WorldWideScience

Sample records for effluent brassica oil

  1. Storage oil breakdown during embryo development of Brassica napus (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Tansy Y P; Pike, Marilyn J; Rawsthorne, Stephen

    2005-05-01

    In this study it is shown that at least 10% of the major storage product of developing embryos of Brassica napus (L.), triacylglycerol, is lost during the desiccation phase of seed development. The metabolism of this lipid was studied by measurements of the fate of label from [1-(14)C]decanoate supplied to isolated embryos, and by measurements of the activities of enzymes of fatty acid catabolism. Measurements on desiccating embryos have been compared with those made on embryos during lipid accumulation and on germinating seedlings. Enzymes of beta-oxidation and the glyoxylate cycle, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase were present in embryos during oil accumulation, and increased in activity and abundance as the seeds matured and became desiccated. Although the activities were less than those measured during germination, they were at least comparable to the in vivo rate of fatty acid synthesis in the embryo during development. The pattern of labelling, following metabolism of decanoate by isolated embryos, indicated a much greater involvement of the glyoxylate cycle during desiccation than earlier in oil accumulation, and showed that much of the (14)C-label from decanoate was released as CO(2) at both stages. Sucrose was not a product of decanoate metabolism during embryo development, and therefore lipid degradation was not associated with net gluconeogenic activity. These observations are discussed in the context of seed development, oil yield, and the synthesis of novel fatty acids in plants.

  2. Frying stability of rapeseed Kizakinonatane (Brassica napus) oil in comparison with canola oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jin-Kui; Zhang, Han; Tsuchiya, Tomohiro; Akiyama, Yoshinobu; Chen, Jie-Yu

    2015-04-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the frying performance of Kizakinonatane (Brassica napus) oil during deep-fat frying of frozen French fries with/without replenishment. Commercial regular canola oil was used for comparison. The frying oils were used during intermittent frying of frozen French fries at 180, 200, and 220 ℃ for 7 h daily over four consecutive days. The Kizakinonatane oil exhibited lower levels of total polar compounds, carbonyl value, and viscosity as well as comparable color (optical density) values to that of the canola oil. The monounsaturated fatty acid/polyunsaturated fatty acid ratios were lower than that of canola oil, whereas the polyunsaturated fatty acid/saturated fatty acid ratios are higher than that of canola oil after heating. Results showed that fresh Kizakinonatane oil contains higher levels of acid value, viscosity, optical density values, tocopherols, and total phenolics contents than that of canola oil. Replenishment with fresh oil had significant effects on all chemical and physical parameters, except the acid value of the Kizakinonatane oil during frying processes. Based on the results, the Kizakinonatane oil is inherently suitable for preparing deep-fried foods at high temperatures. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  3. Quality Assessment of Effluent Discharges from Vegetable oil Plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wastewater quality parameters namely; biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), dissolved oxygen (DO), total hydrocarbon content (THC), oil and grease, total dissolved solids (TDS), pH, and temperature were determined weekly on effluent samples, for a period of 12 weeks, using standard methods. The effluent data were ...

  4. Molecular regulation and genetic improvement of seed oil content in Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei HUA,Jing LIU,Hanzhong WANG

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available As an important oil crop and a potential bioenergy crop, Brassica napus L. is becoming a model plant for basic research on seed lipid biosynthesis as well as seed oil content, which has always been the key breeding objective. In this review, we present current progress in understanding of the regulation of oil content in B. napus, including genetics, biosynthesis pathway, transcriptional regulation, maternal effects and QTL analysis. Furthermore, the history of breeding for high oil content in B. napus is summarized and the progress in breeding ultra-high oil content lines is described. Finally, prospects for breeding high oil content B. napus cultivars are outlined.

