WorldWideScience

Sample records for effluent reduction attainable

  1. 40 CFR 414.52 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Thermosetting Resins § 414.52 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  2. 40 CFR 414.23 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Rayon Fibers § 414.23 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the...

  3. 40 CFR 414.83 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Specialty Organic Chemicals § 414.83 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  4. 40 CFR 414.72 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Bulk Organic Chemicals § 414.72 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  5. 40 CFR 414.42 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Thermoplastic Resins § 414.42 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  6. 40 CFR 414.63 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Commodity Organic Chemicals § 414.63 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  7. 40 CFR 414.73 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Bulk Organic Chemicals § 414.73 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  8. 40 CFR 414.53 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Thermosetting Resins § 414.53 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  9. 40 CFR 414.21 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Rayon Fibers § 414.21 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  10. 40 CFR 414.43 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Thermoplastic Resins § 414.43 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  11. 40 CFR 414.41 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Thermoplastic Resins § 414.41 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  12. 40 CFR 414.61 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Commodity Organic Chemicals § 414.61 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

  13. 40 CFR 414.31 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Other Fibers § 414.31 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  14. 40 CFR 414.22 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Rayon Fibers § 414.22 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the...

  15. 40 CFR 414.81 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Specialty Organic Chemicals § 414.81 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

  16. 40 CFR 414.32 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Other Fibers § 414.32 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the...

  17. 40 CFR 414.62 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Commodity Organic Chemicals § 414.62 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  18. 40 CFR 414.51 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Thermosetting Resins § 414.51 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  19. 40 CFR 414.33 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Other Fibers § 414.33 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the...

  20. 40 CFR 414.82 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Specialty Organic Chemicals § 414.82 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  1. 40 CFR 414.71 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Bulk Organic Chemicals § 414.71 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  2. 40 CFR 415.402 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control... SOURCE CATEGORY Fluorine Production Subcategory § 415.402 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control...

  3. 40 CFR 463.17 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Contact... effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology...

  4. 40 CFR 463.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Contact... effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically achievable...

  5. 40 CFR 463.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

  6. 40 CFR 440.82 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Vanadium Ore... effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology currently...

  7. 40 CFR 446.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PAINT FORMULATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Oil-Base Solvent Wash Paint Subcategory § 446.13 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  8. 40 CFR 463.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Finishing Water Subcategory § 463.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  9. 40 CFR 463.37 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Finishing Water Subcategory § 463.37 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  10. 40 CFR 463.27 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cleaning Water Subcategory § 463.27 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  11. 40 CFR 463.23 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cleaning Water Subcategory § 463.23 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  12. 40 CFR 440.75 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Nickel Ore Subcategory... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). ...

  13. 40 CFR 440.92 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Antimony Ore... application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). ...

  14. 40 CFR 440.55 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Ore Subcategory... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). ...

  15. 40 CFR 440.45 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mercury Ore Subcategory... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). ...

  16. 40 CFR 440.15 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Iron Ore Subcategory § 440... of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). ...

  17. 40 CFR 440.95 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Antimony Ore Subcategory... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). ...

  18. 40 CFR 440.112 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Platinum Ores... application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). ...

  19. 40 CFR 440.25 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Ore Subcategory... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). ...

  20. 40 CFR 440.115 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Platinum Ores... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BTC). ...

  1. 40 CFR 440.65 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tungsten Ore Subcategory... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). ...

  2. 40 CFR 471.91 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... discharge of process wastewater pollutants. (f) Heat treatment contact cooling water. Subpart I—BPT... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology... effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology currently...

  3. 40 CFR 463.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY... reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology currently available...

  4. 40 CFR 463.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY... reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology currently available...

  5. 40 CFR 440.85 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Vanadium Ore Subcategory... reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). ...

  6. 40 CFR 421.152 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control... effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology currently... Raffinate from Bertrandite Ore. BPT Limitations for the Primary Beryllium Subcategory Pollutant or pollutant...

  7. 40 CFR 471.81 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... be no discharge of process wastewater pollutants. (g) Heat treatment contact cooling water. Subpart H... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology... reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT...

  8. 40 CFR 440.22 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Ore... application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). Except as provided in...

  9. 40 CFR 440.12 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Iron Ore... application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). Except as provided in...

  10. 40 CFR 440.62 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tungsten Ore... application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). Except as provided in...

  11. 40 CFR 440.42 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mercury Ore... application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). Except as provided in...

  12. 40 CFR 440.142 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Gold Placer Mine... application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). Except as provided in 40 CFR...

  13. 40 CFR 440.72 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Nickel Ore... application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). Except as provided in...

  14. 40 CFR 471.52 - Effluent limitations representating the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Refractory Metals Forming Subcategory § 471.52 Effluent limitations representating the degree of... attainable by the application of the best available technology economically achievable (BAT): (a) Rolling...

  15. 40 CFR 471.72 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (c) Heat treatment contact cooling water. Subpart G—BAT Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for... shall be no discharge of process wastewater pollutants. (e) Surface treatment spent baths. Subpart G—BAT... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically...

  16. 40 CFR 471.82 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Stationary casting contact cooling water—Subpart H—BAT. There shall be no discharge of process wastewater pollutants. (g) Heat treatment contact cooling water. Subpart H—BAT Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically...

  17. 40 CFR 471.61 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...—BPT. There shall be no discharge of process wastewater pollutants. (l) Heat treatment contact cooling water—Subpart F—BPT. There shall be no allowance for the discharge of process wastewater pollutants. (m... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

  18. 40 CFR 467.13 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology economically achievable. The mass of pollutants in the core and ancillary operations' process... Zinc 0.00287 0.0012 Aluminum 0.0127 0.0062 Subpart A Solution Heat Treatment Contact Cooling Water... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically...

  19. 40 CFR 471.71 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Within the range of 7.5 to 10.0 at all times. (c) Heat treatment contact cooling water. Subpart G—BPT... lubricants—Subpart G—BPT. There shall be no discharge of process wastewater pollutants. (e) Surface treatment... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

  20. 40 CFR 426.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Insulation Fiberglass Subcategory § 426.12 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  1. 40 CFR 471.12 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Lead-Tin-Bismuth Forming Subcategory § 471.12 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent... attainable by the application of the best available technology economically achievable (BAT): (a) Rolling...

  2. 40 CFR 471.22 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Magnesium Forming Subcategory § 471.22 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction... application of the best available technology economically achievable (BAT): (a) Rolling spent emulsions...

  3. 40 CFR 471.62 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Forming Subcategory § 471.62 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction... 60.1 26.7 (k) Tube reducing spent lubricants—Subpart F—BAT. There shall be no discharge of process...

  4. 40 CFR 471.32 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Nickel-Cobalt Forming Subcategory § 471.32 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction... nickel-cobalt rolled with water Chromium 0.028 0.011 Nickel 0.042 0.028 Fluoride 4.49 1.99 (d) Tube...

  5. 40 CFR 421.132 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... attainable by the application of the best practicable technology currently available: (a) Subpart M—Battery... Lead .283 .135 Zinc .983 .411 Ammonia (as N) .000 .000 Total suspended solids 27.600 13.130 pH (1) (1... Furnace Wet Air Pollution Control BPT Effluent Limitations Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any...

  6. 40 CFR 420.72 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hot Forming... tube mills, carbon and specialty. Subpart G Pollutant or pollutant property BPT effluent limitations...

  7. 40 CFR 417.83 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Soaps Subcategory § 417.83 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of...

  8. 40 CFR 417.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Soap Manufacturing by Fatty Acid Neutralization Subcategory § 417.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the...

  9. 40 CFR 417.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Fatty Acid Manufacturing by Fat Splitting Subcategory § 417.22 Effluent limitations guidelines...

  10. 40 CFR 417.82 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Soaps Subcategory § 417.82 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the...

  11. 40 CFR 417.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Soap Manufacturing by Batch Kettle Subcategory § 417.12 Effluent limitations guidelines...

  12. 40 CFR 417.62 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Soap Flakes and Powders Subcategory § 417.62 Effluent limitations guidelines...

  13. 40 CFR 417.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Soap Manufacturing by Fatty Acid Neutralization Subcategory § 417.32 Effluent limitations...

  14. 40 CFR 417.63 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Soap Flakes and Powders Subcategory § 417.63 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the...

  15. 40 CFR 417.73 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Bar Soaps Subcategory § 417.73 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of...

  16. 40 CFR 417.72 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Bar Soaps Subcategory § 417.72 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the...

  17. 40 CFR 417.23 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Fatty Acid Manufacturing by Fat Splitting Subcategory § 417.23 Effluent limitations guidelines representing...

  18. 40 CFR 421.53 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Electrolytic Copper Refining Subcategory § 421.53 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of... .063 .030 Nickel .027 .018 (d) Subpart E—Casting Wet Air Pollution Control. BAT Effluent Limitations...

  19. 40 CFR 417.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Soap Manufacturing by Batch Kettle Subcategory § 417.13 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of...

  20. 40 CFR 471.21 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Magnesium Forming Subcategory § 471.21 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent... available (BPT): (a) Rolling spent emulsions. Subpart B—BPT Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any...

  1. 40 CFR 407.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.22 Effluent limitations guidelines... available (BPT): Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values for 30 consecutive days shall not exceed— Metric units (kilograms per 1,000 kg of raw material) BOD5 1...

  2. 40 CFR 407.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.12 Effluent limitations guidelines... available (BPT): Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values for 30 consecutive days shall not exceed— Metric units (kilograms per 1,000 kg of raw material) BOD5 0...

  3. 40 CFR 471.92 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zirconium-Hafnium Forming Subcategory § 471.92 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent... 0.006 Cyanide 0.010 0.004 Nickel 0.066 0.044 Ammonia 4.57 2.01 Fluoride 2.04 0.906 (g) Tube Reducing...

  4. 40 CFR 436.192 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Frasch Sulfur Subcategory § 436.192 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent... section for operations mining anhydrite deposits, any existing point source subject to this subpart shall...

  5. 40 CFR 440.32 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and Vanadium Ores Subcategory § 440.32 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent... or underground, from which uranium, radium and vanadium ores are produced excluding mines using in... acid leach, alkaline leach or combined acid and alkaline leach process for the extraction of uranium...

  6. 40 CFR 435.44 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... shall not exceed 72 mg/l and the 30-day average shall not exceed 48 mg/l. Drilling Fluids and Drill... drilling fluids, drill cuttings, and dewatering effluent Free Oil No discharge. 2 Non-aqueous drilling fluids and dewatering effluent No discharge. Drill cuttings associated with non-aqueous drilling fluids...

  7. 40 CFR 468.12 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS COPPER FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Copper Forming Subcategory § 468.12...—Hot Rolling Spent Lubricant BAT Effluent Limitations. Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly average Metric units—mg/off-kg of copper or copper alloy hot rolled...

  8. 40 CFR 471.11 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Lead-Tin-Bismuth Forming Subcategory § 471.11 Effluent limitations representing the degree of... technology currently available (BPT): (a) Rolling spent emulsions. Subpart A—BPT Pollutant or pollutant...

  9. 40 CFR 406.62 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Parboiled Rice... Effluent limitations Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values for 30 consecutive days shall not exceed— Metric units (kilograms per 1,000 kg of rice) BOD5 0.42 0.14 TSS 0.24 .08 pH (1) (1) English units...

  10. 40 CFR 464.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... plants that are casting primarily ductile or gray iron and to plants that are casting primarily malleable iron where greater than 3,557 tons of metal are poured per year. BAT Effluent Limitations Pollutant or... where equal to or less than 3,557 tons of metal are poured per year. BAT Effluent Limitations Pollutant...

  11. 40 CFR 457.12 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS EXPLOSIVES MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Explosives Subcategory § 457.12 Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of... this paragraph, which may be discharged from the manufacture of explosives by a point source subject to...

  12. 40 CFR 457.32 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS EXPLOSIVES MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Explosives Load, Assemble, and Pack Plants Subcategory § 457.32 Effluent limitations and guidelines... properties, controlled by this paragraph, which may be discharged from the explosives load, assemble and pack...

  13. 40 CFR 446.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology currently available. 446.12 Section 446.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PAINT FORMULATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Oil-Base Solvent Wash Paint Subcategory § 446.12 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of...

  14. 40 CFR 428.62 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations guidelines... technology currently available. 428.62 Section 428.62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Medium...

  15. 40 CFR 428.63 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations guidelines... economically achievable. 428.63 Section 428.63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Medium-Sized General...

  16. 40 CFR 420.103 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cold Forming...) Cold worked pipe and tube—(1) Using water. Subpart J Pollutant or pollutant property BAT effluent... for lead and zinc when cold forming wastewaters are treated with descaling or combination acid...

  17. 40 CFR 420.102 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cold Forming.... (b) Cold worked pipe and tube—(1) Using water. Subpart J Pollutant of pollutant property BPT effluent... and nickel shall be applicable in lieu of those for lead and zinc when cold forming wastewaters are...

  18. 40 CFR 471.31 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Nickel-Cobalt Forming Subcategory § 471.31 Effluent limitations representing the degree of... 7.5 to 10.0 at all times. (d) Tube Reducing Spent Lubricant—Subpart C—BPT. (1) There shall be no...

  19. 40 CFR 415.362 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....30 through 125.32 any existing point source subject to this subpart and producing copper carbonate... AJ—Copper Carbonate Pollutant or pollutant property BPT effluent limitations Maximum for any 1 day... SOURCE CATEGORY Copper Salts Production Subcategory § 415.362 Effluent limitations guidelines...

  20. 40 CFR 406.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Normal Wheat Flour Milling... limitations establish the quantity or quality of pollutants or pollutant properties which may be discharged by...

  1. 40 CFR 415.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415.22 Effluent limitations guidelines...—Aluminum Sulfate Pollutant or pollutant property BPT limitations Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily...

  2. 40 CFR 421.223 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Molybdenum filtrate solvent extraction raffinate. BAT Limitations for the Secondary Molybdenum and Vanadium... Molybdenum and Vanadium Subcategory § 421.223 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of.... BAT Limitations for the Secondary Molybdenum and Vanadium Subcategory Pollutant or pollutant property...

  3. 40 CFR 440.103 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... that use dump, heap, in situ leach or vat-leach processes to extract copper from ores or ore waste..., Zinc, Gold, Silver, and Molybdenum Ores Subcategory § 440.103 Effluent limitations representing the... copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, or molybdenum bearing ores or any combination of these ores from open...

  4. 40 CFR 440.102 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... which employ dump, heap, in situ leach or vat leach processes for the extraction of copper from ores or...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Copper, Lead, Zinc, Gold... obtain copper bearing ores, lead bearing ores, zinc bearing ores, gold bearing ores, or silver bearing...

  5. 40 CFR 423.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS STEAM ELECTRIC POWER GENERATING POINT SOURCE... such as those commonly used for transformer fluid. (3) The quantity of pollutants discharged from low... concentration for any time (mg/l) TSS 50 (10) Any untreated overflow from facilities designed, constructed, and...

  6. 40 CFR 415.223 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to this subpart and producing titanium dioxide by the sulfate process must achieve the following... CATEGORY Titanium Dioxide Production Subcategory § 415.223 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the..., any existing point source subject to this subpart and producing titanium dioxide by the chloride...

  7. 40 CFR 415.222 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... point source subject to this subpart and producing titanium dioxide by the sulfate process must achieve... SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Dioxide Production Subcategory § 415.222 Effluent limitations guidelines... application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT): Subpart V—Titanium Dioxide...

  8. 40 CFR 421.133 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... application of the best available technology economically achievable: (a) Subpart M—Battery Cracking. BAT...) Subpart M—Casting Contact Cooling. BAT Effluent Limitations Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for... Lead .000 .000 Zinc .000 .000 Ammonia (as N) .000 .000 (h) Subpart M—Battery Case Classification. BAT...

  9. 40 CFR 415.367 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... existing point source subject to this subpart and producing copper carbonate must achieve the following... CATEGORY Copper Salts Production Subcategory § 415.367 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the... this subpart and producing copper sulfate, copper chloride, copper iodide, or copper nitrate must...

  10. 40 CFR 430.122 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Filter, Non-Woven, and Paperboard From Purchased Pulp Subcategory § 430.122 Effluent limitations... available (BPT), except that non-continuous dischargers shall not be subject to the maximum day and average... Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values for 30 consecutive days Non-continuous dischargers...

  11. 40 CFR 430.124 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Filter, Non-Woven, and Paperboard From Purchased Pulp Subcategory § 430.124 Effluent limitations... best available technology economically achievable (BAT). Non-continuous dischargers shall not be... limitations. Concentration limitations are only applicable to non-continuous dischargers. Permittees not using...

  12. 40 CFR 417.153 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... operation of spray drying towers as defined above, the following values pertain: Effluent characteristic...) 1 Within the range 6.0 to 9.0. (b) For air quality restricted operation of a spray drying tower, but...— Metric units (kilograms per 1,000 kg of anhydrous product) BOD5 0.02 0.01 COD 0.08 .04 TSS 0.04 .02...

  13. 40 CFR 407.82 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES... Mayonnaise and dressings 0.37 0.24 0.17 Soups 4.14 2.46 1.69 Tomato-starch-cheese canned specialties 1.87 1... Soups 7.38 5.09 3.10 Tomato-starch-cheese canned specialties 3.31 2.23 1.30 (c) The following...

  14. 40 CFR 439.14 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of best available technology economically...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Fermentation Products § 439.14 Effluent limitations attainable by the... effluent limitations representing the application of BAT: Effluent Limitations (BAT) Regulated parameter...

  15. Fast microbial reduction of ferrihydrite colloids from a soil effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzsche, Andreas; Bosch, Julian; Rennert, Thilo; Heister, Katja; Braunschweig, Juliane; Meckenstock, Rainer U.; Totsche, Kai U.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies on the microbial reduction of synthetic iron oxide colloids showed their superior electron accepting property in comparison to bulk iron oxides. However, natural colloidal iron oxides differ in composition from their synthetic counterparts. Besides a potential effect of colloid size, microbial iron reduction may be accelerated by electron-shuttling dissolved organic matter (DOM) as well as slowed down by inhibitors such as arsenic. We examined the microbial reduction of OM- and arsenic-containing ferrihydrite colloids. Four effluent fractions were collected from a soil column experiment run under water-saturated conditions. Ferrihydrite colloids precipitated from the soil effluent and exhibited stable hydrodynamic diameters ranging from 281 (±146) nm in the effluent fraction that was collected first and 100 (±43) nm in a subsequently obtained effluent fraction. Aliquots of these oxic effluent fractions were added to anoxic low salt medium containing diluted suspensions of Geobacter sulfurreducens. Independent of the initial colloid size, the soil effluent ferrihydrite colloids were quickly and completely reduced. The rates of Fe2+ formation ranged between 1.9 and 3.3 fmol h-1 cell-1, and are in the range of or slightly exceeding previously reported rates of synthetic ferrihydrite colloids (1.3 fmol h-1 cell-1), but greatly exceeding previously known rates of macroaggregate-ferrihydrite reduction (0.07 fmol h-1 cell-1). The inhibition of microbial Fe(III) reduction by arsenic is unlikely or overridden by the concurrent enhancement induced by soil effluent DOM. These organic species may have increased the already high intrinsic reducibility of colloidal ferrihydrite owing to quinone-mediated electron shuttling. Additionally, OM, which is structurally associated with the soil effluent ferrihydrite colloids, may also contribute to the higher reactivity due to increasing solubility and specific surface area of ferrihydrite. In conclusion, ferrihydrite

  16. 40 CFR 439.12 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PHARMACEUTICAL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Fermentation Products § 439.12 Effluent limitations attainable... and solvents remaining after the practices of recovery and/or separate disposal or reuse. These... of recovery, and/or separate disposal or reuse include: physical separation and removal of separable...

  17. 40 CFR 439.52 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PHARMACEUTICAL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Research § 439.52 Effluent limitations attainable by the... practices of recovery and/or separate disposal or reuse. Residual amounts of these substances may be.../or separate disposal or reuse include: recovery of solvents from wastestreams; and incineration of...

  18. 40 CFR 439.22 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PHARMACEUTICAL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Extraction Products § 439.22 Effluent limitations attainable.../or separate disposal or reuse. Residual amounts of these substances may be included in the calculation of the average influent BOD5 loading. (3) The practices of recovery, and/or separate disposal or...

  19. Biological assessment for the effluent reduction program, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, S.P.

    1996-08-01

    This report describes the biological assessment for the effluent recution program proposed to occur within the boundaries of Los Alamos National Laboratory. Potential effects on wetland plants and on threatened and endangered species are discussed, along with a detailed description of the individual outfalls resulting from the effluent reduction program.

  20. Process for the reduction of nitrogen oxides in an effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epperly, W.R.; Sullivan, J.C.

    1988-09-13

    A process is described for reducing the concentration of nitrogen oxides in an effluent from the combustion of a carbonaceous fuel, which process comprises injecting into the effluent ammonia and an enhancer selected from the group consisting of hexamethylenetetramine, a lower carbon alcohol, a hydroxyl amino hydrocarbon, sugar, furfural, furfural derivatives, an amino acid, a protein-containing composition, mixtures of ortho-, meta-, and para-methyl phenols, guanidine, guanidine carbonate, biguanidine, guanylurea sulfate, melamine, dicyandiamide, calcium cyanamide, biuret, 1,1'-azobisformamide, methylol urea, methylol urea-urea condensation product, dimethylol urea, methyl urea, dimethyl urea, and mixtures thereof, at an effluent temperature above about 1300/sup 0/F and a molar ratio of nitrogen in the ammonia and enhancer to the baseline nitrogen oxides level of about 1:5 to about 6:1 wherein the excess of oxygen in the effluent is no greater than about 6%.

  1. Reduction of colorants in nylon flock dyeing effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qinguo; Hoskote, Sunil; Hou, Yuejun

    2001-02-01

    The batch dyeing of fiber materials such as staple fibers and flock is usually carried out by exhaustion methods. However, the dyeing of flock fibers, either nylon, PET or acetate, with acid or disperse dyes is not 100 percent efficient in terms of dye utilization. Optimally, only about 80 to 85% of the dyes used for dark shade in a dye bath can be exhausted onto the target fibers. Therefore, the remaining dyes in the spent dye bath are generally not reused and are usually discharged with minimum treatment, together with the dyeing chemicals into the sewage wastewater system causing environmental pollution. We are presenting technical solutions to reduce the colorants and chemical auxiliaries in the fiber dyeing effluents by: (1) optimizing the acid dyeing conditions such as salt addition and pH control; (2) reuse of the spent dye bath that remain after the original dyeing process. In the lab scale trials, we have successfully raised the acid dye exhaustion to over 90% by optimizing the dyeing conditions. The reuse of the spent acid dye bath also showed promising results with dye exhaustion ranging from 91 to 93% after 4 times reuse.

  2. A reduction in mining and industrial effluents in the Blesbokspruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-10-05

    Oct 5, 2015 ... ent reduction in salt levels or ionic concentrations as well as no acidic waters running through the Blesbokspruit Wetland. (Ramsar Convention Secretariat, 1996; South African Wetlands. Conservation Programme, 1999; Ramsar, 2012). Achieving desirable water conditions in Ramsar terms could help ...

  3. 40 CFR 432.107 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best control technology for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MEAT... TSS limitations for process wastewater associated with cattle hide curing, in addition to the...

  4. 40 CFR 437.13 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best available technology economically...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CENTRALIZED WASTE TREATMENT POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Metals Treatment and Recovery § 437.13 Effluent limitations... antimony, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, silver, tin, titanium...

  5. 40 CFR 419.53 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... feedstock) Phenolic compounds (4AAP): Crude 0.037 0.009 Cracking and coking 0.419 0.102 Asphalt 0.226 0.055... Reforming and alkylation 0.0196 0.0088 English units (pounds per 1,000 bbl of feedstock) Phenolic compounds... flow) Phenolic compounds (4AAP) 0.35 0.17 Total chromium 0.60 0.21 Hexavalent chromium 0.062 0.028 COD...

  6. 40 CFR 419.42 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 360.0 187.0 Oil and grease 16.2 8.5 Phenolic compounds 0.38 0.184 Ammonia as N 23.4 10.6 Sulfide 0.33...) BOD5 48. 26. TSS 33. 21. COD 1 360. 180. Oil and grease 15. 8. Phenolic compounds (4AAP) 0.35 0.17... gallons of flow) BOD5 0.40 0.22 TSS 0.28 0.18 COD 1 3.0 1.5 Oil and grease 0.13 0.067 Phenolic compounds...

  7. 40 CFR 419.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... days shall not exceed Metric units (kilograms per 1,000 cubic meters of feedstock) Phenolic compounds... alkylation 0.0196 0.0088 English units (pounds per 1,000 bbl of feedstock) Phenolic compounds (4AAP): Crude 0... flow) Phenolic compounds (4AAP) 0.35 0.17 Total chromium 0.60 0.21 Hexavalent chromium 0.062 0.028 COD...

  8. 40 CFR 419.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... COD1 210.0 109 Oil and grease 8.4 4.5 Phenolic compounds 0.21 0.10 Ammonia as N 18.8 8.5 Sulfide 0.18 0...,000 bbl feedstock) BOD5 9.9 5.5 TSS 6.9 4.4 COD1 74.0 38.4 Oil and grease 3.0 1.6 Phenolic compounds 0... Phenolic compounds (4AAP) 0.0029 0.0014 Total chromium 0.0060 0.0035 Hexavalent chromium 0.00052 0.00023 pH...

  9. 40 CFR 419.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 10.1 COD 1 117.0 60.3 Oil and grease 6.9 3.7 Phenolic compounds 0.168 0.076 Ammonia as N 2.81 1.27... Phenolic compounds 0.060 0.027 Ammonia as N 0.99 0.45 Sulfide 0.053 0.024 Total chromium 0.122 0.071.... 8. Phenolic compounds (4AAP) 0.35 0.17 Total chromium 0.73 0.43 Hexavalent chromium 0.062 0.028 pH...

  10. 40 CFR 419.23 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Phenolic compounds (4AAP): Crude 0.037 0.009 Cracking and coking 0.419 0.102 Asphalt 0.226 0.055 Lube 1.055... Reforming and alkylation 0.0196 0.0088 English units (pounds per 1,000 bbl of feedstock) Phenolic compounds... flow) Phenolic compounds (4AAP) 0.35 0.17 Total chromium 0.60 0.21 Hexavalent chromium 0.062 0.028 COD...

  11. 40 CFR 419.52 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 23.7 COD 1 388.0 198.0 Oil and grease 17.1 9.1 Phenolic compounds 0.40 0.192 Ammonia as N 23.4 10.6... Phenolic compounds 0.14 0.068 Ammonia as N 8.3 3.8 Sulfide 0.124 0.056 Total chromium 0.29 0.17 Hexavalent.... 8. Phenolic compounds (4AAP) 0.35 0.17 Total chromium 0.73 0.43 Hexavalent chromium 0.062 0.028 pH...

  12. 40 CFR 421.262 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and wash water. BPT Limitations for the Secondary Precious Metals Subcategory Pollutant or pollutant... produced by electrolysis Copper 0.017 0.009 Cyanide (total) 0.003 0.001 Zinc 0.103 0.005 Ammonia (as N) 1...

  13. 40 CFR 421.263 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... raffinate and wash water. BAT Limitations for the Secondary Precious Metals Subcategory Pollutant or... gold produced by electrolysis Copper 0.0111 0.0053 Cyanide (total) 0.0017 0.0007 Zinc 0.0089 0.0037...

  14. 40 CFR 430.24 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Kappa number (annual average) Filtraterecycling Total pulping area condensate, evaporator condensate... bleaching processes. b Complete recycling to the chemical recovery system of all filtrates generated prior... bleach plant, pulping area and evaporator condensates flow and BAT parameters other than Adsorbable...

  15. 40 CFR 421.83 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... per million pounds) of concentrate leached Cadmium .180 .072 Copper 1.153 .550 Lead .252 .117 Zinc... zinc processed through leaching Cadmium .000 .000 Copper .000 .000 Lead .000 .000 Zinc .000 .000 (d... Maximum for monthly average mg/kg (pounds per million pounds) of zinc reduced Cadmium .334 .134 Copper 2...

  16. 40 CFR 435.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-92 method: “Standard Guide for Conducting 10-day Static Sediment Toxicity Tests with Marine and... Marine and Estuarine Amphipods,” 1992, after preparing the sediment according to the method specified in... Marine and Estuarine Amphipods,” 1992, after preparing the sediment according to the method specified in...

  17. 40 CFR 409.82 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...): (a) Any cane sugar factory continuously discharging both barometric condenser cooling water and other... factory employing waste stabilization where all or a portion of the waste water discharge is stored for... (b) and (c), 306 (b) and (c), 307 (c) and (d) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended...

  18. 40 CFR 419.43 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... chromium. Refinery process Process feedstock rate 1,000 bbl/day 1. Atmospheric crude distillation 100 2. Crude desalting 50 3. Vacuum crude distillation 75 Total crude processes (C) 225 6. Fluid catalytic...

  19. 40 CFR 421.252 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly average mg/troy ounce of gold refined electrolytically... Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly average mg/troy ounce of gold and silver smelted Lead 0.546 0.260 Mercury 0.325 0.130 Silver 0.533 0.221 Zinc 1.898 0.793 Gold 0.130 Oil...

  20. 40 CFR 421.253 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gold refined electrolytically Lead 5.544 2.574 Mercury 2.970 1.188 Silver 5.742 2.376 Zinc 20.200 8.316... pollutant property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly average mg/troy ounce of gold and silver smelted Lead 0.364 0.169 Mercury 0.195 0.078 Silver 0.377 0.156 Zinc 1.326 0.546 Gold 0.130 (b) Silver...

  1. 40 CFR 417.152 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... available (BPT): (a) For normal operation of spray drying towers as defined above, the following values... operation of a spray drying tower, but only when a high rate of wet scrubbing is in operation which produces... consecutive days shall not exceed— Metric units (kilograms per 1,000 kg of anhydrous product) BOD5 0.03 0.01...

  2. 40 CFR 420.77 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hot Forming Subcategory § 420.77... Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (d) Pipe and tube mills, carbon and specialty. Subpart G Pollutant or...

  3. 40 CFR 420.107 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cold Forming Subcategory § 420...) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (b) Cold worked pipe and tube—(1) Using water. Subpart J...

  4. 40 CFR 405.62 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... units (kilograms per 1,000 kg of BOD5 input) BOD5 0.976 0.488 TSS 1.462 .731 pH (1) (1) English units... for 30 consecutive days shall not exceed— Metric units (kilograms per 1,000 kg of BOD5 input) BOD5 0.716 0.290 TSS 1.088 .435 pH (1) (1) English units (pounds per 100 lb of BOD5 input) BOD5 0.073 0.029...

  5. 40 CFR 421.293 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (total) 0.007 0.003 Fluoride 1.225 0.697 Tin 0.013 0.008 (c) Tin mud acid neutralization filtrate. BAT... for monthly average mg/kg (pounds per million pounds) of neutralized dewatered tin mud produced Lead 1... electrowinning solution from municipal solid waste. BAT Limitations for the Secondary Tin Subcategory Pollutant...

  6. 40 CFR 421.292 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) (1) 1 Within the range of 7.5 to 10.0 at all times. (c) Tin mud acid neutralization filtrate. BPT... for monthly average mg/kg (pounds per million pounds) of neutralized, dewatered tin mud produced Lead... electrowinning solution from municipal solid waste. BPT Limitations for the Secondary Tin Subcategory Pollutant...

  7. 40 CFR 409.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... design, within the boundaries of all waste water treatment or retention facilities associated with the... maximum permissible discharge of process waste water pollutants when the process waste water discharge... maximum permissible discharge of process waste water pollutants when the process waste water discharge...

  8. 40 CFR 471.101 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... powder wet atomized Copper 9.58 5.04 Cyanide 1.46 0.605 Lead 2.12 1.01 Oil and grease 101 60.5 TSS 207 98... (pounds per million off-pounds) of powder sized Copper 0.028 0.015 Cyanide 0.004 0.002 Lead 0.006 0.003... (pounds per million off-pounds) of powder cooled after pressing Copper 16.7 8.80 Cyanide 2.55 1.06 Lead 3...

  9. 40 CFR 421.282 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... powder produced Copper 438.100 230.600 Lead 96.850 46.120 Nickel 442.800 292.900 Zinc 336.700 140.700... pounds) of tantalum powder produced from leaching Copper 38.380 20.200 Lead 8.484 4.040 Nickel 38.780 25... powder produced Copper 0.665 0.350 Lead 0.147 0.070 Nickel 0.672 0.445 Zinc 0.511 0.214 Tantalum 0.158...

  10. 40 CFR 421.283 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pounds) of equivalent pure tantalum powder produced Copper 262.800 125.200 Lead 57.480 26.690 Nickel 112... tantalum powder produced Copper 6.246 2.977 Lead 1.366 0.634 Nickel 2.684 1.806 Zinc 4.978 2.050 Tantalum 2... Maximum for monthly average mg/kg (pounds per million pounds) of tantalum powder produced Copper 295.200...

  11. 40 CFR 471.102 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... powder production atomization wastewater. Subpart J—BAT Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1...-pounds) or powder sized Copper 0.028 0.015 Cyanide 0.004 0.002 Lead 0.006 0.003 (c) Oil-resin... million off-pounds) of powder cooled after pressing Copper 16.7 8.80 Cyanide 2.55 1.06 Lead 3.70 1.760 (j...

  12. 40 CFR 420.122 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... best practicable control technology currently available. (a) Galvanizing, terne coating, and other... shall apply only to galvanizing operations which discharge wastewaters from the chromate rinse step. 2 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) (b) Galvanizing and other coatings—(1) Wire products and fasteners...

  13. 40 CFR 420.123 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... best available technology economically achievable. (a) Galvanizing, terne coating and other coatings—(1... 0.0000501 1 The limitations for hexavalent chromium shall be applicable only to galvanizing operations which discharge wastewater from the chromate rinse step. (2) (b) Galvanizing and other coatings—(1...

  14. 40 CFR 420.127 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Galvanizing, terne coating, and other coatings—(1) Strip, sheet, and miscellaneous products. Subpart L...) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) (b) Galvanizing and other coatings—(1) Wire products and...

  15. 40 CFR 471.41 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... soap solutions. Subpart D—BPT Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly average mg/off-kg (pounds per million off-pounds) of precious metals drawn with soap solutions Cadmium 0... water. Subpart D—BPT Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly average...

  16. 40 CFR 471.42 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....048 Cyanide 0.014 0.006 Silver 0.020 0.008 (e) Drawing spent soap solutions. Subpart D—BAT Pollutant... off-pounds) of precious metals drawn with soap solutions Cadmium 0.001 0.0005 Copper 0.006 0.003... Cyanide 1.94 0.802 Silver 2.74 1.14 (g) Heat treatment contact cooling water. Subpart D—BAT Pollutant or...

  17. 40 CFR 435.52 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... produced water) associated with production, field exploration, drilling, well completion, or well treatment (i.e., drilling muds, drill cuttings, and produced sands). (b) Produced water discharges shall not...

  18. 40 CFR 421.222 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....660 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 7.5 to 10.0 at all times. (c) Vanadium decomposition wet air....000 3551.000 Total Suspended Solids 799.950 380.460 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 7.5 to 10.0 at....000 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 7.5 to 10.0 at all times. (d) Molybdenum drying wet air pollution...

  19. 40 CFR 432.102 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MEAT... curing that apply in addition to the limitation specified in paragraph (a) of this section: lbs BOD5/1000...

  20. Reduction in acute ecotoxicity of paper mill effluent by sequential application of xylanase and laccase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Sudha Dhiman

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the ecotoxicity of paper mill, four different enzymatic pretreatment strategies were investigated in comparison to conventional chemical based processes. In strategy I, xylanase-aided pretreatment of pulp was carried out, and in strategy II, xylanase and laccase-mediator systems were used sequentially. Moreover, to compare the efficiency of Bacillus stearothermophilus xylanase and Ceriporiopsis subvermispora laccase in the reduction of ecotoxicity and pollution, parallel strategies (III and IV were implemented using commercial enzymes. Conventional C(DE(OPD(1D(2 (C(D, Cl(2 with ClO2; EOP, H2O2 extraction; D1 and D2, ClO2 and X/XLC(DE(OPD(1D(2 (X, xylanase; L, laccase sequences were employed with non-enzymatic and enzymatic strategies, respectively. Acute toxicity was determined by the extent of inhibition of bioluminescence of Vibrio fischeri with different dilutions of the effluent. Two-fold increase was observed in EC50 values for strategy I compared to the control process. On the other hand, sequential application of commercial enzymes resulted in higher acute toxicity compared to lab enzymes. In comparison to the control process, strategy II was the most efficient and successfully reduced 60.1 and 25.8% of biological oxygen demand (BOD and color of effluents, respectively. We report for the first time the comparative analysis of the ecotoxicity of industrial effluents.

  1. 40 CFR 437.11 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CENTRALIZED WASTE TREATMENT POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Metals Treatment and Recovery § 437.11 Effluent limitations... (2) (2) TSS 60.0 31.0 Metal Parameters Antimony 0.249 0.206 Arsenic 0.162 0.104 Cadmium 0.474 0.0962...

  2. 40 CFR 451.21 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CONCENTRATED AQUATIC ANIMAL PRODUCTION POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Net Pen Subcategory § 451.21 Effluent limitations... rates of aquatic animal growth. These strategies must minimize the accumulation of uneaten food beneath... aquatic animals including blood, viscera, aquatic animal carcasses, or transport water containing blood...

  3. Performance evaluation of low cost adsorbents in reduction of COD in sugar industrial effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parande, Anand K., E-mail: corrparande@yahoo.co.in [Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi 630 006, Tamilnadu (India); Sivashanmugam, A.; Beulah, H.; Palaniswamy, N. [Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi 630 006, Tamilnadu (India)

    2009-09-15

    Studies on reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in effluent from sugar industry have been carried out by employing different absorbents optimizing various parameters, such as initial concentration of adsorbate, pH, adsorbent dosage and contact time. Experimental studies were carried out in batches using metakaolin, tamarind nut carbon and dates nut carbon as adsorbents by keeping initial adsorbent dosage at 1 g l{sup -1}, agitation time over a range of 30-240 min, adsorbent dosage at 100-800 mg l{sup -1} by varying the pH range from 4 to 10. Characterization of there adsorbents were done using techniques such as Fourier transforms infra red spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The experimental adsorption data fitted well to Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. The isotherms of the adsorbents indicate appreciable adsorption capacity. Higher COD removal was observed at neutral pH conditions. Studies reveal that maximum reduction efficiency of COD takes place using metakaolin as an absorbent at a dosage of 500 mg l{sup -1} in a contact time of 180 min at pH 7 and it could be used as an efficient absorbent for treating sugar industrial effluent.

  4. Increasing educational attainment and mortality reduction: a systematic review and taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byhoff, Elena; Hamati, Mary C; Power, Robyn; Burgard, Sarah A; Chopra, Vineet

    2017-09-18

    Understanding the relationship between increasing educational attainment and mortality reduction has important policy and public health implications. This systematic review of the literature establishes a taxonomy to facilitate evaluation of the association between educational attainment and early mortality. Following PRISMA guidelines, we searched Ovid Medline, Embase, PubMed and hand searches of references for English-language primary data analyses using education as an independent variable and mortality as a dependent variable. Initial searches were undertaken in February 2015 and updated in April 2016. One thousand, seven hundred and eleven unique articles were identified, 418 manuscripts were screened and 262 eligible studies were included in the review. After an iterative review process, the literature was divided into four study domains: (1) all-cause mortality (n = 68, 26.0%), (2) outcome-specific mortality (n = 89, 34.0%), (3) explanatory pathways (n = 51, 19.5%), and (4) trends over time (n = 54, 20.6%). These four domains comprise a novel taxonomy that can be implemented to better quantify the relationship between education and mortality. We propose an organizational taxonomy for the education-mortality literature based upon study characteristics that will allow for a more in-depth understanding of this association. Our review suggests that studies that include mediators or subgroups can explain part, but not all, of the relationship between education and early mortality. PROSPERO registration # CRD42015017182 .

  5. COD reduction of textile effluent in three-phase fluidized bed bioreactor using Pseudomonas aureofaciens and Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sur, Dharmesh H; Mukhopadhyay, Mausumi

    2017-06-01

    This paper investigated the effect of mixed cultures of Pseudomonas aureofaciens and Escherichia coli and air as gas on degradation of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in three-phase inverse fluidized beds (TPIFBs) for textile effluents with initial COD of 1200 ppm (effluent 1) and 640 ppm (effluent 2). Investigators focused on the importance of different design of gas spargers of the TPIFB for checking its effect on COD reduction performance. For this purpose, four different gas spargers were fabricated for gas flow entry into bioreactor with different  % open area: Gas sparger 1 (18% open area), sparger 2 (10.42% open area), sparger 3 (8.077% open area) and sparger 4 (1.53% open area). These percentage open area decided the amount of gas flow in a unit time in batch studies, which in turn rely mainly on superficial gas velocity. The reduction in COD was measured at two different superficial gas velocity (0.00343 and 0.004068 m/s) and at two ratio of static bed height to diameter (H/D) of 0.5 and 0.25 in an aerobic mode. Textile effluent 1 resulted in 98.07% COD reduction with sparger 3 and discharged at 23.14 ppm in 28 h. Textile effluent 2 resulted in 96.5% COD reduction with sparger 2 and discharged at 22.4 ppm in 22 h. The resulting COD values of Effluent 1 and effluent 2 were in range of discharge limit and resulted at a low gas velocity of 0.00343 m/s and low H/D ratio of 0.25. The gas holdup correlation was found to be ε g = 0.0064 U g(0.98) .

