indigo dye effluent on the growth, biomass production and phenotypic plasticity of Scenedesmus quadricauda (Chlorococcales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Mathias A; Musa, Rilwan I

    2014-03-01

    The effect of indigo dye effluent on the freshwater microalga Scenedesmus quadricauda ABU12 was investigated under controlled laboratory conditions. The microalga was exposed to different concentrations of the effluent obtained by diluting the dye effluent from 100 to 175 times in bold basal medium (BBM). The growth rate of the microalga decreased as indigo dye effluent concentration increased (p Scenedesmus, which means it can be considered an important biomarker for toxicity testing.

  9. Pilot-scale reverse osmosis testing for the F and H Area Effluent Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessler, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    Pilot-scale reverse osmosis (RO) tests were completed with a 10 gpm unit to demonstrate the performance of RO in the F and H Area Effluent Treatment Facility (F/H ETF). RO will be used in the WMETF to remove soluble salts and soluble radioactivity. The advantage of using RO (over ion exchange) is that it is nondescriminanting and removes virtually all dissolved solids species, regardless of ionic charge. RO also generates less than half the waste volume produced by ion exchange. Test results using a 200-Area nonradioactive effluent simulant demonstrated salt rejections of 98% and water recoveries of 94% by using recycle on a single stage pilot unit. For a full-scale, multi-staged unit overall salt rejections will be 95% (DF = 20) while obtaining a 94% water recovery (94% discharge, 6% concentrated waste stream). Identical performance is expected on actual radioactive streams, based on shielded cells testing performed by Motyka and Stimson. Similarly, if the WMETF RO system is configured in the same manner as the SRL ECWPF, a DF of 20 and a water recvery of 94% should be obtained

  10. Evaluation of metals, metalloids, and ash mixture toxicity using sediment toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojak, Amber; Bonnevie, Nancy L; Jones, Daniel S

    2015-01-01

    In December 2008, a release of 4.1 million m(3) of coal ash from the Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston Fossil Plant occurred. Ash washed into the Emory River and migrated downstream into the Clinch and Tennessee Rivers. A Baseline Ecological Risk Assessment evaluated risks to ecological receptors from ash in the river system post-dredging. This article describes the approach used and results from sediment toxicity tests, discussing any causal relationships between ash, metals, and toxicity. Literature is limited in the realm of aquatic coal combustion residue (CCR) exposures and the potential magnitude of effects on benthic invertebrates. Sediment samples along a spectrum of ash content were used in a tiered toxicity testing approach and included a combination of 10 day sediment toxicity acute tests and longer-term, partial life cycle "definitive" tests with 2 species (Hyalella azteca and Chironomus dilutus). Arsenic, and to a lesser extent Se, in the ash was the most likely toxicant causing observed effects in the laboratory toxicity tests. Sites in the Emory River with the greatest statistical and biologically significant effects had As concentrations in sediments twice the probable effects concentration of 33 mg/kg. These sites contained greater than 50% ash. Sites with less than approximately 50% ash in sediments exhibited fewer significant toxic responses relative to the reference sediment in the laboratory. The results discussed here present useful evidence of only limited effects occurring from a worst-case exposure pathway. These results provided a valuable line of evidence for the overall assessment of risks to benthic invertebrates and to other ecological receptors, and were crucial to risk management and development of project remediation goals. © 2014 SETAC.

  11. Study on irradiation of freshening ginseng and toxicity test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ziwen; Xu Dechun; Yang Wanqi

    1991-01-01

    The ginsengs irradiated by 1 or 2 kGy of γ-rays have been stored for 6 months under room temperature. Its freshening rates was 86.67% and 88.33% respectively. The saponin content was maintained. The irradiated ginsengs had the vigour of sap fully and beautiful colour. Therefore they can be stored much longer for sell. The toxicity test showed that there was no toxicity for irradiated ginsengs

  12. The influence of time on lead toxicity and bioaccumulation determined by the OECD earthworm toxicity test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, N.A.Nicola A.; Hodson, M.E.Mark E.; Black, S.Stuart

    2003-01-01

    Timing of lead addition and worms to soil affects the response of the worms to soil affects the response of the worms to lead. - Internationally agreed standard protocols for assessing chemical toxicity of contaminants in soil to worms assume that the test soil does not need to equilibrate with the chemical to be tested prior to the addition of the test organisms and that the chemical will exert any toxic effect upon the test organism within 28 days. Three experiments were carried out to investigate these assumptions. The first experiment was a standard toxicity test where lead nitrate was added to a soil in solution to give a range of concentrations. The mortality of the worms and the concentration of lead in the survivors were determined. The LC 50 s for 14 and 28 days were 5311 and 5395 μg Pb g -1 soil respectively. The second experiment was a timed lead accumulation study with worms cultivated in soil containing either 3000 or 5000 μg Pb g -1 soil . The concentration of lead in the worms was determined at various sampling times. Uptake at both concentrations was linear with time. Worms in the 5000 μg g -1 soil accumulated lead at a faster rate (3.16 μg Pb g -1 tissue day -1 ) than those in the 3000 μg g -1 soil (2.21 μg Pb g -1 tissue day -1 ). The third experiment was a timed experiment with worms cultivated in soil containing 7000 μg Pb g -1 soil . Soil and lead nitrate solution were mixed and stored at 20 deg. C. Worms were added at various times over a 35-day period. The time to death increased from 23 h, when worms were added directly after the lead was added to the soil, to 67 h when worms were added after the soil had equilibrated with the lead for 35 days. In artificially Pb-amended soils the worms accumulate Pb over the duration of their exposure to the Pb. Thus time limited toxicity tests may be terminated before worm body load has reached a toxic level. This could result in under-estimates of the toxicity of Pb to worms. As the equilibration

  13. Phase 1 Testing Results of Immobilization of WTP Effluent Management Facility Evaporator Bottoms Core Simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzi, Alex D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, Daniel J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-01-05

    simulant of the LAW Melter Off-gas Condensate expected during DFLAW operations and use it in evaporator testing to predict the composition of the effluents from the Effluent Management Facility (EMF) evaporator to aid in planning for their disposition. The objective of this task was to test immobilization options for this evaporator bottoms aqueous stream. This document describes the method used to formulate a simulant of this EMF evaporator bottoms stream, immobilize it, and determine if the immobilized waste forms meet disposal criteria.

  14. Effluent Containment System for space thermal nuclear propulsion ground test facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the research and development study work performed for the Space Reactor Power System Division of the U.S. Department of Energy on an innovative ECS that would be used during ground testing of a space nuclear thermal rocket engine. A significant portion of the ground test facilities for a space nuclear thermal propulsion engine are the effluent treatment and containment systems. The proposed ECS configuration developed recycles all engine coolant media and does not impact the environment by venting radioactive material. All coolant media, hydrogen and water, are collected, treated for removal of radioactive particulates, and recycled for use in subsequent tests until the end of the facility life. Radioactive materials removed by the treatment systems are recovered, stored for decay of short-lived isotopes, or packaged for disposal as waste. At the end of the useful life, the facility will be decontaminated and dismantled for disposal

  15. 40 CFR 797.1950 - Mysid shrimp chronic toxicity test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... on the chronic toxicity of chemical substances and mixtures (“chemicals”) subject to environmental... with the test design into retention chambers within the test and the control chambers. Mysids in the... and experimental history. Mysids used for establishing laboratory cultures may be purchased...

  16. Toxicity of compounds with endocrine activity in the OECD 421 reproductive toxicity screening test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma AH; Verhoef A; Elvers LH; Wester PW; LEO; LPI

    1998-01-01

    The issue of endocrine disruption has, in view of human risk assessment, raised the question on whether more sensitive test methods are needed to detect the reproductive toxic properties of xenobiotic compounds with endocrine properties. We studied six known and alleged endocrine disruptors in an

  17. F and H Area Effluent Treatment Facility (F/H ETF): ultrafiltration and hyperfiltration systems testing at Carre, Inc. with simulated F and H area effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    The F and H Area Effluent Treatment Facility is essentially a four-stage process that will decontaminate the waste water that is currently being discharged to seepage basins in the Separations Areas. The stages include pretreatment, reverse osmosis, ion exchange, and evaporation. A series of tests were performed at Carre, Inc. (Seneca, SC) from March 5 through March 13, to determine the usefulness of ultrafiltration (UF) in the pretreatment stage of the ETF. The results of that testing program indicate that UF would be an excellent means of removing entrained activity from the 200 Area process effluents. Hyperfiltration (HF) was also tested as a means of providing an improved concentration factor from the reverse osmosis stage. The results show that the membranes that were tested would not reject salt well enough at high salt concentrations to be useful in the final reverse osmosis stage. However, there are several membranes which are commercially available that would provide the needed rejection if they could be applied (dynamically) on the Carre support structure. This avenue is still being explored, as theoretically, it could eliminate the need for the F/H ETF evaporator

  18. Functional toxicology: tools to advance the future of toxicity testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaytán, Brandon D.; Vulpe, Chris D.

    2014-01-01

    The increased presence of chemical contaminants in the environment is an undeniable concern to human health and ecosystems. Historically, by relying heavily upon costly and laborious animal-based toxicity assays, the field of toxicology has often neglected examinations of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of toxicity for the majority of compounds—information that, if available, would strengthen risk assessment analyses. Functional toxicology, where cells or organisms with gene deletions or depleted proteins are used to assess genetic requirements for chemical tolerance, can advance the field of toxicity testing by contributing data regarding chemical mechanisms of toxicity. Functional toxicology can be accomplished using available genetic tools in yeasts, other fungi and bacteria, and eukaryotes of increased complexity, including zebrafish, fruit flies, rodents, and human cell lines. Underscored is the value of using less complex systems such as yeasts to direct further studies in more complex systems such as human cell lines. Functional techniques can yield (1) novel insights into chemical toxicity; (2) pathways and mechanisms deserving of further study; and (3) candidate human toxicant susceptibility or resistance genes. PMID:24847352

  19. Evaluating the Zebrafish Embryo Toxicity Test for Pesticide Hazard Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given the numerous chemicals used in society, it is critical to develop tools for accurate and efficient evaluation of potential risks to human and ecological receptors. Fish embryo acute toxicity tests are 1 tool that has been shown to be highly predictive of standard, more reso...

  20. Improvement in Shrimp Hatchery Procedures for Toxicity Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor Azizah Marsiddi; Fazliana Mohd Saaya; Anee Suryani Sued

    2015-01-01

    Toxicity testing of brine shrimp Artemia salina Brine shrimp lethality assay is a screening test to determine half the dose mortality (LC50) for its shrimp given certain herbal extract at a concentration tested. The shrimp child mortality half a dose indicator to determine level of toxicity before further testing done on animal cell culture and animal experiments also on the mouse. The use of new hardware, namely Artemio 1 has increased its shrimp production at a rate that more and faster than the use of the black box hatching previously taken from the method by Solis, 1993. brine shrimp eggs from Artemio mix also easier to use because it contains egg and sea salt have been ready mixed for use in experiments. In conclusion, this method improvements help increase the number of offspring produced shrimp and produce experimental method easier than previous methods. (author)

  1. In vitro pyrogen test for toxic or immunomodulatory drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Daneshian, Mardas; Guenther, Armin; Wendel, Albrecht; Hartung, Thomas; Aulock, Sonja von

    2006-01-01

    Pyrogenic contaminations of some classes of injectable drugs, e.g. toxic or immunomodulatory as well as false-positive drugs, represent a major risk which cannot yet be excluded due to the limitations of current tests. Here we describe a modification of the In vitro Pyrogen Test termed AWIPT (Adsorb, Wash, In vitro Pyrogen Test), which addresses this problem by introducing a pre-incubation step in which pyrogenic contaminations in the test sample are adsorbed to albumin-coated beads. After ri...

  2. Effluent Management Facility Evaporator Bottom-Waste Streams Formulation and Waste Form Qualification Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saslow, Sarah A.; Um, Wooyong; Russell, Renee L.

    2017-08-02

    This report describes the results from grout formulation and cementitious waste form qualification testing performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS). These results are part of a screening test that investigates three grout formulations proposed for wide-range treatment of different waste stream compositions expected for the Hanford Effluent Management Facility (EMF) evaporator bottom waste. This work supports the technical development need for alternative disposition paths for the EMF evaporator bottom wastes and future direct feed low-activity waste (DFLAW) operations at the Hanford Site. High-priority activities included simulant production, grout formulation, and cementitious waste form qualification testing. The work contained within this report relates to waste form development and testing, and does not directly support the 2017 Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) performance assessment (PA). However, this work contains valuable information for use in PA maintenance past FY 2017 and future waste form development efforts. The provided results and data should be used by (1) cementitious waste form scientists to further the understanding of cementitious leach behavior of contaminants of concern (COCs), (2) decision makers interested in off-site waste form disposal, and (3) the U.S. Department of Energy, their Hanford Site contractors and stakeholders as they assess the IDF PA program at the Hanford Site. The results reported help fill existing data gaps, support final selection of a cementitious waste form for the EMF evaporator bottom waste, and improve the technical defensibility of long-term waste form risk estimates.

  3. Non-animal Replacements for Acute Toxicity Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker-Treasure, Carol; Coll, Kevin; Belot, Nathalie; Longmore, Chris; Bygrave, Karl; Avey, Suzanne; Clothier, Richard

    2015-07-01

    Current approaches to predicting adverse effects in humans from acute toxic exposure to cosmetic ingredients still heavily necessitate the use of animals under EU legislation, particularly in the context of the REACH system, when cosmetic ingredients are also destined for use in other industries. These include the LD50 test, the Up-and-Down Procedure and the Fixed Dose Procedure, which are regarded as having notable scientific deficiencies and low transferability to humans. By expanding on previous in vitro tests, such as the animal cell-based 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake (NRU) assay, this project aims to develop a truly animal-free predictive test for the acute toxicity of cosmetic ingredients in humans, by using human-derived cells and a prediction model that does not rely on animal data. The project, funded by Innovate UK, will incorporate the NRU assay with human dermal fibroblasts in animal product-free culture, to generate an in vitro protocol that can be validated as an accepted replacement for the currently available in vivo tests. To date, the project has successfully completed an assessment of the robustness and reproducibility of the method, by using sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) as a positive control, and displaying analogous results to those of the original studies with mouse 3T3 cells. Currently, the testing of five known ingredients from key groups (a surfactant, a preservative, a fragrance, a colour and an emulsifier) is under way. The testing consists of initial range-finding runs followed by three valid runs of a main experiment with the appropriate concentration ranges, to generate IC50 values. Expanded blind trials of 20 ingredients will follow. Early results indicate that this human cell-based test holds the potential to replace aspects of in vivo animal acute toxicity testing, particularly with reference to cosmetic ingredients. 2015 FRAME.

  4. Undetected Toxicity Risk in Pharmacogenetic Testing for Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Stefania Falvella

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Fluoropyrimidines, the mainstay agents for the treatment of colorectal cancer, alone or as a part of combination therapies, cause severe adverse reactions in about 10%–30% of patients. Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD, a key enzyme in the catabolism of 5-fluorouracil, has been intensively investigated in relation to fluoropyrimidine toxicity, and several DPD gene (DPYD polymorphisms are associated with decreased enzyme activity and increased risk of fluoropyrimidine-related toxicity. In patients carrying non-functional DPYD variants (c.1905+1G>A, c.1679T>G, c.2846A>T, fluoropyrimidines should be avoided or reduced according to the patients’ homozygous or heterozygous status, respectively. For other common DPYD variants (c.496A>G, c.1129-5923C>G, c.1896T>C, conflicting data are reported and their use in clinical practice still needs to be validated. The high frequency of DPYD polymorphism and the lack of large prospective trials may explain differences in studies’ results. The epigenetic regulation of DPD expression has been recently investigated to explain the variable activity of the enzyme. DPYD promoter methylation and its regulation by microRNAs may affect the toxicity risk of fluoropyrimidines. The studies we reviewed indicate that pharmacogenetic testing is promising to direct personalised dosing of fluoropyrimidines, although further investigations are needed to establish the role of DPD in severe toxicity in patients treated for colorectal cancer.

  5. Cytogenotoxicity evaluation of two industrial effluents using Allium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISHIOMA

    textile effluent was 4.5 times more toxic than the paint effluent. ... Key words: Genotoxicity, paint, textile, industrial effluents, Allium cepa, mutation, pollution, chromosomal .... concentration of a chemical producing 50% of the total effect).

  6. Toxicity tests, antioxidant activity, and antimicrobial activity of chitosan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniasih, M.; Purwati; Dewi, R. S.

    2018-04-01

    Chitosan is a naturally occurring cationic biopolymer, obtained by alkaline deacetylation of chitin. This research aims to investigate the toxicity, antioxidant activity and antibacterial activity of chitosan from shrimp chitin. In this study, chitin extracted from shrimp waste material. Chitin is then deacetylation with 60% NaOH so that chitosan produced. Degrees of deacetylation, molecular weight, toxicity test, antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity of chitosan then evaluated. Toxicity test using Brine Shrimp Lethality Test. The antioxidant analysis was performed using DPPH method (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and FTC method (ferric thiocyanate) in which the radical formed will reduce Ferro to Ferri resulting in a complex with thiocyanate. To determine the antibacterial activity of Staphylococcus aureus, antifungal in Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger by measuring antimicrobial effects and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC). Based on the result of research, the value of degrees of deacetylation, molecular weight, and LC50 values of chitosan synthesis was 94,32, 1052.93 g/mol and 1364.41 ppm, respectively. In general, the antioxidative activities increased as the concentration of chitosan increased. MIC value of chitosan against S. aureus, C. albicans, and A. niger was 10 ppm, 15.6 ppm, and 5 ppm, respectively.

  7. Studying the effect of CO2-induced acidification on sediment toxicity using acute amphipod toxicity test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basallote, M Dolores; De Orte, Manoela R; DelValls, T Ángel; Riba, Inmaculada

    2014-01-01

    Carbon capture and storage is increasingly being considered one of the most efficient approaches to mitigate the increase of CO2 in the atmosphere associated with anthropogenic emissions. However, the environmental effects of potential CO2 leaks remain largely unknown. The amphipod Ampelisca brevicornis was exposed to environmental sediments collected in different areas of the Gulf of Cádiz and subjected to several pH treatments to study the effects of CO2-induced acidification on sediment toxicity. After 10 days of exposure, the results obtained indicated that high lethal effects were associated with the lowest pH treatments, except for the Ría of Huelva sediment test. The mobility of metals from sediment to the overlying seawater was correlated to a pH decrease. The data obtained revealed that CO2-related acidification would lead to lethal effects on amphipods as well as the mobility of metals, which could increase sediment toxicity.

  8. Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System test plans releases 2.0 and 3.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guettler, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) is being developed as the organized information repository facility in support of the liquid effluent monitoring requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement. It is necessary to provide an automated repository into which the results from liquid effluent sampling will be placed. This repository must provide for effective retention, review, and retrieval of selected sample data by authorized persons and organizations. This System Architecture document is the aggregation of the DMR P+ methodology project management deliverables. Together they represent a description of the project and its plan through four Releases, corresponding to the definition and prioritization of requirements defined by the user

  9. Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) test plans release 1.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, R.T.

    1994-01-01

    The Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) is being developed as the organized information repository facility in support of the liquid effluent monitoring requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement. It is necessary to provide an automated repository into which the results from liquid effluent sampling will be placed. This repository must provide for effective retention, review, and retrieval of selected sample data by authorized persons and organizations. This System Architecture document is the aggregation of the DMR P+ methodology project management deliverables. Together they represent a description of the project and its plan through four Releases, corresponding to the definition and prioritization of requirements defined by the user

  10. Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System test plans release 1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, R.T.

    1994-01-01

    The Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) is being developed as the organized information repository facility in support of the liquid effluent monitoring requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement. It is necessary to provide an automated repository into which the results from liquid effluent sampling will be placed. This repository must provide for effective retention, review, and retrieval of selected sample data by authorized persons and organizations. This System Architecture document is the aggregation of the DMR P+ methodology project management deliverables. Together they represent a description of the project and its plan through four Releases, corresponding to the definition and prioritization of requirements defined by the user

  11. Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) test plans release 1.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, R.T.

    1994-01-01

    The Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) is being developed as the organized information repository facility in support of the liquid effluent monitoring requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement. It is necessary to provide an automated repository into which the results from liquid effluent sampling will be placed. This repository must provide for effective retention, review, and retrieval of selected sample data by authorized persons and organizations. This System Architecture document is the aggregation of the DMR P+ methodology project management deliverables. Together they represent a description of the project and its plan through four Releases, corresponding to the definition and prioritization of requirements defined by the user

  12. Ecotoxicity tests using the green algae Chlorella vulgaris--a useful tool in hazardous effluents management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Aurora; Figueiredo, Sónia A; Sales, M Goreti; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2009-08-15

    The treatment efficiency of laboratory wastewaters was evaluated and ecotoxicity tests with Chlorella vulgaris were performed on them to assess the safety of their environmental discharge. For chemical oxygen demand wastewaters, chromium (VI), mercury (II) and silver were efficiently removed by chemical treatments. A reduction of ecotoxicity was achieved; nevertheless, an EC50 (effective concentration that causes a 50% inhibition in the algae growth) of 1.5% (v/v) indicated still high level of ecotoxicity. For chloride determination wastewaters, an efficient reduction of chromium and silver was achieved after treatment. Regarding the reduction of ecotoxicity observed, EC50 increased from 0.059% to 0.5%, only a 0.02% concentration in the aquatic environment would guarantee no effects. Wastewaters containing phenanthroline/iron (II) complex were treated by chemical oxidation. Treatment was satisfactory concerning chemical parameters, although an increase in ecotoxicity was observed (EC50 reduced from 0.31% to 0.21%). The wastes from the kinetic study of persulphate and iodide reaction were treated with sodium bisulphite until colour was removed. Although they did not reveal significant ecotoxicity, only over 1% of the untreated waste produced observable effects over algae. Therefore, ecotoxicity tests could be considered a useful tool not only in laboratory effluents treatment, as shown, but also in hazardous wastewaters management.

  13. Ecotoxicity tests using the green algae Chlorella vulgaris-A useful tool in hazardous effluents management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Aurora [REQUIMTE, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Instituto Politecnico do Porto, R. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 431 4200-072 Porto (Portugal); Figueiredo, Sonia A., E-mail: saf@isep.ipp.pt [REQUIMTE, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Instituto Politecnico do Porto, R. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 431 4200-072 Porto (Portugal); Sales, M. Goreti; Delerue-Matos, Cristina [REQUIMTE, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Instituto Politecnico do Porto, R. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 431 4200-072 Porto (Portugal)

    2009-08-15

    The treatment efficiency of laboratory wastewaters was evaluated and ecotoxicity tests with Chlorella vulgaris were performed on them to assess the safety of their environmental discharge. For chemical oxygen demand wastewaters, chromium (VI), mercury (II) and silver were efficiently removed by chemical treatments. A reduction of ecotoxicity was achieved; nevertheless, an EC50 (effective concentration that causes a 50% inhibition in the algae growth) of 1.5% (v/v) indicated still high level of ecotoxicity. For chloride determination wastewaters, an efficient reduction of chromium and silver was achieved after treatment. Regarding the reduction of ecotoxicity observed, EC50 increased from 0.059% to 0.5%, only a 0.02% concentration in the aquatic environment would guarantee no effects. Wastewaters containing phenanthroline/iron (II) complex were treated by chemical oxidation. Treatment was satisfactory concerning chemical parameters, although an increase in ecotoxicity was observed (EC50 reduced from 0.31% to 0.21%). The wastes from the kinetic study of persulphate and iodide reaction were treated with sodium bisulphite until colour was removed. Although they did not reveal significant ecotoxicity, only over 1% of the untreated waste produced observable effects over algae. Therefore, ecotoxicity tests could be considered a useful tool not only in laboratory effluents treatment, as shown, but also in hazardous wastewaters management.

  14. Ecotoxicity tests using the green algae Chlorella vulgaris-A useful tool in hazardous effluents management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Aurora; Figueiredo, Sonia A.; Sales, M. Goreti; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2009-01-01

    The treatment efficiency of laboratory wastewaters was evaluated and ecotoxicity tests with Chlorella vulgaris were performed on them to assess the safety of their environmental discharge. For chemical oxygen demand wastewaters, chromium (VI), mercury (II) and silver were efficiently removed by chemical treatments. A reduction of ecotoxicity was achieved; nevertheless, an EC50 (effective concentration that causes a 50% inhibition in the algae growth) of 1.5% (v/v) indicated still high level of ecotoxicity. For chloride determination wastewaters, an efficient reduction of chromium and silver was achieved after treatment. Regarding the reduction of ecotoxicity observed, EC50 increased from 0.059% to 0.5%, only a 0.02% concentration in the aquatic environment would guarantee no effects. Wastewaters containing phenanthroline/iron (II) complex were treated by chemical oxidation. Treatment was satisfactory concerning chemical parameters, although an increase in ecotoxicity was observed (EC50 reduced from 0.31% to 0.21%). The wastes from the kinetic study of persulphate and iodide reaction were treated with sodium bisulphite until colour was removed. Although they did not reveal significant ecotoxicity, only over 1% of the untreated waste produced observable effects over algae. Therefore, ecotoxicity tests could be considered a useful tool not only in laboratory effluents treatment, as shown, but also in hazardous wastewaters management.

  15. Anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent (POME) using bio-methane potential (BMP) test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Nur Izzah Hamna A.; Hanafiah, Marlia M.

    2018-04-01

    Biogas is a promising sustainable and renewable energy alternative to reduce the dependence on fossil fuel. In Malaysia, the conversion of palm oil mill effluent (POME) to bioenergy has recently been expanded due to its high potential in generating energy. However, without a proper treatment and management, POME could be harmful to environment because it emits greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere and could also pollutes the watercourses if discharge directly due to the high acidity and chemical oxygen demand (COD) content. Many initiatives have been taken by the government towards sustainable development. Therefore, more efforts need to be practiced to improve and upscale the technology for a better waste management. In this study, the anaerobic digestion of POME was carried out using Bio-methane potential (BMP) test in batch and laboratory scales. Physicochemical characteristics and the biogas production of POME were measured. The BMP test under mesophilic condition was conducted for 23 consecutive days to measure the biogas production. The POME produced 721.3 cm3 of biogas by using anaerobic sludge as inoculum. The results also found that the methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) gases produced with 360.65 cm3 and 288.52 cm3, respectively.

  16. New and emerging technologies for genetic toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Anthony M; Sasaki, Jennifer C; Elespuru, Rosalie; Jacobson-Kram, David; Thybaud, Véronique; De Boeck, Marlies; Aardema, Marilyn J; Aubrecht, Jiri; Benz, R Daniel; Dertinger, Stephen D; Douglas, George R; White, Paul A; Escobar, Patricia A; Fornace, Albert; Honma, Masamitsu; Naven, Russell T; Rusling, James F; Schiestl, Robert H; Walmsley, Richard M; Yamamura, Eiji; van Benthem, Jan; Kim, James H

    2011-04-01

    The International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) Project Committee on the Relevance and Follow-up of Positive Results in In Vitro Genetic Toxicity (IVGT) Testing established an Emerging Technologies and New Strategies Workgroup to review the current State of the Art in genetic toxicology testing. The aim of the workgroup was to identify promising technologies that will improve genotoxicity testing and assessment of in vivo hazard and risk, and that have the potential to help meet the objectives of the IVGT. As part of this initiative, HESI convened a workshop in Washington, DC in May 2008 to discuss mature, maturing, and emerging technologies in genetic toxicology. This article collates the abstracts of the New and Emerging Technologies Workshop together with some additional technologies subsequently considered by the workgroup. Each abstract (available in the online version of the article) includes a section addressed specifically to the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats associated with the respective technology. Importantly, an overview of the technologies and an indication of how their use might be aligned with the objectives of IVGT are presented. In particular, consideration was given with regard to follow-up testing of positive results in the standard IVGT tests (i.e., Salmonella Ames test, chromosome aberration assay, and mouse lymphoma assay) to add weight of evidence and/or provide mechanism of action for improved genetic toxicity risk assessments in humans. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Development and validation of OECD test guidelines on mollusc reproductive toxicity tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagadic, Laurent; Holbech, Henrik; hutchinson, tom

    the comparison of endpoints relevant for reproduction in invertebrates often shows a much higher sensitivity in molluscs vs. e.g. daphnids. The OECD test guideline programme has thus been extended to cover reproduction effects of chemicals in molluscs. Existing mollusc toxicity test protocols have been reviewed...... in an OECD Detailed Review Paper that identifies two relevant candidate species for developing freshwater tests: Potamopyrgus antipodarum and Lymnaea stagnalis. However, this review did not clarify which toxicity test design/conditions are the most appropriate for chemicals assessment. Therefore, a mollusc...... reproduction test guideline will be developed describing partial- and full- life-cycle test protocols in these species, so as to propose a balanced suite of apical mollusc toxicity tests applicable for the assessment of any type of chemical, including endocrine disruptors, as level 4 and 5 assays of the EDTA...

  18. Effect of pyrolysis temperature on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons toxicity and sorption behaviour of biochars prepared by pyrolysis of paper mill effluent treatment plant sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Parmila; Saroha, Anil K

    2015-09-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) toxicity and sorption behaviour of biochars prepared from pyrolysis of paper mill effluent treatment plant (ETP) sludge in temperature range 200-700 °C was studied. The sorption behaviour was found to depend on the degree of carbonization where the fractions of carbonized and uncarbonized organic content in the biochar act as an adsorption media and partition media, respectively. The sorption and partition fractions were quantified by isotherm separation method and isotherm parameters were correlated with biochar properties (aromaticity, polarity, surface area, pore volume and ash content). The risk assessment for the 16 priority EPA PAHs present in the biochar matrix was performed and it was found that the concentrations of the PAHs in the biochar were within the permissible limits prescribed by US EPA (except BC400 and BC500 for high molecular weight PAHs). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Collection and cultivation methods of Acartia tonsa for toxicity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hood, C.A.; Mayo, R.R.

    1995-01-01

    Acartia tonsa were located and collected from Galveston Bay, Texas in June 1995, using plankton nets and transported to the laboratory for culture. After literature searching and laboratory experimentation. A simple reliable method was designed to culture A. tonsa. This method requires a minimum of glassware and supplies. Adult A. tonsa are placed in one gallon bell jars filled with natural seawater. The jars are then maintained in a water bath at a constant temperature. Water changes are conducted twice weekly and organisms are fed daily with a mixture of algae, Skeletonema costatum, isocrysis galbana, and Thalassiosira sp. Gravid females are then isolated in generators for 24 hours to obtain known age neonates. The neonates are maintained up to a specific age and then are used in toxicity tests such as the ''Determination of the Acute Lethal Toxicity to Marine Copepods,'' required in the United Kingdom for all chemicals used for offshore drilling fluid applications

  20. Subjective and objective screening tests for hydroxychloroquine toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukras, Catherine; Huynh, Nancy; Vitale, Susan; Wong, Wai T; Ferris, Fredrick L; Sieving, Paul A

    2015-02-01

    To compare subjective and objective clinical tests used in the screening for hydroxychloroquine retinal toxicity to multifocal electroretinography (mfERG) reference testing. Prospective, single-center, case control study. Fifty-seven patients with a previous or current history of hydroxychloroquine treatment of more than 5 years' duration. Participants were evaluated with a detailed medical history, dilated ophthalmologic examination, color fundus photography, fundus autofluorescence (FAF) imaging, spectral-domain (SD) optical coherence tomography (OCT), automated visual field testing (10-2 visual field mean deviation [VFMD]), and mfERG testing. We used mfERG test parameters as a gold standard to divide participants into 2 groups: those affected by hydroxychloroquine-induced retinal toxicity and those unaffected. We assessed the association of various imaging and psychophysical variables in the affected versus the unaffected group. Fifty-seven study participants (91.2% female; mean age, 55.7±10.4 years; mean duration of hydroxychloroquine treatment, 15.0±7.5 years) were divided into affected (n = 19) and unaffected (n = 38) groups based on mfERG criteria. Mean age and duration of hydroxychloroquine treatment did not differ statistically between groups. Mean OCT retinal thickness measurements in all 9 macular subfields were significantly lower (<40 μm) in the affected group (P < 0.01 for all comparisons) compared with those in the unaffected group. Mean VFMD was 11 dB lower in the affected group (P < 0.0001). Clinical features indicative of retinal toxicity were scored for the 2 groups and were detected in 68.4% versus 0.0% using color fundus photographs, 73.3% versus 9.1% using FAF images, and 84.2% versus 0.0% on the scoring for the perifoveal loss of the photoreceptor ellipsoid zone on SD-OCT for affected and unaffected participants, respectively. Using a polynomial modeling approach, OCT inner ring retinal thickness measurements and Humphrey 10-2 VFMD were

  1. Androgenic endocrine disruptors in wastewater treatment plant effluents in India: Their influence on reproductive processes and systemic toxicity in male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Vikas; Chakraborty, Ajanta; Viswanath, Gunda; Roy, Partha

    2008-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC) are linked to human health and diseases as they mimic or block the normal functioning of endogenous hormones. The present work dealt with a comparative study of the androgenic potential of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) influents and effluents in Northern region of India, well known for its polluted water. Water samples were screened for their androgenic potential using the Hershberger assay and when they were found positive for androgenicity, we studied their mode of action in intact rats. The data showed a significant change in the weight and structure of sex accessory tissues (SATs) of castrated and intact rats. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis demonstrated a significant change in the expression patterns of the major steroidogenic enzymes in adrenal and testis: cytochrome P450 SCC , cytochrome P450 C17 , 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. This was further supported by increased enzymatic activities measured in vitro spectrophotometrically. Serum hormone profile showed a decreased level of gonadotrophic hormones and increased testosterone level. Further, increase in the serum level of alkaline phosphatase, SGPT and SGOT and histopathological changes in kidney and liver of treated animals, confirmed the toxic effects of contaminating chemicals. Analysis of water samples using HPLC and GC-MS showed the presence of various compounds and from them, four prominent aromatic compounds viz. nonylphenol, hexachlorobenzene and two testosterone equivalents, were identified. Our data suggest that despite rigorous treatment, the final treated effluent from WWTP still has enough androgenic and toxic compounds to affect general health

  2. Tracking pyrethroid toxicity in surface water samples: Exposure dynamics and toxicity identification tools for laboratory tests with Hyalella azteca (Amphipoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deanovic, Linda A; Stillway, Marie; Hammock, Bruce G; Fong, Stephanie; Werner, Inge

    2018-02-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides are commonly used in pest control and are present at toxic concentrations in surface waters of agricultural and urban areas worldwide. Monitoring is challenging as a result of their high hydrophobicity and low toxicity thresholds, which often fall below the analytical methods detection limits (MDLs). Standard daphnid bioassays used in surface water monitoring are not sensitive enough to protect more susceptible invertebrate species such as the amphipod Hyalella azteca and chemical loss during toxicity testing is of concern. In the present study, we quantified toxicity loss during storage and testing, using both natural and synthetic water, and presented a tool to enhance toxic signal strength for improved sensitivity of H. azteca toxicity tests. The average half-life during storage in low-density polyethylene (LDPE) cubitainers (Fisher Scientific) at 4 °C of 5 pyrethroids (permethrin, bifenthrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, cyfluthrin, and esfenvalerate) and one organophosphate (chlorpyrifos; used as reference) was 1.4 d, and piperonyl butoxide (PBO) proved an effective tool to potentiate toxicity. We conclude that toxicity tests on ambient water samples containing these hydrophobic insecticides are likely to underestimate toxicity present in the field, and mimic short pulse rather than continuous exposures. Where these chemicals are of concern, the addition of PBO during testing can yield valuable information on their presence or absence. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:462-472. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  3. OECD validation study to assess intra- and inter-laboratory reproducibility of the zebrafish embryo toxicity test for acute aquatic toxicity testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busquet, F.; Strecker, R.; Rawlings, J.M.; Belanger, S.E.; Braunbeck, T.; Carr, G.J.; Cenijn, P.H.; Fochtman, P.; Gourmelon, A.; Hübler, N.; Kleensang, A.; Knöbel, M.; Kussatz, C.; Legler, J.; Lillicrap, A.; Martínez-Jerónimo, F.; Polleichtner, C.; Rzodeczko, H.; Salinas, E.; Schneider, K.E.; Scholz, S.; van den Brandhof, E.J.; van der Ven, L.T.; Walter-Rohde, S.; Weigt, S.; Witters, H.; Halder, M.

    2014-01-01

    A The OECD validation study of the zebrafish embryo acute toxicity test (ZFET) for acute aquatic toxicity testing evaluated the ZFET reproducibility by testing 20 chemicals at 5 different concentrations in 3 independent runs in at least 3 laboratories. Stock solutions and test concentrations were

  4. Activated sludge and activated carbon treatment of a wood preserving effluent containing pentachlorophenol

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guo, P. H. M

    1980-01-01

    ...; however, PCP removal averaged only 35% and the effluent was toxic to rainbow trout. Treatment of the activated sludge effluent by carbon adsorption resulted in effective PCP removal and non-toxic effluents...

  5. A REVIEW OF SINGLE SPECIES TOXICITY TESTS: ARE THE TESTS RELIABLE PREDICTORS OF AQUATIC ECOSYSTEM COMMUNITY RESPONSES?

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document provides a comprehensive review to evaluate the reliability of indicator species toxicity test results in predicting aquatic ecosystem impacts, also called the ecological relevance of laboratory single species toxicity tests.

  6. Combinatorial QSAR modeling of chemical toxicants tested against Tetrahymena pyriformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hao; Tropsha, Alexander; Fourches, Denis; Varnek, Alexandre; Papa, Ester; Gramatica, Paola; Oberg, Tomas; Dao, Phuong; Cherkasov, Artem; Tetko, Igor V

    2008-04-01

    Selecting most rigorous quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) approaches is of great importance in the development of robust and predictive models of chemical toxicity. To address this issue in a systematic way, we have formed an international virtual collaboratory consisting of six independent groups with shared interests in computational chemical toxicology. We have compiled an aqueous toxicity data set containing 983 unique compounds tested in the same laboratory over a decade against Tetrahymena pyriformis. A modeling set including 644 compounds was selected randomly from the original set and distributed to all groups that used their own QSAR tools for model development. The remaining 339 compounds in the original set (external set I) as well as 110 additional compounds (external set II) published recently by the same laboratory (after this computational study was already in progress) were used as two independent validation sets to assess the external predictive power of individual models. In total, our virtual collaboratory has developed 15 different types of QSAR models of aquatic toxicity for the training set. The internal prediction accuracy for the modeling set ranged from 0.76 to 0.93 as measured by the leave-one-out cross-validation correlation coefficient ( Q abs2). The prediction accuracy for the external validation sets I and II ranged from 0.71 to 0.85 (linear regression coefficient R absI2) and from 0.38 to 0.83 (linear regression coefficient R absII2), respectively. The use of an applicability domain threshold implemented in most models generally improved the external prediction accuracy but at the same time led to a decrease in chemical space coverage. Finally, several consensus models were developed by averaging the predicted aquatic toxicity for every compound using all 15 models, with or without taking into account their respective applicability domains. We find that consensus models afford higher prediction accuracy for the

  7. Guanicid and PHMG Toxicity Tests on Aquatic Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Poštulková

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence and development of new algicidal products is caused by the ever increasing popularity of garden ponds as well as the use of these products in the fisheries sector, especially for disposal of cyanobacteria and algae. Most frequent means of combating cyanobacteria and algae are applications of algicidal substances. Newly developed algaecides include Guanicid and polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride (PHMG. The aim of the study was to identify toxic effects of Guanicid and PHMG on zebrafish (Danio rerio and green algae (Desmodesmus communis. We determined the acute toxicity in fish according to ČSN EN ISO 7346-1, and conducted the freshwater algae growth inhibition test according to ČSN ISO 8692 methodology. For inhibition tests with green algae we chose Guanicid and PHMG concentrations of 0.001, 0.005, and 0.010 ml/L. For fish short-term acute toxicity tests we chose Guanicid concentrations of 0.010, 0.050, 0.150, 0.200, 0.250, and 0.300 ml/L and PHMG concentrations of 0.010, 0.025, 0.050, 0.075, 0.100, and 0.125 ml/L. In case of zebrafish (Danio rerio, the LC50 value for Guanicid is 0.086 ml/L, while the LC50 value for PHMG is 0.043 ml/L. Effects of Guanicid on inhibition of green algae (Desmodesmus communis appear highly significant (p < 0.010 at a concentration of 0.010 ml/L. For PHMG, these effects are highly significant (p < 0.001 at concentrations of 0.005 and 0.010 ml/L in 48 hours.

  8. Radiological effluent and onsite area monitoring report for the Nevada Test Site (January 1986-December 1986)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, D.A.

    1987-09-01

    This report documents the environmental surveillance program at the Nevada Test Site as conducted by the Department of Energy (DOE) onsite radiological safety contractor from January 1986 through December 1986. It presents results and evaluations of radioactivity measurements in air and water, and of direct gamma radiation exposure rates. It establishes relevant correlations between the data recorded and DOE concentration guides (CG's). External gamma exposure levels and radioactivity in air and water on the Nevada Test Site were low compared to DOE guidelines. The highest average gross beta concentration in air was 0.005% of the DOE concentration guide (CG). The highest average Pu-239 concentration was 7.7% of the standard. The highest average tritium concentration was 0.39% of the standard. Kr-85 concentrations increased slightly from CY-1985 to CY-1986. Xe-133 remained nondetectable with some exceptions. The highest average gross beta concentration in potable water remained within the applicable standard for drinking water. The highest average Pu-239 concentration from contaminated waters was 0.0005% of the concentration guide. The highest average tritium concentration in noncontaminated water was 6% of the level for drinking water required by the National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulation. The amounts of tritium-bearing effluent released to contaminated waste ponds was calculated and reported to DOE Headquarters. Gamma radiation measurements were roughly the same in CY-1986 relative to the previous year. All surveillance results from the Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) indicate that no detectable releases of radioactive materials occurred in that network in 1986. 29 refs., 14 figs., 23 tabs

  9. Tests for oil/dispersant toxicity: In situ laboratory assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, D.A.; Coelho, G.M.; Aurand, D.V.

    1995-01-01

    As part of its readiness program in oil spill response, the Marine Pollution Control Unit (MPCU), Department of Transport, U.K. conducts annual field trials in the North Sea, approximately 30 nautical miles from the southeast coast of England. The trials take the form of controlled releases of crude oil or Medium Fuel/Gas Oil mix (MFO), with and without the application of Corexit 9527 dispersant. In 1994 and 1995 the authors conducted a series of in situ toxicity bioassays in association with these spills with included 48h LC50 tests for turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and oyster (Crassostrea gigas) larvae, a 48 h oyster (C. gigas) embryonic development test and two full life-cycle assays using the copepods Acartia tonsa and Tisbe battagliai. Tests were also conducted in the Chesapeake Bay laboratory using estuarine species including the copepod Eurytemora affinis and the inland silverside Menidia beryllina. Here, the authors report on the results of these assays, together with 1996 in situ toxicity data resulting from Norwegian field trials in the northern North Sea

  10. Radioactive tracer method as an instrument for testing effectiveness of effluent treatment installations and mixing patterns in natural streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szpilowski, S; Strzelczak, G; Winnicki, R [Institute of Nuclear Research, Warsaw (Poland)

    1976-01-01

    The radiotracer methods of evaluation of sewage flow rate, testing of effluent treatment plants and mixing patterns in natural streams have been described. Experimental works were carried out for industrial installations and natural streams. As a tracer of liquid phase an aqueous KBr solution labelled with /sup 82/Br have been used. The sediment materials have been labelled with /sup 198/Au in the form of colloidal gold. The results of investigations have been utilized for treatment process analysis and water pollution control.

  11. TOXICITY TESTING IN THE 21ST CENTURY: A VISION AND A STRATEGY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krewski, D.; Acosta, D.; Andersen, M.

    2010-01-01

    With the release of the landmark report Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy, the U. S. National Academy of Sciences, in 2007, precipitated a major change in the way toxicity testing is conducted. It envisions increased efficiency in toxicity testing and decreased animal ...

  12. Prediction of toxicity and comparison of alternatives using WebTEST (Web-services Toxicity Estimation Software Tool)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Java-based web service is being developed within the US EPA’s Chemistry Dashboard to provide real time estimates of toxicity values and physical properties. WebTEST can generate toxicity predictions directly from a simple URL which includes the endpoint, QSAR method, and ...