  5. Aerobic treatment of palm oil mill effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, K; Ahmad, Desa; Ezani Bin Abdul Aziz, Mohd

    2007-01-01

    In this study treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) was investigated using aerobic oxidation based on an activated sludge process. The effects of sludge volume index, scum index and mixed liquor suspended solids during the acclimatizing phase and biomass build-up phase were investigated in order to ascertain the reactor stability. The efficiency of the activated sludge process was evaluated by treating anaerobically digested and diluted raw POME obtained from Golden Hope Plantations, Malaysia. The treatment of POME was carried out at a fixed biomass concentration of 3900+/-200mg/L, whereas the corresponding sludge volume index was found to be around 105+/-5mL/g. The initial studies on the efficiency of the activated sludge reactor were carried out using diluted raw POME for varying the hydraulic retention time, viz: 18, 24, 30 and 36h and influent COD concentration, viz: 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000 and 5000mg/L, respectively. The results showed that at the end of 36h of hydraulic retention time for the above said influent COD, the COD removal efficiencies were found to be 83%, 72%, 64%, 54% and 42% whereas at 24h hydraulic retention time they were 57%, 45%, 38%, 30% and 27%, respectively. The effectiveness of aerobic oxidation was also compared between anaerobically digested and diluted raw POME having corresponding CODs of 3908 and 3925mg/L, for varying hydraulic retention time, viz: 18, 24, 30, 36, 42, 48, 54 and 60h. The dissolved oxygen concentration and pH in the activated sludge reactor were found to be 1.8-2.2mg/L and 7-8.5, respectively. The scum index was found to rise from 0.5% to 1.9% during the acclimatizing phase and biomass build-up phase.

  6. Modelling anaerobic codigestion of manure with olive oil mill effluent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, I.; Ellegaard, L.; Ahring, B.K.

    1997-01-01

    anaerobic codigestion of cattle manure together with olive oil mill effluent (OME) and the simulations were compared with experimental data. Simulation data indicated that lack of ammonia, needed as nitrogen source for synthesis of bacterial biomass and as an important pH buffer, could be responsible...

  7. Modification of Oil Palm Plantation Wastes as Oil Adsorbent for Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noraisah Jahi; Ling, E.S.; Rizafizah Othaman; Suria Ramli

    2015-01-01

    This research was conducted to modify oil palm solid wastes chemically to become oil adsorbent for palm oil mill effluent (POME). The purpose of modification on oil palm leaves (OPL) and oil palm frond (OPF) was to change the hydrophilic nature to a more hydrophobic character. This study also exploited the production of sorbent materials with high efficiency in the oil uptake for POME from OPL and OPF. Chemical modification was carried out using 200 mL of 1.0 M lauric acid solution for 6 hrs at room temperature. The modified OPL and OPF were preceded to adsorption test for POME and the capacity of oil adsorbed was compared between them. FTIR analysis supported the modification to occur with the increase in a peak of C-H group and the presence of C=O originated from lauric acid structure chain. The hydrophobicity of modified OPL and OPF samples was supported by XRD and contact angle analysis with modified OPL became more hydrophobic than the modified OPF, which had been 38.15 % and 24.67 % respectively. Both the analyses proved that the result from the oil adsorption test on POME showed the presence of a new peak attribute at C=C stretching of aromatics for the oil in POME proved that it was attached on the sorbent materials. Based on SEM analysis, the perforated and rough surface had been observed on modified OPL and OPF samples because oil layers on OPL and OPF surfaces were observed on the modified samples after the adsorption test. All the analyses in the study agreed that the results from oil adsorption test showed that the modified OPL had higher adsorption capacity than the modified OPF with the percentage of oil uptake at 83.74 % and 39.84 % respectively. The prepared adsorbent showed the potential to be used as a low-cost adsorbent in oil for POME. (author)

  8. Impact of palm oil mill effluent on the activities of some antioxidative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    Increase in the level of these enzymes and in MDA levels suggests that, palm oil mill effluent induces oxidative stress in the maize plant and may be deleterious to the growth of the maize plant. Keywords: palm oil mill effluent, maize, catalase, peroxidase, malondialdehyde. INTRODUCTION. The oil palm – Elaeis guineensis ...