  6. Reduction of antibiotic resistance genes in municipal wastewater effluent by advanced oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingying; Zhuang, Yao; Geng, Jinju; Ren, Hongqiang; Xu, Ke; Ding, Lili

    2016-04-15

    This study investigated the reduction of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), intI1 and 16S rRNA genes, by advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), namely Fenton oxidation (Fe(2+)/H2O2) and UV/H2O2 process. The ARGs include sul1, tetX, and tetG from municipal wastewater effluent. The results indicated that the Fenton oxidation and UV/H2O2 process could reduce selected ARGs effectively. Oxidation by the Fenton process was slightly better than that of the UV/H2O2 method. Particularly, for the Fenton oxidation, under the optimal condition wherein Fe(2+)/H2O2 had a molar ratio of 0.1 and a H2O2 concentration of 0.01molL(-1) with a pH of 3.0 and reaction time of 2h, 2.58-3.79 logs of target genes were removed. Under the initial effluent pH condition (pH=7.0), the removal was 2.26-3.35 logs. For the UV/H2O2 process, when the pH was 3.5 with a H2O2 concentration of 0.01molL(-1) accompanied by 30min of UV irradiation, all ARGs could achieve a reduction of 2.8-3.5 logs, and 1.55-2.32 logs at a pH of 7.0. The Fenton oxidation and UV/H2O2 process followed the first-order reaction kinetic model. The removal of target genes was affected by many parameters, including initial Fe(2+)/H2O2 molar ratios, H2O2 concentration, solution pH, and reaction time. Among these factors, reagent concentrations and pH values are the most important factors during AOPs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. When is further reduction of low COD in pulp and paper mill effluents environmentally defendable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtinen, K.J.; Tana, J. [Environmental Research Group Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2000-06-01

    The pulp and paper industry has successfully decreased the emissions of organic material measured as COD (chemical oxygen demand). Between 1989 and 1997 the reduction was 54% in Finland. A local reduction of organic material in an external treatment plant has to be weighed both against the ecological benefit obtained in the receiving water as well as from the regional perspective through increased energy use and increased air emissions. If a further reduction of the organic material is not measurable in the aquatic environment it may be questioned if the increased use of external energy and capital investment is environmentally or economically defendable. Presently the concept of eco-efficiency is gaining ground and instead of sectorizing environmental emissions to different media the general emission picture to all media is being focussed upon. In a case study we have analysed the environmental cost-benefit of reducing the daily COD-discharge of 2.4 tons COD{sub cr} to > 1.8 tons at a small paper board mill in Finland. The mills present discharge converted to COD{sub Mn} increased the background river load (101 t COD{sub M}-N/d) by 0.93% and after the reduction the increase to background was calculated to be 0.7%. On the other hand the daily phosphorus load would increase from 0.7 kg to 4 kg with possible consequences on primary production. In order to achieve the anticipated COD reduction the mill had two choices: (1) Install an activated sludge treatment plant or (2) Install a bioreactor. The objectives with our calculation were to answer two questions: A. Is reduction of local discharges always beneficial for the local environment? and B. Is it possible that at a certain point a reduction of local discharges are in conflict with sustainable development? The results from the calculations showed that increased use of fossil energy would increase atmospheric carbon dioxide emissions by 103 (alt 2) or 650 t (alt 1) per year. At the same time the COD reduction would

  8. LDL-C reductions and goal attainment among naive statin users in the Netherlands: real life results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintjes, Edith M; Hirsch, Mark W; van der Linden, Michiel W; O'Donnell, John C; Stalenhoef, Anton F; Herings, Ron M C

    2008-08-01

    The effectiveness of statin therapy in a real life setting may differ from that in clinical trials, as physicians make non-randomised treatment decisions for patients with less uniform and possibly different characteristics. We therefore performed a study to compare the effectiveness of different statins and doses in routine clinical practice with respect to total serum cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) reduction and goal attainment according to European guidelines on the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Naive statin users starting treatment in 2003 and 2004 with LDL-C measurements at baseline and between 30 and 365 days after start of treatment were extracted from the PHARMO database. During treatment with their initial statin dose LDL-C reduction and attainment of cholesterol goals were compared between different statins and doses. Of 2303 identified naive patients, approximately 30% were allocated to the high CVD-risk group. Average LDL-C reductions were 48%, 42%, 39%, and 32% at mean doses of 11 mg rosuvastatin, 17 mg atorvastatin, 22 mg simvastatin and 35 mg pravastatin, respectively. The proportion of patients attaining cholesterol goals was 75% for rosuvastatin, 68% for atorvastatin, 56% for simvastatin, and 42% for pravastatin. Dose comparisons showed greater LDL-C reduction and increased goal attainment for rosuvastatin 10 mg compared to other statins at most doses (adjusted p < 0.05). In a real life setting, both LDL-C reduction and the proportion of patients attaining cholesterol goals appear to be significantly increased among users of rosuvastatin compared to other statins. These results confirm and extend reported clinical trial results to a real world setting.

  9. Reduction of antibiotic resistance genes in municipal wastewater effluent by advanced oxidation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yingying; Zhuang, Yao; Geng, Jinju, E-mail: jjgeng@nju.edu.cn; Ren, Hongqiang; Xu, Ke; Ding, Lili

    2016-04-15

    This study investigated the reduction of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), intI1 and 16S rRNA genes, by advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), namely Fenton oxidation (Fe{sup 2+}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process. The ARGs include sul1, tetX, and tetG from municipal wastewater effluent. The results indicated that the Fenton oxidation and UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process could reduce selected ARGs effectively. Oxidation by the Fenton process was slightly better than that of the UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} method. Particularly, for the Fenton oxidation, under the optimal condition wherein Fe{sup 2+}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} had a molar ratio of 0.1 and a H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration of 0.01 mol L{sup −1} with a pH of 3.0 and reaction time of 2 h, 2.58–3.79 logs of target genes were removed. Under the initial effluent pH condition (pH = 7.0), the removal was 2.26–3.35 logs. For the UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process, when the pH was 3.5 with a H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration of 0.01 mol L{sup −1} accompanied by 30 min of UV irradiation, all ARGs could achieve a reduction of 2.8–3.5 logs, and 1.55–2.32 logs at a pH of 7.0. The Fenton oxidation and UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process followed the first-order reaction kinetic model. The removal of target genes was affected by many parameters, including initial Fe{sup 2+}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} molar ratios, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration, solution pH, and reaction time. Among these factors, reagent concentrations and pH values are the most important factors during AOPs. - Highlights: • AOPs including Fenton oxidation and UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process could reduce ARGs effectively. • Fenton oxidation is slightly more effective than UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process in ARG reduction. • Removal of ARGs by AOPs follows the first-order reaction kinetic model. • Selected ARGs and 16S rRNA genes exhibit similar change trends during AOPs.

  10. Environmental assessment for effluent reduction, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-11

    The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to eliminate industrial effluent from 27 outfalls at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The Proposed Action includes both simple and extensive plumbing modifications, which would result in the elimination of industrial effluent being released to the environment through 27 outfalls. The industrial effluent currently going to about half of the 27 outfalls under consideration would be rerouted to LANL`s sanitary sewer system. Industrial effluent from other outfalls would be eliminated by replacing once-through cooling water systems with recirculation systems, or, in a few instances, operational changes would result in no generation of industrial effluent. After the industrial effluents have been discontinued, the affected outfalls would be removed from the NPDES Permit. The pipes from the source building or structure to the discharge point for the outfalls may be plugged, or excavated and removed. Other outfalls would remain intact and would continue to discharge stormwater. The No Action alternative, which would maintain the status quo for LANL`s outfalls, was also analyzed. An alternative in which industrial effluent would be treated at the source facilities was considered but dismissed from further analysis because it would not reasonably meet the DOE`s purpose for action, and its potential environmental effects were bounded by the analysis of the Proposed Action and the No Action alternatives.

  11. A comparative study on removal of chromium from water effluents by reduction and adsorption over different carbon materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagesh, N.; Krishnaiah, A. [Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Hyderabad (India)

    2002-07-01

    A method for removal of chromium from water effluents by adsorption process on different carbon materials is developed. A number of batch experiments were conducted on each adsorbent-adsorbate system at various pH values. The results illustrate that the reduction is maximum at pH1 and adsorption is maximum at pH2 and pH3, depending upon the adsorbent. From the results presented in this study, it is concluded that coconut shell carbon, bituminous coal, and activated charcoal are potential adsorbents for the removal of chromium from water effluents. All these carbon materials are useful for the removal of chromium from water effluents through adsorption. Among them, bituminous coal exhibits better adsorption and activated charcoal is effective in reducing Cr (VI) to Cr (III). Both for reduction and adsorption, maintaining an acidic environment is necessary. Adsorption and reduction with the carbon materials used will decrease when the media become basic. Further, it may be concluded that coconut shell carbon could be chosen on the basis of its low cost. 15 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Optimization of coagulation with ferric chloride as a pretreatment for fouling reduction during nanofiltration of rendering plant secondary effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racar, Marko; Dolar, Davor; Špehar, Ana; Kraš, Ana; Košutić, Krešimir

    2017-08-01

    The treatment and reuse of rendering plant wastewater with membrane processes is a poorly investigated area that could result in substantial water savings. Membrane fouling is still the main obstacle when treating secondary effluents (SEs) with high content of effluent organic matter (EfOM). Thus, the optimization of coagulation with ferric(III) chloride (FeCl3) as a pretreatment for nanofiltration was performed to reduce membrane fouling and achieve higher permeate quality. Coagulation was modeled (total carbon, inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), turbidity, conductivity, and resulting pH) and optimized with response surface methodology (RSM) to remove DOC and turbidity with a pH close to neutral. The effluent after coagulation at optimal conditions (5.58 pH and 26.38 mg L(-1) of Fe(3+)) and sand filtration (SF) was subjected to nanofiltration (NF270, NF, and NF90 membranes). The fouling was compared to evaluate the efficiency of each pretreatment. Coagulation with FeCl3 reduced the flux decline of nanofiltration membranes 4.2 to 19.3 times while SF barely reduced the fouling. Coagulation increased the flux recovery and chemical cleanliness after the membrane washing. In addition to fouling reduction, higher permeate quality was achieved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Chromate Reduction in Serratia marcescens Isolated from Tannery Effluent and Potential Application for Bioremediation of Chromate Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Mondaca

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollution of aquatic systems by heavy metals has resulted in increasing environmental concern because they cannot be biodegraded. One metal that gives reason for concern due to its toxicity is chromium. Cr(VI and Cr(III are the principal forms of chromium found in natural waters. A chromate-resistant strain of the bacterium S. marcescens was isolated from tannery effluent. The strain was able to reduce Cr(VI to Cr(III, and about 80% of chromate was removed from the medium. The reduction seems to occur on the cell surface. Transmission electron microscopic examination of cells revealed that particles were deposited on the outside of bacterial cells. A stable biofilm was formed in less than 10 h, reaching around 1010 cfu attached per milligram of activated carbon. These findings demonstrate that immobilized S. marcescens might be used in industrial waste treatment processes.

  14. Utilisation of respirometry to assess organic matter reduction of effluents from the Camaçari industrial complex (BA, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla A. Oliveira

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The treatment efficiency of industrial effluents, after biological treatment by activated sludge in aeration tanks (AT, was assessed through the utilisation of respirometry tests at the Cetrel's-wastewater treatment plant (WTP. Samples of the equalised effluent (EE, prior to treatment, and of the treated effluent (TE, after treatment, were analysed. Twenty bioassays batch were carried out to AT (AT-2, AT-3 and AT-4. Each test consisted of: a basic test, a basic test with peptone added, a test using EE and a test using TE. The data showed that there was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05 in the respiration activity between the aeration tanks. Regarding the specific oxygen uptake rate there was a mean reduction of 70.8% between the tests performed with EE and TE. The results demonstratd that respirometry tests could successfully assess the efficiency of the activated sludge process and, therefore, be adopted as tool for the monitoring from the WTP.Este trabalho avaliou, através de ensaios de respirometria, a eficiência do tratamento de efluentes industriais, após tratamento por lodo ativado em tanques de aeração (TA. Foram analisadas amostras do efluente equalisado (EE, antes do tratamento, e do efluente tratado (ET. Vinte baterias de ensaios foram realizadas com cada um dos TA (TA-2, TA-3 e TA-4. Cada bateria consistiu de um ensaio básico, contendo apenas o licor misto, um ensaio com adição de peptona, um ensaio com o EE e um com o ET. Não houve diferença estatística significativa (p>0,05 na atividade respiratória dos TA. Quanto à taxa de consumo de oxigênio específica houve uma redução média de 70,8% entre os ensaios realizados com EE e ET. Os ensaios de respirometria determinaram com eficiência o nível de tratamento através de lodo ativado, e deve ser adotado no monitoramento dos efluentes da estação de tratamento de efluentes do Pólo Industrial de Camaçari.

  15. Volume and activity reduction by biological treatment and ultrafiltration of laundry effluent waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan Rosenberger; Bernhard Christ [RWE NUKEM GmbH (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    An innovative patented treatment process (BIBRA) combining biological treatment and a separator centrifuge was developed in the Gundremmingen NPP starting in 1995. To date this process has been successfully implemented in the German NPP of Gundremmingen, Kahl, Brunsbuettel, Stade, Isar 1 and Neckarwestheim. This new process has not only significantly reduced the TOC content in the effluent and waste volumes (6,600 m{sup 3} result in only 160 kg final waste) of BWR and PWR but at the same time has increased the decontamination factor to 20 and more. The cost savings experienced within the plant are more than 125000 euros/a. These savings do not account the additional substantial savings on handling, disposal containers, transportation, interim storage and final disposal. In order to advance the biological treatment of radioactive wastes it is therefore required to find an alternative separation mechanism without loosing the advantages of discharging the inactive salts. An engineering review of possible separation processes that could help to remove these residual activity was conducted. It determined that crossflow filtration and in particular micro-filtration or ultrafiltration were the most promising technologies to further improve the separation efficiency. Ultrafiltration is able to remove bacteria, proteins and similar while allowing dissolved materials such ad salts to pass. Drawback for crossflow filtration systems is that they can experience significant problems with fouling (blocking) of the membranes from suspended solids (TSS) which typically requires the introduction of aggressive chemicals and that all these systems generate an effluent concentrate of typically 2% to 10 % of their throughput. In case of e.g. 6600 m{sup 3}/a waste generation a volume between 120 and 600 m{sup 3}/a concentrate would require additional treatment and conditioning. Almost at the same time as the biological treatment process was developed in Germany, RWE NUKEM matured

  16. Hexavalent chromium reduction potential of Cellulosimicrobium sp. isolated from common effluent treatment plant of tannery industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharagava, Ram Naresh; Mishra, Sandhya

    2018-01-01

    Present study deals with the isolation and characterization of a bacterium capable for the effective reduction of Cr(VI) from tannery wastewater. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, this bacterium was identified as Cellulosimicrobium sp. (KX710177). During the Cr(VI) reduction experiment performed at 50, 100, 200,and 300mg/L of Cr(VI) concentrations, the bacterium showed 99.33% and 96.98% reduction at 50 and 100mg/L at 24 and 96h, respectively. However, at 200 and 300mg/L concentration of Cr(VI), only 84.62% and 62.28% reduction was achieved after 96h, respectively. The SEM analysis revealed that bacterial cells exposed to Cr(VI) showed increased cell size in comparison to unexposed cells, which might be due to either the precipitation or adsorption of reduced Cr(III) on bacterial cells. Further, the Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis showed some chromium peaks for cells exposed to Cr(VI), which might be either due to the presence of precipitated reduced Cr(III) on cells or complexation of Cr(III) with cell surface molecules. The bacterium also showed resistance and sensitivity against the tested antibiotics with a wide range of MIC values ranging from 250 to 800mg/L for different heavy metals. Thus, this multi-drug and multi-metal resistant bacterium can be used as a potential agent for the effective bioremediation of metal contaminated sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Optimization of simultaneous thermophilic fermentative hydrogen production and COD reduction from palm oil mill effluent by Thermoanaerobacterium-rich sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O-Thong, Sompong [Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Prince of Songkla University, Hatyai 90112, Songkhla (Thailand); Department of Biology, University of Bergen, P.O. Box 7800, N-5020, Bergen (Norway); Prasertsan, Poonsuk [Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Prince of Songkla University, Hatyai 90112, Songkhla (Thailand); Intrasungkha, Nugul [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Thaksin University, Songkhla (Thailand); Dhamwichukorn, Srisuda [Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok (Thailand); Birkeland, Nils-KAare [Department of Biology, University of Bergen, P.O. Box 7800, N-5020, Bergen (Norway); Centre for Geobiology, University of Bergen, P.O. Box 7800, N-5020, Bergen (Norway)

    2008-02-15

    Thermoanaerobacterium-rich sludge acclimated with palm oil mill effluent (POME) in an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor operating at 60 C was used as a seed in batch experiments to investigate the effects of C/N (carbon/nitrogen) ratio, C/P (carbon/phosphate) ratio and iron concentration in POME on fermentative hydrogen production. A central composite design was performed with the aim of optimizing the hydrogen yield together with POME degradation using response surface methodology (RSM). The RSM results indicated that the presence of 257 mg Fe{sup 2+}/l, a C/N ratio of 74 and a C/P ratio of 559 were optimal for simultaneous hydrogen production and COD (chemical oxygen demand) removal. C/N ratio, C/P ratio and iron concentration all had an individual effect on hydrogen production and COD removal, while iron concentration and C/N ratio had the greatest interactive effect on hydrogen production (P<0.05) while C/N and C/P ratio gave more profound interactive effect on COD removal (P<0.05). The predicted maximum simultaneous hydrogen production and COD removal were 6.5 l H{sub 2}/l-POME and 58%, respectively. In a confirmation experiment under optimized conditions highly reproducible results were obtained, with a hydrogen production and COD removal efficiency of 6.33{+-}0.142lH{sub 2}/l-POME and 44{+-}1.5%, respectively. The total carbohydrate conversion was 92{+-}2.7%. The hydrogen production rate reached 25.9mmolH{sub 2}/l/day and increased by 60% as compared with the use of raw POME. Thermoanaerobacterium spp. were found to be dominant and present at a higher population density under optimized conditions than in raw POME fermentation. Optimization of the culture cultivation conditions in POME resulted in a simultaneous increase in biohydrogen production and COD reduction. (author)

  18. Catalytic reduction of nitrate in secondary effluent of wastewater treatment plants by Fe(0) and Pd-Cu/γ-Al2O3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Yupan; Li, Zifu; Chen, Yi-Hung; Saino, Mayiani; Cheng, Shikun; Zheng, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Total nitrogen, in which NO3(-) is dominant in the effluent of most wastewater treatment plants, cannot meet the requirements of the Chinese wastewater discharge standard (nitrate (NO3(-)) elimination attract considerable attention. In this study, reductant iron (Fe(0)) and γ-Al2O3 supported palladium-copper bimetallic catalysts (Pd-Cu/γ-Al2O3) were innovatively used for the chemical catalytic reduction of nitrate in wastewater. A series of specific operational conditions (such as mass ratio of Pd:Cu, catalyst amounts, reaction time and pH of solution) were optimized for nitrate reduction in the artificial solution, and then the selected optimal conditions were further applied for investigating the nitrate elimination of secondary effluent of a wastewater treatment plant in Beijing, China. Results indicated that a better catalytic performance (74% of nitrate removal and 62% of N2 selectivity) could be obtained under the optimal condition: 5 g/L Fe(0), 3:1 mass ratio (Pd:Cu), 4 g/L catalyst, 2 h reaction time and pH 5.1. It is noteworthy to point out that nitrogen gas (N2) predominated in the byproducts without another system to treat ammonium and nitrite. Therefore, the chemical catalytic reduction combining Fe(0) with Pd-Cu/γ-Al2O3 could be regarded as a better alternative for nitrate removal in wastewater treatment.

  19. Reduction of dioxin-like toxicity in effluents by additional wastewater treatment and related effects in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Diana; Benisek, Martin; Blaha, Ludek; Dondero, Francesco; Giesy, John P; Köhler, Heinz-R; Richter, Doreen; Scheurer, Marco; Triebskorn, Rita

    2016-10-01

    Efficiency of advanced wastewater treatment technologies to reduce micropollutants which mediate dioxin-like toxicity was investigated. Technologies compared included ozonation, powdered activated carbon and granular activated carbon. In addition to chemical analyses in samples of effluents, surface waters, sediments, and fish, (1) dioxin-like potentials were measured in paired samples of effluents, surface waters, and sediments by use of an in vitro biotest (reporter gene assay) and (2) dioxin-like effects were investigated in exposed fish by use of in vivo activity of the mixed-function, monooxygenase enzyme, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) in liver. All advanced technologies studied, based on degradation or adsorption, significantly reduced dioxin-like potentials in samples and resulted in lesser EROD activity in livers of fish. Results of in vitro and in vivo biological responses were not clearly related to quantification of targeted analytes by use of instrumental analyses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Exposure Reduction to Human Bio-effluents Using Seat-integrated Localized Ventilation in Quiescent Indoor Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bivolarova, Mariya Petrova; Rezgals, Lauris; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2016-01-01

    gaseous pollutants (i.e. bio-effluents) emitted from the body of a sedentary person and exhaust them before they entrained in the person’s breathing zone or mix with the surrounding air. Full-scale experiments were performed in a climate chamber. The chamber was ventilated by an upward piston flow through...... of the manikin and at 0.5 m above the head of the manikin. The results showed that the concentration of the pollutants decreased when the VC was in operation. The results from this study showed that the use of the VC provides an efficient method for control of body-emitted gaseous pollutants in order to improve...

  1. Heterogeneous photocatalysis using TiO2modified with hydrotalcite and iron oxide under UV-visible irradiation for color and toxicity reduction in secondary textile mill effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcanjo, Gemima Santos; Mounteer, Ann H; Bellato, Carlos Roberto; Silva, Laís Miguelina Marçal da; Brant Dias, Santos Henrique; Silva, Priscila Romana da

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate ADMI color removal from a biologically treated textile mill effluent by heterogeneous photocatalysis with UV-visible irradiation (UV-vis) using a novel catalyst composed of TiO 2 supported on hydrotalcite and doped with iron oxide (HT/Fe/TiO 2 ). Simulated biological treatment of solutions of the dyes (50 mg/L) used in the greatest amounts at the mill where the textile effluent was collected resulted in no color removal in reactive dye solutions and about 50% color removal in vat dye solutions, after 96 h, indicating that the secondary effluent still contained a large proportion of anionic reactive dyes. Photocatalytic treatments were carried out with TiO 2 and HT/Fe/TiO 2 of Fe:Ti molar ratios of 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1, with varying catalyst doses (0-3 mg/L), initial pH values (4-10) and UV-vis times (0-6 h). The highest ADMI color removal with unmodified TiO 2 was found at a dose of 2 g/L and pH 4, an impractical pH value for industrial application. The most efficient composite was HT/Fe/TiO 2 1 at pH 10, also at a dose of 2 g/L, which provided more complete ADMI color removal, from 303 to 9 ADMI color units (96%), than unmodified TiO 2 , from 303 to 37 ADMI color units (88%), under the same conditions. Hydroxyl radicals were responsible for the color reduction, since when 2-propanol, an OH scavenger, was added color removal was very low. For this reason, the HT/Fe/TiO 2 1 composite performed better at pH 10, because the higher concentration of hydroxide ions present at higher pH favored hydroxyl radical formation. COD reductions were relatively low and similar, approximately 20% for both catalysts after 6 h under UV-vis, because of the low initial COD (78 mg/L). Secondary effluent toxicity to Daphnia similis (EC 50  = 70.7%) was reduced by photocatalysis with TiO 2 (EC 50  = 95.0%) and the HT/Fe/TiO 2 1 composite (EC 50  = 78.6%). HT/Fe/TiO 2 1 was reused five times and still lowered

  2. Reduction and biofixation of carbon dioxide in palm oil mill effluent using developed microbial granules containing photosynthetic pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najib, M Z Mohamed; Salmiati; Ujang, Z; Salim, M R; Ibrahim, Z; Muda, K

    2016-12-01

    The developed microbial granules containing photosynthetic pigments had successfully achieved approximately 18-21% of carbon dioxide (CO2) removal in POME for one complete SBR cycle. Also, the granules had reached CO2 removal at 15-29% within 24h and removal of 25% after 5 days. Both results were inconsistent possibly due to the slow mass transfer rate of CO2 from gas to liquid as well as the simultaneous effect of CO2 production and respiration among the microbes. Furthermore, results showed the removal of CO2 from air increases proportionally with the CO2 removed in liquid. The CO2 biofixation of granules attained was approximately 0.23g/L/day for a week. Using the regression model, the removal of CO2 between liquid and gas, CO2 biofixation rate were highly correlated with the treatment time. A statistically significant relationship was obtained between CO2 concentration in liquid, biomass productivity and treatment time for the CO2 biofixation rate of the granules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Biological reduction of hexavalent chromium and mechanism analysis of detoxification by enterobacter sp. HT1 isolated from tannery effluents, Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Marjangul

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Enterobacter sp. HT1, Cr (VI resistant bacterial strain was isolated from the wastewater sample of the tannery in Mongolia. Batch experiments on hexavalent chromium removal was carried out at 10, 20, and 30 mg/L of Cr (VI added as potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7, at pH 7 and temperature of 30 °C using pure culture of Enterobacter sp. HT1 as inoculum.  The isolated HT1 is capable of reduction nearly 100% of Cr (VI resulting in the decrease of Cr (VI from 10 to 0.2 mg/L within 20 hours. When the concentration of Cr (VI increased to 20 and 30mg/L, almost complete reduction of Cr (VI could achieve after 72 and 96 hours, respectively.DOI: http://doi.dx.org/10.5564/mjc.v15i0.322 Mongolian Journal of Chemistry 15 (41, 2014, p47-52

  4. Zero effluent; Efluente zero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Silvio Rogerio; Santos, Angelo Francisco dos [Liquigas Distribuidora S.A., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    A scenery of water shortage and the search for profitability improvement obligate the companies to exercise their creativity and to adopt alternative methods to the conventional ones to preserve the environmental resources. The 'Effluent Zero' project comes from a paradigms changing that the environmental preservation is a necessary cost. It brings a new analysis approach of this problem with the purpose to adapt the investments and operational costs with the effluents treatment to the demands of the productive processes. In Liquigas, the project brought significant results; made a potential reduction of nearly 90% in the investments of the effluents treatment systems. That means nearly 13% in reduction in the total investments in modernization and upgrade of the existents companies installations and of 1,6% in the total operational costs of the Company. Further more, it has contributed for a reduction of until 43% of the water consumption in the bottling process of the Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG). This way, the project resulted in effective actions of environmental protection with relevant economic benefits. (author)

  5. Role of livestock effluent suspended particulate in sealing effluent ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J McL; Warren, B R

    2015-05-01

    Intensive livestock feed-lots have become more prevalent in recent years to help in meeting the predicted food production targets based on expected population growth. Effluent from these is stored in ponds, representing a potential concern for seepage and contamination of groundwater. Whilst previous literature suggests that effluent particulate can limit seepage adequately in combination with a clay liner, this research addresses potential concerns for sealing of ponds with low concentration fine and then evaluates this against proposed filter-cake based methodologies to describe and predict hydraulic reduction. Short soil cores were compacted to 98% of the maximum dry density and subject to ponded head percolation with unfiltered-sediment-reduced effluent, effluent filtered to sealing was shown to follow mathematical models of filter-cake formation, but without the formation of a physical seal on top of the soil surface. Management considerations based on the results are presented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Obesity, ultrasound indexes of fat depots and lipid goal attainment in patients with high and very high cardiovascular risk: A novel approach towards better risk reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberka, M; Okopień, B; Gąsior, Z

    2016-02-01

    Our aim was to assess the attainment of primary (low density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-C) and secondary (non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol; non-HDL-C) lipid therapeutic goals in relation to obesity, clinical measures of adiposity and ultrasound indexes of fat depots, including the novel index of periarterial adipose tissue (PAT): carotid artery extra media thickness (EMT). High and very high cardiovascular (CV) risk patients (n = 420; F/M: 34/66%; age: 61.2 ± 7 years) with prior statin treatment (≥ 18 months) were enrolled into this cross-sectional study. All patients had a detailed assessment with several anthropometric measures and ultrasound indexes of fat depots indexed to BMI: abdominal (Intra-abdominal Fat Thickness; IAT and Pre-peritoneal Fat Thickness; PreFT), paracardial (Epicardial Fat Thickness; EFT and Pericardial Fat Thickness; PFT) and the new index corresponding to PAT (carotid EMT). Lipid goals attainment in the study group was as follows: 34% (LDL-C goal), 39% (non-HDL-C goal) and 35% (both LDL and non-HDL-C goals). Among ultrasound indexes, patients with both lipid goals attainment revealed significantly lower carotid EMT/BMI (LDL-C goal: 25.2 ± 4.2 vs 27.5 ± 4.1, p obesity and most clinical measures of adiposity, carotid EMT and abdominal IAT, but not other ultrasound indexes of fat depots revealed associations independent from BMI with lipid goal attainment and may help identify patients requiring more aggressive lipid management. Copyright © 2015 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Treatment of real industrial wastewaters through nano-TiO2 and nano-Fe2O3 photocatalysis: case study of mining and kraft pulp mill effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, V; Lopes, I; Rocha-Santos, T A P; Gonçalves, F; Pereira, R

    2017-06-01

    High quantities of industrial wastewaters containing a wide range of organic and inorganic pollutants are being directly discharged into the environment, sometimes without proper treatment. Nanotechnology has a tremendous potential improving the existing treatments or even develop new treatment solutions. In this study, nano-TiO2 or nano-Fe2O3 was used for the photocatalytic treatment of kraft pulp mill effluent and mining effluent. The experiments with the organic effluent lead to reduction percentages of 93.3%, 68.4% and 89.8%, for colour, aromatic compounds and chemical oxygen demand, respectively, when treated with nano-TiO2/H2O2/UV and nano-Fe2O3/H2O2/UV, at pH 3.0. Significant removal of metals from the mining effluent was recorded but only for Zn, Al and Cd, the highest removal attained with 1.0 g L-1 of nano-TiO2/UV and nano-Fe2O3/UV. Regarding the toxicity of the organic effluent to Vibrio fischeri, it was reduced with the treatments combining the oxidant and the catalyst. However, for the inorganic effluent, the best reduction was achieved using 1.0 g L-1 of catalyst. In fact, the increase in dose of the catalyst, especially for nano-TiO2, enhanced toxicity reduction. Our results have shown that the use of these NMs seemed to be more effective in the organic effluent than in metal-rich effluent.

  8. FINAL REPORT FOR THE REDUCTION OF CHROME (VI) TO CHROME (III) IN THE SECONDARY WASTE STREAM OF THE EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DUNCAN JB; GUTHRIE MD

    2008-08-29

    This report documents the laboratory results of RPP-PLAN-35958, Test Plan for the Effluent Treatment Facility to Reduce Chrome (VI) to Chrome (III) in the Secondary Waste Stream With the exception of the electrochemical corrosion scans, all work was carried out at the Center for Laboratory Science (CLS) located at the Columbia Basin College. This document summarizes the work carried out at CLS and includes the electrochemical scans and associated corrosion rates for 304 and 316L stainless steel.

  9. Evaluation of the efficacy of a bacterial consortium for the removal of color, reduction of heavy metals, and toxicity from textile dye effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, J P; Kalyani, D C; Telke, A A; Phugare, S S; Govindwar, S P

    2010-01-01

    A microbial consortium DAS consisting three bacterial sp. originally obtained from dye contaminated sites of Solapur, India was selected because it was capable of decolorizing textile effluent and dye faster than the individual bacteria under static conditions. Identification of the isolates by 16S rRNA techniques revealed the isolates to be Pseudomonas species. The concerted metabolic activity of these isolates led to complete decolorization of textile effluent as well as Reactive Orange 16 (100 mg l(-1)) within 48-h at pH 7 and 30 degrees C. Studies involving Reactive Orange 16 (RO16) dye were carried with the bacterial consortium DAS to elucidate the mechanism of biodegradation. Induction of the laccase and reductase enzyme during RO16 decolorization indicated their role in biodegradation. The biodegradation of RO16 was monitored by using IR spectroscopy, HPLC and GC-MS analysis. Cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and phytotoxicity studies carried out before and after decolorization of the textile effluent revealed the nontoxic nature of the biotreated sample.

  10. Canagliflozin provides greater attainment of both HbA1c and body weight reduction versus sitagliptin in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schernthaner, Guntram; Lavalle-González, Fernando J; Davidson, Jaime A; Jodon, Holly; Vijapurkar, Ujjwala; Qiu, Rong; Canovatchel, William

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the proportion of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) achieving reductions in both glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and body weight with canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, versus sitagliptin over 52 weeks. Data were pooled from two, randomized, Phase 3 studies of canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg versus sitagliptin 100 mg as add-on to metformin, and canagliflozin 300 mg versus sitagliptin 100 mg as add-on to metformin plus sulfonylurea (N = 1856). The composite end points of change from baseline in both HbA1c body weight body weight reduction ≥5% at Week 52 were evaluated. Safety was assessed based on adverse event reports. Canagliflozin provided reductions in HbA1c and body weight over 52 weeks versus sitagliptin. A greater proportion of patients had both HbA1c and body weight reductions with canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg versus sitagliptin 100 mg (67.7%, 72.6%, and 44.1%, respectively). Among patients with HbA1c and body weight reductions, more patients achieved the composite end point of HbA1c body weight reduction ≥5% with canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg versus sitagliptin 100 mg (18.9%, 18.3%, and 5.7%, respectively). Canagliflozin was generally well tolerated. A greater proportion of patients with T2DM achieved reductions in both HbA1c and body weight, and more patients with HbA1c and body weight reductions achieved HbA1c body weight reduction ≥5% with canagliflozin versus sitagliptin over 52 weeks. www.ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers are NCT01106677; NCT01137812.

  11. Application of biomass in oil and fat reduction content in aqueous effluent; Aplicacao de biomassa na reducao do teor de oleos e graxas presentes em efluentes aquosos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boni, Hevelin Tabata; Souza, Antonio Augusto Ulson de; Souza, Selene Maria de Arruda Guelli Ulson de [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), SC (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    In this work, we have studied the bagasse from sugarcane as an alternative bioadsorbent in the treatment to oils and greases contaminated waters. The synthetic effluent was simulated by a distilled water and decahydronaphthalene dispersion, with initial concentration of 8900 mg . L {sup -1}. Gas chromatography was the analytical operation chosen to quantify the oil residual after the adsorption. The biomass was characterized by moisture analysis, CHNS and SEM. The experiments were carried out in batch process with agitation of 120 rpm, evaluating the equilibrium time of adsorptive process and the influence of pH of aqueous level. Results showed that the adsorption process achieved equilibrium quickly, in just 5 minutes of contact between the dispersion and biomass. No significant influence was noticed in the removal of hydrocarbon with the change in pH. The adsorption isotherm was developed changing by the mass of bioadsorbent, at 25 deg C, pH 6 and 120 rpm of agitation. The experimental results were fitted by Langmuir and Langmuir- Freundlich models. The best fit was obtained with Langmuir-Freundlich, providing a maximum adsorption capacity of 6,65 g hydrocarbon / g biomass. The experiments showed the great potential of the sugarcane bagasse to be used as bioadsorbent in reducing the oil and grease levels in industrial effluents. This alternative presents itself as a sustainable route due to the abundance of sugar cane bagasse in the sugar and alcohol industry, avoided the impact of aqueous sources contamination coming from oil and petrochemical industry. (author)

  12. Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removal from Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent via Bacterial Sulfate Reduction in an Anoxic Bioreactor Packed with Wood and Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Yamashita

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the removal of nitrogen and phosphate from the effluent of a sewage treatment plant over a long-term operation in bioreactors packed with different combinations of wood and iron, with a trickling filter packed with foam ceramics for nitrification. The average nitrification rate in the trickling filter was 0.17 kg N/m3∙day and remained at 0.11 kg N/m3∙day even when the water temperature was below 15 °C. The denitrification and phosphate removal rates in the bioreactor packed with aspen wood and iron were higher than those in the bioreactor packed with cedar chips and iron. The bioreactor packed with aspen wood and iron continued to remove nitrate and phosphate for >1200 days of operation. The nitrate removal activity of a biofilm attached to the aspen wood from the bioreactor after 784 days of operation was 0.42 g NO3-N/kg dry weight wood∙ day. There was no increase in the amount of dissolved organic matter in the outflow from the bioreactors.

  13. Required ozone doses for removing pharmaceuticals from wastewater effluents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antoniou, Maria; Hey, Gerly; Rodríguez Vega, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    of each investigated API (DDO3) was determined for each effluent by fitting a first order equation to the remaining concentration of API at each applied ozone dose. Ozone dose requirements were found to vary significantly between effluents depending on their matrix characteristics.The specific ozone dose...... was then normalized to the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of each effluent. The DDO3/DOC ratios were comparable for each API between the effluents.15 of the 42 investigated APIs could be classified as easily degradable (DDO3/DOC≤0.7), while 19 were moderately degradable (0.71.4). Furthermore, we predict...... that a reasonable estimate of the ozone dose required to remove any of the investigated APIs may be attained by multiplying the experimental average DDO3/DOC obtained with the actual DOC of any effluent....

  14. Facility effluent monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleckler, B.P.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the facility effluent monitoring programs and provides an evaluation of effluent monitoring data. These evaluations are useful in assessing the effectiveness of effluent treatment and control systems, as well as management practices.

  15. Potential for reuse of effluent from fish-processing industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Morena Rodrigues Vitor Dias Ferraciolli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The most common problems in the fish processing industry relate to high water consumption and the generation of effluents with concentrated organic loads. Given that reuse can represent an alternative for sustainable development, this study sought to assess the potential for recycling effluents produced in a fish-processing plant. In order to do so, the final industrial effluent was analyzed using the American Public Health Association (APHA standard effluent-analysis method (2005. In addition, the study assessed treatments which produce effluents meeting the requirements prescribed by different countries' regulations for reuse and recycling. The results found that effluents with smaller organic loads, such as those from health barriers and monoblock washing, can be treated in order to remove nutrients and solids so that they can be subsequently reused. For effluents produced by the washing and gutting cylinders, it is recommended that large fragments of solid waste be removed beforehand. Effluents can in this way attain a quality compatible with industrial reuse. This study further highlights the possibility of treating effluents so as comply with drinking water standards. This would potentially allow them to be used within the actual fish-processing procedure; in such a case, a revision of standards and measures for controlling use should be considered to prevent microbiological damage to products and risks to handlers and final consumers.

  16. Efficiency of advanced wastewater treatment technologies for the reduction of hormonal activity in effluents and connected surface water bodies by means of vitellogenin analyses in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brown trout (Salmo trutta f. fario).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneberg, Anja; Triebskorn, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Endocrine effects in the aquatic environment are in the focus of scientists and media along with debates on the necessity of further steps in wastewater treatment. In the present study VTG responses were compared to evaluate upgrades at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). We investigated several advanced sewage treatment technologies at two WWTPs connected to the Schussen, a tributary of Lake Constance, for the reduction of hormonal activity: (1) a powdered activated charcoal filter at the WWTP Langwiese; and (2) a combination of ozonation, sand filter, and granulated activated carbon filter at the WWTP Eriskirch. Rainbow trout and brown trout were either directly exposed to the effluents in aquaria or cages, or in a bypass system flown through by surface water of the Schussen. As a reference, trout were kept in bypass aquaria at the Argen River, which is less influenced by micropollutants. As a biomarker for estrogenicity, we analyzed the yolk precursor protein vitellogenin in immature rainbow trout and brown trout and in trout larvae (100 days post-fertilization) prior to and after the upgrade with the new technologies. Trout of different ages and species were used to detect differences in their sensitivity. At both bypass stations, larvae of brown trout showed significantly higher vitellogenin levels prior to the upgrade compared to negative control levels. Female brown trout exposed at the bypass station downstream of the WWTP showed decreased vitellogenin levels after the upgrade. In 1-year-old immature trout directly exposed to the respective effluents, no significant effects of the upgrades on vitellogenin levels were found. In general, larger effects were observed in brown trout than in rainbow trout, indicating that they are more sensitive test organisms.