  13. Non-animal methodologies within biomedical research and toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory animal models are limited by scientific constraints on human applicability, and increasing regulatory restrictions, driven by social concerns. Reliance on laboratory animals also incurs marked - and in some cases, prohibitive - logistical challenges, within high-throughput chemical testing programmes, such as those currently underway within Europe and the US. However, a range of non-animal methodologies is available within biomedical research and toxicity testing. These include: mechanisms to enhance the sharing and assessment of existing data prior to conducting further studies, and physicochemical evaluation and computerised modelling, including the use of structure-activity relationships and expert systems. Minimally-sentient animals from lower phylogenetic orders or early developmental vertebral stages may be used, as well as microorganisms and higher plants. A variety of tissue cultures, including immortalised cell lines, embryonic and adult stem cells, and organotypic cultures, are also available. In vitro assays utilising bacterial, yeast, protozoal, mammalian or human cell cultures exist for a wide range of toxic and other endpoints. These may be static or perfused, and may be used individually, or combined within test batteries. Human hepatocyte cultures and metabolic activation systems offer potential assessment of metabolite activity and organ-organ interaction. Microarray technology may allow genetic expression profiling, increasing the speed of toxin detection, well prior to more invasive endpoints. Enhanced human clinical trials utilising micro- dosing, staggered dosing, and more representative study populations and durations, as well as surrogate human tissues, advanced imaging modalities and human epidemiological, sociological and psycho- logical studies, may increase our understanding of illness aetiology and pathogenesis, and facilitate the development of safe and effective pharmacologic interventions. Particularly when human tissues

  14. Heterogeneous photocatalysis using TiO2 modified with hydrotalcite and iron oxide under UV-visible irradiation for color and toxicity reduction in secondary textile mill effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcanjo, Gemima Santos; Mounteer, Ann H; Bellato, Carlos Roberto; Silva, Laís Miguelina Marçal da; Brant Dias, Santos Henrique; Silva, Priscila Romana da

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate ADMI color removal from a biologically treated textile mill effluent by heterogeneous photocatalysis with UV-visible irradiation (UV-vis) using a novel catalyst composed of TiO 2 supported on hydrotalcite and doped with iron oxide (HT/Fe/TiO 2 ). Simulated biological treatment of solutions of the dyes (50 mg/L) used in the greatest amounts at the mill where the textile effluent was collected resulted in no color removal in reactive dye solutions and about 50% color removal in vat dye solutions, after 96 h, indicating that the secondary effluent still contained a large proportion of anionic reactive dyes. Photocatalytic treatments were carried out with TiO 2 and HT/Fe/TiO 2 of Fe:Ti molar ratios of 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1, with varying catalyst doses (0-3 mg/L), initial pH values (4-10) and UV-vis times (0-6 h). The highest ADMI color removal with unmodified TiO 2 was found at a dose of 2 g/L and pH 4, an impractical pH value for industrial application. The most efficient composite was HT/Fe/TiO 2 1 at pH 10, also at a dose of 2 g/L, which provided more complete ADMI color removal, from 303 to 9 ADMI color units (96%), than unmodified TiO 2 , from 303 to 37 ADMI color units (88%), under the same conditions. Hydroxyl radicals were responsible for the color reduction, since when 2-propanol, an OH scavenger, was added color removal was very low. For this reason, the HT/Fe/TiO 2 1 composite performed better at pH 10, because the higher concentration of hydroxide ions present at higher pH favored hydroxyl radical formation. COD reductions were relatively low and similar, approximately 20% for both catalysts after 6 h under UV-vis, because of the low initial COD (78 mg/L). Secondary effluent toxicity to Daphnia similis (EC 50  = 70.7%) was reduced by photocatalysis with TiO 2 (EC 50  = 95.0%) and the HT/Fe/TiO 2 1 composite (EC 50  = 78.6%). HT/Fe/TiO 2 1 was reused five times and still lowered

  15. The fish embryo toxicity test as an animal alternative method in hazard and risk assessment and scientific research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embry, Michelle R.; Belanger, Scott E.; Braunbeck, Thomas A.; Galay-Burgos, Malyka; Halder, Marlies; Hinton, David E.; Leonard, Marc A.; Lillicrap, Adam; Norberg-King, Teresa; Whale, Graham

    2010-01-01

    Animal alternatives research has historically focused on human safety assessments and has only recently been extended to environmental testing. This is particularly for those assays that involve the use of fish. A number of alternatives are being pursued by the scientific community including the fish embryo toxicity (FET) test, a proposed replacement alternative to the acute fish test. Discussion of the FET methodology and its application in environmental assessments on a global level was needed. With this emerging issue in mind, the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) and the European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) held an International Workshop on the Application of the Fish Embryo Test as an Animal Alternative Method in Hazard and Risk Assessment and Scientific Research in March, 2008. The workshop included approximately 40 scientists and regulators representing government, industry, academia, and non-governmental organizations from North America, Europe, and Asia. The goal was to review the state of the science regarding the investigation of fish embryonic tests, pain and distress in fish, emerging approaches utilizing fish embryos, and the use of fish embryo toxicity test data in various types of environmental assessments (e.g., hazard, risk, effluent, and classification and labeling of chemicals). Some specific key outcomes included agreement that risk assessors need fish data for decision-making, that extending the FET to include eluethereombryos was desirable, that relevant endpoints are being used, and that additional endpoints could facilitate additional uses beyond acute toxicity testing. The FET was, however, not yet considered validated sensu OECD. An important action step will be to provide guidance on how all fish tests can be used to assess chemical hazard and to harmonize the diverse terminology used in test guidelines adopted over the past decades. Use of the FET in context of effluent assessments

  16. The fish embryo toxicity test as an animal alternative method in hazard and risk assessment and scientific research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Embry, Michelle R., E-mail: membry@ilsi.org [ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute, 1156 15th Street, NW, Suite 200, Washington, DC 20005 (United States); Belanger, Scott E., E-mail: belanger.se@pg.com [Procter and Gamble, Central Product Safety, PO Box 538707, Miami Valley Innovation Center, Cincinnati, OH 45253-8707 (United States); Braunbeck, Thomas A., E-mail: braunbeck@zoo.uni-heidelberg.de [University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 230, Heidelberg D -69120 (Germany); Galay-Burgos, Malyka, E-mail: malyka.galay-burgos@ecetoc.org [European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC), 4 Avenue E. Van Nieuwenhuyse B-1160, Brussels (Belgium); Halder, Marlies, E-mail: marlies.halder@jrc.ec.europa.eu [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, In-Vitro Methods Unit TP-580 Ispra 21027 (Italy); Hinton, David E., E-mail: dhinton@duke.edu [Duke University, Nicholas School of the Environment, PO Box 90328, Durham, NC 27708, Unites States (United States); Leonard, Marc A., E-mail: mleonard@rd.loreal.com [L' Oreal Recherche Avancee, Unite d' Ecotoxicologie, 1 av. E. Schueller, 93601 Aulnay sous bois (France); Lillicrap, Adam, E-mail: Adam.lillicrap@niva.no [AstraZeneca, Freshwater Quarry, Brixham TQ5 8BA (United Kingdom); Norberg-King, Teresa, E-mail: norberg-king.teresa@epa.gov [U.S. EPA, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Boulevard, Duluth, MN 55804-1636 (United States); Whale, Graham, E-mail: graham.whale@shell.com [Shell Global Solutions, Analytical Technology, P.O. Box 1, Chester CH1 3SH (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    Animal alternatives research has historically focused on human safety assessments and has only recently been extended to environmental testing. This is particularly for those assays that involve the use of fish. A number of alternatives are being pursued by the scientific community including the fish embryo toxicity (FET) test, a proposed replacement alternative to the acute fish test. Discussion of the FET methodology and its application in environmental assessments on a global level was needed. With this emerging issue in mind, the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) and the European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) held an International Workshop on the Application of the Fish Embryo Test as an Animal Alternative Method in Hazard and Risk Assessment and Scientific Research in March, 2008. The workshop included approximately 40 scientists and regulators representing government, industry, academia, and non-governmental organizations from North America, Europe, and Asia. The goal was to review the state of the science regarding the investigation of fish embryonic tests, pain and distress in fish, emerging approaches utilizing fish embryos, and the use of fish embryo toxicity test data in various types of environmental assessments (e.g., hazard, risk, effluent, and classification and labeling of chemicals). Some specific key outcomes included agreement that risk assessors need fish data for decision-making, that extending the FET to include eluethereombryos was desirable, that relevant endpoints are being used, and that additional endpoints could facilitate additional uses beyond acute toxicity testing. The FET was, however, not yet considered validated sensu OECD. An important action step will be to provide guidance on how all fish tests can be used to assess chemical hazard and to harmonize the diverse terminology used in test guidelines adopted over the past decades. Use of the FET in context of effluent assessments

  17. Tests of the use of cation exchange organic resins for the decontamination of radioactive aqueous effluents; Essais d'emploi des resines organiques echangeuses de cations pour la decontamination des effluents aqueux radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourdrez, Jean; Girault, Jacques; Wormser, Gerald

    1962-12-14

    The authors report tests performed in laboratory and results obtained during an investigation of the use of synthetic ion exchangers for the decontamination of radioactive effluents of moderate activity level and with a non neglectable salt loading. Resins are used under sodium form and regenerated after each fixing operation. Once decontaminated and free of its disturbing ions, the regenerating agent (NaCl) is used for several operations. The authors present the used resins, the treated effluents, describe the tests, and discuss the obtained results [French] Dans ce rapport nous faisons le point des essais et resultats obtenus au laboratoire au cours d'une etude concernant l'utilisation des echangeurs d'ions synthetiques pour la decontamination des effluents radioactifs de niveau d'activite moyenne et de charge en sels non negligeable. Les resines sont employees sous forme sodique et regenerees apres chaque operation de fixation. Le regenerant decontamine et debarrasse de ses ions genants est utilise pour plusieurs operations d'elution. Les seuls residus a stocker proviennent d'une part eventuellement d'un pretraitement de l'effluent, d'autre part, dans tous les cas des precipites consecutifs a la purification de l'eluant dont le traitement chimique est plus aise et donne lieu a des boues beaucoup moins volumineuses qu'une coprecipitation effectuee sur la totalite de l'effluent. (auteurs)

  18. In vitro pyrogen test for toxic or immunomodulatory drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshian, Mardas; Guenther, Armin; Wendel, Albrecht; Hartung, Thomas; von Aulock, Sonja

    2006-06-30

    Pyrogenic contaminations of some classes of injectable drugs, e.g. toxic or immunomodulatory as well as false-positive drugs, represent a major risk which cannot yet be excluded due to the limitations of current tests. Here we describe a modification of the In vitro Pyrogen Test termed AWIPT (Adsorb, Wash, In vitro Pyrogen Test), which addresses this problem by introducing a pre-incubation step in which pyrogenic contaminations in the test sample are adsorbed to albumin-coated beads. After rinsing, the beads are incubated with human whole blood and the release of the endogenous pyrogen interleukin-1beta is measured as a marker of pyrogenic activity. Intentional contaminations with lipopolysaccharide were retrieved from the chemotherapeutic agents paclitaxel, cisplatin and liposomal daunorubicin, the antibiotic gentamicin, the antifungal agent liposomal amphotericin B, and the corticosteroid prednisolone at lower dilutions than in the standard in vitro pyrogen test. This represents a promising new approach for the detection of pyrogenic contamination in drugs or in drugs containing interfering additives and should lead to improved safety levels.

  19. Role of omics techniques in the toxicity testing of nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonore Fröhlich

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nanotechnology is regarded as a key technology of the twenty-first century. Despite the many advantages of nanotechnology it is also known that engineered nanoparticles (NPs may cause adverse health effects in humans. Reports on toxic effects of NPs relay mainly on conventional (phenotypic testing but studies of changes in epigenome, transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome induced by NPs have also been performed. NPs most relevant for human exposure in consumer, health and food products are metal, metal oxide and carbon-based NPs. They were also studied quite frequently with omics technologies and an overview of the study results can serve to answer the question if screening for established targets of nanotoxicity (e.g. cell death, proliferation, oxidative stress, and inflammation is sufficient or if omics techniques are needed to reveal new targets. Regulated pathways identified by omics techniques were confirmed by phenotypic assays performed in the same study and comparison of particle types and cells by the same group indicated a more cell/organ-specific than particle specific regulation pattern. Between different studies moderate overlap of the regulated pathways was observed and cell-specific regulation is less obvious. The lack of standardization in particle exposure, in omics technologies, difficulties to translate mechanistic data to phenotypes and comparison with human in vivo data currently limit the use of these technologies in the prediction of toxic effects by NPs.

  20. Toxicity alarm: Case history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, D.; Retallack, J.

    1993-01-01

    In late fall 1991, the Novacor petrochemical plant near Joffre, Alberta experienced a toxicity alarm, the first since its startup 14 years ago. Fish exposed to a normal toxicity test were stressed within 2 h and showed 100% mortality after 24 h. A history of the events leading up to, during, and after the toxicity alarm is presented. The major effluent sources were three cooling water systems. Although these sources are well characterized, the event causes were not immediately clear. Initial toxic screening indicated that one was very toxic, another moderately toxic, and the third not toxic at all. All three systems utilized the same chemical treatment program to avoid fouling: stabilized phosphates with minor variants. The most toxic of the cooling systems operated at 10-12 cycles, had three chemicals for biocide control, and had three makeup streams. Toxic and nontoxic system characteristics were compared. An in-depth modified toxicity identification and evaluation program was then performed to identify and evaluate the cause of the toxicity alarm for future prevention. The most probable causes of toxicity were identified by elimination. The combination of high numbers of cycles, hydrocarbons in the makeup water, and bromine added as an antifoulant resulted in formation of aromatic bromamines which are capable of causing the toxic condition experienced. 2 tabs

  1. Discovering less toxic ionic liquids by using the Microtox® toxicity test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Fernández, F J; Bayo, J; Pérez de los Ríos, A; Vicente, M A; Bernal, F J; Quesada-Medina, J

    2015-06-01

    New Microtox® toxicity data of 16 ionic liquids of different cationic and anionic composition were determined. The ionic liquids 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium trifluoromethanesulfonate, [BMPyr(+)][TFO(-)], 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium chloride, [BMPyr(+)][Cl(-)], hydroxypropylmethylimidazolium fluoroacetate, [HOPMIM(+)][FCH2COO(-)], and hydroxypropylmethylimidazolium glycolate [HOPMIM(+)][glycolate(-)] were found to be less toxic than conventional organic solvent such as chloroform or toluene, accoding the Microtox® toxicity assays. The toxicity of pyrrolidinium cation was lower than the imidazolium and pyridinium ones. It was found that the inclusion of an hydroxyl group in the alkyl chain length of the cation also reduce the toxicity of the ionic liquid. To sum up, the Microtox® toxicity assays can be used as screening tool to easily determined the toxicity of a wide range of ionic liquids and the toxicity data obtained could allow the obtention of structure-toxicity relationships to design less toxic ionic liquids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Toxicity testing of polymer materials for dialysis equipment: reconsidering in vivo testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, U G; Liebsch, M; Kolar, R

    2000-01-01

    In fulfilment of the aims of the European Union Biocidal Directive (Directive 98/8/EC), Technical Guidance Documents are currently being compiled. Part I of these Technical Guidance Documents covers data requirements for active substances and biocidal products. The Three Rs principle has been applied in certain parts of the toxicity and ecotoxicity testing scheme for pesticides, such as testing for acute oral toxicity, skin and eye irritation, skin sensitisation, and dermal absorption. Further recommendations on how to proceed with regard to the continuing replacement, reduction and refinement of animal experiments in this field of regulatory testing are included for consideration. In this context, besides stressing the necessity to validate and accept further alternatives, emphasis is placed on providing the possibility of waiving unnecessary tests and on the continuous evaluation of whether certain tests are needed at all. 2000 FRAME.

  3. Acute lethality data for Ontario's electric power generation sector effluents covering the period from December 1990 to May 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, D.G.; Lee, J.T.; Mueller, M.C.; Westlake, G.F.

    1995-01-01

    Regulations require that electric power generation facilities monitor their liquid effluents. Acute lethality tests are simple, rapid standard methods for measuring potential impacts on aquatic ecosystems. These toxicity tests will detect harmful concentrations of chemicals and mixtures of compounds in effluents, but compliance with end of pipe limits for acute toxicity will not necessarily control all adverse environmental effects. In these tests, aquatic organisms were exposed to undiluted effluent, as well as a series of effluent dilutions for a fixed period of time. This report is a compilation of six months of test results. Typically the most toxic samples were taken from the waste treatment plant (WTP) neutral sumps. This was true for fossil fueled as well as for nuclear generating stations. tabs., figs

  4. Towards sensible toxicity testing for nanomaterials: proposal for the specification of test design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potthoff, Annegret; Meißner, Tobias; Weil, Mirco; Kühnel, Dana

    2015-01-01

    During the last decade, nanomaterials (NM) were extensively tested for potential harmful effects towards humans and environmental organisms. However, a sound hazard assessment was so far hampered by uncertainties and a low comparability of test results. The reason for the low comparability is a high variation in the (1) type of NM tested with regard to raw material, size and shape and (2) procedures before and during the toxicity testing. This calls for tailored, nanomaterial-specific protocols. Here, a structured approach is proposed, intended to lead to test protocols not only tailored to specific types of nanomaterials, but also to respective test system for toxicity testing. There are existing standards on single procedures involving nanomaterials, however, not all relevant procedures are covered by standards. Hence, our approach offers a detailed way of weighting several plausible alternatives for e.g. sample preparation, in order to decide on the procedure most meaningful for a specific nanomaterial and toxicity test. A framework of several decision trees (DT) and flow charts to support testing of NM is proposed as a basis for further refinement and in-depth elaboration. DT and flow charts were drafted for (1) general procedure—physicochemical characterisation, (2) choice of test media, (3) decision on test scenario and application of NM to liquid media, (4) application of NM to the gas phase, (5) application of NM to soil and sediments, (6) dose metrics, (S1) definition of a nanomaterial, and (S2) dissolution. The applicability of the proposed approach was surveyed by using experimental data retrieved from studies on nanoscale CuO. This survey demonstrated the DT and flow charts to be a convenient tool to systematically decide upon test procedures and processes, and hence pose an important step towards harmonisation of NM testing. (paper)

  5. Toxicity testing: the search for an in vitro alternative to animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, J E; Xu, J; Morse, H R; Avent, N D; Donaldson, C

    2009-01-01

    Prior to introduction to the clinic, pharmaceuticals must undergo rigorous toxicity testing to ensure their safety. Traditionally, this has been achieved using in vivo animal models. However, besides ethical reasons, there is a continual drive to reduce the number of animals used for this purpose due to concerns such as the lack of concordance seen between animal models and toxic effects in humans. Adequate testing to ensure any toxic metabolites are detected can be further complicated if the agent is administered in a prodrug form, requiring a source of cytochrome P450 enzymes for metabolism. A number of sources of metabolic enzymes have been utilised in in vitro models, including cell lines, primary human tissue and liver extracts such as S9. This review examines current and new in vitro models for toxicity testing, including a new model developed within the authors' laboratory utilising HepG2 liver spheroids within a co-culture system to examine the effects of chemotherapeutic agents on other cell types.

  6. Richards Bay effluent pipeline

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lord, DA

    1986-07-01

    Full Text Available of major concern identified in the effluent are the large volume of byproduct calcium sulphate (phosphogypsum) which would smother marine life, high concentrations of fluoride highly toxic to marine life, heavy metals, chlorinated organic material... ........................ 9 THE RICHARDS BAY PIPELINE ........................................ 16 Environmental considerations ................................... 16 - Phosphogypsum disposal ................................... 16 - Effects of fluoride on locally occurring...

  7. Silver precipitation from electrolytic effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, I.; Patino, F.; Cruells, M.; Roca, A.; Vinals, J.

    2004-01-01

    The recovery of silver contained in electrolytic effluents is attractive due to its high economic value. These effluents are considered toxic wastes and it is not possible to dump them directly without any detoxification process. One of the most important way for silver recovery is the precipitation with sodium ditionite, sodium borohidride or hydrazine monohidrate. In this work, the most significant aspects related to the use of these reagents is presented. Results of silver precipitation with sodium ditionite from effluents containing thiosulfate without previous elimination of other species are also presented. silver concentration in the final effluents w <1 ppm. (Author) 15 refs

  8. Integrated testing strategies for toxicity employing new and existing technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes, Robert D; Balls, Michael

    2011-07-01

    We have developed individual, integrated testing strategies (ITS) for predicting the toxicity of general chemicals, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, inhaled chemicals, and nanoparticles. These ITS are based on published schemes developed previously for the risk assessment of chemicals to fulfil the requirements of REACH, which have been updated to take account of the latest developments in advanced in chemico modelling and in vitro technologies. In addition, we propose an ITS for neurotoxicity, based on the same principles, for incorporation in the other ITS. The technologies are deployed in a step-wise manner, as a basis for decision-tree approaches, incorporating weight-of-evidence stages. This means that testing can be stopped at the point where a risk assessment and/or classification can be performed, with labelling in accordance with the requirements of the regulatory authority concerned, rather than following a checklist approach to hazard identification. In addition, the strategies are intelligent, in that they are based on the fundamental premise that there is no hazard in the absence of exposure - which is why pharmacokinetic modelling plays a key role in each ITS. The new technologies include the use of complex, three-dimensional human cell tissue culture systems with in vivo-like structural, physiological and biochemical features, as well as dosing conditions. In this way, problems of inter-species extrapolation and in vitro/in vivo extrapolation are minimised. This is reflected in the ITS placing more emphasis on the use of volunteers at the whole organism testing stage, rather than on existing animal testing, which is the current situation. 2011 FRAME.

  9. Is the OECD acute worm toxicity test environmentally relevant? The effect of mineral form on calculated lead toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, N.A.Nicola A.; Hodson, M.E.Mark E.; Black, S.Stuart

    2003-01-01

    The current OECD acute worm toxicity test does not relate well to ambient conditions. - In a series of experiments the toxicity of lead to worms in soil was determined following the draft OECD earthworm reproduction toxicity protocol except that lead was added as solid lead nitrate, carbonate and sulphide rather than as lead nitrate solution as would normally be the case. The compounds were added to the test soil to give lead concentrations of 625-12500 μg Pb g -1 of soil. Calculated toxicities of the lead decreased in the order nitrate>carbonate>sulphide, the same order as the decrease in the solubility of the metal compounds used. The 7-day LC 50 (lethal concentration when 50% of the population is killed) for the nitrate was 5321±275 μg Pb g -1 of soil and this did not change with time. The LC 50 values for carbonate and sulphide could not be determined at the concentration ranges used. The only parameter sensitive enough to distinguish the toxicities of the three compounds was cocoon (egg) production. The EC 50 s for cocoon production (the concentration to produce a 50% reduction in cocoon production) were 993, 8604 and 10246 μg Pb g -1 of soil for lead nitrate, carbonate and sulphide, respectively. Standard toxicity tests need to take into account the form in which the contaminant is present in the soil to be of environmental relevance

  10. A rapid phenol toxicity test based on photosynthesis and movement of the freshwater flagellate, Euglena agilis Carter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kottuparambil, Sreejith; Kim, Youn-Jung; Choi, Hoon; Kim, Mi-Sung; Park, Areum; Park, Jihae; Shin, Woongghi; Han, Taejun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Rapid phenol toxicity tests (1 h) were developed based on Chl a fluorescence and the movement parameters of Euglena agilis. • Phenol significantly reduced F v /F m of PS II and rETRmax with EC50 values of 8.94 and 4.67 mM, respectively. • Among the movement parameters tested, velocity was the most sensitive biomarker with an EC50 of 3.17 mM. • The EC50 values for F v /F m , motility, and velocity appear to overlap the environmental permissible levels of phenol. - Abstract: Phenol, a monosubstituted aromatic hydrocarbon with various commercial uses, is a major organic constituent in industrial wastewaters. The ecotoxic action of phenol for aquatic environment is well known. In this study, rapid phenol toxicity tests (1 h) were developed based on chlorophyll a (Chl a) fluorescence and the movement parameters of the freshwater flagellate, Euglena agilis Carter. Phenol significantly reduced the maximum quantum yield (F v /F m ) of photosystem II (PS II) and the maximum photosynthetic electron transport rate (rETR max ) with median effective concentration (EC 50 ) values of 8.94 and 4.67 mM, respectively. Phenol reduced the motility and triggered change in the swimming velocity of the test organism. Among the parameters tested, velocity was the most sensitive biomarker with an EC 50 of 3.17 mM. The EC 50 values for F v /F m , motility, and velocity appear to overlap the permitted levels of phenol. In conclusion, the photosynthesis and movement of E. agilis can be fast and sensitive risk assessment parameters for the evaluation of phenol toxicity in municipal and industrial effluents

  11. A rapid phenol toxicity test based on photosynthesis and movement of the freshwater flagellate, Euglena agilis Carter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kottuparambil, Sreejith [Institute of Green Environmental Research Center, Incheon National University, Incheon 406 840 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Youn-Jung [Institute of Green Environmental Research Center, Incheon National University, Incheon 406 840 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Marine Science, Incheon National University, Incheon 406 840 (Korea, Republic of); Green-Pioneer (Ltd.), Incheon National University, Incheon 406 840 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hoon; Kim, Mi-Sung; Park, Areum; Park, Jihae [Institute of Green Environmental Research Center, Incheon National University, Incheon 406 840 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Woongghi [Department of Biology, Chungnam University, Daejeon 306 764 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Taejun, E-mail: hanalgae@hanmail.net [Institute of Green Environmental Research Center, Incheon National University, Incheon 406 840 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Marine Science, Incheon National University, Incheon 406 840 (Korea, Republic of); Green-Pioneer (Ltd.), Incheon National University, Incheon 406 840 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Rapid phenol toxicity tests (1 h) were developed based on Chl a fluorescence and the movement parameters of Euglena agilis. • Phenol significantly reduced F{sub v}/F{sub m} of PS II and rETRmax with EC50 values of 8.94 and 4.67 mM, respectively. • Among the movement parameters tested, velocity was the most sensitive biomarker with an EC50 of 3.17 mM. • The EC50 values for F{sub v}/F{sub m}, motility, and velocity appear to overlap the environmental permissible levels of phenol. - Abstract: Phenol, a monosubstituted aromatic hydrocarbon with various commercial uses, is a major organic constituent in industrial wastewaters. The ecotoxic action of phenol for aquatic environment is well known. In this study, rapid phenol toxicity tests (1 h) were developed based on chlorophyll a (Chl a) fluorescence and the movement parameters of the freshwater flagellate, Euglena agilis Carter. Phenol significantly reduced the maximum quantum yield (F{sub v}/F{sub m}) of photosystem II (PS II) and the maximum photosynthetic electron transport rate (rETR{sub max}) with median effective concentration (EC{sub 50}) values of 8.94 and 4.67 mM, respectively. Phenol reduced the motility and triggered change in the swimming velocity of the test organism. Among the parameters tested, velocity was the most sensitive biomarker with an EC{sub 50} of 3.17 mM. The EC{sub 50} values for F{sub v}/F{sub m}, motility, and velocity appear to overlap the permitted levels of phenol. In conclusion, the photosynthesis and movement of E. agilis can be fast and sensitive risk assessment parameters for the evaluation of phenol toxicity in municipal and industrial effluents.

  12. Can interpreting sediment toxicity tests a mega sites benefit from novel approaches to normalization to address batching of tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sediment toxicity tests are a key tool used in Ecological Risk Assessments for contaminated sediment sites. Interpreting test results and defining toxicity is often a challenge. This is particularly true at mega sites where the testing regime is large, and by necessity performed ...

  13. Handling nonnormality and variance heterogeneity for quantitative sublethal toxicity tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, Christian; Van der Vliet, Leana

    2009-09-01

    The advantages of using regression-based techniques to derive endpoints from environmental toxicity data are clear, and slowly, this superior analytical technique is gaining acceptance. As use of regression-based analysis becomes more widespread, some of the associated nuances and potential problems come into sharper focus. Looking at data sets that cover a broad spectrum of standard test species, we noticed that some model fits to data failed to meet two key assumptions-variance homogeneity and normality-that are necessary for correct statistical analysis via regression-based techniques. Failure to meet these assumptions often is caused by reduced variance at the concentrations showing severe adverse effects. Although commonly used with linear regression analysis, transformation of the response variable only is not appropriate when fitting data using nonlinear regression techniques. Through analysis of sample data sets, including Lemna minor, Eisenia andrei (terrestrial earthworm), and algae, we show that both the so-called Box-Cox transformation and use of the Poisson distribution can help to correct variance heterogeneity and nonnormality and so allow nonlinear regression analysis to be implemented. Both the Box-Cox transformation and the Poisson distribution can be readily implemented into existing protocols for statistical analysis. By correcting for nonnormality and variance heterogeneity, these two statistical tools can be used to encourage the transition to regression-based analysis and the depreciation of less-desirable and less-flexible analytical techniques, such as linear interpolation.

  14. 40 CFR 799.9355 - TSCA reproduction/developmental toxicity screening test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... developmental defects should not be used. Healthy virgin animals, not subjected to previous experimental..., except legal holidays. (1) OECD (1995). Reproduction/Developmental Toxicity Screening Test, OECD 421...

  15. Protective effect of zinc over lead toxicity on testes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafique, M.; Shaikh, S.P.; Tahir, F.

    2010-01-01

    To determine the effects of lead and zinc on testes. Study Design: Randomized control trial. Place and Duration of Study: Basic Medical Sciences Institute, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, from August 2003 to December 2005. Methodology: Sixty adult (90 days old) albino rats were obtained from animal house JPMC for the study and divided into 3 groups. Group A received injection normal saline 1 cc intraperitoneally daily for 8 weeks. Group B received lead chloride in a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally daily. Group C received zinc chloride in a dose of 1 mg/kg body weight before half an hour of injection of lead chloride in a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally daily so that to provide pre-treatment. On the day of completion of treatment the animals were sacrificed testes removed and fixed in Bouin's fluid. Testes were dehydrated in the ascending strength of alcohol, 5 mu m thick sections were cut and stained with PAS Iron Hematoxylin. Student's t-test was used for statistical analysis with significance at p < 0.05. Results: The mean diameter of seminiferous tubule was 291.91+-1.18, 198.53 +- 1.67 and 288.77 +- 1.11 mu m in groups A, B and C respectively. Diameter of seminiferous tubules decreased by 31.99% in group B (p < 0.001; CI 89.023 to 97.736) as compared group A and while group B comparing with group C, the diameter of seminiferous tubules was decreased by 31.25% (p-value = 0.076; CI -94.264 to -86.203). Mean thickness of germinal epithelium was 96.19 +- 1.01, 50.69 +- 1.20 and 94.94 +- 0.54 mu m in groups A, B and C respectively. Thickness of germinal epithelium decreased by 47.30 in group B (P < 0.001; CI 42.503 to 48.496) as compared to group A and while comparing group B with group C, the thickness of germinal epithelium was decreased by 46.61% (p=-44.25; CI -46.704 to -41.787). Conclusion: Zinc prevented toxic effects of lead on germinal epithelium in the albino rats. (author)

  16. Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids: Testing for Toxic Constituents of Comfrey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, John J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the possibilities of toxins present in medicinal herbs. Describes an experiment in which toxic constituents can be selectively detected by thin-layer chromatography and NMR spectroscopy. (TW)

  17. OECD validation study to assess intra- and inter-laboratory reproducibility of the zebrafish embryo toxicity test for acute aquatic toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquet, François; Strecker, Ruben; Rawlings, Jane M; Belanger, Scott E; Braunbeck, Thomas; Carr, Gregory J; Cenijn, Peter; Fochtman, Przemyslaw; Gourmelon, Anne; Hübler, Nicole; Kleensang, André; Knöbel, Melanie; Kussatz, Carola; Legler, Juliette; Lillicrap, Adam; Martínez-Jerónimo, Fernando; Polleichtner, Christian; Rzodeczko, Helena; Salinas, Edward; Schneider, Katharina E; Scholz, Stefan; van den Brandhof, Evert-Jan; van der Ven, Leo T M; Walter-Rohde, Susanne; Weigt, Stefan; Witters, Hilda; Halder, Marlies

    2014-08-01

    The OECD validation study of the zebrafish embryo acute toxicity test (ZFET) for acute aquatic toxicity testing evaluated the ZFET reproducibility by testing 20 chemicals at 5 different concentrations in 3 independent runs in at least 3 laboratories. Stock solutions and test concentrations were analytically confirmed for 11 chemicals. Newly fertilised zebrafish eggs (20/concentration and control) were exposed for 96h to chemicals. Four apical endpoints were recorded daily as indicators of acute lethality: coagulation of the embryo, lack of somite formation, non-detachment of the tail bud from the yolk sac and lack of heartbeat. Results (LC50 values for 48/96h exposure) show that the ZFET is a robust method with a good intra- and inter-laboratory reproducibility (CV30%) for some very toxic or volatile chemicals, and chemicals tested close to their limit of solubility. The ZFET is now available as OECD Test Guideline 236. Considering the high predictive capacity of the ZFET demonstrated by Belanger et al. (2013) in their retrospective analysis of acute fish toxicity and fish embryo acute toxicity data, the ZFET is ready to be considered for acute fish toxicity for regulatory purposes. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Application of toxicity testing in the evaluation of reclamation options for oil sands fine tails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, L.R.; MacKinnon, M.; Gulley, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    The hot water process for the extraction of bitumen from oil sands leads to the production of large volumes of wastewater and the formation of a large inventory of fine clay tailings. This fine tailings material and its associated water are acutely toxic to various aquatic test organisms during bioassays. An overview is presented of toxicity testing at Syncrude and Suncor, the application of toxicity testing to fine tailings management, and the role in reclamation planning. The main acutely toxic component of the tailings is the polar organic acid fraction, specifically naphthanates. These naphthanates are readily degraded biologically by indigenous microbial populations. Toxicity testing is aimed at assessing the degree of both acute and chronic toxicity and the long term potential for the input of toxins into the environment from various proposed reclamation measures. 28 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Repeated dose 90-day oral toxicity test of G-7% NANA in rats: An application of new criterion for toxicity determination to test article-induced changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Hye Seon; An, MinJi; Lee, Ji Sun; Kim, Hee Kyong; Park, Yeong-Chul

    2018-06-01

    G-7% NANA is N-acetylneuraminic acid(NANA) containing 7% sialic acid isolated from glycomacropeptide (GMP), a compound of milk. Since NANA is likely to have immunotoxicity, the need to ensure safety for long-term administration has been raised. In this study, a 90-day repeated oral dose toxicity test was performed in rats using G-7% NANA in the dosages of 0, 1250, 2500 and 5000 mg/kg/day.A toxicity determination criterion based on the significant change caused by the administration of the substancewas developed for estimating NOEL, NOAEL and LOAELapplied to this study. When analyzing the immunological markers, no significant changes were observed, even if other significant changes were observed in the high dose group. In accordance with the toxicity determination criterion developed, the NOEL in male and female has been determined as 2500 mg/kg/day, and the NOAEL in females has been determined as 5000 mg/kg/day. The toxicity determination criterion, applied for the first time in the repeated dose toxicity tests, could provide a basis for distinguishing NOEL and NOAEL more clearly; nevertheless, the toxicity determination criterion needs to be supplemented by adding differentiating adverse effects and non-adverse effects based on more experiences of the repeated dose toxicity tests. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Dredged Material Evaluations: Review of Zooplankton Toxicity Test Methods for Marine Water Quality Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    term impacts of the DM while settling through the water column (elutriate toxicity tests), and long-term toxicity (whole sediment toxicity tests) and...elutriates are prepared according to guidance (USEPA/USACE 1991; 1998) by mixing sediment and site water and allowing settling for prescribed periods...of water and waste water . 17th ed. Washington, DC: APHA. Arnold, W. R., R. L. Diamond, and D. S. Smith. 2010a. The effects of salinity, pH, and

  1. Improving toxicity assessment of pesticide mixtures: the use of polar passive sampling devices extracts in microalgae toxicity tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra KIM TIAM

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Complexity of contaminants exposure needs to be taking in account for an appropriate evaluation of risks related to mixtures of pesticides released in the ecosystems. Toxicity assessment of such mixtures can be made through a variety of toxicity tests reflecting different level of biological complexity. This paper reviews the recent developments of passive sampling techniques for polar compounds, especially Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCIS and Chemcatcher® and the principal assessment techniques using microalgae in laboratory experiments. The progresses permitted by the coupled use of such passive samplers and ecotoxicology testing as well as their limitations are presented. Case studies combining passive sampling devices (PSD extracts and toxicity assessment toward microorganisms at different biological scales from single organisms to communities level are presented. These case studies, respectively aimed i at characterizing the toxic potential of waters using dose-response curves, and ii at performing microcosm experiments with increased environmental realism in the toxicant exposure in term of cocktail composition and concentration. Finally perspectives and limitations of such approaches for future applications in the area of environmental risk assessment are discussed.

  2. Standardized toxicity testing may underestimate ecotoxicity: Environmentally relevant food rations increase the toxicity of silver nanoparticles to Daphnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Louise M; Krattenmaker, Katherine E; Johnson, Erica; Bowers, Alexandra J; Adeleye, Adeyemi S; McCauley, Edward; Nisbet, Roger M

    2017-11-01

    Daphnia in the natural environment experience fluctuations in algal food supply, with periods when algal populations bloom and seasons when Daphnia have very little algal food. Standardized chronic toxicity tests, used for ecological risk assessment, dictate that Daphnia must be fed up to 400 times more food than they would experience in the natural environment (outside of algal blooms) for a toxicity test to be valid. This disconnect can lead to underestimating the toxicity of a contaminant. We followed the growth, reproduction, and survival of Daphnia exposed to 75 and 200 µg/L silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) at 4 food rations for up to 99 d and found that AgNP exposure at low, environmentally relevant food rations increased the toxicity of AgNPs. Exposure to AgNP at low food rations decreased the survival and/or reproduction of individuals, with potential consequences for Daphnia populations (based on calculated specific population growth rates). We also found tentative evidence that a sublethal concentration of AgNPs (75 µg/L) caused Daphnia to alter energy allocation away from reproduction and toward survival and growth. The present findings emphasize the need to consider resource availability, and not just exposure, in the environment when estimating the effect of a toxicant. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:3008-3018. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  3. The Adverse Outcome Pathway: A conceptual framework to support toxicity testing in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    The field of regulatory toxicity testing is at a turning point. The U.S. National Research Council (NRC) envisioned a shift away from traditional toxicity testing and towards a focused effort to explore and understand pathways perturbed by biologically active substances or their ...

  4. Significance of Intratracheal Instillation Tests for the Screening of Pulmonary Toxicity of Nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Yasuo; Izumi, Hiroto; Yoshiura, Yukiko; Fujisawa, Yuri; Fujita, Katsuhide

    Inhalation tests are the gold standard test for the estimation of the pulmonary toxicity of respirable materials. Intratracheal instillation tests have been used widely, but they yield limited evidence of the harmful effects of respirable materials. We reviewed the effectiveness of intratracheal instillation tests for estimating the hazards of nanomaterials, mainly using research papers featuring intratracheal instillation and inhalation tests centered on a Japanese national project. Compared to inhalation tests, intratracheal instillation tests induced more acute inflammatory responses in the animal lung due to a bolus effect regardless of the toxicity of the nanomaterials. However, nanomaterials with high toxicity induced persistent inflammation in the chronic phase, and nanomaterials with low toxicity induced only transient inflammation. Therefore, in order to estimate the harmful effects of a nanomaterial, an observation period of 3 months or 6 months following intratracheal instillation is necessary. Among the endpoints of pulmonary toxicity, cell count and percentage of neutrophil, chemokines for neutrophils and macrophages, and oxidative stress markers are considered most important. These markers show persistent and transient responses in the lung from nanomaterials with high and low toxicity, respectively. If the evaluation of the pulmonary toxicity of nanomaterials is performed in not only the acute but also the chronic phase in order to avoid the bolus effect of intratracheal instillation and inflammatory-related factors that are used as endpoints of pulmonary toxicity, we speculate that intratracheal instillation tests can be useful for screening for the identification of the hazard of nanomaterials through pulmonary inflammation.

  5. Enhancing the applicability and predictability of the embryonic stem cell test for developmental toxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, E.

    2012-01-01

    Within the full risk assessment of a chemical, developmental toxicity testing is one of the endpoints that require the highest percentage of experimental animals. With the high number of experimental animals, cost and time involved in in vivo developmental toxicity testing there is an urgent need

  6. [Subchronic toxicity testing of mold-ripened cheese].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoch, U; Lüthy, J; Schlatter, C

    1984-08-01

    The biological effects of known mycotoxins of Penicillium roqueforti or P. camemberti and other still unknown, but potentially toxic metabolites in mould ripened cheese (commercial samples of Blue- and Camembert cheese) were investigated. High amounts of mycelium (equivalents of 100 kg cheese/man and day) were fed to mice in a subchronic feeding trial. The following parameters were determined: development of body weight, organ weights, hematology, blood plasma enzymes. No signs of adverse effects produced by cheese mycotoxins could be detected after 28 days. No still unknown toxic metabolites could be demonstrated. From these results no health hazard from the consumption of mould ripened cheese, even in high amounts, appears to exist.

  7. Allium -test as a tool for toxicity testing of environmental radioactive-chemical mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudalova, A A; Pyatkova, S V; Geras’kin, S A; Dikareva, N S

    2017-01-01

    Bioassay-based approaches have been propagated to assess toxicity of unknown mixtures of environmental contaminants, but it was rarely applied in cases of chemicals with radionuclides combinations. Two Allium -test studies were performed to assess environmental impact from potential sources of combined radioactive-chemical pollution. Study sites were located at nuclear waste storage facilities in European and in Far-Eastern parts of Russia. As environmental media under impact, waters from monitor wells and nearby water bodies were tested. Concentrations of some chemicals and radionuclides in the samples collected enhanced the permitted limits. Cytogenetic and cytotoxic effects were used as biological endpoints, namely, frequency and spectrum of chromosome aberrations and mitotic abnormalities in anatelophase cells as well as mitotic activity in Allium root tips. Sample points were revealed where waters have an enhanced mutagenic potential. The findings obtained could be used to optimize monitoring system and advance decision making on management and rehabilitation of industrial sites. The Allium -test could be recommended and applied as an effective tool for toxicity testing in case of combined contamination of environmental compartments with radionuclides and chemical compounds. (paper)

  8. Allium-test as a tool for toxicity testing of environmental radioactive-chemical mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudalova, A. A.; Geras'kin, S. A.; Dikareva, N. S.; Pyatkova, S. V.

    2017-01-01

    Bioassay-based approaches have been propagated to assess toxicity of unknown mixtures of environmental contaminants, but it was rarely applied in cases of chemicals with radionuclides combinations. Two Allium-test studies were performed to assess environmental impact from potential sources of combined radioactive-chemical pollution. Study sites were located at nuclear waste storage facilities in European and in Far-Eastern parts of Russia. As environmental media under impact, waters from monitor wells and nearby water bodies were tested. Concentrations of some chemicals and radionuclides in the samples collected enhanced the permitted limits. Cytogenetic and cytotoxic effects were used as biological endpoints, namely, frequency and spectrum of chromosome aberrations and mitotic abnormalities in anatelophase cells as well as mitotic activity in Allium root tips. Sample points were revealed where waters have an enhanced mutagenic potential. The findings obtained could be used to optimize monitoring system and advance decision making on management and rehabilitation of industrial sites. The Allium-test could be recommended and applied as an effective tool for toxicity testing in case of combined contamination of environmental compartments with radionuclides and chemical compounds.

  9. 78 FR 69414 - Toxic Substances Control Act Chemical Testing; Receipt of Test Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ...; Acute emulsion polymerization in Inhalation Toxicity in paper, textile, fiber, and Rats; Bacterial.../ Reproduction Development Toxicity. Note: CAS No. = Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number. Authority: 15 U...

  10. Testing of toxicity based methods to develop site specific clean up objectives - phase 1: Toxicity protocol screening and applicability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, H.; Kerr, D.; Thorne, W.; Taylor, B.; Zadnik, M.; Goudey, S.; Birkholz, D.

    1994-03-01

    A study was conducted to develop a cost-effective and practical protocol for using bio-assay based toxicity assessment methods for remediation of decommissioned oil and gas production, and processing facilities. The objective was to generate site-specific remediation criteria for contaminated sites. Most companies have used the chemical-specific approach which, however, did not meet the ultimate land use goal of agricultural production. The toxicity assessment method described in this study dealt with potential impairment to agricultural crop production and natural ecosystems. Human health concerns were not specifically addressed. It was suggested that chemical-specific methods should be used when human health concerns exist. . Results showed that toxicity tests will more directly identify ecological stress caused by site contamination than chemical-specific remediation criteria, which can be unnecessarily protective. 11 refs., 7 tabs., 6 figs

  11. ExpoCast: Exposure Science for Prioritization and Toxicity Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US EPA is completing the Phase I pilot for a chemical prioritization research program, called ToxCastTM. Here EPA is developing methods for using computational chemistry, high-throughput screening, and toxicogenomic technologies to predict potential toxicity and prioritize l...

  12. Comparison of Weibull and Probit Analysis in Toxicity Testing of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Keywords: Hunteria umbellata, Weibull model, Acute toxicity, Median lethal dose (LD50). Received: 7 November ... (PBPK) models [14,15], and (v) biologically-. Based Models: Moolgavkar-Venzon-Kundson. (MVK) model [16] and Ellwein and Cohen model [17]. ... Nigeria, Ibadan, where a sample with number. FHI107618 ...

  13. THE ROLE OF IONORGANIC ION IMBALANCE IN AQUATIC TOXICITY TESTING

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper assessess the issue of ion imbalance, provides summary of applicable data, presents several successful technical tools to address toxicity resulting from salinity and ion imbalances, and discusses regulatory/compliance options to manage discharges with salinity/ion imb...