  9. Heavy oil processing impacts refinery and effluent treatment operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornthwaite, P. [Nalco Champion, Northwich, Cheshire (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-01

    Heavy oils are becoming more common in Europe. The processing of heavier (opportunity or challenge) crudes, although financially attractive, introduce additional challenges to the refiner. These challenges are similar whether they come from imported crudes or in the future possibly from shale oils (tight oils). Without a strategy for understanding and mitigating the processing issues associated with these crudes, the profit potential may be eroded by decreased equipment reliability and run length. This paper focuses on the impacts at the desalter and how to manage them effectively while reducing the risks to downstream processes. Desalters have to deal with an increased viscosity, density (lower API gravity), higher solids loading, potential conductivity issues, and asphaltene stability concerns. All these factors can lead to operational problems impacting downstream of the desalter, both on the process and the water side. The other area of focus is the effluent from the desalter which can significantly impact waste water operations. This can take the form of increased oil under-carry, solids and other contaminants originating from the crudes. Nalco Champion has experience in working with these challenging crudes, not only, Azeri, Urals and African crudes, but also the Canadian oil sands, US Shale oil, heavy South American crudes and crudes containing metal naphthenates. Best practices will be shared and an outlook on the effects of Shale oil will be given. (orig.)

  10. Treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) Using Membrane Bioreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Aziz Mohd Azoddein; Hazlan Haris; Faten Ahada Mohd Azli

    2015-01-01

    Malaysia is the largest producer and exporter of palm oil. Palm oil mill effluent (POME) which is highly polluting effluent is becoming a major problem to environment as if it not being treated well before discharged based on standard limit imposed by The Malaysian Department of Environment (DOE) for effluent discharged. Samples from mixing ponds which act as activated sludge are collected and being analyze using water analyzer method to obtain parameters such as BOD, COD, suspended solid, turbidity and pH. Wastewater samples from facultative ponds are also being analyzed than mix with activated sludge treated in the bioreactor. Results from lab-scale bioreactor are used in membrane bioreactor pilot plant system to treat the wastewater. Results from bioreactor treatment in pilot plant scale show a decrement 61.2 % of BOD and 58.9 % of COD, suspended solid and turbidity are also reducing up with pH in range of 5-9. After the wastewater was treated in the ultrafiltration membrane system, high quality water with total of deterioration for all parameter are up to 99.9 % and pH up to 7.39. This results show that the membrane bioreactor (MBR) treatment system are highly effective in treating POME. (author)

  11. Screening for crude oil degrading bacteria in liquid organic waste (effluent samples)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akpe, A.R.

    2014-01-01

    The screening for crude oil degrading bacteria in some liquid organic wastes (cassava mill effluents, rubber effluents and oil palm mill effluents) was carried out. Hydrocarbon utilising bacteria were isolated on mineral salt agar using vapour phase technique. The samples yielded 20 bacterial isolates from 13 different genera. Cassava mill effluent and rubber effluent had the highest number (7), while oil palm effluent had the least number (6) of bacterial isolates. The isolates that had the highest occurrence (occurring in all samples) were Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. Of these 13 genera 9 were gram negative, while only 4 were gram positive. The total heterotrophic bacterial (THB) count and total hydrocarbon utilisers (THU) from all the effluent samples ranged from 3.0 * 10/sup 4/ to 6.0* 10/sup 7/ cfu/mL and 2.3 *10/sup 2/ to 4.2*10/sup 3/ cfu/mL, respectively. The counts of hydrocarbon utilisers were obviously lower than the heterotrophic counts, although the differences in counts were found to be statistically non-significant (P > 0.05). Rubber effluents and oil palm mill effluents had the highest number of hydrocarbon utilisers with three isolates each. The active hydrocarbon utilisers encountered in this study included Serratia marscescens, Bacillus cereus, P. aeruginosa, Enterobacter aerogenes and Bacillus subtilis. Presence of nutrients and crude oil degrading bacteria in these effluents suggests that these effluents can be used to enhance bioremediation through their use as biostimulation and bioaugmentation agents. (author)

  12. Comparative alteration in atherogenic indices and hypocholesteremic effect of palm oil and palm oil mill effluent in normal albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajiboye, John A; Erukainure, Ochuko L; Lawal, Babatunde A; Nwachukwu, Viola A; Tugbobo-Amisu, Adesewa O; Okafor, Ebelechukwu N

    2015-09-01

    The comparative hypocholesteremic effect of feeding palm oil and palm oil mill effluent (POME) was investigated in male albino rats. Diets were prepared and designed to contain 50% of energy as carbohydrate, 35% as fat, and 15% as protein. Groups of six rats were each fed one of these diets, while a group was fed pelletized mouse chow which served as the control. Feeding on palm oil and POME led to a significant increase (p palm oil fed rats compared to POME. These results indicate the protective potentials of palm oil against cardiovascular disease, as well as hyperlipidemia that characterize obesity and hypertension; as compared to its effluent.