  17. Selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides from industrial gases by hydrogen or methane; Reduction catalytique selective des oxydes d'azote (NO{sub x}) provenant d'effluents gazeux industriels par l'hydrogene ou le methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelmann Pirez, M

    2004-12-15

    This work deals with the selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), contained in the effluents of industrial plants, by hydrogen or methane. The aim is to replace ammonia, used as reducing agent, in the conventional process. The use of others reducing agents such as hydrogen or methane is interesting for different reasons: practical, economical and ecological. The catalyst has to convert selectively NO into N{sub 2}, in presence of an excess of oxygen, steam and sulfur dioxide. The developed catalyst is constituted by a support such as perovskites, particularly LaCoO{sub 3}, on which are dispersed noble metals (palladium, platinum). The interaction between the noble metal and the support, generated during the activation of the catalyst, allows to minimize the water and sulfur dioxide inhibitor phenomena on the catalytic performances, particularly in the reduction of NO by hydrogen. (O.M.)

  18. Aquaculture impact and treatment systems of effluents with aquatic macrophytes

    OpenAIRE

    Henry-Silva, Gustavo Gonzaga; Monteiro Camargo, Antonio Fernando [UNESP

    2008-01-01

    Aquaculture effluents are enriched by nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter and contribute to increase eutrophication of the receiving water bodies and reduction or change in biodiversity. To reduce effluent loading is important to formulate highly digestible diets with lower nutrient levels. In addition, it is necessary to treat effluents to attend to new legislation demands and the pressure of environmentalist. This review of the aquaculture activities and its impacts on the environmental...

  19. Electrocoagulation method for colour removal in tea effluent: a case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simple and efficient electrochemical method that utilizes two steel electrodes and is capable of reducing the colour of tea effluent prior to its discharge into the river system has been developed. The effects of ... Effluent dilution led to increase in power consumption while raising temperatures led to a reduction in power

  20. Fungal protein from corn waste effluents : a model study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the microbiological aspects of the production of microbial protein ('single cell protein'; SCP) from corn waste effluents with simultaneous reduction of the COD of these effluents.

    For practical reasons the corn waste water itself was

  1. Amélioration de la qualité microbiologique des effluents secondaires par stockage en bassins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trad-Rais M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbiological quality improvement of secondary effluent by reservoir storage. Storing secondary effluents is of particular interest for water resource management. It constitutes further treatment which reduces the microbial contamination of water to a level where it can be used for the irrigation of all crops, without restriction. The storage of treated wastewater takes place during the winter, ensuring that such a resource is not lost and enabling a larger area to be irrigated during the dry season, thereby increasing agricultural production. Storage trials in reservoirs were conducted in north-eastern Tunisia. Their objective was to determine the length and conditions of secondary effluent decontamination as well as the impact of seasonal storage on water quality. The results indicate that the decontamination of effluents slows down with increased reservoir depth. For a depth of less than 150 cm, a reduction of fecal coliforms in the order of 3 log units is attained in 3 days when the average temperature of the water ranges from 22 to 25 degrees C; when this temperature is between 25.5 and 28 degrees C, the same reduction takes 8 days. Below 20 degrees C, decontamination is considerably reduced: for a mean water temperature ranging from 12.5 to 18 degrees C, the reduction of fecal coliforms reaches 3 log units only after a retention time of 17 days in the reservoir. Seasonal storage from 2 to 7 months does not affect the bacteriological quality of water: after decontamination, no proliferation of bacterial indicators occurs during storage.

  2. INEEL Liquid Effluent Inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Major, C.A.

    1997-06-01

    The INEEL contractors and their associated facilities are required to identify all liquid effluent discharges that may impact the environment at the INEEL. This liquid effluent information is then placed in the Liquid Effluent Inventory (LEI) database, which is maintained by the INEEL prime contractor. The purpose of the LEI is to identify and maintain a current listing of all liquid effluent discharge points and to identify which discharges are subject to federal, state, or local permitting or reporting requirements and DOE order requirements. Initial characterization, which represents most of the INEEL liquid effluents, has been performed, and additional characterization may be required in the future to meet regulations. LEI information is made available to persons responsible for or concerned with INEEL compliance with liquid effluent permitting or reporting requirements, such as the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, Wastewater Land Application, Storm Water Pollution Prevention, Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures, and Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment. The State of Idaho Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Program also needs the information for tracking liquid effluent discharges at the INEEL. The information provides a baseline from which future liquid discharges can be identified, characterized, and regulated, if appropriate. The review covered new and removed buildings/structures, buildings/structures which most likely had new, relocated, or removed LEI discharge points, and at least 10% of the remaining discharge points.

  3. Nuclear reactor effluent monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minns, J.L.; Essig, T.H. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Radiological environmental monitoring and effluent monitoring at nuclear power plants is important both for normal operations, as well as in the event of an accident. During normal operations, environmental monitoring verifies the effectiveness of in-plant measures for controlling the release of radioactive materials in the plant. Following an accident, it would be an additional mechanism for estimating doses to members of the general public. This paper identifies the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulatory basis for requiring radiological environmental and effluent monitoring, licensee conditions for effluent and environmental monitoring, NRC independent oversight activities, and NRC`s program results.

  4. Genotoxicity of swine effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techio, V H; Stolberg, J; Kunz, A; Zanin, E; Perdomo, C C

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of genotoxic effects of swine effluents from different stages of a treatment system for swine wastes through bioassay of stamen hairs and micronuclei in Tradescantia (clone BNL 4430). No significant differences (p≥0.05) regarding the genic mutations were found in the bioassay of stamen hairs, independently of the effluent analysed. For the genotoxicity test with micronuclei, the plants exposed to raw wastes, to sludge, and to effluent of the biodigester have presented higher rates of chromosomal damages (micronuclei), with significant differences in relation to the control group and other effluent of the waste treatment system (p≤0.05). The association between the chemical parameters and the genotoxicity data have shown that the variables COD and TKN have presented significant correlation (p≤0.05) with the number of mutagenic events in the tetrads.

  5. Liquid Effluent Retention Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) is located in the central part of the Hanford Site. LERF is permitted by the State of Washington and has three liquid...

  6. Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Treated non-hazardous and non-radioactive liquid wastes are collected and then disposed of through the systems at the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). More...

  7. Effect of halides in the electrochemical treatment of distillery effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manisankar, P; Rani, C; Viswanathan, S

    2004-11-01

    Electrochemical treatment can solve the problems arising due to effluents and offer an effective alternative to the existing methods. An undivided static electrolyser was charged with distillery effluent and the organics were oxidized electrochemically. Anodized graphite plate anodes and graphite cathodes were used for the treatment of distillery effluent. The effect of pH and current density on the treatment was studied. Sodium fluoride, sodium chloride and sodium bromide were chosen as electrolyte and their influence was found out. Complete decolorization has been observed in all cases. A maximum of 93.5% of biological oxygen demand reduction, 85.2% of chemical oxygen demand reduction and 98.0% absorbance reduction were obtained in the presence of sodium chloride as supporting electrolyte. Probable mechanism was also proposed for the oxidation of organics present in the effluent.

  8. Heterotrophic and elemental-sulfur-based autotrophic denitrification processes for simultaneous nitrate and Cr(VI) reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahinkaya, Erkan; Kilic, Adem

    2014-03-01

    Nitrate and chromate can be present together in water resources as nitrate is a common co-contaminant in surface and ground waters. This study aims at comparatively evaluating simultaneous chromate and nitrate reduction in heterotrophic and sulfur-based autotrophic denitrifying column bioreactors. In sulfur-based autotrophic denitrification process, elemental sulfur and nitrate act as an electron donor and an acceptor, respectively, without requirement of organic supplementation. Autotrophic denitrification was complete and not adversely affected by chromate up to 0.5 mg/L. Effluent chromate concentration was reduction was attained up to 10 mg/L. Although autotrophic denitrification rate was much lower compared with heterotrophic one, it may be preferred in drinking water treatment due to the elimination of organic supplementation and the risk of treated effluent contamination. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Removal of heavy metals from tannery effluents of Ambur industrial area, Tamilnadu by Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, S; Kalaivani, T; Rajasekaran, C; Shalini, M; Vinodhini, S; Priyadharshini, S Sunitha; Vidya, A G

    2015-06-01

    The present study was carried out with the tannery effluent contaminated with heavy metals collected from Ambur industrial area to determine the phycoremediation potential of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis. Two different concentrations (50 and 100 %) of heavy metals containing tannery effluent treated with A. platensis were analysed for growth, absorption spectra, biochemical properties and antioxidant enzyme activity levels. The effluent treatments revealed dose-dependent decrease in the levels of A. platensis growth (65.37 % for 50 % effluent and 49.32 % for 100 % effluent), chlorophyll content (97.43 % for 50 % effluent and 71.05 % for 100 % effluent) and total protein content (82.63 % for 50 % effluent and 62.10 % for 100 % effluent) that leads to the reduction of total solids, total dissolved solids and total suspended solids. A. platensis with lower effluent concentration was effective than at higher concentration. Treatment with the effluent also resulted in increased activity levels of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (14.58 units/g fresh weight for 50 % and 24.57 units/g fresh weight for 100 %) and catalase (0.963 units/g fresh weight for 50 % and 1.263 units/g fresh weight for 100 %). Furthermore, heavy metal content was determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. These results indicated that A. platensis has the ability to combat heavy metal stress by the induction of antioxidant enzymes demonstrating its potential usefulness in phycoremediation of tannery effluent.

  10. The effect of different carbon sources on reduction of nitrate in effluent from the mining industry : Olika kolkällors inverkan på reduktion av nitrat i processvatten från gruvindustrin

    OpenAIRE

    Lindberg, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Mine water effluent contains high levels of nitrogen due to residues from undetonated ammonium- nitrate based explosives. Excess nitrogen in aquatic ecosystems can cause eutrophication. Within a mining area, tailings and clarification ponds have the potential to reduce nitrogen levels by biological uptake of nitrogen into growing algae and denitrification in pond sediments. A previous study at the LKAB Kiruna mine investigated the potential nitrogen removal within the tailings and clarificati...

  11. Silage effluent management: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebrehanna, M M; Gordon, R J; Madani, A; VanderZaag, A C; Wood, J D

    2014-10-01

    Silage effluent is a potent wastewater that can be produced when ensiling crops that have a high moisture content (MC). Silage effluent can cause fish-kills and eutrophication due to its high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and nutrient content, respectively. It has a high acidity (pH ≈ 3.5-5) making it corrosive to steel and damaging to concrete, which makes handling, storage and disposal a challenge. Although being recognized as a concentrated wastewater, most research has focused on preventing its production. Despite noted imprecision in effluent production models-and therefore limited ability to predict when effluent will flow-there has been little research aimed at identifying effective reactive management options, such as containment and natural treatment systems. Increasing climate variability and intensifying livestock agriculture are issues that will place a greater importance on developing comprehensive, multi-layered management strategies that include both preventative and reactive measures. This paper reviews important factors governing the production of effluent, approaches to minimize effluent flows as well as treatment and disposal options. The challenges of managing silage effluent are reviewed in the context of its chemical constituents. A multi-faceted approach should be utilized to minimize environmental risks associated with silage effluent. This includes: (i) managing crop moisture content prior to ensiling to reduce effluent production, (ii) ensuring the integrity of silos and effluent storages, and (iii) establishing infrastructure for effluent treatment and disposal. A more thorough investigation of constructed wetlands and vegetated infiltration areas for treating dilute silage effluent is needed. In particular, there should be efforts to improve natural treatment system design criteria by identifying pre-treatment processes and appropriate effluent loading rates. There is also a need for research aimed at understanding the effects of

  12. Anatomical Response of Amaranthus hybridus Linn. as Influenced by Pharmaceutical Effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement Oluseye OGUNKUNLE

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical studies were carried out on the leaves, stems and roots of Amaranthus hybridus subjected to irrigation of 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% concentrations of pharmaceutical effluents to identify the responses of this plant to the treatment. Leaf structures of A. hybridus showed no significant change due to the effect of the effluents. Significant reduction was observed in the trichome density and number of epidermal cells at the adaxial surface as from the 20% effluent concentration upward (p

  13. Richards Bay effluent pipeline

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lord, DA

    1986-07-01

    Full Text Available 3815 9 D A Lord Department of Oceanography University of Port Elizabeth P 0 Box 1600 PORT ELIZABETH 6000 N D Geldenhuys Department of Environment Affairs Private Bag X9005 CAPE TOWN 8000 Cover: Richards Bay from the air showing city... of major concern identified in the effluent are the large volume of byproduct calcium sulphate (phosphogypsum) which would smother marine life, high concentrations of fluoride highly toxic to marine life, heavy metals, chlorinated organic material...

  14. Income Sustainability through Educational Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Ronald H.; McChesney, Christopher S.

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined the sustainability of income, as it relates to educational attainment, from the two recent decades, which includes three significant economic downturns. The data was analyzed to determine trends in the wealth gap, parsed by educational attainment and gender. Utilizing the data from 1991 through 2010, predictions in changes in…

  15. Stuttering Severity and Educational Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brian, Sue; Jones, Mark; Packman, Ann; Menzies, Ross; Onslow, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the relationship between self-reported stuttering severity ratings and educational attainment. Method: Participants were 147 adults seeking treatment for stuttering. At pretreatment assessment, each participant reported the highest educational level they had attained and rated their typical and worst stuttering…

  16. Effect of tannery effluents on seed germination and growth of two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TUOYO

    2010-08-09

    Aug 9, 2010 ... The appearance of pale yellowish color of the affected plants was due to reduction in photosynthetic material under higher effluent ... Key words: Tannery effluents, sunflower, seed germination, growth, adverse effect, reduced yield. ... oil is equal to the finest olive oil for its food value, lack of taste, color and ...

  17. Textile effluent biodegradation potentials of textile effluent-adapted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental pollution has been recognized as one of the major problems of the modern world. The increasing demand for water and the dwindling supply has made the treatment and reuse of industrial effluents an attractive option. Textile effluents are of concern because they colour the drains and ultimately the water ...

  18. Electrochemical degradation of a real textile effluent using boron-doped diamond or β-PbO2 as anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, José M; Pereira, Gabriel F; Rocha-Filho, Romeu C; Bocchi, Nerilso; Biaggio, Sonia R

    2011-09-15

    Constant current electrolyses are carried out in a filter-press reactor using a boron-doped diamond (Nb/BDD) or a Ti-Pt/β-PbO(2) anode, varying current density (j) and temperature. The degradation of the real textile effluent is followed by its decolorization and chemical oxygen demand (COD) abatement. The effect of adding NaCl (1.5 g L(-1)) on the degradation of the effluent is also investigated. The Nb/BDD anode yields much higher decolorization (attaining the DFZ limit) and COD-abatement rates than the Ti-Pt/β-PbO(2) anode, at any experimental condition. The best conditions are j = 5 mA cm(-2) and 55 °C, for the system's optimized hydrodynamic conditions. The addition of chloride ions significantly increases the decolorization rate; thus a decrease of more than 90% of the effluent relative absorbance is attained using an applied electric charge per unit volume of the electrolyzed effluent (Q(ap)) of only about 2 kA h m(-3). Practically total abatement of the effluent COD is attained with the Nb/BDD anode using a Q(ap) value of only 7 kA h m(-3), with an energy consumption of about 30 kW h m(-3). This result allows to conclude that the Nb/BDD electrode might be an excellent option for the remediation of textile effluents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Biodegradation Potentials of Cassava Mill Effluent (CME) by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Aspergillus and Penicillium species which had the highest turbidity were used for bioremediation studies. The consortium of microorganisms demonstrated the highest efficacy. Bioremediation of cassava mill effluent by these microorganisms was manifested in the reduction of biological oxygen ...

  20. Facility effluent monitoring plan for WESF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SIMMONS, F.M.

    1999-09-01

    The FEMP for the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) provides sufficient information on the WESF effluent characteristics and the effluent monitoring systems so that a compliance assessment against applicable requirements may be performed. Radioactive and hazardous material source terms are related to specific effluent streams that are in turn, related to discharge points and, finally are compared to the effluent monitoring system capability.

  1. Liquid Effluent Retention Facility/Effluent Treatment Facility Hazards Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simiele, G.A.

    1994-09-29

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning activities for the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and Effluent Treatment Facility the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE ORDER 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated.

  2. Ecotoxicity of raw and treated effluents generated by a veterinary medicine industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca de Souza Maselli

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Effluents from veterinary pharmaceutical industries that formulate medicines are mainly generated during the washing of equipment. The aim of this work was to evaluate the acute toxicity to Daphnia similis and chronic toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia of raw and treated effluents generated by a veterinary pharmaceutical industry. The industrial effluent treatment system comprises a step of chemical treatment (coagulation-sedimentation forced followed by aerobic biological treatment (activated sludge process. Five samplings campaigns were performed from October 2011 to July 2012. The raw effluent samples showed high acute and chronic toxicity (acute: fourth sampling with EC50 - 48-h of <0.001% and chronic: third sampling with IC50 - 7-d of <0.0001%. The chemically treated effluent samples were the most toxic with EC50 - 48-h between <0.001 and 0.1% and IC50 - 7-d between 0.00001 and 0.0001%. This increase in toxicity is probably related to the use of aluminum sulfate as flocculating agent. The biological treatment led to a small reduction in toxicity of the effluents. The selected ecotoxicological tests were adequate for detecting the effluent toxicity and useful for evaluating the efficiency of the steps of the effluent treatment. Improvements in the industrial wastewater treatment system should be implemented in order to reduce the observed toxicity of the final effluent.

  3. PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF THE POSSIBLE REUSE OF A FOOD INDUSTRY EFFLUENT DEGRADED VIA PHOTOCHEMISTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Eliane Marchini

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The effluent reuse in industrial processes is an interesting alternative, especially nowadays, because of the serious environmental problems faced by the population every day. This practice reduces wastewater generation and saves money for the companies. This study aimed to evaluate the possible reuse of a food industry effluent through the use of a photochemical process, with direct UV radiation incidence. The samples of the raw and treated effluent were tested to measure pH, conductivity, total organic carbon (TOC, spectrophotometry, turbidity, total solids, fixed and volatile solids and toxicity. The photochemical treatment caused complete removal of the effluent color, a 92% reduction of the total organic carbon, and a reduction of the levels of acute toxicity, what indicates the efficiency of the photodegradation in removing contaminating agents in industrial effluents. The inorganic carbon value was high, indicating a high concentration of carbonate and bicarbonate dissolved in the effluent. To classify this treated effluent, according to current legislation, it is necessary to monitor other parameters in details. According to the tests performed for this work, it is possible to conclude that a company can make use of an effluent generated on the production line and, in a not very distant future, direct on the production line.

  4. Purifying manure effluents with duckweed

    OpenAIRE

    Timmerman, M.; Hoving, I.E.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a short literature survey to provide information about purifying manure effluents with duckweed with regard to varieties, cultivation, harvesting methods, utilization and valorisation of duckweed. The results of the study show that duckweed can be used to recuperate nutrients from manure effluents and that the concerning duckweed can be utilized as a source of feed, energy and ingredients

  5. Tannery Effluent Treatment by Yeast Species Isolates from Watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoduwa, Stanley Irobekhian Reuben; Igiri, Bernard; Udeh, Chinyere Blessing; Edenta, Chidi; Gauje, Balli

    2017-01-01

    The quest for an effective alternative means for effluent treatment is a major concern of the modern-day scientist. Fungi have been attracting a growing interest for the biological treatment of industrial wastewater. In this study, Saccharomycescerevisiae and Torulasporadelbrueckii were isolated from spoiled watermelon and inoculated into different concentrations of effluent. The inoculants were incubated for 21-days to monitor the performance of the isolates by measurement of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrates, conductivity, phosphates, sulphates and turbidity. The results showed that Saccharomycescerevisiae had the highest percentage decrease of 98.1%, 83.0%, 60.7%, 60.5%, and 54.2% for turbidity, sulphates, BOD, phosphates and COD, respectively, of the tannery effluent. Torulasporadelbrueckii showed the highest percentage decrease of 92.9%, 90.6%, and 61.9% for sulphates, COD, and phosphates, respectively, while the syndicate showed the highest percentage reduction of 87.4% and 70.2% for nitrate and total dissolve solid (TDS), respectively. The least percentage decrease was displayed by syndicate organisms at 51.2%, 48.1% and 40.3% for BOD, COD and conductivity, respectively. The study revealed that Saccharomycescerevisiae and Torulasporadelbrueckii could be used in the biological treatment of tannery-effluent. Hence, it was concluded that the use of these organisms could contribute to minimizing the adverse environmental risks and health-hazards associated with the disposal of untreated tannery-effluents. PMID:29051437

  6. Decolorization and Degradation of Batik Dye Effluent using Ganoderma lucidum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratiwi, Diah; Indrianingsih, A. W.; Darsih, Cici; Hernawan

    2017-12-01

    Batik is product of traditional Indonesia culture that developed into a large textile industry. Synthetic dyes which widely used in textile industries including batik. Colour can be removed from wastewater effluent by chemical, physical, and biology methods. Bioremediation is one of the methods that used for processing colored effluent. Isolated White-rot fungi Ganoderma lucidum was used for bioremediation process for batik effluent. G. lucidum was developed by G. lucidum cultivation on centers of mushroom farmer Media Agro Merapi Kaliurang, Yogyakarta. The batik effluent was collected from a private small and medium Batik enterprises located at Petir, Rongkop, Gunungkidul Regency. The aim of the study were to optimize decolorization of Naphtol Black (NB) using G. lucidum. The effect of process parameters like incubation time and dye concentration on dye decolorization and COD degradation was studied. G. lucidum were growth at pH 5-6 and temperature 25°C at various Naphtol Black dye with concentration 20 ppm, 50 ppm, and 100 ppm for 30 day incubation time. The result from this study increased decolorization in line with the increasing of COD degradation. Increasing percentage of decolorization and COD degradation gradually increased with incubation time and dye concentration. The maximum decolorization and COD reduction were found to be 60,53% and 81,03%. G. lucidum had potential to decolorized and degraded COD for NB dye effluent on higher concentration.

  7. Tannery Effluent Treatment by Yeast Species Isolates from Watermelon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Irobekhian Reuben Okoduwa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The quest for an effective alternative means for effluent treatment is a major concern of the modern-day scientist. Fungi have been attracting a growing interest for the biological treatment of industrial wastewater. In this study, Saccharomycescerevisiae and Torulasporadelbrueckii were isolated from spoiled watermelon and inoculated into different concentrations of effluent. The inoculants were incubated for 21-days to monitor the performance of the isolates by measurement of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD, nitrates, conductivity, phosphates, sulphates and turbidity. The results showed that Saccharomycescerevisiae had the highest percentage decrease of 98.1%, 83.0%, 60.7%, 60.5%, and 54.2% for turbidity, sulphates, BOD, phosphates and COD, respectively, of the tannery effluent. Torulasporadelbrueckii showed the highest percentage decrease of 92.9%, 90.6%, and 61.9% for sulphates, COD, and phosphates, respectively, while the syndicate showed the highest percentage reduction of 87.4% and 70.2% for nitrate and total dissolve solid (TDS, respectively. The least percentage decrease was displayed by syndicate organisms at 51.2%, 48.1% and 40.3% for BOD, COD and conductivity, respectively. The study revealed that Saccharomycescerevisiae and Torulasporadelbrueckii could be used in the biological treatment of tannery-effluent. Hence, it was concluded that the use of these organisms could contribute to minimizing the adverse environmental risks and health-hazards associated with the disposal of untreated tannery-effluents.

  8. Removal of phosphorus from livestock effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szogi, Ariel A; Vanotti, Matias B

    2009-01-01

    For removal of phosphorus (P) from swine liquid manure before land application, we developed a treatment process that produces low P effluents and a valuable P by-product with minimal chemical addition and ammonia losses. The new wastewater process included two sequential steps: (i) biological nitrification and (ii) increasing the pH of the nitrified wastewater to precipitate P. We hypothesized that by reduction of inorganic buffers (NH(4)(+) and carbonate alkalinity) via nitrification, P could be selectively removed by subsequent hydrated lime [Ca(OH)(2)] addition. The objective of the study was to assess if this new treatment could consistently reduce inorganic buffer capacity with varied initial concentrations of N (100-723 mg NH(4)(+) L(-1)), P (26-85 mg TP L(-1)), and alkalinity (953-3063 mg CaCO(3) L(-1)), and then efficiently remove P from swine lagoon liquid. The process was tested with surface lagoon liquids from 10 typical swine farms in North Carolina. Each lagoon liquid received treatment in a nitrification bioreactor, followed by chemical treatment with Ca(OH)(2) at Ca rates of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 mmol L(-1) to precipitate P. This configuration was compared with a control that received the same Ca rates but without the nitrification pretreatment. The new process significantly reduced >90% the inorganic buffers concentrations compared with the control and prevented ammonia losses. Subsequent lime addition resulted in efficient pH increase to > or = 9.5 for optimum P precipitation in the nitrified liquid and significant reduction of effluent total P concentration versus the control. With this new process, the total P concentration in treated liquid effluent can be adjusted for on-farm use with up to >90% of P removal. The recovered solid Ca phosphate material can be easily exported from the farm and reused as P fertilizer. Therefore, the new process can be used to reduce the P content in livestock effluents to levels that would diminish problems of

  9. Efficiency of advanced wastewater treatment technologies for the reduction of hormonal activity in effluents and connected surface water bodies by means of vitellogenin analyses in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brown trout (Salmo trutta f. fario)

    OpenAIRE

    Henneberg, Anja; Triebskorn, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Endocrine effects in the aquatic environment are in the focus of scientists and media along with debates on the necessity of further steps in wastewater treatment. In the present study VTG responses were compared to evaluate upgrades at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). We investigated several advanced sewage treatment technologies at two WWTPs connected to the Schussen, a tributary of Lake Constance, for the reduction of hormonal activity: (1) a powdered activated charcoal filter at the W...

  10. Sibship Size and Educational Attainment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Mads Meier

    2009-01-01

    Studies on family background often explain the negative effect of sibship size on educational attainment by one of two theories: the Confluence Model (CM) or the Resource Dilution Hypothesis (RDH). However, as both theories - for substantively different reasons - predict that sibship size should ...

  11. Nutrient removal from farm effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolan, N S; Wong, L; Adriano, D C

    2004-09-01

    The objectives of the study were: (i) to examine the efficiency of nutrient removal during the treatment of dairy farm effluent in a two-pond system, and (ii) to produce an inexpensive but effective nutrient trap which could be recycled as a nutrient source or soil mulch. The concentration of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) in a two-pond system used to treat dairy farm effluent was monitored over a period of 7 months. The retention of nutrients by two porous materials was examined both in the laboratory batch (zeolite and bark) and pilot-scale field (bark) experiments. The results indicated that biological treatment of farm effluents using the two-pond system was not effective in the removal of nutrients, which are likely to become pollutant when discharged to waterways. Both the bark and zeolite materials were effective in the removal of N, P and K from effluent. These materials can be placed in the second (i.e., aerobic) pond to treat effluents, which can then be discharged to streams with minimum impact on water quality. The nutrient-enriched porous materials can be recycled as a source of nutrients and soil conditioner.

  12. Hydroponics reducing effluent's heavy metals discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rababah, Abdellah; Al-Shuha, Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the capacity of Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) to control effluent's heavy metals discharge. A commercial hydroponic system was adapted to irrigate lettuces with primary treated wastewater for studying the potential heavy metals removal. A second commercial hydroponic system was used to irrigate the same type of lettuces with nutrient solution and this system was used as a control. Results showed that lettuces grew well when irrigated with primary treated effluent in the commercial hydroponic system. The NFT-plant system heavy metals removal efficiency varied amongst the different elements, The system's removal efficiency for Cr was more than 92%, Ni more than 85%, in addition to more than 60% reduction of B, Pb, and Zn. Nonetheless, the NFT-plants system removal efficiencies for As, Cd and Cu were lower than 30%. Results show that lettuces accumulated heavy metals in leaves at concentrations higher than the maximum acceptable European and Australian levels. Therefore, non-edible plants such as flowers or pyrethrum are recommended as value added crops for the proposed NFT.

  13. Effect of indigo dye effluent on the growth, biomass production and phenotypic plasticity of Scenedesmus quadricauda (Chlorococcales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATHIAS A. CHIA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of indigo dye effluent on the freshwater microalga Scenedesmus quadricauda ABU12 was investigated under controlled laboratory conditions. The microalga was exposed to different concentrations of the effluent obtained by diluting the dye effluent from 100 to 175 times in bold basal medium (BBM. The growth rate of the microalga decreased as indigo dye effluent concentration increased (p <0.05. The EC50 was found to be 166 dilution factor of the effluent. Chlorophyll a, cell density and dry weight production as biomarkers were negatively affected by high indigo dye effluent concentration, their levels were higher at low effluent concentrations (p <0.05. Changes in coenobia size significantly correlated with the dye effluent concentration. A shift from large to small coenobia with increasing indigo dye effluent concentration was obtained. We conclude that even at low concentrations; effluents from textile industrial processes that use indigo dye are capable of significantly reducing the growth and biomass production, in addition to altering the morphological characteristics of the freshwater microalga S. quadricauda. The systematic reduction in the number of cells per coenobium observed in this study further confirms that environmental stress affects coenobium structure in the genus Scenedesmus, which means it can be considered an important biomarker for toxicity testing.

  14. Photo-Electrochemical Treatment of Reactive Dyes in Wastewater and Reuse of the Effluent: Method Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Mireia; López-Grimau, Víctor; Gutiérrez-Bouzán, Carmen

    2014-11-14

    In this work, the efficiency of a photo-electrochemical method to remove color in textile dyeing effluents is discussed. The decolorization of a synthetic effluent containing a bi-functional reactive dye was carried out by applying an electrochemical treatment at different intensities (2 A, 5 A and 10 A), followed by ultraviolet irradiation. The combination of both treatments was optimized. The final percentage of effluent decolorization, the reduction of halogenated organic volatile compound and the total organic carbon removal were the determinant factors in the selection of the best treatment conditions. The optimized method was applied to the treatment of nine simulated dyeing effluents prepared with different reactive dyes in order to compare the behavior of mono, bi, and tri-reactive dyes. Finally, the nine treated effluents were reused in new dyeing processes and the color differences (DECMC (2:1)) with respect to a reference were evaluated. The influence of the effluent organic matter removal on the color differences was also studied. The reuse of the treated effluents provides satisfactory dyeing results, and an important reduction in water consumption and salt discharge is achieved.

  15. Paper and board mill effluent treatment with the combined biological-coagulation-filtration pilot scale reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Muhammad; Shabir, Ghulam; Hussain, Irshad; Khalid, Zafar M

    2008-10-01

    Pilot scale reactor based on combined biological-coagulation-filtration treatments was designed and evaluated for the treatment of effluent from a paper and board mill. Biological treatment by fed batch reactor (FBR) followed by coagulation and sand filtration (SF) resulted in a total COD and BOD reduction of 93% and 96.5%, respectively. A significant reduction in both COD (90%) and BOD (92%) was also observed by sequencing batch reactor (SBR) process followed by coagulation and filtration. Untreated effluent was found to be toxic, whereas the treated effluents by either of the above two processes were found to be non-toxic when exposed to the fish for 72h. The resultant effluent from FBR-coagulation-sand filtration system meets National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS) of Pakistan and can be discharged into the environment without any risks.

  16. Indigenous Educational Attainment in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E. Gordon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the educational attainment of Indigenous peoples of working age (25 to 64 years in Canada is examined. This diverse population has typically had lower educational levels than the general population in Canada. Results indicate that, while on the positive side there are a greater number of highly educated Indigenous peoples, there is also a continuing gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples. Data also indicate that the proportion with less than high school education declined, which corresponds with a rise of those with a PSE; the reverse was true in 1996. Despite these gains, however, the large and increasing absolute numbers of those without a high school education is alarming. There are intra-Indigenous differences: First Nations with Indian Status and the Inuit are not doing as well as non-Status and Métis peoples. Comparisons between the Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations reveal that the documented gap in post-secondary educational attainment is at best stagnant. Out of the data analysis, and based on the history of educational policy, we comment on the current reform proposed by the Government of Canada, announced in February of 2014, and propose several policy recommendations to move educational attainment forward.

  17. EFFECTS OF REFINERY EFFLUENT ON THE PHYSICO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EFFECTS OF REFINERY EFFLUENT ON THE PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF STREAM WATER. ... Global Journal of Engineering Research ... In this work, the effects of refinery effluent discharge on the physico-chemical parameters of the stream water has been studied, using treated effluent water discharged ...

  18. POLLUTION EFFECT OF FOOD AND BEVERAGES EFFLUENTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    The main course of water pollution in the Alaro river is the direct discharge of food and beverages processing effluents. .... many polluting industries located at the estate, only food and beverage industries discharge effluents ..... protein bound glutathione substance in the effluent to release ammonia as a form of nitrogen is.

  19. 40 CFR 51.1004 - Attainment dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Attainment dates. 51.1004 Section 51....5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards § 51.1004 Attainment dates. (a) Consistent with section 172(a)(2)(A) of the Act, the attainment date for an area designated nonattainment for the PM2.5 NAAQS...

  20. Attainment of biofuel in pilot unity by using the low temperature conversion technology; Obtencao de biocombustivel em unidade piloto utilizando a tecnologia de conversao a baixa temperatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Roberto Guimaraes [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]|[Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica; Romeiro, Gilberto Alves; Damasceno, Raimundo Nonato [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica]|[Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Quimica Organica; Senra, Paulo Mauricio de Albuquerque [Light Servicos de Eletricidade S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Gerencia de Estudos e Gestao de Geracao

    2004-07-01

    This paper refers the oil attainment in a pilot unity, trough the low temperature conversion process applied to the industrial residue generated in petrochemistry industry effluent treatment station. Physical-chemical parameters such as sulfur density content, flash point, point of fluidity and calorific power were obtained. The characterization of oil indicates the possibility in classifying as fuel oil.

  1. Purifying manure effluents with duckweed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, M.; Hoving, I.E.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a short literature survey to provide information about purifying manure effluents with duckweed with regard to varieties, cultivation, harvesting methods, utilization and valorisation of duckweed. The results of the study show that duckweed can be used to

  2. Exhaust Gas Scrubber Washwater Effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    10 Sulfur Content of Certain Liquid Fuels Exhaust Gas Scrubber Washwater Effluent...diesel and gasoline components DIN Dissolved inorganic nitrogen THC Total hydrocarbon TKN Total Kjeldahl nitrogen HEM Hexane extractable...Benefit Analysis to support the impact assessment accompanying the revision of Directive 1999/32/EC on the sulfur content of certain liquid fuels

  3. Evaluation of bioremediation potentiality of ligninolytic Serratia liquefaciens for detoxification of pulp and paper mill effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Izharul; Kumar, Sharad; Kumari, Vineeta; Singh, Sudheer Kumar; Raj, Abhay

    2016-03-15

    Due to high pollution load and colour contributing substances, pulp and paper mill effluents cause serious aquatic and soil pollution. A lignin-degrading bacterial strain capable of decolourising Azure-B dye was identified as lignin peroxidase (LiP) producing strain LD-5. The strain was isolated from pulp and paper mill effluent contaminated site. Biochemical and 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis suggested that strain LD-5 belonged to the Serratia liquefaciens. The strain LD-5 effectively reduced pollution parameters (colour 72%, lignin 58%, COD 85% and phenol 95%) of real effluent after 144h of treatment at 30°C, pH 7.6 and 120rpm. Extracellular LiP produced by S. liquefaciens during effluent decolourisation was purified to homogeneity using ammonium sulfate (AMS) precipitation and DEAE cellulose column chromatography. The molecular weight of the purified lignin peroxidase was estimated to be ∼28kDa. Optimum pH and temperature for purified lignin peroxidase activity were determined as pH 6.0 and 40°C, respectively. Detoxified effluent was evaluated for residual toxicity by alkaline single cell (comet) gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay using Saccharomyces cerevisiae MTCC 36 as model organism. The toxicity reduction to treated effluent was 49.4%. These findings suggest significant potential of S. liquefaciens for bioremediation of pulp and paper mill effluent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of nutrients on Chlorella pyrenoidosa for treatment of phenolic effluent of coal gasification plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Dayana Priyadharshini; Ayalur, Bakthavatsalam Kannappan

    2017-05-01

    The ability of Chlorella pyrenoidosa, a freshwater microalga, to degrade phenolic effluent of coal-based producer gas plant under ambient conditions was investigated. C. pyrenoidosa was able to grow in high-strength phenolic effluent. Major contaminant present in the effluent was phenol (C6H5OH). The effluent has 1475.3 ± 68 mg/L of initial total phenolic concentration. The effect of nutrients used for algal cultivation in phenol degradation was analyzed by inoculating four different concentrations, viz.,1, 2, 3, and 4 g of wet biomass/L of raw effluent of C. pyrenoidosa mixed with effluent into two batches (with and without nutrients). C. pyrenoidosa was able to degrade more than 95% of the phenol (C6H5OH) concentration with the algal concentrations of 3 and 4 g/L when supplemented with nutrients. With effluent devoid of nutrients, the average percent reduction in total phenolic compounds was observed to a maximum of 46%. No physical changes in the C. pyrenoidosa were observed during degradation. C. pyrenoidosa was able to consume the organic carbon present in the phenolic compounds as carbon source for its growth despite the inorganic carbon supplemented externally.

  5. Comparative study on the treatment of raw and biologically treated textile effluents through submerged nanofiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qing; Yang, Ying; Zhou, Mengsi; Liu, Meihong; Yu, Sanchuan; Gao, Congjie

    2015-03-02

    Raw and biologically treated textile effluents were submerged filtrated using lab-fabricated hollow fiber nanofiltration membrane with a molecular weight cut-off of about 650 g/mol. Permeate flux, chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction, color removal, membrane fouling, and cleaning were investigated and compared by varying the trans-membrane pressure (TMP) and volume concentrating factor (VCF). It was found that both raw and biologically treated textile effluents could be efficiently treated through submerged nanofiltration. The increase of TMP resulted in a decline in water permeability, COD reduction, color removal, and flux recovery ratio, while the increase of VCF resulted in both increased COD reduction and color removal. Under the TMP of 0.4 bar and VCF of 5.0, fluxes of 1.96 and 2.59 l/m(2)h, COD reductions of 95.7 and 94.2%, color removals of 99.0, and 97.3% and flux recovery ratios of 91.1 and 92.9% could be obtained in filtration of raw and biologically treated effluents, respectively. After filtration, the COD and color contents of the raw effluent declined sharply from 1780 to 325 mg/l and 1.200 to 0.060 Abs/cm, respectively, while for the biologically treated effluent, they decreased from 780 to 180 mg/l and 0.370 to 0.045 Abs/cm, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Transformation of erythromycin during secondary effluent soil aquifer recharging: Removal contribution and degradation path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Liangliang; Qin, Kena; Zhao, Ningbo; Noguera, Daniel R; Qiu, Wei; Zhao, Qingliang; Kong, Xiangjuan; Zhang, Weixian; Kabutey, Felix Tetteh

    2017-01-01

    Erythromycin (ERY), a widely used antibiotic, has recently been detected in municipal secondary effluents and poses serious threats to human health during wastewater reusing. In this study, the removal, fate, and degradation pathway of ERY in secondary effluent during soil aquifer treatment was evaluated via laboratory-scale SAT tests. Up to a 92.9% reduction of ERY in synthetic secondary effluent was observed in 1.0m depth column system, which decreased to 64.7% when recharged with wastewater treatment plant secondary effluent. XRD-fractionation results demonstrated that the transphilic acid and hydrophobic acid fractions in secondary effluent compete for the adsorption sites of the packed soil and lead to a declined ERY removal. Moreover, aerobic biodegradation was the predominant role for ERY removal, contributing more than 60% reduction of ERY when recharged with synthetic secondary effluent. Destruction of 14-member macrocyclic lactone ring and breakdown of two cyclic sugars (l-cladinose and d-desosamine) were main removal pathways for ERY degradation, and produced six new intermediates. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Influent pathogenic bacteria may go straight into effluent in full scale wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jannie Munk; Nierychlo, Marta; Albertsen, Mads

    Incoming microorganisms to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are usually considered to be adsorbed onto the activated sludge flocs, consumed by protozoan or to just die off. Analyses of the effluent generally show a very high degree of reduction of pathogens supporting this assumption. Thus......, it is assumed that the bacteria present in the effluent comprise primarily of those bacteria that thrive/grow in the plants. However, standard techniques for detecting bacteria in the effluent, particularly pathogens, are based on culture-dependent methods, which may give erroneous results by underestimating...... with the effluent. Culture-independent 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing was applied for the identification and quantification of the microorganisms. Over a sampling period of three months, the microbial community composition was investigated by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing (V1 to V3 region) and MiDAS curated...