  14. Toxicity testing in the 21 century: defining new risk assessment approaches based on perturbation of intracellular toxicity pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudin Bhattacharya

    Full Text Available The approaches to quantitatively assessing the health risks of chemical exposure have not changed appreciably in the past 50 to 80 years, the focus remaining on high-dose studies that measure adverse outcomes in homogeneous animal populations. This expensive, low-throughput approach relies on conservative extrapolations to relate animal studies to much lower-dose human exposures and is of questionable relevance to predicting risks to humans at their typical low exposures. It makes little use of a mechanistic understanding of the mode of action by which chemicals perturb biological processes in human cells and tissues. An alternative vision, proposed by the U.S. National Research Council (NRC report Toxicity Testing in the 21(st Century: A Vision and a Strategy, called for moving away from traditional high-dose animal studies to an approach based on perturbation of cellular responses using well-designed in vitro assays. Central to this vision are (a "toxicity pathways" (the innate cellular pathways that may be perturbed by chemicals and (b the determination of chemical concentration ranges where those perturbations are likely to be excessive, thereby leading to adverse health effects if present for a prolonged duration in an intact organism. In this paper we briefly review the original NRC report and responses to that report over the past 3 years, and discuss how the change in testing might be achieved in the U.S. and in the European Union (EU. EU initiatives in developing alternatives to animal testing of cosmetic ingredients have run very much in parallel with the NRC report. Moving from current practice to the NRC vision would require using prototype toxicity pathways to develop case studies showing the new vision in action. In this vein, we also discuss how the proposed strategy for toxicity testing might be applied to the toxicity pathways associated with DNA damage and repair.

  15. Treatment of cosmetic effluent in different configurations of ceramic UF membrane based bioreactor: Toxicity evaluation of the untreated and treated wastewater using catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Priya; Dey, Tanmoy Kumar; Sarkar, Sandeep; Swarnakar, Snehasikta; Mukhopadhyay, Aniruddha; Ghosh, Sourja

    2016-03-01

    Extensive usage of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) and their discharge through domestic sewage have been recently recognized as a new generation environmental concern which deserves more scientific attention over the classical environmental pollutants. The major issues of this type of effluent addressed in this study were its colour, triclosan and anionic surfactant (SDS) content. Samples of cosmetic effluent were collected from different beauty treatment salons and spas in and around Kolkata, India and treated in bioreactors containing a bacterial consortium isolated from activated sludge samples collected from a common effluent treatment plant. Members of the consortium were isolated and identified as Klebsiella sp., Pseudomonas sp., Salmonella sp. and Comamonas sp. The biotreated effluent was subjected to ultrafiltration (UF) involving indigenously prepared ceramic membranes in both side-stream and submerged mode. Analysis of the MBR treated effluent revealed 99.22%, 98.56% and 99.74% removal of colour, triclosan and surfactant respectively. Investigation of probable acute and chronic cyto-genotoxic potential of the untreated and treated effluents along with their possible participation in triggering oxidative stress was carried out with Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch). Comet formation recorded in both liver and gill cells and micronucleus count in peripheral erythrocytes of individuals exposed to untreated effluent increased with duration of exposure and was significantly higher than those treated with UF permeates which in turn neared control levels. Results of this study revealed successful application of the isolated bacterial consortium in MBR process for efficient detoxification of cosmetic effluent thereby conferring the same suitable for discharge and/or reuse. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A comparison of sediment toxicity test methods at three Great Lake Areas of Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, G. Allen; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Burnett, LouAnn C.; Henry, Mary; Hinman, Mark L.; Klaine, Stephen J.; Landrum, Peter F.; Ross, Phillipe; Tuchman, Marc

    1996-01-01

    The significance of sediment contamination is often evaluated using sediment toxicity (bioassay) testing. There are relatively few “standardized” test methods for evaluating sediments. Popular sediment toxicity methods examine the extractable water (elutriate), interstitial water, or whole (bulk) sediment phases using test species spanning the aquatic food chain from bacteria to fish. The current study was designed to evaluate which toxicity tests were most useful in evaluations of sediment contamination at three Great Lake Areas of Concern. Responses of 24 different organisms including fish, mayflies, amphipods, midges, cladocerans, rotifers, macrophytes, algae, and bacteria were compared using whole sediment or elutriate toxicity assays. Sediments from several sites in the Buffalo River, Calumet River (Indiana Harbor), and Saginaw River were tested, as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) Assessment and Remediation of Contaminated Sediments (ARCS) Project. Results indicated several assays to be sensitive to sediment toxicity and able to discriminate between differing levels of toxicity. Many of the assay responses were significantly correlated to other toxicity responses and were similar based on factor analysis. For most applications, a test design consisting of two to three assays should adequately detect sediment toxicity, consisting of various groupings of the following species: Hyalella azteca, Ceriodaphnia dubia, Chironomus riparius, Chironomus tentans, Daphnia magna, Pimephales promelas, Hexagenia bilineata, Diporeia sp., Hydrilla verticillata, or Lemna minor.

  17. Toxicity and metal speciation in acid mine drainage treated by passive bioreactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neculita, C.M.; Vigneaul, B.; Zagury, G.J. [Ecole Polytechnic, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2008-08-15

    Sulfate-reducing passive bioreactors treat acid mine drainage (AMD) by increasing its pH and alkalinity and by removing metals as metal sulfide precipitates. In addition to discharge limits based on physicochemical parameters, however, treated effluent is required to be nontoxic. Acute and sublethal toxicity was assessed for effluent from 3.5-L column bioreactors filled with mixtures of natural organic carbon sources and operated at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) for the treatment of a highly contaminated AMD. Effluent was first tested for acute (Daphnia magna and Oncorhynchus mykiss) and sublethal (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Ceriodaphnia dabia, and Lemna minor) toxicity. Acute toxicity was observed for D. magna, and a toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) procedure was then performed to identify potential toxicants. Finally, metal speciation in the effluent was determined using ultrafiltration and geochemical modeling for the interpretation of the toxicity results. The 10-d HRT effluent was nonacutely lethal for 0. mykiss but acutely lethal for D. magna. The toxicity to D. magna, however, was removed by 2 h of aeration, and the TIE procedure suggested iron as a cause of toxicity. Sublethal toxicity of the 10-d HRT effluent was observed for all test species, but it was reduced compared to the raw AMD and to a 7.3-d HRT effluent. Data regarding metal speciation indicated instability of both effluents during aeration and were consistent with the toxicity being caused by iron. Column bioreactors in operation for more than nine months efficiently improved the physicochemical quality of highly contaminated AMD at different HRTs.

  18. Aquatic toxicity testing for hazard identification of engineered nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sara Nørgaard

    the traditionally applied, and determination of different exposure fractions such as the concentration of dissolved ions from ENPs and body burdens. Although these approaches are scientifically exploratory by nature, the aim is to generate data applicable for regulatory hazard identification of ENPs. The focus has......Within the last few decades, major advances in the field of nanotechnology have enabled production of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) for various applications and consumer products already available on the market. ENPs may exhibit unique and novel properties compared to their bulk counterparts...... and the response axes. The actual exposure experienced by organisms may not be reflected by the ENPconcentration in medium, commonly applied as the exposure metric, and the responses of organisms may result from various toxic and non-toxic mechanisms occurring simultaneously. In this thesis, the challenges related...

  19. Assessment of refinery effluents and receiving waters using biologically-based effect methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Within the EU it is apparent that the regulatory focus on the use of biologically-based effects methods in the assessment of refinery effluents and receiving waters has increased in the past decade. This has been reflected in a recent refinery survey which revealed an increased use of such methods for assessing the quality of refinery effluents and their receiving waters. This report provides an overview of recent techniques used for this purpose. Several case studies provided by CONCAWE member companies describe the application of biological methods to effluent discharge assessment and surface water monitoring. The case studies show that when biological methods are applied to refinery effluents and receiving waters they raise different questions compared with those obtained using physical and chemical methods. Although direct measurement of the toxicity of effluent and receiving to aquatic organisms is the most cited technique, more recent efforts include tests that also address the persistence of effluent toxicity once discharged into the receiving water. Similarly, ecological monitoring of receiving waters can identify effects of effluent inputs arising from species interactions and other secondary effects that would not always be apparent from the results of biological tests conducted on single aquatic organisms. In light of recent and proposed regulatory developments the objectives of this report are therefore to: Discuss the application of biologically-based effects methods (including ecological monitoring) to refinery discharges and receiving waters; Assess the implications of such methods for future regulation of refinery discharges; and Provide guidance on good practice that can be used by refineries and the downstream oil industry to carry out and interpret data obtained using biologically-based effects methods. While the emphasis is on the toxic effects of effluents, other properties will also be covered because of their interdependency in determining

  20. Assessment of refinery effluents and receiving waters using biologically-based effect methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-01-15

    Within the EU it is apparent that the regulatory focus on the use of biologically-based effects methods in the assessment of refinery effluents and receiving waters has increased in the past decade. This has been reflected in a recent refinery survey which revealed an increased use of such methods for assessing the quality of refinery effluents and their receiving waters. This report provides an overview of recent techniques used for this purpose. Several case studies provided by CONCAWE member companies describe the application of biological methods to effluent discharge assessment and surface water monitoring. The case studies show that when biological methods are applied to refinery effluents and receiving waters they raise different questions compared with those obtained using physical and chemical methods. Although direct measurement of the toxicity of effluent and receiving to aquatic organisms is the most cited technique, more recent efforts include tests that also address the persistence of effluent toxicity once discharged into the receiving water. Similarly, ecological monitoring of receiving waters can identify effects of effluent inputs arising from species interactions and other secondary effects that would not always be apparent from the results of biological tests conducted on single aquatic organisms. In light of recent and proposed regulatory developments the objectives of this report are therefore to: Discuss the application of biologically-based effects methods (including ecological monitoring) to refinery discharges and receiving waters; Assess the implications of such methods for future regulation of refinery discharges; and Provide guidance on good practice that can be used by refineries and the downstream oil industry to carry out and interpret data obtained using biologically-based effects methods. While the emphasis is on the toxic effects of effluents, other properties will also be covered because of their interdependency in determining

  1. Guanicid and PHMG Toxicity Tests on Aquatic Organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Poštulková; Radovan Kopp

    2016-01-01

    The emergence and development of new algicidal products is caused by the ever increasing popularity of garden ponds as well as the use of these products in the fisheries sector, especially for disposal of cyanobacteria and algae. Most frequent means of combating cyanobacteria and algae are applications of algicidal substances. Newly developed algaecides include Guanicid and polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride (PHMG). The aim of the study was to identify toxic effects of Guanicid and PHM...

  2. Genotoxicity of swine effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techio, V H; Stolberg, J; Kunz, A; Zanin, E; Perdomo, C C

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of genotoxic effects of swine effluents from different stages of a treatment system for swine wastes through bioassay of stamen hairs and micronuclei in Tradescantia (clone BNL 4430). No significant differences (p≥0.05) regarding the genic mutations were found in the bioassay of stamen hairs, independently of the effluent analysed. For the genotoxicity test with micronuclei, the plants exposed to raw wastes, to sludge, and to effluent of the biodigester have presented higher rates of chromosomal damages (micronuclei), with significant differences in relation to the control group and other effluent of the waste treatment system (p≤0.05). The association between the chemical parameters and the genotoxicity data have shown that the variables COD and TKN have presented significant correlation (p≤0.05) with the number of mutagenic events in the tetrads.

  3. In vitro developmental toxicity test detects inhibition of stem cell differentiation by silica nanoparticles.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, M.V.; Annema, W.; Salvati, A.; Lesniak, A.; Elsaesser, A.; Barnes, C.; McKerr, G.; Howard, C.; Lynch, I.; Dawson, K.; Piersma, A.H.; de Jong, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    While research into the potential toxic properties of nanomaterials is now increasing, the area of developmental toxicity has remained relatively uninvestigated. The embryonic stem cell test is an in vitro screening assay used to investigate the embryotoxic potential of chemicals by determining

  4. Treatment of liquid effluents from uranium analytical method 'DAVIES & GRAY' by electrodialysis and electrodialysis reactive tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuniga Alvear, Karina Andrea

    2014-01-01

    This work describes the process which produces liquid waste coming from the chemical analysis laboratory of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN), from the analytical technique called 'Davies and Gray' and their further treatment, using electro dialysis (ED) and reactive electro dialysis (RED), in order to achieve lower uranium contents in solution. The contamination in water is a big problem, since there are many places in the world where is limited. For these reasons new treatments must be done, and the ion-selective membrane has opened a new path for these processes. The radioactive liquid waste have lots of other restrictions in their final disposal, which difficult even more the water recovery, because the law has very strict security margins with respect to these ones. In the case of liquid waste containing uranium, the concern increases, because being the uranium a radioactive element has it has to be lowered at its maximum, or eliminated directly, in order to avoid any kind of contamination. There exist national regulations and international recommendations. They have stipulated the correct management and disposal for radioactive waste. These can come from any uranium production process. In any of these, the liquid waste contains certain uranium content, which after the end of the process; the discarded waste must go through a conditioning and cleaning process for its afterward liberation or recycling. In this study, it was tested the electro dialysis as a radioactive waste treatment, only uranium containing waste coming from the chemical analysis laboratory in CCHEN. The electro dialysis process has a direct competition with other separation process, such as distillation, ionic exchange, and reverse osmosis, among others. The classic electro dialysis has been developed during the 50's, and until today, there has been different version, as inverse, reactive, reversible. The unidirectional and reactive electro dialysis will be the

  5. Sensitivity of submersed freshwater macrophytes and endpoints in laboratory toxicity tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arts, Gertie H.P.; Belgers, J. Dick M.; Hoekzema, Conny H.; Thissen, Jac T.N.M.

    2008-01-01

    The toxicological sensitivity and variability of a range of macrophyte endpoints were statistically tested with data from chronic, non-axenic, macrophyte toxicity tests. Five submersed freshwater macrophytes, four pesticides/biocides and 13 endpoints were included in the statistical analyses. Root endpoints, reflecting root growth, were most sensitive in the toxicity tests, while endpoints relating to biomass, growth and shoot length were less sensitive. The endpoints with the lowest coefficients of variation were not necessarily the endpoints, which were toxicologically most sensitive. Differences in sensitivity were in the range of 10-1000 for different macrophyte-specific endpoints. No macrophyte species was consistently the most sensitive. Criteria to select endpoints in macrophyte toxicity tests should include toxicological sensitivity, variance and ecological relevance. Hence, macrophyte toxicity tests should comprise an array of endpoints, including very sensitive endpoints like those relating to root growth. - A range of endpoints is more representative of macrophyte fitness than biomass and growth only

  6. TPK Sarimukti, Cipatat, West Bandung compost toxicity test using Allium test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wardini, Trimurti Hesti; Notodarmojo, Peni Astrini [Biology Study Program, School of Life Science and Technology, Bandung Institute of Technology (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    TPK Sarimukti, Cipatat, West Bandung produced 2 kinds of compost from traditional market waste, liquid and solid compost. The aim of this research is to evaluate toxicity of compost produced in TPK Sarimukti using shallots (Allium cepa). Tests carried out by treated shallots with liquid compost (2,5%, 5%, 10% and 12,5% (w/v)) or solid compost (25%, 50%, 75% and 100% (w/v)) for 48 hours. Results showed reduced root growth rate and mitotic index (MI) in accordance with increased concentrations of compost. Sub lethal concentrations are liquid compost 5% and 10% and solid compost 75%. Lethal concentrations are liquid compost 12,5 % and solid compost 100%. Micronuclei (MN) increased with increase in liquid compost concentration. MN found at very high frequencies in highest solid compost concentration (100%), but very low at lower concentrations. Cells with binuclei and cell necrosis increased with increasing concentrations of given compost. Nuclear anomalies (NA) found in high frequency in 75% and 100% solid compost. Based on research, we can conclude that liquid compost is more toxic because it can reduce MI and root growth rate at lower concentrations than solid compost. Both types of compost have genotoxic properties because it can induce chromosome aberration (CA), MN, binuclei and NA formation.

  7. Integrating the fish embryo toxicity test as triad element for sediment toxicity assessment based on the water framework directive approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartzke, Mariana [Dept. Aquatic Ecotoxicology, Goethe Univ. Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Gobio GmbH, Aarbergen/Kettenbach (Germany); Dept. Bioanalytical Ecotoxicology, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, UFZ, Leipzig (Germany); Delov, Vera [Dept. Aquatic Ecotoxicology, Goethe Univ. Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Gobio GmbH, Aarbergen/Kettenbach (Germany); Ecotoxicology, Fraunhofer Inst. for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME, Aachen (Germany); Stahlschmidt-Allner, Petra; Allner, Bernhard [Gobio GmbH, Aarbergen/Kettenbach (Germany); Oehlmann, Joerg [Dept. Aquatic Ecotoxicology, Goethe Univ. Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to complement analyses according to the European Union Water Framework Directive (WFD) with a sediment toxicity analysis as part of an integrated river assessment. To this end, Hessian water courses were analyzed using the sediment quality triad concept according to Chapman with chemical analyses, in situ effect evaluations, and ecotoxicological assessments. For the ecotoxicological assessment (fish embryo toxicity test with Danio rerio), a new evaluation scheme was developed, the fish teratogenicity index (FTI), that allows for a classification of sediments into ecological quality classes compliant to the WFD. Materials and methods sediment and macrozoobenthos samples were taken from tributaries of the rivers Fulda and Lahn. Sediments were characterized regarding particle size, carbon, heavy metals, and polyaromatic hydrocarbon content. Macroinvertebrate samples were taken via multi-habitat sampling. The fish embryo toxicity test with D. rerio was conducted as a contact assay on the basis of DIN 38415-6. Results and discussion The integrated assessment indicated a significant influence of heavy metals and carbon content on macroinvertebrate communities. The bioaccessibility of sediment pollutants were clearly demonstrated by the FTI, which showed a wide range of adverse effects. A significant linear relationship between metals and the FTI was detected. However, there was no statistically significant evidence that macroinvertebrate communities were affected by the hydromorphological quality clements at the sampling sites. Conclusions The new scheme for the assessment of fish embryo toxicity test was successfully applied. The results suggest that sediment compounds impact macroinvertebrate communities and early development of fish. It demonstrates that the quality of sediments should be evaluated on a routine basis as part of an integrated river assessment. (orig.)

  8. Effluent Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effluent guidelines are national standards for wastewater discharges to surface waters and municipal sewage treatment plants. We issue the regulations for industrial categories based on the performance of treatment and control technologies.

  9. Suboptimal performance on neuropsychological tests in patients with suspected chronic toxic encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hout, Moniek S. E.; Schmand, Ben; Wekking, Ellie M.; Hageman, Gerard; Deelman, Betto G.

    2003-01-01

    Suboptimal performance during neuropsychological testing can seriously complicate assessment in behavioral neurotoxicology. We present data on the prevalence of suboptimal performance in a group of Dutch patients with suspected chronic toxic encephalopathy (CTE) after long-term occupational exposure

  10. Suboptimal performance on neuropsychological tests in patients with suspected chronic toxic encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hout, MSE; Schmand, B; Wekking, EM; Hageman, G; Deelman, BG

    Suboptimal performance during neuropsychological testing can seriously complicate assessment in behavioral neurotoxicology. We present data on the prevalence of suboptimal performance in a group of Dutch patients with suspected chronic toxic encephalopathy (CTE) after long-term occupational exposure

  11. A Roadmap for the Development of Alternative (Non-Animal) Methods for Systemic Toxicity Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Systemic toxicity testing forms the cornerstone for the safety evaluation of substances. Pressures to move from traditional animal models to novel technologies arise from various concerns, including: the need to evaluate large numbers of previously untested chemicals and new prod...

  12. Toxic Substances Control Act Test Submissions 2.0 (TSCATS 2.0)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxic Substances Control Act Test Submissions 2.0 (TSCATS 2.0) tracks the submissions of health and safety data submitted to the EPA either as required or...

  13. What Food and Feeding Rates are Optimum for the Chironomus dilutus Sediment Toxicity Test Method?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory tests with benthic macroinvertebrates are commonly used to assess the toxicity of both contaminated sediments and individual chemicals. Among the standard procedures for benthic macroinvertebrates are 10-d, 20-d, and life cycle exposures using the midge, Chironomus ...

  14. Fungal Biosorption, An Innovative Treatment for the Decolourisation and Detoxification of Textile Effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Pannocchia

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Textile effluents are among the most difficult-to-treat wastewaters, due to their considerable amount of recalcitrant and toxic substances. Fungal biosorption is viewed as a valuable additional treatment for removing pollutants from textile wastewaters. In this study the efficiency of Cunninghamella elegans biomass in terms of contaminants, COD and toxicity reduction was tested against textile effluents sampled in different points of wastewater treatment plants. The results showed that C. elegans is a promising candidate for the decolourisation and detoxification of textile wastewaters and its versatility makes it very competitive compared with conventional sorbents adopted in industrial processes.

  15. 40 CFR 797.1400 - Fish acute toxicity test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... appearance or physiology such as discoloration, excessive mucous production, hyperventilation, opaque eyes... delivery systems and test chambers should be cleaned before each test. They should be washed with detergent...

  16. 40 CFR 797.1300 - Daphnid acute toxicity test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... be exercised to introduce the daphnids below the surface of any solution to avoid trapping air under..., treatments, feeding history, acclimation procedures, and culture method. The age of the daphnids used in the..., the way the test was begun (e.g., conditioning, test chemical additions), the number of test organisms...

  17. Aquatic toxicity testing of silver nanoparticles – a matter of timing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sara Nørgaard; Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Engelbrekt, Christian

    , and difficulties in controlling and/or describing the characteristics of the tested NPs. These issues may be related to the widespread approach of using freshly prepared stock solutions for ecotoxicity testing, as the introduction of NPs into aqueous media initiates time-dependent processes that possibly interfere...... of the test. Ultimately, the aim is better control of the AgNPs in the algal test system and improved prerequisites for describing their toxicity to alga. The underlying hypothesis is that a large part in the variability of AgNPs toxicity to algae can be explained by the kinetics of dissolution and speciation...... of Ag ions in the test media. To reduce the amount of time in which changes to NPs may occur during testing, the exposure period was minimized. A recently proposed short-term (2h) algal test was applied, using 14C incorporation during photosynthesis as toxic endpoint [1]. For citrate coated spherical Ag...

  18. Assessment of Jatropha curcas L. biodiesel seed cake toxicity using the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo toxicity (ZFET) test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallare, Arnold V; Ruiz, Paulo Lorenzo S; Cariño, J C Earl D

    2014-05-01

    Consequent to the growing demand for alternative sources of energy, the seeds from Jatropha curcas remain to be the favorite for biodiesel production. However, a significant volume of the residual organic mass (seed cake) is produced during the extraction process, which raises concerns on safe waste disposal. In the present study, we assessed the toxicity of J. curcas seed cake using the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryotoxicity test. Within 1-h post-fertilization (hpf), the fertilized eggs were exposed to five mass concentrations of J. curcas seed cake and were followed through 24, 48, and 72 hpf. Toxicity was evaluated based on lethal endpoints induced on zebrafish embryos namely egg coagulation, non-formation of somites, and non-detachment of tail. The lowest concentration tested, 1 g/L, was not able to elicit toxicity on embryos whereas 100 % mortality (based also on lethal endpoints) was recorded at the highest concentration at 2.15 g/L. The computed LC50 for the J. curcas seed cake was 1.61 g/L. No further increase in mortality was observed in the succeeding time points (48 and 72 hpf) indicating that J. curcas seed cake exerted acute toxicity on zebrafish embryos. Sublethal endpoints (yolk sac and pericardial edema) were noted at 72 hpf in zebrafish embryos exposed to higher concentrations. The observed lethal endpoints induced on zebrafish embryos were discussed in relation to the active principles, notably, phorbol esters that have remained in the seed cake even after extraction.

  19. Alternative methods for toxicity assessments in fish: comparison of the fish embryo toxicity and the larval growth and survival tests in zebrafish and fathead minnows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Marlo K Sellin; Stultz, Amy E; Smith, Austin W; Rawlings, Jane M; Belanger, Scott E; Oris, James T

    2014-11-01

    An increased demand for chemical toxicity evaluations has resulted in the need for alternative testing strategies that address animal welfare concerns. The fish embryo toxicity (FET) test developed for zebrafish (Danio rerio) is one such alternative, and the application of the FET test to other species such as the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) has been proposed. In the present study, the performances of the FET test and the larval growth and survival (LGS; a standard toxicity testing method) test in zebrafish and fathead minnows were evaluated. This required that testing methods for the fathead minnow FET and zebrafish LGS tests be harmonized with existing test methods and that the performance of these testing strategies be evaluated by comparing the median lethal concentrations of 2 reference toxicants, 3,4-dicholoraniline and ammonia, obtained via each of the test types. The results showed that procedures for the zebrafish FET test can be adapted and applied to the fathead minnow. Differences in test sensitivity were observed for 3,4-dicholoraniline but not ammonia; therefore, conclusions regarding which test types offer the least or most sensitivity could not be made. Overall, these results show that the fathead minnow FET test has potential as an alternative toxicity testing strategy and that further analysis with other toxicants is warranted in an effort to better characterize the sensitivity and feasibility of this testing strategy. © 2014 SETAC.

  20. Radiological effluents released from nuclear rocket and ramjet engine tests at the Nevada Test Site 1959 through 1969: Fact Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friesen, H.N.

    1995-06-01

    Nuclear rocket and ramjet engine tests were conducted on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Area 25 and Area 26, about 80 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, from July 1959 through September 1969. This document presents a brief history of the nuclear rocket engine tests, information on the off-site radiological monitoring, and descriptions of the tests.

  1. Field Validation of Toxicity Tests to Evaluate the Potential for Beneficial Use of Produced Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Bidwell; Jonathan Fisher; Naomi Cooper

    2008-03-31

    This study investigated potential biological effects of produced water contamination derived from occasional surface overflow and possible subsurface intrusion at an oil production site along the shore of Skiatook Lake, Oklahoma. We monitored basic chemistry and acute toxicity to a suite of standard aquatic test species (fathead minnow-Pimephales promelas, Daphnia pulex, Daphnia magna, and Ceriodaphnia dubia) in produced water and in samples taken from shallow groundwater wells on the site. Toxicity identification evaluations and ion toxicity modeling were used to identify toxic constituents in the samples. Lake sediment at the oil production site and at a reference site were also analyzed for brine intrusion chemically and by testing sediment toxicity using the benthic invertebrates, Chironomus dilutus, and Hyallela azteca. Sediment quality was also assessed with in situ survival and growth studies with H. azteca and the Asian clam, Corbicula fluminea, and by benthic macroinvertebrate community sampling. The produced water was acutely toxic to the aquatic test organisms at concentrations ranging from 1% to 10% of the whole produced water sample. Toxicity identification evaluation and ion toxicity modeling indicated major ion salts and hydrocarbons were the primary mixture toxicants. The standardized test species used in the laboratory bioassays exhibited differences in sensitivity to these two general classes of contaminants, which underscores the importance of using multiple species when evaluating produced water toxicity. Toxicity of groundwater was greater in samples from wells near a produced water injection well and an evaporation pond. Principle component analyses (PCA) of chemical data derived from the groundwater wells indicated dilution by lake water and possible biogeochemical reactions as factors that ameliorated groundwater toxicity. Elevated concentrations of major ions were found in pore water from lake sediments, but toxicity from these ions was

  2. Progress Toward Replacing Animals in Toxicity Testing for Cosmetics

    OpenAIRE

    Nye, Marisa B.

    2006-01-01

    In the 1980’s, animal rights activists successfully motivated the cosmetic industry to begin researching alternatives to animal tests. The European Union has taken action to stimulate development and validation of alternatives to animal testing through the Sixth and Seventh Amendments to the Cosmetics Directive. In this paper, I will briefly describe the history of the search for alternatives to animal testing for cosmetics. I will then discuss the progress that has been ma...

  3. Aquatic toxicity testing of liquid hydrophobic chemicals – Passive dosing exactly at the saturation limit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stibany, Felix; Nørgaard Schmidt, Stine; Schäffer, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    The aims of the present study were (1) to develop a passive dosing approach for aquatic toxicity testing of liquid substances with very high Kow values and (2) to apply this approach to the model substance dodecylbenzene (DDB, Log Kow = 8.65). The first step was to design a new passive dosing...... format for testing DDB exactly at its saturation limit. Silicone O-rings were saturated by direct immersion in pure liquid DDB, which resulted in swelling of >14%. These saturated O-rings were used to establish and maintain DDB exposure exactly at the saturation limit throughout 72-h algal growth...... at chemical activity of unity was higher than expected relative to a reported hydrophobicity cut-off in toxicity, but lower than expected relative to a reported chemical activity range for baseline toxicity. The present study introduces a new effective approach for toxicity testing of an important group...

  4. 40 CFR 797.1050 - Algal acute toxicity test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... chemical concentration that is calculated to effect X percent of the test criterion. (4) Growth means a... per volume of nutrient medium or test solution in a specified period of time. (5) Static system means... concentration may be pooled into one sample. An aliquot of the pooled sample may then be taken and the...

  5. 40 CFR 797.1330 - Daphnid chronic toxicity test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... daphnids below the surface of any solution so as not to trap air under the carapace. (vi) Acclimation. (A..., age, source, treatments, feeding history, acclimation procedures, and culture methods. The age of the... in the chambers, the way the test was begun (e.g., conditioning, test substance additions), the...

  6. 40 CFR 795.120 - Gammarid acute toxicity test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... chambers shall be covered loosely to reduce the loss of test solution or dilution water due to evaporation... holding tanks, acclimation tanks, and water supply systems, but they should be aged prior to use. Rubber... prodding. Flow-through means a continuous or an intermittent passage of test solution or dilution water...

  7. Toxicity assessment of sediments from three European river basins using a sediment contact test battery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuikka, A.I.; Schmitt, C.; Hoess, S.; Bandow, N; von der Ohe, P.; de Zwart, D.; de Deckere, E.; Streck, G.; Mothes, S.; van Hattum, A.G.M.; Kocan, A.; Brix, R.; Brack, W.; Barcelo, D.; Sormunen, A.; Kukkonen, J.V.K.

    2011-01-01

    The toxicity of four polluted sediments and their corresponding reference sediments from three European river basins were investigated using a battery of six sediment contact tests representing three different trophic levels. The tests included were chronic tests with the oligochaete Lumbriculus

  8. Effluent standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisler, G C [Pennsylvania State University (United States)

    1974-07-01

    At the conference there was a considerable interest in research reactor standards and effluent standards in particular. On the program, this is demonstrated by the panel discussion on effluents, the paper on argon 41 measured by Sims, and the summary paper by Ringle, et al. on the activities of ANS research reactor standards committee (ANS-15). As a result, a meeting was organized to discuss the proposed ANS standard on research reactor effluents (15.9). This was held on Tuesday evening, was attended by members of the ANS-15 committee who were present at the conference, participants in the panel discussion on the subject, and others interested. Out of this meeting came a number of excellent suggestions for changes which will increase the utility of the standard, and a strong recommendation that the effluent standard (15.9) be combined with the effluent monitoring standard. It is expected that these suggestions and recommendations will be incorporated and a revised draft issued for comment early this summer. (author)

  9. Filtration device for active effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerin, M.; Meunier, G.

    1994-01-01

    Among the various techniques relating to solid/liquid separations, filtration is currently utilized for treating radioactive effluents. After testing different equipments on various simulated effluents, the Valduc Center has decided to substitute a monoplate filter for a rotative diatomite precoated filter

  10. Assessment of the disinfection capacity and eco-toxicological impact of atmospheric cold plasma for treatment of food industry effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patange, Apurva; Boehm, Daniela; Giltrap, Michelle; Lu, Peng; Cullen, P J; Bourke, Paula

    2018-08-01

    Generation of wastewater is one of the main environmental sustainability issues across food sector industries. The constituents of food process effluents are often complex and require high energy and processing for regulatory compliance. Wastewater streams are the subject of microbiological and chemical criteria, and can have a significant eco-toxicological impact on the aquatic life. Thus, innovative treatment approaches are required to mitigate environmental impact in an energy efficient manner. Here, dielectric barrier discharge atmospheric cold plasma (ACP) was evaluated for control of key microbial indicators encountered in food industry effluent. This study also investigated the eco-toxicological impact of cold plasma treatment of the effluents using a range of aquatic bioassays. Continuous ACP treatment was applied to synthetic dairy and meat effluents. Microbial inactivation showed treatment time dependence with significant reduction in microbial populations within 120 s, and to undetectable levels after 300 s. Post treatment retention time emerged as critical control parameter which promoted ACP bacterial inactivation efficiency. Moreover, ACP treatment for 20 min achieved significant reduction (≥2 Log 10 ) in Bacillus megaterium endospores in wastewater effluent. Acute aquatic toxicity was assessed using two fish cell lines (PLHC-1 and RTG-2) and a crustacean model (Daphnia magna). Untreated effluents were toxic to the aquatic models, however, plasma treatment limited the toxic effects. Differing sensitivities were observed to ACP treated effluents across the different test bio-assays in the following order: PLHC-1 > RTG-2 ≥ D. magna; with greater sensitivity retained to plasma treated meat effluent than dairy effluent. The toxic effects were dependent on concentration and treatment time of the ACP treated effluent; with 30% cytotoxicity in D. magna and fish cells observed after 24 h of exposure to ACP treated effluent for

  11. Recreating the seawater mixture composition of HOCs in toxicity tests with Artemia franciscana by passive dosing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojo-Nieto, E., E-mail: elisa.rojo@uca.es [Andalusian Centre of Marine Science and Technology (CACYTMAR), Department of Environmental Technologies, University of Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real (Spain); Smith, K.E.C. [Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Perales, J.A. [Andalusian Centre of Marine Science and Technology (CACYTMAR), Department of Environmental Technologies, University of Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real (Spain); Mayer, P. [Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2012-09-15

    The toxicity testing of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) in aquatic media is generally challenging, and this is even more problematic for mixtures. The hydrophobic properties of these compounds make them difficult to dissolve, and subsequently to maintain constant exposure concentrations. Evaporative and sorptive losses are highly compound-specific, which can alter not only total concentrations, but also the proportions between the compounds in the mixture. Therefore, the general aim of this study was to explore the potential of passive dosing for testing the toxicity of a PAH mixture that recreates the mixture composition found in seawater from a coastal area of Spain, the Bay of Algeciras. First, solvent spiking and passive dosing were compared for their suitability to determine the acute toxicity to Artemia franciscana nauplii of several PAHs at their respective solubility limits. Second, passive dosing was applied to recreate the seawater mixture composition of PAHs measured in a Spanish monitoring program, to test the toxicity of this mixture at different levels. HPLC analysis was used to confirm the reproducibility of the dissolved exposure concentrations for the individual PAHs and mixtures. This study shows that passive dosing has some important benefits in comparison with solvent spiking for testing HOCs in aquatic media. These include maintaining constant exposure concentrations, leading to higher reproducibility and a relative increase in toxicity. Passive dosing is also able to faithfully reproduce real mixtures of HOCs such as PAHs, in toxicity tests, reproducing both the levels and proportions of the different compounds. This provides a useful approach for studying the toxicity of environmental mixtures of HOCs, both with a view to investigating their toxicity but also for determining safety factors before such mixtures result in detrimental effects.

  12. Phase 2 testing results of immobilization of WTP effluent management facility vaporator bottoms simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reigel, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Cozzi, A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-09-08

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate) from the primary off-gas system. This work examined three waste form formulations based on previous testing with related simulants: 8 wt% ordinary portland cement (OPC), 47 wt% blast furnace slag (BFS), 45 wt% fly ash (FA) known as Cast Stone formulation; 20 wt% Aquaset® II-GH and 80 wt% BFS; 20 wt% OPC and 80 wt% BFS. These tests successfully produced one waste form that set within five days (Cast Stone formulation); however the other two formulations, Aquaset® II-GH/BFS and OPC/BFS, took approximately eight and fourteen days to set, respectively.

  13. Ecotoxicity tests using the green algae chlorella vulgaris — a useful tool in hazardous effluents management

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Aurora; Figueiredo, Sónia Adriana; Sales, M. Goreti F.; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2009-01-01

    The treatment efficiency of laboratory wastewaters was evaluated and ecotoxicity tests with Chlorella vulgaris were performed on them to assess the safety of their environmental discharge. For chemical oxygen demand wastewaters, chromium (VI), mercury (II) and silver were efficiently removedby chemical treatments.Areduction of ecotoxicitywas achieved; nevertheless, an EC50 (effective concentration that causes a 50% inhibition in the algae growth) of 1.5% (v/v) indicated still high...

  14. Evaluation of natural toxicity on MICROTOX solid-phase test. The pelitic normalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onorati, F.; Pellegrini, D.; Ausili, A.

    1999-01-01

    In sediment toxicity testing Microtox solid-phase test (SPT) is one of the most used and standardised bioassay. Nevertheless, its real sensitivity and discriminatory power is still unclear, because of several interferences principally related to the matrix composition. Using reference sediments, characterised with chemical and physical analysis, it was possible to find a significant relationship between their natural toxicity and the pelitic fraction that allows to estimate the natural component of the acute toxicity in contaminated samples. This relationship arrows a more sensitive and valid interpretation than raw data and it is used to develop a sediment toxicity index (STI) based on radio to reference (RTR) concept, applicable to harbour contaminated samples [it

  15. Controlling silver nanoparticle exposure in algal toxicity testing - A matter of timing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sara Nørgaard; Baun, Anders

    2015-01-01

    ) in a standard algal growth inhibition test (ISO 8692:2004) for 48 h and a short-term (2 h) 14C-assimilation test. For AgNO3, similar responses were obtained in the two tests, whereas freshly prepared suspensions of citrate stabilized AgNPs were less toxic in the 2-h tests compared to the 48-h tests. The 2-h...... test was found applicable for dissolved silver, but yielded non-monotonous concentration–response relationships and poor reproducibility for freshly prepared AgNP suspensions. However, when aging AgNPs in algal medium 24 h prior to testing, clear concentration–response patterns emerged...... and reproducibility increased. Prolonged aging to 48 h increased toxicity in the 2-h tests whereas aging beyond 48 h reduced toxicity. Our results demonstrate that the outcome of algal toxicity testing of AgNPs is highly influenced not only by the test duration, but also by the time passed from the moment Ag...

  16. Alternative approaches for identifying acute systemic toxicity: Moving from research to regulatory testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Jon; Sullivan, Kristie; Clippinger, Amy J; Strickland, Judy; Bell, Shannon; Bhhatarai, Barun; Blaauboer, Bas; Casey, Warren; Dorman, David; Forsby, Anna; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Gehen, Sean; Graepel, Rabea; Hotchkiss, Jon; Lowit, Anna; Matheson, Joanna; Reaves, Elissa; Scarano, Louis; Sprankle, Catherine; Tunkel, Jay; Wilson, Dan; Xia, Menghang; Zhu, Hao; Allen, David

    2017-06-01

    Acute systemic toxicity testing provides the basis for hazard labeling and risk management of chemicals. A number of international efforts have been directed at identifying non-animal alternatives for in vivo acute systemic toxicity tests. A September 2015 workshop, Alternative Approaches for Identifying Acute Systemic Toxicity: Moving from Research to Regulatory Testing, reviewed the state-of-the-science of non-animal alternatives for this testing and explored ways to facilitate implementation of alternatives. Workshop attendees included representatives from international regulatory agencies, academia, nongovernmental organizations, and industry. Resources identified as necessary for meaningful progress in implementing alternatives included compiling and making available high-quality reference data, training on use and interpretation of in vitro and in silico approaches, and global harmonization of testing requirements. Attendees particularly noted the need to characterize variability in reference data to evaluate new approaches. They also noted the importance of understanding the mechanisms of acute toxicity, which could be facilitated by the development of adverse outcome pathways. Workshop breakout groups explored different approaches to reducing or replacing animal use for acute toxicity testing, with each group crafting a roadmap and strategy to accomplish near-term progress. The workshop steering committee has organized efforts to implement the recommendations of the workshop participants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Digital holographic microscopy for toxicity testing and cell culture quality control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Björn

    2018-02-01

    For the example of digital holographic microscopy (DHM), it is illustrated how label-free biophysical parameter sets can be extracted from quantitative phase images of adherent and suspended cells, and how the retrieved data can be applied for in-vitro toxicity testing and cell culture quality assessment. This includes results from the quantification of the reactions of cells to toxic substances as well as data from sophisticated monitoring of cell alterations that are related to changes of cell culture conditions.

  18. Design and Analysis of Chronic Aquatic Tests of Toxicity with Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    surface waters. From that need evolved numerous standard toxicity tests. Aquatic toxicologists and biologists developed, refine,, and standard- ized many...experimental categorization summary sheets prepared by Dr. William van der Schalie, which is shown in Table I.I. 7 j-. " .’?, i...partial solution to this dilema can be obtained by studying the effects of the solvent alone. If the solvent by itself produces no toxic responses at

  19. NMSBA: Aken Technologies Final Report: Toxicity Testing of Liquidoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruffing, Anne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jensen, Travis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Strickland, Lucas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    To determine the effect of Liquidoff on bacteria, three bacterial strains were tested: Escherichia coli DH5α, Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002, and Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942. E. coli DH5α is a Gram-negative, aerobic bacterium that is often found in normal gut flora and is commonly used the laboratory due to its fast growth rate. Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 and S. elongatus PCC 7942 are Gram-negative, aquatic, autophototrophic cyanobacteria. Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 is a marine cyanobacterium isolated from ‘fish pens’ on Magueyes Island, Puerto Rico in 1962, while S. elongatus PCC 7942 is a freshwater cyanobacterium. It should be noted that no Gram-positive bacterium was tested in this study.

  20. Development of a Chronic Toxicity Testing Method for Daphnia pulex

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    survivorship) and sublethal endpoints (e.g., growth, reproduction) and are in concept more sensitive than acute lethality tests. • Control– negative ...organism is unable to swim /move after gentle agitation with a transfer pipette but is still alive • LC50-Lethal concentration at which a median effect on...from Zumwalt et al. (1994) The original apparatus uses water splitting channels to perform water changes on 8 beakers at once; the modified apparatus

  1. Relating results from earthworm toxicity tests to agricultural soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.; Greig-Smith, P.W.

    1992-01-01

    The artificial soil tests of the European Economic Community and of the Organization for Economic Cooperation produce data relating earthworm mortality to pesticide concentrations in soil under laboratory conditions. To apply these results to agricultural soils it is necessary to relate these concentrations to amounts of pesticide applied per area. This paper reviews the relevant published literature and suggests a simple relation for regulatory use. Hazards to earthworms from pesticides are suggested to be greatest soon after application, when the pesticides may be concentrated in a soil layer a few millimeters thick. For estimating exposure of earthworms, however, a thicker soil layer should be considered, to account for their movement through soil. During favorable weather conditions, earthworms belonging to species appropriate to the artificial soil test have been reported to confine their activity to a layer about 5 cm. If a 5-cm layer is accepted as relevant for regulatory purposes, then an application of 1 kg/ha would be equivalent to 1-67 ppm (dry) in the artificial soil test.

  2. A Study on the D. magna and V. fischeri Toxicity Relationship of Industrial Wastewater from Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyo, S.; Lee, S.; Chun Sang, H.; Park, T. J.; Kim, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    It is well known that high concentration of TDS (total dissolved solid) in industrial effluent gives rise to the toxicity to the Daphnia magna toxicity test. D. magna is vulnerable to relatively low TDS concentration showing the 24-hr EC50 of Salinity 0.6% (as the sea salt concentration). Recently, standard mandatory toxicity testing using Daphnia magna has been used to monitor industrial effluent toxicity according to Korea standard method (Acute Toxicity Test Method of the Daphnia magna Straus (Cladocera, Crustacea), ES 04704. 1a) under regulation. Since only one acute toxicity testing is applied in the present, we are trying to introduce microbial battery for more complete toxicity assessment. In this study, the acute toxicities between daphnids and microbes were compared. The results of D. magna and Vibrio fischeri toxicity test from 165 industrial wastewater effluents showed high positive correlation. In addition, the possibility of predicting daphnia toxicity from the bacterial toxicity data amounts to 92.6% if we consider salinity effect (>5ppt) together. From this study, we found that the V. fischeri toxicity test is a powerful battery tool to assess the industrial wastewater toxicity. Here, we suggest that luminescent bacteria toxicity test be useful not only for complete toxicity assessment which can't be obtained by daphnia toxicity testing only but also for the reduction cost, time, and labor in the Korean society. Keywords : D. magna, V. fischeri, Industrial waste water, battery test Acknowledgement This research was supported by a grant (15IFIP-B089908-02) from Plant Research Program funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government

  3. Animal Testing for Acute Inhalation Toxicity: A Thing of the Past?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Da Silva, Emilie; Sørli, Jorid Birkelund

    2018-01-01

    According to REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals), testing for acute inhalation toxicity is required for chemicals manufactured or imported at tonnages ≥ 10 tons per year. Three OECD test guidelines for acute inhalation toxicity in vivo are adopted (TG 403......, TG 436, and TG 433). Since animal testing is ethically, scientifically and economically questionable, adoption of alternative methods by the European Union and the OECD is needed. An in vitro system based on the study of lung surfactant function is introduced....