  13. Adsorption of residual oil from palm oil mill effluent using rubber powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Ahmad

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A synthetic rubber powder was used to adsorb the residual oil in palm oil mill effluent (POME. POME is the wastewater produced by the palm oil industry. It is a colloidal suspension which is 95-96% water, 0.6-0.7% oil and 4-5% total solids including 2-4% suspended solids originating in the mixing of sterilizer condensate, separator sludge and hydrocyclone wastewater. POME contains 4,000 mg dm-3 of oil and grease, which is relatively high compared to the limit of only 50 mg dm-3 set by the Malaysian Department of Environment. A bench-scale study of the adsorption of residual oil in POME using synthetic rubber powder was conducted using a jar test apparatus. The adsorption process was studied by varying parameters affecting the process. The parameters were adsorbent dosage, mixing speed, mixing time and pH. The optimum values of the parameters were obtained. It was found that almost 88% removal of residual oil was obtained with an adsorbent dosage of 30 mg dm-3 and mixing speed of 150 rpm for 3 hr at a pH 7. Adsorption equilibrium was also studied, and it was found that the adsorption process on the synthetic rubber powder fit the Freundlich isotherm model.

  14. Electro persulphate oxidation for polishing of biologically treated palm oil mill effluent (POME).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Mohammed J K; Wei, Chong Jia; Aun, Ng Choon; Abu Amr, Salem S

    2017-05-15

    Malaysia alone produces more than 49 million m 3 palm oil mill effluent per year. Biological treated palm oil mill effluent via ponding system often fails to fulfill the regulatory discharge standards. This is due to remaining of non-biodegradable organics in the treated effluent. Thus, the aim of this study was to resolve such issue by using electro persulphate oxidation process, for the first time, as a post treatment of palm oil mill effluent. Central composite design in response surface methodology was used to analyze and optimize the interaction of operational variables (i.e., current density, contact time, initial pH and persulphate dosage) targeted on maximum treatment efficiency. The significance of quadratic model of each response was determined by analysis of variance, where all models indicated sufficient significance with p-value environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Significant reductions in oil quality and lipid content of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) under climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Namazkar, Shahla; Egsgaard, Helge; Frenck, Georg

    Despite of the potential importance to food and bioenergy purposes effects from climate change on plant oil quality have hardly been characterized. Worldwide Brassica napus, rapeseed or oilseed rape, is the second largest source of vegetable oil and the predominant oil crop in Europe. We found si...... significant changes in oil quality and quantity of cultivars of oilseed rape grown in five future climate scenarios with elevated [CO2], [O3], temperature and combinations hereof (~RCP8.5, IPCC 2013)....

  16. Bioconversion of empty fruit bunches (EFB) and palm oil mill effluent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study shows the performance of Trichoderma virens as an activator for conversion of empty fruit bunches (EFB) and palm oil mill effluent (POME) into compost. EFB and POME are two abundant wastes produced by oil palm industries which keep accumulating. Since there is no proper way to dispose these wastes, ...