  8. Evaluation of Phytodesalination Potential of Vegetated Bioreactors Treating Greenhouse Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Fatehi Pouladi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The dissolved salt ions that are not absorbed during irrigation of greenhouse crops are gradually accumulated in the nutrient solution resulting in levels of salinity high enough to damage the crops. This water salinity presents operational and environmental challenges as the nutrient-rich greenhouse effluent should be discharged to the environment when deemed unsuited for irrigation. In this pilot-scale study, the potential of passive salt reduction (phytodesalination in gravel and wood-chip flow-through reactors was evaluated using seven plant species including Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani, Andropogon gerardii, Typha angustifolia, Elymus canadensis, Panicum virgatum, Spartina pectinata and Distichlis spicata along with an unplanted control reactor. While the unplanted system outperformed the planted units with gravel media, the wood-chip bioreactors with S. tabernaemontani and S. pectinata improved the greenhouse effluent reducing the solution conductivity (EC by a maximum of 15% (average = 7%. S. tabernaemontani and D. spicata showed higher accumulated contents of Na+ and Cl− in comparison with T. angustifolia and S. pectinata. Overall, S. tabernaemontani was selected as the most capable species in the wood-chip bioreactors for its better salt management via EC reduction and salt accumulation. It was however concluded that further treatment would be required for the greenhouse effluent to meet the stringent irrigation water quality guidelines in order not to pose any adverse effects on sensitive crops. Finally, the present hydraulic residence time (HRT = 3.7 days and the solution salinity concentration were identified as the potential factors that may be limiting the efficiency of plant salt uptake, emphasizing the need for conducting more research on the optimization and enhancement of passive desalination systems for the greenhouse effluent.

  9. Effect of minta effluent on the phenology, growth and yield of Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp var. Ife brown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umebese, C E; Onasanya, O M

    2007-01-01

    The composition of minta effluent and its effect on the phenology, growth and yield of seeds of Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp var. Ife brown, were investigated. The effluent was highly acidic (pH 3.74) and the concentrations of Ca, Mg and SO4 were appreciable (107.07, 351.47 and 221.11 mg L(-1), respectively). Germination of seeds sown in effluent was delayed by a day, reduced by 2% and not synchronous. Phenological investigations showed that plants grown in soil watered with effluent had 4-5 days delay in staking, bud formation, flower initiation, fruiting, pod ripening and plant senescence. These plants showed significant reductions in plant height, leaf area, shoot biomass and pod biomass (p < 0.05). Furthermore, seed yield and 100 corn weight of treated plants were low. Minta effluent has low agropotential.

  10. A reduction in mining and industrial effluents in the Blesbokspruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Monthly water quality data (SO4, Na, Cl and Mg concentrations, pH and EC values), from January 2000 to December 2011, were obtained from Rand Water for sites at: the stream inflow, just after the discharge point of pumped underground mine-water from Grootvlei mine, and the stream outflow point. The major ions were ...

  11. EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT, MARCH 1967. POPULATION CHARACTERISTICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of the Census (DOC), Suitland, MD.

    DETAILED TABLES, FIGURES, AND RELATED REPORTS DESCRIBE EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENTS IN THE UNITED STATES AS OF MARCH 1967. DATA ARE COMPARED WITH REFERENCE TO THE POPULATION'S AGE, RACE, SEX, AND RESIDENCE IN NONMETROPOLITAN AND METROPOLITAN AREAS AND IN AND OUTSIDE CENTRAL CITIES. EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENTS IN 1947 AND 1967 ARE ALSO COMPARED. THIS…

  12. Process for treating effluent from a supercritical water oxidation reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Charles M.; Shapiro, Carolyn

    1997-01-01

    A method for treating a gaseous effluent from a supercritical water oxidation reactor containing entrained solids is provided comprising the steps of expanding the gas/solids effluent from a first to a second lower pressure at a temperature at which no liquid condenses; separating the solids from the gas effluent; neutralizing the effluent to remove any acid gases; condensing the effluent; and retaining the purified effluent to the supercritical water oxidation reactor.

  13. Dyeing Industry Effluent System as Lipid Production Medium of Neochloris sp. for Biodiesel Feedstock Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyadharani Gopalakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae lipid feedstock preparation cost was an important factor in increasing biodiesel fuel hikes. This study was conducted with the concept of implementing an effluent wastewater as lipid production medium for microalgae cultivation. In our study textile dyeing industry effluent was taken as a lipid production medium for Neochloris sp. cultivation. The changes in physicochemical analysis of effluent before and after Neochloris sp. treatment were recorded using standard procedures and AAS analysis. There was especially a reduction in heavy metal like lead (Pb concentration from 0.002 ppm to 0.001 ppm after Neochloris sp. treatment. Neochloris sp. cultivated in Bold Basal Medium (BBM (specific algal medium produced 41.93% total lipid and 36.69% lipid was produced in effluent based cultivation. Surprisingly Neochloris sp. cultivated in effluent was found with enhanced neutral lipid content, and it was confirmed by Nile red fluorescence assay. Further the particular enrichment in oleic acid content of the cells was confirmed with thin layer chromatography (TLC with oleic acid pure (98% control. The overall results suggested that textile dyeing industry effluent could serve as the best lipid productive medium for Neochloris sp. biodiesel feedstock preparation. This study was found to have a significant impact on reducing the biodiesel feedstock preparation cost with simultaneous lipid induction by heavy metal stress to microalgae.

  14. Dyeing Industry Effluent System as Lipid Production Medium of Neochloris sp. for Biodiesel Feedstock Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamurthy, Dhandapani

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae lipid feedstock preparation cost was an important factor in increasing biodiesel fuel hikes. This study was conducted with the concept of implementing an effluent wastewater as lipid production medium for microalgae cultivation. In our study textile dyeing industry effluent was taken as a lipid production medium for Neochloris sp. cultivation. The changes in physicochemical analysis of effluent before and after Neochloris sp. treatment were recorded using standard procedures and AAS analysis. There was especially a reduction in heavy metal like lead (Pb) concentration from 0.002 ppm to 0.001 ppm after Neochloris sp. treatment. Neochloris sp. cultivated in Bold Basal Medium (BBM) (specific algal medium) produced 41.93% total lipid and 36.69% lipid was produced in effluent based cultivation. Surprisingly Neochloris sp. cultivated in effluent was found with enhanced neutral lipid content, and it was confirmed by Nile red fluorescence assay. Further the particular enrichment in oleic acid content of the cells was confirmed with thin layer chromatography (TLC) with oleic acid pure (98%) control. The overall results suggested that textile dyeing industry effluent could serve as the best lipid productive medium for Neochloris sp. biodiesel feedstock preparation. This study was found to have a significant impact on reducing the biodiesel feedstock preparation cost with simultaneous lipid induction by heavy metal stress to microalgae. PMID:25247176

  15. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: Water Effluent Charts Downloads

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Detailed Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) data supporting effluent charts for one Clean Water Act discharge permit. Includes effluent parameters, amounts discharged...

  16. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: Water Effluent Charts Details

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Detailed Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) data supporting effluent charts for one Clean Water Act discharge permit. Includes effluent parameters, amounts discharged...

  17. Bioremediation of textile effluent using Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enormous volumes of effluent are generated at different stages of textile manufacturing, as a result of the use of copious amounts of chemicals and dyes. Several tons of textiles required to meet up with societal demands are produced daily in this industry. Effluent derived from the textile and dyestuff activities can provoke ...

  18. Bioremediation of petroleum refinery effluent by Planococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present investigation, Planococcus halophilus was screened for hydrocarbon degradation and bioremediation of refinery effluent. The test organism, P. halophilus, showed the capability to utilize kerosene as carbon source in minimal medium. Biological treatment of the refinery effluent with P. halophilus reduced the ...

  19. Animal alternatives for whole effluent toxicity testing ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since the 1940s, effluent toxicity testing has been utilized to varying degrees in many countries to assess potential ecological impacts and assist in determining necessary treatment options for environmental protection. However, it was only in the early 1980’s that toxicity based effluent assessments and subsequent discharge controls became globally important, when it was recognized that physical and chemical measurements alone did not protect the environment from potential impacts. Consequently, various strategies using different toxicity tests, whole effluent assessment techniques (incorporating bioaccumulation potential and persistence) plus supporting analytical tools have been developed over 30 years of practice. Numerous workshops and meetings have focused on effluent risk assessment through ASTM, SETAC, OSPAR, UK competent authorities, and EU specific country rules. Concurrent with this drive to improve effluent quality using toxicity tests, interest in reducing animal use has risen. The Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) organized and facilitated an international workshop in March 2016 to evaluate strategies for concepts, tools, and effluent assessments and update the toolbox of for effluent testing methods. The workshop objectives were to identify opportunities to use a suite of strategies for effluents, and to identify opportunities to reduce the reliance on animal tests and to determine barriers to implementation of new methodologie

  20. Soil aquifer treatment using advanced primary effluent

    KAUST Repository

    Sharma, Saroj K.

    2011-08-01

    Soil aquifer treatment (SAT) using primary effluent (PE) is an attractive option for wastewater treatment and reuse in many developing countries with no or minimal wastewater treatment. One of the main limitations of SAT of PE is rapid clogging of the infiltration basin due to high suspended solid concentrations. Some pre-treatment of PE before infiltration is likely to reduce this limitation, improve performance of SAT and help to implement this technology effectively. The effects of three pre-treatment options namely sedimentation (SED), coagulation (COAG) and horizontal roughing filtration (HRF) on SAT were analyzed by conducting laboratory-scale batch and soil column experiments. The sedimentation and coagulation pre-treatments led to less head loss development and reduction of clogging effect. The head loss development in soil column using PE + COAG and PE + SED was reduced by 85 and 72%, respectively, compared to PE alone without any pretreatment. The overall dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal of pre-treatments and soil column collectively were 34, 44, 51 and 43.5% for PE without any pre-treatment, PE + SED, PE+ COAG and PE + HRF, respectively. Coagulation pre-treatment of PE was found to be the most effective option in terms of suspended solids, DOC and nitrogen removal. Sedimentation pre-treatment of PE could be attractive where land is relatively less expensive for the construction of sedimentation basins. © IWA Publishing 2011.

  1. UASB reactor effluent disinfection by ozone and chlorine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro da Silva, Gustavo Henrique; Bruning, Harry; Gerrity, Daniel; Daniel, Luiz Antonio

    2015-01-01

    This research studied the sequential ozone and chlorine process with respect to, the inactivation of indicator bacteria and the formation of ozone disinfection byproducts in sanitary wastewater effluent. The applied ozone doses were 5, 8 and 10 mg.O3.L(-1), followed by chlorine doses of 10, 20 and 30 mg.L(-1), respectively. After the sequential ozone/chlorine process, the mean reduction in chemical oxygen demand ranged from 9 to 37%. Total coliform inactivation ranged from 1.59 to 3.73 log10, and E. coli was always chlorine dose (P ≤ 0.05).

  2. Studies on phyto-genotoxic assessment of tannery effluent and chromium on Allium cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Kiran; Gaumat, Sumati; Mishra, Kumkum

    2012-05-01

    Tannery effluent contributes significantly to pollution of the environment. In this study, phytotoxic and genotoxic effects of tannery effluent and chromium (Cr) were investigated in Allium cepa. Forthis purpose, tannery effluent was collected from "Up flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket" (U.A.S.B) Jajmau, Kanpur. A. cepa were exposed to various concentrations of tannery effluent (0.0, 3.125, 6.25, 12.50, 25.0%) and Cr (0.0, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0 mgl(-1)) for 48 and 168 hr. The perusal of data revealed that the physico-chemical characteristics of tannery effluent viz. pH (8.5), EC (11.94 dSm(-1)), BOD (499 mgl(-1)), COD (1382 mgl(-1)) and Cr content (2.32 mgI(-1)) were much higher than the prescribed permissible limit for industrial effluent discharged into inland waters. These substances provoked phytotoxic and genotoxic effects in A. cepa. Total chlorophyll and protein content in leaves of tannery effluent and Cr treated plants decreased significantly in dose-duration dependent manner. A maximum decrease of 86.29 and 84.26% in total chlorophyll and 81.27 and 76.16% in protein content was observed after 168 hr of exposure while carotenoid content increased up to 6.25% effluent and 2.0 mgl(-1) Cr treatment and decreased further. In all treated plants, a significant (p > or = 0.05) reduction in root length, mitotic index (MI) and induction in chromosomal (CA)/mitotic (MA) aberration and micronuclei (MNC) were observed as compared to unstressed plants. A maximum reduction of 81.15 and 79.71% in MI, and induction of 6.8 and 4.8% in CA, 29.24 and 26.66% in MA and 0.52 and 0.43% in MNC were found at 12.50% effluent and 4 mgl(-1) Cr treated plants as compared to unstressed plants, however at highest effluent and Cr concentration both the plants showed pyknosis condition after 168 hr.

  3. Electrochemical degradation of a real textile effluent using boron-doped diamond or {beta}-PbO{sub 2} as anode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Jose M.; Pereira, Gabriel F. [Departmento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, C. P. 676, 13560-970 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Rocha-Filho, Romeu C., E-mail: romeu@dq.ufscar.br [Departmento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, C. P. 676, 13560-970 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Bocchi, Nerilso; Biaggio, Sonia R. [Departmento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, C. P. 676, 13560-970 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {center_dot} Diamond anode enables total abatement of a real textile effluent COD with low energy consumption. {center_dot} Use of diamond anode enables excellent decolorization rate of effluent in the presence of Cl{sup -} ions. {center_dot} Diamond anode might be an excellent option for electrochemical treatment of real textile effluents. {center_dot} PbO{sub 2} anode, due to low cost and easiness of preparation, may be an option to decolorize the effluents. - Abstract: Constant current electrolyses are carried out in a filter-press reactor using a boron-doped diamond (Nb/BDD) or a Ti-Pt/{beta}-PbO{sub 2} anode, varying current density (j) and temperature. The degradation of the real textile effluent is followed by its decolorization and chemical oxygen demand (COD) abatement. The effect of adding NaCl (1.5 g L{sup -1}) on the degradation of the effluent is also investigated. The Nb/BDD anode yields much higher decolorization (attaining the DFZ limit) and COD-abatement rates than the Ti-Pt/{beta}-PbO{sub 2} anode, at any experimental condition. The best conditions are j = 5 mA cm{sup -2} and 55 {sup o}C, for the system's optimized hydrodynamic conditions. The addition of chloride ions significantly increases the decolorization rate; thus a decrease of more than 90% of the effluent relative absorbance is attained using an applied electric charge per unit volume of the electrolyzed effluent (Q{sub ap}) of only about 2 kA h m{sup -3}. Practically total abatement of the effluent COD is attained with the Nb/BDD anode using a Q{sub ap} value of only 7 kA h m{sup -3}, with an energy consumption of about 30 kW h m{sup -3}. This result allows to conclude that the Nb/BDD electrode might be an excellent option for the remediation of textile effluents.

  4. Strategies for chromium bioremediation of tannery effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Satyendra Kumar; Tripathi, Manikant; Srinath, Thiruneelakantan

    2012-01-01

    Bioremediation offers the possibility of using living organisms (bacteria, fungi, algae,or plants), but primarily microorganisms, to degrade or remove environmental contaminants, and transform them into nontoxic or less-toxic forms. The major advantages of bioremediation over conventional physicochemical and biological treatment methods include low cost, good efficiency, minimization of chemicals, reduced quantity of secondary sludge, regeneration of cell biomass, and the possibility of recover-ing pollutant metals. Leather industries, which extensively employ chromium compounds in the tanning process, discharge spent-chromium-laden effluent into nearby water bodies. Worldwide, chromium is known to be one of the most common inorganic contaminants of groundwater at pollutant hazardous sites. Hexavalent chromium poses a health risk to all forms of life. Bioremediation of chromium extant in tannery waste involves different strategies that include biosorption, bioaccumulation,bioreduction, and immobilization of biomaterial(s). Biosorption is a nondirected physiochemical interaction that occurs between metal species and the cellular components of biological species. It is metabolism-dependent when living biomass is employed, and metabolism-independent in dead cell biomass. Dead cell biomass is much more effective than living cell biomass at biosorping heavy metals, including chromium. Bioaccumulation is a metabolically active process in living organisms that works through adsorption, intracellular accumulation, and bioprecipitation mechanisms. In bioreduction processes, microorganisms alter the oxidation/reduction state of toxic metals through direct or indirect biological and chemical process(es).Bioreduction of Cr6+ to Cr3+ not only decreases the chromium toxicity to living organisms, but also helps precipitate chromium at a neutral pH for further physical removal,thus offering promise as a bioremediation strategy. However, biosorption, bioaccumulation, and

  5. Simultaneous nitrate reduction and acetaminophen oxidation using the continuous-flow chemical-less VUV process as an integrated advanced oxidation and reduction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moussavi, Gholamreza, E-mail: moussavi@modares.ac.ir; Shekoohiyan, Sakine

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Simultaneous advanced oxidation and reduction processes were explored in VUV system. • Complete reduction of nitrate to N{sub 2} was achieved at the presence of acetaminophen. • Complete degradation of acetaminophen was achieved at the presence of nitrate. • Over 95% of acetaminophen was mineralized in the VUV photoreactor. • VUV is a chemical-less advanced process for treating water emerging contaminants. - Abstract: This work was aimed at investigating the performance of the continuous-flow VUV photoreactor as a novel chemical-less advanced process for simultaneously oxidizing acetaminophen (ACT) as a model of pharmaceuticals and reducing nitrate in a single reactor. Solution pH was an important parameter affecting the performance of VUV; the highest ACT oxidation and nitrate reduction attained at solution pH between 6 and 8. The ACT was oxidized mainly by HO· while the aqueous electrons were the main working agents in the reduction of nitrate. The performance of VUV photoreactor improved with the increase of hydraulic retention time (HRT); the complete degradation of ACT and ∼99% reduction of nitrate with 100% N{sub 2} selectivity achieved at HRT of 80 min. The VUV effluent concentrations of nitrite and ammonium at HRT of 80 min were below the drinking water standards. The real water sample contaminated with the ACT and nitrate was efficiently treated in the VUV photoreactor. Therefore, the VUV photoreactor is a chemical-less advanced process in which both advanced oxidation and advanced reduction reactions are accomplished. This unique feature possesses VUV photoreactor as a promising method of treating water contaminated with both pharmaceutical and nitrate.

  6. Educational Attainment and Personality Are Genetically Intertwined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mõttus, René; Realo, Anu; Vainik, Uku; Allik, Jüri; Esko, Tõnu

    2017-11-01

    Heritable variance in psychological traits may reflect genetic and biological processes that are not necessarily specific to these particular traits but pertain to a broader range of phenotypes. We tested the possibility that the personality domains of the five-factor model and their 30 facets, as rated by people themselves and their knowledgeable informants, reflect polygenic influences that have been previously associated with educational attainment. In a sample of more than 3,000 adult Estonians, education polygenic scores (EPSs), which are interpretable as estimates of molecular-genetic propensity for education, were correlated with various personality traits, particularly from the neuroticism and openness domains. The correlations of personality traits with phenotypic educational attainment closely mirrored their correlations with EPS. Moreover, EPS predicted an aggregate personality trait tailored to capture the maximum amount of variance in educational attainment almost as strongly as it predicted the attainment itself. We discuss possible interpretations and implications of these findings.

  7. How to attain expertise in clinical communication?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouda, Jan C.; van de Wiel, Harry B. M.

    2013-01-01

    Several factors complicate the attainment of expertise in clinical communication. Medical curricula and postgraduate training insufficiently provide the required learning conditions of deliberate practice to overcome these obstacles. In this paper we provide recommendations for learning objectives

  8. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - Lakes Assessments - Attaining

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This layer shows only attaining lakes of the Integrated List. The Lakes Integrated List represents lake assessments in an integrated format for the Clean Water Act...

  9. ADOLESCENTS' SEXUAL BEHAVIOR AND ACADEMIC ATTAINMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisco, Michelle L

    2008-07-01

    High school students today have high ambitions but do not always make choices that maximize their likelihood of educational success. This is the motivation for investigating relationships between high school sexual behavior and two important academic attainment milestones: earning a high school diploma and enrollment in distinct postsecondary programs. Analysis of data from 7,915 National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988-1994 participants indicates that timing of sexual initiation, contraceptive nonuse, and parenthood all predict female and male students' academic attainment. Furthermore, sexual behavior has more ramifications as attainment milestones become more competitive. These findings point to the importance of considering how students' choices across multiple life domains influence academic attainment, an important predictor of adult socioeconomic opportunity.

  10. Desalination of brackish water and concentration of industrial effluents by electrodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Schoeman

    1983-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrodialysis (ED is, at present, used mainly for the desalination of brackish drinking-water. Brackish water with a high scaling potential can be successfully treated, using the electrodialysis reversal (EDR process without the addition of chemicals. The reliability of the ED process makes it very attractive for water treatment. Although used mainly for brackish water desalination, ED also has certain industrial applications. Plating wash waters, cooling tower recirculation water and glass etching effluents have been treated successfully with ED for water recovery and effluent volume reduction, while ED treatment of nickel plating wash waters is an established industrial process.

  11. Fungal Biosorption, An Innovative Treatment for the Decolourisation and Detoxification of Textile Effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Pannocchia

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Textile effluents are among the most difficult-to-treat wastewaters, due to their considerable amount of recalcitrant and toxic substances. Fungal biosorption is viewed as a valuable additional treatment for removing pollutants from textile wastewaters. In this study the efficiency of Cunninghamella elegans biomass in terms of contaminants, COD and toxicity reduction was tested against textile effluents sampled in different points of wastewater treatment plants. The results showed that C. elegans is a promising candidate for the decolourisation and detoxification of textile wastewaters and its versatility makes it very competitive compared with conventional sorbents adopted in industrial processes.

  12. Evaluation of some industrial effluents in Jos metropolis, Plateau ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Industrial effluents are generally discharged into receiving water bodies or disposed on land. These effluents are often used by the communities around for domestic activities like farming. Sometimes effluents gain access into wells or streams within the community. Analyses aimed to determine the strength of effluents of ...

  13. Two-step chlorination: A new approach to disinfection of a primary sewage effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; Yang, Mengting; Zhang, Xiangru; Jiang, Jingyi; Liu, Jiaqi; Yau, Cie Fu; Graham, Nigel J D; Li, Xiaoyan

    2017-01-01

    Sewage disinfection aims at inactivating pathogenic microorganisms and preventing the transmission of waterborne diseases. Chlorination is extensively applied for disinfecting sewage effluents. The objective of achieving a disinfection goal and reducing disinfectant consumption and operational costs remains a challenge in sewage treatment. In this study, we have demonstrated that, for the same chlorine dosage, a two-step addition of chlorine (two-step chlorination) was significantly more efficient in disinfecting a primary sewage effluent than a one-step addition of chlorine (one-step chlorination), and shown how the two-step chlorination was optimized with respect to time interval and dosage ratio. Two-step chlorination of the sewage effluent attained its highest disinfection efficiency at a time interval of 19 s and a dosage ratio of 5:1. Compared to one-step chlorination, two-step chlorination enhanced the disinfection efficiency by up to 0.81- or even 1.02-log for two different chlorine doses and contact times. An empirical relationship involving disinfection efficiency, time interval and dosage ratio was obtained by best fitting. Mechanisms (including a higher overall Ct value, an intensive synergistic effect, and a shorter recovery time) were proposed for the higher disinfection efficiency of two-step chlorination in the sewage effluent disinfection. Annual chlorine consumption costs in one-step and two-step chlorination of the primary sewage effluent were estimated. Compared to one-step chlorination, two-step chlorination reduced the cost by up to 16.7%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A continuous active monitoring approach to identify cross-connections between potable water and effluent distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedler, E; Alfiya, Y; Shaviv, A; Gilboa, Y; Harussi, Y; Raize, O

    2015-03-01

    A continuous active monitoring approach was developed for identification of cross-connections between potable water supply systems and treated wastewater effluent reuse distribution systems. The approach is based on monitoring the oxidation reduction potential (ORP) at the potable water system while injecting sulfite (a reducing agent) into the effluent line. A sharp decrease in the ORP of the potable water would indicate a cross-connection event. The approach was tested in batch experiments on treated municipal wastewater effluent of varying degree of treatment, and at dilution ratios of up to 1:100 (effluent/potable). The approach was then examined under continuous flow conditions, which simulated cross-connection events at various dilution ratios (up to 1:100). In the continuous runs, differences between the potable water ORP and the effluent-potable water mixture (containing sulfite as sodium bisulfite (SBS)) ORP were 450-630 mV. This suggests high potential for identifying a cross-connection event. Implementation of the approach includes adding sulfite to effluent used for agricultural irrigation; hence, possible effects on soil and on crops were studied in soil columns and pots planted with basil (Ocimum basilicum) as a model plant. No negative effects of sulfite addition to the irrigation effluent were observed in the irrigated soils and plants, and therefore, it could be safely implemented also in agricultural applications.

  15. Ecotoxicity of raw and treated effluents generated by a veterinary pharmaceutical company: a comparison of the sensitivities of different standardized tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maselli, Bianca de S; Luna, Luis A V; Palmeira, Joice de O; Tavares, Karla P; Barbosa, Sandro; Beijo, Luiz A; Umbuzeiro, Gisela A; Kummrow, Fábio

    2015-05-01

    Pharmaceutical effluents have recently been recognized as an important contamination source to aquatic environments and the toxicity related to the presence of antibiotics in effluents has attracted great attention. Conventionally, these effluents have been treated using physico-chemical and aerobic biological processes, usually with low rates of pharmaceuticals removal. Due to the complexity of effluents, it is impossible to determine all pharmaceuticals and their degradation products using analytical methods. Ecotoxicity tests with different organisms may be used to determine the effect level of effluents and thus their environmental impacts. The objective of this work was to compare the sensitivities of five ecotoxicity tests using aquatic and terrestrial organisms to evaluate the toxicity of effluents from the production of veterinary medicines before and after treatment. Raw and chemically treated effluent samples were highly toxic to aquatic organisms, achieving 100,000 toxic units, but only few of those samples presented phytotoxicity. We observed a reduction in the toxicity in the biologically treated effluent samples, which were previously chemically pre-treated, however the toxicity was not eliminated. The rank of test organisms' reactions levels was: Daphnia similis > Raphidocelis subcapitata > Aliivibrio fischeri > Allium cepa ~ Lactuca sativa. Effluent treatment employed by the evaluated company was only partially efficient at removing the effluent toxicity, suggesting potential risks to biota. The acute toxicity test with D. similis proved to be the most sensitive for both raw and treated effluents and is a suitable option for further characterization and monitoring of pharmaceutical effluents.

  16. POLLUTION EFFECT OF FOOD AND BEVERAGES EFFLUENTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    bodies without proper treatment may results to exposure of humans to such .... Pollution effect of food and beverages effluents on the Alaro river in Ibadan city, Nigeria ..... (enlarged liver), and a 100% increase in both cancer and congenital ...

  17. (EFB) and palm oil mill effluent (POME)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-12-16

    , palm oil mill effluent. could solve several problems including reducing the high load of waste produced by palm oil industry. It can also create a market for biofertilizer which have proven to be more effective and cheaper than ...

  18. Benthos of Cochin backwaters receiving industrial effluents

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, K.S.; Venugopal, P.

    Faunal composition of benthos and its spatial and temporal distribution at 9 stations in the northern limb of the Cochin backwaters are studied. An industrial belt is located about 18 km upstream of barmouth, and the effluents are discharged...

  19. Effect of treated tannery effluent with domestic wastewater and amendments on growth and yield of cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagathjothi, N; Amanullah, M Mohamed; Muthukrishnan, P

    2013-11-15

    Pot culture and field experiments were carried out at the Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP), Dindigul during kharif 2011-12 to investigate the influence of irrigation of treated tannery effluent along with domestic wastewater on growth, yield attributes and yield of cotton. The pot culture was in a factorial completely randomized design and field experiment laid out in factorial randomized block design with four replications. The results revealed that the mixing proportion of 25% Treated Tannery Effluent (TTE)+75% domestic wastewater (DWW) application recorded taller plants, higher dry matter production, number of sympodial branches plant(-1), number of fruiting points plant(-1), number of bolls plant(-1) and seed cotton yield with yield reduction of 15.28 and 16.11% compared to normal water irrigation under pot culture and field experiment, respectively. Regarding amendments, gypsum application registered higher seed cotton yield followed by VAM.

  20. Control and separation of algae particles from WSP effluent by using floating aquatic plant root mats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y; Kim, W J; Chung, P G; Pipes, W O

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the potential uses of water hyacinth and its root mats for separating algae particles in the effluent from waste stabilization ponds (WSPs) were discussed. Pilot-scale integrated processes consisting of WSPs and multiple WHPs (water hyacinth ponds) were operated in order to extract effects of the root mats on the reduction of algae concentrations. Root mats in the bottom of WHPs separated significant amount of the algae cells through attachment as the effluent from WSPs passed through them. Attachment of the algae particles to the surface of live roots was found to be similar to adsorption phenomena but it lasted even at saturation, probably due to the continuous reproduction of active attachment sites by detachment and growth of the roots. Additionally, this paper discusses attachment mechanisms and other issues concerning design and polishing of the WSPs effluent by WHPs.

  1. Electrocoagulation method for colour removal in tea effluent: a case study of Chemomi tea factory in rift valley, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Lusweti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A simple and efficient electrochemical method that utilizes two steel electrodes and is capable of reducing the colour of tea effluent prior to its discharge into the river system has been developed. The effects of potential difference, inter-electrode distance, surface area of electrodes to effluent volume ratio (S/V, effluent pH, temperature and effluent dilution on power consumption, were investigated. This method was effective at a potential difference of 24 volts, inter-electrode distance of 5 mm, S/V of 18.2 m2/m3 and effluent pH of 6. Effluent dilution led to increase in power consumption while raising temperatures led to a reduction in power consumption. Electrochemical method reduced COD, BOD and electrical conductivity by 96.6 %, 84.0 % and 31.5 %, respectively but increased pH by 10.32 %. The final pH, EC, COD and BOD values were below KBS maximum contaminant levels. The proposed mechanism in colour removal process was phenol coupling. Phenolic tea colour pigments were oxidized by electrons from ionization of iron to form keto radicals, which polymerized to form a long chain polymer. The polymer was electro-floated to the surface by hydrogen gas generated from the reduction of water and oxidation of theaflavins.

  2. Epicoccum nigrum and Cladosporium sp. for the treatment of oily effluent in an air-lift reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Delgado Queissada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The metalworking industry is responsible for one of the most complex and difficult to handle oily effluents. These effluents consist of cutting fluids, which provide refrigeration and purification of metallic pieces in the machining system. When these effluents are biologically treated, is important to do this with autochthonous microorganisms; the use of these microorganisms (bioaugmentation tends to be more efficient because they are already adapted to the existing pollutants. For this purpose, this study aimed to use two indigenous microorganisms, Epicoccum nigrum and Cladosporium sp. for metalworking effluent treatment using an air-lift reactor; the fungus Aspergillus niger (laboratory strain was used as a reference microorganism. The original effluent characterization presented considerable pollutant potential. The color of the effluent was 1495 mg Pt/L, and it contained 59 mg/L H2O2, 53 mg/L total phenols, 2.5 mgO2/L dissolved oxygen (DO, and 887 mg/L oil and grease. The COD was 9147 mgO2/L and the chronic toxicity factor was 1667. Following biotreatment, the fungus Epicoccum nigrum was found to be the most efficient in reducing (effective reduction the majority of the parameters (26% COD, 12% H2O2, 59% total phenols, and 40% oil and grease, while Cladosporium sp. was more efficient in color reduction (77%.

  3. Suboptimal Attainment of Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Guideline Goals in Korean Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunjoo Boo, RN, PhD

    2012-06-01

    Conclusion: Korean women at risk for developing CHD need to be managed as soon as possible to attain the guideline goals and to lower their risk for future CHD. Aggressive risk reduction efforts are urgently needed to reduce the public burden of CHD in Korean women.

  4. The comparative efficacy of lifestyle intervention and metformin by educational attainment in the Diabetes Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Matthew J; Whitaker, Robert C; Yu, Daohai; Ackermann, Ronald T

    2015-08-01

    Educational attainment is inversely associated with type 2 diabetes risk, but it is unknown whether education impacts individuals' diabetes prevention efforts. We examined the comparative efficacy of intensive lifestyle intervention and metformin by educational attainment among participants in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), an ongoing U.S. multi-site trial beginning in 1996. We studied 2,910 DPP participants randomized to receive lifestyle intervention, metformin, or placebo. Stratifying by educational attainment, diabetes incidence and relative risk reductions by treatment assignment were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression. 47% of participants had completed college and 53% had not. Compared to placebo, lifestyle participants who had completed college demonstrated a 68% reduction in diabetes incidence (95% CI=56, 77), whereas those with less education experienced a 47% risk reduction (95% CI=29, 61). For metformin participants, college graduates experienced a 49% relative risk reduction (95% CI=33, 62), compared to 23% (95% CI=1, 41) among those with lower educational attainment. There was a statistically significant education-by-treatment interaction with incident diabetes (p=0.03). Intensive lifestyle intervention and metformin have greater efficacy among highly educated individuals. Future efforts to deliver these treatments and study their dissemination may be more effective if tailored to individuals' educational background. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Chromium accumulation in submerged aquatic plants treated with tannery effluent at Kanpur, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Kiran; Gaumat, Sumati; Mishra, Kumkum

    2011-09-01

    Aquatic macrophytes have been widely studied because of their capability of absorbing contaminants from water and their subsequent use in biomonitoring. This study presents a comparison of Cr accumulating potential of submerged aquatic plants viz Vallisneria spiralis and Hydrilla verticillata. These plants were treated with various concentrations of treated tannery effluent collected from UASB, Jajmau, Kanpur under repeated exposure in controlled laboratory conditions in order to assess their maximum bioaccumulation potential. The maximum accumulation of 385.6 and 201.6 microg g(-1) dry weight was found in roots of V. spiralis and the whole plants of H. verticillata, respectively at 100% concentration after 9th day of effluent exposure. The chlorophyll and protein content of both species decreased with increase in effluent concentration and duration. At highest concentration and duration a maximum reduction of 67.4 and 62.66% in total chlorophyll content, 9.97 and 4.66% in carotenoid content and 62.66 and 59.36% in protein content was found in V. spiralis and H. verticillata respectively. Anatomical studies in both V. spiralis and H. verticillata was carried out to assess the effects of metal accumulation within the plants. Changes in the anatomical structures of both plants exhibits the capacity of these species to act as indicator of effluent toxicity. The high accumulation potential of Cr by both plants revealed their capability to remove pollutants from effluent.

  6. Integrating the Fenton's Process with Biofiltration by to Reduce Chemical Oxygen Demand of Winery Effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipolo, Marco; Martins, Rui C; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M; Costa, Raquel

    2017-03-01

    The discharge of poorly decontaminated winery wastewater remains a serious environmental problem in many regions, and the industry is welcoming improved treatment methods. Here, an innovative decontamination approach integrating Fenton's process with biofiltration by Asian clams is proposed. The potential of this approach was assessed at the pilot scale using real effluent and by taking an actual industrial treatment system as a benchmark. Fenton peroxidation was observed to remove 84% of the effluent's chemical oxygen demand (COD), reducing it to 205 mg L. Subsequent biofiltration decreased the effluent's COD to approximately zero, well below the legal discharge limit of 150 mg L, in just 3 d. The reduction of the effluent's organic load through Fenton's process did not decrease its toxicity toward , but the effluent was much less harmful after biofiltration. The performance of the treatment proposed exceeded that of the integrated Fenton's process-sequencing batch reactor design implemented in the winery practice, where a residence time of around 10 d in the biological step typically results in 80 to 90% of COD removal. The method proposed is effective and compatible with typical winery budgets and potentially contributes to the management of a nuisance species. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  7. Novel two stage bio-oxidation and chlorination process for high strength hazardous coal carbonization effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manekar, Pravin; Biswas, Rima; Karthik, Manikavasagam; Nandy, Tapas

    2011-05-15

    Effluent generated from coal carbonization to coke was characterized with high organic content, phenols, ammonium nitrogen, and cyanides. A full scale effluent treatment plant (ETP) working on the principle of single stage carbon-nitrogen bio-oxidation process (SSCNBP) revealed competition between heterotrophic and autotrophic bacteria in the bio-degradation and nitrification process. The effluent was pretreated in a stripper and further combined with other streams to treat in the SSCNBP. Laboratory studies were carried on process and stripped effluents in a bench scale model of ammonia stripper and a two stage bio-oxidation process. The free ammonia removal efficiency of stripper was in the range 70-89%. Bench scale studies of the two stage bio-oxidation process achieved a carbon-nitrogen reduction at 6 days hydraulic retention time (HRT) operating in an extended aeration mode. This paper addresses the studies on selection of a treatment process for removal of organic matter, phenols, cyanide and ammonia nitrogen. The treatment scheme comprising ammonia stripping (pretreatment) followed by the two stage bio-oxidation and chlorination process met the Indian Standards for discharge into Inland Surface Waters. This treatment process package offers a techno-economically viable treatment scheme to neuter hazardous effluent generated from coal carbonization process. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Detritiation of Tritiated Effluent Gas and Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Do Hee; Kim, Kwang Rag; Paek, Seung Woo; Lee, Min Soo; Yim, Sung Paal; Chung Hong Suk

    2007-06-15

    In a demonstration scale equipment for treatment of tritium in off-gas, Pt/SDBC as oxidation catalyst and Zeolite 13X as adsorbent was charged in the beds, respectively. It was confirmed from the performance test that decontamination factor of the equipment showed more than 100 under the flow rate of off-gas of 90 l/hr and at the temperature of 65 {approx} 80 .deg. C. A small scale CECE process has been developed combining LPCE catalytic column with SPE (solid polymer electrolyte) electrolysis. The catalytic column was a trickle-bed type packed with the mixture of 1 wt% Pt/SDBC catalyst and 4 mm Dixon wire-mesh ring. The experimental results of the CECE process proved that the decontamination factor of 13 {approx} 20 under the operating conditions of the water of the 4 l/day and the effluent hydrogen gas of 16.2 mol/h. A design code of CECE process also developed which will be applied the tritium industry. An experimental method for the reduction of tritiated organic waste by using catalytic oxidation was tested in a heated catalytic reactor of 0.5 wt% Pd/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The simulated organic liquid was converted to water over 99%. A gas chromatographic column material was developed for the separation of mixed hydrogen isotopes. 17 wt% Pd-Pt on alumina showed 90% separation efficiency at 77 % yield for the separation of 29.2 % D{sub 2}-H{sub 2} gas mixture.

  9. Predictors of attainment in rhythmic sportive gymnastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, P A; Hopkins, W G; Robinson, D M; Robinson, S M; Hollings, S C

    1993-12-01

    Correlates of attainment in rhythmic sportive gymnastics (RSG) were investigated in a cross-sectional study of 106 female gymnasts aged 7-27 years. Physical attributes were obtained by anthropometry and from tests of flexibility, leg power, maximum oxygen uptake and visuo-motor proficiency. Training and psychological measures were derived from self-administered questionnaires that included the Leadership Scale for Sport, Psychological Skills Inventory for Sport, General Health Questionnaire, Sport Competition Anxiety Test, and several questions on sport motivation and enjoyment. Attainment was expressed as competition grade level and mean performance score in 4 competitions. The best correlates of attainment were cumulative and current training time (r = 0.84-0.53). Age, lean body mass and composite measures of flexibility, leg power and visuo-motor proficiency were also significant correlates of attainment (r = 0.69-0.29), as were coach democratic and coach social behaviours (r = 0.41-0.28). The significant positive psychometric correlates of attainment were mental preparation, motivation by creativity, and several dimensions of enjoyment (r = 0.35-0.26); significant negative correlates were recent anxiety-depression and enjoyment of training (r = -0.34-(-)0.32). No previous study has identified the relative contributions of such a comprehensive range of physical, psychological and training measures to performance of a sport.

  10. [The effect of attainability on envy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yumi; Murata, Koji

    2014-04-01

    Envy is an unpleasant emotion caused by comparison with a person who possesses something we desire. We conducted two studies to test our prediction that less envy would be felt when the person could attain what others had. In Study 1, participants read scenarios in which their friend could achieve a goal which they could not, and rated their emotions toward the friend. We manipulated the attainability according to whether the goal could be achieved by effort. In Study 2, participants competed with a confederate, and were informed that their performance was worse than that of the confederate. Afterwards the attainability was manipulated by either informing the participants that the possibility of improving their ability was very low or high. Then participants rated their emotions toward the confederate, and we also checked whether the participants had helped the confederate. As predicted, our findings demonstrated that those in the high attainability condition felt envy less than those in the low attainability condition, but showed no significant differences in helping behavior.

  11. Occupational attainment in selected allied health professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoecker, J L

    1990-01-01

    This study examined the factors in the process of occupational attainment for a single group, the allied health professions. A 14-variable causal model was developed to explain postcollege attainment of a job in one of five allied health professions: medical dietetics, medical social work, occupational therapy, physical therapy, or speech therapy. The sample was composed of 272 college students who responded to the Cooperative Institutional Research Program surveys of 1971 and 1980. Analysis indicated that several variables, including academic integration, having a science major, and being oriented to service, had significant direct effects on attainment in the allied health professions. Knowledge of the personal characteristics and achievements of those who successfully enter jobs in the allied health professions may allow informed student and faculty choices and reduce recruitment and retention problems in schools of allied health.