  4. Oestrogenic activity of a textile industrial wastewater treatment plant effluent evaluated by the E-screen test and MELN gene-reporter luciferase assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiliro, Tiziana, E-mail: tiziana.schiliro@unito.it [Department of Public Health and Microbiology, University of Torino, Via Santena 5bis, 10126 Torino (Italy); Porfido, Arianna [Department of Public Health and Microbiology, University of Torino, Via Santena 5bis, 10126 Torino (Italy); Spina, Federica; Varese, Giovanna Cristina [Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, University of Torino, Viale Mattioli 25, 10125 Torino (Italy); Gilli, Giorgio [Department of Public Health and Microbiology, University of Torino, Via Santena 5bis, 10126 Torino (Italy)

    2012-08-15

    This study quantified the biological oestrogenic activity in the effluent of a textile industrial wastewater treatment plant (IWWTP) in northwestern Italy. Samples of the IWWTP effluent were collected monthly, both before and after tertiary treatment (ozonation). After solid phase extraction, all samples were subjected to two in vitro tests of total estrogenic activity, the human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7 BUS) proliferation assay, or E-screen test, and the luciferase-transfected human breast cancer cell line (MELN) gene-reporter assay, to measure the 17{beta}-oestradiol equivalent quantity (EEQ). In the E-screen test, the mean EEQ values were 2.35 {+-} 1.68 ng/L pre-ozonation and 0.72 {+-} 0.58 ng/L post-ozonation; in the MELN gene-reporter luciferase assay, the mean EEQ values were 4.18 {+-} 3.54 ng/L pre-ozonation and 2.53 {+-} 2.48 ng/L post-ozonation. These results suggest that the post-ozonation IWWTP effluent had a lower oestrogenic activity (simple paired t-tests, p < 0.05). The average reduction of estrogenic activity of IWWTP effluent after ozonation was 67 {+-} 26% and 52 {+-} 27% as measured by E-screen test and MELN gene-reporter luciferase assay, respectively. There was a positive and significant correlation between the two tests (Rho S = 0.650, p = 0.022). This study indicates that the environmental risk is low because oestrogenic substances are deposited into the river via IWWTP at concentrations lower than those at which chronic exposure has been reported to affect the endocrine system of living organisms. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The two in vitro tests are suited for oestrogenic activity assessment in textile WWTP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is a significant correlation between the results of the two in vitro tests. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The oestrogenic activity of the effluent is reduced by ozonation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The input of estrogenic substances into the river via textile WWTP is low.

  5. Toxic Substances Control Act test submissions database (TSCATS) - comprehensive update. Data file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Toxic Substances Control Act Test Submissions Database (TSCATS) was developed to make unpublished test data available to the public. The test data is submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by industry under the Toxic Substances Control Act. Test is broadly defined to include case reports, episodic incidents, such as spills, and formal test study presentations. The database allows searching of test submissions according to specific chemical identity or type of study when used with an appropriate search retrieval software program. Studies are indexed under three broad subject areas: health effects, environmental effects and environmental fate. Additional controlled vocabulary terms are assigned which describe the experimental protocol and test observations. Records identify reference information needed to locate the source document, as well as the submitting organization and reason for submission of the test data

  6. Toward toxicity testing of nanomaterials in the 21st century: a paradigm for moving forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, David Y

    2012-01-01

    A challenge-facing hazard identification and safety evaluation of engineered nanomaterials being introduced to market is the diversity and complexity of the types of materials with varying physicochemical properties, many of which can affect their toxicity by different mechanisms. In general, in vitro test systems have limited usefulness for hazard identification of nanoparticles due to various issues. Meanwhile, conducting chronic toxicity/carcinogenicity studies in rodents for every new nanomaterial introduced into the commerce is impractical if not impossible. New toxicity testing systems which rely on predictive, high-throughput technologies may be the ultimate goal of evaluating the potential hazard of nanomaterials. However, at present, this approach alone is unlikely to succeed in evaluating the toxicity of the wide array of nanomaterials and requires validation from in vivo studies. This article proposes a paradigm for toxicity testing and elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of reference materials for specific nanomaterial classes/subclasses using short-term in vivo animal studies in conjunction with high-throughput screenings and mechanism-based short-term in vitro assays. The hazard potential of a particular nanomaterial can be evaluated by conducting only in vitro high-throughput assays and mechanistic studies and comparing the data with those of the reference materials in the specific class/subclass-an approach in line with the vision for 'Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century' of chemicals. With well-designed experiments, testing nanomaterials of varying/selected physicochemical parameters may be able to identify the physicochemical parameters contributing to toxicity. The data so derived could be used for the development of computer model systems to predict the hazard potential of specific nanoparticles based on property-activity relationships. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  7. Assessment of wastewater effluent quality in Thessaly region, Greece, for determining its irrigation reuse potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakopoulou, S; Emmanouil, C; Kungolos, A

    2011-02-01

    The objective of the present study is to assess wastewater effluent quality in Thessaly region, Greece, in relation to its physicochemical and microbiological burden as well as its toxic potential on a number of organisms. Wastewater may be used for agricultural as well as for landscape irrigation purposes; therefore, its toxicity potential is quite important. Thessaly region has been chosen since this region suffers from a distinct water shortage in summer period necessitating alternative water resources. During our research, treated effluents from four wastewater treatment plants operating in the region (Larissa, Volos, Karditsa, and Tirnavos) were tested for specific physicochemical and microbiological parameters [biochemical oxygen demand (BOD(5)), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), pH, electrical conductivity, selected metals presence (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, As), and fecal coliforms' (FC) number]. The effluents were also tested for their toxicity using two different bioassays (Daphnia magna immobilization test and Phytotoxkit microbiotest). The findings were compared to relative regulations and guidelines regarding wastewater reuse for irrigation. The results overall show that secondary effluents in Thessaly region are generally acceptable for reuse for irrigation purposes according to limits set by legislation, if effective advanced treatment methods are applied prior to reuse. However, their potential toxicity should be closely monitored, since it was found that it may vary significantly in relation to season and location, when indicator plant and zooplankton organisms are used. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Acute and chronic aquatic toxicity of aromatic extracts. Summary of relevant test data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comber, M.I.H.; Den Haan, K.; Djemel, N.; Eadsforth, C.V.; King, D.; Parkerton, T.; Leon Paumen, M.; Dmytrasz, B.; Del Castillo, F.

    2013-09-15

    This report describes the experimental procedures and the results obtained in acute and chronic ecotoxicity tests on several aromatic extracts samples. The samples were tested for toxicity to the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), the crustacean zooplankter, Daphnia magna and the algae, Selenastrum capricornutum using water accommodated fractions. These results assist in determining the environmental hazard posed by aromatic extracts.

  9. Acute aquatic toxicity of heavy fuel oils. Summary of relevant test data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comber, M.I.H.; Den Haan, K.; Djemel, N.; Eadsforth, C.V.; King, D.; Parkerton, T.; Paumen, M.L.; Dmytrasz, B.

    2011-12-15

    This report describes the experimental procedures and results obtained in acute ecotoxicity tests on several heavy fuel oil (HFO) samples. Water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of these samples were tested for toxicity to the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), the crustacean zooplankter (Daphnia magna) and green algae (Selenastrum capricornutum). These results assist in determining the environmental hazard from heavy fuel oil.

  10. Interpreting in vitro developmental toxicity test battery results: The consideration of toxicokinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosgra, S.; Westerhout, J.

    2015-01-01

    In the EU collaborative project ChemScreen an alternative, in vitro assay-based test strategy was developed to screen compounds for reproductive toxicity. A toxicokinetic modeling approach was used to allow quantitative comparison between effective concentrations in the in vitro test battery and

  11. Evaluation of an alternative in vitro test battery for detecting reproductive toxicants in a grouping context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroese, E.D.; Bosgra, S.; Buist, H.E.; Lewin, G.; Linden, S.C. van der; Man, H.Y.; Piersma, A.H.; Rorije, E.; Schulpen, S.H.W.; Schwarz, M.; Uibel, F.; Vugt-Lussenburg, B.M.A. van; Wolterbeek, A.P.M.; Burg, B. van der

    2015-01-01

    Previously we showed a battery consisting of CALUX transcriptional activation assays, the ReProGlo assay, and the embryonic stem cell test, and zebrafish embryotoxicity assay as 'apical' tests to correctly predict developmental toxicity for 11 out of 12 compounds, and to explain the one false

  12. Development of an alternative artificial soil for earthworm toxicity testing in tropical countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Silva, M.; van Gestel, C.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The standard soil invertebrate toxicity tests developed by OECD and ISO use an artificial soil as the test substrate, which contains sphagnum peat as a component. This type of peat is not widely available. Investigation of possible alternative substrates using locally available materials therefore

  13. Large Dataset of Acute Oral Toxicity Data Created for Testing in Silico Models (ASCCT meeting)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute toxicity data is a common requirement for substance registration in the US. Currently only data derived from animal tests are accepted by regulatory agencies, and the standard in vivo tests use lethality as the endpoint. Non-animal alternatives such as in silico models are ...

  14. Acute aquatic toxicity of heavy fuel oils. Summary of relevant test data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comber, M.I.H.; Den Haan, K.; Djemel, N.; Eadsforth, C.V.; King, D.; Parkerton, T.; Paumen, M.L.; Dmytrasz, B.

    2011-12-01

    This report describes the experimental procedures and results obtained in acute ecotoxicity tests on several heavy fuel oil (HFO) samples. Water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of these samples were tested for toxicity to the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), the crustacean zooplankter (Daphnia magna) and green algae (Selenastrum capricornutum). These results assist in determining the environmental hazard from heavy fuel oil.

  15. Using biodynamic models to reconcile differences between laboratory toxicity tests and field biomonitoring with aquatic insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwalter, D.B.; Cain, D.J.; Clements, W.H.; Luoma, S.N.

    2007-01-01

    Aquatic insects often dominate lotic ecosystems, yet these organisms are under-represented in trace metal toxicity databases. Furthermore, toxicity data for aquatic insects do not appear to reflect their actual sensitivities to metals in nature, because the concentrations required to elicit toxicity in the laboratory are considerably higher than those found to impact insect communities in the field. New approaches are therefore needed to better understand how and why insects are differentially susceptible to metal exposures. Biodynamic modeling is a powerful tool for understanding interspecific differences in trace metal bioaccumulation. Because bioaccumulation alone does not necessarily correlate with toxicity, we combined biokinetic parameters associated with dissolved cadmium exposures with studies of the subcellular compartmentalization of accumulated Cd. This combination of physiological traits allowed us to make predictions of susceptibility differences to dissolved Cd in three aquatic insect taxa: Ephemerella excrucians, Rhithrogena morrisoni, and Rhyacophila sp. We compared these predictions with long-term field monitoring data and toxicity tests with closely related taxa: Ephemerella infrequens, Rhithrogena hageni, and Rhyacophila brunea. Kinetic parameters allowed us to estimate steady-state concentrations, the time required to reach steady state, and the concentrations of Cd projected to be in potentially toxic compartments for different species. Species-specific physiological traits identified using biodynamic models provided a means for better understanding why toxicity assays with insects have failed to provide meaningful estimates for metal concentrations that would be expected to be protective in nature. ?? 2007 American Chemical Society.

  16. Consensus report on the future of animal-free systemic toxicity testing

    OpenAIRE

    Leist, Marcel; Hasiwa, Nina; Rovida, Costanza; Daneshian, Mardas; Basketter, David; Kimber, Ian; Clewell, Harvey; Gocht, Tilman; Goldberg, Alan; Busquet, Francois; Rossi, Anna-Maria; Schwarz, Michael; Stephens, Martin; Taalman, Rob; Knudsen, Thomas B

    2014-01-01

    Since March 2013, animal use for cosmetics testing for the European market has been banned. This requires a renewed view on risk assessment in this field. However, in other fields as well, traditional animal experimentation does not always satisfy requirements in safety testing, as the need for human-relevant information is ever increasing. A general strategy for animal-free test approaches was outlined by the US National Research Council`s vision document for Toxicity Testing in the 21st Cen...

  17. [Source identification of toxic wastewaters in a petrochemical industrial park].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qian; Yu, Yin; Zhou, Yue-Xi; Chen, Xue-Min; Fu, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Miao

    2014-12-01

    Petrochemical wastewaters have toxic impacts on the microorganisms in biotreatment processes, which are prone to cause deterioration of effluent quality of the wastewater treatment plants. In this study, the inhibition effects of activated sludge's oxygen consumption were tested to evaluate the toxicity of production wastewaters in a petrochemical industrial park. The evaluation covered the wastewaters from not only different production units in the park, but also different production nodes in each unit. No direct correlation was observed between the toxicity effects and the organic contents, suggesting that the toxic properties of the effluents could not be predicted by the organic contents. In view of the variation of activated sludge sensitivity among different tests, the toxicity data were standardized according to the concentration-effect relationships of the standard toxic substance 3, 5-dichlorophenol on each day, in order to improve the comparability among the toxicity data. Furthermore, the Quality Emission Load (QEL) of corresponding standard toxic substance was calculated by multiplying the corresponding 3, 5-dichlorophenol concentration and the wastewater flow quantity, to indicate the toxicity emission contribution of each wastewater to the wastewater treatment plant. According to the rank list of the toxicity contribution of wastewater from different units and nodes, the sources of toxic wastewater in the petrochemical industrial park were clearly identified. This study provides effective guidance for source control of wastewater toxicity in the large industrial park.

  18. Sensitivity of screening-level toxicity tests using soils from a former petroleum refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauwels, S.; Bureau, J.; Roy, Y.; Allen, B.; Robidoux, P.Y.; Soucy, M.

    1995-01-01

    The authors tested five composite soil samples from a former refinery. The samples included a reference soil (Mineral Oil and Grease, MO and G < 40 ppm), thermally-treated soil, biotreated soil, and two untreated soils. They evaluated toxicity using the earthworm E. foetida, lettuce, cress, barley, Microtox, green algae, fathead minnow, and D. magna. The endpoints measured were lethality, seed germination, root elongation, growth, and bioluminescence. Toxicity, as measured by the number of positive responses, increased as follows: biotreated soil < untreated soil No. 1 < reference soil < thermally-treated soil and untreated soil No. 2. The biotreated soil generated only one positive response, whereas the thermally-treated soil and untreated soil No. 2 generated five positive responses. The most sensitive and discriminant terrestrial endpoint was lettuce root elongation which responded to untreated soil No. 1, thermally-treated soil, and reference soil. The least sensitive was barley seed germination for which no toxicity was detected. The most sensitive and discriminant aquatic endpoint was green algae growth which responded to untreated soil No. 1, thermally-treated soil, and reference soil. The least sensitive was D. magna for which no toxicity was detected. Overall, soil and aqueous extract toxicity was spotty and no consistent patterns emerged to differentiate the five soils. Biotreatment significantly reduced the effects of the contamination. Aqueous toxicity was measured in the reference soil, probably because of the presence of unknown dissolved compounds in the aqueous extract. Finally, clear differences in sensitivity existed among the test species

  19. Prediction of toxicity and comparison of alternatives using WebTEST (Web-services Toxicity Estimation Software Tool)(Bled Slovenia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Java-based web service is being developed within the US EPA’s Chemistry Dashboard to provide real time estimates of toxicity values and physical properties. WebTEST can generate toxicity predictions directly from a simple URL which includes the endpoint, QSAR method, and ...

  20. Inhalation method for delivery of nanoparticles to the Drosophila respiratory system for toxicity testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posgai, Ryan; Ahamed, Maqusood [Department of Biology, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH, 45469-2320 (United States); Hussain, Saber M. [Applied Biotechnology Branch, Human Effectiveness Directorate Air Force Research Laboratory/RHBP, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH, 45433 (United States); Rowe, John J. [Department of Biology, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH, 45469-2320 (United States); Nielsen, Mark G., E-mail: Mark.Nielsen@notes.udayton.edu [Department of Biology, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH, 45469-2320 (United States)

    2009-12-20

    The growth of the nanotechnology industry and subsequent proliferation of nanoparticle types present the need to rapidly assess nanoparticle toxicity. We present a novel, simple and cost-effective nebulizer-based method to deliver nanoparticles to the Drosophila melanogaster respiratory system, for the purpose of toxicity testing. FluoSpheres (registered) , silver, and CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles of different sizes were effectively aerosolized, showing the system is capable of functioning with a wide range of nanoparticle types and sizes. Red fluorescent CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles were successfully delivered to the fly respiratory system, as visualized by fluorescent microscopy. Silver coated and uncoated nanoparticles were delivered in a toxicity test, and induced Hsp70 expression in flies, confirming the utility of this model in toxicity testing. This is the first method developed capable of such delivery, provides the advantage of the Drosophila health model, and can serve as a link between tissue culture and more expensive mammalian models in a tiered toxicity testing strategy.

  1. Inhalation method for delivery of nanoparticles to the Drosophila respiratory system for toxicity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posgai, Ryan; Ahamed, Maqusood; Hussain, Saber M.; Rowe, John J.; Nielsen, Mark G.

    2009-01-01

    The growth of the nanotechnology industry and subsequent proliferation of nanoparticle types present the need to rapidly assess nanoparticle toxicity. We present a novel, simple and cost-effective nebulizer-based method to deliver nanoparticles to the Drosophila melanogaster respiratory system, for the purpose of toxicity testing. FluoSpheres (registered) , silver, and CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles of different sizes were effectively aerosolized, showing the system is capable of functioning with a wide range of nanoparticle types and sizes. Red fluorescent CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles were successfully delivered to the fly respiratory system, as visualized by fluorescent microscopy. Silver coated and uncoated nanoparticles were delivered in a toxicity test, and induced Hsp70 expression in flies, confirming the utility of this model in toxicity testing. This is the first method developed capable of such delivery, provides the advantage of the Drosophila health model, and can serve as a link between tissue culture and more expensive mammalian models in a tiered toxicity testing strategy.

  2. Development and application of a sediment toxicity test using the benthic cladoceran Chydorus sphaericus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dekker, T.; Greve, G.D.; Ter Laak, T.L.; Boivin, M.E.; Veuger, B.; Gortzak, G.; Dumfries, S.; Luecker, S.M.G.; Kraak, M.H.S.; Admiraal, W.; Geest, H.G. van der

    2006-01-01

    This study reports on the development and application of a whole sediment toxicity test using a benthic cladoceran Chydorus sphaericus, as an alternative for the use of pelagic daphnids. A C. sphaericus laboratory culture was started and its performance under control conditions was optimised. The test was firstly validated by determining dose-response relationships for aqueous cadmium and copper and ammonia, showing a sensitivity of C. sphaericus (96 h LC 5 values of 594 μg Cd/L, 191 μg Cu/L and 46 mg ammonia/L at pH 8) similar to that of daphnids. Next, sediment was introduced into the test system and a series of contaminated sediments from polluted locations were tested. A significant negative correlation between survival and toxicant concentrations was observed. It is concluded that the test developed in the present study using the benthic cladoceran C. sphaericus is suitable for routine laboratory sediment toxicity testing. - A test was developed for assaying sediment toxicity using a commonly occurring small-bodied cladoceran

  3. Consensus report on the future of animal-free systemic toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leist, Marcel; Hasiwa, Nina; Rovida, Costanza; Daneshian, Mardas; Basketter, David; Kimber, Ian; Clewell, Harvey; Gocht, Tilman; Goldberg, Alan; Busquet, Francois; Rossi, Anna-Maria; Schwarz, Michael; Stephens, Martin; Taalman, Rob; Knudsen, Thomas B; McKim, James; Harris, Georgina; Pamies, David; Hartung, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Since March 2013, animal use for cosmetics testing for the European market has been banned. This requires a renewed view on risk assessment in this field. However, in other fields as well, traditional animal experimentation does not always satisfy requirements in safety testing, as the need for human-relevant information is ever increasing. A general strategy for animal-free test approaches was outlined by the US National Research Council`s vision document for Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century in 2007. It is now possible to provide a more defined roadmap on how to implement this vision for the four principal areas of systemic toxicity evaluation: repeat dose organ toxicity, carcinogenicity, reproductive toxicity and allergy induction (skin sensitization), as well as for the evaluation of toxicant metabolism (toxicokinetics) (Fig. 1). CAAT-Europe assembled experts from Europe, America and Asia to design a scientific roadmap for future risk assessment approaches and the outcome was then further discussed and refined in two consensus meetings with over 200 stakeholders. The key recommendations include: focusing on improving existing methods rather than favoring de novo design; combining hazard testing with toxicokinetics predictions; developing integrated test strategies; incorporating new high content endpoints to classical assays; evolving test validation procedures; promoting collaboration and data-sharing of different industrial sectors; integrating new disciplines, such as systems biology and high throughput screening; and involving regulators early on in the test development process. A focus on data quality, combined with increased attention to the scientific background of a test method, will be important drivers. Information from each test system should be mapped along adverse outcome pathways. Finally, quantitative information on all factors and key events will be fed into systems biology models that allow a probabilistic risk assessment with flexible

  4. Influences of the coating on silver nanoparticle toxicity in a chronic test with Daphnia magna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakka, Y.; Mackevica, Aiga; Skjolding, Lars Michael

    2015-01-01

    coated AgNP in a chronic Daphnia test. One type of AgNP was coated with citrate (cAgNP), the other AgNP were generally uncoated (pAgNP; p= pure), but sterically stabilized by an organic dispersant. Particles with a similar shape and diameter were chosen. The focus of the study was to relate observed......Sources for differences in silver nanoparticle toxicity at standardized conditions can be numerous. They range from particle properties and their actual concentrations to differences in uptake or depuration by the test organisms. In the present study we compared the toxicity of two differently...... differences in toxicity to characteristics of the AgNP, like size or surface potential, or to their corresponding behaviour during the test, like dissolution or uptake. The characteristics and the behaviour of the AgNP were investigated for changes in stability and especially the release of silver ions...

  5. Photosynthesis tests as an alternative to growth tests for hazard assessment of toxicant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, S.; Kusk, Kresten Ole

    2000-01-01

    Acute (3- and 6-h) toxic responses toward Cu, linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), and tributyltin (TBT) of lightsaturated and unsaturated photosynthesis were investigated for Rhodomonas salina and Skeletonema costatum obtained from exponentially growing batch cultures and from chemostat cultures...

  6. Testing of CFC replacement fluids for arc-induced toxic by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cravey, W.R.; Goerz, D.A.; Hawley-Fedder, R.A.

    1993-06-01

    The authors have developed a unique test-stand for quantifying the generation of perfluoroisobutylene (PFIB) in chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) replacement fluids when they are subjected to high electrical stress/breakdown environments. PFIB is an extremely toxic gas with a threshold limit value of 10 ppbv as set by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. They have tested several new fluids from various manufacturers for their potential to generate PFIB. Their goal is to determine breakdown characteristics and quantify toxic by-products of these replacement fluids to determine a safe, usable alternative for present CFC`s.

  7. Application of biotechnology for treatment of nitrogen compounds in gold mill effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapoor, A.; Gould, W.D.; Bedard, P.; Morin, K.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a research study that is being conducted by the Mine Effluents Program, Mining and Mineral Science Laboratory (MMSL), Natural Resources Canada aimed at evaluating biotechnology processes for the treatment of nitrogen compounds such as thiocyanide (CNS) and ammonia (NH 4- N) which are present in gold mill effluents. A sequencing batch reactor (SBR) technology, commonly used for the biological treatment of municipal and industrial effluents, was used in this study. In the SBR process, the micro-organisms were able to degrade CNS to NH 4- N and NH 4- N to nitrate (NO 3- N) at operating conditions of two 12 h treatment cycles per day, with pH maintained in the 7.4 to 7.6 range, and at room temperature (approximately 21 o C) and also at 12 o C. The end products of CNS and NH 4- N biological oxidation were NO 3- N and sulphate (SO 4 ) that are relatively non-toxic. Partial removal of NO 3- N was achieved by biological denitrification reactions in the SBR process. The SBR process effluent was measured to be non-toxic to rainbow trout based on the 96 h acute toxicity test. The microbial consortium isolated from the SBR treating a simulated effluent was able to effectively oxidize CNS and NH 4- N to NO 3- N in water samples (under batch conditions) collected at three mine sites located in Quebec, the Northwest Territories, and Yukon. (author)

  8. Acute toxicity tests and meta-analysis identify gaps in tropical ecotoxicology for amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Sonia L; Donnelly, Maureen A; Kerby, Jacob; Whitfield, Steven M

    2014-09-01

    Amphibian populations are declining worldwide, particularly in tropical regions where amphibian diversity is highest. Pollutants, including agricultural pesticides, have been identified as a potential contributor to decline, yet toxicological studies of tropical amphibians are very rare. The present study assesses toxic effects on amphibians of 10 commonly used commercial pesticides in tropical agriculture using 2 approaches. First, the authors conducted 8-d toxicity assays with formulations of each pesticide using individually reared red-eyed tree frog (Agalychnis callidryas) tadpoles. Second, they conducted a review of available data for the lethal concentration to kill 50% of test animals from the US Environmental Protection Agency's ECOTOX database to allow comparison with their findings. Lethal concentration estimates from the assays ranged over several orders of magnitude. The nematicides terbufos and ethoprophos and the fungicide chlorothalonil were very highly toxic, with evident effects within an order of magnitude of environmental concentrations. Acute toxicity assays and meta-analysis show that nematicides and fungicides are generally more toxic than herbicides yet receive far less research attention than less toxic herbicides. Given that the tropics have a high diversity of amphibians, the findings emphasize the need for research into the effects of commonly used pesticides in tropical countries and should help guide future ecotoxicological research in tropical regions. © 2014 SETAC.

  9. A high throughput passive dosing format for the Fish Embryo Acute Toxicity test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vergauwen, Lucia; Nørgaard Schmidt, Stine; Stinckens, Evelyn

    2015-01-01

    (lethal chemical activity) was 0.047. All values were within ranges expected for baseline toxicity. Impaired swim bladder inflation was the most pronounced morphological effect and swimming activity was reduced in all exposure concentrations. Further analysis showed that the effect on swimming activity...... dilution series. We report effect values for both mortality and sublethal morphological effects based on (1) measured exposure concentrations, (2) (lipid normalized) body residues and (3) chemical activity. The LC50 for 120 hpf was 310 μg/L, CBR50 (critical body residue) was 2.72 mmol/kg fresh wt and La50...... for obtaining mechanistic toxicity information, and (3) cause no toxicity, demonstrating its potential as an extension of the FET test when testing hydrophobic chemicals....

  10. PAH toxicity at aqueous solubility in the fish embryo test with Danio rerio using passive dosing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin; Best, Nina; Fernqvist, Margit Møller

    2014-01-01

    to animal testing in (eco)toxicology. However, for hydrophobic organic chemicals it remains a technical challenge to ensure constant freely dissolved concentration at the maximum exposure level during such biotests. Passive dosing with PDMS silicone was thus applied to control the freely dissolved...... further data to support the close relationship between the chemical activity and the toxicity of hydrophobic organic compounds. Passive dosing from PDMS silicone enabled reliable toxicity testing of (highly) hydrophobic substances at aqueous solubility, providing a practical way to control toxicity...... exactly at the maximum exposure level. This approach is therefore expected to be useful as a cost-effective initial screening of hydrophobic chemicals for potential adverse effects to freshwater vertebrates....

  11. Development of a chronic sediment toxicity test for marine benthic amphipods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWitt, T.H.; Redmond, M.S.; Sewall, J.E.; Swartz, R.C.

    1992-12-01

    The results of the research effort culminated in the development of a research method for assessing the chronic toxicity of contaminated marine and estuarine sediments using the benthic amphipod, Leptocheirus plumulosus. The first chapter describes the efforts at collecting, handling, and culturing four estuarine amphipods from Chesapeake Bay, including L. plumulosus. This chapter includes maps of the distribution and abundance of these amphipods within Chesapeake Bay and methodologies for establishing cultures of amphipods which could be readily adopted by other laboratories. The second chapter reports the development of acute and chronic sediment toxicity test methods for L. plumulosus, its sensitivity to non-contaminant environmental variables, cadmium, two polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and contaminated sediment from Baltimore Harbor, MD. The third chapter reports the authors attempts to develop a chronic sediment toxicity test with Ampelisca abdita

  12. Optimizing the design of a reproduction toxicity test with the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charles, Sandrine; Ducrot, Virginie; Azam, Didier

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results from two ring-tests addressing the feasibility, robustness and reproducibility of a reproduction toxicity test with the freshwater gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis (RENILYS strain). Sixteen laboratories (from inexperienced to expert laboratories in mollusc testing) from...... nine countries participated in these ring-tests. Survival and reproduction were evaluated in L. stagnalis exposed to cadmium, tributyltin, prochloraz and trenbolone according to an OECD draft Test Guideline. In total, 49 datasets were analysed to assess the practicability of the proposed experimental...... protocol, and to estimate the between-laboratory reproducibility of toxicity endpoint values. The statistical analysis of count data (number of clutches or eggs per individual-day) leading to ECx estimation was specifically developed and automated through a free web-interface. Based on a complementary...

  13. Two stage treatment of dairy effluent using immobilized Chlorella pyrenoidosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Dairy effluents contains high organic load and unscrupulous discharge of these effluents into aquatic bodies is a matter of serious concern besides deteriorating their water quality. Whilst physico-chemical treatment is the common mode of treatment, immobilized microalgae can be potentially employed to treat high organic content which offer numerous benefits along with waste water treatment. Methods A novel low cost two stage treatment was employed for the complete treatment of dairy effluent. The first stage consists of treating the diary effluent in a photobioreactor (1 L) using immobilized Chlorella pyrenoidosa while the second stage involves a two column sand bed filtration technique. Results Whilst NH4+-N was completely removed, a 98% removal of PO43--P was achieved within 96 h of two stage purification processes. The filtrate was tested for toxicity and no mortality was observed in the zebra fish which was used as a model at the end of 96 h bioassay. Moreover, a significant decrease in biological oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand was achieved by this novel method. Also the biomass separated was tested as a biofertilizer to the rice seeds and a 30% increase in terms of length of root and shoot was observed after the addition of biomass to the rice plants. Conclusions We conclude that the two stage treatment of dairy effluent is highly effective in removal of BOD and COD besides nutrients like nitrates and phosphates. The treatment also helps in discharging treated waste water safely into the receiving water bodies since it is non toxic for aquatic life. Further, the algal biomass separated after first stage of treatment was highly capable of increasing the growth of rice plants because of nitrogen fixation ability of the green alga and offers a great potential as a biofertilizer. PMID:24355316

  14. Effect of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether in Standard Tests for Mutagenicity and Environmental Toxicity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vosáhlíková, M.; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Demnerová, K.; Pazlarová, Jarmila

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 6 (2006), s. 599-605 ISSN 1520-4081 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : toxicity * mtbe * ames test Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.582, year: 2006

  15. Test of the acute lethal toxicity of pollutants to marine fish and invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This reference method describes the measurement of the acute lethal toxicity of pollutants to marine animals (fish and invertebrates) by a static (non-continuous flow) method. Procedures are given for the determination of the toxicity curve (survival time-concentration relationship) and for the estimation of median lethal concentrations (LC50). The method is suitable for use with fish and macro-invertebrate species. It is not suitable for planktonic organisms nor for determining the toxicity of oil, oil dispersants or other petroleum products. Those methods are described in Reference Methods Nos. 44 and 45, respectively. The test animals are exposed, in groups of approximately ten, to each of several concentrations of the pollutant. The animals are observed, at intervals, for several days, the test solutions being renewed regularly. A record is maintained of the survival times of individual animals exposed to each concentration of pollutant. The medial survival time of each group of animals is determined from a graphical plot of the raw data after a log-probability transformation. Median survival times and their confidence limits are plotted against concentrations of test substance to give a toxicity curve. Additionally, the same experimental data can be used to estimate the median lethal concentration (LC50) of the test substance to the animals after different periods of exposure. 3 refs, 5 figs, 3 tabs

  16. Mode of Action Frameworks in Toxicity Testing and Chemical Risk Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, B.

    2009-01-01

    Recently, legislative mandates worldwide are requiring systematic consideration of much larger numbers of chemicals. This necessitates more efficient and effective toxicity testing, as a basis to be more predictive in a risk assessment context. This in turn requires much more emphasis early in the

  17. Tox21: Putting a Lens on the Vision of Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    In response to the release of the NRC report on "Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century, a Vision and Strategy" (NRC, 2007), two NIH institutes and EPA formed a collaboration (Tox21) to 1) identify mechanisms of chemically induced biological activity, 2) prioritize chemicals for mo...

  18. Development of a standard acute dietary toxicity test for the silkworm (Bombyx mori L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, X.; Valk, H.; Jiang, H.; Wang, X.; Yuan, S.; Zhang, Y.; Roessink, I.; Gao, X.

    2012-01-01

    Larvae of the silkworm (Bombyx mod L.) may be exposed to pesticide residues on the leaves of their food plant, the mulberry tree (Morus spp.), which can lead to adverse effects on silk production. A new acute dietary toxicity test method was evaluated as the basis for pesticide risk assessment. A

  19. Developmental toxicity of thyroid-active compounds in a zebrafish embryotoxicity test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jomaa, B.; Hermsen, S.A.B.; Kessels, M.Y.; Berg, van den J.H.J.; Peijenburg, A.C.M.; Aarts, J.M.M.J.G.; Piersma, A.H.; Rietjens, I.

    2014-01-01

    Zebrafish embryos were exposed to concentration ranges of selected thyroid-active model compounds in order to assess the applicability of zebrafish-based developmental scoring systems within an alternative testing strategy to detect the developmental toxicity of thyroid-active compounds. Model

  20. 76 FR 38169 - Toxic Substances Control Act Chemical Testing; Receipt of Test Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... (7405M), Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania... gold leaf, dyeing mixtures, antifreeze mixtures, extraction of resins and waxes, preservative for...: June 21, 2011. Maria J. Doa, Director, Chemical Control Division, Office of Pollution Prevention and...

  1. Optimizing the design of a reproduction toxicity test with the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Sandrine; Ducrot, Virginie; Azam, Didier; Benstead, Rachel; Brettschneider, Denise; De Schamphelaere, Karel; Filipe Goncalves, Sandra; Green, John W; Holbech, Henrik; Hutchinson, Thomas H; Faber, Daniel; Laranjeiro, Filipe; Matthiessen, Peter; Norrgren, Leif; Oehlmann, Jörg; Reategui-Zirena, Evelyn; Seeland-Fremer, Anne; Teigeler, Matthias; Thome, Jean-Pierre; Tobor Kaplon, Marysia; Weltje, Lennart; Lagadic, Laurent

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents the results from two ring-tests addressing the feasibility, robustness and reproducibility of a reproduction toxicity test with the freshwater gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis (RENILYS strain). Sixteen laboratories (from inexperienced to expert laboratories in mollusc testing) from nine countries participated in these ring-tests. Survival and reproduction were evaluated in L. stagnalis exposed to cadmium, tributyltin, prochloraz and trenbolone according to an OECD draft Test Guideline. In total, 49 datasets were analysed to assess the practicability of the proposed experimental protocol, and to estimate the between-laboratory reproducibility of toxicity endpoint values. The statistical analysis of count data (number of clutches or eggs per individual-day) leading to ECx estimation was specifically developed and automated through a free web-interface. Based on a complementary statistical analysis, the optimal test duration was established and the most sensitive and cost-effective reproduction toxicity endpoint was identified, to be used as the core endpoint. This validation process and the resulting optimized protocol were used to consolidate the OECD Test Guideline for the evaluation of reproductive effects of chemicals in L. stagnalis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Acute toxicity of metals and reference toxicants to a freshwater ostracod, Cypris subglobosa Sowerby, 1840 and correlation to EC{sub 50} values of other test models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khangarot, B.S., E-mail: bkhangarot@hotmail.com [Ecotoxicology Division, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (Formerly: Industrial Toxicology Research Centre), Post Box No. 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226001 (India); Das, Sangita [Ecotoxicology Division, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (Formerly: Industrial Toxicology Research Centre), Post Box No. 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226001 (India)

    2009-12-30

    The ostracod Cypris subglobosa Sowerby, 1840 static bioassay test on the basis of a 48 h of 50% of immobilization (EC{sub 50}) has been used to measure the toxicity of 36 metals and metalloids and 12 reference toxicants. Among the 36 metals and metalloids, osmium (Os) was found to be the most toxic in the test while boron (B), the least toxic. The EC{sub 50} values of this study revealed positive linear relationship with the established test models of cladoceran (Daphnia magna), sludge worm (Tubifex tubifex), chironomid larvae (Chironomus tentans), protozoan (Tetrahymena pyriformis), fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus), and aquatic macrophyte duckweed (Lemna minor). Correlation coefficients (r{sup 2}) for 17 physicochemical properties of metals or metal ions and EC{sub 50}s (as pM) were examined by linear regression analysis. The electronegativity, ionization potential, melting point, solubility product of metal sulfides (pK{sub sp}), softness parameter and some other physicochemical characteristics were significantly correlated with EC{sub 50}s of metals to C. subglobosa. The reproducibility of toxicity test was determined using 12 reference toxicants. The coefficient of variability of the EC{sub 50}s ranged from 6.95% to 55.37% and variability was comparable to that noticed for D. magna and other aquatic test models. The study demonstrated the need to include crustacean ostracods in a battery of biotests to detect the presence of hazardous chemicals in soils, sewage sludges, sediments and aquatic systems.

  3. Acute toxicity of metals and reference toxicants to a freshwater ostracod, Cypris subglobosa Sowerby, 1840 and correlation to EC50 values of other test models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khangarot, B.S.; Das, Sangita

    2009-01-01

    The ostracod Cypris subglobosa Sowerby, 1840 static bioassay test on the basis of a 48 h of 50% of immobilization (EC 50 ) has been used to measure the toxicity of 36 metals and metalloids and 12 reference toxicants. Among the 36 metals and metalloids, osmium (Os) was found to be the most toxic in the test while boron (B), the least toxic. The EC 50 values of this study revealed positive linear relationship with the established test models of cladoceran (Daphnia magna), sludge worm (Tubifex tubifex), chironomid larvae (Chironomus tentans), protozoan (Tetrahymena pyriformis), fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus), and aquatic macrophyte duckweed (Lemna minor). Correlation coefficients (r 2 ) for 17 physicochemical properties of metals or metal ions and EC 50 s (as pM) were examined by linear regression analysis. The electronegativity, ionization potential, melting point, solubility product of metal sulfides (pK sp ), softness parameter and some other physicochemical characteristics were significantly correlated with EC 50 s of metals to C. subglobosa. The reproducibility of toxicity test was determined using 12 reference toxicants. The coefficient of variability of the EC 50 s ranged from 6.95% to 55.37% and variability was comparable to that noticed for D. magna and other aquatic test models. The study demonstrated the need to include crustacean ostracods in a battery of biotests to detect the presence of hazardous chemicals in soils, sewage sludges, sediments and aquatic systems.

  4. Non-operative management of right side thoracoabdominal penetrating injuries--the value of testing chest tube effluent for bile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rezende Neto, João Baptista; Guimarães, Tiago Nunes; Madureira, João Lopo; Drumond, Domingos André Fernandes; Leal, Juliana Campos; Rocha, Aroldo; Oliveira, Rodrigo Guimarães; Rizoli, Sandro B

    2009-05-01

    While mandatory surgery for all thoracoabdominal penetrating injuries is advocated by some, the high rate of unnecessary operations challenges this approach. However, the consequences of intrathoracic bile remains poorly investigated. We sought to evaluate the outcome of patients who underwent non-operative management of right side thoracoabdominal (RST) penetrating trauma, and the levels of bilirubin obtained from those patients' chest tube effluent. We managed non-operatively all stable patients with a single RST penetrating injury. Chest tube effluent samples were obtained six times within (4-8 h; 12-16 h; 20-24 h; 28-32 h; 36-40 h; 48 h and 72 h) of admission for bilirubin measurement and blood for complete blood count, bilirubin, alanine (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferases (AST) assays. For comparison we studied patients with single left thoracic penetrating injury. Forty-two patients with RST injuries were included. All had liver and lung injuries confirmed by CT scans. Only one patient failed non-operative management. Chest tube bilirubin peaked at 48 h post-trauma (mean 3.3+/-4.1 mg/dL) and was always higher than both serum bilirubin (pchest tube effluent from control group (27 patients with left side thoracic trauma). Serum ALT and AST were higher in RST injury patients (ptrauma appears to be safe. Bile originating from the liver injury reaches the right thoracic cavity but does not reflect the severity of that injury. The highest concentration was found in the patient failing non-operative management. The presence of intrathoracic bile in selected patients who sustain RST penetrating trauma, with liver injury, does not preclude non-operative management. Our study suggests that monitoring chest tube effluent bilirubin may provide helpful information when managing a patient non-operatively.

  5. A portable cell-based impedance sensor for toxicity testing of drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Theresa M; Widder, Mark W; Brennan, Linda M; Schwager, Steven J; van der Schalie, William H; Fey, Julien; Salazar, Noe

    2009-08-07

    A major limitation to using mammalian cell-based biosensors for field testing of drinking water samples is the difficulty of maintaining cell viability and sterility without an on-site cell culture facility. This paper describes a portable automated bench-top mammalian cell-based toxicity sensor that incorporates enclosed fluidic biochips containing endothelial cells monitored by Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS) technology. Long-term maintenance of cells on the biochips is made possible by using a compact, self-contained disposable media delivery system. The toxicity sensor monitors changes in impedance of cell monolayers on the biochips after the introduction of water samples. The fluidic biochip includes an ECIS electronic layer and a polycarbonate channel layer, which together reduce initial impedance disturbances seen in commercially available open well ECIS chips caused by the mechanics of pipetting while maintaining the ability of the cells to respond to toxicants. A curve discrimination program was developed that compares impedance values over time between the control and treatment channels on the fluidic biochip and determines if they are significantly different. Toxicant responses of bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells grown on fluidic biochips are similar to cells on commercially-available open well chips, and these cells can be maintained in the toxicity sensor device for at least nine days using an automated media delivery system. Longer-term cell storage is possible; bovine lung microvessel endothelial cells survive for up to four months on the fluidic biochips and remain responsive to a model toxicant. This is the first demonstration of a portable bench top system capable of both supporting cell health over extended periods of time and obtaining impedance measurements from endothelial cell monolayers after toxicant exposure.

  6. Isolation and toxicity test of Bacillus thuringiensis from Sekayu region soil, South Sumatra on Spodopteralitura

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afriani, S. R.; Pujiastuti, Y.; Irsan, C.; Damiri, N.; Nugraha, S.; Sembiring, E. R.

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to obtain bacterial isolates B. thuringiensis potential as a biological control against pests Spodoptera litura. The research was conducted at the Laboratory of Pest and Disease Department, Agricultural Faculty of Sriwijaya University, Campus Inderalaya Ogan Ilir, South Sumatera, from March to June 2017. The study was conducted with survey method and laboratory trial. The results showed that of the 50 soil samples from three villages selected through morphological observation, reaction staining, KOH test, catalase test, producing 13 bacterial isolates. Screening of the 13th toxicity of the isolates suspected B. thuringiensis against S. litura larvae was investigated. Based on the toxicity screening test the following facts were obtained: five isolates ie KJ2M2, KJ3E1, KJ3JB1, KJ3D3 and KJ3D5 were lower toxicity than Dipel, two isolates ie KJ3K4 and KJ3D3 which had the same toxicity to Dipel. Five isolates the KJ3E3, KJ3BW5, KJ3JB5, KJ3D1 and LC2, LC3 known to have effectiveness until the seventh day reached 40%. There was one isolate that is KJ3BW5 which was more effective compared to Dipel as comparison.