  17. Pretreatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME Using Magnetic Chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Saifuddin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan is a natural organic polyelectrolyte of high molecular weight and charge density; obtained from deacetylation of chitin. This study explored the potential and effectiveness of applying chitosan-magnetite nanocomposite particles as a primary coagulant and flocculent, in comparison with chitosan for pre-treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME. A series of batch coagulation processes with chitosan-magnetite nanocomposite particles and chitosan under different conditions, i.e. dosage and pH were conducted, in order to determine their optimum conditions. The performance was assessed in terms of turbidity, total suspended solids (TSS and chemical oxygen demand (COD reductions. Chitosan-magnetite particles showed better parameter reductions with much lower dosage consumption, compared to chitosan, even at the original pH of POME, i.e. 4.5. At pH 6, the optimum chitosan-magnetite dosage of 250 mg/L was able to reduce turbidity, TSS and COD levels by 98.8%, 97.6% and 62.5% respectively. At this pH, the coagulation of POME by chitosan-magnetite was brought by the combination of charge neutralization and polymer bridging mechanism. On the other hand, chitosan seems to require much higher dosage, i.e. 370 mg/L to achieve the best turbidity, TSS and COD reductions, which were 97.7%, 91.7% and 42.70%, respectively. The synergistic effect of cationic character of both the chitosan amino group and the magnetite ion in the pre-treatment process for POME brings about enhanced performance for effective agglomeration, adsorption and coagulation.

  18. Palm oil mill effluent treatment and utilization to ensure the sustainability of palm oil industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanudin, U; Sugiharto, R; Haryanto, A; Setiadi, T; Fujie, K

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the current condition of palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment and utilization and to propose alternative scenarios to improve the sustainability of palm oil industries. The research was conducted through field survey at some palm oil mills in Indonesia, in which different waste management systems were used. Laboratory experiment was also carried out using a 5 m(3) pilot-scale wet anaerobic digester. Currently, POME is treated through anaerobic digestion without or with methane capture followed by utilization of treated POME as liquid fertilizer or further treatment (aerobic process) to fulfill the wastewater quality standard. A methane capturing system was estimated to successfully produce renewable energy of about 25.4-40.7 kWh/ton of fresh fruit bunches (FFBs) and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by about 109.41-175.35 kgCO2e/tonFFB (CO2e: carbon dioxide equivalent). Utilization of treated POME as liquid fertilizer increased FFB production by about 13%. A palm oil mill with 45 ton FFB/hour capacity has potential to generate about 0.95-1.52 MW of electricity. Coupling the POME-based biogas digester and anaerobic co-composting of empty fruit bunches (EFBs) is capable of adding another 0.93 MW. The utilization of POME and EFB not only increases the added value of POME and EFB by producing renewable energy, compost, and liquid fertilizer, but also lowers environmental burden.

  19. Investigations of oil refinery effluent on fish in the field and laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, J.; Munkittrick, K. [New Brunswick Univ., Saint John, NB (Canada). Canadian Rivers Inst., Dept. of Biology; MacLatchy, D.L. [Wilfrid Laurier Univ., Waterloo, ON (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Canada's largest oil refinery located near Saint John, New Brunswick, produces 270 000 barrels of oil/day and discharges effluent into the Little River at a rate of 24 274 m{sup 3}/day. The impact of refinery effluent on fish in the receiving environment has been under investigation since 2003. The efforts were first complicated by low dissolved oxygen attributed to ballast water released with the effluent. A more recent study was then initiated to assess any potential recovery after ballast water was removed from the effluent and to determine the effects of refinery effluent on fish. Potential recovery in the receiving environment was assessed through monthly fish surveys and by comparing recent data to previous studies. In order to clarify the effects that refinery effluents may have on fish, both laboratory and field studies were conducted with mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) and northern redbelly dace (Chrosomus eos). Both these brackish water species and freshwater species, respectively, were resident species. The field studies with caged mummichog revealed an increase in liver size relative to fish size and a decrease in condition of the fish downstream of the effluent discharge. Female testosterone levels and liver detoxification enzymes were also elevated. It was concluded that the reactions occurring in the field are more complicated than could be simulated in the laboratory.

  20. Factors affecting treatment of palm oil mill effluent using enzyme from Aspergillus niger ATCC 6275

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantaphaso, S.