  12. Assessment of effluent turbidity in mesophilic and thermophilic sludge reactors - origin of effluent colloidal material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelaar, J.C.T.; Lier, van J.B.; Klapwijk, B.; Vries, M.C.; Lettinga, G.

    2002-01-01

    Two lab-scale plug flow activated sludge reactors were run in parallel for 4 months at 30 and 55°C. Research focussed on: (1) COD (chemical oxygen demand) removal, (2) effluent turbidity at both temperatures, (3) the origin of effluent colloidal material and (4) the possible role of protozoa on

  13. Palm oil mill effluent treatment using coconut shell – based activated carbon: Adsorption equilibrium and isotherm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaman Sherlynna Parveen Deshon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The current ponding system applied for palm oil mill effluent (POME treatment often struggle to comply with the POME discharge limit, thus it has become a major environmental concern. Batch adsorption study was conducted for reducing the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, Total Suspended Solids (TSS and Color of pre-treated POME using coconut shell-based activated carbon (CS-AC. The CS-AC showed BET surface area of 744.118 m2/g, with pore volume of 04359cm3/g. The adsorption uptake was studied at various contact time and POME initial concentration. The CS-AC exhibited good ability with average percentage removal of 70% for COD, TSS and Color. The adsorption uptake increased over time and attained equilibrium in 30 hours. The equilibrium data were analyzed using the Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin–Radushkevich isotherm models. Based on the coefficient regression and sum of squared errors, the Langmuir isotherm described the adsorption of COD satisfactorily, while best described the TSS and Color adsorption; giving the highest adsorption capacity of 10.215 mg/g, 1.435 mg/g, and 63.291 PtCo/g respectively. The CS-AC was shown to be a promising adsorbent for treating POME and was able to comply with the Environmental Quality Act (EQA discharge limit. The outcome of treated effluent using CS-AC was shown to be cleaner than the industrial biologically treated effluent, achieved within shorter treatment time.

  14. Mathematical models of anaerobic digestion for the treatment of swine effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisa Stéfano Fagundes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pig breeding results in the production of large amounts of waste, which can cause serious environmental problems, when handled incorrectly. This study aimed at testing mathematical models to estimate the parameters of anaerobic biodigestion in biodigesters as a function of the composition of swine effluents with and without separation of the solid fraction and hydraulic retention times (HRT. Semi-continuous biodigesters fed with swine effluents with and without separation of the solid fraction and managed for 15, 22, 29 and 36 days of hydraulic retention were used. The potential of biogas and methane production, as well as the reduction of total solids, volatile solids and chemical oxygen demand, were assessed as a function of the effluents composition. HRT was the variable that most influenced the variation of the models, followed by the contents of total and volatile solids. Uni and multivariate models presented high confidence indices, being classified as “great” at predicting the potentials of biogas and methane production and “good” at predicting the reductions of total solids, volatile solids and chemical oxygen demand. The models obtained in this study can be used to reliably predict the parameters of the anaerobic biodigestion process of swine effluents in semi-continuous tubular biodigesters.

  15. Geography Education for "An Attainable Global Perspective"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Phil; Pawson, Eric; Solem, Michael; Ray, Waverly

    2014-01-01

    This article considers approaches to promoting global perspectives as both cognitive and affective learning outcomes within geography education. Particular attention is paid to the work of Robert Hanvey, who proposed "An Attainable Global Perspective" in the 1970s, which explicitly ties to the content and perspectives embedded in…

  16. Birth order, family size and educational attainment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of family size and birth order on educational attainment. An instrumental variables approach is used to identify the effect of family size. Instruments for the number of children are twins at last birth and the sex mix of the first two children. The effect of birth

  17. Assessing bilingual attainment: macrostructural planning in narratives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flecken, M.E.P.

    2011-01-01

    The present study addresses questions concerning bilinguals' attainment in the two languages by investigating the extent to which early bilinguals manage to apply the information structure required in each language when producing a complex text. In re-narrating the content of a film, speakers have

  18. Institutions, Social Norms, and Educational Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Crystal

    2017-01-01

    Informal institutions are defined as socially shared rules that guide individuals' behaviors outside of officially sanctioned channels. This paper investigates the link between individual educational attainment and education-related informal institutions by examining second-generation immigrants in the USA. I measure the education-related informal…

  19. Does Sibship Size Affect Educational Attainment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Mads Meier

    This paper implements a test of the Resource Dilution Hypothesis (RDH) stating that sibship size has a negative causal effect on educational attainment. Most existing studies using conventional methods support the RDH. This paper implements an Instrumental Variable (IV) approach to testing the cl...

  20. Why Online Education Will Attain Full Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sener, John

    2010-01-01

    Online higher education has attained scale and is poised to take the next step in its growth. Although significant obstacles to a full scale adoption of online education remain, we will see full scale adoption of online higher education within the next five to ten years. Practically all higher education students will experience online education in…

  1. Birth Order, Family Size and Educational Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Monique

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of family size and birth order on educational attainment. An instrumental variables approach is used to identify the effect of family size. Instruments for the number of children are twins at last birth and the sex mix of the first two children. The effect of birth order is identified, by examining the relation…

  2. Ego Boundaries and Attainments in FL Pronunciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran-Lucarz, Malgorzata

    2012-01-01

    The paper reports on a study designed to examine the relationship between the thickness of ego boundaries and attainments in FL pronunciation after a clearly structured form-focused practical course of phonetics. The research involved 45 first-year students of the Institute of English Studies in Wroclaw, Poland, who had attended around thirty…

  3. Optimization of the do concentration in activated sludge systems treating petrochemical effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Haandel, A.; Cavalcanti, P. F.F.; Medeiros, U. T. P.

    2009-07-01

    Electric energy is normally one the important cost factors of activated sludge systems. If the aeration intensity is reduced, energy consumption will be lower, but the resulting reduction of the dissolved oxygen concentration in the mixed liquor may affect the treatment system in three ways: (1) reduction of the efficiency of organic material removal and nitrification, resulting in higher residual BOD, COD and NH{sub 3} concentrations in the effluent, (2) reduction of the metabolic activity of heterotrophic or auto trophic bacteria and (3) deterioration of the sludge settleability which may reduce the separation efficiency in the final settler. (Author)

  4. Brine Effluents: Characteristics, Environmental Impacts, and Their Handling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danu Ariono

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Brine discharge is one of the largest sources of wastewater from industrial processes. Because of the environmental impacts arising from improper treatment of brine discharge and more rigorous regulations of pollution control, industries have started to focus on waste minimization and improving the process of wastewater treatment. Several approaches have been proposed to provide a strategy for brine handling by recovering both brine and water or to remove pollutant components so it complies with environmental regulations when discharged. One of the most promising alternatives to brine disposal is reusing the brine, which results in reduction of pollution, minimizing waste volume and salt recovery. The brine may also contain valuable components that could be recovered for profitable use. Also, water recovery from brine effluent is generally performed to save water. In the case of rejected brine from desalination plants, water recovery from higher brine concentrations has huge potential for salt production. This paper gives an overview of different types of brine effluents, their sources and characteristics. Also discussed are impacts of brine on the environment and management options related to their characteristics.

  5. Alternatives for biodigester effluent treatment: economic impact; Impacto economico de um sistema de tratamento dos efluentes de biodigestores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miele, Marcelo; Kunz, Airton; Correa, Juliano Corulli; Steinmetz, Ricardo [EMBRAPA Suinos e Aves, Concordia, SC (Brazil)], email: marcelo@cnpsa.embrapa.br; Bortoli, Marcelo [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to present a prospective economic impact assessment of a biodigester liquid effluent treatment system. This system developed by Embrapa Swine and Poultry is composed by a N removal module and a P one, which can be attached to a biodigester, technology widely diffused in Brazil. Biodigesters do not remove nutrients (NPK) with high pollution potential of water resources and demanding high effluent transport costs. The analysis was based on Net Present Value (NPV) technique, using prototype performance information, market prices and wastewater analysis. The N module reduces more than ten times the surface needed to spread effluents. The P module attains the standard for discharge in water resources and makes this element available as fertilizer. The system has a significant impact on swine production costs, what can be reduced in farms which produces its own energy from manure. High effluent distribution costs also turn treatment more attractive. The study concludes that this is a promising technology which has to be validated. Financial support is needed to implement a real scale prototype to validate it. (author)

  6. Recycling liquid effluents in a ceramic industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo Almeida, B.; Almeida, M.; Martins, S.; Alexandra Macarico, V.; Tomas da Fonseca, A.

    2016-08-01

    In this work is presented a study on the recycling of liquid effluents in a ceramic installation for sanitary industry. The effluents were characterized by X-ray diffraction and inductively coupled plasma to evaluate their compositions. It was also assessed the daily production rate. Several glaze-slurry mixtures were prepared and characterized according to procedures and equipment of the company's quality laboratory. The results show that for most of the properties, the tested mixtures exhibited acceptable performance. However, the pyro plasticity parameter is highly influenced by the glaze content and imposes the separation of glaze and slurry liquid effluents. In addition, it is necessary to invest on a storage plant, including tanks with constant stirring and a new pipeline structure to implement the reincorporation method on the slurry processing. (Author)

  7. Recycling liquid effluents in a ceramic industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Araújo de Almeida

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work is presented a study on the recycling of liquid effluents in a ceramic installation for sanitary industry. The effluents were characterized by X-ray diffraction and inductively coupled plasma to evaluate their compositions. It was also assessed the daily production rate. Several glaze–slurry mixtures were prepared and characterized according to procedures and equipment of the company's quality laboratory. The results show that for most of the properties, the tested mixtures exhibited acceptable performance. However, the pyroplasticity parameter is highly influenced by the glaze content and imposes the separation of glaze and slurry liquid effluents. In addition, it is necessary to invest on a storage plant, including tanks with constant stirring and a new pipeline structure to implement the reincorporation method on the slurry processing.

  8. Estimating genetic potential of biofuel forest hardwoods to withstand metal toxicity in industrial effluent under dry tropical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor, S A; Mirza, S N; Zubair, M; Nouman, W; Hussain, S B; Mehmood, S; Irshad, A; Sarwar, N; Ammar, A; Iqbal, M F; Asim, A; Chattha, M U; Chattha, M B; Zafar, A; Abid, R

    2015-08-14

    Biofuel tree species are recognized as a promising alternative source of fuel to conventional forms. Additionally, these tree species are also effective in accumulating toxic heavy metals present in some industrial effluents. In developing countries such as Pakistan, the use of biofuel tree species is gaining popularity not only for harvesting economical and environmentally friendly biofuel, but also to sequester poisonous heavy metals from industrial wastewater. This study was aimed at evaluating the genetic potential of two biofuel species, namely, Jatropha curcas and Pongamia pinnata, to grow when irrigated with industrial effluent from the Pak-Arab Fertilizer Factory Multan, Southern Punjab, Pakistan. The growth performances of one-year-old seedlings of both species were compared in soil with adverse physiochemical properties. It was found that J. curcas was better able to withstand the toxicity of the heavy metals present in the fertilizer factory effluent. J. curcas showed maximum gain in height, diameter, and biomass production in soil irrigated with 75% concentrated industrial effluent. In contrast, P. pinnata showed a significant reduction in growth in soil irrigated with more than 50% concentrated industrial effluent, indicating that this species is less tolerant to higher toxicity levels of industrial effluent. This study identifies J. curcas as a promising biofuel tree species that can be grown using industrial wastewater.

  9. Assessing the application of advanced oxidation processes, and their combination with biological treatment, to effluents from pulp and paper industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merayo, Noemí; Hermosilla, Daphne; Blanco, Laura; Cortijo, Luis; Blanco, Angeles

    2013-11-15

    The closure of water circuits within pulp and paper mills has resulted in a higher contamination load of the final mill effluent, which must consequently be further treated in many cases to meet the standards imposed by the legislation in force. Different treatment strategies based on advanced oxidation processes (ozonation and TiO2-photocatalysis), and their combination with biological treatment (MBR), are herein assessed for effluents of a recycled paper mill and a kraft pulp mill. Ozone treatment achieved the highest efficiency of all. The consumption of 2.4 g O3 L(-1) resulted in about a 60% COD reduction treating the effluent from the kraft pulp mill at an initial pH=7; although it only reached about a 35% COD removal for the effluent of the recycled paper mill. Otherwise, photocatalysis achieved about a 20-30% reduction of the COD for both type of effluents. In addition, the effluent from the recycled paper mill showed a higher biodegradability, so combinations of these AOPs with biological treatment were tested. As a result, photocatalysis did not report any significant COD reduction improvement whether being performed as pre- or post-treatment of the biological process; whereas the use of ozonation as post-biological treatment enhanced COD removal a further 10%, summing up a total 90% reduction of the COD for the combined treatment, as well as it also supposed an increase of the presence of volatile fatty acids, which might ultimately enable the resultant wastewater to be recirculated back to further biological treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Application of ultrasound modified corn straw as adsorbent for malachite green removal from synthetic and real effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Diana Ramos; Klein, Laura; Dotto, Guilherme Luiz

    2017-09-01

    This work aimed to study the removal of malachite green dye from wastewaters through adsorption using raw corn straw (RCS) and ultrasound-assisted modified corn straw (MCS). RCS and MCS were prepared and characterized in detail. The characterization indicated that RCS and MCS presented favorable structures for malachite green adsorption and that the ultrasound treatment provided a disorganization of the adsorbent's crystalline regions and also caused the formation of cavities and protuberances. The adsorption study was performed by equilibrium isotherms, kinetic curves, thermodynamic parameters, and application in real effluents composed of dye mixtures and inorganic compounds. The Elovich model was suitable for the adsorption kinetics and the Freundlich model was appropriate to represent the equilibrium. The maximum experimental adsorption capacities were 200 mg g-1 for RCS and 210 mg g-1 for MCS, obtained at 328 K. MCS was more effective than RCS to treat real effluents, attaining around 92% of color removal.

  11. Biological Treatment of Textile Effluent Using Candida zeylanoides and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Isolated from Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Abioye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the efficacy of yeasts isolated from soil in the treatment of textile wastewater. Two yeast species were isolated from soil; they were identified as Candida zeylanoides and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The yeasts were inoculated into flask containing effluent and incubated for 15 days. Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed the most significant treatment capacity with a 66% reduction in BOD; this was followed closely by Candida zeylanoides with 57.3% reduction in BOD and a consortium of the two species showed the least remediation potential of 36.9%. The use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida zeylanoides in treatment of textile wastewater will help to limit the adverse environmental and health implications associated with disposal of untreated effluent into water bodies.

  12. Metal concentration of liquid effluents and surroundings of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Major and trace metals (Mg, Na, K, Ca, Fe, Zn, Cu, Sn, Al, Pb, As, Cr, Cd, Mn and Ti) in liquid effluents, soil sediments and plant parts (roots and leaves) from Tisco Nigeria Limited, Akure, were determined in both open effluent channel and closed direct tank. The plant in the open effluent channel was Pennisetum purpureum ...

  13. The disposal of industrial effluents on pastures | RE | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An agricultural project for the disposal of industrial liquid effluent has been initiated by African Explosives and Chemical Industries Limited at their Modderfontein factory. This effluent, which has a high nitrogen content, is sprayed on veld and sown pastures. In spite of two very dry years the effluent has stimulated the growth ...

  14. Correlating biochemical and chemical oxygen demand of effluents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aims at establishing an empirical correlation between biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of effluents from selected industries in the Kumasi Metropolis to facilitate speedy effluent quality assessment or optimal process control. Hourly effluent samples were collected for an ...

  15. Plant and soil modifications by continuous surface effluent application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedesco, M.J.; Levien, R. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. of Solos; Mohrdieck, F.G.; Rodrigues, N.R. [CORSAN-SITEL, Triunfo, RS (Brazil). Polo Petroquimico do Sul. Dept. de Operacao e Manutencao; Flores, A.I.P.

    1993-12-31

    In order to study the effects on soil and plants of the liquid effluent generated by a the Integrated Liquid Effluent Treatment System of a large Brazilian petrochemical complex, a field study was conducted in four areas which received the effluent and compared to control sites. This work presents some results of this study. 12 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  16. Toxicity assessment of treated effluents from a textile industry in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Veejay

    Key words: Textile effluent, toxicity, surface waters, growth inhibition, Celosia argentea. INTRODUCTION. Industrial effluents are undesirable by-products of economic development and technological advancement. When improperly disposed off, they imperil human health and the environment. Effluents from textile industries ...

  17. Analysis of tannery effluents from the Challawa industrial estate in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many tanneries are located at Challawa Industrial Estate in Kano. These tanneries discharge their effluents into canals which converge at a point and eventually flow into the Challawa river. Tannery effluent was collected from the effluent confluence point at Challawa Industrial Estate and some physicochemical parameters ...

  18. Toxicity Of Industrial Effluent To Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The toxicity of industrial effluent from Odua Textile Mill, Ado-Ekiti on Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings was investigated. The fingerlings were exposed to increasing concentrations of the effluent in spring and pond water respectively. The mean lethal concentration (LC50) of the effluent in spring and pond water was ...

  19. REUSE OF SALINE AQUACULTURE EFFLUENT FOR ENERGY PLANT PRODUCTION

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Réka Hegedus; Dénes Gál; Ferenc Pekár; Mária Oncsik Bíróné; Gyula Lakatos

    2011-01-01

    ...). Keywords: effluent, energy plant, irrigation, salt, phytoremediation INTRODUCTION The growth of the aquaculture industry has been associated with negative environmental impacts from the discharge of untreated effluent into the adjacent receiving water bodies. It is well known that discharge of effluents, treated or non-treated, into the envir...

  20. Attainability of Carnot efficiency with autonomous engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Naoto

    2015-11-01

    The maximum efficiency of autonomous engines with a finite chemical potential difference is investigated. We show that, without a particular type of singularity, autonomous engines cannot attain the Carnot efficiency. This singularity is realized in two ways: single particle transports and the thermodynamic limit. We demonstrate that both of these ways actually lead to the Carnot efficiency in concrete setups. Our results clearly illustrate that the singularity plays a crucial role in the maximum efficiency of autonomous engines.

  1. Remediation of feedlot effluents using aquatic plants

    OpenAIRE

    Rizzo, Pedro Federico; Arreghini, Silvana; Serafini, Roberto José María; Bres, Patricia Alina; Crespo, Diana Elvira; Fabrizio de Iorio, Alicia Rosa

    2012-01-01

    Feedlots have increased in several regions of Argentina, particularly in the Pampas. The absence of adequate treatments of the effluents produced in these establishments creates serious problems to the society. Phytoremediation can be defined as inexpensive and environmentally sustainable strategy used to remove pollutants by plants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the remediation potential of two ...

  2. Anaerobic effluent disinfection using ozone: Byproducts formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, G.H.R.; Daniel, L.A.; Bruning, H.; Rulkens, W.H.

    2010-01-01

    This research was aimed at studying oxidation processes, coliform inactivation effectiveness and disinfection byproducts (DBPs) associated with the disinfection of anaerobic sanitary wastewater effluent with ozone applied at doses of 5.0, 8.0 and 10.0mg O(3)L(-1) for contact times of 5, 10 and 15

  3. Wastewater effluent dispersal in Southern California Bays

    KAUST Repository

    Uchiyama, Yusuke

    2014-03-01

    The dispersal and dilution of urban wastewater effluents from offshore, subsurface outfalls is simulated with a comprehensive circulation model with downscaling in nested grid configurations for San Pedro and Santa Monica Bays in Southern California during Fall of 2006. The circulation is comprised of mean persistent currents, mesoscale and submesoscale eddies, and tides. Effluent volume inflow rates at Huntington Beach and Hyperion are specified, and both their present outfall locations and alternative nearshore diversion sites are assessed. The effluent tracer concentration fields are highly intermittent mainly due to eddy currents, and their probability distribution functions have long tails of high concentration. The dilution rate is controlled by submesoscale stirring and straining in tracer filaments. The dominant dispersal pattern is alongshore in both directions, approximately along isobaths, over distances of more than 10. km before dilution takes over. The current outfall locations mostly keep the effluent below the surface and away from the shore, as intended, but the nearshore diversions do not. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. BIOEQUIVALENCE APPROACH FOR WHOLE EFFLUENT TOXICITY TESTING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased use of whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests in the regulatory arena has brought increased concern over the statistical analysis of WET test data and the determination of toxicity. One concern is the issue of statistical power. A number of WET tests may pass the current...

  5. Microbial degradation of textile industrial effluents | Palamthodi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, the in situ degradation of textile industrial effluent was carried out. The degradation of two different dyes, blue and green colour has ... The degradation of dye was confirmed via the decolourisation assay and by the measurement of COD and BOD values. A trickling bed reactor was designed and the treatment of ...

  6. Pulp and Paper Industry Effluent Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gove, George W.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from pulp and paper industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review focuses on: (1) receiving water, toxicity, and effluent characterization; (2) pulping liquor disposal and recovery; and (3) physicochemical and biological treatment. A list of 238 references is also presented. (HM)

  7. Characterisation of potential aquaculture pond effluents, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An understanding of specific aquaculture systems and the impacts of their management practices leads to sound and cost-effective policies to protect the aquatic environment. Water samples were collected in 2009 from fish ponds, streams that receive effluents directly from ponds and reference streams in Ghana to assess ...

  8. Short communication: Industrial effluent treatments using heavy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioflocculants produced by Herbaspirillium sp. CH7, Paenibacillus sp. CH11, Bacillus sp. CH15 and a Halomonas sp. were preliminarily evaluated as flocculating agents in the treatment of industrial wastewater effluents. Industrial (1 local chemical-industry and 2 textile-industry: Biavin 109-medium blue dye and Whale dye) ...

  9. Microalgae population dynamics in photobioreactors with secondary sewage effluent as culture medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano E. Marchello

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen and phosphorus present in sewage can be used for microalgae growth, possibiliting cost reduction in the production of microalgae at the same time that it decreases the eutrophication potential of the effluent. This research aimed at monitoring the native community of microalgae and coliform bacteria in a secondary effluent from anaerobic municipal sewage treatment. Two treatments (aerated and non-aerated were performed to grow microalgae under semi-controlled conditions in semi-closed photobioreactors in a greenhouse. The results showed no significant pH and coliforms (total and Escherichia coli variation between treatments. Nutrient concentrations were reduced supporting microalgae growth up to 107 cells.mL−1independent of aeration. Exponential growth was obtained from the first day for the non-aerated, but a 5 day lag phase of growth was obtained for the aerated. Chlorella vulgaris was the dominant microalgae (99.9% in both treatments. In the aerated, 5 algae classes were detected (Chlorophyceae, Cyanophyceae, Chrysophyceae, Bacillariophyceae and Euglenophyceae, with 12 taxa, whereas in the non-aerated, 2 classes were identified (Chlorophyceae and Cyanophyceae, with 5 taxa. We concluded that effluent is viable for microalgae growth, especially Chlorella vulgaris, at the same time that the eutrophication potential and coliforms are decreased, contributing for better quality of the final effluent.

  10. Design improvement and performance evaluation of solar photocatalytic reactor for industrial effluent treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Ranjith G; Bharadwaj, P J; Samdarshi, S K

    2016-12-01

    This work reports the details of the design components and materials used in a linear compound parabolic trough reactor constructed with an aim to use the photocatalyst for solar photocatalytic applications. A compound parabolic trough reactor has been designed and engineered to exploit both UV and visible part of the solar irradiation. The developed compound parabolic trough reactor could receive almost 88% of UV radiation along with a major part of visible radiation. The performance of the reactor has been evaluated in terms of degradation of a probe pollutant using the parameters such as rate constant, residence time and photonic efficiency. An attempt has been made to assess the performance in different ranges of solar spectrum. Finally the developed reactor has been employed for the photocatalytic treatment of a paper mill effluent using Degussa P25 as the photocatalyst. The paper mill effluent collected from Nagaon paper mill, Assam, India has been treated under both batch mode and continuous mode using Degussa P25 photocatalyst under artificial and natural solar radiation, respectively. The photocatalytic degradation kinetics of the paper mill effluent has been determined using the reduction in total organic carbon (TOC) values of the effluent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Survival, growth and condition of freshwater mussels: effects of municipal wastewater effluent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trey Nobles

    Full Text Available Freshwater mussels (Family Unionidae are among the most imperiled group of organisms in the world, with nearly 65% of North American species considered endangered. Anthropogenic disturbances, including altered flow regimes, habitat alteration, and pollution, are the major driver of this group's decline. We investigated the effects of tertiary treated municipal wastewater effluent on survivorship, growth, and condition of freshwater mussels in experimental cages in a small Central Texas stream. We tested the effluent effects by measuring basic physical parameters of native three ridge mussels (Amblema plicata and of non-native Asian clams (Corbicula fluminea, before and after 72-day exposure at four sites above and below a municipal wastewater treatment plant outfall. Survivorship and growth of the non-native Asian clams and growth and condition indices of the native three ridge mussels were significantly higher at the reference site above the outfall than in downstream sites. We attribute this reduction in fitness below the outfall to elevated nutrient and heavy metal concentrations, and the potential presence of other untested-for compounds commonly found in municipal effluent. These results, along with an absence of native mussels below the discharge, indicate a significant negative impact of wastewater effluent on both native and non-native mussels in the stream.

  12. Microalgae population dynamics in photobioreactors with secondary sewage effluent as culture medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchello, Adriano E.; Lombardi, Ana T.; Dellamano-Oliveira, Maria José; de Souza, Clovis W.O.

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen and phosphorus present in sewage can be used for microalgae growth, possibiliting cost reduction in the production of microalgae at the same time that it decreases the eutrophication potential of the effluent. This research aimed at monitoring the native community of microalgae and coliform bacteria in a secondary effluent from anaerobic municipal sewage treatment. Two treatments (aerated and non-aerated) were performed to grow microalgae under semi-controlled conditions in semi-closed photobioreactors in a greenhouse. The results showed no significant pH and coliforms (total and Escherichia coli ) variation between treatments. Nutrient concentrations were reduced supporting microalgae growth up to 10 7 cells.mL −1 independent of aeration. Exponential growth was obtained from the first day for the non-aerated, but a 5 day lag phase of growth was obtained for the aerated. Chlorella vulgaris was the dominant microalgae (99.9%) in both treatments. In the aerated, 5 algae classes were detected (Chlorophyceae, Cyanophyceae, Chrysophyceae, Bacillariophyceae and Euglenophyceae), with 12 taxa, whereas in the non-aerated, 2 classes were identified (Chlorophyceae and Cyanophyceae), with 5 taxa. We concluded that effluent is viable for microalgae growth, especially Chlorella vulgaris, at the same time that the eutrophication potential and coliforms are decreased, contributing for better quality of the final effluent. PMID:26221091

  13. Microalgae population dynamics in photobioreactors with secondary sewage effluent as culture medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchello, Adriano E; Lombardi, Ana T; Dellamano-Oliveira, Maria José; de Souza, Clovis W O

    2015-03-01

    Nitrogen and phosphorus present in sewage can be used for microalgae growth, possibiliting cost reduction in the production of microalgae at the same time that it decreases the eutrophication potential of the effluent. This research aimed at monitoring the native community of microalgae and coliform bacteria in a secondary effluent from anaerobic municipal sewage treatment. Two treatments (aerated and non-aerated) were performed to grow microalgae under semi-controlled conditions in semi-closed photobioreactors in a greenhouse. The results showed no significant pH and coliforms (total and Escherichia coli ) variation between treatments. Nutrient concentrations were reduced supporting microalgae growth up to 10 (7) cells.mL (-1) independent of aeration. Exponential growth was obtained from the first day for the non-aerated, but a 5 day lag phase of growth was obtained for the aerated. Chlorella vulgaris was the dominant microalgae (99.9%) in both treatments. In the aerated, 5 algae classes were detected (Chlorophyceae, Cyanophyceae, Chrysophyceae, Bacillariophyceae and Euglenophyceae), with 12 taxa, whereas in the non-aerated, 2 classes were identified (Chlorophyceae and Cyanophyceae), with 5 taxa. We concluded that effluent is viable for microalgae growth, especially Chlorella vulgaris, at the same time that the eutrophication potential and coliforms are decreased, contributing for better quality of the final effluent.

  14. Treatment efficiency of effluent prawn culture by wetland with floating aquatic macrophytes arranged in series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MNP Henares

    Full Text Available The efficiency of a series of wetland colonized with Eichhornia crassipes and Salvinia molesta to treat the effluent of a giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii broodstock pond was evaluated in this study. The experimental design was completely randomized and was performed in 9 rectangular tanks (1.6 m3 with three treatments (constructed wetlands and three replicates. The treatment types included: a wetland colonized with E. crassipes and S. molesta (EcSm arranged sequentially, a wetland with E. crassipes only (Ec and a wetland with S. molesta only (Sm. The means of suspended particulate material (SPM, total inorganic nitrogen (TIN, total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN, P-orthophosphate (PO4-P and total phosphorus (TP of the treated effluents were compared using ANOVA followed by Tukey's test (P<0.05. The effluent treated in Ec and EcSm wetlands exhibited lower SPM concentrations. The Ec wetland reduced TIN, TKN, PO4-P and TP by 46.0, 43.7, 44.4 and 43.6%, respectively. In the EcSm wetland, the reduction of TIN (23.0%, TKN (33.7% and PO4-P (26.7% was similar to the Sm wetland (19.8% TIN, 30.9% TKN and 23.8% PO4-P. The Ec wetland was more efficient in treating pond effluent due likely to the higher root surface of E. crassipes, which forms an extensive area favorable to retention and adsorption of debris and absorption of nutrients.

  15. Phosphorus geochemistry in a Brazilian semiarid mangrove soil affected by shrimp farm effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nóbrega, G N; Otero, X L; Macías, F; Ferreira, T O

    2014-09-01

    Wastewater discharge from shrimp farming is one of the main causes of eutrophication in mangrove ecosystems. We investigated the phosphorus (P) geochemistry in mangrove soils affected by shrimp farming effluents by carrying out a seasonal study of two mangrove forests (a control site (CS); a site affected by shrimp farm effluents (SF)). We determined the soil pH, redox potential (Eh), total organic carbon (TOC), total phosphorus (TP), and dissolved P. We also carried out sequential extraction of the P-solid phases. In SF, the effluents affected the soil physicochemical conditions, resulting in lower Eh and higher pH, as well as lower TOC and higher TP than in CS. Organic P forms were dominant in both sites and seasons, although to a lesser extent in SF. The lower TOC in SF was related to the increased microbial activity and organic matter decomposition caused by fertilization. The higher amounts of P oxides in SF suggest that the effluents alter the dominance of iron and sulfate reduction in mangrove soils, generating more reactive Fe that is available for bonding to phosphates. Strong TP losses were recorded in both sites during the dry season, in association with increased amounts of exchangeable and dissolved P. The higher bioavailability of P during the dry season may be attributed to increased mineralization of organic matter and dissolution of Ca-P in response to more oxidizing and acidic conditions. The P loss has significant environmental implications regarding eutrophication and marine productivity.

  16. Effect of Ultrasonic Irradiation on COD and TSS in Raw Rubber Mill Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chua Sze Ye

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of inadequate clean water is expected to grow worse in the next coming decades. Finding new ways are important to solve this problem. Sonochemical oxidation is one of the advanced oxidation methods in the area of wastewater. Its simple application combined with the production of degradable by-product make the system attractive as an alternative treatment process for difficult- to-treat waste such as rubber effluent. Organic compounds in liquid exposed to acoustic cavitation may act differently according to the physical and chemical properties of the effluent. Batch experiments of sonication were carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of the ultrasonic irradiation of organic compounds in raw rubber mill effluent at different power densities. The degradability of the effluent was assessed based on the changes in the value of COD and TSS values exposed to ultrasonic energy or power density ranging from 0.024W/cm to 0.188W/cm. The highest COD and TSS reduction values were 91% and 76%, respectively was obtained at power density of 0.024W/cm3 after 90 min irradiation. The study shows the optimum conditions for maximum efficacy of the ultrasonic reactors.

  17. Impact of Self-Regulatory Influences on Writing Course Attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Barry J.; Bandura, Albert

    1994-01-01

    Using path analysis, studied the role of self-efficacy beliefs concerning academic attainment and regulation of writing, academic goals, and self-standards in writing-course attainment of 95 college freshmen. Different facets of perceived self-efficacy played a key role in writing-course attainment. (SLD)

  18. Removal of pollutants from pulp and paper mill effluent by anaerobic and aerobic treatment in pilot scale bioreactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, P.; Katiyar, D.; Gupta, M.

    2011-01-01

    Pilot-scale anaerobic and aerobic treatment in a two-step bioreactor was performed for the removal of pollutants from pulp and paper mill effluent. After seven days of anaerobic treatment, colour (45%), lignin (60%), COD (26%) and adsorbable organic halogen (AOX) (20%) were reduced....... The anaerobically treated effluent was then treated in a bioreactor in the presence of a fungal strain (Aspergillus fumigatus) or a bacterial strain (Pseudomonas ovalis). The results of this study indicated a reduction in colour (76% and 56%), lignin (78% and 68%), COD (85% and 78%) and AOX (70% and 82...

  19. Biological treatment of the effluent from a bleached kraft pulp mill using basidiomycete and zygomycete fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, A C; Ferreira, F; Costa, A M; Pereira, R; Antunes, S C; Gonçalves, F; Rocha-Santos, T A P; Diniz, M S; Castro, L; Peres, I; Duarte, A C

    2009-05-01

    Three white-rot fungi (Pleurotus sajor caju, Trametes versicolor and Phanerochaete chrysosporium) and one soft-rot fungi (Rhizopus oryzae) species confirmed their potential for future applications in the biological treatment of effluents derived from the secondary treatment of a bleached kraft pulp mill processing Eucalyptus globulus. Among the four species P. sajor caju and R. oryzae were the most effective in the biodegradation of organic compounds present in the effluent, being responsible for the reduction of relative absorbance (25-46% at 250 nm and 72-74% at 465 nm) and of chemical oxygen demand levels (74 to 81%) after 10 days of incubation. Laccase (Lac), lignin (Lip) and manganese peroxidases (MnP) expression varied among fungal species, where Lac and LiP activities were correlated with the degradation of organic compounds in the effluent treated with P. sajor caju. The first two axes of a principal component analysis explained 88.9% of the total variation among sub-samples treated with the four fungus species, after different incubation periods. All the variables measured contributed positively to the first component except for the MnP enzyme activity which was the only variable contributing negatively to the first component. Absorbances at 465 nm, LiP and Lac enzyme activities were the variables with more weight on the second component. P. sajor caju revealed to be the only species able to perform the biological treatment without promoting an increment in the toxicity of the effluent to the Vibrio fischeri, as it was assessed by the Microtox assay. The opposite was recorded for the treatments with the other three species of fungus. EC(50-5 min) values ranging between 28 and 57% (effluent concentrations) were recorded even after 10 to 13 days of treatment with P. chrysosporium, R. oryzae or with T. versicolor.

  20. Development of Fluorescence Surrogates to Predict the Photochemical Transformation of Pharmaceuticals in Wastewater Effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shuwen; Yao, Bo; Lian, Lushi; Lu, Xinchen; Snyder, Shane A; Li, Rui; Song, Weihua

    2017-03-07

    The photochemical transformation of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) in wastewater effluents is an emerging concern for environmental scientists. In the current study, the photodegradation of 29 PPCPs was examined in effluents under simulated solar irradiation. Direct photodegradation, triplet state effluent organic matter ( 3 EfOM*)-mediated and hydroxyl radical (HO • )-mediated degradation are three major pathways in the removal process. With the photodegradation of trace levels of PPCPs, the excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence intensities of the effluents were also gradually reduced. Therefore, fluorescence peaks have been identified, for the first time, as appropriate surrogates to assess the photodegradation of PPCPs. The humic-like fluorescence peak is linked to direct photolysis-labile PPCPs, such as naproxen, ronidazole, diclofenac, ornidazole, tinidazole, chloramphenicol, flumequine, ciprofloxacin, methadone, and dimetridazole. The tyrosine-like EEM peak is associated with HO • /CO 3 •- -labile PPCPs, such as trimethoprim, ibuprofen, gemfibrozil, atenolol, carbamazepine, and cephalexin. The tryptophan-like peak is associated with 3 EfOM*-labile PPCPs, such as clenbuterol, metoprolol, venlafaxine, bisphenol A, propranolol, ractopamine, salbutamol, roxithromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin, famotidine, terbutaline, and erythromycin. The reduction in EEM fluorescence correlates well with the removal of PPCPs, allowing a model to be constructed. The solar-driven removal of EEM fluorescence was applied to predict the attenuation of 11 PPCPs in five field samples. A close correlation between the predicted results and the experimental results suggests that fluorescence may be a suitable surrogate for monitoring the solar-driven photodegradation of PPCPs in effluents.

  1. Three-step effluent chlorination increases disinfection efficiency and reduces DBP formation and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; Zhang, Xiangru; Yang, Mengting; Liu, Jiaqi; Li, Wanxin; Graham, Nigel J D; Li, Xiaoyan; Yang, Bo

    2017-02-01

    Chlorination is extensively applied for disinfecting sewage effluents, but it unintentionally generates disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Using seawater for toilet flushing introduces a high level of bromide into domestic sewage. Chlorination of sewage effluent rich in bromide causes the formation of brominated DBPs. The objectives of achieving a disinfection goal, reducing disinfectant consumption and operational costs, as well as diminishing adverse effects to aquatic organisms in receiving water body remain a challenge in sewage treatment. In this study, we have demonstrated that, with the same total chlorine dosage, a three-step chlorination (dosing chlorine by splitting it into three equal portions with a 5-min time interval for each portion) was significantly more efficient in disinfecting a primary saline sewage effluent than a one-step chlorination (dosing chlorine at one time). Compared to one-step chlorination, three-step chlorination enhanced the disinfection efficiency by up to 0.73-log reduction of Escherichia coli. The overall DBP formation resulting from one-step and three-step chlorination was quantified by total organic halogen measurement. Compared to one-step chlorination, the DBP formation in three-step chlorination was decreased by up to 23.4%. The comparative toxicity of one-step and three-step chlorination was evaluated in terms of the development of embryo-larva of a marine polychaete Platynereis dumerilii. The results revealed that the primary sewage effluent with three-step chlorination was less toxic than that with one-step chlorination, indicating that three-step chlorination could reduce the potential adverse effects of disinfected sewage effluents to aquatic organisms in the receiving marine water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Treatment of effluent textiles with ultraviolet light

    OpenAIRE

    Tinoco Gómez, Oscar Rafael; UNMSM; Medina Escudero, Ana María; UNMSM; Zapata Gamarra, Hernán

    2014-01-01

    The use of clean technologies for the treatment of textile effluents is essential to achieve a significant contribution by the textile industry, environmental treatment of them. According to the literature, the dyes used in textile industry are hardly degradable and have strong opposition to biological treatments are subjected to appropriate wastewater. At lower concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (oxygenated water) leads to better dye fading. It also shows that lower concentrations of titani...