  7. Leachates draining from controlled municipal solid waste landfill: Detailed geochemical characterization and toxicity tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavakala, Bienvenu K; Le Faucheur, Séverine; Mulaji, Crispin K; Laffite, Amandine; Devarajan, Naresh; Biey, Emmanuel M; Giuliani, Gregory; Otamonga, Jean-Paul; Kabatusuila, Prosper; Mpiana, Pius T; Poté, John

    2016-09-01

    Management of municipal solid wastes in many countries consists of waste disposal into landfill without treatment or selective collection of solid waste fractions including plastics, paper, glass, metals, electronic waste, and organic fraction leading to the unsolved problem of contamination of numerous ecosystems such as air, soil, surface, and ground water. Knowledge of leachate composition is critical in risk assessment of long-term impact of landfills on human health and the environment as well as for prevention of negative outcomes. The research presented in this paper investigates the seasonal variation of draining leachate composition and resulting toxicity as well as the contamination status of soil/sediment from lagoon basins receiving leachates from landfill in Mpasa, a suburb of Kinshasa in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Samples were collected during the dry and rainy seasons and analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, soluble ions, toxic metals, and were then subjected to toxicity tests. Results highlight the significant seasonal difference in leachate physicochemical composition. Affected soil/sediment showed higher values for toxic metals than leachates, indicating the possibility of using lagoon system for the purification of landfill leachates, especially for organic matter and heavy metal sedimentation. However, the ecotoxicity tests demonstrated that leachates are still a significant source of toxicity for terrestrial and benthic organisms. Therefore, landfill leachates should not be discarded into the environment (soil or surface water) without prior treatment. Interest in the use of macrophytes in lagoon system is growing and toxic metal retention in lagoon basin receiving systems needs to be fully investigated in the future. This study presents useful tools for evaluating landfill leachate quality and risk in lagoon systems which can be applied to similar environmental compartments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All

  8. Comparison of feeding strategies in acute toxicity tests of crude oil and commercial bioremediation agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavender, R.C.; Cherry, D.S.; Yeager, M.M.; Bidwell, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    Proposed modifications to the National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan have prompted examinations of the methodology used in toxicity testing of the water soluble fraction (WSF) of oil, commercial bioremediation agents (CBA), and a combination of the two. The organisms currently used in acute (96 hr) testing of these agents are the inland silverside, Menidia beryllina, and an estuarine mysid, Mysidopsis bahia. The mysid is a carnivorous species that must be fed during a test in order to prevent predation within the test chambers. Currently proposed methodology for silverside testing also includes feeding. The high oxygen demand of CBAs and the WSF of oil causes dissolved oxygen to be a factor in toxicity. This effect can be intensified by the addition of brine shrimp (Artemia sp.) to the test chambers. The purpose of this study was to compare the toxicity of CBAs in combination with the WSF of oil to silversides with and without the addition of food. Tests were conducted using both 24-hour and 14-day spinning times for the CBA/WSF mixture. With the 24-hour spinning time, LC50 values from each day of the 4-day test were consistently lower in the Artemia fed test (47.8--22.6%) as compared to the unfed test (72.1--43.0%). A similar trend was seen in the 24 and 48 hour LC50's in the 14-day spinning time. Overall, low dissolved oxygen was found to be most relevant at the highest CBA/WSF concentrations where D.O. dropped below 2 mg/l in Artemia fed tests

  9. Toxicity testing and chemical analyses of recycled fibre-based paper for food contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binderup, Mona-Lise; Pedersen, Gitte Alsing; Vinggaard, Anne

    2002-01-01

    of different qualities as food-contact materials and to Perform a preliminary evaluation of their suitability from a safety point of view, and, second, to evaluate the use of different in vitro toxicity tests for screening of paper and board. Paper produced from three different categories of recycled fibres (B...... of the paper products were extracted with either 99% ethanol or water. Potential migrants in the extracts were identified and semiquantified by GC-1R-MS or GC-HRMS. In parallel to the chemical analyses, a battery of four different in vitro toxicity tests with different endpoints were applied to the same...... was less cytotoxic than the extracts prepared from paper made from recycled fibres, and extracts prepared from C was the most cytotoxic. None of the extracts showed mutagenic activity No conclusion about the oestrogenic activity could be made, because all extracts were cytotoxic to the test organism (yeast...

  10. Ceriodaphnia and Chironomus in situ toxicity tests assessing the wastewater treatment efficacy of constructed wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barjaktarovic, L.; Nix, P.; Gulley, J.

    1995-01-01

    In situ toxicity tests were designed for Ceriodaphnia dubia and Chironomus tentans as part of a larger study designed to assess the effectiveness of constructed wetlands for the treatment of wastewater produced by oil production at Suncor OSG. The artificial wetlands were 50m long by 3m wide, with three replicates of the control and the treatment. Each wetland had four sample sites equidistant along its length, creating a gradient of treatment from site A being the most toxic to site D being the least toxic. Each test was conducted twice during the summer of 1994. Both the Ceriodaphnia and Chironomus test cages were a flow through design to allow for maximal exposure to the water within the wetlands. Mortality and reproduction were used as endpoints for Ceriodaphnia, whereas mortality and growth were used as endpoints for the Chironomus test. Test durations were fifteen and ten days respectively. Chironomus had very high mortality along the entire wetlands whereas Ceriodaphnia survival and fecundity increased along the length of the treatment wetlands. Both organisms had low mortality and high growth/fecundity in the control wetlands

  11. Influence of potentially confounding factors on sea urchin porewater toxicity tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, R.S.; Biedenbach, J.M.; Nipper, M.

    2006-01-01

    The influence of potentially confounding factors has been identified as a concern for interpreting sea urchin porewater toxicity test data. The results from >40 sediment-quality assessment surveys using early-life stages of the sea urchin Arbacia punctulata were compiled and examined to determine acceptable ranges of natural variables such as pH, ammonia, and dissolved organic carbon on the fertilization and embryological development endpoints. In addition, laboratory experiments were also conducted with A. punctulata and compared with information from the literature. Pore water with pH as low as 6.9 is an unlikely contributor to toxicity for the fertilization and embryological development tests with A. punctulata. Other species of sea urchin have narrower pH tolerance ranges. Ammonia is rarely a contributing factor in pore water toxicity tests using the fertilization endpoint, but the embryological development endpoint may be influenced by ammonia concentrations commonly found in porewater samples. Therefore, ammonia needs to be considered when interpreting results for the embryological development test. Humic acid does not affect sea urchin fertilization at saturation concentrations, but it could have an effect on the embryological development endpoint at near-saturation concentrations. There was no correlation between sediment total organic carbon concentrations and porewater dissolved organic carbon concentrations. Because of the potential for many varying substances to activate parthenogenesis in sea urchin eggs, it is recommended that a no-sperm control be included with every fertilization test treatment. ?? 2006 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  12. Computational systems biology and dose-response modeling in relation to new directions in toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Bhattacharya, Sudin; Andersen, Melvin E; Conolly, Rory B

    2010-02-01

    The new paradigm envisioned for toxicity testing in the 21st century advocates shifting from the current animal-based testing process to a combination of in vitro cell-based studies, high-throughput techniques, and in silico modeling. A strategic component of the vision is the adoption of the systems biology approach to acquire, analyze, and interpret toxicity pathway data. As key toxicity pathways are identified and their wiring details elucidated using traditional and high-throughput techniques, there is a pressing need to understand their qualitative and quantitative behaviors in response to perturbation by both physiological signals and exogenous stressors. The complexity of these molecular networks makes the task of understanding cellular responses merely by human intuition challenging, if not impossible. This process can be aided by mathematical modeling and computer simulation of the networks and their dynamic behaviors. A number of theoretical frameworks were developed in the last century for understanding dynamical systems in science and engineering disciplines. These frameworks, which include metabolic control analysis, biochemical systems theory, nonlinear dynamics, and control theory, can greatly facilitate the process of organizing, analyzing, and understanding toxicity pathways. Such analysis will require a comprehensive examination of the dynamic properties of "network motifs"--the basic building blocks of molecular circuits. Network motifs like feedback and feedforward loops appear repeatedly in various molecular circuits across cell types and enable vital cellular functions like homeostasis, all-or-none response, memory, and biological rhythm. These functional motifs and associated qualitative and quantitative properties are the predominant source of nonlinearities observed in cellular dose response data. Complex response behaviors can arise from toxicity pathways built upon combinations of network motifs. While the field of computational cell

  13. The Sun-Duffey mass effluents calculation model applied to bottom reflooding tests of a single tube performed at the CDTN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladeira, L.C.D.; Rezende, H.C.

    1993-01-01

    A simple generalized model, developed by K.H. Sun and R.B. Duffey, is applied in this work to calculate the ratio of mass effluents during bottom reflooding of a single tube carried out at the CDTN/CNEN. The results of the benchmark experiments indicate that the accuracy on mass effluence ratio prediction can be within 15% by using the Sun-Duffey model. The reasonable agreement obtained between experimental data and model predictions suggest that it could be used for analysis of single tube reflood tests, in similar conditions. (author)

  14. Temporal Variation in the Estrogenicity of a Sewage Treatment Plant Effluent and its Biological Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper describes variations in the estrogenic potency of effluent from a "model" wastewater treatment plant in Duluth, MN, and explores the significance of these variations relative to sampling approaches for monitoring effluents and their toxicity to fish.

  15. Toxicity Testing of Restorative Dental Materials Using Brine Shrimp Larvae (Artemia salina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manar M. Milhem

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of extracts of different composites, glass ionomer cement (GICs and compomers on the viability of brine shrimp larvae. Ethanolic extracts of four dental composites (Z-100; Solitaire 2; Filtek P60 and Synergy, a conventional GIC (Ketac-Fil, a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Vitremer, two compomers (F2000; Dyract AP, and a flowable compomer (Dyract Flow were prepared from each material. Following evaporation of the ethanol, the extracts were resuspended in distilled water, which was then used to test the effects on the viability of brine shrimp larvae. For the composites, the extract of Synergy was the least toxic (88% viability followed by the extracts of Solitaire 2, Z100 and P60 (75%, 67.5% and 50% viability, respectively. One-way ANOVA revealed highly significant differences between the resin composite materials (p<0.001. Follow-up comparison between the composite groups by Tukey's pairwise multiple-comparison test (α =0.05 showed that the extract of Synergy was significantly less toxic than the extracts of all the other materials except that of Solitaire 2. The compomers showed 100% lethality, while the percentage of viable larvae for the extracts of Ketac-Fil, and Vitremer were 32.3%, and 37.0%, respectively. One-way ANOVA revealed highly significant differences between the groups of materials (p<0.001. Follow-up comparison between the groups by Tukey's test (α = 0.05 showed that the toxic effect of the extracts of the compomers were significantly greater than that of Ketac-Fil, and Vitremer. The differences in the toxic effects of Vitremer and Ketac-Fil were not statistically significant. In conclusion, the toxicity of composite materials varied according to their chemical composition. Compomers were the most lethal materials to brine shrimp larvae followed by GICs and then composites.

  16. History and sensitivity comparison of the Spirodela polyrhiza microbiotest and Lemna toxicity tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baudo R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The history of toxicity tests with duckweeds shows that these assays with free-floating aquatic angiosperms are gaining increasing attention in ecotoxicological research and applications. Standard tests have been published by national and international organizations, mainly with the test species Lemna minor and Lemna gibba. Besides the former two test species the great duckweed Spirodela polyrhiza is to date also regularly used in duckweed testing. Under unfavorable environmental conditions, the latter species produces dormant stages (turions and this has triggered the attention of two research groups from Belgium and Greece to jointly develop a “stock culture independent” microbiotest with S. polyrhiza. A 72 h new test has been worked out which besides its independence of stock culturing and maintenance of live stocks is very simple and practical to perform, and much less demanding in space and time than the conventional duckweed tests. Extensive International Interlaboratory Comparisons on the S. polyrhiza microbiotest showed its robustness and reliability and triggered the decision to propose this new assay to the ISO for endorsement and publication as a standard toxicity test for duckweeds. Sensitivity comparison of the 72 h S. polyrhiza microbiotest with the 7d L. minor assay for 22 compounds belonging to different groups of chemicals revealed that based on growth as the effect criterion both duckweed assays have a similar sensitivity. Taking into account its multiple advantages and assets, the S. polyrhiza microbiotest is a reliable and attractive alternative to the conventional duckweed tests.

  17. Optimizing the performance of Hyalella azteca in chronic toxicity tests: Results of feeding studies with various foods and feeding regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The freshwater amphipod Hyalella azteca is a common organism used for sediment toxicity testing in the United States and elsewhere. Standard methods for 10-d and 42-d toxicity tests with H. azteca were last revised and published by USEPA/ASTM in 2000. Under the methods in the man...

  18. A New, Sensitive Marine Microalgal Recombinant Biosensor Using Luminescence Monitoring for Toxicity Testing of Antifouling Biocides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Ferandin, Sophie; Leroy, Fanny; Bouget, François-Yves

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we propose the use of the marine green alga Ostreococcus tauri, the smallest free-living eukaryotic cell known to date, as a new luminescent biosensor for toxicity testing in the environment. Diuron and Irgarol 1051, two antifouling biocides commonly encountered in coastal waters, were chosen to test this new biosensor along with two degradation products of diuron. The effects of various concentrations of the antifoulants on four genetic constructs of O. tauri (based on genes involved in photosynthesis, cell cycle, and circadian clock) were compared using 96-well culture microplates and a luminometer to automatically measure luminescence over 3 days. This was compared to growth inhibition of O. tauri wild type under the same conditions. Luminescence appeared to be more sensitive than growth inhibition as an indicator of toxicity. Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDKA), a protein involved in the cell cycle, fused to luciferase (CDKA-Luc) was found to be the most sensitive of the biosensors, allowing an accurate determination of the 50% effective concentration (EC50) after only 2 days (diuron, 5.65 ± 0.44 μg/liter; Irgarol 1015, 0.76 ± 0.10 μg/liter). The effects of the antifoulants on the CDKA-Luc biosensor were then compared to growth inhibition in natural marine phytoplankton. The effective concentrations of diuron and Irgarol 1051 were found to be similar, indicating that this biosensor would be suitable as a reliable ecotoxicological test. The advantage of this biosensor over cell growth inhibition testing is that the process can be easily automated and could provide a high-throughput laboratory approach to perform short-term toxicity tests. The ability to genetically transform and culture recombinant O. tauri gives it huge potential for screening many other toxic compounds. PMID:23144143

  19. An empirical comparison of effective concentration estimators for evaluating aquatic toxicity test responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailer, A.J.; Hughes, M.R.; Denton, D.L.; Oris, J.T.

    2000-01-01

    Aquatic toxicity tests are statistically evaluated by either hypothesis testing procedures to derive a no-observed-effect concentration or by inverting regression models to calculate the concentration associated with a specific reduction from the control response. These latter methods can be described as potency estimation methods. Standard US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) potency estimation methods are based on two different techniques. For continuous or count response data, a nominally nonparametric method that assumes monotonic decreasing responses and piecewise linear patterns between successive concentration groups is used. For quantal responses, a probit regression model with a linear dose term is fit. These techniques were compared with a recently developed parametric regression-based estimator, the relative inhibition estimator, RIp. This method is based on fitting generalized linear models, followed by estimation of the concentration associated with a particular decrement relative to control responses. These estimators, with levels of inhibition (p) of 25 and 50%, were applied to a series of chronic toxicity tests in a US EPA region 9 database of reference toxicity tests. Biological responses evaluated in these toxicity tests included the number of young produced in three broods by the water flea (Ceriodaphnia dubia) and germination success and tube length data from the giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera). The greatest discrepancy between the RIp and standard US EPA estimators was observed for C. dubia. The concentration-response pattern for this biological endpoint exhibited nonmonotonicity more frequently than for any of the other endpoint. Future work should consider optimal experimental designs to estimate these quantities, methods for constructing confidence intervals, and simulation studies to explore the behavior of these estimators under known conditions.

  20. Rapid toxicity assessment using an in vivo enzyme test for Brachionus plicatilis (Rotifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffat, B D; Snell, T W

    1995-02-01

    A 1-hr in vivo enzyme inhibition assay based on esterase activity has good potential for marine toxicity assessment. A test was developed for the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis based on the nonfluorescent substrate fluorescein diacetate (FDA), which is metabolized by esterases to a fluorescent product. Enzyme inhibition, as determined by reduced fluorescence, can be scored visually or quantified using a fluorometer. Quantification of fluorescence permits the calculation of NOEC, LOEC, chronic value, and IC20. The 1-hr esterase inhibition test has sensitivity comparable to that of 24-hr rotifer acute tests for several compounds. The toxicity of six compounds was examined using the quantified assay. The resulting IC20s were within a factor of 3 of the 24-hour LC50s. IC20 values ranged from 0.017 mg/l for tributyltin to 3.1 mg/l for zinc, with an average coefficient of variation of 17.8%. Electrophoretic analysis of rotifer homogenates suggested that a single C esterase (acetylesterase) was responsible for FDA metabolism in B. plicatilis. Several other aquatic species are capable of metabolizing FDA, including Brachionus calyciflorus, Mysidopsis bahia, Menidia beryllina, Pimephales promelas, Ceriodaphnia dubia, Daphnia pulex, Artemia salina, and Ophryotrocha sp. The esterase inhibition test is an attractive tool for assessing aquatic toxicity because of its speed, simplicity, sensitivity, and applicability to a broad range of aquatic species.

  1. Handbook of acute toxicity of chemicals to fish and aquatic invertebrates : summaries of toxicity tests conducted at Columbia National Fisheries Research Laboratory, 1965-78

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. Waynon; Finley, Mack T.

    1980-01-01

    Acute toxicity is a major subject of research at Columbia National Fisheries Research Laboratory for evaluating the impact of toxic chemicals on fishery resources. The Laboratory has played a leading role in developing research technology for toxicity testing and data interpretation. In 1965-78, more than 400 chemicals were tested against a variety of invertebrates and fish species representative of both cold- and warm-water climates.The use of acute toxicity tests for assessing the potential hazard of chemical contaminants to aquatic organisms is well documented (Boyd 1957; Henderson et al. 1960; Sanders and Cope 1966; Macek and McAllister 1970). Static acute toxicity tests provide rapid and (within limits) reproducible concentration-response curves for estimating toxic effects of chemicals on aquatic organisms. These tests provide a database for determining relative toxicity of a large number of chemicals to a variety of species and for estimating acute effects of chemical spills on natural aquatic systems; they also assist in determining priority and design of additional toxicity studies.Acute toxicity tests usually provide estimates of the exposure concentration causing 50% mortality (LC50) to test organisms during a specified period of time. For certain invertebrates, the effective concentration is based on immobilization, or some other identifiable endpoint, rather than on lethality. The application of the LC50 has gained acceptance among toxicologists and is generally the most highly rated test for assessing potential adverse effects of chemical contaminants to aquatic life (Brungs and Mount 1978; American Institute for Biological Sciences 1978a).The literature contains numerous papers dealing with the acute toxicity of chemicals to freshwater organisms. However, there is a tremendous need for a concise compendium of toxicity data covering a large variety of chemicals and test species. This Handbook is a compilation of a large volume of acute toxicity data

  2. Evaluation of the phytotoxicity of polycontaminated industrial effluents using the lettuce plant (Lactuca sativa) as a bioindicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Jérémie; Sancey, Bertrand; Morin-Crini, Nadia; Badot, Pierre-Marie; Degiorgi, François; Trunfio, Giuseppe; Crini, Grégorio

    2011-10-01

    Industrial wastewater containing heavy metals is generally decontaminated by physicochemical treatment consisting in insolublizing the contaminants and separating the two phases, water and sludge, by a physical process (filtration, settling or flotation). However, chemical precipitation does not usually remove the whole pollution load and the effluent discharged into the environment can be toxic even if it comes up to regulatory standards. To assess the impact of industrial effluent from 4 different surface treatment companies, we performed standardized bioassays using seeds of the lettuce Lactuca sativa. We measured the rate of germination, and the length and mass of the lettuce plantlet. The results were used to compare the overall toxicity of the different effluents: effluents containing copper and nickel had a much higher impact than those containing zinc or aluminum. In addition, germination tests conducted using synthetic solutions confirmed that mixtures of metals have higher toxicity than the sum of their separate constituents. These biological tests are cheap, easy to implement, reproducible and highlight the effects caused by effluent treated with the methods commonly applied in industry today. They could be routinely used to check the impact of industrial discharges, even when they meet regulatory requirements for the individual metals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Test Results for a Non-toxic, Dual Thrust Reaction Control Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Philip J.; Veith, Eric M.; Turpin, Alicia A.

    2005-01-01

    A non-toxic, dual thrust reaction control engine (RCE) was successfully tested over a broad range of operating conditions at the Aerojet Sacramento facility. The RCE utilized LOX/Ethanol propellants; and was tested in steady state and pulsing modes at 25-lbf thrust (vernier) and at 870-lbf thrust (primary). Steady state vernier tests vaned chamber pressure (Pc) from 0.78 to 5.96 psia, and mixture ratio (MR) from 0.73 to 1.82, while primary steady state tests vaned Pc from 103 to 179 psia and MR from 1.33 to 1.76. Pulsing tests explored EPW from 0.080 to 10 seconds and DC from 5 to 50 percent at both thrust levels. Vernier testing accumulated a total of 6,670 seconds of firing time, and 7,215 pulses, and primary testing accumulated a total of 2,060 seconds of firing time and 3,646 pulses.

  4. Full-thickness human skin explants for testing the toxicity of topically applied chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, M.; Rikimaru, T.; Yano, T.; Moore, K.G.; Pula, P.J.; Schofield, B.H.; Dannenberg, A.M. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes a model organ-culture system for testing the toxicity of chemical substances that are topically applied to human skin. In this system, the viable keratinocytes in the full-thickness skin explants are protected by the same keratinized layer as skin remaining on the donor, and toxicity can be assessed microscopically and/or biochemically. The human skin specimens were discards from a variety of surgical procedures. They were cut into full-thickness 1.0-cm2 explants, and briefly exposed to the military vesicant sulfur mustard (SM), which was used as a model toxicant. The explants were then organ cultured in small Petri dishes for 24 h at 36 degrees C. In the 0.03-1.0% dosage range, a straight-line dose-response relationship occurred between the concentration of SM applied and the number of paranuclear vacuoles seen histologically in the epidermis. Within the same SM dosage range, there was also a proportional decrease in 14C-leucine incorporation by the explants. Thus, the number of paranuclear vacuoles reflected decreases in protein synthesis by the injured epidermal cells. The epidermis of full-thickness untreated (control) human skin explants usually remained viable for 7 d when stored at 4 degrees C in culture medium. During storage, a relatively small number of paranuclear vacuoles developed within the epidermis, but the explants were still quite satisfactory for testing SM toxicity. Incubation (for 4 or 24 h at 36 degrees C) of such control skin explants reduced (often by 50%) the small number of paranuclear vacuoles produced during 4-7 d of storage. This reduction was probably caused by autolysis of many of the vacuolated cells. Two types of paranuclear vacuoles could be identified by both light and electron microscopy: a storage type and a toxicant type. The storage type seemed to be caused by autolysis of cell components

  5. Full-thickness human skin explants for testing the toxicity of topically applied chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, M.; Rikimaru, T.; Yano, T.; Moore, K.G.; Pula, P.J.; Schofield, B.H.; Dannenberg, A.M. Jr. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (USA))

    1990-09-01

    This report describes a model organ-culture system for testing the toxicity of chemical substances that are topically applied to human skin. In this system, the viable keratinocytes in the full-thickness skin explants are protected by the same keratinized layer as skin remaining on the donor, and toxicity can be assessed microscopically and/or biochemically. The human skin specimens were discards from a variety of surgical procedures. They were cut into full-thickness 1.0-cm2 explants, and briefly exposed to the military vesicant sulfur mustard (SM), which was used as a model toxicant. The explants were then organ cultured in small Petri dishes for 24 h at 36 degrees C. In the 0.03-1.0% dosage range, a straight-line dose-response relationship occurred between the concentration of SM applied and the number of paranuclear vacuoles seen histologically in the epidermis. Within the same SM dosage range, there was also a proportional decrease in 14C-leucine incorporation by the explants. Thus, the number of paranuclear vacuoles reflected decreases in protein synthesis by the injured epidermal cells. The epidermis of full-thickness untreated (control) human skin explants usually remained viable for 7 d when stored at 4 degrees C in culture medium. During storage, a relatively small number of paranuclear vacuoles developed within the epidermis, but the explants were still quite satisfactory for testing SM toxicity. Incubation (for 4 or 24 h at 36{degrees}C) of such control skin explants reduced (often by 50%) the small number of paranuclear vacuoles produced during 4-7 d of storage. This reduction was probably caused by autolysis of many of the vacuolated cells. Two types of paranuclear vacuoles could be identified by both light and electron microscopy: a storage type and a toxicant type. The storage type seemed to be caused by autolysis of cell components.

  6. Mercury Induced Biochemical Alterations As Oxidative Stress In Mugil Cephalus In Short Term Toxicity Test

    OpenAIRE

    J.S.I Rajkumar; Samuel Tennyson

    2013-01-01

    Mugil cephalus juveniles of size 2.5 ±0.6cm were exposed to mercury in short term chronic toxicity test through static renewal bioassay to detect the possible biochemical agent as biomarkers in aquatic pollution and in estuarine contamination as specific. Lipid peroxidation levels, glutathione S -transferase, catalase, reduced glutathione and acetylcholinesterase were studied as biochemical parameters. Increased thio-barbituric acid reactive substances levels were observed under exposur...

  7. Evaluation of the toxic effect of endocrine disruptor Bisphenol A (BPA) in the acute and chronic toxicity tests with Pomacea lineata gastropod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, André Lucas Correa; Soares, Priscila Rafaela Leão; da Silva, Stephannie Caroline Barros Lucas; da Silva, Marília Cordeiro Galvão; Santos, Thamiris Pinheiro; Cadena, Marilia Ribeiro Sales; Soares, Pierre Castro; Cadena, Pabyton Gonçalves

    2017-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a plasticizer and a risk when it interacts with organisms, and can cause changes in the development and reproduction of them. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of BPA, by acute and chronic toxicity tests with neonates and adults of Pomacea lineata. Adults and neonates were divided into groups exposed to BPA (1-20mg/L), or 17β-estradiol (1mg/L) and control in the acute and chronic toxicity tests. Behavior, heart rate, reproduction and hemolymph biochemical analysis were measured. In the acute toxicity test, the 96-h LC 50 with adults was 11.09 and with neonates was 3.14mg/L. In this test, it was observed lethargic behavior and an increase of 77.6% of aspartate aminotransferase in the adults' hemolymph (ptest, it was observed behaviors associated with reproduction, as Copulate, in the groups exposed to BPA. The results that were found in this study proved that BPA is a potentially toxic agent to Pomacea lineata according to biological parameters evaluated. These data contribute to the understanding of BPA toxic effects' in the aquatic invertebrates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Determination of acute toxicity of petroleum refinery effluents in various stages of treatment for Daphnia similis; Determinacao da toxicidade aguda de efluentes de refinaria de petroleo em diversas etapas de tratamento para Daphnia similis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damato, Murilo; Alem Sobrinho, Pedro; Morita, Dione Mari [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Hidraulica e Sanitaria]. E-mail: palem@usp.br

    1997-07-01

    The organisms from fresh water are sensible to variations of environmental parameters. The criteria of water quality for these animals are derived from laboratorium tests. The following physical and chemical parameters have been determined: DO, BOD, COD, alkalinity, hardness, ammoniacal nitrogen, sulphides, chlorides, cyanides, oils and greases, aluminium, arsenium, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, vanadium, zinc, phenols, benzene, toluene, xylene, solids in total suspensions. Acute toxicity tests have been performed on Daphnia similis. The flotation and activated waste systems was efficient in removing acute toxicity.

  9. Monitoring the effectiveness of remediation techniques using sediment toxicity tests with the amphipod Eohaustorius estuarius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doe, K.G.; Jackman, P.M.; Lee, K.

    2002-01-01

    The results of a controlled oil release experiment of weathered crude oil was presented. The released oil was applied to a tidal saltwater marsh at Conrod's Beach, Nova Scotia, Canada. The study included 3 replicate blocks which included 2 unoiled treatments and 4 oiled treatments for each block. One unoiled site had no treatment, the second unoiled site had nutrient addition to examine the effect of nutrients. The oiled treatments included natural attenuation, nutrient addition, nutrient addition with plants, and nutrient addition with a garden aerator to introduce oxygen. A standard lab procedure was used to analyze the sediments to determine the effectiveness of the technique as well as the toxic effects on the survival of the amphipod Eohaustorius estuarius. Test results indicated that the unoiled sites were non-toxic, with a slight decrease in survival in the treatment with nutrient addition. All the oiled sites were very toxic at first, but toxicity decreased gradually with time. Treatment with nutrient addition with a garden aerator proved to be the most complete and fastest detoxification method. 8 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs

  10. Sirc-cvs cytotoxicity test: an alternative for predicting rodent acute systemic toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagaki, Masato; Wakuri, Shinobu; Hirota, Morihiko; Tanaka, Noriho; Itagaki, Hiroshi

    2006-10-01

    An in vitro crystal violet staining method using the rabbit cornea-derived cell line (SIRC-CVS) has been developed as an alternative to predict acute systemic toxicity in rodents. Seventy-nine chemicals, the in vitro cytotoxicity of which was already reported by the Multicenter Evaluation of In vitro Toxicity (MEIC) and ICCVAM/ECVAM, were selected as test compounds. The cells were incubated with the chemicals for 72 hrs and the IC(50) and IC(35) values (microg/mL) were obtained. The results were compared to the in vivo (rat or mouse) "most toxic" oral, intraperitoneal, subcutaneous and intravenous LD(50) values (mg/kg) taken from the RTECS database for each of the chemicals by using Pearson's correlation statistics. The following parameters were calculated: accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, prevalence, positive predictability, and negative predictability. Good linear correlations (Pearson's coefficient; r>0.6) were observed between either the IC(50) or the IC(35) values and all the LD(50) values. Among them, a statistically significant high correlation (r=0.8102, p50) values and the oral LD(50) values. By using the cut-off concentrations of 2,000 mg/kg (LD(50)) and 4,225 microg/mL (IC(50)), no false negatives were observed, and the accuracy was 84.8%. From this, it is concluded that this method could be used to predict the acute systemic toxicity potential of chemicals in rodents.

  11. Toxicity minimization of pipelines hydrostatic tests fluids, stage I: laboratory essays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, Jorge A.S.; Penna, Monica de O.; Portela, Daniele B.; Christino, Fernando P.; Silva, Joao L.B. da; Geraldo, Lucia M.L. [Petroleo do Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mota, Vanessa V.C. [Fundacao Gorceix, Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil); Cravo Junior, Walter [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents the results of the laboratory essays stage of the project for toxicity minimization of pipelines hydrostatic tests fluids. The hydrostatic-hibernation fluid composition most used by PETROBRAS in offshore operations is seawater added with sodium bis sulfite, fluorescein, alquildimetilbenzilamonium chloride, and tetrakis-hydroxymethyl-phosphonium sulfate (THPS). In order to reduce the toxicity of the fluid used in hydrostatic tests, the use of lesser concentrations of THPS was attempted with UV radiation application as a disinfection technique prior to the adding of the fluid's components. The compositions were evaluated in different conditions of temperature use of UV radiation or not and oxygen scavenger adding (presence and absence). The fluids were kept hibernating for 120 days. All the parameters tested after hibernation were compared to fresh from preparation samples (zero time samples). The fluid's characteristics were evaluated by microbiological control and toxicity as well as the THPS residual. Results showed that the UV treatment was more effective in the absence of oxygen scavenger. The temperature acts as a microbial growth control agent, as expected. To large scale operations, a water quality monitoring must be performed previously to any field operations, in order to determinate the best treatment to be used in each case. (author)

  12. 76 FR 38170 - Toxic Substances Control Act Chemical Testing; Receipt of Test Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... must be visible at all times in the building and returned upon departure. II. Test Data Submissions EPA... required by the applicable standards for the development of test data. 3. Describe the nature of the test.... See note. Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) Cells. Activated Sludge Die-away 0275.1. Copyrighted...

  13. Assessment of the impact of textile effluents on microbial diversity in Tirupur district, Tamil Nadu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabha, Shashi; Gogoi, Anindita; Mazumder, Payal; Ramanathan, AL.; Kumar, Manish

    2017-09-01

    The expedited advent of urbanization and industrialization for economic growth has adversely affected the biological diversity, which is one of the major concerns of the developing countries. Microbes play a crucial role in decontaminating polluted sites and degrades pollution load of textile effluent. The present study was based on identification of microbial diversity along the Noyaal river of Tirupur area. River water samples from industrial and non-industrial sites and effluent samples of before and after treatment were tested and it was found that microbial diversity was higher in the river water at the industrial site (Kasipalayam) as compared to the non-industrial site (Perur). Similarly, the microbial populations were found to be high in the untreated effluent as compared to the treated one by conventional treatment systems. Similar trends were observed for MBR treatment systems as well. Pseudomonas sp ., Achromobacter sp. (bacterial species) and Aspergillus fumigates (fungal species), found exclusively at the industrial site have been reported to possess decolorization potential of dye effluent, thus can be used for treatment of dye effluent. The comparison of different microbial communities from different dye wastewater sources and textile effluents was done, which showed that the microbes degrade dyestuffs, reduce toxicity of wastewaters, etc. From the study, it can be concluded that the microbial community helps to check on the pollutants and minimize their affect. Therefore, there is a need to understand the systematic variation in microbial diversity with the accumulation of pollution load through monitoring.

  14. Seed germination test for toxicity evaluation of compost: Its roles, problems and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuan; Liang, Jie; Zeng, Guangming; Chen, Ming; Mo, Dan; Li, Guoxue; Zhang, Difang

    2018-01-01

    Compost is commonly used for the growth of plants and the remediation of environmental pollution. It is important to evaluate the quality of compost and seed germination test is a powerful tool to examine the toxicity of compost, which is the most important aspect of the quality. Now the test is widely adopted, but the main problem is that the test results vary with different methods and seed species, which limits the development and application of it. The standardization of methods and the modelization of seeds can contribute to solving the problem. Additionally, according to the probabilistic theory of seed germination, the error caused by the analysis and judgment methods of the test results can be reduced. Here, we reviewed the roles, problems and prospects of the seed germination test in the studies of compost. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ecotoxicity of engineered nanoparticles to aquatic invertebrates: a brief review and recommendations for future toxicity testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baun, Anders; Hartmann, Nanna Isabella Bloch; Grieger, Khara Deanne

    2008-01-01

    Based on a literature review and an overview of toxic effects of engineered nanoparticles in aquatic invertebrates, this paper proposes a number of recommendations for the developing field of nanoecotoxicology by highlighting the importance of invertebrates as sensitive and relevant test organisms...... through standardized short-term (lethality) tests with invertebrates as a basis for investigating behaviour and bioavailability of engineered nanoparticles in the aquatic environment. Based on this literature review, we further recommend that research is directed towards invertebrate tests employing long....... Results show that there is a pronounced lack of data in this field (less than 20 peer-reviewed papers are published so far), and the most frequently tested engineered nanoparticles in invertebrate tests are C-60, carbon nanotubes, and titanium dioxide. In addition, the majority of the studies have used...

  16. [Subchronic toxicity test of genetically modified rice with double antisense starch-branching enzyme gene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Piao, Jianhua; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2010-07-01

    To observe the sub-chronic toxic effects of the genetically modified rice with double antisense SBE gene. Based on gender and weight, weanling Wistar rats were randomly sorted into five groups: non-genetically modified rice group (group A), genetically modified rice group (group B), half genetically modified rice group (group C), quarter genetically modified rice group (group D) and AIN-93G normal diet group (group E). Indicators were the followings: body weight, food consumption, blood routine, blood biochemical test, organ weight, bone density and pathological examination of organs. At the middle of the experiment, the percentage of monocyte of female group B was less than that of group E (P 0.05), and no notable abnormity in the pathological examination of main organs (P > 0.05). There were no enough evidence to confirm the sub-chronic toxicity of genetically modified rice on rats.

  17. Acute toxicity of copper oxide nanoparticles to Daphnia magna under different test conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thit, Amalie; Huggins, Krista; Selck, Henriette

    2017-01-01

    suspensions changed in a way similar to what is known for dissolved Cu: first in ISO standard test conditions (pH 7.8), second with slight acidity (pH 6.5), third in the presence of citric acid, and fourth in the presence of humic acid. For all four exposure conditions, the toxicity of Cu employed...... in the three forms followed the same sequence, i.e., CuSO4 > monodispersed 6 nm CuO ≫ poly-dispersed CuO. The toxicity of all Cu forms decreased from pH 6.5, ≫ pH 7.8, > pH 7.8 + citric acid, to ≫ pH 7.8 + humic acid. This pattern is in agreement with concentrations of Cu2+ calculated using the equilibrium...

  18. Toxicity testing of chemical mixtures: some general aspects and need of international guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappus, H; Yang, R S

    1996-01-01

    The topics discussed by the Working Group on Toxicity Testing of Chemical Mixtures included the following (1) the study designs and results from two real-life exposure scenarios as additional information to the various investigations reported at the conference; (2) the need to take into consideration low-level, long-term exposure (i.e. mimicking human exposure conditions) as well as the issue of limited resources in experimental toxicology studies; (3) the importance of exploring alternative and predictive toxicology methodologies to minimize animal use and to conserve resources; (4) the realization that interactive toxicity should include the consideration of physical and biological agents in addition to chemicals. Two specific studies reported at the conference were also discussed. A number of recommendations were made concerning the planning and implementation of toxicology studies on chemical mixtures.

  19. Evaluation of Complex Toxicity of Canbon Nanotubes and Sodium Pentachlorophenol Based on Earthworm Coelomocytes Test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    Full Text Available As a standard testing organism in soil ecosystems, the earthworm Eisenia fetida has been used widely in toxicity studies. However, tests at the individual level are time- and animal-consuming, with limited sensitivity. Earthworm coelomocytes are important for the assimilation and elimination of exogenous compounds and play a key role in the processes of phagocytosis and inflammation. In this study, we explored an optimal condition to culture coelomocytes of E. fetida in vitro and investigated the cytotoxicity of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs and sodium pentachlorophenol (PCP-Na using coelomocytes via evaluating lethal toxicity, oxidative stress, membrane damage, and DNA damage. The results showed that coelomocytes can be successfully cultured in vitro in primary under the RPMI-1640 medium with 2-4×104 cells/well (1-2×105 cells/mL in 96-well plates at 25°C without CO2. Both MWCNTs and PCP-Na could cause oxidative damage and produce ROS, an evidence for lipid peroxidation with MDA generation and SOD and CAT activity inhibition at high stress. The two chemicals could separately damage the cell membrane structure, increasing permeability and inhibiting mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP. In addition, our results indicate that PCP-Na may be adsorbed onto MWCNTs and its toxicity on earthworm was accordingly alleviated, while a synergetic effect was revealed when PCP-Na and MWCNTs were added separately. In summary, coelomocyte toxicity in in vitro analysis is a sensitive method for detecting the adverse effects of carbon nanotubes combined with various pollutants.

  20. In Situ Estuarine and Marine Toxicity Testing: A Review, Including Recommendations for Future Use in Ecological Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    field and microcosms than they do under laboratory test conditions. In the case of tributyltin ( TBT ) exposures in San Diego Bay, he found that...TECHNICAL REPORT 1986 September 2009 In Situ Estuarine and Marine Toxicity Testing A Review, Including Recommendations for Future Use in...Pacific TECHNICAL REPORT 1986 September 2009 In Situ Estuarine and Marine Toxicity Testing A Review, Including Recommendations for Future Use in

  1. Acute toxicity of live and decomposing green alga Ulva ( Enteromorpha) prolifera to abalone Haliotis discus hannai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Yu, Rencheng; Zhou, Mingjiang

    2011-05-01

    From 2007 to 2009, large-scale blooms of green algae (the so-called "green tides") occurred every summer in the Yellow Sea, China. In June 2008, huge amounts of floating green algae accumulated along the coast of Qingdao and led to mass mortality of cultured abalone and sea cucumber. However, the mechanism for the mass mortality of cultured animals remains undetermined. This study examined the toxic effects of Ulva ( Enteromorpha) prolifera, the causative species of green tides in the Yellow Sea during the last three years. The acute toxicity of fresh culture medium and decomposing algal effluent of U. prolifera to the cultured abalone Haliotis discus hannai were tested. It was found that both fresh culture medium and decomposing algal effluent had toxic effects to abalone, and decomposing algal effluent was more toxic than fresh culture medium. The acute toxicity of decomposing algal effluent could be attributed to the ammonia and sulfide presented in the effluent, as well as the hypoxia caused by the decomposition process.

  2. Development of a suitable test method for evaluating the toxicity of contaminated soils to earthworms in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, G.L. [Univ. of Guelph, Ontario (Canada); Scroggins, R. [Environment Canada, Gloucester, Ontario (Canada). Method Development and Application Section

    1995-12-31

    Environment Canada has embarked on a five year program to develop, standardize, and validate a battery of soil toxicity tests which can be used to assess the relative toxicity of contaminants in soils to terrestrial organisms. These tests must be applicable to soil conditions typically found in Canadian environments and the test species must be representative of the species of soil invertebrates or plants inhabiting soil ecosystems in Canada. One of the toxicity tests being developed is designed to assess the toxicity of contaminated soils to earthworms. Five of the potential test species belong to the Lumbricidae family and include the Canadian worm (Allobophora calignosa/Aporrectodea tuberculate), the European bark worm (Dendrodtilus rubidus (rubida)), the pink soil worm (Eisenia rosea), the red marsh worm (Lumbricus rubellus), and the Canadian night crawler or dew worm (Lumbricus terrestris). The sixth species, the white pot worm (Enchytraeus albidus), belongs to the Enchytraeidae family. Further assessment reduced the number of representative species to three. Most earthworm test methods have been developed to assess the toxicity of chemically-spiked artificial soils to Eisenia fetida or E. andrei. Test methods have also been developed to assess the relative toxicity of contaminated soils from hazardous waste sites. Comparative acute toxicity data for three species of earthworm exposed to a hydrocarbon contamination will be presented. Comparative toxicity data for the same three species of earthworm will also be presented using test procedures and conditions that have been modified to accommodate biological differences among the species of earthworm. Recommendations regarding test design, methods, and conditions optimal for each test species will be summarized and discussed with respect to the precision of test results.

  3. In vitro developmental toxicity test detects inhibition of stem cell differentiation by silica nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Margriet V.D.Z.; Annema, Wijtske; Salvati, Anna; Lesniak, Anna; Elsaesser, Andreas; Barnes, Clifford; McKerr, George; Howard, C. Vyvyan; Lynch, Iseult; Dawson, Kenneth A.; Piersma, Aldert H.; Jong, Wim H. de

    2009-01-01

    While research into the potential toxic properties of nanomaterials is now increasing, the area of developmental toxicity has remained relatively uninvestigated. The embryonic stem cell test is an in vitro screening assay used to investigate the embryotoxic potential of chemicals by determining their ability to inhibit differentiation of embryonic stem cells into spontaneously contracting cardiomyocytes. Four well characterized silica nanoparticles of various sizes were used to investigate whether nanomaterials are capable of inhibition of differentiation in the embryonic stem cell test. Nanoparticle size distributions and dispersion characteristics were determined before and during incubation in the stem cell culture medium by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering. Mouse embryonic stem cells were exposed to silica nanoparticles at concentrations ranging from 1 to 100 μg/ml. The embryonic stem cell test detected a concentration dependent inhibition of differentiation of stem cells into contracting cardiomyocytes by two silica nanoparticles of primary size 10 (TEM 11) and 30 (TEM 34) nm while two other particles of primary size 80 (TEM 34) and 400 (TEM 248) nm had no effect up to the highest concentration tested. Inhibition of differentiation of stem cells occurred below cytotoxic concentrations, indicating a specific effect of the particles on the differentiation of the embryonic stem cells. The impaired differentiation of stem cells by such widely used particles warrants further investigation into the potential of these nanoparticles to migrate into the uterus, placenta and embryo and their possible effects on embryogenesis.

  4. Laboratory algal bioassays using PAM fluorometry: effects of test conditions on the determination of herbicide and field sample toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjollema, Sascha B; van Beusekom, Sebastiaan A M; van der Geest, Harm G; Booij, Petra; de Zwart, Dick; Vethaak, A Dick; Admiraal, Wim

    2014-05-01

    Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) fluorometry, based on chlorophyll a fluorescence, is a frequently used technique in algal bioassays to assess toxicity of single compounds or complex field samples. Several test conditions can influence the test results, and because a standardized test protocol is currently lacking, linking the results of different studies is difficult. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to gain insight into the effects of test conditions of laboratory algal bioassays using PAM fluorometry on the outcome of toxicity tests. To this purpose, we described the results from several pilot studies on test development in which information is provided on the effects of the main test factors during the pretest phase, the test preparation, the exposure period, and the actual measurement. The experiments were focused on individual herbicides and complex field samples and included the effects of culturing conditions, cell density, solvent concentration, exposure time, and the presence of actinic light. Several of these test conditions were found to influence the outcome of the toxicity test, and the presented information provides important background information for the interpretation of toxicity results and describes which test conditions should be taken into account when using an algal bioassay with PAM fluorometry. Finally, the application of PAM fluorometry in algal toxicity testing is discussed. © 2014 SETAC.

  5. Photocatalytic oxidation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Intermediates identification and toxicity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, O.T.; Chung, W.K.; Wong, K.H.; Chow, Alex T.; Wong, P.K.

    2009-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are hydrophobic pollutants and their low water solubility limits their degradation in aqueous solution. The presence of water-miscible solvent such as acetone can increase the water solubility of PAHs, however acetone will also affect the degradation of PAH. In this study the effects of acetone on the photocatalytic degradation efficiency and pathways of 5 selected PAHs, namely naphthalene (2 rings), acenaphthylene (3 rings), phenanthrene (3 rings), anthracene (3 rings) and benzo[a]anthracene (4 rings) were investigated. The Microtox toxicity test was used to determine whether the PCO system can completely detoxify the parental PAHs and its intermediates. The addition of 16% acetone can greatly alter the degradation pathway of naphthalene and anthracene. Based on intermediates identified from degradation of the 5 PAHs, the location of parental PAHs attacked by reactive free radicals can be correlated with the localization energies of different positions of the compound. For toxicity analysis, irradiation by UV light was found to induce acute toxicity by generating intermediates/degradation products from PAHs and possibly acetone. Lastly, all PAHs (10 mg l -1 ) can be completely detoxified by titanium dioxide (100 mg l -1 ) within 24 h under UVA irradiation (3.9 mW cm -2 ).