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Powdered enzyme was produced by freeze-drying the enzyme solution extracted from 3 days culture of Aspergillus niger ATCC 6275 on palm cake with the addition of 0.2% glucose and 2% urea. The product yield was 38% by weight. The half-life of the enzyme was 9 months keeping at 4ºC. The enzyme was tested with decanter effluent with different characteristics from two palm oil mills. The decanter effluent possessing high suspended solid (SS and low oil (9.5 g/l content was selected for studying the factors affecting the separation of SS and oil as bulking solid. Results indicated that the effluent must contain oil not less than 15 g/l so that the bulking solid would occur from the reaction of the enzyme (with xylanase activity of 200 U/ ml after incubation at 40ºC for 6 h. Minimum concentrations of the enzyme from A. niger ATCC 6275 and commercial xylanase (Meicellase were 200 and 600 U/ml, respectively. The optimum pH was 4.5. Treatment of palm oil mill effluent by the enzyme from A. niger ATCC 6275 for 3 h under the optimum conditions resulted in 78% separation of suspended solids with oil & grease removal of 95% and COD reduction of 35%.

  1. Chemical Variability and Biological Activities of Brassica rapa var. rapifera Parts Essential Oils Depending on Geographic Variation and Extraction Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saka, Boualem; Djouahri, Abderrahmane; Djerrad, Zineb; Terfi, Souhila; Aberrane, Sihem; Sabaou, Nasserdine; Baaliouamer, Aoumeur; Boudarene, Lynda

    2017-06-01

    In the present work, the Brassica rapa var. rapifera parts essential oils and their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities were investigated for the first time depending on geographic origin and extraction technique. Gas-chromatography (GC) and GC/mass spectrometry (MS) analyses showed several constituents, including alcohols, aldehydes, esters, ketones, norisoprenoids, terpenic, nitrogen and sulphur compounds, totalizing 38 and 41 compounds in leaves and root essential oils, respectively. Nitrogen compounds were the main volatiles in leaves essential oils and sulphur compounds were the main volatiles in root essential oils. Qualitative and quantitative differences were found among B. rapa var. rapifera parts essential oils collected from different locations and extracted by hydrodistillation and microwave-assisted hydrodistillation techniques. Furthermore, our findings showed a high variability for both antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The highlighted variability reflects the high impact of plant part, geographic variation and extraction technique on chemical composition and biological activities, which led to conclude that we should select essential oils to be investigated carefully depending on these factors, in order to isolate the bioactive components or to have the best quality of essential oil in terms of biological activities and preventive effects in food. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  2. Impact analysis of palm oil mill effluent on the aerobic bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2007-01-18

    Jan 18, 2007 ... The effects of palm oil mill effluent (POME) on the total aerobic bacterial populations and ammonium oxidizers in the soil ... bacterial populations in the POME soil samples (9.6 x 108 ± 0.3 at 20oC, 1.64 x 109 ± 0.2 at 30oC and 1.07 x 109 ± 0.4 at ... the palm oil industry in Malaysia in 1998 is equivalent to.

  3. Integrated process for the removal of emulsified oils from effluents in the steel industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benito, J.M.; Rios, G.; Gutierrez, B.; Pazos, C.; Coca, J.

    1999-11-01

    Emulsified oils contained in aqueous effluents from cold-rolling mills of the steel industry can be effectively removed via an integrated process consisting of a coagulation/flocculation stage followed by ultrafiltration of the resulting aqueous phase. The effects of CaCl{sub 2}, NaOH, and lime on the stability of different industrial effluents were studied in the coagulation experiments. The flocculants tested were inorganic prehydrolyzed aluminum salts and quaternary polyamines. Ultrafiltration of the aqueous phase from the coagulation/flocculation stage was carried out in a stirred cell using Amicon PM30 and XM300 organic membranes. Permeate fluxes were measured for industrial effluents to which the indicated coagulants and flocculants had been added. Oil concentrations in the permeate were 75% lower than the limits established by all European Union countries. Complete regeneration of the membrane was accomplished with an aqueous solution of a commercial detergent.

  4. Biogas production through Co-digestion of palm oil mill effluent with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biogas production through Co-digestion of palm oil mill effluent with cow manure. *1Umar Hayatu Sidik, 2Firdausi Bin Razali, 3Sharifah Rafidah Wan Alwi, 4Fadimtu Maigari. 1Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi P.M.B. 35, Mubi Adamawa State. 2Department of Bioprocess Engineering, Faculty ...