  3. Biotreatment of effluent from 'Adire' textile factories in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okareh, Oladapo T; Ademodi, Tuntunlade F; Igbinosa, Etinosa O

    2017-11-10

    In this present study, bacteria were isolated from wastewater and polluted soil collected from two cottage textile factories in Ibadan. These bacteria isolates were used for the biotreatment of textile mill effluent. The physicochemical parameters of the textile mill effluent before treatment were carried out and percentage decolourisation of the effluent was analysed using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis technique). The degradation products of the textile mill effluent characterised by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The pH values of the effluent were within the permissible limit of Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) and National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency (NESREA), while temperature and electric conductivity of the effluents were below the permissible limit of FEPA and NESREA. The BOD, COD, TSS, TDS and chloride of the textile mill effluent from the two cottage textile factories were above the permissible limits of FEPA and NESREA. Twelve bacteria isolates were screened, effective in decolourising commercial dyes and used to decolourise the textile mill effluent. The bacteria isolates were characterised and identified as Bacillus sp., Micrococcus sp., Erwinia sp., Acinetobacter sp. and Nocardia sp. The decolourisation of textile effluent was observed through the changes of spectra of UV-visible spectrophotometer. The following bacteria revealed different percentage proportion of decolouration profile:- Bacillus sp., had the highest percentage decolourisation of 57.7%, whereas Micrococcus sp. and Acinetobacter sp. had percentage decolourisation of 32.8 and 26.3%, respectively. The degradation profile of textile effluent was revealed through FTIR spectral analysis. The changes in the position of major peaks revealed from the textile effluent through FTIR spectral analysis, appearances of new peaks and the disappearances of existing peaks signify the degradation of the wastewater. Thus, some native

  4. Electron beam irradiation of textile effluents and non-ionic ethoxylated surfactant for toxicity and color removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sole, Stephanie V. Del; Garcia, Vanessa S.G.; Boiani, Nathalia F.; Rosa, Jorge M.; Andrade e Silva, Leonardo G. de; Borrely, Sueli I., E-mail: vanessagranadeiro@gmail.com, E-mail: steh.vdsole@gmail.com, E-mail: jotarosa@hotmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); SENAI, Faculdade de Tecnologia Antoine Skaf, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    Textile industry has an expressive scenario in the world economy and Brazil is the 5{sup th} in the textile production. By 2015, Brazilian textile production represented US $ 39.3 billion, accounting for more than 1.8 million tons of fabric (ABIT, 2017). The effluents from textile industry are highlighted by quantity of wastewater discharged and variety of substances (dyes, bleaching agents, surfactants, salts, acids, among others). Such compounds often prove to be toxic to aquatic biota. This present study aims to assess toxicity of whole effluents, before and after irradiation (by electron beam accelerator, EBI). In addition, the reduction of the effluent color after irradiation is also very important. Daphnia similis and Vibrio fischeri were the biological systems applied for toxicity evaluations. Previous results demonstrated the surfactant as the main toxic compound, in the untreated and irradiated forms, EC 50 = 0.44 ppm ± 0.02 (untreated); EC 50 = 0.46 % ± 0.07 (irradiated). The irradiation was effective in reducing the color of the effluent, starting from 0.5 kGy. EB radiation may be proposed as an alternative treatment for the final effluent from textile processing, mainly for reuse purposes. (author)

  5. Framework Design and Influencing Factor Analysis of a Water Environmental Functional Zone-Based Effluent Trading System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Han, Zhaoxing; Li, Shuang; Shen, Zhenyao

    2016-10-01

    The efficacy of traditional effluent trading systems is questionable due to their neglect of seasonal hydrological variation and the creation of upstream hot spots within a watershed. Besides, few studies have been conducted to distinguish the impacts of each influencing factor on effluent trading systems outputs. In this study, a water environmental functional zone-based effluent trading systems framework was configured and a comprehensive analysis of its influencing factors was conducted. This proposed water environmental functional zone-based effluent trading systems was then applied for the control of chemical oxygen demand in the Beiyun River watershed, Beijing, China. Optimal trading results highlighted the integration of water quality constraints and different hydrological seasons, especially for downstream dischargers. The optimal trading of each discharger, in terms of pollutant reduction load and abatement cost, is greatly influenced by environmental and political factors such as background water quality, the location of river assessment points, and tradable discharge permits. In addition, the initial permit allowance has little influence on the market as a whole but does impact the individual discharger. These results provide information that is critical to understanding the impact of policy design on the functionality of an effluent trading systems.

  6. Using single-species toxicity tests, community-level responses, and toxicity identification evaluations to investigate effluent impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maltby, L.; Clayton, S.A.; Yu, H.; McLoughlin, N.; Wood, R.M.; Yin, D.

    2000-01-01

    Whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests are increasingly used to monitor compliance of consented discharges, but few studies have related toxicity measured using WET tests to receiving water impacts. Here the authors adopt a four-stage procedure to investigate the toxicity and biological impact of a point source discharge and to identify the major toxicants. In stage 1, standard WET tests were employed to determine the toxicity of the effluent. This was then followed by an assessment of receiving water toxicity using in situ deployment of indigenous (Gammarus pulex) and standard (Daphnia magna) test species. The third stage involved the use of biological survey techniques to assess the impact of the discharge on the structure and functioning of the benthic macroinvertebrate community. In stage 4, toxicity identification evaluations (TIE) were used to identify toxic components in the effluent. Receiving-water toxicity and ecological impact detected downstream of the discharge were consistent with the results of WET tests performed on the effluent. Downstream of the discharge, there was a reduction in D. magna survival, in G. pulex survival and feeding rate, in detritus processing, and in biotic indices based on macroinvertebrate community structure. The TIE studies suggested that chlorine was the principal toxicant in the effluent.

  7. Framework Design and Influencing Factor Analysis of a Water Environmental Functional Zone-Based Effluent Trading System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Han, Zhaoxing; Li, Shuang; Shen, Zhenyao

    2016-10-01

    The efficacy of traditional effluent trading systems is questionable due to their neglect of seasonal hydrological variation and the creation of upstream hot spots within a watershed. Besides, few studies have been conducted to distinguish the impacts of each influencing factor on effluent trading systems outputs. In this study, a water environmental functional zone-based effluent trading systems framework was configured and a comprehensive analysis of its influencing factors was conducted. This proposed water environmental functional zone-based effluent trading systems was then applied for the control of chemical oxygen demand in the Beiyun River watershed, Beijing, China. Optimal trading results highlighted the integration of water quality constraints and different hydrological seasons, especially for downstream dischargers. The optimal trading of each discharger, in terms of pollutant reduction load and abatement cost, is greatly influenced by environmental and political factors such as background water quality, the location of river assessment points, and tradable discharge permits. In addition, the initial permit allowance has little influence on the market as a whole but does impact the individual discharger. These results provide information that is critical to understanding the impact of policy design on the functionality of an effluent trading systems.

  8. Site Dependent Beneficial Effects of Aquaculture Effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzby, K. M.; Viadero, R. C.

    2005-05-01

    The effect of aquaculture effluent on community structure was examined in a stream formed by the discharge of treated acid mine water. The mine water stream and the raceway stream whose source was treated mine water were sampled. In addition, a site below the confluence of the mine water and raceway streams was also sampled. Initially, there were no significant differences in macroinvertebrate density, diversity or community structure in the closed canopy, low light, mine water and raceway streams. However, in the high light environment below the confluence, the community included a substantial proportion of grazers and density was significantly lower. After an inadvertent resuspension of precipitated metal hydroxides from the AMD treatment facility, communities in the mine water stream and below the confluence were strongly dominated by chironomids while the raceway stream maintained much of its diversity. At the end of the study period diversity in all streams was significantly greater than in earlier samples however, densities were 6-8x lower than initial values in the raceway and mine water streams. This study demonstrated that there was little effect of aquaculture effluent on the benthic community in a low-light environment. Additionally, aquaculture effluent mediated the negative effects of AMD metals.

  9. How to attain expertise in clinical communication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouda, Jan C; van de Wiel, Harry B M

    2013-12-01

    Several factors complicate the attainment of expertise in clinical communication. Medical curricula and postgraduate training insufficiently provide the required learning conditions of deliberate practice to overcome these obstacles. In this paper we provide recommendations for learning objectives and teaching methods for the attainment of professional expertise in patient education. Firstly, we propose to use functional learning objectives derived from the goals and strategies of clinical communication. Secondly, we recommend using teaching and assessment methods which: (1) contain stimulating learning tasks with opportunities for immediate feedback, reflection and corrections, and (2) give ample opportunity for repetition, gradual refinements and practice in challenging situations. Video-on-the-job fits these requirements and can be used to improve the competency in patient education of residents and medical staff in clinical practice. However, video-on-the-job can only be successful if the working environment supports the teaching and learning of communication and if medical staff which supervises the residents, is motivated to improve their own communication and didactic skills. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment of Adolescents’ Motivation for Educational Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cham, Heining; Hughes, Jan N.; West, Stephen G.; Im, Myung Hee

    2015-01-01

    The Adolescent Motivation for Educational Attainment Questionnaire is a 32-item questionnaire (we drew 20 items from 3 subscales of the Educational Motivation Questionnaire; Murdock, 1999) that was developed to measure multiple potential dimensions of adolescents’ motivation to complete high school and enroll in post-secondary education, including competence and effort beliefs; perceived value of education; and peer, teacher, and parent support for educational attainment. We assessed a multiethnic sample (N = 569) of low-achieving students who started 1st grade together in 1 urban and 2 small city school districts. Participants were assessed over 2 consecutive years (Grades 8 and 9 given prior grade retention, or Grades 9 and 10 if not retained). Exploratory factor analyses identified 4 correlated dimensions underlying the questionnaire responses. Subsequent confirmatory factor analyses provided support for a bifactor model, which includes a general factor of students’ basic educational motivation, and specific factors of (a) teacher educational expectations, (b) peer aspirations, and (c) value of education. Measurement invariance of the bifactor model was established across students’ gender and ethnicity (Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic) and year of testing. Criterion-related validity of the general and specific factors with students’ school belonging, student–teacher warmth and conflict, disciplinary practices, letter grade, conduct problems, and behavioral engagement was examined. Practical implications of the measure are discussed. PMID:24588748

  11. Assessment of adolescents' motivation for educational attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cham, Heining; Hughes, Jan N; West, Stephen G; Im, Myung Hee

    2014-06-01

    The Adolescent Motivation for Educational Attainment Questionnaire is a 32-item questionnaire (we drew 20 items from 3 subscales of the Educational Motivation Questionnaire; Murdock, 1999) that was developed to measure multiple potential dimensions of adolescents' motivation to complete high school and enroll in post-secondary education, including competence and effort beliefs; perceived value of education; and peer, teacher, and parent support for educational attainment. We assessed a multiethnic sample (N = 569) of low-achieving students who started 1st grade together in 1 urban and 2 small city school districts. Participants were assessed over 2 consecutive years (Grades 8 and 9 given prior grade retention, or Grades 9 and 10 if not retained). Exploratory factor analyses identified 4 correlated dimensions underlying the questionnaire responses. Subsequent confirmatory factor analyses provided support for a bifactor model, which includes a general factor of students' basic educational motivation, and specific factors of (a) teacher educational expectations, (b) peer aspirations, and (c) value of education. Measurement invariance of the bifactor model was established across students' gender and ethnicity (Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic) and year of testing. Criterion-related validity of the general and specific factors with students' school belonging, student-teacher warmth and conflict, disciplinary practices, letter grade, conduct problems, and behavioral engagement was examined. Practical implications of the measure are discussed.

  12. 40 CFR 432.22 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... rendering of material derived from animals slaughtered at locations off-site and dead animals, the... of material derived from animals slaughtered at locations off-site and dead animals, the limitations... monthly average limitation. 4 May be measured as hexane extractable material (HEM). (2) In addition to the...

  13. 40 CFR 432.12 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-temperature rendering of material derived from animals slaughtered at locations off-site and dead animals, the... associated with dry rendering of material derived from animals slaughtered at locations off-site and dead... extractable material (HEM). (2) In addition to the limitations specified in paragraph (a)(1) of this section...

  14. 40 CFR 432.32 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-temperature rendering of material derived from animals slaughtered at locations off-site and dead animals, the... rendering of material derived from animals slaughtered at locations off-site and dead animals, the... monthly average limitation. 4 May be measured as hexane extractable material (HEM). (2) In addition to the...

  15. 40 CFR 432.42 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... rendering of material derived from animals slaughtered at locations off-site and dead animals, the... any time. 4 No maximum monthly average limitation. 5 May be measured as hexane extractable material... the wet or low-temperature rendering of material derived from animals slaughtered at locations off...

  16. 40 CFR 412.31 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS (CAFO) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Dairy Cows and Cattle Other Than Veal... storage system, including manure, litter, all process waste waters, direct precipitation, and runoff. (B... the removal of waste water for use on cropland at the CAFO or transport off site. (C) A calculation...

  17. Effect of biofertilizer obtained by anaerobic digestion of cassava effluent on the development of crambe plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa C. Neves

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the effect of applying increasing doses of biofertilizer obtained by the anaerobic digestion of cassava effluent on the development of crambe plants. The experiment was conducted in a protected environment at the Federal University of Paraná (UFPR, Palotina Sector, between April and August 2015. A completely randomized design was used, and five different treatments with the following doses were applied in five replicates: 0, 40, 80, 120, and 160 kg ha-1 of K2O. The following parameters related to plant development were evaluated: final height, stem diameter, number of branches, dry shoot and root biomass, mass of the grains, and oil content. The 160 kg K2O ha-1 dose was found to have the best influence on the plant development, because all the measured parameters reached their highest values at this dose, except for oil content, which attained the highest percentage in the case of the control treatment (0 kg ha-1 of K2O. This study proved that the biofertilizer obtained by anaerobic digestion of cassava effluent can be used as an alternative to regular fertilizers in cultivating crambe.

  18. Toxicity assessment of tannery effluent treated by an optimized photo-Fenton process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borba, Fernando Henrique; Módenes, Aparecido Nivaldo; Espinoza-Quiñones, Fernando Rodolfo; Manenti, Diego Ricieri; Bergamasco, Rosangela; Mora, Nora Diaz

    2013-01-01

    In this work, an optimized photo-Fenton process was applied to remove pollutants from tannery industrial effluent (TIE) with its final toxicity level being assessed by a lettuce-seed-based bioassay test. A full 33 factorial design was applied for the optimization of long-term photo-Fenton experiments. The oPtimum conditions of the photo-Fenton process were attained at concentration values of 0.3 g Fe(2+) L(-1) and 20 g H2O2 L(-1) and pH3, for 120 min UV irradiation time. Reactor operating parameter (ROP) effects on the removal of chemical oxygen demand, colour, turbidity, total suspended solids and total volatile solids were evaluated, suggesting that a broad range of ROP values are also suitable to give results very near to those of the photo-Fenton experiments under optimal conditions. Based on the low calculated median lethal dose (LD50) values from a lettuce-seed-based bioassay test, we suggest that recalcitrant substances are present in treated TIE samples. A possible cause of the high toxicity level could partly be attributed to the nitrate concentration, which was not completely abated by the photo-Fenton process. Apart from this, the photo-Fenton process can be used as a part of an industrial effluent treatment system in order to abate high organic pollutant loads.

  19. Effects of Kraft Mill effluent on the sexuality of fishes: An environmental early warning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, W.P.; Bortone, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    Arrhenoid or masculinized female fish species of the live-bearing family, Poeciliidae, have been observed for over thirteen years in specific southern streams which receive waste effluents from pulping mills. The complex mixture of organic compounds in kraft mill effluent (KME) has inhibited specific identification of causal agent(s). However, microbially degraded phytosterols (e.g. sitosterol or stigmastanol) in experimental exposures induce the same intersexual states that characterize affected female poeciliids sampled from KME streams. KME-polluted streams often exhibit a drastic reduction of fish species diversity and degrees of physiological stress, all of which suggests reduced reproduction in surviving forms. A potential ontogenetic or developmental response is demonstrated in American eels captured in one of these streams as well. The authors examine available information, including laboratory and experimental field exposures, and suggest directions for additional research as well as the need for environmental concern.

  20. Toxicity assays applied for evaluation of ionizing radiation and zeolites adsorption as treatment technologies for coloured effluent; Aplicacao de ensaios de toxicidade na avaliacao da eficiencia da radiacao ionizante e da adsorcao em zeolitas para o tratamento de efluentes coloridos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higa, Marcela Cantelli

    2008-07-01

    Textile industry is one raising commercial activity in Brazil. This activity has been generating important environmental interferences such as colour and bad biological effects into aquatic environment. Liquid textile effluents are toxic to lived organisms and may present low biological degradability. Although foreseen at federal regulation, the effluent quality is not controlled by toxicity assays in the country. These assays are carried out to determine the potential effects of chemical substances and effluents to cause negative effects to the exposed organisms. The present work aimed whole toxicity evaluation as well as the applicability of two different treatment techniques: ionizing radiation and zeolite adsorption. The efficacy of them were evaluated using eco toxicity bases and real effluents. Two different industries from Sao Paulo State contributed to this project supplying their real effluents. The samples were collected at a Textile Industry and at a Chemical Industry (dying producer) and after the measurement of whole toxicity the samples were submitted to treatments. Toxicity assays were carried out for Daphnia similis and for Vibrio fischeri. Sample irradiations were performed at an Electron Beam Accelerator at CTR/IPEN. Zeolites treatment is an P and D activity from CQMA/IPEN which contributed to this Project. Zeolites v/ere prepared from fly ash previously being used as an adsorber material. Both treatments (electron irradiation and zeolite adsorption) resulted on important toxicity and colour reduction. Concerning irradiation the effluents from chemical industry required higher radiation doses than that from textile activity. The radiation dose to be suggested is 40 kGy (toxicity reduction > 60%) for the chemical effluents and 0.5 kGy for the textile effluents (toxicity reduction > 90%). When zeolite adsorption was evaluated the Z1M6 resulted in 85%o v/hole toxicity reduction and ZC6 resulted in very low efficiency for the effluents of chemical

  1. Nutrient removal from swine lagoon effluent by duckweed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, B.A.; Cheng, J.; Classen, J.; Stomp, A.M.

    2000-04-01

    Three duckweed geographic isolates were grown on varying concentrations of swine lagoon effluent in a greenhouse to determine their ability to remove nutrients from the effluent. Duckweed biomass was harvested every other day over a 12-day period. Duckweed biomass production, nutrient loss from the swine lagoon effluent, and nutrient content of duckweed biomass were used to identify effluent concentrations/geographic isolate combinations that are effective in terms of nutrient utilization from swine lagoon effluent and production of healthy duckweed biomass. When Lemna minor geographic isolate 8627 was grown on 50% swine lagoon effluent, respective losses of TKN, NH{sub 3}-N, TP, OPO{sub 4}-P, TOC, K, Cu, and Zn were 83, 100, 49, 31, 68, 21, 28 and 67%.

  2. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the plutonium uranium extraction facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiegand, D.L.

    1994-09-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-01. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated at a minimum of every three years.

  3. Hanford Facility dangerous waste permit application, liquid effluent retention facility and 200 area effluent treatment facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coenenberg, J.G.

    1997-08-15

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to 10 be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document 11 number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the 12 Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation 13 submitted for individual, `operating` treatment, storage, and/or disposal 14 units, such as the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 15 Treatment Facility (this document, DOE/RL-97-03). 16 17 Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford 18 Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B 19 permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of 20 Ecology (Ecology 1987 and 1996) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 21 (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needs 22 defined by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of 23 Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington 24 State Department of Ecology alpha-numeric section identifiers from the permit 25 application guidance documentation (Ecology 1996) follow, in brackets, the 26 chapter headings and subheadings. A checklist indicating where information is 27 contained in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 28 Treatment Facility permit application documentation, in relation to the 29 Washington State Department of Ecology guidance, is located in the Contents 30 Section. 31 32 Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in 33 nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units 34 (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Wherever 35 appropriate, the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 36 Treatment Facility permit application documentation makes cross-reference to 37 the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating

  4. Literacy Gaps by Educational Attainment: A Cross-National Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Hyunjoon; Kyei, Pearl

    2011-01-01

    Existing cross-national research on educational attainment does not fully address whether the same level of educational attainment generates the same level of literacy skills in different countries. We analyze literacy skills data for young adults from 19 countries in the 1994–1998 International Adult Literacy Survey and find that in all countries, individuals with a higher level of educational attainment tend to have greater literacy skills. However, there is substantial variation across cou...

  5. Socioeconomic Attainment in the Ellis Island Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Michael J; Mullen, Erica Jade

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary discussions of immigrant assimilation in the United States often take the experience of the late 19th and early 20th centuries as a benchmark, yet significant gaps remain in our understanding of the generality and rate of immigrant progress during that era. Using four decades of IPUMS census microdata, we utilize both OLS microdata regression and double cohort methodology to examine socioeconomic assimilation across arrival cohort and country of origin during the Ellis Island era. Our results show, contrary to some writing, that while the first generation (the foreign born) exhibit decidedly inferior labor market outcomes, socioeconomic attainment (measured by Socio-Economic Index [SEI] points) increased quickly with duration in the U.S. Persons of the second generation and those of mixed parentage show much less penalty than immigrants. At the same time, we uncover differences in outcome by European region that do not disappear over the decades we examine.

  6. Socioeconomic Attainment in the Ellis Island Era*

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Michael J.; Mullen, Erica Jade

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary discussions of immigrant assimilation in the United States often take the experience of the late 19th and early 20th centuries as a benchmark, yet significant gaps remain in our understanding of the generality and rate of immigrant progress during that era. Using four decades of IPUMS census microdata, we utilize both OLS microdata regression and double cohort methodology to examine socioeconomic assimilation across arrival cohort and country of origin during the Ellis Island era. Our results show, contrary to some writing, that while the first generation (the foreign born) exhibit decidedly inferior labor market outcomes, socioeconomic attainment (measured by Socio-Economic Index [SEI] points) increased quickly with duration in the U.S. Persons of the second generation and those of mixed parentage show much less penalty than immigrants. At the same time, we uncover differences in outcome by European region that do not disappear over the decades we examine. PMID:28979054

  7. Pretreatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME Using Magnetic Chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Saifuddin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan is a natural organic polyelectrolyte of high molecular weight and charge density; obtained from deacetylation of chitin. This study explored the potential and effectiveness of applying chitosan-magnetite nanocomposite particles as a primary coagulant and flocculent, in comparison with chitosan for pre-treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME. A series of batch coagulation processes with chitosan-magnetite nanocomposite particles and chitosan under different conditions, i.e. dosage and pH were conducted, in order to determine their optimum conditions. The performance was assessed in terms of turbidity, total suspended solids (TSS and chemical oxygen demand (COD reductions. Chitosan-magnetite particles showed better parameter reductions with much lower dosage consumption, compared to chitosan, even at the original pH of POME, i.e. 4.5. At pH 6, the optimum chitosan-magnetite dosage of 250 mg/L was able to reduce turbidity, TSS and COD levels by 98.8%, 97.6% and 62.5% respectively. At this pH, the coagulation of POME by chitosan-magnetite was brought by the combination of charge neutralization and polymer bridging mechanism. On the other hand, chitosan seems to require much higher dosage, i.e. 370 mg/L to achieve the best turbidity, TSS and COD reductions, which were 97.7%, 91.7% and 42.70%, respectively. The synergistic effect of cationic character of both the chitosan amino group and the magnetite ion in the pre-treatment process for POME brings about enhanced performance for effective agglomeration, adsorption and coagulation.

  8. Effects of volatile fatty acids in biohydrogen effluent on biohythane production from palm oil mill effluent under thermophilic condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chonticha Mamimin

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Preventing the high concentration of butyric acid, and propionic acid in the hydrogenic effluent could enhance methane production in two-stage anaerobic digestion for biohythane production.

  9. CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN WHOLE EFFLUENT TOXICITY AND THE PRESENCE OF PRIORITY SUBSTANCES IN COMPLEX INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to examine broad-scale correlation between presence of priority substances and whole effluent toxicity (WET) across a range of industry types. Using regression analysis, we examined how chemical-based inferred toxicity predicted measured WET of the e...

  10. 78 FR 48159 - Preliminary 2012 Effluent Guidelines Program Plan and 2011 Annual Effluent Guidelines Review Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... captured and included as part of the comment that is placed in the public docket and made available on the... delist from the effluent guidelines plan the rulemaking for the Coalbed Methane Extraction subcategory... Regenerated Cellulose Manufacturers (previously categorized as Plastics Molding and Forming (40 CFR Part 463...

  11. Treatment of effluents from uranium oxide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladeira, A C Q; Gonçalves, J S; Morais, C A

    2011-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle comprises a series of industrial processes which involve the production of electricity from uranium in nuclear power reactors. In Brazil the conversion of uranium hexafluoride (UF6) into uranium dioxide (UO2) takes place in Resende (RJ) at the Nuclear Fuel Factory (FCN). The process generates liquid effluents with significant concentrations of uranium, which might be treated before being discharged into the environment. This study investigates the recovery of uranium from three distinct liquid effluents: one with a high carbonate content and the other with an elevated fluoride concentration. This paper also presents a study on carbonate removal from an effluent that consists of a water-methanol solution generated during the filtration of the yellow cake (ammonium uranyl tricarbonate). The results showed that: (1) the uranium from the carbonated solution can be recovered through the ion exchange technique using the strong base anionic resin IRA 910-U, as the carbonate has been removed as CO2 after heating; (2) the most suitable technique to recover uranium from the fluoride solution is its precipitation as (NH4)2UO4F2 (ammonium fluorouranate peroxide), (3) the solution free of carbonate can be added to the fluoride solution and the uranium from the final solution can be recovered by precipitation as ammonium fluorouranate peroxide as well; (4) the carbonate from the water-methanol solution can be recovered as calcium carbonate through the addition of calcium chloride, or it can be recovered as ammonium sulphate through the addition of sulphuric acid. The ammonium sulphate product can be used as a fertilizer.

  12. Whole Effluent Assessment of urban discharges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten; Qualmann, Signe; Kusk, Kresten Ole

    2011-01-01

    The European Water Framework Directive and the Environmental Quality Standards Directive lay down a framework for maintaining or obtaining good ecological and chemical status of European surface and coastal water bodies by the year 2015. The aim of this work was through Whole Effluent Assessment...... (WEA) to identify problematic urban discharges, e.g. stormwater, municipal wastewater, combined sewer overflow (CSO), industrial wastewater. Samples from around Copenhagen were therefore tested in the Larval Development Ratio (LDR) test using the marine crustacean Acartia tonsa. The number of non...

  13. Textile effluent & waste water: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Mojsov, Kiro

    2013-01-01

    Textile processing is a growing industry that traditionally has used a lot of water, energy and harsh chemicals. Textile industries consume over 7 x 105tons of dyes annually and use up to 1 litre of water per kg of dye processed and arethird largest polluters in the world. As a characteristic of the textile processing industry, a wide range of structurally diverse dyes can be used in a single factory, and therefore effluents from the industry are extremely variable in composition. This needed...

  14. Educational attainment, perceived control and the quality of women's diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Mary; Lawrence, Wendy; Crozier, Sarah; Robinson, Siân; Baird, Janis; Margetts, Barrie; Cooper, Cyrus

    2009-06-01

    Data from the Southampton Women's Survey have established that women of lower educational attainment have poorer quality diets than those of higher educational attainment. This relationship is strong and graded such that for every increase in level of educational qualification, there is an increase in the likelihood that a woman will have a better quality diet. It is not wholly explained by socio-economic status. Qualitative research carried out in Southampton suggests that women of lower educational attainment may have a poorer diet because they feel they lack control over the food choices they make for themselves and their families. We set out to investigate the relationship between educational attainment, perceived control and quality of diet in a sample of women from Southampton. Cross-sectional study using structured interviews in which women's diet, educational attainment and perceived control were assessed. 19 Children's Centres and baby clinics in Southampton, UK. 372 women, median age 28 years. Quality of diet assessed by prudent diet score produced from principal components analysis of 20-item food frequency questionnaire, and perceived control assessed by a validated questionnaire. Women of lower educational attainment tended to have lower prudent diet scores and lower perceived control scores than women of higher educational attainment. Having a lower prudent diet score was associated with consuming fewer vegetables and vegetable dishes, less wholemeal bread and vegetarian food, and more chips and roast potatoes, meat pies, Yorkshire puddings and pancakes, crisps and snacks, white bread and added sugar. In a regression model both lower educational attainment and lower perceived control were associated with lower prudent diet scores, independent of the effects of confounding factors. However there was an interaction effect such that lower perceived control was only related to prudent diet score in the group of women of lower educational attainment. Women

  15. Radioactive wastes: the challenge of volumes reduction; Dechets radioactifs: le defi de la reduction des volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepetit, V

    2005-11-01

    The reduction of radioactive waste volumes is a priority for the French atomic energy commission (CEA) and for the Areva group. This article gives a rapid overview of the equipments and processes used to separate the valorizable materials from the ultimate wastes: pulsed separation columns and evaporators for the liquid-liquid extraction, compactification of spent fuel hulls, remote handling systems, recoverable colloid for surface decontamination, decontaminating foam, hydrothermal oxidation of organic and aqueous effluents, cold crucible vitrification etc. (J.S.)

  16. The application of ceramic membranes for treating effluent water from closed-circuit fish farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonisławska Małgorzata

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyze and assess the possibility of using a two-stage filtration system with ceramic membranes: a 3-tube module with 1.0 kDa cut-off (1st stage and a one-tube module with 0.45 kDa cut-off (2nd stage for treating effluent water from a juvenile African catfish aquaculture. The study revealed that during the 1st filtration stage of the effluent water, the highest degrees of retention were obtained with respect to: suspended solids SS (rejection coefficient RI=100%, turbidity (RI=99.40%, total iron (RI=89.20%, BOD5 (RI=76.0%, nitrite nitrogen (RI=62.30%, and CODCr (RI=41.74%. The 2nd filtration stage resulted in a lower reduction degree of the tested indicators in comparison to the 1st filtration stage. At the 2nd stage, the highest values of the rejection coefficient were noted in for the total iron content (RIV=100%, CODCr (RIV=59.52%; RV=64.28%, RVI=63.49% and turbidity (RIV and RV = 45.0%, RVI=50.0%. The obtained results indicate that ceramic membranes (with 1.0 and 0.45 kDa cut-offs may be used in recirculation aquaculture systems as one of the stages of effluent water treatment.

  17. Selenium and molybdenum removal from contaminated mill process effluent: Cameco Key Lake Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lieu, A.; Zheng, J.; Moldovan, B.; Ko, K.; Jarvi, J.; Saruchera, T.; Bergbusch, P.; Paulsen, K.; Tremblay, M.; Bharadwaj, B., E-mail: Arthur_lieu@Cameco.com [Cameco Corp., Key Lake Operation, SK (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The mill effluent treatment, Bulk Neutralization circuit in the Cameco Key Lake Operation was modified in 2008 to enhance the removal efficiency of selenium (Se) and molybdenum (Mo) from the mill process water. This modification was completed in part due to increased knowledge of the effects these elements have on biota. In addition, legacy effects from the historical operation of the Key Lake mill in regards to Se and Mo were shown to have an effect on the regional biota in the downstream receptors. This was a challenging initiative as there was no off the shelf technology available and the removal process had to be incorporated into an existing (brownfield) process. These modifications have resulted in significant reduction in the concentration of these elements in the mill effluent. The removal efficiency for Se and Mo has increased to 85% and 96%, respectively. As a result, concentrations of Se and Mo are now consistently less than 0.02 mg/L and 0.6 mg/L. This paper will provide detail on the hydrometallurgical removal mechanisms and process modifications required in the Key Lake effluent treatment circuit to remove these elements to trace levels. (author)

  18. Haematological and biochemical characteristics of the splenic effluent blood in schistosomal patients undergoing splenectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Petroianu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess hematological and biochemical features of splenic effluent blood and their influence on the rise of hematological values after splenectomy. METHODS: we studied 20 patients undergoing surgical treatment for schistosomatic portal hypertension. We collected blood samples for CBC, coagulation, bilirubin and albumin in the splenic vein (perioperative and peripheral blood (immediately pre and postoperative periods. RESULTS: the splenic blood showed higher values of red blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit, platelet count, total leukocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils, as well as reduction of laboratory coagulation parameters in relation to peripheral blood collected preoperatively. In the postoperative peripheral blood there was an increase in the overall leukocytes and in their neutrophil component, and decreased levels of basophils, eosinophils and lymphocytes. The other postoperative variables of complete blood count and coagulation tests were not different compared with the splenic blood. The albumin values were lower postoperatively when compared to preoperative and splenic blood. There were higher values of direct bilirubin in the postoperative period when compared with the preoperative and splenic blood. Postoperative indirect bilirubin was lower compared to its value in the splenic blood. CONCLUSION: hematological and biochemical values of splenic effluent blood are higher than those found in peripheral blood in the presence of schistosomal splenomegaly. However, the splenic blood effluent is not sufficient to raise the blood levels found after splenectomy.

  19. Application of lipase from Burkholderia cepacia in the degradation of agro-industrial effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello Bueno, Pabline Rafaella; de Oliveira, Tatianne Ferreira; Castiglioni, Gabriel Luis; Soares Júnior, Manoel Soares; Ulhoa, Cirano Jose

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the physical and chemical characteristics of Amano PS commercial lipase - Burkholderia cepacia and lipase produced by Burkholderia cepacia strain ATCC 25416, in addition to studying the hydrolysis of agro-industrial effluent collected in a fried potato industry. The optimum temperature for increasing lipase activity was 37 °C. The temperature increase caused a decrease in thermostability of lipase, and the commercial lipase was less stable, with values of 10.5, 4.6 and 4.9%, respectively, lower than those obtained by lipase from strain ATCC 25416, at temperatures of 40, 50 and 60 °C. The enzymatic activity was higher in alkaline conditions, achieving better results at pH 8.0. The pH was the variable that most influenced the hydrolysis of triacylglycerides of the agro-industrial effluent, followed by enzyme concentration, and volume of gum arabic used in the reaction medium. Thus, it can be observed that the enzymatic hydrolytic process of the studied effluent presents a premising contribution to reduction of environmental impacts of potato chip processing industries.

  20. Potential of domestic sewage effluent treated as a source of water and nutrients in hydroponic lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata da Silva Cuba

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The search for alternative sources of water for agriculture makes the use of treated sewage sludge an important strategy for achieving sustainability. This study evaluated the feasibility of reusing treated sewage effluent as alternative source of water and nutrients for the hydroponic cultivation of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. The experiment was conducted in the greenhouse of the Center for Agricultural Sciences - UFSCar, in Araras, SP. The cultivation took place from February to March 2014. The hydroponic system used was the Nutrient Film Technique, and included three treatments: 1 water supply and mineral fertilizers (TA; 2 use of effluent treated and complemented with mineral fertilizers based on results of previous chemical analysis (TRA; and 3 use of treated effluent (TR. The applied experimental design was four randomly distributed blocks. We evaluated the fresh weight, nutritional status, the microbiological quality of the culture, and the amount of mineral fertilizers used in the treatments. The fresh weights were subjected to analysis of variance and means were compared by the Tukey test at 5% probability. Only the TR treatment showed a significant difference in the evaluated variables, as symptoms of nutritional deficiencies in plants and significant reduction in fresh weights (p <0.01 were found. There was no detectable presence of Escherichia coli in any treatment, and it was possible to use less of some fertilizers in the TRA treatment compared to TA.

  1. Treatment efficiency of effluent prawn culture by wetland with floating aquatic macrophytes arranged in series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henares, M N P; Camargo, A F M

    2014-11-01

    The efficiency of a series of wetland colonized with Eichhornia crassipes and Salvinia molesta to treat the effluent of a giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) broodstock pond was evaluated in this study. The experimental design was completely randomized and was performed in 9 rectangular tanks (1.6 m3) with three treatments (constructed wetlands) and three replicates. The treatment types included: a wetland colonized with E. crassipes and S. molesta (EcSm) arranged sequentially, a wetland with E. crassipes only (Ec) and a wetland with S. molesta only (Sm). The means of suspended particulate material (SPM), total inorganic nitrogen (TIN), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), P-orthophosphate (PO4-P) and total phosphorus (TP) of the treated effluents were compared using ANOVA followed by Tukey's test (Pwetlands exhibited lower SPM concentrations. The Ec wetland reduced TIN, TKN, PO4-P and TP by 46.0, 43.7, 44.4 and 43.6%, respectively. In the EcSm wetland, the reduction of TIN (23.0%), TKN (33.7%) and PO4-P (26.7%) was similar to the Sm wetland (19.8% TIN, 30.9% TKN and 23.8% PO4-P). The Ec wetland was more efficient in treating pond effluent due likely to the higher root surface of E. crassipes, which forms an extensive area favorable to retention and adsorption of debris and absorption of nutrients.

  2. Evaluation of B. cereus MTCC 25641 for the Treatment of Dairy Waste Effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawai, Kunal; Mogha, Kanchan; Prajapati, Jashbhai

    2017-05-01

      Dairy is one of the industries producing wastewater rich in organic matter and thus leading to creation of odorous and high COD containing effluent. Biotreatment leading to bioconversion of the waste materials is probably the most cost-effective technique for managing and utilizing waste. A pilot-scale aerobic treatment plant showing air pressure of 6 kg/cm3 was designed keeping all the conditions similar to the main aerobic plant of any dairy plant. The COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) of the control effluent i.e., without aeration, decreased from 588.5 mg/L on the first day to 147.75 mg/L on the seventh day while the effluent inoculated with B. cereus MTCC 25641 decreased the COD load from 588.5 mg/L on the first day to 38.75 mg/L on the seventh day, which shows that a pilot plant B. cereus MTCC 25641 showed excellent results as 50.68% COD and 44.07% BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand) reduction, while pH increased from 6.7 to 8.54 along with 44.06% increase in TDS (Total Dissolved solids) was seen after 24h of aeration.

  3. The characterisation of organic components in the calcium and magnesium effluent streams at Sappi Saiccor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moodley, B; Marsh, J.J; Mulholland, D.A

    2003-01-01

    .... The major constituents identified in the calcium effluent stream and the magnesium condensate effluent stream were a mixture of lignan isomers, episyringaresinol and meso-syringaresinol and lignin...

  4. Strategies for decolorization and detoxification of pulp and paper mill effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Satyendra K; Tripathi, Manikant

    2011-01-01

    The potential hazards associated with industrial effluents, coupled with increasing awareness of environment problems, have prompted many countries to limit the indiscriminate discharge of untreated wastewaters. The pulp and paper industry has been among the most significant of industrial polluters of the waterways, and therefore has been one of the industries of concern. The pulp and paper industry produces large quantities of brown/black effluent that primarily result from pulping, bleaching, and paper-making production stages. The dark color and toxicity of pulp-paper mill effluent comes primarily from lignin and its chlorinated derivatives (e.g., lignosulphonic acid, resins, phenols, and hydrocarbons) that are released during various processing steps of lignocellulosic materials. The color originates from pulping and pulp bleaching stages, while adsorbable organic halides (AOX) originates exclusively from chlorine bleaching. Discharge of untreated effluent results in increased BOD/COD, slime growth, thermal problems, scum formation, discoloration, loss of aesthetic quality and toxicity to the aquatic life, in the receiving waterbodies. The dark brow color of pulp-paper effluent is not only responsible for aesthetic unacceptability, but also prevents the passage of sunlight through colored waterbodies. This reduces the photosynthetic activity of aquatic flora, ultimately causing depletion of dissolved oxygen. The pulp-paper organic waste, coupled with the presence of chlorine, results in the generation of highly chlorinated organic compounds. These toxic constituents of wastewater pose a human health risk through long term exposure. via drinking water and\\or through consumption of fish that can bioaccumulate certain pollutants from the food chain. Therefore, considerable attention has been focused by many countries on decolorization of paper mill effluents , along with reduction in the contaminants that pose human health or other environmental hazards. Various

  5. Effects of tertiary treatment by fungi on organic compounds in a kraft pulp mill effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Santos, Teresa; Ferreira, Filipe; Silva, Lurdes; Freitas, Ana Cristina; Pereira, Ruth; Diniz, Mário; Castro, Luísa; Peres, Isabel; Duarte, Armando Costa

    2010-05-01

    , respectively. The wide variety of organic compounds found in the final effluent must be due to the degradation of E. globulus wood in pulp and paper mill. The concentrations of organic compounds in the final effluent of E. globulus bleached kraft pulp mill were in residual levels maybe due to the secondary treatment. The recovery tests showed the effectiveness of the extraction procedure, and no losses of analyte were suspected in the analytical determinations. Lignin derivatives such as vanilic acid, syringic acid, guaiacol, syringol and phloroglucinol were totally removed by R. oryzae, but the 47% absorbance reduction obtained at 270 nm suggests that these species were not able to complete degradation of lignin macromolecular compounds. The organic compounds (carboxylic acids, fatty alcohols, phenolic compounds and sterols) were removed more efficiently by tertiary treatment with R. oryzae or P. chrysosporium, followed by P. sajor caju and T. versicolor. Regarding the removal of both colour and organic compounds, the tertiary treatment with R. oryzae was the most efficient. In order to reduce the deleterious impacts of paper mill effluents, efforts have been made to develop more effective advanced tertiary treatments. This study may serve as a basis of characterisation, in terms of organic compounds of E. globulus bleached kraft pulp mill final effluent after secondary treatment and as an effort to understand the effects of tertiary treatments with fungi on low concentrations of organic compounds from biological secondary treatment.

  6. Reduction of nitrogen- and carbon-based pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, W.E.

    1990-05-22

    This patent describes a process for educing the concentration of nitrogen oxides in an oxygen-rich effluent from the combustion of a carbonaceous fuel. It comprises: injecting a solution comprising at least one additive compound selected from the group consisting of guanidine, guanidine carbonate, biguanide, guanylurea sulfate, melamine, dicyandiamide, biuret, 1,1{prime}-azobisformamide, methylol urea, methylol urea-urea condensation product, dimethylol urea, methyl urea, and dimethyl urea, at a concentration and a temperature effective to achieve reduction in nitrogen oxide levels in the effluent.

  7. Bahir Dar tannery effluent characterization and its impact on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to characterize Bahir Dar tannery effluent and determine its impact on the head of Blue Nile River using selected physicochemical parameters. Samples were taken from the direct effluent stream and four sampling sites (one upstream and three downstream) were selected along the river to determine ...

  8. Concentrations of heavy metals in effluent discharges downstream ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-01-18

    Jan 18, 2010 ... Various effluent samples were collected from their sources of discharge to the Ikpoba river in Benin. City, Edo State between September and October, 2008. Six heavy metals (cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc) in the effluents and receiving water were analyzed by atomic absorption.