  6. Acute toxicity and inactivation tests of CO2 on invertebrates in drinking water treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wen-Chao; Zhang, Jin-Song; Liu, Li-Jun; Zhao, Jian-Shu; Li, Tuo

    2011-01-01

    In addition to the esthetic problem caused by invertebrates, researchers are recently starting to be more aware of their potential importance in terms of public health. However, the inactivation methods of invertebrates which could proliferate in drinking water treatment systems are not well developed. The objective of this study is to assess the acute toxicity and inactivation effects of CO2 on familiar invertebrates in water treatment processes. The results of this study revealed that CO2 has a definite toxicity to familiar invertebrates. The values of 24-h LC50 (median lethal concentration) were calculated for each test with six groups of invertebrates. The toxicity of CO2 was higher with increasing concentrations in solution but was lower with the increase in size of the invertebrates. Above the concentration of 1,000 mg/L for the CO2 solution, the 100% inactivation time of all the invertebrates was less than 5 s, and in 15 min, the inactivation ratio showed a gradient descent with a decline in concentration. As seen for Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides, by dosing with a sodium bicarbonate solution first and adding a dilute hydrochloric acid solution 5 min later, it is possible to obtain a satisfactory inactivation effect in the GAC (granular activated carbon) filters.

  7. Green Tea Protects Testes against Atrazine-induced Toxicity in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Kheirandish

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Atrazine (ATZ is a common herbicide in agriculture for control of grass and broad-leaved weeds. It persists in the environment and causes reproductive problems in both human and animals. The present study was aimed at protective effect of green tea against ATZ toxicity in the reproductive system of male rats. Methods: The present study was performed in Veterinary School, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman in 2016. ATZ and treatment groups received ATZ daily 200 mg/kg BW orally for 14 d. In addition, 0.2% methanolic green tea extract was administrated in the treatment group. Results: In histopathologic investigation, number of germinal layers reduced in the most seminiferous tubules in the ATZ group and spermatids were absence. Necrotic spermatocytes, spermatids, and spermatozoa were evident in the testicular tubules. In the morphometric measurements, tubular diameter, germinal epithelium height, and meiosis index decreased significantly. Conclusion: Green tea extract had reduced testicular toxicity of atrazine significantly. ATZ induces toxicity through oxidative damage and green tea extract can protect the testes due to antioxidant activity of its polyphenols especially flavonoids.

  8. Acute toxicity tests using rotifers. 4. Effects of cyst age, temperature, and salinity on the sensitivity of Brachionus calyciflorus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snell, T.W.; Moffat, B.D.; Janssen, C.; Persoone, G. (University of Tampa, Florida (USA))

    1991-06-01

    Several aspects of the response to toxicants using a standardized toxicity test with the freshwater rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus are described. Test animals are obtained by hatching cysts which produce animals of similar age and physiological condition. The acute toxicity of 28 compounds is described with 24-hr LC50's. The LC50's span five orders of magnitude, from silver at 0.008 mg.liter-1 to benzene at more than 1000 mg.liter-1. Control mortality in 84 tests averaged 2% with a standard deviation of 3%, indicating very consistent test sensitivity. Only once in 84 trials did a test fail because of excessive control mortality, yielding a failure rate of 1.2%. Cyst age from 0 to 18 months had no effect on the sensitivity of neonates to reference toxicants. Both high and low temperatures increased rotifer sensitivity to reference toxicants. Copper sensitivity was greater at 10, 25, and 30 degrees C compared with results at 20 degrees C. Likewise, sodium pentachlorophenol toxicity was greater at 10 and 30 degrees C compared with results at 20 degrees C. Survivorship curves at 25 degrees C of neonates under control conditions indicated that mortality begins at about 30 hr. This places a practical limit on toxicant exposure for the assay of 24 hr. B. calyciflorus cysts hatch at salinities up to 5 ppt and acute toxicity tests using pentachlorophenol at this salinity yielded LC50's about one-half those of standard freshwater. B. calyciflorus is preferred over Brachionus plicatilis for toxicity tests in salinities up to 5 ppt because it is consistently more sensitive.

  9. Review on toxicity testing with marine macroalgae and the need for method standardization--exemplified with copper and phenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Britta T; Kautsky, Lena

    2003-02-01

    Toxic effects on macroalgae have been compiled. Eighty-two articles have been found in literature during 1959-2000. A total of 120 substances were investigated using 65 different macroalgae species. About one-third of the tested compounds were organic substances (33%), another third metal-organic substances (35%), and the last third were oils (14%), metals (8%), detergents (7.5%) and other inorganic chemicals (2.5%). Half of the substances were only tested once on a single species. Likewise, toxicity data has only been reported for one chemical tested on a single occasion for about half of the 65 species. Thus little is known about the toxic effects on marine macroalgae. The objectives of the previous studies undertaken varied and therefore the toxicity data was presented in numerous ways, e.g. using different exposure times, temperature, light intensity, light regime, salinity, and nutrients, which makes a direct comparison of the data difficult. This review also shows that many stages in the lifecycle of macroalgae are often more sensitive to toxic substances than other aquatic organisms. Consequently, tests using macroalgae may discover toxicity earlier, which would in turn also protect the fauna. If toxic compounds have a negative affect on the distribution and growth of structurally and functionally dominating macroalgae, there may indirectly be a large and harmful influence on the whole marine coastal ecosystem. For this reason tests on macroalgae should be included in control programs along the coasts.

  10. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy as a novel approach to providing effect-based endpoints in duckweed toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Li-Xin; Ying, Guang-Guo; Chen, Xiao-Wen; Huang, Guo-Yong; Liu, You-Sheng; Jiang, Yu-Xia; Pan, Chang-Gui; Tian, Fei; Martin, Francis L

    2017-02-01

    Traditional duckweed toxicity tests only measure plant growth inhibition as an endpoint, with limited effects-based data. The present study aimed to investigate whether Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy could enhance the duckweed (Lemna minor L.) toxicity test. Four chemicals (Cu, Cd, atrazine, and acetochlor) and 4 metal-containing industrial wastewater samples were tested. After exposure of duckweed to the chemicals, standard toxicity endpoints (frond number and chlorophyll content) were determined; the fronds were also interrogated using FTIR spectroscopy under optimized test conditions. Biochemical alterations associated with each treatment were assessed and further analyzed by multivariate analysis. The results showed that comparable x% of effective concentration (ECx) values could be achieved based on FTIR spectroscopy in comparison with those based on traditional toxicity endpoints. Biochemical alterations associated with different doses of toxicant were mainly attributed to lipid, protein, nucleic acid, and carbohydrate structural changes, which helped to explain toxic mechanisms. With the help of multivariate analysis, separation of clusters related to different exposure doses could be achieved. The present study is the first to show successful application of FTIR spectroscopy in standard duckweed toxicity tests with biochemical alterations as new endpoints. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:346-353. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  11. Transgenic Mouse Models Transferred into the Test Tube: New Perspectives for Developmental Toxicity Testing In Vitro?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugler, Josephine; Luch, Andreas; Oelgeschläger, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Despite our increasing understanding of molecular mechanisms controlling embryogenesis, the identification and characterization of teratogenic substances still heavily relies on animal testing. Embryonic development depends on cell-autonomous and non-autonomous processes including spatiotemporally regulated extracellular signaling activities. These have been elucidated in transgenic mouse models harboring easily detectable reporter genes under the control of evolutionarily conserved signaling cascades. We propose combining these transgenic mouse models and cells derived thereof with existing alternative toxicological testing strategies. This would enable the plausibility of in vitro data to be verified in light of in vivo data and, ultimately, facilitate regulatory acceptance of in vitro test methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 77 FR 43089 - Evaluation of an Up-and-Down Procedure for Acute Dermal Systemic Toxicity Testing: Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... vivo acute dermal systemic toxicity tests. Corresponding acute oral LD 50 data for the same compounds....), estimated LD 50 , and incidence of death and other adverse effects. Background Information on ICCVAM and... tests. DATES: Nominations and test method data for the acute dermal and oral tests should be submitted...

  13. Comparative analysis of the toxic effects of natural toxins and harmful substances produced by conventional processing methods or by irradiation and of toxicity tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlhelm, H.; Arndt, K.; Groeger, G.; Schreiber, G.A.; Boegl, K.W.

    1994-01-01

    In this review, tasks and methods of food toxicology as well as the application of the different toxicity tests for the risk assessment of food ingredients are described. Particular reference is made to short-term genotoxicity tests. Enzymatic digestion and extraction methods for complex foodstuffs which are used in the toxicological testing of foods in in vitro systems are described. Radiolytic products which result from irradiation of foods or components of foodstuffs and corresponding results of toxicity testing are reviewed. Foodstuffs irradiated with doses of up to 10 kGy are regarded as toxicologically safe. A survey of the toxicologically tested irradiated foodstuffs as well as the applied maximum doses are given in tables at the end of chapter 8. Among the great number of toxicological studies of irradiated foods those are especially mentioned which have given rise to discussions on the health risks involved. In addition, the difficulties associated with the testing of toxicity of irradiated foodstuffs in feeding experiments are discussed. Short-term tests used to establish the benotoxicity of irradiated foods and essential results of toxicological testing are also presented in tables. An overview is given of the occurrence, frequency and health risks of natural toxins in foods and harmful substances produced by conventional methods of cooking and preservation, in order to enable a comparison with the health risks of irradiated foods. The relevance of animal experiments and in vitro investigations for the prediction of toxic effects of harmful substances of foodstuffs in man is discussed in the final chapter. (VHE) [de

  14. Chemical products toxicological tests performed on lake and river fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teulon, F.; Simeon, C.

    1966-01-01

    The volume and toxical values of industrial and urban effluents are growing higher and therefore acute or chronic pollution hazard is proportionally increased. Hence it is necessary to determine the effluent components minimum lethal dose for fish (one hour or six hours according to applicable standards). The following tests are described in this report: toxicity of some chemical products, tested individually (sodium, sulphate, sodium chloride, sodium fluoride, etc...); toxicity of some metal ions (Al 3+ , Fe ++ , Fe 3+ , Pb ++ , etc...); toxicity of certain mixed compounds for various fish species (sun perch, tench, gold fish, roach, gudgeon, bleak). The test results obtained represent local values and may be used for reference and as a general basis for other investigation and calculation of the effluents data when released. (author) [fr

  15. Low malathion concentrations influence metabolism in Chironomus sancticaroli (Diptera, Chironomidae in acute and chronic toxicity tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Rebechi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Low malathion concentrations influence metabolism in Chironomus sancticaroli (Diptera, Chironomidae in acute and chronic toxicity tests. Organophosphate compounds are used in agro-systems, and in programs to control pathogen vectors. Because they are continuously applied, organophosphates often reach water sources and may have an impact on aquatic life. The effects of acute and chronic exposure to the organophosphate insecticide malathion on the midge Chironomus sancticaroli are evaluated. To that end, three biochemical biomarkers, acetylcholinesterase (AChE, alpha (EST-α and beta (EST-β esterase were used. Acute bioassays with five concentrations of malathion, and chronic bioassays with two concentrations of malathion were carried out. In the acute exposure test, AChE, EST-α and EST-β activities declined by 66, 40 and 37%, respectively, at 0.251 µg L-1 and more than 80% at 1.37, 1.96 and 2.51 µg L-1. In chronic exposure tests, AChE and EST-α activities declined by 28 and 15% at 0.251 µg L-1. Results of the present study show that low concentrations of malathion can influence larval metabolism, indicating high toxicity for Chironomus sancticaroli and environmental risk associated with the use of organophosphates.

  16. Qualification of spontaneous undirected locomotor behavior of fish for sublethal toxicity testing. Part 2. Variability of measurement parameters under toxicant-induced stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grillitsch, B.; Vogl, C.; Wytek, R.

    1999-12-01

    Spontaneous locomotor behavior of semiadult zebra fish (Brachydanio rerio) was recorded under sublethal short-term exposure to the anionic technical surfactant, linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (C{sub 10-13}-LAS) and cadmium in single compound tests using an automated video-monitoring and object-tracing system. Vertical position and swimming velocity in the horizontal and vertical directions were used as behavioral measurement parameters. Data were analyzed by different statistical methods. In pairwise comparisons, consistent, statistically significant, and toxicant-induced alterations of locomotor behavior were observed only for test concentrations, which also caused aspectoric symptoms of intoxication. This comparatively low sensitivity of the behavioral indication criteria was related to high variation in the measurement parameters and corresponding high, minimum detectable, statistically significant, and toxicant-induced deviations. In contrast, results obtained by regression analysis showed significant trends in locomotor activity over the range of toxicant concentrations tested. Thus, the findings support the inappropriateness of no observed effect concentrations and the lowest observed effect concentrations as summary measures of toxicity and indicate that the regression analysis approach is superior to the analysis of variance approach.

  17. Toxicity tests with crustaceans for detecting sublethal effects of potential endocrine disrupting chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wollenberger, Leah

    /antagonistic activity with the ecdysteroid-responsive Drosophila melanogaster BII cell line 6) to draft an OECD guideline proposal for testing of chemicals based on the experimental work performed within this study In preliminary investigations with A. tonsa were studied various parameters related to processes......New and updated test methods to detect and characterise endocrine disrupting chemicals are urgently needed for the purpose of environmental risk assessment. Although endocrine disruption in invertebrates has not been studied as extensive as in vertebrates, in particular in fish, numerous reports...... of the present Ph.D. project were: 1) to develop a fully synthetic saltwater medium suitable for laboratory culturing of marine copepods including their feeding organism as well as for toxicity testing 2) to identify sensitive endpoints related to growth, development and reproduction of the pelagic calanoid...

  18. Testing of TSCA [Toxic Substances Control Act] incinerator for destruction of PCBs in uranium contaminated wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    A Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) incinerator for environmentally safe destruction of PCBs and hazardous organic materials contaminated with low level radioactive wastes from seven DOE facilities has been constructed at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant, and has undergone performance testing with PCB surrogates. The system incorporates state-of-the-art off-gas treatment, a highly instrumented kiln and secondary combustion chamber, and an inert atmosphere solids handling feed system. Release of organic during an upset event, which triggers opening of the secondary combustion chamber relief vent, will be prevented by maintaining excess oxygen in the kiln and a high temperature in the secondary combustion chamber with an operating burner. Mixtures of chlorinated benzenes used in performance testing to simulate destruction of PCB, worst case studies to satisfy regulatory concerns, and implications of performance test results will be discussed. 4 refs

  19. The chemical composition of the effluent from Awassa Textile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The chemical composition of the effluent from the Awassa textile factory was quantified and its effects on chlorophyll-a concentration and fish fry were examined. The effluent contained high concentrations of toxic heavy metals, and concentrations of about 70% of all the elements measured were higher (by 10 to 100 times) ...

  20. Toxicity tests based on predator-prey and competitive interactions between freshwater macroinvertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, E.J.; Blockwell, S.J.; Pascoe, D. [Univ. of Wales Coll. of Cardiff (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    Simple multi-species toxicity tests based on the predation of Daphnia magna Straus by Hydra oligactis (Pallas) and competition between Gammarus pulex (L.) and Asellus aquaticus (L.) were used to determine the effects of three reference chemicals. Criteria examined included functional responses; time to first captures; handling times (predator/prey systems) and co-existence and growth. The tests which proved most practicable and sensitive (lowest observed effects 0.1, 21, and 80 {micro}g/l for lindane, copper and 3,4 dichloroaniline, respectively) were: (1) predator-prey tests: determining changes in the size-structure of predated D. magna populations and (2) competition tests: measuring the feeding rate of G. pulex competing with A. aquaticus, using a bioassay based on the time-response analysis of the consumption of Artemia salina eggs. The concentration of a chemical which affected particular response criteria was fond to depend on the test system employed. Results of the tests indicated that effects were often not dose-related and that a given criterion could be variously affected by different test concentrations. The complex pattern of responses may be explained in terms of the differential sensitivity of the interacting species and perhaps subtle alteration in strategies. The sensitivity of the bioassay endpoints is compared to those of a range of single species tests, and their value for predicting the impact pollutants may have upon natural freshwater ecosystems is discussed.

  1. Bioremediation of petroleum refinery effluent by Planococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present investigation, Planococcus halophilus was screened for hydrocarbon degradation and bioremediation of refinery effluent. The test organism, P. halophilus, showed the capability to utilize kerosene as carbon source in minimal medium. Biological treatment of the refinery effluent with P. halophilus reduced the ...

  2. Bioremediation of chromium in tannery effluent by microbial consortia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-05-24

    May 24, 2010 ... Chromium is the most toxic and common among the heavy metal pollutants of industrial effluents .... Chromium (Cleseari and Green, 1995) included the oxidation of .... like uranium in its cells might also match with its tendency.

  3. A Novel Experimental and Modelling Strategy for Nanoparticle Toxicity Testing Enabling the Use of Small Quantities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinda van Pomeren

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Metallic nanoparticles (NPs differ from other metal forms with respect to their large surface to volume ratio and subsequent inherent reactivity. Each new modification to a nanoparticle alters the surface to volume ratio, fate and subsequently the toxicity of the particle. Newly-engineered NPs are commonly available only in low quantities whereas, in general, rather large amounts are needed for fate characterizations and effect studies. This challenge is especially relevant for those NPs that have low inherent toxicity combined with low bioavailability. Therefore, within our study, we developed new testing strategies that enable working with low quantities of NPs. The experimental testing method was tailor-made for NPs, whereas we also developed translational models based on different dose-metrics allowing to determine dose-response predictions for NPs. Both the experimental method and the predictive models were verified on the basis of experimental effect data collected using zebrafish embryos exposed to metallic NPs in a range of different chemical compositions and shapes. It was found that the variance in the effect data in the dose-response predictions was best explained by the minimal diameter of the NPs, whereas the data confirmed that the predictive model is widely applicable to soluble metallic NPs. The experimental and model approach developed in our study support the development of (ecotoxicity assays tailored to nano-specific features.

  4. Assessment of Grape, Plum and Orange Synthetic Food Flavourings Using in vivo Acute Toxicity Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ila Monize Sousa Sales

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the acute toxicity of synthetic grape, plum and orange flavourings in root meristem cells of Allium cepa at the doses of 3.5, 7.0 and 14.0 mL/kg and exposure times of 24 and 48 h, and in bone marrow erythrocytes of mice treated orally for seven days with 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mL/kg of flavouring. The results of the plant test showed that grape, plum and orange flavourings, at both exposure times, inhibited cell division and promoted the formation of a significant number of micronuclei and mitotic spindle changes. These alterations were observed in at least one exposure time analysed, demonstrating a significant cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic activity. In mouse bioassay, animals treated with 2.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mL/kg of flavouring died before the seventh day of treatment. The amounts of 0.5 and 1.0 mL/kg of the three additives were cytotoxic to erythrocytes, and treatment with the grape flavouring significantly induced the formation of micronucleated cells in the bone marrow of animals. Therefore, under the study conditions, the grape, plum and orange flavouring additives promoted significant toxicity to cells of the test systems used.

  5. Field and laboratory tests on acute toxicity of cadmium to freshwater crayfish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-09-01

    Environmental regulatory standards for cadmium (EPA 1980), like those for most pollutants, are based on acute, laboratory toxicity tests of single species. Such tests can be conducted rapidly and inexpensively in comparison to acute or chronic field studies, but their validity has often been questioned. Laboratory-based criteria are subject to two criticisms: (1) chemical and physical conditions differ greatly in degree and variability from laboratory to field, and (2) species are not isolated, but live in an ecosystem of interacting taxa and biofeedback. To investigate the validity of basing field toxicity standards on laboratory data, the authors subjected the freshwater crayfish Orconectes immunis for 96 h to various levels of cadmium in laboratory aquaria and experimental ponds. The study was designed to evaluate in part the first criticism of lab-based criteria. The studies were conducted concurrently with similar short-term experiments on the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, and coincided with studies of chronic cadmium stress on fathead minnows in experimental ponds.

  6. Toxicity of two imidazolium ionic liquids, [bmim][BF4] and [omim][BF4], to standard aquatic test organisms: Role of acetone in the induced toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsarpali, Vasiliki; Dailianis, Stefanos

    2015-07-01

    The main goal of this study was to investigate the toxicity of the imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs), [bmim][BF4] (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate) and [omim][BF4] (1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate), in battery of standard aquatic toxicity test organisms. Specifically, exposure of the algae Scenedesmus rubescens, crustaceans Thamnocephalus platyurus and Artemia franciscana, rotifers Brachionus calyciflorus and Brachionus plicatilis and bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis to different concentrations of [bmim][BF4], [omim][BF4] and/or a binary mixture of [bmim][BF4]-[omim][BF4] (1:1) with or without acetone (carrier solvent), revealed that solvent can differentially mediate ILs' toxic profile. Acetone's ability to differentially affect ILs' cation's alkyl chain length, as well as the hydrolysis of [BF4(-)] anions was evident. Given that the toxic potency of the tested ILs seemed to be equal or even higher (in some cases) than those of conventional organic solvents, the present study revealed that the characterization of imidazolium-based ILs as "green solvents" should not be generalized, at least in case of their natural occurrence in mixtures with organic solvents, such as acetone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Extraction, identification and quantification of heavy metals in Venice lagoon sediments using toxicity tests with microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passarini, F.; Rampazzo, G.; Volpi Ghirardini, A.; Sperni, L.; Salizzato, M.; Pavoni, B. [Venice Univ., Venice (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Ambientali

    2000-02-01

    Sediments are the major sink for metal pollutants in the aquatic ecosystem but also an important source for the release of them in the water. In order to assess the contribution of heavy metals to the total sediment toxicity, a methodology that permits to integrate the chemical approach with a direct toxicological approach has been ste up. Toxicological results using Microtox test are compared with analytical results. [Italian] I sedimenti sono il principale deposito per contaminanti metalli nel''ecosistema acquatico, ma anche una fonte importnate di rilascio nell'acqua. Al fine di valutare il contributo dei metalli pesanti alla tossicita' totale del sedimento, e' stata messa a punto una metodologia che permette di integrare l'appoccio chimico con un approccio tossicologico diretto. I risultati dei test di tossicita' Microtox vengono confrontati con i risultati analitici.

  8. A technique for extracting blood samples from mice in fire toxicity tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, T. J.; Hilado, C. J.; Lopez, M. T.

    1976-01-01

    The extraction of adequate blood samples from moribund and dead mice has been a problem because of the small quantity of blood in each animal and the short time available between the animals' death and coagulation of the blood. These difficulties are particularly critical in fire toxicity tests because removal of the test animals while observing proper safety precautions for personnel is time-consuming. Techniques for extracting blood samples from mice were evaluated, and a technique was developed to obtain up to 0.8 ml of blood from a single mouse after death. The technique involves rapid exposure and cutting of the posterior vena cava and accumulation of blood in the peritoneal space. Blood samples of 0.5 ml or more from individual mice have been consistently obtained as much as 16 minutes after apparent death. Results of carboxyhemoglobin analyses of blood appeared reproducible and consistent with carbon monoxide concentrations in the exposure chamber.

  9. Acute toxicity testing of some herbicides-, alkaloids-, and antibiotics-metabolizing soil bacteria in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, A; Classen, H G; Eberspächer, J; Lingens, F

    1981-01-01

    Seven strains of soil bacteria with the ability to metabolize herbicides, alkaloids or antibiotics were tested in rats for acute toxicity. 1. Upon oral administration of 9.0 x 10(8) to 6.6 x 10(10) cells daily during 7 d no adverse reactions were observed. 2. Exposure by air did not lead to specific pulmonary changes. 3. Intracutaneous injection of 7.5 x 10(6) to 1.4 x 10(8) cells did not lead to adverse skin reactions. 4. Intraperitoneal injections up to 10(8) cells per animal did not kill rats although bacteria entered blood. At higher concentrations some mortality occurred partly due to unspecific stress reactions. 5. Animal data and observations on 20 humans being exposed to these strains for 2 months up to 15 years support the view that the bacteria tested are essentially harmless for health.

  10. Effects of invertebrate predators and a pesticide on temporary pond microcosms used for aquatic toxicity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, Michael J.; Davies, Warren

    2004-01-01

    The effects of increased trophic complexity, through the addition of predatory notonectids (Anisops deanei), on temporary pond microcosms used for aquatic toxicity testing were studied. Replicate microcosms were established using sediment from a dried temporary pond, and treated with one of four concentrations of the organochlorine pesticide endosulfan (0, 1, 10 or 50 μg/L), in the presence or absence of six A. deanei. The tanks were sampled regularly for nine weeks following the addition of the predators and the entire contents of each tank counted after 12 weeks. Analysis using non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS) and non-parametric MANOVA showed that both Anisops and endosulfan at concentrations >10 μg/L significantly altered community structure. However, an interaction between the effects of Anisops and the effects of endosulfan was not detected. The addition of Anisops did not increase the variability of response and thus did not reduce the sensitivity of the test method

  11. Leach and EP [extraction procedure] toxicity tests on grouted waste from Tank 106-AN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serne, R.J.; Martin, W.J.; Lokken, R.O.; LeGore, V.L.; Lindenmeier, C.W.; Martin, P.F.C.

    1989-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory is conducting laboratory experiments to produce leach rate data for various waste species that will be contained in grout at Hanford. In the work reported here, grout made from Tank 106-AN liquid waste was used to produce empirical leach rate data for several radionuclides ( 60 Co, 90 Sr, 99Tc, 129I, 137Cs, and 241 Am), stable major components (NO 3 - , NO 2 - , F, Cl, and Na), and trace metals (Cr, Mo, and Ni). Two types of tests were used to produce leach rate data: an intermittent replacement leach test (ANS 16.1 leach test) and a static leach test. Measured effective diffusivities of key species are as follows: 4 to 6 x 10 -8 cm 2 /sec for 99 Tc, 3 to 7 x 10 -8 cm 2 /sec for 129 I, 4 to 6 x 10 -9 cm 2 /sec for nitrate, and 6 to 7 x 10 -9 cm 2 /sec for nitrite. The leach indices of all species studied are above (more favorable than) the waste form criteria. The leach indices for 99 Tc and 129 I are 7.4 ± 1.2 and 7.6 ± 0.4, respectively, and are being further investigated in continuing studies of double-shell slurry feed grouts. An Extraction Procedure (EP) toxicity test was also conducted and the grouted water is considered nontoxic per this test protocol. 19 refs., 9 figs., 8 tabs

  12. Toxicity testing of four silver nanoparticle-coated dental castings in 3-D LO2 cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yi-Ying; Chu, Qiang; Shi, Xu-Er; Zheng, Xiao-Dong; Shen, Xiao-Ting; Zhang, Yan-Zhen

    To address the controversial issue of the toxicity of dental alloys and silver nanoparticles in medical applications, an in vivo-like LO2 3-D model was constructed within polyvinylidene fluoride hollow fiber materials to mimic the microenvironment of liver tissue. The use of microscopy methods and the measurement of liver-specific functions optimized the model for best cell performances and also proved the superiority of the 3-D LO2 model when compared with the traditional monolayer model. Toxicity tests were conducted using the newly constructed model, finding that four dental castings coated with silver nanoparticles were toxic to human hepatocytes after cell viability assays. In general, the toxicity of both the castings and the coated silver nanoparticles aggravated as time increased, yet the nanoparticles attenuated the general toxicity by preventing metal ion release, especially at high concentrations.

  13. Toxicity of common ions to marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillard, D.A.; DuFresne, D.L.; Evans, J.

    1995-01-01

    Produced waters from oil and gas drilling operations are typically very saline, and these may cause acute toxicity to marine organisms due to osmotic imbalances as well as to an excess or deficiency of specific common ions. In order to better understand the relationship between toxicity and ion concentration, laboratory toxicity tests were conducted using mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia), sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus), and inland silverside (Menidia beryllina). For each species the ionic concentration of standard laboratory water was proportionally increased or decreased to produce test solutions with a range of salinities. Organisms were exposed for 48 hours. Individual ions (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnetsium, strontium, chloride, bromide, sulfate, bicarbonate, and borate) were also manipulated to examine individual ion toxicity. The three test species differ in their tolerance of salinity. Mysid shrimp show a marked decrease in survival at salinities less than approximately 5 ppt. Both fish species tolerated low salinity water, however, silversides were less tolerant of saline waters (salinity greater than 40 ppt). There were also significant differences in the responses of the organisms to different ions. The results show that the salinity of the test solution may play an important role in the responses of the organisms to the produced water effluent. Predictable toxicity/ion relationships developed in this study can be used to estimate whether toxicity in a produced water is a result of common ions, salinity, or some other unknown toxicant

  14. Identification of the cause of weak acute toxicity to rainbow trout at a petroleum refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, W.R.; Zaleski, R.T.; Biddinger, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    The refinery in question performs flow through acute toxicity tests on its effluent four times per month using three fish species: fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus oculeatus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Several months of monitoring data indicated a transient low level acute toxicity to rainbow trout. In most cases, several days were required for mortality to occur in the flow through tests and numerous attempts to reproduce toxicity in static and static renewal tests were unsuccessful. A decision was made to manipulate the effluent in an attempt to enhance the toxic effect in the static mode so that conventional methods could be used to identify the cause. these tests indicated that toxicity was pH dependent. Additional testing, using EPA's Phase 1 Toxicity Identification Evaluation methods suggested that the cause of toxicity was probably an organic acid. Experiments were subsequently begun to identify the specific cause and source of toxicity. This paper reviews the problems confronted during the various phases of the study and the decisions that were made that eventually led to an understanding of the basis of toxicity

  15. Aqueous CO2 vs. aqueous extraction of soils as a preparative procedure for acute toxicity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yates, G.W.; Burks, S.L.

    1994-01-01

    This study was to determine if contaminated soils extracted with supercritical CO 2 (SFE) would yield different results from soils extracted with an aqueous media. Soil samples from an abandoned oil refinery were subjected to aqueous and SFE extraction. Uncontaminated control sites were compared with contaminated sites. Each extract was analyzed for 48 hour acute Ceriodaphnia LC50s and Microtox reg-sign EC50s. Comparisons were then made between the aqueous extracts and the SFE extracts. An additional study was made with HPLC chromatographs of the SFE contaminated site extracts to determine if there was a correlation between LC50 results and peak area of different sections of the chromatograph. The 48 hour Ceriodaphnia LC50 of one contaminated site showed a significant increase in toxicity with the supercritical extract compared to the aqueous extract. All contaminated sites gave toxic responses with the supercritical procedure. The Microtox reg-sign assay showed a toxic response with 2 of the 3 contaminated sites for both aqueous and SFE extracts. Results indicate that the Ceriodaphnia assays were more sensitive than Microtox reg-sign to contaminants found in the refinery soil. SFE controls did not show adverse effects with the Ceriodaphnia, but did have a slight effect with Microtox reg-sign. The best correlation (r 2 > 0.90) between the Ceriodaphnia LC50s and the peak areas of the chromatographs was obtained for sections with an estimated log K ow of 1 to 5. SFE extraction provided a fast, efficient and inexpensive method of collecting and testing moderately non-polar to strongly non-polar organic contaminants from contaminated soils

  16. Surry Power Station, Units 1 and 2. Annual operating report: January--December 1977, volume I--introduction, summary of operating experience; changes, tests, experiments, and safety-related maintenance; effluent releases; data tabulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    A chronological operating sequence including shutdowns and occurrences during the year which required load reductions or resulted in non-load related incidents is given. Data are presented concerning plant and procedure changes, tests, experiments, safety related maintenance, effluent releases and personnel radiation exposures

  17. The removal of toxic metals from liquid effluents by ion exchange resins. Part IV: Chromium(III)/H+ /Lewatit SP112

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alguacil, F.J.

    2017-01-01

    This investigation presented results on the removal of chromium(III), from aqueous solution in the 0-5 pH range, using Lewatit SP112 cationic exchange resin. Several aspects affecting the ion exchange process were evaluated, including: the influence of the stirring speed, temperature, pH of the solution, resin dosage and aqueous ionic strength. The selectivity of the system was tested against the presence of other metals in the aqueous solution, whereas the removal of chromium(III) from solutions was compared with results obtained using multiwalled carbon nanotubes as adsorbents. From the batch experimental data, best fit of the results is obtained with the Langmuir model, whereas the ion exchange process is best explained by the pseudo-second order model, moreover, experimental data responded well to the film-diffusion controlled model. Elution of the chromium(III) loaded into the resin is well accomplished by the use of sodium hydroxide solutions. [es

  18. Facility effluent monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleckler, B.P.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the facility effluent monitoring programs and provides an evaluation of effluent monitoring data. These evaluations are useful in assessing the effectiveness of effluent treatment and control systems, as well as management practices.

  19. Oak Ridge Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator test bed for continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, L.V. Jr.

    1997-01-01

    The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator, located on the K-25 Site at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, continues to be the only operational incinerator in the country that can process hazardous and radioactively contaminated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) waste. During 1996, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology (EM-50) and Lockheed Martin Energy Systems established a continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMS) test bed and began conducting evaluations of CEMS under development to measure contaminants from waste combustion and thermal treatment stacks. The program was envisioned to promote CEMS technologies meeting requirements of the recently issued Proposed Standards for Hazardous Waste Combustors as well as monitoring technologies that will allay public concerns about mixed waste thermal treatment and accelerate the development of innovative treatment technologies. Fully developed CEMS, as well as innovative continuous or semi-continuous sampling systems not yet interfaced with a pollutant analyzer, were considered as candidates for testing and evaluation. Complementary to other Environmental Protection Agency and DOE sponsored CEMS testing and within compliant operating conditions of the TSCA Incinerator, prioritization was given to multiple metals monitors also having potential to measure radionuclides associated with particulate emissions. In August 1996, developers of two multiple metals monitors participated in field activities at the incinerator and a commercially available radionuclide particulate monitor was acquired for modification and testing planned in 1997. This paper describes the CEMS test bed infrastructure and summarizes completed and planned activities

  20. The mucosal toxicity of different benzalkonium chloride analogues evaluated with an alternative test using slugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaens, E; Dierckens, K; Bauters, T G; Nelis, H J; van Goethem, F; Vanparys, P; Remon, J P

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the mucosal toxicity of different benzalkonium chloride (BAC) analogues using slugs as the alternative test organism. The effect of different BAC analogues on the mucosal tissue of slugs was determined from the protein, lactate dehydrogenase, and alkaline phosphatase released from the foot mucosa after treatment. Additionally, mucus production and reduction in body weight of the slugs were measured. The eye irritation potency of the molecules was evaluated with the Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) assay. The antimicrobial activity of the different BAC analogues was also assessed. All BAC analogues induced severe damage to the mucosal epithelium of the slugs, and the irritation increased with decreasing alkyl chain length: BAC-C16 or = BAC-C16 > BAC-C12. The BAC-C14 exhibited higher activity than the BAC-mix. The toxicity and activity of BAC analogues depend on the alkyl chain length. The use of BAC-C14 as a conservative agent in pharmaceutical preparations instead of the BAC-mix should be considered.

  1. An Exploratory Analysis of Stream Teratogenicity and Human Health Using Zebrafish Whole-Sediment Toxicity Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Dellinger

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates a novel application of effect-based toxicity testing for streams that may provide indications of co-perturbation to ecological and human health. For this study, a sediment contact assay using zebrafish (Danio rerio embryos was adapted to serve as an indicator of teratogenic stress within river sediments. Sediment samples were collected from Lake Michigan tributary watersheds. Sediment contact assay responses were then compared to prevalence of congenital heart disease (CHD and vital statistic birth indicators aggregated from civil divisions associated with the watersheds. Significant risk relationships were detected between variation in early life-stage (ELS endpoints of zebrafish embryos 72 h post-fertilization and the birth prevalence of human congenital heart disease, low birthweight and infant mortality. Examination of principal components of ELS endpoints suggests that variance related to embryo heart and circulatory malformations is most closely associated with human CHD prevalence. Though toxicity assays are sometimes used prospectively, this form of investigation can only be conducted retrospectively. These results support the hypothesis that bioassays normally used for ecological screening can be useful as indicators of environmental stress to humans and expand our understanding of environmental–human health linkages.

  2. Ensuring the Quality of Stem Cell-Derived In Vitro Models for Toxicity Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Glyn N; Coecke, Sandra; Price, Anna-Bal; Healy, Lyn; Jennings, Paul; Wilmes, Anja; Pinset, Christian; Ingelman-Sundberg, Magnus; Louisse, Jochem; Haupt, Simone; Kidd, Darren; Robitski, Andrea; Jahnke, Heinz-Georg; Lemaitre, Gilles; Myatt, Glenn

    Quality control of cell cultures used in new in vitro toxicology assays is crucial to the provision of reliable, reproducible and accurate toxicity data on new drugs or constituents of new consumer products. This chapter explores the key scientific and ethical criteria that must be addressed at the earliest stages of developing toxicology assays based on human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) lines. It also identifies key considerations for such assays to be acceptable for regulatory, laboratory safety and commercial purposes. Also addressed is the development of hPSC-based assays for the tissue and cell types of greatest interest in drug toxicology. The chapter draws on a range of expert opinion within the European Commission/Cosmetics Europe-funded alternative testing cluster SEURAT-1 and consensus from international groups delivering this guidance such as the International Stem Cell Banking Initiative. Accordingly, the chapter summarizes the most up-date best practices in the use and quality control of human Pluripotent Stem Cell lines in the development of in vitro toxicity assays from leading experts in the field.

  3. Biomonitoring test procedures and biological criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Lipschultz, M.J. [City of Las Vegas, NV (United States); Foster, W.E. [Saint Mary`s Coll., Winona, MN (United States)

    1997-10-01

    The Water Environment Federation recently issued a special publication, Biomonitoring in the Water Environment. In this paper, the authors highlight the contents of the chapter 3, Biomonitoring Test Procedures, identify current trends in test procedures and introduce the concept of biological criteria (biocriteria). The book chapter (and this paper) focuses on freshwater and marine chronic and acute toxicity tests used in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits program to identify effluents and receiving waters containing toxic materials in acutely or chronically toxic concentrations. The two major categories of toxicity tests include acute tests and chronic tests. The USEPA chronic tests required in NPDEs permits have been shortened to 7 days by focusing on the most sensitive life-cycle stages; these tests are often referred to as short-term chronic tests. The type of test(s) required depend on NPDES permit requirements, objectives of the test, available resources, requirements of the test organisms, and effluent characteristics such as variability in flow or toxicity. The permit writer will determine the requirements for toxicity test(s) by considering such factors as dilution, effluent variability, and exposure variability. Whether the required test is acute or chronic, the objective of the test is to estimate the safe or no effect concentration which is defined as the concentration which will permit normal propagation of fish and other aquatic life in the receiving waters. In this paper, the authors review the types of toxicity tests, the commonly used test organisms, and the uses of toxicity test data. In addition, they briefly describe research on new methods and the use of biological criteria.

  4. Establishment of pseudomonas putida strains for sensitive detection of heavy metals in effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genthe, B.

    1987-09-01

    The objective of this study was to isolate a mutant of Pseudomonas putida that is more sensitive to heavy metal toxicants in water than the wild type. P. putida was the organism chosen in this study as it occurs naturally in unpolluted waters, is nonpathogenic, aerobic and because it is commonly applied in bacterial toxicity assays due to its sensitivity to toxicants. Three methods of mutagenesis were employed, which included N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (NG) ; ultraviolet light and transposon-mediated mutagenesis in order to generate as wide a range of mutants as possible. Four mutants, which were more sensitive to mercury, copper, lead, zinc, cadmium and silver were isolated using the NG method of mutagenesis. These mutants were designated strains 53, 56, 60 and 61 and were characterized as P. putida strains on the basis of Gram staining, biochemical reactions and immunological properties. The sensitivity of the mutants to a variety of industrial effluents was compared to that of the parent strain using a bacterial growth test. Using industrial effluents, one of the mutants, namely strain 56 was found to be more sensitive than the parent strain on 71.4% of the tests. Strains 60 and 61 were also both more sensitive than the parent strain on 42.9% of the occasions using industrial effluents. The uptake rates of radioactive mercury were measured for the parent strain of P. putida and the mutants that were found to be more sensitive to mercury

  5. Investigation of endogenous biomass efficiency in the treatment of unhairing effluents from the tanning industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlaik, Najwa; Bouzid, Jalel; Gharsallah, Neji; Belbahri, Lassad; Woodward, Steve; Mechichi, Tahar

    2009-08-01

    The tanning industry is of great economic importance worldwide; however, the potential environmental impact of tanning is significant. An important component in tanning is the removal of hair from the hide (unhairing), a process which generates considerable amounts of toxic effluent characterized by a high concentration of sulphur, rich mineral compounds, a high alkalinity and a high organic load. The purpose of the work described here was to evaluate the biodegradability of the unhairing wastewater by endogenous biomass in batch culture and continuous systems. The detoxification of the effluent was assessed by seed germination tests. The batch culture experiments showed that variations in COD, temperature and pH significantly affected the endogenous biomass growth and activity. The optimal treatment condition corresponded to an initial COD of 6 g/L, pH of 7 and 30 degrees C. Under continuous culture conditions, the reactor was fed for 48 days with the unhairing effluent. The optimal COD removal efficiency was 85.5%. During treatment, a transformation of sulphides into thiosulphates and then sulphates was also observed. The effect of untreated and treated unhairing wastewater on seed germination of different plant species was studied. The data suggested that treatment decreased the wastewater toxicity. Indeed, germination was inhibited when the effluent dilution was lower than 20% and 10% for treated and untreated wastewater, respectively.

  6. Treatment of a Textile Effluent from Dyeing with Cochineal Extracts Using Trametes versicolor Fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Arroyo-Figueroa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Trametes versicolor (Tv fungus can degrade synthetic dyes that contain azo groups, anthraquinone, triphenylmethane polymers, and heterocyclic groups. However, no references have been found related to the degradation of natural dyes, such as the carminic acid that is contained in the cochineal extract. Experiments to determine the decolorization of the effluent used in the cotton dyeing process with cochineal extract by means of Tv fungus were done. Treatments to determine decolorization in the presence or absence of Kirk's medium, glucose, and fungus, with an addition of 50% (v v-1 of nonsterilized effluent were performed. Physicochemical characterization was performed at the start and end of the treatment. Degradation kinetics were determined. A direct relationship was found between the dry weight of fungi, pH, and the decolorization system, with higher decolorization at lower pH levels (pH ~4.3. High decolorization (81% ± 0.09; 88% ± 0.17; and 99% ± 0.04 for three of the eight treatments (Kirk's medium without glucose, Kirk's medium with glucose, and without medium with glucose, respectively was found. Toxicity tests determined an increase in the initial effluent toxicity (7.33 TU compared with the final treatment (47.73 TU in a period of 11 days. For this system, a degradation sequence of the carminic acid structure present in the effluent by the Tv fungus is suggested, in which it is seen that metabolites still containing aromatic structures are generated.

  7. Treatment of a textile effluent from dyeing with cochineal extracts using Trametes versicolor fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Figueroa, Gabriela; Ruiz-Aguilar, Graciela M L; López-Martínez, Leticia; González-Sánchez, Guillermo; Cuevas-Rodríguez, Germán; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Refugio

    2011-05-05

    Trametes versicolor (Tv) fungus can degrade synthetic dyes that contain azo groups, anthraquinone, triphenylmethane polymers, and heterocyclic groups. However, no references have been found related to the degradation of natural dyes, such as the carminic acid that is contained in the cochineal extract. Experiments to determine the decolorization of the effluent used in the cotton dyeing process with cochineal extract by means of Tv fungus were done. Treatments to determine decolorization in the presence or absence of Kirk's medium, glucose, and fungus, with an addition of 50% (v v-1) of nonsterilized effluent were performed. Physicochemical characterization was performed at the start and end of the treatment. Degradation kinetics were determined. A direct relationship was found between the dry weight of fungi, pH, and the decolorization system, with higher decolorization at lower pH levels (pH ~4.3). High decolorization (81% ± 0.09; 88% ± 0.17; and 99% ± 0.04) for three of the eight treatments (Kirk's medium without glucose, Kirk's medium with glucose, and without medium with glucose, respectively) was found. Toxicity tests determined an increase in the initial effluent toxicity (7.33 TU) compared with the final treatment (47.73 TU) in a period of 11 days. For this system, a degradation sequence of the carminic acid structure present in the effluent by the Tv fungus is suggested, in which it is seen that metabolites still containing aromatic structures are generated.

  8. Solvent refined coal studies: effects and characterization of treated solvent refined coal effluent. Progress report, FY 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, C.D.; Woodfield, W.G.; Strand, J.A.

    1978-07-01

    The Freshwater Sciences Section of PNL has initiated biologically oriented studies at the P and M solvent refined coal (SRC) pilot plant on the Fort Lewis Reservation in western Washington. Essentially, the study objectives are to identify residual components in the treated SRC process and assess potential for adverse impact on water quality and aquatic biota. Since inception of research in mid-1976, six static toxicity tests with treated SRC process effluent have been conducted. Toxic components, not yet specifically identified, sometimes occur in the effluent. It is believed these components involve organic hydrocarbons of the phenol and cresol groups. Analyses have been obtained on inorganic and organic constituents in partially-treated and treated process effluent. Concentrations of inorganics identified in the effluent did not differ greatly from their concentrations in Lake Sequalitchew or SRC plant tap water, but the low concentrations may be due primarily to dilution with freshwater before discharge. Organics identified in the effluent are similar to those found in samples contaminated with petroleum, and involve many complex hydrocarbons.