  9. Removal of nutrient and heavy metal loads from sewage effluent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A deliberate lowering of effluent pH may increase root uptake thereby possibly reducing the clean-up time and improving effluent quality. There is potential for application of this technology in cities struggling with the cost of conventional sewage treatment. Keywords: bio-accumulation, bio-sorption, heavy metals, hydroponic, ...

  10. The Use of Kitchen Effluent as Alternative Nutrient Source for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    ABSTRACT: The recovery of oil based drilling muds was monitored for a period of 12 weeks upon inoculation with kitchen effluent. Oil based drilling muds inoculated with varying volumes (200ml, 250ml and 300ml) of kitchen effluent constituted the experimental set-ups, while the control set-ups were made up of oil based ...

  11. Cytogenotoxicity evaluation of two industrial effluents using Allium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISHIOMA

    h EC50), root growth inhibition, mitotic index and chromosome aberration rate. Based on the 96 h EC50, textile effluent was 4.5 times more toxic than the paint effluent. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) showed that there was significant difference (P < 0.05) in the mean root length of A. cepa exposed to different concentrations ...

  12. Effects of abattoir effluent on composition and distribution of insect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ecological impacts of abattoir effluents discharge into Lower Ogun River were assessed by studying the composition, distributions and diversity of insect fauna of the river both in lsheri-Olofin(abattoir effluents discharge/downstream) and lshasi (upstream/control) areas for 24months (January 2006 to December 2007).

  13. Evaluation of some industrial effluents in Jos metropolis, Plateau ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    P.TECHNOLOGY

    Industrial effluents are generally discharged into receiving water bodies or disposed on land. These effluents .... 3°C increase in temperature of the receiving water body. **Minimum value in ... DO, Dissolved oxygen; BOD5, biochemical oxygen demand after 5 days at 20 ± 1°C; COD, chemical oxygen demand and. TSS, total ...

  14. Impact of Effluent from Gudu District Sewage Treatment Plant on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    PMB 152, Garki, Abuja. ABSTRACT: Gudu stream, the major stream providing water for Durumi 1, Durumi 2 and Durumi 3 ..... wastewater exits the plant into the water body and a .... DSP → down stream point (effluent and stream at point of use); SWE → stream without effluent (wastewater); NB: All values showed significant ...

  15. Cytogenotoxicity evaluation of two industrial effluents using Allium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cytogenotoxic effects of the industrial effluents from paint (0, 7.2, 18, 36 and 72%) and textile (0, 1.6, 4, 8 and 16%) manufacturing were ... were the most common aberration. The suitability of A. cepa chromosomal assay as a tool for monitoring the genotoxic effects of industrial effluents and wastewater is discussed.

  16. Effects of cassava mill effluent on some chemical and micro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examines the effects of cassava mill effluent on the Physicochemical and biological properties of soils of Obubra and Odukpani Local Areas in Cross River State after long time of pollution by the effluent. The soil samples were collected with an auger at the depths of 0-15cm and 15-30cm in each of the polluted ...

  17. Impact of effluent from Bodija abattoir on the physicochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria on the physico-chemical parameters of Oshunkaye stream was investigated. The qualities of effluent and stream water (before and after mixing with effluent) were studied using the basic water quality parameters. The ranges of the physico-chemical parameters studied were as follows: pH 6.92 –8.18, temperature 31 ...

  18. Coagulation pretreatment for ultrafiltration of deinking effluents containing flexographic inks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno Chabot; Gopal A. Krishnagopalan; Said Abubakr

    1999-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the potential of coagulation pretreatment with organic or inorganic coagulants to improve ultrafiltration performance during processing of wash deinking effluents containing flexographic inks. Wash filtrate effluents generated from mixtures of old flexographic and offset newspapers and old magazines were pretreated with a...

  19. Effect of industrial effluents on the growth and anatomical structures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... Talukdar et al. (2008) in their study on the effect of pulp and paper mill effluents on seed germination and seedling growth of mu- stard, pea and rice seeds noted varying degrees of symp- toms on these plants and that the more concentrated the industrial effluent, the more pronounced the symptoms.

  20. Treatment of some Textile Industrial Effluents using Dry Corn Stalk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corn stalk ground to various mesh sizes was used to treat textile effluents obtained from three different industries. These effluents were first pretreated with alum and then charcoal; passing the water through a column, (20cm long and 5cm diameter) containing the ground corn stalk of size diameters of 300mm, 355mm ...

  1. physico-chemical characteristics of effluents from garri processing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    Effluent and soil samples were collected from five different garri processing industries in Bida and analysed for conductivity ... highest values of 4.0, 618ppm, 400ppm, 61µs/cm, 700ppm and 315ppm respectively while those from Efumayaki has the ... indiscriminate discharge of industrial effluents [Salami and Egwin, 1997].

  2. Toxicity of cassava wastewater effluents to African catfish: Clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relative lethal and sublethal toxicity of cassava wastewater effluents from a local food factory were investigated on Clarias gariepinus fingerlings using a renewable static bioassay. The physico-chemical characteristics of the cassava wastewater effluents showed a number of deviations from the standards of the Federal ...

  3. Acute toxicity of brewery effluent on Chironomus travalensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... value of 1.25), which was most toxic, while 24 h-LC50 of 46% was the least toxic to the test organism. Median lethal time, LT50 for 30% effluent concentration was 95 hours. Mortality varies with the concentrations. Key Words: Toxicity, Effluent, Dipteran larvae and Benthos Journal of Aquatic Sciences Vol.19(1) 2004: 23-26 ...

  4. 40 CFR 434.63 - Effluent limitations for precipitation events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations for precipitation... SOURCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS Miscellaneous Provisions § 434.63 Effluent limitations for precipitation... discharge or increase in the volume of a discharge caused by precipitation within any 24 hour period less...

  5. Effect of cassava effluent on Okada natural water

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-17

    Jun 17, 2009 ... The study investigated the effect of cassava effluent on Okada natural water. It was observed that the colour, taste and odour of the water changed after cassava effluent had been discharched into it. This was an indication of pollution. ... Water samples were collected in plastic jars 10 L each at 3 points in.

  6. Correlating Biochemical and Chemical Oxygen Demand of Effluents

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    F. K. Attiogbe1, Mary Glover-Amengor2 and K. T. Nyadziehe3

    for the effluents from Ghana Brewery Limited (GBL), Guinness Ghana Limited GGL) and Coca-Cola Bottling. Company of Ghana (Coca-Cola), thus, the variables are correlated. However, the degree of common variation between the variables was low for the effluent from the Kumasi Abattoir. The fitted equations were GBL, ...

  7. Fate and Effect of Dissolved Silicon within Wastewater Treatment Effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Timothy J; Fulweiler, Robinson W

    2017-07-05

    In large rivers, the ratios of silicon (Si)/nitrogen (N)/phosphorus (P) have changed dramatically as anthropogenic additions of N or P are not matched by Si. Wastewater effluent is a recognized source of N and P to coastal environments. Few previous studies, however, have examined the Si load of a large wastewater plant's effluent or the molar ratios of Si/N and Si/P in effluent. We examine the annual flux of dissolved silicon (DSi) carried by effluent from the second largest treatment plant by flow in the United States (Deer Island Treatment Plant, DITP, Boston, MA). We compare treatment plant nutrient fluxes to local urban river nutrient fluxes and trace the impact of the DITP DSi loading on receiving waters. Estimates (±95% confidence interval) of treated effluent (67 800 ± 1500 kmol DSi year-1) compared to untreated (69 500 kmol DSi year-1) indicate that the process of sewage treatment at DITP likely does not remove DSi. DITP effluent was Si-limited and this Si-limitation is reflected in the receiving waters (Massachusetts Bay). However, Si-limitation appears only in the area immediately surrounding the effluent discharge. We use these results to explain phytoplankton patterns in Massachusetts Bay and to provide the first estimate of DSi loading (3.6 Gmol SiO2 year-1) from wastewater effluent across the US.

  8. Color pollution control in textile dyeing industry effluents using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Color pollution control in textile dyeing industry effluents using tannery sludge derived activated carbon. ... The leachate of heavy metals from tannery sludge derived activated carbon to the environment is very low, which are within the standard limit of industrial effluent and leachable substances. KEY WORDS: Adsorption ...

  9. Facility effluent monitoring plan for 242-A evaporator facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crummel, G.M.; Gustavson, R.D.

    1995-02-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the U.S. Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could affect employee or public safety or the environment. A facility effluent monitoring plan determination was performed during Calendar Year 1991 and the evaluation showed the need for a facility effluent monitoring plan. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-1. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated, as a minimum, every three years.

  10. The effects of hair dressing effluent irrigation on soil chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of hair dressing effluent on soil chemical properties, germination and growth of maize and cowpea were investigated in pot experiment. The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized design of 3 effluent treatments (100 ml, 200 ml and 400 ml) and control with 5 replications at University of Port Harcourt ...

  11. A postal survey of effluent generation and disposal in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water is a major utility in the dairy industry, which results in significant effluent volumes being generated, hence the challenge of its disposal cannot be ignored. In Zimbabwe, industry generally is not made to pay the full cost of managing industrial effluents, which inadvertently encourages environmental pollution.

  12. Effect of industrial effluents on the growth and anatomical structures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The authors investigated the impact of industrial effluents from 5 different industrial concerns in Lagos, Nigeria on Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus). During the study, it was observed that these effluents induced detrimental effects on the flowering, fruiting, stem length, leaf width and leaf length of okra. Other parameters ...

  13. effluent by bacillus cereus and clostridium butyricum using

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    respectively; while with the use of Clostridium butyricum, it achieved the highest COD removal, TOC degradation and coulombic efficiencies of 54.2%, ... liquid effluent (liquid consisting of surface runoff water, sanitary wastewater, solid ... polluted with petroleum refinery effluent using Nutrient. Agar medium (Beef Extract-3 g; ...

  14. Effluent treatment efficiency and compliance monitoring in Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effectiveness of effluent treatment at the Eleme Petrochemical Industry, Port Harcourt, Nigeria was monitored weekly for six weeks to assess their level of compliance with the Directorate of Petroleum Resources (DPR) guidelines and standards for environmental safety. Effluent samples were taken from the untreated ...

  15. The chemical composition of the effluent from Awassa Textile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effluent contained high concentrations of toxic heavy metals, and concentrations of about 70% of all the elements measured were higher (by 10 to 100 times) in effluent treated in ponds (biological lagoons) than straight from the factory, presumably due to concentration by evaporation. Chlorophyll-a concentration in lake ...

  16. A Study Of Dyehouse Activities And Effluent Treatment Practices In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the treatment practices of dyehouse effluent in Mauritius. An overview of the activities of dyehouses, characteristics of wastewater as well as effluent treatment methods is given. The effectiveness of different treatment systems is summarized. Finally appropriate pollution prevention measures have been ...

  17. Removal of pharmaceuticals in WWTP effluents by ozone and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For pH 6.0 effluents, the removal of pharmaceuticals was most efficient in the effluent with the lowest organic content. The addition of H2O2 had no significant effect on the quantitative removal of pharmaceuticals but enhanced the ozone decomposition rate. Thus, H2O2 addition increased the reaction rate. In practice, this ...

  18. Characteristics of Effluent from a Chemical Fertilizer Industry in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characteristics of Effluent from a Chemical Fertilizer Industry in Southern Nigeria. ... Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology ... A study was conducted on the characteristics of effluents emanating from a chemical fertilizer industry in Nigeria with the objective of proffering effective management strategies.

  19. Effect of Industrial Effluent on the Growth of Marine Diatom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    observed in 1:625 diluted effluents. From the results, it is evidenced that the lower volume of effluent discharge into higher volume of water could not affect the growth rate of phytoplankton. It is more important that to reduce the effect of pollution and environmental sustainability. @JASEM. The primary producers are at the ...

  20. Acute Toxicity Tests Of Brewery Effluent on the Ostracoda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The acute toxicity of brewery effluent to Strandesia prava Klie (crustacean, ostracoda) was determined in 24, 48 and 96 hour static bioassay under laboratory conditions. The test was conducted in replicates of 100, 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25 and 3.125% effluent concentrations. Mortality of the test organism increased with the ...

  1. Evaluation of some industrial effluents in Jos metropolis, Plateau ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    P.TECHNOLOGY

    strength of effluents of three different industries in Jos metropolis: industry A (a food industry), ... INTRODUCTION. Industrial effluents referred to as wastewaters are dis- charges from industries. Wastewaters generally comprise of a mixture of domestic ..... Chemistry including Chemical Engineering, 14th edition, 161-165.

  2. Assessment of effluents discharged from textiles industries in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of effluents discharged from textiles industries in selected villages in Kaduna State, Nigeria. ... The study recommend the need for the intervention of appropriate regulatory agencies to ensure production of high quality treated final effluents by wastewater treatment facilities in selected villages of Kaduna.

  3. The Role of Goal Attainment Expectancies in Achievement Goal Pursuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senko, Corwin; Hulleman, Chris S.

    2013-01-01

    The current studies introduce the goal attainment expectancy construct to achievement goal theory. Three studies, 2 in college classrooms and the other using a novel math task in the laboratory, converged on the same finding. For mastery-approach goals and performance-approach goals alike, the harder the goal appeared to attain, the less likely…

  4. Elite and Status Attainment Models of Inequality of Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myles, John F.; Srensen, Aage B.

    1975-01-01

    With changes in method, analysis of the process of attainment of various occupations and sub-sets of occupations such as elites can bring about the desired comparability between elite and status attainment studies of equality of opportunity. (Author/AM)

  5. Emergy Evaluation of Educational Attainment in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The emergy of educational attainment in the United States was quantified over the period for which the necessary data were available, i.e., 1948 to 2006. We propose that the portion of the knowledge in educational attainment delivered by the active workforce be considered as part...

  6. Adolescent Sexuality, Masculinity-Femininity, and Educational Attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry, Joseph

    The role of adolescent sexual behavior in educational attainment has been overlooked. Homosexual and heterosexual men were interviewed to test for a correlation between adolescent sexual activeness and educational attainment, as well as any link between childhood masculine sex roles and early sexual activity. Approximately 1,000 volunteers,…

  7. Educational Attainment, Job Satisfaction, and the Professionalization of Correctional Officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurik, Nancy C.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes the impact of an administrative effort to increase the educational attainment of correctional officers employed in a medium-security facility department of corrections. Educational attainment is found to be negatively associated with correctional officer job satisfaction when other variables are held constant. (Author/CH)

  8. Coping with unemployment: does educational attainment make any difference?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ulla; Schmidt, Lone; Kriegbaum, Margit

    2006-01-01

    not change this association substantially. High use of avoidant coping was associated with low educational attainment among men, OR = 1.57 (0.98-2.51). For women, medium educational attainment was significantly associated with low use of avoidant coping, OR = 0.60 (0.42-0.85). This result was not affected...

  9. Concrete and Formal Piagetian Stages and Science Concept Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, Luis L.; Herron, J. Dudley

    1978-01-01

    Investigates the attainment of abstract and concrete concepts and the use of pseudoexamples to move concrete thinkers to abstract levels in secondary school chemistry classes. Findings reveal abstract students achieve significantly higher means on both concrete and abstract concept attainment and that pseudo examples have no effect on the ability…

  10. Children's Conceptions of Career Choice and Attainment: Model Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Kimberly A. S.; Walsh, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a model of children's conceptions of two key career development processes: career choice and career attainment. The model of children's understanding of career choice and attainment was constructed with developmental research and theory into children's understanding of allied phenomena such as their understanding of illness,…

  11. Factors Deterring Schools from Mixed Attainment Teaching Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Becky; Francis, Becky; Archer, Louise; Hodgen, Jeremy; Pepper, David; Tereshchenko, Antonina; Travers, Mary-Claire

    2017-01-01

    Mixed-attainment teaching has strong support from research and yet English schools are far more likely to teach students in "ability" groups. Although research has considered some of the specific benefits of mixed-attainment grouping, there has been little attention to the reasons schools avoid it. This article explores data from the…

  12. Literacy Gaps by Educational Attainment: A Cross-National Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjoon; Kyei, Pearl

    2011-01-01

    Existing cross-national research on educational attainment does not fully address whether the same level of educational attainment generates the same level of literacy skills in different countries. We analyze literacy skills data for young adults from 19 countries in the 1994-1998 International Adult Literacy Survey and find that in all…

  13. Attainment of Self-Reliance through Senior Secondary School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attainment of Self-Reliance through Senior Secondary School Science and Technical Curriculum: An Appraisal. ... The developing countries of the third world like Nigeria, depend for their total development today on the already developed countries of Western Europe and America. The attainment of good degree of ...

  14. Age at Immigration and Educational Attainment of Young Immigrants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.; Veenman, J.M.C.

    2005-01-01

    For immigrants who arrive in a country at a young age it is easier to assimilate than for teenagers.This paper investigates up to what immigration age the educational attainment of young immigrants in the Netherlands is similar to the educational attainment of secondgeneration immigrants, who were

  15. Identification of effluent organic matter fractions responsible for low-pressure membrane fouling

    KAUST Repository

    Filloux, Emmanuelle

    2012-11-01

    Anion exchange resin (AER), powder activated carbon (PAC) adsorption and ozonation treatments were applied on biologically treated wastewater effluent with the objective to modify the effluent organic matter (EfOM) matrix. Both AER and PAC led to significant total organic carbon (TOC) removal, while the TOC remained nearly constant after ozonation. Liquid Chromatography-Organic Carbon Detection (LC-OCD) analysis showed that the AER treatment preferentially removed high and intermediate molecular weight (MW) humic-like structures while PAC removed low MW compounds. Only a small reduction of the high MW colloids (i.e. biopolymers) was observed for AER and PAC treatments. Ozonation induced a large reduction of the biopolymers and an important increase of the low MW humic substances (i.e. building blocks).Single-cycle microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) tests were conducted using commercially available hollow fibres at a constant flux. After reconcentration to their original organic carbon content, the EfOM matrix modified by AER and PAC treatments exhibited higher UF membrane fouling compared to untreated effluent; result that correlated with the higher concentration of biopolymers. On the contrary, ozonation which induced a significant degradation of the biopolymers led to a minor flux reduction for both UF and MF filtration tests. Based on a single filtration, results indicate that biopolymers play a major role in low pressure membrane fouling and that intermediate and low MW compounds have minor impact. Thus, this approach has shown to be a valid methodology to identify the foulant fractions of EfOM. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Adolescent family experiences and educational attainment during early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melby, Janet N; Conger, Rand D; Fang, Shu-Ann; Wickrama, K A S; Conger, Katherine J

    2008-11-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the degree to which a family investment model would help account for the association between family of origin socioeconomic characteristics and the later educational attainment of 451 young adults (age 26) from 2-parent families. Parents' educational level, occupational prestige, and family income in 1989 each had a statistically significant direct relationship with youths' educational attainment in 2002. Consistent with the theoretical model guiding the study, parents' educational level and family income also demonstrated statistically significant indirect effects on later educational attainment through their associations with growth trajectories for supportive parenting, sibling relations, and adolescent academic engagement. Supportive parenting and sibling relations were linked to later educational attainment through their association with adolescent academic engagement. Academic engagement during adolescence was associated with educational attainment in young adulthood. These basic processes operated similarly regardless of youths' gender, target youths' age relative to a near-age sibling, gender composition of the sibling dyad, or gender of parent.

  17. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the tank farms facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachand, D.D.; Crummel, G.M.

    1995-05-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using specific guidelines. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated as a minimum every three years.

  18. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FRAZIER, T.P.

    1999-10-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the U. S. Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether these systems are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. To ensure the long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems, an update to this facility effluent monitoring plan is required whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document is reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and is updated, at a minimum, every 3 years.

  19. High-rate anaerobic treatment of palm oil mill effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masao Ukita

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil mil effluent (POME contains high amount of organic matter, oil & grease, total solids and suspended solids. Anaerobic treatment of POME was conducted at room temperature (30±2ºC and high temperature (50±0.5ºC. The effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT, organic loading rate (OLR, COD:N ratio and temperature on the anaerobic digestion of POME were investigated. The optimum conditions were found to be 10 days HRT, OLR of 9.50 kg COD m-3d-1, COD:N ratio of 65 and the optimum temperature at 50ºC. The highest COD reduction of 81.1% was achieved. Biogas production in general was greater than 0.30 m3/kg COD/d. Comparison on anaerobic treatment using POME and POME treated by thermotolerant polymer-producing fungi Rhizopus sp. ST4 revealed that the biopretreated POME gave higher COD removal (72.6% but lower biogas production (0.97 m3/m3/d or 0.27 m3/kg COD/d than the POME without pretreatment (56.1% and 1.16 m3/m3/d or 0.37 m3/kg COD/d, respectively.

  20. Effluent polishing via pasture irrigation in Harare, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhapi, I; Mawere, M; Veenstra, S; Gijzen, H J

    2002-01-01

    Harare, the capital city of Zimbabwe, is experiencing eutrophication-related problems in its downstream potable water supply source of Lake Chivero. This is due mainly to poorly treated sewage effluent encroachment into upstream rivers, especially Marimba River. Crowborough Pasture Irrigation farm is in the Marimba sub-catchment area and has 305 hectares of irrigated pastures. Studies started from July 2000 to August 2001 focusing on the pasture's management of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) and their impact on Marimba River. Water and nutrient balances were developed. Reduction efficiencies for this pasture were found to be 84% for TN and 54% for TP. Both the Crowborough sewage treatment works and the pastures are overloaded. It was therefore concluded that the current system is no longer sustainable economically and environmentally. From the results of our study we recommend that additional treatment units be constructed at Crowborough sewage treatment works to meet current flows. Moreover, pasture management needs substantial improvement. Nutrient recovery should be enhanced by regular harvesting of pasture grass and converting cow dung into an economic commodity as manure for neighbouring residents. Maize cultivation is also recommended to replace pasture grass as it is a local staple crop and has high nutrient uptake rates.

  1. Characterisation of coal washery effluent and optimisation of coagulation behaviour of Moringa oleifera seed as a coagulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapse, Gaurav; Patoliya, Pruthvi; Samadder, S R

    2017-03-01

    The huge quantity of effluent generated in coal washing processes contains large amount of suspended and dissolved solids, clay minerals, coal fines and other impurities associated with raw coal. The present system of recirculation of the effluent is found to be ineffective in removing colloidal fines, which is the major part of the impurities present in washery effluent. Hence, there is a need for the assessment of a better technique for an efficient removal of these impurities. This study deals with detailed characterisation of coal washery effluent and fine particles present in it. For efficient removal of impurities, the suitability of biocoag-flocculation process using Moringa oleifera seed biomass as a natural coagulant was examined. Various doses of M. oleifera ranging from 0.2 to 3 mL/L were used in order to determine the optimal conditions. The impact of the variations in pH of the effluent (2-10), contact time (5-30 min), settlement time (5-50 min), temperature (10-50 °C) and the effluent dilution (1:0-1:5) was also assessed to optimise the treatment process. Post treatment analysis was carried out for determination of the different parameters such as pH, conductivity, turbidity, solids and settling velocity. Excellent reduction in turbidity (97.42%) and suspended solids (97.78%) was observed at an optimum dose of M. oleifera seed coagulant of 0.8 mL/L with an optimum contact time of 15 and at 20 min of settling time. In comparison with very few past studies of M. oleifera in the treatment of coal washery effluent with high dose and inadequate removal, this study stands to be a major highlight with low dose and high removal of the impurities. M. oleifera coagulant is considered to be an environment-friendly material, therefore, its application is recommended for simple and efficient treatment of coal washery effluent.

  2. Early bilingualism, language attainment, and brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berken, Jonathan A; Gracco, Vincent L; Klein, Denise

    2017-04-01

    The brain demonstrates a remarkable capacity to undergo structural and functional change in response to experience throughout the lifespan. Evidence suggests that, in many domains of skill acquisition, the manifestation of this neuroplasticity depends on the age at which learning begins. The fact that most skills are acquired late in childhood or in adulthood has proven to be a limitation in studies aimed at determining the relationship between age of acquisition and brain plasticity. Bilingualism, however, provides an optimal model for discerning differences in how the brain wires when a skill is acquired from birth, when the brain circuitry for language is being constructed, versus later in life, when the pathways subserving the first language are already well developed. This review examines some of the existing knowledge about optimal periods in language development, with particular attention to the attainment of native-like phonology. It focuses on the differences in brain structure and function between simultaneous and sequential bilinguals and the compensatory mechanisms employed when bilingualism is achieved later in life, based on evidence from studies using a variety of neuroimaging modalities, including positron emission tomography (PET), task-based and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and structural MRI. The discussion concludes with the presentation of recent neuroimaging studies that explore the concept of nested optimal periods in language development and the different neural paths to language proficiency taken by simultaneous and sequential bilinguals, with extrapolation to general notions of the relationship between age of acquisition and ultimate skill performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Two-stage phyto-microremediation of tannery effluent by Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid. and chromium resistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Asha; Vyas, Dhiraj; Malaviya, Piyush

    2016-09-01

    Two-stage sequential treatment of tannery effluent was conducted employing a wetland plant, Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid., and chromium (Cr) resistant bacterial strains. The bacterial strains were isolated from Cr-enriched environmental matrices and rhizosphere of Spirodela polyrrhiza. The phyto-rhizoremediation of tannery effluent by Spirodela and its rhizospheric bacteria (Cellulomonas biazotea APBR1-6, Bacillus safensis APBR2-12, Staphylococcus warneri APBR3-5, Microbacterium oleivorans APBR2-6), followed by microremediation by Cr resistant bacteria (Micrococcus luteus APBS5-1, Bacillus pumilus APBS5-2, Bacillus flexus APBE3-1, Virgibacillus sediminis APBS6-1) resulted in reduction of pollution parameters [COD (81.2%), total Cr (97.3%), Cr(VI) (99.3%), Pb(II) (97.0%), Ni (95.7%)]. The LC-MS analysis showed that many pollutants detected in untreated tannery effluent were diminished after bioremediation or long chains of alcohol polyethoxylates viz. C18EO6 in untreated effluent were broken down into smaller unit of alcohol polyethoxylate ((+)HHO[CH2CH2O]H), indicating that bacteria and Spirodela polyrrhiza, alongwith its rhizospheric associates utilized them as carbon and energy source. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of industrial effluents on groundwater quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanakya, V; Jeevan Rao, K

    2010-01-01

    A survey was conducted to assess the long-term effect of industrial effluents on groundwater quality for irrigation. Kattedan industrial area (India) was selected and five contaminated locations were identified. From each location, water which is being used to irrigate the crops, was collected during the months of October 2005 and February 2006. The results indicated that the concentrations of all parameters were higher in groundwater samples of Kattedan industrial area and they were found more in water samples collected during the month of February 2006 than those collected during October 2005. Among different parameters studied in water samples, Ni, Cd, Zn, Ca, Mg, TS, Na and SO4(2-) were found within the permissible limits for drinking. The results of the water samples indicated that the water of Kattedan industrial area is not suitable for drinking and irrigation purpose.

  5. Program review: Ground disposal of reactor effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geier, R.G.

    1967-10-18

    With the exception of N Reactor the plutonium production reactors operated by Douglas United Nuclear, Inc., use treated Columbia River water as coolant on a once through basis. Thus, radionuclides formed by neutron activation of Columbia River salts not removed in the water treatment process and water treatment additives are discharged to the river. Although the quantity and possible effects of the radionuclides released are well within nationally accepted limits, emphasis has been placed for some time on reducing the releases to as low a level as possible. More recently increasing concern has been evidenced with regard to the heat which is also discharged to the river. This report discusses concept which not only would drastically reduce the radionuclide content of the river but which would also substantially decrease the heat discharge. This concept is the disposal of the reactor effluent to the ground either to a pond or to a network of trenches.

  6. Minorities and air quality non-attainment areas: A preliminary geo-demographic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wernette, D.; Nieves, L.

    1991-06-01

    A major section of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) focuses on reducing air pollution through extending and modifying the provisions for states and localities with US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-designated non-attainment areas. Specifically, Title 1 of the CAAA is concerned with non-attainment areas, as defined relative to the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for atmospheric ozone, carbon monoxide, and particulate matter; Title 2 is concerned with mobile sources or air pollution, which produce carbon monoxide, contribute to ozone concentrations, and in the past have been a major source of airborne lead; and Title 4 is concerned with acid deposition, mainly due to sulfur dioxide emissions. This paper has its origin in the question of the potential benefits for minorities--relative to the majority non-Black, non-Hispanic population--of reductions in air pollution that may result from these amendments. It is part of a larger effort to identify and assess the costs and benefits of the CAAA for minorities, relative to the majority population. The focus of this paper centers on comparing Black and Hispanic populations to White, non-Hispanic populations living in EPA-designated non-attainment area counties in the contiguous United States, which excludes Alaska and Hawaii. Subsequent comparisons of majority populations with Native Americans and Asian-Americans will include these two states.

  7. Kinetic speciation of nickel in mining and municipal effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Parthasarathi; Gopalapillai, Yamini; Fasfous, Ismail I.; Chakrabarti, Chuni L. [Carleton University, Ottawa-Carleton Chemistry Institute, Department of Chemistry, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Murimboh, John [Acadia University, Department of Chemistry, Wolfville, Nova Scotia (Canada)

    2006-11-15

    This study presents the results of kinetic speciation of nickel in undiluted mining and municipal effluents and effluents diluted with receiving freshwaters from the surrounding environment. The dilution ratios used for the dilution of the effluents were arbitrarily chosen, but were representative of the prevailing mining practices. The purpose of the this dilution was to mimic dilution with natural waters that result from dilution of the mining and municipal effluents with receiving freshwaters, so that this study would reveal environmental realities that are of concern to the managers and regulators of water resources. Ligand exchange kinetics using the competing ligand exchange method (CLEM) was studied using two independent techniques: graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) with Chelex 100 resin as the competing ligand, and adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (AdCSV) with dimethylglyoxime (DMG) as the competing ligand to determine the percentage of Ni metal released from Ni(II)-DOC complexes and the rate of dissociation of Ni(II)-DOC complexes. Using a sample containing a mixture of 30% Copper Cliff Mine effluent, 40% Sudbury municipal effluent and 30% Vermillion River water, both techniques gave results showing that the dilution of the effluent samples increased the percentage of nickel released from Ni(II)-DOC complexes. This increase in the release of nickel from the Ni(II)-DOC complexes may be of concern to managers and regulators of water resources. Agreement between the results of these two techniques has enhanced the validity of the competing ligand exchange method used by both techniques. (orig.)

  8. Bioremediation of the textile waste effluent by Chlorella vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Yassin El-Kassas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The microalgae biomass production from textile waste effluent is a possible solution for the environmental impact generated by the effluent discharge into water sources. The potential application of Chlorella vulgaris for bioremediation of textile waste effluent (WE was investigated using 22 Central Composite Design (CCD. This work addresses the adaptation of the microalgae C. vulgaris in textile waste effluent (WE and the study of the best dilution of the WE for maximum biomass production and for the removal of colour and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD by this microalga. The cultivation of C. vulgaris, presented maximum cellular concentrations Cmax and maximum specific growth rates μmax in the wastewater concentration of 5.0% and 17.5%, respectively. The highest colour and COD removals occurred with 17.5% of textile waste effluent. The results of C. vulgaris culture in the textile waste effluent demonstrated the possibility of using this microalga for the colour and COD removal and for biomass production. There was a significant negative relationship between textile waste effluent concentration and Cmax at 0.05 level of significance. However, sodium bicarbonate concentration did not significantly influence the responses of Cmax and the removal of colour and COD.

  9. Avaliação (em escala laboratorial da aplicação do processo eletrolítico em efluente de lagoa de estabilização de esgoto urbano (Laboratory scale assessment of electrolytic processing of effluent from a urban sewage stabilization lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elis Marina Turini Claro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Physico-chemical and microbiological parameters were evaluated before and after applying an electrolytic process to effluents of a stabilization lagoon, in the presence or absence of "salt". Chlorine generation and bactericidal properties of the treatments were studied following two experiments. Effluent pH increased with electrolysis time. In the absence of "salt", 20 min electrolysis resulted in a COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand reduction of 44%, along with ca. 99.9% (3 log10 cfu/mL reduction in total coliforms, heterotrophic bacteria and Escherichia coli. These results indicated that the electrolytic process is a promising complementary technology to improve effluent quality for stabilization lagoons.

  10. Effluent generation by the dairy industry: preventive attitudes and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Brião

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Work aimed to identify the effluent is generating areas in a dairy company for purpose of changing concept pollution prevention. methodology consisted measuring volumes and collecting samples effluents production sectors. analysis was conducted by sector, order those which generated excessive amounts effluents. results show that dry products (powdered milk powdered whey are greatest generators BOD, nitrogen phosphorus, while fluid form (UHT milk, formulated UHT, pasteurized cream butter produced large quantities oils grease. solids recovery, waste segregation water reuse can be applied with saving potential as much R$ 28,000 ($ 11,200 per month only raw materials also environmental gains in pollution prevention.

  11. Nitrate reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziewinski, Jacek J.; Marczak, Stanislaw

    2000-01-01

    Nitrates are reduced to nitrogen gas by contacting the nitrates with a metal to reduce the nitrates to nitrites which are then contacted with an amide to produce nitrogen and carbon dioxide or acid anions which can be released to the atmosphere. Minor amounts of metal catalysts can be useful in the reduction of the nitrates to nitrites. Metal salts which are formed can be treated electrochemically to recover the metals.

  12. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - Integrated List Non-Attaining

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This layer shows only non-attaining segments of the Integrated List. The Streams Integrated List represents stream assessments in an integrated format for the Clean...

  13. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - Lakes Assessments - Non Attaining

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This layer shows only non attaining lakes of the Integrated List. The Lakes Integrated List represents lake assessments in an integrated format for the Clean Water...

  14. Models of Educational Attainment: A Theoretical and Methodological Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, D. S.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Uses cluster analysis techniques to show that egalitarian policies in secondary education coupled with high financial inputs have measurable payoffs in higher attainment rates, based on Max Weber's notion of power'' within a community. (Author/JM)

  15. Physical Education Curriculum: A Panacea for the Attainment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical Education Curriculum: A Panacea for the Attainment of Socio- Economic and Cultural Development of Primary School Pupils with Visual Impairment ... The importance of adapted physical education in the socio- economic and cultural ...

  16. Water Quality Assessment and Total Maximum Daily Loads Information (ATTAINS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Water Quality Assessment TMDL Tracking And Implementation System (ATTAINS) stores and tracks state water quality assessment decisions, Total Maximum Daily Loads...

  17. Biotreatment of highly contaminated effluents with phenolic compounds in bioaugmented UASB reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tawfiki-Hajji, K. [Biotechnology Research Inst., Montreal, PQ (Canada); Lepine, F. [Inst. Armand Frappier, Laval, PQ (Canada); Guiot, S.R. [Univ. de Sherbrooke, PQ (Canada) Dept. Genie Civil

    1999-11-01

    Phenolic compounds are common pollutants of surface and groundwaters originating from industrial activities, such as hydrocarbon refining, coal conversion and fiber processing. Because of their high water solubility these compounds can be present at high concentrations in these waters posing serious health problems. Treatment of wastewater streams containing these chemicals by anaerobic methanogenic processes is a viable option to meet stringent environmental standards. A highly specific methanogenic consortium was developed, which simultaneously degrades a mixture of phenols as well as ortho- and para-cresol under methangenic conditions at concentrations usually found in a specific petroleum refinery effluent. A waste product from the milk industry is used as a co-substrate. Characterization of the consortium using specific activity tests and scanning electron microscopy showed that the consortium contains all the trophic groups involved in methanogenic fermentation. Anaerobic granules were bioaugmented with the above methangenic consortium by natural accretion and encapsulation. The bioaugmentation of the anaerobic granules by natural accretion impacted the performance of the reactors. In the reactor bioaugmented by encapsulation, the same efficiences were attained as in the reactor bioaugmented with the 10% of enriched consortium. The strain ph6 of the consortium was specifically monitored during the course of an experiment, intermittantly, by applying PCR methods on the biomass inside the reactors and in the effluent. The control reactor reached a level of removal efficiency similar to that of the reactor with 10% of the enriched consortium after 160 days of operation. Bioaugmentation with an enriched consortium especially by encapsulation on the short term improved the start up by reducing the time period for the reactor to reach its full capacity, and on the long term significantly increased the specific degradation potential of the biomass with respect to

  18. The effect of the natural bentonite to reduce COD in palm oil mill effluent by using a hybrid adsorption-flotation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, Ratni; Sari, Ratna; Syafruddin

    2017-06-01

    Palm oil mill effluent is waste produced from palm oil processing activities. This waste are comingfrom condensate water, process water and hydrocyclone water. The high levels of contaminants in the palm oil mill effluent causes the waste becomes inappropriate to be discharged to water body before processing, one of the most major contaminants in wastewater is fats, oils and COD.This study investigated the effectiveness of chemically activated bentonite that serves as an alternative to reduce the COD in adsorption and floatation based palm oil effluent waste processing. Natural bentonite was activated by using nitrit acid and benzene. In the existing adsorption material to improve COD reduction capability whereas the flotation method was used to further remove residual effluent which is still remain after the adsorption process. An adsorption columns which operated in batch was used in the present study. By varying the circulation time and adsorbent treatment (activated and non-activated), it was shown that percentage of COD reduction reached 75% at the circulation time of 180 minutes for non activated adsorbent. On the other hand the percentof COD reduction in adsorption and flotation process using activated bentonite reached as high as 88% and 93% at the circulation time of 180 minutes.

  19. Educational Expectations, Parental Social Class, Gender, and Postsecondary Attainment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lesley, Andres; Adamuti-Trache, Maria; Yoon, Ee-Seul

    2007-01-01

    1, 5, and 10 years after graduation to examine the extent to which educational expectations change over time in relation to parental socioeconomic status and eventual postsecondary attainment. Using the method of correspondence analysis, they demonstrate that graduates leave high school...... with educational expectations that change minimally from that point onward. Moreover, their findings reveal that there is a strong correspondence among gender, socioeconomic background of parents, and educational attainment. They conclude with direct implications for K-12 and postsecondary policy and practice....

  20. Catalytic oxidation of pulping effluent by activated carbon-supported heterogeneous catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Bholu Ram; Garg, Anurag

    2016-01-01

    The present study deals with the non-catalytic and catalytic wet oxidation (CWO) for the removal of persistent organic compounds from the pulping effluent. Two activated carbon-supported heterogeneous catalysts (Cu/Ce/AC and Cu/Mn/AC) were used for CWO after characterization by the following techniques: temperature-programmed reduction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermo-gravimetric analysis. The oxidation reaction was performed in a batch high-pressure reactor (capacity = 0.7  L) at moderate oxidation conditions (temperature = 190°C and oxygen pressure = 0.9 MPa). With Cu/Ce/AC catalyst, the maximum chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC) and lignin removals of 79%, 77% and 88% were achieved compared to only 50% removal during the non-catalytic process. The 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) to COD ratio (a measure for biodegradability) of the pulping effluent was improved to 0.52 from an initial value of 0.16. The mass balance calculations for solid recovered after CWO reaction showed 8% and 10% deduction in catalyst mass primarily attributed to the loss of carbon and metal leaching. After the CWO process, carbon deposition was also observed on the recovered catalyst which was responsible for around 3-4% TOC reduction.