  9. Multiple-endpoints gene alteration-based (MEGA) assay: A toxicogenomics approach for water quality assessment of wastewater effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Toshikazu; Hara-Yamamura, Hiroe; Nakashima, Koji; Tan, Lea Chua; Okabe, Satoshi

    2017-12-01

    Wastewater effluents contain a significant number of toxic contaminants, which, even at low concentrations, display a wide variety of toxic actions. In this study, we developed a multiple-endpoints gene alteration-based (MEGA) assay, a real-time PCR-based transcriptomic analysis, to assess the water quality of wastewater effluents for human health risk assessment and management. Twenty-one genes from the human hepatoblastoma cell line (HepG2), covering the basic health-relevant stress responses such as response to xenobiotics, genotoxicity, and cytotoxicity, were selected and incorporated into the MEGA assay. The genes related to the p53-mediated DNA damage response and cytochrome P450 were selected as markers for genotoxicity and response to xenobiotics, respectively. Additionally, the genes that were dose-dependently regulated by exposure to the wastewater effluents were chosen as markers for cytotoxicity. The alterations in the expression of an individual gene, induced by exposure to the wastewater effluents, were evaluated by real-time PCR and the results were validated by genotoxicity (e.g., comet assay) and cell-based cytotoxicity tests. In summary, the MEGA assay is a real-time PCR-based assay that targets cellular responses to contaminants present in wastewater effluents at the transcriptional level; it is rapid, cost-effective, and high-throughput and can thus complement any chemical analysis for water quality assessment and management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Colour removal and carbonyl by-production in high dose ozonation for effluent polishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzanotte, V; Fornaroli, R; Canobbio, S; Zoia, L; Orlandi, M

    2013-04-01

    Experimental tests have been conducted to investigate the efficiency and the by-product generation of high dose ozonation (10-60 mg O3 L(-1)) for complete colour removal from a treated effluent with an important component of textile dyeing wastewater. The effluent is discharged into an effluent-dominated stream where no dilution takes place, and, thus, the quality requirement for the effluents is particularly strict. 30, 60 and 90 min contact times were adopted. Colour was measured as absorbance at 426, 558 and 660 nm wavelengths. pH was monitored throughout the experiments. The experimental work showed that at 50 mg L(-1) colour removal was complete and at 60 mg O3 L(-1) the final aldehyde concentration ranged between 0.72 and 1.02 mg L(-1). Glyoxal and methylglyoxal concentrations were directly related to colour removal, whereas formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone and acrolein were not. Thus, the extent of colour removal can be used to predict the increase in glyoxal and methylglyoxal concentrations. As colour removal can be assessed by a simple absorbance measurement, in contrast to the analysis of specific carbonyl compounds, which is much longer and complex, the possibility of using colour removal as an indicator for predicting the toxic potential of ozone by-products for textile effluents is of great value. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Short communication: Rapid in vitro tests to determine the toxicity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wastewater consists of a complex mixture of substances. During wastewater treatment these harmful substances can be eliminated or degraded. However, persistent compounds released with the treated sewage effluents enter the environment and pose a risk to animal and human life. To determine the potential risks ...

  12. Tests of rhodamine WT dye for toxicity to oysters and fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Garald G.

    1973-01-01

    Because of the toxicity to oyster larvae and eggs of rhodamine B dye in concentrations greater than 1 mg/l in earlier tests, there was a concern that rhodamine WT, a similar tracer dye, would have a detrimental effect on marine life being developed under the aquaculture program of the Lummi Indian Tribe near Bellingham, Wash. Tests showed that 48-hour exposures at 24° C of 11,000 oyster eggs per liter and 6,000 12-day-old larvae per liter, in sea water with concentrations of rhodamine WT ranging from 1 μg/l to 10 mg/l, resulted in development of the eggs to normal straight-hinge larvae and no abnormalities in the larvae development. Tests made on the smolt of both silver salmon and Donaldson trout, with the fish held for 17.5 hours in a tankfull of sea water with a dye concentration of 10 mg/l at 22°C showed no mortalities or respiratory problems. With the concentration increased to 375 mg/l, and the time extended an additional 3.2 hours, still no mortalities or abnormalities were noted. The fish remained healthy in dye-free water when last checked a month after the test.

  13. Antioxidant, Antibacterial activity and Brine shrimp toxicity test of some Mountainous Lichens from Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babita Paudel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of twenty four lichen species belonging to six families were collected from mountainous region of Nepal. The methanol extracts of each species were tested for antimicrobial and antioxidant activitiesin vitro. It was found that extracts of twenty one lichen species were active againstB. subtilis and seven species were active againstS. aureus. Similarly, in DPPH assay, three speciesPeltigera sp.,Cladonia sp., andCanoparmelia sp. showed comparable activity with commercial standard, BHA. In ABTS+ assay, extracts ofParmoterma sp.,Ramalina sp.,Peltigera sp. andCladonia sp. showed stronger activity than ascorbic acid. The observed data after comparison with previously published reports indicated that the high altitude lichens contain stronger antioxidant and antibacterial constituents. Similarly, the methanol extracts ofHeterodermia sp. andRamalina sp. showed comparable toxicity effect with commercial standard berberine chloride indicating a potent source of anticancer drugs.

  14. In vitro toxicity test of nano-sized magnesium oxide synthesized via solid-phase transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jun; Zhou, Wei

    2018-04-01

    Nano-sized magnesium oxide (MgO) has been a promising potential material for biomedical pharmaceuticals. In the present investigation, MgO nanoparticles synthesized through in-situ solid-phase transformation based on the previous work (nano-Mg(OH)2 prepared by precipitation technique) using magnesium nitrate and sodium hydroxide. The phase structure and morphology of the MgO nanoparticles are characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), selected area electronic diffraction (SAED) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) respectively. In vitro hemolysis tests are adopted to evaluate the toxicity of the synthesized nano-MgO. The results evident that nano-MgO with lower concentration is slightly hemolytic, and with concentration increasing nano-MgO exhibit dose-responsive hemolysis.

  15. Working in partnership to advance the 3Rs in toxicity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, Anthony M.; Creton, Stuart; Chapman, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    Toxicological assessment of pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical chemicals is a regulatory requirement to ensure all compounds likely to be exposed to humans or the environment are safe. These studies rely on the use of large numbers of animals and involve a number of assumptions and extrapolations that remain controversial in assuring consumer safety. The UK's National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs) has taken a collaborative approach to identify opportunities for implementation of the 3Rs principles (Replacement, Reduction and Refinement) to drive innovation and support animal welfare in toxicity testing. This review highlights the mechanisms by which the NC3Rs is working with the pharmaceutical and chemical industries and regulatory authorities to achieve these goals.

  16. Toxicity assessment of industrial chemicals and airborne contaminants: transition from in vivo to in vitro test methods: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakand, S; Winder, C; Khalil, C; Hayes, A

    2005-12-01

    Exposure to occupational and environmental contaminants is a major contributor to human health problems. Inhalation of gases, vapors, aerosols, and mixtures of these can cause a wide range of adverse health effects, ranging from simple irritation to systemic diseases. Despite significant achievements in the risk assessment of chemicals, the toxicological database, particularly for industrial chemicals, remains limited. Considering there are approximately 80,000 chemicals in commerce, and an extremely large number of chemical mixtures, in vivo testing of this large number is unachievable from both economical and practical perspectives. While in vitro methods are capable of rapidly providing toxicity information, regulatory agencies in general are still cautious about the replacement of whole-animal methods with new in vitro techniques. Although studying the toxic effects of inhaled chemicals is a complex subject, recent studies demonstrate that in vitro methods may have significant potential for assessing the toxicity of airborne contaminants. In this review, current toxicity test methods for risk evaluation of industrial chemicals and airborne contaminants are presented. To evaluate the potential applications of in vitro methods for studying respiratory toxicity, more recent models developed for toxicity testing of airborne contaminants are discussed.

  17. Bio-testing integral toxicity of corrosion inhibitors, biocides and oil hydrocarbons in oil-and gas-processing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chugunov, V.A.; Kholodenko, V.P.; Irkhina, I.A.; Fomchenkov, V.M.; Novikov, I.A. [State Research Center for Applied Microbiology, Obolensk, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    In recent years bioassays have been widely used for assessing levels of contamination of the environment. This is due to the fact that test-organisms provide a general response to toxicants present in samples. Based on microorganisms as test objects, it is possible to develop cheap, sensitive and rapid assays to identify environmental xenobiotics and toxicants. The objective of the research was to develop different microbiological assays for assessing integral toxicity of water environments polluted with corrosion inhibitors, biocides and hydrocarbons in oil- and gas-processing industry. Bio-luminescent, electro-orientational, osmo-optic and microorganism reducing activity assays were used for express evaluation of integral toxicity. They are found to determine promptly integral toxicity of water environments containing various pollutants (oil, oil products, corrosion inhibitors, biocides). Results conclude that the assays may be used for analyzing integral toxicity of water polluted with hydrocarbons, as well as for monitoring of water changes as a result of biodegradation of pollutants by microorganisms and their associations. Using a kit of different assays, it is also possible to evaluate ecological safety of biocides, corrosion inhibitors, and their compositions. Bioassays used as a kit are more effective than each assay individually, allowing one to get complete characterization of a reaction of bacterial test organisms to different environments. (authors)

  18. The SOS-LUX-LAC-FLUORO-Toxicity-test on the International Space Station (ISS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbow, E; Rettberg, P; Baumstark-Khan, C; Horneck, G

    2003-01-01

    In the 21st century, an increasing number of astronauts will visit the International Space Station (ISS) for prolonged times. Therefore it is of utmost importance to provide necessary basic knowledge concerning risks to their health and their ability to work on the station and during extravehicular activities (EVA) in free space. It is the aim of one experiment of the German project TRIPLE-LUX (to be flown on the ISS) to provide an estimation of health risk resulting from exposure of the astronauts to the radiation in space inside the station as well as during extravehicular activities on one hand, and of exposure of astronauts to unavoidable or as yet unknown ISS-environmental genotoxic substances on the other. The project will (i) provide increased knowledge of the biological action of space radiation and enzymatic repair of DNA damage, (ii) uncover cellular mechanisms of synergistic interaction of microgravity and space radiation and (iii) examine the space craft milieu with highly specific biosensors. For these investigations, the bacterial biosensor SOS-LUX-LAC-FLUORO-Toxicity-test will be used, combining the SOS-LUX-Test invented at DLR Germany (Patent) with the commercially available LAC-FLUORO-Test. The SOS-LUX-Test comprises genetically modified bacteria transformed with the pBR322-derived plasmid pPLS-1. This plasmid carries the promoterless lux operon of Photobacterium leiognathi as a reporter element under control of the DNA-damage dependent SOS promoter of ColD as sensor element. This system reacts to radiation and other agents that induce DNA damages with a dose dependent measurable emission of bioluminescence of the transformed bacteria. The analogous LAC-FLUORO-Test has been developed for the detection of cellular responses to cytotoxins. It is based on the constitutive expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) mediated by the bacterial protein expression vector pGFPuv (Clontech, Palo Alto, USA). In response to cytotoxic agents, this system

  19. Exploring the potential of fungal-bacterial consortium for low-cost biodegradation and detoxification of textile effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lade Harshad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the enrichment and isolation of textile effluent decolorizing bacteria were carried out in wheat bran (WB medium. The isolated bacterium Providencia rettgeri strain HSL1 was then tested for decolorization of textile effluent in consortium with a dyestuff degrading fungus Aspergillus ochraceus NCIM 1146. Decolorization study suggests that A. ochraceus NCIM 1146 and P. rettgeri strain HSL1 alone re moves only 6 and 32% of textile effluent American Dye Manufacturing Institute respectively in 30 h at 30 ±0.2°C of microaerophilic incubation, while the fungal-bacterial consortium does 92% ADMI removal within the same time period. The fungal-bacterial consortium exhibited enhanced decolorization rate due to the induction in activities of catalytic enzymes laccase (196%, lignin peroxidase (77%, azoreductase (80% and NADH-DCIP reductase (84%. The HPLC analysis confirmed the biodegradation of textile effluent into various metabolites. Detoxification studies of textile effluent before and after treatment with fungal-bacterial consortium revealed reduced toxicity of degradation metabolites. The efficient degradation and detoxification by fungal-bacterial consortium pre-grown in agricultural based medium thus suggest a promising approach in designing low-cost treatment technologies for textile effluent.

  20. A roadmap for the development of alternative (non-animal) methods for systemic toxicity testing - t4 report*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basketter, David A; Clewell, Harvey; Kimber, Ian; Rossi, Annamaria; Blaauboer, Bas; Burrier, Robert; Daneshian, Mardas; Eskes, Chantra; Goldberg, Alan; Hasiwa, Nina; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Jaworska, Joanna; Knudsen, Thomas B; Landsiedel, Robert; Leist, Marcel; Locke, Paul; Maxwell, Gavin; McKim, James; McVey, Emily A; Ouédraogo, Gladys; Patlewicz, Grace; Pelkonen, Olavi; Roggen, Erwin; Rovida, Costanza; Ruhdel, Irmela; Schwarz, Michael; Schepky, Andreas; Schoeters, Greet; Skinner, Nigel; Trentz, Kerstin; Turner, Marian; Vanparys, Philippe; Yager, James; Zurlo, Joanne; Hartung, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Systemic toxicity testing forms the cornerstone for the safety evaluation of substances. Pressures to move from traditional animal models to novel technologies arise from various concerns, including: the need to evaluate large numbers of previously untested chemicals and new products (such as nanoparticles or cell therapies), the limited predictivity of traditional tests for human health effects, duration and costs of current approaches, and animal welfare considerations. The latter holds especially true in the context of the scheduled 2013 marketing ban on cosmetic ingredients tested for systemic toxicity. Based on a major analysis of the status of alternative methods (Adler et al., 2011) and its independent review (Hartung et al., 2011), the present report proposes a roadmap for how to overcome the acknowledged scientific gaps for the full replacement of systemic toxicity testing using animals. Five whitepapers were commissioned addressing toxicokinetics, skin sensitization, repeated-dose toxicity, carcinogenicity, and reproductive toxicity testing. An expert workshop of 35 participants from Europe and the US discussed and refined these whitepapers, which were subsequently compiled to form the present report. By prioritizing the many options to move the field forward, the expert group hopes to advance regulatory science.

  1. Response of Penaeid Prawns (Metapanaeus monoceros) to textile dye industrial effluents (TDIE): An indicator of stress

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Praneeth, R.R.; Shirodkar, P.V.; ManiMurali, R.; Ravindran, J.; Brahma, S.; Vethamony, P.

    and decaying food materials [8]. In order to reduce the excreted waste in the test tanks, the feeding was stopped 24hrs prior to the commencement of acute bioassay tests. Test method Short-term LC50 (median lethal concentration) toxicity tests were carried... of India. Material and Method The TDIE or the RO rejects were collected from 9 textile industries from the Erode Industrial area. Part of these collected effluents was used for physico-chemical analyses at the site itself and the other part was taken...

  2. Dissolved organic nitrogen recalcitrance and bioavailable nitrogen quantification for effluents from advanced nitrogen removal wastewater treatment facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Lu; Brett, Michael T.; Jiang, Wenju; Li, Bo

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the composition of nitrogen (N) in the effluents of advanced N removal (ANR) wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). This study also tested two different experimental protocols for determining dissolved N recalcitrance. An analysis of 15 effluent samples from five WWTPs, showed effluent concentrations and especially effluent composition varied greatly from one system to the other, with total nitrogen (TN) ranging between 1.05 and 8.10 mg L −1 . Nitrate (NO 3 − ) accounted for between 38 ± 32% of TN, and ammonium accounted for a further 29 ± 28%. All of these samples were dominated by dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN; NO 3 −  + NH 4 + ), and uptake experiments indicated the DIN fraction was as expected highly bioavailable. Dissolved organic N (DON) accounted for 20 ± 11% for the total dissolved N in these effluents, and uptake experiments indicated the bioavailability of this fraction varied between 27 ± 26% depending on the WWTP assessed. These results indicate near complete DIN removal should be the primary goal of ANR treatment systems. The comparison of bioavailable nitrogen (BAN) quantification protocols showed that the dissolved nitrogen uptake bioassay approach was clearly a more reliable way to determine BAN concentrations compared to the conventional cell yield protocol. Moreover, because the nitrogen uptake experiment was much more sensitive, this protocol made it easier to detect extrinsic factors (such as biological contamination or toxicity) that could affect the accuracy of these bioassays. Based on these results, we recommend the nitrogen uptake bioassay using filtered and autoclaved samples to quantify BAN concentrations. However, for effluent samples indicating toxicity, algal bioassays will not accurately quantify BAN. - Highlights: • DIN was the dominated N pool for most of the tested effluent samples. • DON bioavailability considerably varied depending on the WWTP assessed.

  3. Comparative Toxicity of Louisiana Sweet Crude Oil (LSC) and Chemically Dispersed LSC to Two Gulf of Mexico Aquatic Test Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency released peer reviewed results from the second phase of its independent toxicity testing on mixtures of eight oil dispersants with Louisiana Sweet Crude Oil. EPA conducted the tests as part of an effort to ensure that EPA decisions remain grounded ...

  4. Evaluation and modeling of the parameters affecting fluoride toxicity level in aquatic environments by bioassay method

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Reza Shamsollahi; Hadi asady; Amir Hossein Mahvi; Zahra zolghadr

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fluoride exists in various forms in nature and water resources. , The rising level of fluoride in water resources due to discharge of industrial effluents can cause toxicity in aquatic organisms. To prevent toxicity, it is necessary to determine maximum fluoride toxicity as well as effluent discharge limits. The aim of this study was to determine the maximum fluoride toxicity and the factors affecting fluoride toxicity to provide a model in order to determine the effluent discha...

  5. Ecotoxicological studies with newly hatched larvae of Concholepas concholepas (Mollusca, Gastropoda): bioassay with secondary-treated kraft pulp mill effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manríquez, Patricio H; Llanos-Rivera, Alejandra; Galaz, Sylvana; Camaño, Andrés

    2013-12-01

    The Chilean abalone or "loco" (Concholepas concholepas, Bruguière 1789) represent the most economically important marine recourse exploited from inner inshore Management and Exploitation Areas for Benthic Resources along the Chilean coast. In this study, newly-hatched larvae of C. concholepas were investigated as a potential model species for marine ecotoxicological studies. The study developed a behavioral standard protocol for assessing the impact that kraft pulp mill effluents after secondary treatment have on C. concholepas larvae. Under controlled laboratory conditions, newly-hatched larvae were exposed to a series of different concentrations of kraft pulp mill effluents with secondary treatment (Pinus spp. and Eucalyptus spp.), potassium dichromate as standard reference toxicant and effluent-free control conditions. Regardless of the type of effluent the results indicated that diluted kraft pulp effluent with secondary treatment had reduced effect on larval survival. Low larval survivals were only recorded when they were exposed to high concentrations of the reference toxicant. This suggests that C. concholepas larval bioassay is a simple method for monitoring the effects of kraft pulp mill effluents with secondary treatment discharged into the sea. The results indicated that dilution of ca. 1% of the effluent with an elemental chlorine free (ECF) secondary treatment is appropriate for achieving low larval mortalities, such as those obtained under control conditions with filtered seawater, and to minimize their impact on early ontogenetic stages of marine invertebrates such as newly-hatched larvae of C. concholepas. The methodological aspects of toxicological testing and behavioral responses described here with newly-hatched larvae of C. concholepas can be used to evaluate in the future the potential effects of other stressful conditions as other pollutants or changes in seawater pH associated with ocean acidification. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  6. TOXICITY OF CASSAVA WASTEWATER EFFLUENTS TO AFRICAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADMIN

    S.O. Adewoye 1, O.O. Fawole 1,*, O.D. Owolabi 2 and J.S. Omotosho 2 ... food factory were investigated on Clarias gariepinus fingerlings using a ... Man in an attempt to alleviate food scarcity and ... Each treatment and control was in replicates ...

  7. Prospective environmental risk assessment of mixtures in wastewater treatment plant effluents - Theoretical considerations and experimental verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coors, Anja; Vollmar, Pia; Sacher, Frank; Polleichtner, Christian; Hassold, Enken; Gildemeister, Daniela; Kühnen, Ute

    2018-04-14

    The aquatic environment is continually exposed to a complex mixture of chemicals, whereby effluents of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are one key source. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether environmental risk assessments (ERAs) addressing individual substances are sufficiently protective for such coincidental mixtures. Based on a literature review of chemicals reported to occur in municipal WWTP effluents and mode-of-action considerations, four different types of mixtures were composed containing human pharmaceuticals, pesticides, and chemicals regulated under REACH. The experimentally determined chronic aquatic toxicity of these mixtures towards primary producers and the invertebrate Daphnia magna could be adequately predicted by the concept of concentration addition, with up to 5-fold overestimation and less than 3-fold underestimation of mixture toxicity. Effluents of a municipal WWTP had no impact on the predictability of mixture toxicity and showed no adverse effects on the test organisms. Predictive ERAs for the individual mixture components based on here derived predicted no effect concentrations (PNECs) and median measured concentrations in WWTP effluents (MC eff ) indicated no unacceptable risk for any of the individual chemicals, while MC eff /PNEC summation indicated a possible risk for multi-component mixtures. However, a refined mixture assessment based on the sum of toxic units at species level indicated no unacceptable risks, and allowed for a safety margin of more than factor 10, not taking into account any dilution of WWTP effluents by surface waters. Individual substances, namely climbazole, fenofibric acid and fluoxetine, were dominating the risks of the investigated mixtures, while added risk due to the mixture was found to be low with the risk quotient being increased by less than factor 2. Yet, uncertainty remains regarding chronic mixture toxicity in fish, which was not included in the present study. The number and

  8. Variability of sediment-contact tests in freshwater sediments with low-level anthropogenic contamination - Determination of toxicity thresholds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoess, S.; Ahlf, W.; Fahnenstich, C.; Gilberg, D.; Hollert, H.; Melbye, K.; Meller, M.; Hammers-Wirtz, M.; Heininger, P.; Neumann-Hensel, H.; Ottermanns, R.; Ratte, H.-T.

    2010-01-01

    Freshwater sediments with low levels of anthropogenic contamination and a broad range of geochemical properties were investigated using various sediment-contact tests in order to study the natural variability and to define toxicity thresholds for the various toxicity endpoints. Tests were performed with bacteria (Arthrobacter globiformis), yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans), oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus), higher plants (Myriophyllum aquaticum), and the eggs of zebrafish (Danio rerio). The variability in the response of some of the contact tests could be explained by particle size distribution and organic content. Only for two native sediments could a pollution effect not be excluded. Based on the minimal detectable difference (MDD) and the maximal tolerable inhibition (MTI), toxicity thresholds (% inhibition compared to the control) were derived for each toxicity parameter: >20% for plant growth and fish-egg survival, >25% for nematode growth and oligochaete reproduction, >50% for nematode reproduction and >60% for bacterial enzyme activity. - Sediment-contact tests require toxicity thresholds based on their variability in native sediments with low-level contamination.

  9. Variability of sediment-contact tests in freshwater sediments with low-level anthropogenic contamination - Determination of toxicity thresholds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoess, S., E-mail: hoess@ecossa.d [Ecossa, Giselastr. 6, 82319 Starnberg (Germany); Institute of Biodiversity - Network (IBN), Dreikronengasse 2, 93047 Regensburg (Germany); Ahlf, W., E-mail: ahlf@tu-harburg.d [Institute of Environmental Technology and Energy Economics, Technical University Hamburg-Harburg, Eissendorfer Str. 40, 21071 Hamburg (Germany); Fahnenstich, C. [Institute of Environmental Technology and Energy Economics, Technical University Hamburg-Harburg, Eissendorfer Str. 40, 21071 Hamburg (Germany); Gilberg, D., E-mail: d-gilberg@ect.d [ECT Oekotoxikologie, Boettgerstr. 2-14, 65439 Floersheim (Germany); Hollert, H., E-mail: henner.hollert@bio5.rwth-aachen.d [Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research (Biology 5), RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Melbye, K. [Dr. Fintelmann and Dr. Meyer, Mendelssohnstr. 15D, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Meller, M., E-mail: m-meller@ecotox-consult.d [ECT Oekotoxikologie, Boettgerstr. 2-14, 65439 Floersheim (Germany); Hammers-Wirtz, M., E-mail: hammers-wirtz@gaiac.rwth-aachen.d [Research Institute for Ecosystem Analysis and Assessment (gaiac), RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Heininger, P., E-mail: heininger@bafg.d [Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG), Am Mainzer Tor 1, 56070 Koblenz (Germany); Neumann-Hensel, H., E-mail: hensel@fintelmann-meyer.d [Dr. Fintelmann and Dr. Meyer, Mendelssohnstr. 15D, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Ottermanns, R., E-mail: ottermanns@bio5.rwth-aachen.d [Chair for Environmental Biology and Chemodynamics, Institute for Environmental Research (Biology 5), RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Ratte, H.-T., E-mail: toni.ratte@bio5.rwth-aachen.d [Chair for Environmental Biology and Chemodynamics, Institute for Environmental Research (Biology 5), RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    Freshwater sediments with low levels of anthropogenic contamination and a broad range of geochemical properties were investigated using various sediment-contact tests in order to study the natural variability and to define toxicity thresholds for the various toxicity endpoints. Tests were performed with bacteria (Arthrobacter globiformis), yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans), oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus), higher plants (Myriophyllum aquaticum), and the eggs of zebrafish (Danio rerio). The variability in the response of some of the contact tests could be explained by particle size distribution and organic content. Only for two native sediments could a pollution effect not be excluded. Based on the minimal detectable difference (MDD) and the maximal tolerable inhibition (MTI), toxicity thresholds (% inhibition compared to the control) were derived for each toxicity parameter: >20% for plant growth and fish-egg survival, >25% for nematode growth and oligochaete reproduction, >50% for nematode reproduction and >60% for bacterial enzyme activity. - Sediment-contact tests require toxicity thresholds based on their variability in native sediments with low-level contamination.

  10. Amphipod and Sea Urchin tests to assess the toxicity of Mediterranean sediments: the case of Portmán Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cesar

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The sediment formed by the tailings of an abandoned mine, which discharged into Portmán Bay, Murcia, SE-Spain, was tested to establish a possible gradient of heavy metals. The results were compared with tolerance limits of what was calculated from control sites. Whole sediment toxicity tests were performed on two amphipod species, Gammarus aequicauda and Microdeutopus gryllotalpa, while sediment-water interface and porewater toxicity tests were performed on three sea urchins species, Arbacia lixula, Paracentrotus lividus and Sphaerechinus granularis. The sensitivity of these marine organisms was evaluated by exposure tests using the reference substances: ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, cadmium chloride (CdCl2, potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7, sodium dodecyl sulfate (C12H25NaO4S and zinc sulfate (ZnSO4. The concentration of heavy metals decreased along the pollution gradient. Amphipod 10 day acute toxicity tests clearly demonstrated the gradient of toxicity. The sediment-water interface tests conducted with sea urchins also pointed to a pollution gradient and were more sensitive than the tests involving amphipods.

  11. Radiological effluent and onsite area monitoring report for the Nevada Test Site (January 1985 through December 1985)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, D.A.

    1986-09-01

    This report documents the environmental surveillance program at the Nevada Test Site as conducted by the Department of Energy (DOE) onsite radiological safety contractor from January 1985 through December 1985. The results and evaluations of measurements of radioactivity in air and water, and of direct gamma radiation exposure rates are presented. Relevancy to DOE concentration guides (CG'S) is established. This report was formerly titled ''Environmental Surveillance Report for the Nevada Test Site.''

  12. Environmental hazard assessment of cheese manufacturing effluent treated for hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadima, Constantina; Theodoropoulos, Chris; Iliopoulou-Georgudaki, Joan

    2009-09-01

    Toxicity of effluents after treatment in an anaerobic fermentation system for hydrogen production is evaluated with three biotests: The zebrafish Danio rerio embryo test, the Thamnotoxkit F and the Daphtoxkit F(TM) magna. Samples were classified from "very" to "extremely toxic". Average toxicity values for zebrafish were 1.55% (24 h) and 0.75% (48 h), for Thamnocephalus 0.69% (24 h) and for Daphnia 2.51% (24 h) and 1.82% (48 h). Statistical analysis between physicochemical parameters and LC(50) values revealed that PO(4)(-3), SO(4)(-2), NH(3)N and NO(3)(-) have the major contribution to toxicity. Based on results, this treatment is considered an environmentally ineffective way of managing the specific wastes.

  13. Multi-parameter in vitro toxicity testing of crizotinib, sunitinib, erlotinib, and nilotinib in human cardiomyocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doherty, Kimberly R.; Wappel, Robert L.; Talbert, Dominique R.; Trusk, Patricia B.; Moran, Diarmuid M.; Kramer, James W.; Brown, Arthur M.; Shell, Scott A.; Bacus, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKi) have greatly improved the treatment and prognosis of multiple cancer types. However, unexpected cardiotoxicity has arisen in a subset of patients treated with these agents that was not wholly predicted by pre-clinical testing, which centers around animal toxicity studies and inhibition of the human Ether-à-go-go-Related Gene (hERG) channel. Therefore, we sought to determine whether a multi-parameter test panel assessing the effect of drug treatment on cellular, molecular, and electrophysiological endpoints could accurately predict cardiotoxicity. We examined how 4 FDA-approved TKi agents impacted cell viability, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, metabolic status, impedance, and ion channel function in human cardiomyocytes. The 3 drugs clinically associated with severe cardiac adverse events (crizotinib, sunitinib, nilotinib) all proved to be cardiotoxic in our in vitro tests while the relatively cardiac-safe drug erlotinib showed only minor changes in cardiac cell health. Crizotinib, an ALK/MET inhibitor, led to increased ROS production, caspase activation, cholesterol accumulation, disruption in cardiac cell beat rate, and blockage of ion channels. The multi-targeted TKi sunitinib showed decreased cardiomyocyte viability, AMPK inhibition, increased lipid accumulation, disrupted beat pattern, and hERG block. Nilotinib, a second generation Bcr-Abl inhibitor, led to increased ROS generation, caspase activation, hERG block, and an arrhythmic beat pattern. Thus, each drug showed a unique toxicity profile that may reflect the multiple mechanisms leading to cardiotoxicity. This study demonstrates that a multi-parameter approach can provide a robust characterization of drug-induced cardiomyocyte damage that can be leveraged to improve drug safety during early phase development. - Highlights: • TKi with known adverse effects show unique cardiotoxicity profiles in this panel. • Crizotinib increases ROS, apoptosis, and

  14. Toxic Emissions from a Military Test Site in the Territory of Sardinia, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Triolo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This work assesses the environmental impact from chemical emissions due to military tests and routine activities in the area occupied by the Italian Inter-force Test Range (PISQ, located at Salto di Quirra, Sardinia, Italy. After reviewing the military activities carried out at PISQ, such as rocket launching, blasting and armament destruction, projectile and mortar fire impact, the associated pollution is evaluated. Chemical analyses were performed by means of Scanning Electronic Microscopy and Energy Dispersion Spectrometry on biotic and abiotic matrices. Residues of Rb, Tl, W, Ti and Al were found in matrices collected in the PISQ areas and environs. A review of experimental data on air, water, soil, milk, forage and animal tissues obtained by various Public Agencies of Sardinia proved that toxic element residues often exceeded the legal limits. PM10 and PM2.5 air concentrations also exceeded the legal limits after military blasting. Cd and Pb contents in the liver and kidneys of sheep living in farms at PISQ and in control farms that were located more than 20 km away from PISQ were higher than the legal limits. This work was performed to investigate concentration of xenobiotics in ecosystems emitted from PISQ activities. This assessment could be useful to focus future epidemiological studies carried out in PISQ and its neighbouring areas.

  15. Duckweed Lemna minor as a tool for testing toxicity of coal residues and polluted sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenner, H.A.; Janssen-Mommen, J.P.M. (Kema Environmental Services, Arnhem (Netherlands))

    1993-07-01

    Duckweed, Lemna minor, was used for testing single elements and leachates of coal ashes and sediments by expressing growth as surface coverage. The EC50 for the elements Cd, Cu, Zn, As(III), As(V), Se(IV), Se(VI), SeO[sub 2] were 0.86, 2.2, 4.4, 8.4, 297, 21, 67, 37 [mu]M respectively. Leachates were tested of pulverized coal fuel ash (PFA), including 'low NO[sub x]' ashes, coal gasification slag (CGS), and, as a reference, the polluted sediments of a canal. The concentrations of elements in leachates of 'low NO[sub x]' PFA were higher than those in leachates of conventional PFA. The leaching of anions from PFA was quicker than the cations. CGS showed an absolutely minimal element leaching. Comparison of the effects of conventional PFA with sediments from Rotterdam harbor, River Rhine, and the canal shows PFA to be the far less toxic one. The sediment samples from the canal demonstrated strong growth inhibition, probably due to high zinc concentrations originating from industrial activity.

  16. Duckweed Lemna minor as a tool for testing toxicity of coal residues and polluted sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenner, H A; Janssen-Mommen, J P.M. [Kema Environmental Services, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    1993-07-01

    Duckweed, Lemna minor, was used for testing single elements and leachates of coal ashes and sediments by expressing growth as surface coverage. The EC50 for the elements Cd, Cu, Zn, As(III), As(V), Se(IV), Se(VI), SeO[sub 2] were 0.86, 2.2, 4.4, 8.4, 297, 21, 67, 37 [mu]M respectively. Leachates were tested of pulverized coal fuel ash (PFA), including 'low NO[sub x]' ashes, coal gasification slag (CGS), and, as a reference, the polluted sediments of a canal. The concentrations of elements in leachates of 'low NO[sub x]' PFA were higher than those in leachates of conventional PFA. The leaching of anions from PFA was quicker than the cations. CGS showed an absolutely minimal element leaching. Comparison of the effects of conventional PFA with sediments from Rotterdam harbor, River Rhine, and the canal shows PFA to be the far less toxic one. The sediment samples from the canal demonstrated strong growth inhibition, probably due to high zinc concentrations originating from industrial activity.

  17. Body-on-a-chip systems for animal-free toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Gretchen J; Esch, Mandy B; Stokol, Tracy; Hickman, James J; Shuler, Michael L

    2016-10-01

    Body-on-a-chip systems replicate the size relationships of organs, blood distribution and blood flow, in accordance with human physiology. When operated with tissues derived from human cell sources, these systems are capable of simulating human metabolism, including the conversion of a prodrug to its effective metabolite, as well as its subsequent therapeutic actions and toxic side-effects. The system also permits the measurement of human tissue electrical and mechanical reactions, which provide a measure of functional response. Since these devices can be operated with human tissue samples or with in vitro tissues derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS), they can play a significant role in determining the success of new pharmaceuticals, without resorting to the use of animals. By providing a platform for testing in the context of human metabolism, as opposed to animal models, the systems have the potential to eliminate the use of animals in preclinical trials. This article will review progress made and work achieved as a direct result of the 2015 Lush Science Prize in support of animal-free testing. 2016 FRAME.

  18. Preparation and characterization of nickel-spiked freshwater sediments for toxicity tests: toward more environmentally realistic nickel partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumbaugh, William G.; Besser, John M.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; May, Thomas W.; Ivey, Chris D.; Schlekat, Christian E.; Garman, Emily R.

    2013-01-01

    Two spiking methods were compared and nickel (Ni) partitioning was evaluated during a series of toxicity tests with 8 different freshwater sediments having a range of physicochemical characteristics. A 2-step spiking approach with immediate pH adjustment by addition of NaOH at a 2:1 molar ratio to the spiked Ni was effective in producing consistent pH and other chemical characteristics across a range of Ni spiking levels. When Ni was spiked into sediment having a high acid-volatile sulfide and organic matter content, a total equilibration period of at least 10 wk was needed to stabilize Ni partitioning. However, highest spiking levels evidently exceeded sediment binding capacities; therefore, a 7-d equilibration in toxicity test chambers and 8 volume-additions/d of aerobic overlying water were used to avoid unrealistic Ni partitioning during toxicity testing. The 7-d pretest equilibration allowed excess spiked Ni and other ions from pH adjustment to diffuse from sediment porewater and promoted development of an environmentally relevant, 0.5- to 1-cm oxic/suboxic sediment layer in the test chambers. Among the 8 different spiked sediments, the logarithm of sediment/porewater distribution coefficient values (log Kd) for Ni during the toxicity tests ranged from 3.5 to 4.5. These Kd values closely match the range of values reported for various field Ni-contaminated sediments, indicating that testing conditions with our spiked sediments were environmentally realistic.

  19. Using aquatic macroinvertebrate species traits to build test batteries for sediment toxicity assessment: accounting for the diversity of potential biological responses to toxicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrot, Virginie; Usseglio-Polatera, Philippe; Péry, T Alexandre R R; Mouthon, Jacques; Lafont, Michel; Roger, Marie-Claude; Garric, Jeanne; Férard, Jean-François

    2005-09-01

    An original species-selection method for the building of test batteries is presented. This method is based on the statistical analysis of the biological and ecological trait patterns of species. It has been applied to build a macroinvertebrate test battery for the assessment of sediment toxicity, which efficiently describes the diversity of benthic macroinvertebrate biological responses to toxicants in a large European lowland river. First, 109 potential representatives of benthic communities of European lowland rivers were selected from a list of 479 taxa, considering 11 biological traits accounting for the main routes of exposure to a sediment-bound toxicant and eight ecological traits providing an adequate description of habitat characteristics used by the taxa. Second, their biological and ecological trait patterns were compared using coinertia analysis. This comparison allowed the clustering of taxa into groups of organisms that exhibited similar life-history characteristics, physiological and behavioral features, and similar habitat use. Groups exhibited various sizes (7-35 taxa), taxonomic compositions, and biological and ecological features. Main differences among group characteristics concerned morphology, substrate preferendum and habitat utilization, nutritional features, maximal size, and life-history strategy. Third, the best representatives of the mean biological and ecological characteristics of each group were included in the test battery. The final selection was composed of Chironomus riparius (Insecta: Diptera), Branchiura sowerbyi (Oligochaeta: Tubificidae), Lumbriculus variegatus (Oligochaeta: Lumbriculidae), Valvata piscinalis (Gastropoda: Valvatidae), and Sericostoma personatum (Trichoptera: Sericostomatidae). This approach permitted the biological and ecological variety of the battery to be maximized. Because biological and ecological traits of taxa determine species sensitivity, such maximization should permit the battery to better account

  20. Use of butterflies as nontarget insect test species and the acute toxicity and hazard of mosquito control insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Tham C; Pryor, Rachel L; Rand, Gary M; Frakes, Robert A

    2011-04-01

    Honeybees are the standard insect test species used for toxicity testing of pesticides on nontarget insects for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) under the Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). Butterflies are another important insect order and a valued ecological resource in pollination. The current study conducted acute toxicity tests with naled, permethrin, and dichlorvos on fifth larval instar (caterpillars) and adults of different native Florida, USA, butterfly species to determine median lethal doses (24-h LD50), because limited acute toxicity data are available with this major insect group. Thorax- and wing-only applications of each insecticide were conducted. Based on LD50s, thorax and wing application exposures were acutely toxic to both caterpillars and adults. Permethrin was the most acutely toxic insecticide after thorax exposure to fifth instars and adult butterflies. However, no generalization on acute toxicity (sensitivity) of the insecticides could be concluded based on exposures to fifth instars versus adult butterflies or on thorax versus wing exposures of adult butterflies. A comparison of LD50s of the butterflies from this study (caterpillars and adults) with honeybee LD50s for the adult mosquito insecticides on a µg/organism or µg/g basis indicates that several butterfly species are more sensitive to these insecticides than are honeybees. A comparison of species sensitivity distributions for all three insecticides shows that permethrin had the lowest 10th percentile. Using a hazard quotient approach indicates that both permethrin and naled applications in the field may present potential acute hazards to butterflies, whereas no acute hazard of dichlorvos is apparent in butterflies. Butterflies should be considered as potential test organisms when nontarget insect testing of pesticides is suggested under FIFRA. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  1. Applicability of the fish embryo acute toxicity (FET) test (OECD 236) in the regulatory context of Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation, and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobanska, Marta; Scholz, Stefan; Nyman, Anna-Maija; Cesnaitis, Romanas; Gutierrez Alonso, Simon; Klüver, Nils; Kühne, Ralph; Tyle, Henrik; de Knecht, Joop; Dang, Zhichao; Lundbergh, Ivar; Carlon, Claudio; De Coen, Wim

    In 2013 the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) test guideline (236) for fish embryo acute toxicity (FET) was adopted. It determines the acute toxicity of chemicals to embryonic fish. Previous studies show a good correlation of FET with the standard acute fish toxicity

  2. Chromium Toxicity Test for Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Using Hanford Site Groundwater: Onsite Early Life-Stage Toxicity Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patton, Gregory W; Dauble, Dennis D; Chamness, Mickie A; Abernethy, Cary S; McKinstry, Craig A

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate site-specific effects for early life-stage (eyed eggs to free swimming juveniles) fall chinook salmon that might be exposed to hexavalent chromium from Hanford groundwater sources. Our exposure conditions included hexavalent chromium obtained from Hanford groundwater wells near the Columbia River, Columbia River water as the diluent, and locally adapted populations of fall chinook salmon. This report describes both a 96-hr pretest using rainbow trout eggs and an early life-stage test beginning with chinook salmon eggs

  3. Toxicity testing of human assisted reproduction devices using the mouse embryo assay.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punt-Van der Zalm, J.P.; Hendriks, J.C.M.; Westphal, J.R.; Kremer, J.A.M.; Teerenstra, S.; Wetzels, A.M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Systems to assess the toxicity of materials used in human assisted reproduction currently lack efficiency and/or sufficient discriminatory power. The development of 1-cell CBA/B6 F1 hybrid mouse embryos to blastocysts, expressed as blastocyst rate (BR), is used to measure toxicity. The embryos were

  4. The pH dependent toxicity and bioaccumulation of chloroquine tested on S. viminalis (basket willow)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendal, Cecilie; Trapp, Stefan; Legind, Charlotte Nielsen

    2010-01-01

    (hydroxymethyl) – aminomethane (pH 8 and 9). Concentrations were determined with spectrophotometer. Toxicity was derived from calculations of normalized transpiration over time, and RCF (root concentration factor) values were calculated. Increasing BCF values were found for increasing pH levels, and the toxicity...

  5. Evaluating the graphene oxide dispersions for Fish Embryo Toxicity (FET) test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemente, Zaira; Franqui, Lidiane; Silva, Cristiane A.; Martinez, Diego Stefani Teodoro, E-mail: zairaclemente@hotmail.com [Centro Nacional de Pesquisa em Energia e Materiais (CNPEM), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Castro, Vera Lucia Scherholz Salgado [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (EMBRAPA), Campinhas, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: The Fish Embryo Toxicity (FET) test has wide utilization in nano ecotoxicology. However, some difficulties have been found related to the aggregation and precipitation of nanomaterials in exposure medium and the contrasting results among studies due to differences in the material characteristics. Furthermore, abiotic factors as the presence of organic matter can influence the test evaluation. The aim of this study was to evaluate and characterize the effect of the humic acid presence in the stability of two types of graphene oxide dispersion in an exposure medium used in FET test. Stock-suspensions (1.0 mg mL{sup -1}) of GO (sigma Aldrich, flakes) or base-washed GO (bwGO) and humic acid (HA sodium salt, Sigma Aldrich) were prepared in ultrapure water (UW). They were sonicated before preparing the GO or bwGO test suspensions at 100.0 μg mL{sup -1} in UW and reconstituted water (RW, pH 8±0.2, 425±129 μS/cm), with HA (20.0 μg mL{sup -1})or not. The samples were incubated during 96h at 26 deg C. The GO and bwGO and its dispersions were characterized through the following techniques: spectrophotometry, centrifugation, dynamic light scattering (DLS), nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), thermogravimetry (TGA), and X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS). The results showed that materials aggregated and precipitated quickly in RW, but in the presence of HA the stability was similar to that found in UW. The aggregation and precipitation of bwGO was more intense than that of GO. The bwGO showed a great particle sizes heterogeneity than GO, in any condition tested. The different behavior can be related to the less presence of oxygenated groups in bwGO regards to GO. These results showed that surface characteristic of GO and the presence of HA influence the GO behavior in exposure medium and support the use of HA as a natural dispersant to graphene oxide in FET test. (author)

  6. Compound-specific effects of diverse neurodevelopmental toxicants on global gene expression in the neural embryonic stem cell test (ESTn)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theunissen, P.T.; Robinson, J.F.; Pennings, J.L.A.; Herwijnen, M.H. van; Kleinjans, J.C.S.; Piersma, A.H.

    2012-01-01

    Alternative assays for developmental toxicity testing are needed to reduce animal use in regulatory toxicology. The in vitro murine neural embryonic stem cell test (ESTn) was designed as an alternative for neurodevelopmental toxicity testing. The integration of toxicogenomic-based approaches may further increase predictivity as well as provide insight into underlying mechanisms of developmental toxicity. In the present study, we investigated concentration-dependent effects of six mechanistically diverse compounds, acetaldehyde (ACE), carbamazepine (CBZ), flusilazole (FLU), monoethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), penicillin G (PENG) and phenytoin (PHE), on the transcriptome and neural differentiation in the ESTn. All compounds with the exception of PENG altered ESTn morphology (cytotoxicity and neural differentiation) in a concentration-dependent manner. Compound induced gene expression changes and corresponding enriched gene ontology biological processes (GO–BP) were identified after 24 h exposure at equipotent differentiation-inhibiting concentrations of the compounds. Both compound-specific and common gene expression changes were observed between subsets of tested compounds, in terms of significance, magnitude of regulation and functionality. For example, ACE, CBZ and FLU induced robust changes in number of significantly altered genes (≥ 687 genes) as well as a variety of GO–BP, as compared to MEHP, PHE and PENG (≤ 55 genes with no significant changes in GO–BP observed). Genes associated with developmentally related processes (embryonic morphogenesis, neuron differentiation, and Wnt signaling) showed diverse regulation after exposure to ACE, CBZ and FLU. In addition, gene expression and GO–BP enrichment showed concentration dependence, allowing discrimination of non-toxic versus toxic concentrations on the basis of transcriptomics. This information may be used to define adaptive versus toxic responses at the transcriptome level.

  7. Compound-specific effects of diverse neurodevelopmental toxicants on global gene expression in the neural embryonic stem cell test (ESTn)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theunissen, P.T., E-mail: Peter.Theunissen@rivm.nl [Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, Maastricht (Netherlands); Robinson, J.F. [Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, Maastricht (Netherlands); Netherlands Toxicogenomics Centre, Maastricht (Netherlands); Pennings, J.L.A. [Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Netherlands Toxicogenomics Centre, Maastricht (Netherlands); Herwijnen, M.H. van [Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, Maastricht (Netherlands); Kleinjans, J.C.S. [Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, Maastricht (Netherlands); Netherlands Toxicogenomics Centre, Maastricht (Netherlands); Piersma, A.H. [Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Netherlands Toxicogenomics Centre, Maastricht (Netherlands); Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-08-01

    Alternative assays for developmental toxicity testing are needed to reduce animal use in regulatory toxicology. The in vitro murine neural embryonic stem cell test (ESTn) was designed as an alternative for neurodevelopmental toxicity testing. The integration of toxicogenomic-based approaches may further increase predictivity as well as provide insight into underlying mechanisms of developmental toxicity. In the present study, we investigated concentration-dependent effects of six mechanistically diverse compounds, acetaldehyde (ACE), carbamazepine (CBZ), flusilazole (FLU), monoethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), penicillin G (PENG) and phenytoin (PHE), on the transcriptome and neural differentiation in the ESTn. All compounds with the exception of PENG altered ESTn morphology (cytotoxicity and neural differentiation) in a concentration-dependent manner. Compound induced gene expression changes and corresponding enriched gene ontology biological processes (GO–BP) were identified after 24 h exposure at equipotent differentiation-inhibiting concentrations of the compounds. Both compound-specific and common gene expression changes were observed between subsets of tested compounds, in terms of significance, magnitude of regulation and functionality. For example, ACE, CBZ and FLU induced robust changes in number of significantly altered genes (≥ 687 genes) as well as a variety of GO–BP, as compared to MEHP, PHE and PENG (≤ 55 genes with no significant changes in GO–BP observed). Genes associated with developmentally related processes (embryonic morphogenesis, neuron differentiation, and Wnt signaling) showed diverse regulation after exposure to ACE, CBZ and FLU. In addition, gene expression and GO–BP enrichment showed concentration dependence, allowing discrimination of non-toxic versus toxic concentrations on the basis of transcriptomics. This information may be used to define adaptive versus toxic responses at the transcriptome level.

  8. The Use of Aquatic Macrophyte Ecotoxicological Assays in Monitoring Coastal Effluent Discharges in Southern Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burridge, T.R.; Karistianos, M.; Bidwell, J

    1999-01-01

    Germination inhibition of zoospores of the aquatic, brown algal macrophyte Ecklonia radiata was employed to assess the toxicity of sewage effluents under short to long term exposure and under modified salinity conditions. The rate of germination inhibition was determined for exposure times between 2 and 48 h in salinity modified and unmodified regimes and under reduced salinity conditions alone. The results indicated that rate of germination inhibition increased with duration of exposure to sewage effluents and to salinity reduction alone, and that response to the effluents may be enhanced under conditions of reduced salinity. Whilst the effect of primary treated effluent was primarily that of toxicity, secondary treated effluent effects appeared to be primarily that of reduced salinity although at a greater rate than would be expected for salinity reduction alone. The assay is suggested to provide a mechanism for monitoring sewage effluent quality and to monitor potential impacts of sewage effluent discharge on kelp communities in southern Australia.

  9. The Use of Aquatic Macrophyte Ecotoxicological Assays in Monitoring Coastal Effluent Discharges in Southern Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burridge, T.R.; Karistianos, M.; Bidwell, J.

    1999-01-01

    Germination inhibition of zoospores of the aquatic, brown algal macrophyte Ecklonia radiata was employed to assess the toxicity of sewage effluents under short to long term exposure and under modified salinity conditions. The rate of germination inhibition was determined for exposure times between 2 and 48 h in salinity modified and unmodified regimes and under reduced salinity conditions alone. The results indicated that rate of germination inhibition increased with duration of exposure to sewage effluents and to salinity reduction alone, and that response to the effluents may be enhanced under conditions of reduced salinity. Whilst the effect of primary treated effluent was primarily that of toxicity, secondary treated effluent effects appeared to be primarily that of reduced salinity although at a greater rate than would be expected for salinity reduction alone. The assay is suggested to provide a mechanism for monitoring sewage effluent quality and to monitor potential impacts of sewage effluent discharge on kelp communities in southern Australia

  10. Alternative methods for the median lethal dose (LD(50)) test: the up-and-down procedure for acute oral toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispin, Amy; Farrar, David; Margosches, Elizabeth; Gupta, Kailash; Stitzel, Katherine; Carr, Gregory; Greene, Michael; Meyer, William; McCall, Deborah

    2002-01-01

    The authors have developed an improved version of the up-and-down procedure (UDP) as one of the replacements for the traditional acute oral toxicity test formerly used by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development member nations to characterize industrial chemicals, pesticides, and their mixtures. This method improves the performance of acute testing for applications that use the median lethal dose (classic LD50) test while achieving significant reductions in animal use. It uses sequential dosing, together with sophisticated computer-assisted computational methods during the execution and calculation phases of the test. Staircase design, a form of sequential test design, can be applied to acute toxicity testing with its binary experimental endpoints (yes/no outcomes). The improved UDP provides a point estimate of the LD50 and approximate confidence intervals in addition to observed toxic signs for the substance tested. It does not provide information about the dose-response curve. Computer simulation was used to test performance of the UDP without the need for additional laboratory validation.

  11. Toxicity testing of restorative dental materials using brine shrimp larvae (Artemia salina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milhem, Manar M; Al-Hiyasat, Ahmad S; Darmani, Homa

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of extracts of different composites, glass ionomer cement (GIC)s and compomers on the viability of brine shrimp larvae. Ethanolic extracts of four dental composites (Z-100; Solitaire 2; Filtek P60 and Synergy), a conventional GIC (Ketac-Fil), a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Vitremer), two compomers (F2000; Dyract AP), and a flowable compomer (Dyract Flow) were prepared from each material. Following evaporation of the ethanol, the extracts were resuspended in distilled water, which was then used to test the effects on the viability of brine shrimp larvae. For the composites, the extract of Synergy was the least toxic (88% viability) followed by the extracts of Solitaire 2, Z100 and P60 (75%, 67.5% and 50% viability, respectively). One-way ANOVA revealed highly significant differences between the resin composite materials (plarvae for the extracts of Ketac-Fil, and Vitremer were 32.3%, and 37.0%, respectively. One-way ANOVA revealed highly significant differences between the groups of materials (pshrimp larvae followed by GICs and then composites.

  12. Development of an in vitro test system for assessment of male, reproductive toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habas, Khaled; Anderson, Diana; Brinkworth, Martin

    2014-02-10

    There is a need for improved reproductive toxicology assays that do not require large numbers of animals but are sensitive and informative. Therefore, Staput velocity-sedimentation separation followed by culture of specific mouse testicular cells was used as such a system. The specificity of separation was assessed using immunocytochemistry to identify spermatids, spermatocytes and spermatogonia. The efficacy of the system to detect toxicity was then evaluated by analysing the effects of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by the terminal uridine-deoxynucleotide end-labelling (TUNEL) assay to show the rate of apoptosis induced among the different types of germ cells. We found that 2 h of treatment at both 1 and 10 μM induced increases of over ∼10-fold in the percentage of apoptotic cells (p≤0.001), confirming that testicular germ cells are prone to apoptosis at very low concentrations of H2O2. It was also demonstrated for the first time for this compound that spermatogonia are significantly more susceptible than spermatocytes, which are more affected than spermatids. This reflects the proportion of actively dividing cells in these cell types, suggesting a mechanism for the differential sensitivity. The approach should thus form the basis of a useful test system for reproductive and genetic toxicology in the future. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cyanobacterial flora from polluted industrial effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Amit; Shah, Vishal; Madamwar, Datta

    2006-05-01

    Effluents originating from pesticides, agro-chemicals, textile dyes and dyestuffs industries are always associated with high turbidity, colour, nutrient load, and heavy metals, toxic and persistent compounds. But even with such an anthropogenic nature, these effluents contain dynamic cyanobacterial communities. Documentation of cyanobacterial cultures along the water channels of effluents discharged by above mentioned industries along the west coast of India and their relationship with water quality is reported in this study. Intensity of pollution was evaluated by physico-chemical analysis of water. Higher load of solids, carbon and nutrients were found to be persistent throughout the analysis. Sediment and water samples were found to be colored in nature. Cyanobacterial community structure was found to be influenced by the anthropogenic pollution. 40 different cyanobacterial species were recorded from 14 genera of 5 families and an elevated occurrence of Phormidium, Oscillatoria and Chroococcus genera was observed in all the sampling sites.

  14. Acute sensitivity of freshwater mollusks and commonly tested invertebrates to select chemicals with different toxic models of action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies indicate that freshwater mollusks are more sensitive than commonly tested organisms to some chemicals, such as copper and ammonia. Nevertheless, mollusks are generally under-represented in toxicity databases. Studies are needed to generate data with which to comp...

  15. A roadmap for the development of alternative (non-animal) methods for systemic toxicity testing - t4 report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basketter, D.A.; Clewell, H.; Kimber, I.; Rossi, A.; Blaauboer, B.J.; Burrier, R.; Daneshian, M.; Eskes, C.; Goldberg, A.; Hasiwa, N.

    2012-01-01

    Systemic toxicity testing forms the cornerstone for the safety evaluation of substances. Pressures to move from traditional animal models to novel technologies arise from various concerns, including: the need to evaluate large numbers of previously untested chemicals and new products (such as

  16. Evaluation and improvements of a mayfly, Neocloeon (Centroptilum) triangulifer (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) toxicity test method - SETAC Europe 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    A recently published test method for Neocloeon triangulifer assessed the survival and growth of larval mayflies exposed to several reference toxicants (NaCl, KCl, and CuSO4). Results were not able to be replicated in subsequent experiments. To identify potential sources of variab...

  17. Quantitative structure–activity relationships for toxicity and genotoxicity of halogenated aliphatic compounds: Wing spot test of Drosophila melanogaster

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chroust, K.; Pavlová, M.; Prokop, Z.; Mendel, Jan; Božková, K.; Kubát, Z.; Zajíčková, V.; Damborský, J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 1 (2007), s. 152-159 ISSN 0045-6535 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : toxicity * wing spot test * QSAR Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.739, year: 2007

  18. The sensitivity and reproducibility of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo test for the screening of waste water quality and for testing the toxicity of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahnsteiner, Franz

    2008-07-01

    The sensitivity of the zebrafish embryo test, a test proposed for routine waste water control, was compared with the acute fish toxicity test, in the determination of six types of waste water and ten different chemicals. The waste water was sampled from the following industrial processes: paper and cardboard production, hide tanning, metal galvanisation, carcass treatment and utilisation, and sewage treatment. The chemicals tested were: dimethylacetamide, dimethylsulphoxide, cadmium chloride, cyclohexane, hydroquinone, mercuric chloride, nickel chloride, nonylphenol, resmethrin and sodium nitrite. For many of the test substances, the zebrafish embryo test and the acute fish toxicity test results showed high correlations. However, there were certain environmentally-relevant substances for which the results of the zebrafish embryo test and the acute fish toxicity test differed significantly, up to 10,000-fold (Hg(2+) > 150-fold difference; NO(2)(-) > 300-fold; Cd(2+) > 200-fold; resmethrin > 10,000-fold). For the investigated waste water samples and chemicals, the survival rate of the zebrafish embryos showed high variations between different egg samples, within the range of the EC50 concentration. Subsequently, 5-6 parallel assays were deemed to be the appropriate number necessary for the precise evaluation of the toxicity of the test substances. Also, it was found that the sensitivities of different ontogenetic stages to chemical exposure differed greatly. During the first 12 hours after fertilisation (4-cell stage to the 5-somite stage), the embryos reacted most sensitively to test substance exposure, whereas the later ontogenetic stages showed only slight or no response, indicating that the test is most sensitive during the first 24 hours post-fertilisation.

  19. Study of four week repeated dose toxic test of Sweet Bee Venom in Beagle Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Seuk Park

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was performed to analyse four week repeated dose toxicity of Sweet Bee Venom(Sweet BV extracted from the bee venom in Beagle dogs. Methods: All experiments were conducted under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP at Biotoxtech Company, a non-clinical study authorized institution. Male and female Beagle dogs of 5-6 months old were chosen for the pilot study of four week repeated dose toxicity of Sweet BV which was administered at the level of 0.56㎎/㎏ body weight which is eighty times higher than the clinical application dosage as the high dosage, followed by 0.28 and 0.14㎎/㎏ as midium and low dosage, respectively. Equal amount of excipient(normal saline to the Sweet BV experiment groups was administered as the control group every day for four weeks. Results: 1. No mortality was witnessed in all of the experiment groups. 2. All experiment groups were appealed pain sense in the treating time compared to the control group, and hyperemia and movement disorder were observed around the area of administration in all experiment groups, and higher occurrence in the higher dosage treatment. 3. For weight measurement, Neither male nor female groups showed significant changes. 4. In the urine analysis, CBC and biochemistry didn't show any significant changes in the experiment groups compared with control group. 5. For weight measurement of organs, experiment groups didn't show any significant changes compared with control group. 6. To verify abnormalities of organs and tissues, thigh muscle which treated with Sweet BV, cerebrum, liver, lung, kidney, and spinal cords were removed and conducted histologocal observation with H-E staining. In the histologocal observation of thigh muscle, cell infiltration, inflammatory, degeneration, necrosis of muscle fiber, and fibrosis were found in both thigh tissue. And the changes were depend on the dose of Sweet BV. But another organs were not detected in any abnormalities. 7

  20. Perspective on a Modified Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity Testing Strategy for Cancer Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prell, Rodney A; Halpern, Wendy G; Rao, Gautham K

    2016-05-01

    The intent of cancer immunotherapy (CIT) is to generate and enhance T-cell responses against tumors. The tumor microenvironment establishes several inhibitory pathways that lead to suppression of the local immune response, which is permissive for tumor growth. The efficacy of different CITs, alone and in combination, stems from reinvigorating the tumor immune response via several mechanisms, including costimulatory agonists, checkpoint inhibitors, and vaccines. However, immune responses to other antigens (self and foreign) may also be enhanced, resulting in potentially undesired effects. In outbred mammalian pregnancies, the fetus expresses paternally derived alloantigens that are recognized as foreign by the maternal immune system. If unchecked or enhanced, maternal immunity to these alloantigens represents a developmental and reproductive risk and thus is a general liability for cancer immunotherapeutic molecules. We propose a tiered approach to confirm this mechanistic reproductive liability for CIT molecules. A rodent allopregnancy model is based on breeding 2 different strains of mice so that paternally derived alloantigens are expressed by the fetus. When tested with a cross-reactive biotherapeutic, small molecule drug, or surrogate molecule, this model should reveal on-target reproductive liabilities if the pathway is involved in maintaining pregnancy. Alternatively, allopregnancy models with genetically modified mice can be interrogated for exquisitely specific biotherapeutics with restricted species reactivity. The allopregnancy model represents a relatively straightforward approach to confirm an expected on-target reproductive risk for CIT molecules. For biotherapeutics, it could potentially replace more complex developmental and reproductive toxicity testing in nonhuman primates when a pregnancy hazard is confirmed or expected. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Testing nanomaterial toxicity in unicellular eukaryotic algae and fish cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Alexandra; Kühnel, Dana; Schirmer, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    ways of deriving a mass balance and quantitative/qualitative information on the uptake and distribution of NM in cells.As NM have a high surface-to-volume ratio and possess specific physical-chemical properties, which make them prone to interfere with various compounds and certain types of toxicity tests, potential interferences and appropriate controls are introduced. Furthermore, different types of dose metrics, which is still a strongly debated issue in nanotoxicology, are highlighted. We also consider laboratory safety regarding NM handling and disposal.

  2. A roadmap for the development of alternative (non-animal) methods for systemic toxicity testing - t4 report

    OpenAIRE

    Basketter, D.A.; Clewell, H.; Kimber, I.; Rossi, A.; Blaauboer, B.J.; Burrier, R.; Daneshian, M.; Eskes, C.; Goldberg, A.; Hasiwa, N.

    2012-01-01

    Systemic toxicity testing forms the cornerstone for the safety evaluation of substances. Pressures to move from traditional animal models to novel technologies arise from various concerns, including: the need to evaluate large numbers of previously untested chemicals and new products (such as nanoparticles or cell therapies), the limited predictivity of traditional tests for human health effects, duration and costs of current approaches, and animal welfare considerations. The latter holds esp...

  3. Effluent Treatment Facility tritium emissions monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    An Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approved sampling and analysis protocol was developed and executed to verify atmospheric emissions compliance for the new Savannah River Site (SRS) F/H area Effluent Treatment Facility. Sampling equipment was fabricated, installed, and tested at stack monitoring points for filtrable particulate radionuclides, radioactive iodine, and tritium. The only detectable anthropogenic radionuclides released from Effluent Treatment Facility stacks during monitoring were iodine-129 and tritium oxide. This paper only examines the collection and analysis of tritium oxide

  4. The chick embryo test as used in the study of the toxicity of certain dithiocarbamates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebhardt, D.O.E.; Logten, M.J. van

    1968-01-01

    The toxicities of six dithiocarbamates: bis(dimethyl thiocarbamoyl) disulfide (thiram), zinc dimethyldithiocarbamate (ziram), ferric dimethyldithiocarbamate (ferbam), bis(dimethyl thiocarbamoyl) ethylene bis(dithiocarbamate) (triaram), sodium diethyl dithiocarbamate (NaDEDC), and sodium ethylene

  5. Combining polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) with toxicity testing to evaluate pesticide mixture effects on natural phototrophic biofilms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesce, Stephane; Morin, Soizic; Lissalde, Sophie; Montuelle, Bernard; Mazzella, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    Polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) are valuable tools in passive sampling methods for monitoring polar organic pesticides in freshwaters. Pesticides extracted from the environment using such methods can be used to toxicity tests. This study evaluated the acute effects of POCIS extracts on natural phototrophic biofilm communities. Our results demonstrate an effect of POCIS pesticide mixtures on chlorophyll a fluorescence, photosynthetic efficiency and community structure. Nevertheless, the range of biofilm responses differs according to origin of the biofilms tested, revealing spatial variations in the sensitivity of natural communities in the studied stream. Combining passive sampler extracts with community-level toxicity tests offers promising perspectives for ecological risk assessment. - Research highlights: → Polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) were used for monitoring polar organic pesticides in a contaminated river. → The acute effects of POCIS extracts were tested on natural phototrophic biofilm communities. → POCIS pesticide mixtures affected chlorophyll a fluorescence, photosynthetic efficiency and community structure. → Biofilm responses differed according to origin of the biofilms tested, revealing variations in the sensitivity of natural communities. → Combining passive sampler extracts with community-level toxicity tests offers promising perspectives for ecological risk assessment. - Pesticide mixtures extracted from POCIS can affect chl a fluorescence, photosynthetic efficiency and community structure of natural biofilms.

  6. Progress in the development of short term chronic toxicity testing methods for crude oil and commercial bioremediation agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavender, R.C.; Cherry, D.S.; Dobbs, M.G.; Bidwell, J.R.; Yeager, M.M.

    1995-01-01

    Proposed modifications to the National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP) have prompted examinations of the methodology used in toxicity testing of the water soluble fraction of oil, commercial bioremediation agents (CBA), and a combination of the two. The specific concerns addressed by this research are the use of unweathered Alaska North Slope (ANS) crude oil instead of the more expensive, less environmentally realistic distillate ANS-521, and the appropriate laboratory preparation methodology for the water soluble fraction (WSF) used in testing. Seven-day chronic tests exposing the inland silverside (Menidia beryllina) and estuarine mysid (Mysidopsis bahia) to the water soluble fraction of unweathered ANS and ANS-521 showed that mysids responded similarly to the two types of oils while silversides were more sensitive to unweathered ANS. In the presence of a CBA and WSF, the mortality of the organisms and the mysid growth were similar in both types of oil. The NOEC for silverside growth, however, was lower in the combined exposure of a CBA with ANS-521 WSF than it was in the CBA-WSF unweathered ANS. Testing is underway to determine if the stirring time length effects the toxicity of the WSF, or the WSF and CBA combination. In chronic tests using both the silverside and mysid there were no differences in growth and mortality of the organisms tested in WSF prepared from 10 and 20 hours of stirring, however, the 5 hour stirring exposure is less toxic to both organisms

  7. Effects of the discharge of uranium mining effluents on the water quality of the reservoir: an integrative chemical and ecotoxicological assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari, Carla Rolim; do Nascimento, Heliana de Azevedo Franco; Rodgher, Suzelei; Almeida, Tito; Bruschi, Armando Luiz; Nascimento, Marcos Roberto Lopes do; Bonifácio, Rodrigo Leandro

    2017-01-01

    The water quality of the Antas reservoir, under the influence of treated effluents from a uranium mining area Ore Treatment Unit (UTM) with acid mine drainage, was investigated. Samples were collected every 3 months from the Antas reservoir (CAB, P41-E and P14) and from the UTM (P41-S). Chemical and acute 48 h toxicity tests using Ceriodaphnia silvestrii and Daphnia magna analyses were carried out to determine the potential environmental risks due to discharging the uranium mine effluents int...

  8. Design, calculation and testing on mock-up of B(U) f type LR 56 packaging for radioactive liquid effluent transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belaud; Leconnetable; Daspet; Tombini; Tanguy

    1986-06-01

    Transport of radioactive acid liquid effluents are effected on tank truck inside nuclear center of the CEA. The cylindrical packaging type B(U) f has a capacity of 4,000l, a maximum permissible activity of 110 T Bq (3x10 4 Ci) and comprises a central element for liquid effluent containment to prevent contamination of environment and peripheral elements for mechanical, biological and thermal protection. This packaging is fixed on a trailer associated with a control box. Design and equipment of the packaging are studied for a maximum safety and in accordance with regulations [fr

  9. Acute aquatic toxicity and biodegradation potential of biodiesel fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haws, R.A.; Zhang, X.; Marshall, E.A.; Reese, D.L.; Peterson, C.L.; Moeller, G.

    1995-01-01

    Recent studies on the biodegradation potential and aquatic toxicity of biodiesel fuels are reviewed. Biodegradation data were obtained using the shaker flask method observing the appearance of CO 2 and by observing the disappearance of test substance with gas chromatography. Additional BOD 5 and COD data were obtained. The results indicate the ready biodegradability of biodiesel fuels as well as the enhanced co-metabolic biodegradation of biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuel mixtures. The study examined reference diesel, neat soy oil, neat rape oil, and the methyl and ethyl esters of these vegetable oils as well as various fuel blends. Acute toxicity tests on biodiesel fuels and blends were performed using Oncorhynchus mykiss (Rainbow Trout) in a static non-renewal system and in a proportional dilution flow replacement system. The study is intended to develop data on the acute aquatic toxicity of biodiesel fuels and blends under US EPA Good Laboratory Practice Standards. The test procedure is designed from the guidelines outlined in Methods for Measuring the Acute Toxicity of Effluents and Receiving Waters to Freshwater and Marine Organisms and the Fish Acute Aquatic Toxicity Test guideline used to develop aquatic toxicity data for substances subject to environmental effects test regulations under TSCA. The acute aquatic toxicity is estimated by an LC50, a lethal concentration effecting mortality in 50% of the test population

  10. Potential risks of effluent from acid mine drainage treatment plants at abandoned coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jaehwan; Kang, Sung-Wook; Ji, Wonhyun; Jo, Hun-Je; Jung, Jinho

    2012-06-01

    The lethal and sublethal toxicity of effluent from three acid mine drainage treatment plants were monitored from August 2009 to April 2010 using Daphnia magna (reference species) and Moina macrocopa (indigenous species). Acute lethal toxicity was observed in Samma effluent due to incomplete neutralization of acid mine drainages by the successive alkalinity producing system (SAPS). Additionally, there was no significant difference in toxicity values (TU) between D. magna and M. macrocopa (p water bodies.

  11. Toxicity Test on Malondialdehyde Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Irradiation Sterilization Rendang : In Vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubaidah Irawati; Kamalita Pertiwi; Fransiska Rungkat Zakaria

    2010-01-01

    The safety of irradiated ethnic ready to eat food at high doses raises many questions, and recognized as one of great obstacles in the development of commercialization of food irradiation globally. People are still worried that food treated with irradiation would have induced radioactivity because free radical and its complex derivatives are formed in the irradiation process. Therefore, this study is needed to help understanding the effect of irradiated food on biological system in order to understand the possible effect to human body. The aimed of this research work was to secure the safety of irradiated food at high dose by conducting a toxicity assay using lymphocytes and erythrocytes human blood, and to determine antioxidant capacity of gamma - sterilized rendang at 45 kGy.The methods used were extraction and preparation of rending samples, culture medium preparation, lymphocytes isolation, the assays on lymphocytes proliferation, erythrocytes hemolysis,, antioxidant capacity, and malonaldehyde, respectively. The tested samples were irradiated at PATIR BATAN on 11 th November 2006 (sample A), on 14 th June 2007 (sample B), and “No Label” on 14 th June 2007 (sample C), respectively and non irradiated rending as control was also prepared. The results of proliferation assay showed that irradiated samples did neither inhibit nor induce proliferation significantly. Obviously, hemolysis rate of all samples showed increasing rate with increasing concentration or inversely correlated with dilution neither caused an increase in erythrocytes hemolysis rate nor inhibition in erythrocytes hemolysis significantly. Antioxidant capacity assay in irradiated samples showed higher value than in non-irradiated sample while irradiation treatment did not influence malonaldehyde content in rendang. (author)

  12. Dissolved organic nitrogen recalcitrance and bioavailable nitrogen quantification for effluents from advanced nitrogen removal wastewater treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lu; Brett, Michael T; Jiang, Wenju; Li, Bo

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the composition of nitrogen (N) in the effluents of advanced N removal (ANR) wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). This study also tested two different experimental protocols for determining dissolved N recalcitrance. An analysis of 15 effluent samples from five WWTPs, showed effluent concentrations and especially effluent composition varied greatly from one system to the other, with total nitrogen (TN) ranging between 1.05 and 8.10 mg L -1 . Nitrate (NO 3 - ) accounted for between 38 ± 32% of TN, and ammonium accounted for a further 29 ± 28%. All of these samples were dominated by dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN; NO 3 -  + NH 4 + ), and uptake experiments indicated the DIN fraction was as expected highly bioavailable. Dissolved organic N (DON) accounted for 20 ± 11% for the total dissolved N in these effluents, and uptake experiments indicated the bioavailability of this fraction varied between 27 ± 26% depending on the WWTP assessed. These results indicate near complete DIN removal should be the primary goal of ANR treatment systems. The comparison of bioavailable nitrogen (BAN) quantification protocols showed that the dissolved nitrogen uptake bioassay approach was clearly a more reliable way to determine BAN concentrations compared to the conventional cell yield protocol. Moreover, because the nitrogen uptake experiment was much more sensitive, this protocol made it easier to detect extrinsic factors (such as biological contamination or toxicity) that could affect the accuracy of these bioassays. Based on these results, we recommend the nitrogen uptake bioassay using filtered and autoclaved samples to quantify BAN concentrations. However, for effluent samples indicating toxicity, algal bioassays will not accurately quantify BAN. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Study of the relative toxicity of anions, with Polycelis nigra as test animal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, J R.E.

    1942-01-01

    A brief review is given of existing knowledge regarding the physiological effects of anions, and literature dealing with their relative toxicity. The degree of toxicity of twenty-seven anions to Polycelis nigra (Mueller) has been assessed, by determining in each case the molar concentration the animal survives for 48 hr. at 15-18/sup 0/C. On this basis their order of increasing toxicity is as follows; commas separate ions of similar degree of toxicity: Cltoxic than cations. Even the most toxic anion (OH) is far less toxic than ionic copper, silver, or gold. The respiration rate of Polycelis is heavily depressed by cyanide, but the survival time is three days or longer, as long as the respiration rate is not less than about 16% of the normal value. With further depression the survival time shortens rapidly, and at 9% normal is under 4 hr. The normal respiration rate of Polycelis nigra is 0.165 cc O/sub 2//g./hr. This is not very much less than that of the trout. Polycelis is considerably the more resistant to cyanide. This is probably connected with its capability of surviving very many hours in water containing a very reduced supply of oxygen. 34 references, 6 figures, 1 table.

  14. Quantitative structure-activity relationships for toxicity and genotoxicity of halogenated aliphatic compounds: wing spot test of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chroust, Karel; Pavlová, Martina; Prokop, Zbynek; Mendel, Jan; Bozková, Katerina; Kubát, Zdenek; Zajícková, Veronika; Damborský, Jiri

    2007-02-01

    Halogenated aliphatic compounds were evaluated for toxic and genotoxic effects in the somatic mutation and recombination test employing Drosophila melanogaster. The tested chemicals included chlorinated, brominated and iodinated; mono-, di- and tri-substituted; saturated and unsaturated alkanes: 1,2-dibromoethane, 1-bromo-2-chloroethane, 1-iodopropane, 2,3-dichloropropene, 3-bromo-1-propene, epibromohydrin, 2-iodobutane, 3-chloro-2-methylpropene, 1,2,3-trichloropropane, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,2-dichlorobutane, 1-chloro-2-methylpropane, 1,3-dichloropropane, 1,2-dichloropropane, 2-chloroethymethylether, 1-bromo-2-methylpropane and 1-chloropentane. N-methyl-N-nitrosourea served as the positive and distilled water as the negative control. The set of chemicals for the toxicological testing was selected by the use of statistical experiment design. Group of unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbons were generally more toxic than saturated analogues. The genotoxic effect was observed with 14 compounds in the wing spot test, while 3 substances did not show any genotoxicity by using the wing spot test at 50% lethal concentration. The highest number of wing spots was observed in genotoxicity assay with 1-bromo-2-chloroethane, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,2-dibromoethane and 1-iodopropane. Nucleophilic superdelocalizability calculated by quantum mechanics appears to be a good parameter for prediction of both toxicity and genotoxicity effects of halogenated aliphatic compounds.

  15. Rapid bioassessment methods for assessing vegetation toxicity at the Savannah River Site - germination tests and root elongation trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.; Klaine, S.J.; Hook, D.D. [and others

    1996-01-01

    Plants form the basis of all ecosystems including wetlands. Although they are the most abundant life form and are the primary producers for all other organisms, they have received the least attention when it comes to environmental matters. Higher plants have rarely been used in ecotoxicity testing and may not respond in the same manner as algae, which have been used more frequently. The introduction of hazardous waste materials into wetland areas has the potential to alter and damage the ecological processes in these ecosystems. Measuring the impact of these contaminants on higher plants is therefore important and needs further research. Higher plants are useful for detecting both herbicidal toxicity and heavy metal toxicity. For phytotoxicity tests to be practical they must be simple, inexpensive, yet sensitive to a variety of contaminants. A difference between seed germination and root elongation tests is that seed germination tests measure toxicity associated with soils directly, while root elongation tests consider the indirect effects of water-soluble constituents that may be present in site samples.

  16. Toxicity of sediments potentially contaminated by coal mining and natural gas extraction to unionid mussels and commonly tested benthic invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Kunz, James L.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Kane, Cindy M.; Evans, R. Brian; Alexander, Steven; Walker, Craig; Bakaletz, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Sediment toxicity tests were conducted to assess potential effects of contaminants associated with coal mining or natural gas extraction activities in the upper Tennessee River basin and eastern Cumberland River basin in the United States. Test species included two unionid mussels (rainbow mussel, Villosa iris, and wavy-rayed lampmussel, Lampsilis fasciola, 28-d exposures), and the commonly tested amphipod, Hyalella azteca (28-d exposure) and midge, Chironomus dilutus (10-d exposure). Sediments were collected from seven test sites with mussel communities classified as impacted and in proximity to coal mining or gas extraction activities, and from five reference sites with mussel communities classified as not impacted and no or limited coal mining or gas extraction activities. Additional samples were collected from six test sites potentially with high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and from a test site contaminated by a coal ash spill. Mean survival, length, or biomass of one or more test species was reduced in 10 of 14 test samples (71%) from impacted areas relative to the response of organisms in the five reference samples. A higher proportion of samples was classified as toxic to mussels (63% for rainbow mussels, 50% for wavy-rayed lampmussels) compared with amphipods (38%) or midge (38%). Concentrations of total recoverable metals and total PAHs in sediments did not exceed effects-based probable effect concentrations (PECs). However, the survival, length, or biomasses of the mussels were reduced significantly with increasing PEC quotients for metals and for total PAHs, or with increasing sum equilibrium-partitioning sediment benchmark toxic units for PAHs. The growth of the rainbow mussel also significantly decreased with increasing concentrations of a major anion (chloride) and major cations (calcium and magnesium) in sediment pore water. Results of the present study indicated that (1) the findings from laboratory tests were generally

  17. modelling effluent assimila modelling effluent assimilat modelling

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    G EFFLUENT ASSIMILATIVE CAPACITY OF IKPOBA RIVE. BENIN CITY, NIGERIA ... l purposes to communities rse such as ... treat in order for it to meet the aforeme of the communities. It is therefore i ..... Substituting and integrating yields the following equations ..... Purification Potentials of Small Tropical Urban. Stream: A ...

  18. Acute oral toxicity test and phytochemistry of some West African medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awobajo, F O; Omorodion-Osagie, E; Olatunji-Bello, I I; Adegoke, O A; Adeleke, T I

    2009-01-01

    Although there is increased acceptance and utilization of medicinal plants worldwide, many are used indiscriminately without recourse to any safety test. Thus, the need for toxicity tests to determine the safe dose for oral consumption. LD50 and phytochemistry of four medicinal plants of West Africa were investigated. Thirty male and non pregnant female Swiss albino mice weighing 20grams each were used for this study. They were divided into the Control (C), Oldenlandia corymbosa L. aqueous leaf-extract treated (OCG), Parquetina nigrescens aqueous leaf extract treated (PNG), Hybanthus enneaspermus aqueous leaf extract treated (HEG), Ficus carica leaf extract treated (FCG) and Sesamum indicum aqueous seeds extract treated group (SIG). Each group except the control was further divided into four sub-groups of six mice each, and were administered orally, graded doses (SI; 1, 2, 4 and 8, PN; 2.5, 5, 10 and 20, OC; 5, 10, 20 and 40, FC; 1, 2, 4 and 8, HE; 4, 8, 16, 32) of the aqueous extract of each plant (g/kg body weight) after 12 hours fasting. The dry aqueous leaf extracts of HE, OC, PN, FC all have dark brown colour and pH ranging from 6.1 to 7.2 while the seed extract of SI has a light brown color with pH of 7.0. Flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, anthocyanosides, saponin, and reducing sugar were present in all extracts, while cyanogenic glycoside was present only in HE. LD50 determination results obtained using Thompson and Finney methods were as follows; OC; 14.14 +/- 0.27 and 10.56 +/- 0.20, PN; 12.60 +/- 0.10 and 13.10 +/- 0.10, HE; 8.14 +/- 0.30 and 8.24 +/- 0.35, FC; 3.36 +/- 0.26 and 4.00 +/- 0.04, SI; 4.00 +/- 0.10 and 3.10 +/- 0.22 respectively (LD50 values are in g/kg body weight. The results of this study have provided an oral LD50 from where a safe dose can be chosen for further research into the merits of the consumption of these medicinal plants.

  19. Degradation of fifteen emerging contaminants at microg L(-1) initial concentrations by mild solar photo-Fenton in MWTP effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klamerth, N; Rizzo, L; Malato, S; Maldonado, Manuel I; Agüera, A; Fernández-Alba, A R

    2010-01-01

    The degradation of 15 emerging contaminants (ECs) at low concentrations in simulated and real effluent of municipal wastewater treatment plant with photo-Fenton at unchanged pH and Fe=5 mg L(-1) in a pilot-scale solar CPC reactor was studied. The degradation of those 15 compounds (Acetaminophen, Antipyrine, Atrazine, Caffeine, Carbamazepine, Diclofenac, Flumequine, Hydroxybiphenyl, Ibuprofen, Isoproturon, Ketorolac, Ofloxacin, Progesterone, Sulfamethoxazole and Triclosan), each with an initial concentration of 100 microg L(-1), was found to depend on the presence of CO(3)(2-) and HCO(3)(-) (hydroxyl radicals scavengers) and on the type of water (simulated water, simulated effluent wastewater and real effluent wastewater), but is relatively independent of pH, the type of acid used for release of hydroxyl radicals scavengers and the initial H(2)O(2) concentration used. Toxicity tests with Vibrio fisheri showed that degradation of the compounds in real effluent wastewater led to toxicity increase. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Review of titanium dioxide nanoparticle phototoxicity: Developing a phototoxicity ratio to correct the endpoint values of toxicity tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Titanium dioxide nanoparticles are photoactive and produce reactive oxygen species under natural sunlight. Reactive oxygen species can be detrimental to many organisms, causing oxidative damage, cell injury, and death. Most studies investigating TiO2 nanoparticle toxicity did not consider photoactivation and performed tests either in dark conditions or under artificial lighting that did not simulate natural irradiation. The present study summarizes the literature and derives a phototoxicity ratio between the results of nano‐titanium dioxide (nano‐TiO2) experiments conducted in the absence of sunlight and those conducted under solar or simulated solar radiation (SSR) for aquatic species. Therefore, the phototoxicity ratio can be used to correct endpoints of the toxicity tests with nano‐TiO2 that were performed in absence of sunlight. Such corrections also may be important for regulators and risk assessors when reviewing previously published data. A significant difference was observed between the phototoxicity ratios of 2 distinct groups: aquatic species belonging to order Cladocera, and all other aquatic species. Order Cladocera appeared very sensitive and prone to nano‐TiO2 phototoxicity. On average nano‐TiO2 was 20 times more toxic to non‐Cladocera and 1867 times more toxic to Cladocera (median values 3.3 and 24.7, respectively) after illumination. Both median value and 75% quartile of the phototoxicity ratio are chosen as the most practical values for the correction of endpoints of nano‐TiO2 toxicity tests that were performed in dark conditions, or in the absence of sunlight. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:1070–1077. © 2015 The Author. Published by SETAC. PMID:25640001

  1. Comparative toxicity test of water-accommodated fractions of oils and oil dispersants to marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This reference method describes a simple procedure for comparing the toxicity of oil, oil dispersants, and mixtures thereof, to marine animals. It allows the toxicity of different dispersants to be rapidly compared to that of oil, or of a mixture of oil an oil dispersant. It is designed for routine monitoring and screening purposes and is not appropriate as a research method. The physical and chemical properties of oil dispersants create many difficulties in the measurements of their toxicity to marine organisms. Strictly speaking, their toxicity can only be accurately estimated using complex procedures and apparatus. (A relatively simple apparatus for preparing oil/water or oil/water/oil dispersant emulsions is described in Appendix B). Simpler methods can provide useful information, provided their limitations are clearly understood and taken into consideration in the assessment and application of their results. Some of the special considerations relating to the measurement of the toxicity of oil and oil dispersants are described in Appendix A. The Appendix also explains the rationale and limitations of the method described here. 3 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  2. Cultivation of Azolla microphylla biomass on secondary-treated Delhi municipal effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, A.; Saxena, S. [Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi (India). Centre for Conservation of Blue Green Algae

    2005-07-01

    Study was conducted on recycling municipal wastewaters for cultivation of Azolla microphylla biomass, which is used for inoculation into paddy fields as N biofertiliser and has other applications as green manure, animal feed and biofilter. Secondary-treated municipal wastewaters were collected from Wazirabad sewage treatment plant in New Delhi during all four seasons and tested for reactive P and heavy metal content. The reactive P levels in effluents ranged between 1-2 ppm and levels of heavy metals like Cd, Pb, Ni, Zn, Fe and Mn were well below permissible limits. A. microphylla was grown in sewage effluents and its dilutions prepared with tapwater. It showed good growth potential on sewage effluents. Doubling times during September and December months compared well with those on Espinase and Watanabe (E and W) medium and tapwater. Dried Azolla biomass produced on sewage waters did not show presence of toxic heavy metals Cd, Cr and Pb. However, levels of P in dried biomass cultivated on sewage effluents were lower as compared to those from E and W medium and tapwater. The biomass produced can be used for inoculating paddy fields or for other applications and polished wastewaters can be recycled for irrigation purposes. (author)

  3. Food safety aspect : Toxicity test of gold fish pepes sterilized by gamma irradiation in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubaidah Irawati; Kallista Rachmavika Putri; Fransiska Rungkat Zakaria

    2011-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is a physical preservation technique for foods using ionizing energy without impairing the products either natural characteristics or nutritive contents. Formation of free radicals and radiolytic products in irradiated foods may produce toxic substances, mutagen or carcinogenic that can affect the consumer health. Toxicity test as a part of food safety assays on gold fish (Cyprinus carpio ) pepes in a package and irradiated at the dose of 45 kGy under cryogenic condition was conducted through lymphocyte proliferation because lymphocyte cell is responsible for specific immune response and sensitive to unbalance condition between oxidant and anti oxidant in human body. Malonaldehyde content in the irradiated fish was also measured bearing in mind that malonaldehyde content could be used as indicator in the presence of free radicals and as oxidative damage indicator within the matrix of biological material. Dilution steps was done in all samples both in control and irradiated. Irradiation was conducted at three different times i.e., sample irradiated on 11 November 2006 (A), 14 June 2007(B), 5 April 2008 (C) and in 2008 (code: “no label”) (D), respectively. Proliferation of lymphocyte cell was assayed based on Stimulation Index value (SI), and free radical content of all samples was calculated based on malonaldehyde content (pmol/ml). The measurement of SI in sample without dilution showed that the highest value was found in sample B (1.356), but the lowest value was obtained in control (1.161); at one time dilution the highest value was obtained in sample D (1.344), the lowest was found in sample B (1.084) compared to control (1.259). At twice time dilution, the highest value was found in control (1.293), but the lowest was in sample D (0.984). The results of malonaldehyde content (pmol/ml) showed that sample without dilution has the highest quantity was found in sample A (0.1182 pmol/ml), but the lowest was in sample C (0.1178 pmol/ml) for

  4. INEEL Liquid Effluent Inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Major, C.A.

    1997-06-01

    The INEEL contractors and their associated facilities are required to identify all liquid effluent discharges that may impact the environment at the INEEL. This liquid effluent information is then placed in the Liquid Effluent Inventory (LEI) database, which is maintained by the INEEL prime contractor. The purpose of the LEI is to identify and maintain a current listing of all liquid effluent discharge points and to identify which discharges are subject to federal, state, or local permitting or reporting requirements and DOE order requirements. Initial characterization, which represents most of the INEEL liquid effluents, has been performed, and additional characterization may be required in the future to meet regulations. LEI information is made available to persons responsible for or concerned with INEEL compliance with liquid effluent permitting or reporting requirements, such as the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, Wastewater Land Application, Storm Water Pollution Prevention, Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures, and Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment. The State of Idaho Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Program also needs the information for tracking liquid effluent discharges at the INEEL. The information provides a baseline from which future liquid discharges can be identified, characterized, and regulated, if appropriate. The review covered new and removed buildings/structures, buildings/structures which most likely had new, relocated, or removed LEI discharge points, and at least 10% of the remaining discharge points.

  5. Optimizing the performance of the amphipod, Hyalella azteca, in chronic toxicity tests: Results of feeding studies with various foods and feeding regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The freshwater amphipod, Hyalella azteca, is a common organism used for sediment toxicity testing. Standard methods for 10-d and 42-d sediment toxicity tests with H. azteca were last revised and published by USEPA/ASTM in 2000. Wh