  1. Removal of mercury from gold mine effluents using Limnocharis flava in constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrugo-Negrete, José; Enamorado-Montes, Germán; Durango-Hernández, José; Pinedo-Hernández, José; Díez, Sergi

    2017-01-01

    Phytoremediation has received increased attention over the recent decades, as an emerging and eco-friendly approach that utilizes the natural properties of plants to remediate contaminated water, soils or sediments. The current study provides information about a pilot-scale experiment designed to evaluate the potential of the anchored aquatic plant Limnocharis flava for phytoremediation of water contaminated with mercury (Hg), in a constructed wetland (CW) with horizontal subsurface flow (HSSF). Mine effluent used in this experiment was collected from a gold mining area located at the Alacran mine in Colombia (Hg: 0.11 ± 0.03 μg mL -1 ) and spiked with HgNO 3 (1.50 ± 0.09 μg mL -1 ). Over a 30 day test period, the efficiency of the reduction in the heavy metal concentration in the wetlands, and the relative metal sorption by the L. flava, varied according to the exposure time. The continued rate of removal of Hg from the constructed wetland was 9 times higher than the control, demonstrating a better performance and nearly 90% reduction in Hg concentrations in the contaminated water in the presence of L. flava. The results in this present study show the great potential of the aquatic macrophyte L. flava for phytoremediation of Hg from gold mining effluents in constructed wetlands. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Metatranscriptomic and metagenomic description of the bacterial nitrogen metabolism in waste water wet oxidation effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Crovadore

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion is a common method for reducing the amount of sludge solids in used waters and enabling biogas production. The wet oxidation process (WOX improves anaerobic digestion by converting carbon into methane through oxidation of organic compounds. WOX produces effluents rich in ammonia, which must be removed to maintain the activity of methanogens. Ammonia removal from WOX could be biologically operated by aerobic granules. To this end, granulation experiments were conducted in 2 bioreactors containing an activated sludge (AS. For the first time, the dynamics of the microbial community structure and the expression levels of 7 enzymes of the nitrogen metabolism in such active microbial communities were followed in regard to time by metagenomics and metatranscriptomics. It was shown that bacterial communities adapt to the wet oxidation effluent by increasing the expression level of the nitrogen metabolism, suggesting that these biological activities could be a less costly alternative for the elimination of ammonia, resulting in a reduction of the use of chemicals and energy consumption in sewage plants. This study reached a strong sequencing depth (from 4.4 to 7.6 Gb and enlightened a yet unknown diversity of the microorganisms involved in the nitrogen pathway. Moreover, this approach revealed the abundance and expression levels of specialised enzymes involved in nitrification, denitrification, ammonification, dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA and nitrogen fixation processes in AS. Keywords: Applied sciences, Biological sciences, Environmental science, Genetics, Microbiology

  3. Color, organic matter and sulfate removal from textile effluents by anaerobic and aerobic processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, F M; Kato, M T; Florêncio, L; Gavazza, S

    2014-07-01

    An upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB)-submerged aerated biofilter (SAB) system was evaluated to remove color and chemical oxygen demand (COD) from real textile effluent. The system was operated for 335 days in three phases (P-1, P-2, P-3) with total hydraulic retention time varying from 21 h to 14 h. The results showed that high sulfate levels (>300 mg SO4(2-)/L) impaired the dye reduction. The best color removal efficiencies of 30% and 96% for the UASB and the reactor system, respectively, were obtained in P-1; the SAB higher efficiency was associated with adsorption. The best COD removal efficiency of 71% for the reactor system was obtained in P-2. Precipitation of some material composed mostly of sulfur (98%) and some metals occurred in the UASB. However, the precipitated sulfur was again oxidized in the SAB. The system also showed an effective toxicity reduction in tests (Daphnia magna) with the treated effluent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessment of wastewater treatment plant effluent effects on fish reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are known contributors of chemical mixtures into the environment. Of particular concern are endocrine-disrupting compounds that can affect hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis function in exposed organisms. The present study examined t...

  5. Decolorization of synthetic dyes and textile effluents by basidiomycetous fungi

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Diwaniyan, S.; Kharb, D.; Raghukumar, C.; Kuhad, R.C.

    tested in liquid cultures. A statistically significant positive correlation between laccase production and decolorization of dyes and effluents was obtained as compared to other ligninolytic enzymes (lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase) production...

  6. Performance evaluation of effluent treatment plant for automobile industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansari, Farid [Department of Applied Science and Humanities, PDM College of Engineering, Bahadurgarh (Haryana) (India); Pandey, Yashwant K. [School of Energy and Environmental Studies, Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, Indore (India); Kumar, P.; Pandey, Priyanka [Department of Environmental Science, Post Graduate College Ghazipur (IN

    2013-07-01

    The automobile industry’s wastewater not only contains high levels of suspended and total solids such as oil, grease, dyestuff, chromium, phosphate in washing products, and coloring, at various stages of manufacturing but also, a significant amount of dissolved organics, resulting in high BOD or COD loads. The study reveals the performance, evaluation and operational aspects of effluent treatment plant and its treatability, rather than the contamination status of the real property. The Results revealed that the treated effluent shows most of the parameters are within permissible limits of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), India and based on the site visits, discussion with operation peoples, evaluation of process design, treatment system, existing effluent discharge, results of sample analyzed and found that effluent treatment plant of automobile industry are under performance satisfactory.

  7. Feasibility of using geothermal effluents for waterfowl wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-09-01

    This project was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using geothermal effluents for developing and maintaining waterfowl wetlands. Information in the document pertains to a seven State area the West where geothermal resources have development potential. Information is included on physiochemical characteristics of geothermal effluents; known effects of constituents in the water on a wetland ecosystem and water quality criteria for maintaining a viable wetland; potential of sites for wetland development and disposal of effluent water from geothermal facilities; methods of disposal of effluents, including advantages of each method and associated costs; legal and institutional constraints which could affect geothermal wetland development; potential problems associated with depletion of geothermal resources and subsidence of wetland areas; potential interference (adverse and beneficial) of wetlands with ground water; special considerations for wetlands requirements including size, flows, and potential water usage; and final conclusions and recommendations for suitable sites for developing demonstration wetlands.

  8. 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) Hazards Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CAMPBELL, L.R.

    1999-01-15

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of emergency planning activities for the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The technical basis for project-specific Emergency Action Levels and Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated.

  9. Herbicidal effects of effluent from processed cassava on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGO

    2007-03-19

    Mar 19, 2007 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 6 (6), pp. 685-690, 19 ... the environment. Also, heavy ... has been done with respect to the developmental physio- logy of weeds. ... Chemical analysis of cassava effluents. Samples of ...

  10. Synthesis of zero effluent multipurpose batch processes using effective scheduling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gouws, JF

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available that characterize today’s markets. Secondly, batch processes tend to produce highly toxic effluent streams, albeit in relatively small quantities in comparison to their continuous counterparts. The stringent environmental conditions militate against the latter...

  11. Concepts, tools, and strategies for effluent testing: An international survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole effluent testing (also called Direct Toxicity Assessment) remains a critical long-term assessment tool for aquatic environmental protection. Use of animal alternative approaches for wastewater testing is expected to increase as more regulatory authorities routinely require ...

  12. Removal of pharmaceuticals from MWTP effluent by nanofiltration and solar photo-Fenton using two different iron complexes at neutral pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miralles-Cuevas, S; Oller, I; Pérez, J A Sánchez; Malato, S

    2014-11-01

    In recent years, membrane technologies (nanofiltration (NF)/reverse osmosis (RO)) have received much attention for micropollutant separation from Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant (MWTP) effluents. Practically all micropollutants are retained in the concentrate stream, which must be treated. Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) have been demonstrated to be a good option for the removal of microcontaminants from water systems. However, these processes are expensive, and therefore, are usually combined with other techniques (such as membrane systems) in an attempt at cost reduction. One of the main costs in solar photo-Fenton comes from reagent consumption, mainly hydrogen peroxide and chemicals for pH adjustment. Thus, in this study, solar photo-Fenton was used to treat a real MWTP effluent with low initial iron (less than 0.2 mM) and hydrogen peroxide (less than 2 mM) concentrations. In order to work at neutral pH, iron complexing agents (EDDS and citrate) were used in the two cases studied: direct treatment of the MWTP effluent and treatment of the concentrate stream generated by NF. The degradation of five pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, flumequine, ibuprofen, ofloxacin and sulfamethoxazole) spiked in the effluent at low initial concentrations (μg L(-1)) was monitored as the main variable in the pilot-plant-scale photo-Fenton experiments. In both effluents, pharmaceuticals were efficiently removed (>90%), requiring low accumulated solar energy (2 kJUV L(-1), key parameter in scaling up the CPC photoreactor) and low iron and hydrogen peroxide concentrations (reagent costs, 0.1 and 1.5 mM, respectively). NF provided a clean effluent, and the concentrate was positively treated by solar photo-Fenton with no significant differences between the direct MWTP effluent and NF concentrate treatments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Super-fine powdered activated carbon (SPAC) for efficient removal of micropollutants from wastewater treatment plant effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvin, Florence; Jost, Livia; Randin, Lea; Bonvin, Emmanuel; Kohn, Tamar

    2016-03-01

    In an effort to mitigate the discharge of micropollutants to surface waters, adsorption of micropollutants onto powdered activated carbon (PAC) after conventional wastewater treatment has been identified as a promising technology for enhanced removal of pharmaceuticals and pesticides from wastewater. We investigated the effectiveness of super-fine powdered activated carbon, SPAC, (ca. 1 μm mean particle diameter) in comparison to regular-sized PAC (17-37 μm mean diameter) for the optimization of micropollutant removal from wastewater. Adsorption isotherms and batch kinetic experiments were performed for 10 representative micropollutants (bezafibrate, benzotriazole, carbamazepine, diclofenac, gabapentin, mecoprop, metoprolol, ofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim) onto three commercial PACs and their super-fine variants in carbonate buffer and in wastewater effluent. SPAC showed substantially faster adsorption kinetics of all micropollutants than conventional PAC, regardless of the micropollutant adsorption affinity and the solution matrix. The total adsorptive capacities of SPAC were similar to those of PAC for two of the three tested carbon materials, in all tested waters. However, in effluent wastewater, the presence of effluent organic matter adversely affected micropollutant removal, resulting in lower removal efficiencies especially for micropollutants with low affinity for adsorbent particles in comparison to pure water. In comparison to PAC, SPAC application resulted in up to two-fold enhanced dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal from effluent wastewater. The more efficient adsorption process using SPAC translates into a reduction of contact time and contact tank size as well as reduced carbon dosing for a targeted micropollutant removal. In the tested effluent wastewater (5 mg/L DOC), the necessary dose to achieve 80% average removal of indicator micropollutants (benzotriazole, diclofenac, carbamazepine, mecoprop and sulfamethoxazole) ranged

  14. Changes in Septic Tank Effluent Due to Water Softener Use

    OpenAIRE

    Hogan, Patrick Lynn

    2012-01-01

    The compatibility of home water softeners and septic tanks is of concern for the on-site wastewater treatment community. Research has shown that high sodium levels in activated sludge plants can lead to deflocculation and poor effluent quality. Therefore, it is logical to assume that high sodium levels that result from the exchange of calcium and magnesium for sodium in home softeners could give rise to poor effluent quality from septic tanks, leading to shortened lives of drain fields. Addit...

  15. Ammonia recovery from high strength agro industry effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinbas, M; Ozturk, I; Aydin, A F

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate ammonia recovery from high strength agro industry effluents involving significant amounts of ammonia, by applying magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) precipitation technology. Two types of industrial effluents have been tested in the study. The first plant was an opium alkaloid processing industry and the second one was a baker's yeast industry. High chemical oxygen demand (COD), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) and unacceptable dark brown color characterized effluents from both industries. Effluents from the biologically treated opium alkaloid and baker's yeast industries were both applied at the stoichiometric ratio (Mg:NH4:PO4 = 1:1:1) and above the stoichiometric ratio (Mg:NH4:PO4 = 1.1:1:1.1) to MAP precipitation. NH4 removals of 61-80% were achieved at the pH of 9.2 at the stoichiometric ratio, whereas 83% NH4 removal was obtained at the pH of 9.2 above the stoichiometric ratio. Experimental studies performed on both anaerobically and/or aerobically treated baker's yeast and opium alkaloid industry effluents have clearly indicated that MAP precipitation was an appropriate treatment option for NH4 removal or struvite recovery from high ammonia content agro industry effluents. Additional ammonia recovery studies were conducted on ozonated and Fenton's oxidation applied effluents and these have also indicated that the amounts of struvite and the quality of MAP precipitate was increased significantly. In this framework, MAP sludge recovered from combined biological and Fenton's oxidation treatment effluents were considered as a more valuable slow release fertilizer for agricultural use.

  16. Thief carbon catalyst for oxidation of mercury in effluent stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granite, Evan J [Wexford, PA; Pennline, Henry W [Bethel Park, PA

    2011-12-06

    A catalyst for the oxidation of heavy metal contaminants, especially mercury (Hg), in an effluent stream is presented. The catalyst facilitates removal of mercury through the oxidation of elemental Hg into mercury (II) moieties. The active component of the catalyst is partially combusted coal, or "Thief" carbon, which can be pre-treated with a halogen. An untreated Thief carbon catalyst can be self-promoting in the presence of an effluent gas streams entrained with a halogen.

  17. An automation model of Effluent Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Alberto Oliveira Lima Roque

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Population growth and intensification of industrial activities have increased the deterioration of natural resources. Industrial, hospital and residential wastes are dumped directly into landfills without processing, polluting soils. This action will have consequences later, because the liquid substance resulting from the putrefaction of organic material plows into the soil to reach water bodies. Cities arise without planning, industrial and household wastes are discharged into rivers, lakes and oceans without proper treatment, affecting water resources. It is well known that in the next century there will be fierce competition for fresh water on the planet, probably due to the scarcity of it. Demographic expansion has occurred without proper health planning, degrading oceans, lakes and rivers. Thus, a large percentage of world population suffers from diseases related to water pollution. Accordingly, it can be concluded that sewage treatment is essential to human survival, to preserve rivers, lakes and oceans. An Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP treats wastewater to reduce its pollution to acceptable levels before sending them to the oceans or rivers. To automate the operation of an ETP, motors, sensors and logic blocks, timers and counters are needed. These functions are achieved with programmable logic controllers (PLC and Supervisory Systems. The Ladder language is used to program controllers and is a pillar of the Automation and Control Engineering. The supervisory systems allow process information to be monitored, while the PLC are responsible for control and data acquisition. In the age we live in, process automation is used in an increasing scale in order to provide higher quality, raise productivity and improve the proposed activities. Therefore, an automatic ETP will improve performance and efficiency to handle large volumes of sewage. Considering the growing importance of environmental awareness with special emphasis

  18. Efficiency of aquatic macrophytes to treat Nile tilapia pond effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry-Silva Gustavo Gonzaga

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The effluents from fish farming can increase the quantity of suspended solids and promote the enrichment of nitrogen and phosphorus in aquatic ecosystems. In this context, the aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of three species of floating aquatic macrophytes (Eichhornia crassipes, Pistia stratiotes and Salvinia molesta to treat effluents from Nile tilapia culture ponds. The effluent originated from a 1,000-m² pond stocked with 2,000 male Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. The treatment systems consisted of 12 experimental tanks, three tanks for each macrophyte species, and three control tanks (without plants. Water samples were collected from the: (i fish pond source water, (ii effluent from fish pond and (iii effluents from the treatment tanks. The following water variables were evaluated: turbidity, total and dissolved nitrogen, ammoniacal-N, nitrate-N, nitrite-N, total phosphorus and dissolved phosphorus. E. crassipes and P. stratiotes were more efficient in total phosphorus removal (82.0% and 83.3%, respectively and total nitrogen removal (46.1% and 43.9%, respectively than the S. molesta (72.1% total phosphorus and 42.7% total nitrogen and the control (50.3% total phosphorus and 22.8% total nitrogen, indicating that the treated effluents may be reused in the aquaculture activity.

  19. Electrochemical treatment of textile dyes and dyehouse effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatzisymeon, Efthalia [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Polytechneioupolis, GR-73100 Chania (Greece); Xekoukoulotakis, Nikolaos P. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Polytechneioupolis, GR-73100 Chania (Greece); Coz, Alberto [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Polytechneioupolis, GR-73100 Chania (Greece); Kalogerakis, Nicolas [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Polytechneioupolis, GR-73100 Chania (Greece); Mantzavinos, Dionissios [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Polytechneioupolis, GR-73100 Chania (Greece)]. E-mail: mantzavi@mred.tuc.gr

    2006-09-21

    The electrochemical oxidation of textile effluents over a titanium-tantalum-platinum-iridium anode was investigated. Batch experiments were conducted in a flow-through electrolytic cell with internal recirculation at current intensities of 5, 10, 14 and 20 A, NaCl concentrations of 0.5, 1, 2 and 4% and recirculation rates of 0.81 and 0.65 L/s using a highly colored, synthetic effluent containing 16 textile dyes at a total concentration of 361 mg/L and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 281 mg/L. Moreover, an actual dyehouse effluent containing residual dyes as well as various inorganic and organic compounds with a COD of 404 mg/L was tested. In most cases, quantitative effluent decolorization was achieved after 10-15 min of treatment and this required low energy consumption; conversely, the extent of mineralization varied between 30 and 90% after 180 min depending on the operating conditions and the type of effluent. In general, treatment performance improved with increasing current intensity and salinity and decreasing solution pH. However, the use of electrolytes not containing chloride (e.g. FeSO{sub 4} or Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) suppressed degradation. Although the acute toxicity of the actual effluent to marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri was weak, it increased sharply following treatment, thus suggesting the formation of persistent toxic by-products.

  20. Microalgal Cultivation in Secondary Effluent: Recent Developments and Future Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junping Lv

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Eutrophication of water catchments and the greenhouse effect are major challenges in developing the global economy in the near future. Secondary effluents, containing high amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus, need further treatment before being discharged into receiving water bodies. At the same time, new environmentally friendly energy sources need to be developed. Integrating microalgal cultivation for the production of biodiesel feedstock with the treatment of secondary effluent is one way of addressing both issues. This article provides a comprehensive review of the latest progress in microalgal cultivation in secondary effluent to remove pollutants and accumulate lipids. Researchers have discovered that microalgae remove nitrogen and phosphorus effectively from secondary effluent, accumulating biomass and lipids in the process. Immobilization of appropriate microalgae, and establishing a consortium of microalgae and/or bacteria, were both found to be feasible ways to enhance pollutant removal and lipid production. Demonstrations of pilot-scale microalgal cultures in secondary effluent have also taken place. However there is still much work to be done in improving pollutants removal, biomass production, and lipid accumulation in secondary effluent. This includes screening microalgae, constructing the consortium, making use of flue gas and nitrogen, developing technologies related to microalgal harvesting, and using lipid-extracted algal residues (LEA.

  1. Renovation and Reuse of Reactive Dyeing Effluent by a Novel Heterogeneous Fenton System Based on Metal Modified PTFE Fibrous Catalyst/H2O2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cu-Fe bimetallic grafted polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE fiber complexes were prepared and optimized as the novel heterogeneous Fenton catalysts for the degradation of reactive dyes under UV irradiation. Cotton fabrics were dyed with three reactive dyes, namely, Reactive Red 195, Reactive Yellow 145, and Reactive Blue 222, in tap fresh water using exhaustion process. The spent dyeing effluents were then collected and degraded with the optimized Cu-Fe bimetallic grafted PTFE fiber complex/H2O2 system. The treated dyeing effluents were characterized and reused for the dyeing of cotton fabrics through the same process. The effect of reuse process number on quality of the dyed cotton fabrics was examined. The results indicated that the Cu-Fe bimetallic modified PTFE fiber complex with a Cu/Fe molar ratio of 2.87 was found to be the most effective fibrous catalyst, which enhanced complete decolorization of the treated dyeing effluents with H2O2 in 4 h. However, the TOC removal for the treated dyeing effluents was below 80%. The dyeing quality was not affected for three successive cycles. The increase in residual TOC value influences fourth dyeing cycle. Further TOC reduction of the treated effluents is needed for its repeated reuse in more than three dyeing cycles.

  2. Use of calcined layered double hydroxides for the removal of color and organic matter from textile effluents: kinetic, equilibrium and recycling studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. F. Teixeira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents data for the synthesis and characterization of layer double hydroxides (LDH and their use for color and chemical oxygen demand (COD removal from effluents generated by a textile industry. Adsorption studies with raw and biologically treated (activated sludge textile effluent showed that the pseudo-second order model best fitted the experimental data, leading to adsorption coefficients of 39.1 and 102.9 mgCOD/gLDH for raw and treated effluents, respectively. The best conditions for color and COD removal were obtained at lower values of temperature and pH (25 °C and pH 7 and, in these conditions, an LDH dose of 10 g/L resulted in color removal efficiencies of 56% for samples of raw and 66% for samples of treated effluent. Recycling studies indicated that the reuse of thermally treated LDH led to a progressive loss in the removal efficiencies of COD and color. The reduction was more pronounced with samples of the raw textile effluent. LDH characterization performed before and after each adsorption and regeneration experiment showed that there was no intercalation of dye molecules in the interlayer region of the LDH, indicating that COD and color removal might be due to the adsorption of organic molecules onto the LDH surface.

  3. Co-epuration of winery and pesticides effluents, activated sludge with tertiary nanofiltration, two new technologies for pesticides effluents treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massot, A; Esteve, K; Poupot, C; Mietton-Peuchot, M

    2010-01-01

    Wine-related activities produce significant volumes of wastewater characterized by high concentrations in organic matter. The term of pesticides effluents defines the water coming from the emptying and the rinsing of the equipment used to pulverize the phytosanitary products on the vines. Pesticide pollution of surface waters from vineyards applications represents a considerable hazard for the aquatic environment. The nature of these wastes is very variable, indeed more than 150 active molecules can be employed. So, the main characteristic of these effluents is their toxicity towards the environment. In this study, an approach was developed to estimate the possibility of developing two biological wastewater treatment process for pesticides effluents treatment. The first one is particulary designed for small vineyard and is a co-epuration process combining winery wastewater treatment with pesticides effluents treatment. The second one is an activated sludge with tertiary nanofiltration and is particularly suited for large vineyards or regroupings of wine growers.

  4. Bioequivalence approach for whole effluent toxicity testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukla, R.; Wang, Q.; Fulk, F.; Deng, C.; Denton, D.

    2000-01-01

    Increased use of whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests in the regulatory arena has brought increased concern over the statistical analysis of WET test data and the determination of toxicity. One concern is the issue of statistical power. A number of WET tests may pass the current hypothesis test approach because they lack statistical power to detect relevant toxic effects because of large within-test variability. Additionally, a number of WET tests may fail the current approach because they possess excessive statistical power, as a result of small within-test variability, and detect small differences that may not be biologically relevant. The strengths and limitations of both the traditional hypothesis test approach and the bioequivalence approach for use in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System program were evaluated. Data from 5,213 single-concentration, short-term chronic WET tests with Ceriodaphnia dubia provided the database for analysis. Comparison of results between the current approach and the bioequivalence approach indicates that the current approach to WET testing is generally sound but that adopting the proposed bioequivalence approach resolves concerns of statistical power. Specifically, within this data set, applying the bioequivalence approach resulted in failure for tests with relatively large test variability and a pass for tests with relatively small within-test variability.

  5. Reuse of olive mill effluents from two-phase extraction process by integrated advanced oxidation and reverse osmosis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochando-Pulido, J M; Hodaifa, G; Victor-Ortega, M D; Rodriguez-Vives, S; Martinez-Ferez, A

    2013-12-15

    In this work, complete reclamation of the olive mill effluents coming from a two-phase olive oil extraction process (OME-2) was studied on a pilot scale. The developed depuration procedure integrates an advanced oxidation process based on Fenton's reagent (secondary treatment) coupled with a final reverse osmosis (RO) stage (purification step). The former aims for the removal of the major concentration of refractory organic pollutants present in OME-2, whereas the latter provides efficient purification of the high salinity. Complete physicochemical composition of OME-2 after the secondary treatment was examined, including the particle size distribution, organic matter gradation and bacterial growth, in order to assess the selection of the membrane and its fouling propensity. Hydrodynamics and selectivity of the membrane were accurately modelized. Upon optimization of the hydrodynamic conditions, the RO membrane showed stable performance and fouling problems were satisfactorily overcome. Steady-state permeate flux equal to 21.1 L h(-1)m(-2) and rejection values up to 99.1% and 98.1% of the organic pollutants and electroconductivity were respectively attained. This ensured parametric values below standard limits for reuse of the regenerated effluent, e.g. in the olives washing machines, offering the possibility of closing the loop and thus rending the production process environmentally friendly. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Biological treatment of anaerobically digested palm oil mill effluent (POME) using a Lab-Scale Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yi Jing; Chong, Mei Fong; Law, Chung Lim

    2010-08-01

    The production of highly polluting palm oil mill effluent (POME) has resulted in serious environmental hazards. While anaerobic digestion is widely accepted as an effective method for the treatment of POME, anaerobic treatment of POME alone has difficulty meeting discharge limits due to the high organic strength of POME. Hence, subsequent post-treatment following aerobic treatment is vital to meet the discharge limits. The objective of the present study is to investigate the aerobic treatment of anaerobically digested POME by using a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The SBR performance was assessed by measuring Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Total Suspended Solids (TSS) removal as well as Sludge Volume Index (SVI). The operating pH and dissolved oxygen concentrations were found to be 8.25-9.14 and 1.5-6.4 mg/L, respectively, throughout the experiment. The experimental results demonstrate that MLVSS, OLR and sludge loading rate (SLR) play a significant role in the organic removal efficiency of SBR systems and therefore, further investigation on these parameters was conducted to attain optimum SBR performance. Maximum COD (95-96%), BOD (97-98%) and TSS (98-99%) removal efficiencies were achieved at optimum OLR, SLR and MLVSS concentration ranges of 1.8-4.2 kg COD/m(3)day, 2.5-4.6 kg TSS/m(3)day and 22,000-25,000 mg/L, respectively. The effluent quality remained stable and complied with the discharge limit. At the same time, the sludge showed good settling properties with average SVI of 65. It is envisaged that the SBR process could complement the anaerobic treatment to produce final treated effluent which meets the discharge limit. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. AMDTreat 5.0+ with PHREEQC titration module to compute caustic chemical quantity, effluent quality, and sludge volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, Charles A.; Means, Brent P; Arthur, Willam; McKenzie, Robert M; Parkhurst, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Alkaline chemicals are commonly added to discharges from coal mines to increase pH and decrease concentrations of acidity and dissolved aluminum, iron, manganese, and associated metals. The annual cost of chemical treatment depends on the type and quantities of chemicals added and sludge produced. The AMDTreat computer program, initially developed in 2003, is widely used to compute such costs on the basis of the user-specified flow rate and water quality data for the untreated AMD. Although AMDTreat can use results of empirical titration of net-acidic or net-alkaline effluent with caustic chemicals to accurately estimate costs for treatment, such empirical data are rarely available. A titration simulation module using the geochemical program PHREEQC has been incorporated with AMDTreat 5.0+ to improve the capability of AMDTreat to estimate: (1) the quantity and cost of caustic chemicals to attain a target pH, (2) the chemical composition of the treated effluent, and (3) the volume of sludge produced by the treatment. The simulated titration results for selected caustic chemicals (NaOH, CaO, Ca(OH)2, Na2CO3, or NH3) without aeration or with pre-aeration can be compared with or used in place of empirical titration data to estimate chemical quantities, treated effluent composition, sludge volume (precipitated metals plus unreacted chemical), and associated treatment costs. This paper describes the development, evaluation, and potential utilization of the PHREEQC titration module with the new AMDTreat 5.0+ computer program available at http://www.amd.osmre.gov/.

  8. Rich Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niebuhr, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Managing and, ideally, explaining phonetic variation has ever since been a key issue in the speech sciences. In this context, the major contribution of Lindblom's H&H theory was to replace the futile search for invariance by an explainable variance based on the tug-of-war metaphor. Recent empirical...... evidence on articulatory prosodies and the involvement of reduction in conveying communication functions both suggest the next steps along the line of argument opened up by Lindblom. Specifically, we need to supplement Lindblom's explanatory framework and revise the speaker-listener conflict that lies...... at the heart of the tug-of-war metaphor. The author's suggestion would be to "offshore" the tug-of-war metaphor and replace it by the ocean metaphor of Bolinger (1964), with the ups and downs at the surface of the ocean representing the speaker's variation along the hypo-hyper scale and wavelength...

  9. Biogenic Hydrogen Conversion of De-Oiled Jatropha Waste via Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor Operation: Process Performance, Microbial Insights, and CO2 Reduction Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopalakrishnan Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the semicontinuous, direct (anaerobic sequencing batch reactor operation hydrogen fermentation of de-oiled jatropha waste (DJW. The effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT was studied and results show that the stable and peak hydrogen production rate of 1.48 L/L*d and hydrogen yield of 8.7 mL H2/g volatile solid added were attained when the reactor was operated at HRT 2 days (d with a DJW concentration of 200 g/L, temperature 55°C, and pH 6.5. Reduced HRT enhanced the production performance until 1.75 d. Further reduction has lowered the process efficiency in terms of biogas production and hydrogen gas content. The effluent from hydrogen fermentor was utilized for methane fermentation in batch reactors using pig slurry and cow dung as seed sources. The results revealed that pig slurry was a feasible seed source for methane generation. Peak methane production rate of 0.43 L CH4/L*d and methane yield of 20.5 mL CH4/g COD were observed at substrate concentration of 10 g COD/L, temperature 30°C, and pH 7.0. PCR-DGGE analysis revealed that combination of celluloytic and fermentative bacteria were present in the hydrogen producing ASBR.

  10. Biogenic Hydrogen Conversion of De-Oiled Jatropha Waste via Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor Operation: Process Performance, Microbial Insights, and CO2 Reduction Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chiu-Yue

    2014-01-01

    We report the semicontinuous, direct (anaerobic sequencing batch reactor operation) hydrogen fermentation of de-oiled jatropha waste (DJW). The effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) was studied and results show that the stable and peak hydrogen production rate of 1.48 L/L∗d and hydrogen yield of 8.7 mL H2/g volatile solid added were attained when the reactor was operated at HRT 2 days (d) with a DJW concentration of 200 g/L, temperature 55°C, and pH 6.5. Reduced HRT enhanced the production performance until 1.75 d. Further reduction has lowered the process efficiency in terms of biogas production and hydrogen gas content. The effluent from hydrogen fermentor was utilized for methane fermentation in batch reactors using pig slurry and cow dung as seed sources. The results revealed that pig slurry was a feasible seed source for methane generation. Peak methane production rate of 0.43 L CH4/L∗d and methane yield of 20.5 mL CH4/g COD were observed at substrate concentration of 10 g COD/L, temperature 30°C, and pH 7.0. PCR-DGGE analysis revealed that combination of celluloytic and fermentative bacteria were present in the hydrogen producing ASBR. PMID:24672398

  11. Institutional change and parental compensation in intergenerational attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöyliö, Heta; Erola, Jani; Kilpi-Jakonen, Elina

    2017-08-30

    Previous research has shown how institutional changes, such as educational expansion, have weakened parental influence on educational attainment. We extend this analysis to occupational attainment and put forth a parental compensation hypothesis: as the origin-education (OE) association weakens, parents act to compensate for this in order to maintain their influence on the child's occupational attainment. We should see this as a strengthened origin-destination association net of education (net OD). Further, we study whether these compensatory actions are triggered by changes in educational institutions and whether the institutional changes that reduce educational inequality are the same ones that prompt parental compensation. We have linked data from five waves of the European Social Survey (2002-10) with data on educational institutions matched to birth cohorts born 1941-80 in 25 countries. We find weakened OE and strengthened net OD associations, supporting our parental compensation hypothesis. Multilevel mixed effects regression analyses reveal that reforms lengthening compulsory education, and the increased access to and the attainment of higher education have had a positive influence on parental compensation. As a conclusion, a later school leaving age seems to secure increased parental influence on children's occupational attainment, while parents seem to have reacted to a lesser extent on the changes in higher education. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  12. Measuring Developmental Differences With an Age-of-Attainment Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren O. Eaton

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The sensitive measurement of variation in rate of attainment is an underutilized but useful indicator of individual differences in development. To assess such individuality, we used longitudinal parental diary checklists of infant attainments to estimate the ages at which ubiquitous developmental milestones like sitting and walking were reached. Parents using this diary checklist have been shown to be valid reporters of milestone attainments. Present analyses show that multiple definitions of milestone onset have high reliability as well. Babies differ considerably in their rates of development, and such individual differences in rates may be predicted from other variables with survival (event history analysis. Ages of attainment for sustained sitting, crawling, and walking were calculated for 519 infants and predicted using 11 common covariates. Our discovery that babies of younger mothers reach these milestones sooner than those of older mothers reveals the value of an age-of-attainment (AOA approach. A framework with a SAS program for collecting and analyzing AOA data is presented.

  13. Education, the Process of Attainment and the Structure of Inequality. Discussion Papers #393-77.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Aage B.

    This paper analyzes the properties of the process of social and economic attainments in two contrasting situations: (1) when the process of attainment generates the distribution of attainments, and (2) when the structure of attainments is seen as exogenously determined. It is argued that the neoclassical economic theory of earnings determination…

  14. Mapping of Biomass Fluxes: A Method for Optimizing Biogas-Refinery of Livestock Effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Nardin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the topic of the management of livestock effluents and, therefore, nutrients (particularly N in the framework of the biogas supply chain. The bio-refinery will be analyzed as a unique system, from the farm to the biomass produced and sent to anaerobic digestion, focusing on the fate/change of the flow of material and nutrients content through the system. Within four categories of farms considered in the article, integrated ones frequently have a breeding consistency from 90 to 320 heads, according to more extensive or intensive settings. These farms must manage from 3.62 to 12.81 m3 day−1 of slurry and from 11.40 to 40.34 kg day−1 of nitrogen (N as the sum of excreta from all herd categories. By selecting a hypo-protein diet, a reduction of 10% and 24% for total effluent amount and for N excreted, respectively, can be achieved. Nitrogen can be reduced up to 45% if the crude protein content is limited and a further 0.23% if animals of similar ages, weights and (or production or management are grouped and fed according to specific requirements. Integrated farms can implement farming activity with biogas production, possibly adding agricultural residues to the anaerobically-digested biomass. Average biogas yields for cattle effluents range from 200 to 400 m3 ton−1 VS (volatile solids. Values from 320 to 672 m3 day−1 of biogas can be produced, obtaining average values from 26 to 54.5 kWe (kilowatt-electric. This type of farm can well balance farm-production profit, environmental protection, animal husbandry well-being and energy self-sufficiency.

  15. Ecotoxicological risks associated with tannery effluent wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakir, Lubna; Ejaz, Sohail; Ashraf, Muhammad; Qureshi, Naureen Aziz; Anjum, Aftab Ahmad; Iltaf, Imran; Javeed, Aqeel

    2012-09-01

    The problem of water pollution acquires greater relevance in the context of a developing agrarian economy like Pakistan. Even though, the leather industry is a leading economic sector in Pakistan, there is an increasing environmental concern regarding tanneries because they produce large amounts of potentially toxic wastewater containing both trivalent and hexavalent chromium, which are equally hazardous for human population, aquaculture and agricultural activities in the area. Therefore, we defined the scope of the present study as to employ different bioassays to determine the eco-toxic potential of tannery effluent wastewater (TW) and its chromium based components, i.e., potassium dichromate (K(2)Cr(2)O(7)) and chromium sulfate Cr(2)(SO(4))(3). Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis of TW was carried out to determine the concentration of chromium in TW and then equal concentrations of hexavalent (K(2)Cr(2)O(7)) and trivalent chromium Cr(2)(SO(4))(3) were obtained for this study. Cytotoxicity assay, artemia bioassay and phytotoxicity assay was utilized to investigate the eco-toxicological potential of different concentrations of TW, K(2)Cr(2)O(7) and Cr(2)(SO(4))(3). All the dilutions of TW, K(2)Cr(2)O(7) and Cr(2)(SO(4))(3) presented concentration dependent cytotoxic effects in these assays. The data clearly represents that among all three tested materials, different dilutions of K(2)Cr(2)O(7) caused significantly more damage (Pindustry that can obliterate ecosystem surrounding the tanneries. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. High Speed/ Low Effluent Process for Ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Clark Dale

    2006-10-30

    n this project, BPI demonstrated a new ethanol fermentation technology, termed the High Speed/ Low Effluent (HS/LE) process on both lab and large pilot scale as it would apply to wet mill and/or dry mill corn ethanol production. The HS/LE process allows very rapid fermentations, with 18 to 22% sugar syrups converted to 9 to 11% ethanol ‘beers’ in 6 to 12 hours using either a ‘consecutive batch’ or ‘continuous cascade’ implementation. This represents a 5 to 8X increase in fermentation speeds over conventional 72 hour batch fermentations which are the norm in the fuel ethanol industry today. The ‘consecutive batch’ technology was demonstrated on a large pilot scale (4,800 L) in a dry mill corn ethanol plant near Cedar Rapids, IA (Xethanol Biofuels). The pilot demonstrated that 12 hour fermentations can be accomplished on an industrial scale in a non-sterile industrial environment. Other objectives met in this project included development of a Low Energy (LE) Distillation process which reduces the energy requirements for distillation from about 14,000 BTU/gal steam ($0.126/gal with natural gas @ $9.00 MCF) to as low as 0.40 KW/gal electrical requirements ($0.022/gal with electricity @ $0.055/KWH). BPI also worked on the development of processes that would allow application of the HS/LE fermentation process to dry mill ethanol plants. A High-Value Corn ethanol plant concept was developed to produce 1) corn germ/oil, 2) corn bran, 3) ethanol, 4) zein protein, and 5) nutritional protein, giving multiple higher value products from the incoming corn stream.

  17. Exceptional Reductions

    CERN Document Server

    Marrani, Alessio; Riccioni, Fabio

    2011-01-01

    Starting from basic identities of the group E8, we perform progressive reductions, namely decompositions with respect to the maximal and symmetric embeddings of E7xSU(2) and then of E6xU(1). This procedure provides a systematic approach to the basic identities involving invariant primitive tensor structures of various irreprs. of finite-dimensional exceptional Lie groups. We derive novel identities for E7 and E6, highlighting the E8 origin of some well known ones. In order to elucidate the connections of this formalism to four-dimensional Maxwell-Einstein supergravity theories based on symmetric scalar manifolds (and related to irreducible Euclidean Jordan algebras, the unique exception being the triality-symmetric N = 2 stu model), we then derive a fundamental identity involving the unique rank-4 symmetric invariant tensor of the 0-brane charge symplectic irrepr. of U-duality groups, with potential applications in the quantization of the charge orbits of supergravity theories, as well as in the study of mult...

  18. A New Freeze Concentration Process for Minimum Effluent Process in Bleached Pulp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Ru-Ying; Botsaris, Gregory D.

    2001-03-06

    This project researches freeze concentration as a primary volume reduction technology for bleaching plant effluents from paper-pulp mills before they are treated by expensive technologies, such as incineration, for the destruction of the adsorbable organic halogens. Previous laboratory studies show that freeze concentration has a greater than 99.5% purification efficiency for volatile, semivolatile, and nonprocess elements, or any other solute, thus producing pure ice that can be reused in the mill as water. The first section evaluates the anticipated regulatory and public pressures associated with implementing the technology; the remaining sections deal with the experimental results from a scaled-up freeze concentration process in a 100-liter pilot-plant at Tufts University. The results of laboratory scale experiments confirmed that the freeze concentration technology could be an efficient volume reduction technology for the above elements and for removing adsorbable organic hologens and or nonprocess elements from recycled water. They also provide the necessary data for designing and operating a larger pilot plant, and identify the technical problems encountered in the scale-up and the way they could be addressed in the larger scale plants. This project was originally planned to include the operation of a large pilot plant in the facilities of Swenson Process Equipment Inc., and a field test at a pulp mill, but the paper company withdrew its financial support for the field test. In place of a final economic evaluation after the field test, a preliminary evaluation based on the small pilot plant data predicts an economically reasonable freeze concentration process in the case of reduction of the bleaching-effluent flow to less than 5 m3/kkg pulp, a target anticipated in the near future.

  19. Bacteria removal in septic effluent: influence of biofilm and protozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabaud, Sylvaine; Andres, Yves; Lakel, Abdel; Le Cloirec, Pierre

    2006-09-01

    Numerous biological, physical and chemical parameters are involved in the retention and removal of bacteria in wastewater treatment systems. Biological parameters, such as biofilms and protozoa grazing activity, are often mentioned but few studies provide a better understanding of their influence. In this study, the effect of bacterivorous protozoa on pathogenic indicator bacteria removal was investigated in septic effluent and in the presence of a biofilm coating glass slides. Endogenous bacteria from septic effluent were quantified. First, bacteria removal was compared between septic effluents treated or not with an inhibitor of protozoa (cycloheximide). The mortality rates were 10 times lower in treated effluent (96 CFU mL(-1) d(-1)) than in untreated effluent (1100 CFU mL(-1) d(-1)). Secondly, the efficiency of bacteria removal was studied (i) with a biofilm surface and active protozoa, (ii) with a biofilm surface and inactivated protozoa, (iii) with a clean surface. Protozoa in the presence of a biofilm were responsible for 60% of bacteria removal. Biofilm without protozoa and a clean surface each removed similar quantities of bacteria. Grazing by protozoa could be an important biological mechanism for bacterial elimination in wastewater treatment systems.

  20. Bioplastic production using wood mill effluents as feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben, M; Mato, T; Lopez, A; Vila, M; Kennes, C; Veiga, M C

    2011-01-01

    Fibreboard production is one of the most important industrial activities in Galicia (Spain). Great amounts of wastewater are generated, with properties depending on the type of wood, treatment process, final product and water reusing, among others. These effluents are characterized by a high chemical oxygen demand, low pH and nutrients limitation. Although anaerobic digestion is one of the most suitable processes for the treatment, lately bioplastics production (mainly polyhydroxyalkanoates) from wastewaters with mixed cultures is being evaluated. Substrate requirements for these processes consist of high organic matter content and low nutrient concentration. Therefore, wood mill effluents could be a suitable feedstock. In this work, the possibility of producing bioplastics from to wood mill effluents is evaluated. First, wood mill effluent was converted to volatile fatty acids in an acidogenic reactor operated at two different hydraulic retention times of 1 and 1.5 d. The acidification percentage obtained was 37% and 42%, respectively. Then, aerobic batch assays were performed using fermented wood mill effluents obtained at different hydraulic retention times. Assays were developed using different cultures as inoculums. The maximum storage yield of 0.57 Cmmol/Cmmol was obtained when when the culture was enriched on a synthetic media.