  5. Effect of Palm Oil Mill Effluent and NPK 15:15:15 Fertilizer on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field study was carried out in the rainforest ecological zone of Nigeria to determine the effect of palm oil mill effluent and NPK 15:15:15 fertilizer on the growth and yield of soyabean genotype (Glycine max L). The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates in six treatments ...

  6. Impact of palm oil mill effluent on the activities of some antioxidative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of palm oil mill effluent (POME) on some antioxidative parameters in maize plant. Fresh POME was used to pollute the soil at concentrations of 10%, 20% and 30% (w/w). Analysis of the maize plants after two, three and four weeks of planting showed alterations in the activities ...

  7. Effects of palm oil mill effluent (POME) anaerobic sludge from 500 m ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, co-composting of pressed-shredded empty fruit bunches (EFB) and palm oil mill effluent (POME) anaerobic sludge from 500 m3 closed anaerobic methane digested tank was carried out. High nitrogen and nutrients content were observed in the POME anaerobic sludge. The sludge was subjected to the ...

  8. Dose-Time Effect of Crude Oil and Hydro-test Effluent on Freshwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work was undertaken to investigate the dose-time effect of crude oil and hydro-test effluent on freshwater and brackish water habitats. The species used for the acute toxicity were freshwater fish, Tilapia guineenis (fry) and a brackish water shrimp, Palaemonetes africanus. Test results indicated that the brackish water ...

  9. Effects of sub-lethal concentrations of a vegetable oil mill effluent on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of sub-lethal concentrations of a vegetable oil mill effluent on growth of Clarius gariepinus. JA Adakole, E Alabi. Abstract. No Abstract. Nigerian Journal of Fisheries Vol. 4 (2) 2007: pp. 182-189. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  10. Anaerobic digestion of olive oil mill effluents together with swine manure in UASB reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Deng, H.

    2002-01-01

    Combined anaerobic digestion of olive oil mill effluent (OME) with swine manure, was investigated. In batch experiments was shown that for anaerobic degradation of OME alone nitrogen addition was needed. A COD:N ratio in the range of 65:1 to 126:1 was necessary for the optimal degradation process...

  11. The Process of Coagulation, Flocculation and Advanced Oxidation in Effluent Treatment of Second Refinery Oil Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Yari

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: One of the industries dependent on oil compounds that play an important role in economy, preserve resources and oil reserves, as well as environmental protection is the secondary refinery Oil industries. The efficiency of Coagulation, flocculation and advanced oxidation process in the Effluent treatment industry was studied.

     

    Methods: This study is a descriptive- quasi-experimental that effluent pollution quality measured with COD. Physicochemical processes of coagulation, flocculation, by using conventional coagulants and oxidation with ozone for the removal to access environmental discharge effluent standards were studied. Coagulants such as aluminum sulfate, ferric chloride, sodium silicate, poly aluminum chloride were evaluated. Jartest was used to determine the efficiency of coagulation and flocculation. Samples were collected from Salafchegan industrial district in Qom. Examination methods were extracted from Standard methods for water and wastewater examination.

     

    Results: Initial experiments showed that BOD, indicating biological treatment wastewater, in comparison with COD, indicating chemical oxygen demand of wastewater is very low. Thus, the application of biological processes of effluent treatment without using chemical processes, not performance and not economic. The experiment showed that the amount of COD in raw effluent was varied from 38000 to 78000mg/l.

    Using advanced oxidation with O3 in pH=11.5 can reach 77.5% and in pH=9 in 57.2 and in pH=3.25 in 21.3 COD removal efficiency respectively.

     

    Conclusion: According to the results, advanced oxidation process prior to biological effluent treatment of the second refinery oil industries is effective in eliminating pollutants and toxic substances.

     

  12. Significant reductions in oil quality and lipid content of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) under climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Namazkar, Shahla; Egsgaard, Helge; Frenck, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Despite of the potential importance to food and bioenergy purposes, effects from climate change on plant oil quality have hardly been characterized.On a global basis Brassica napus L., rapeseed or oilseed rape, is the second largest source of vegetable oil after soybean and the predominant oil crop...... in Europe. We found significant changes in oil quality and quantity of four cultivars of oilseed rape grown in five future climate scenarios with elevated [CO2], [O-3] temperature and combinations hereof (similar to RCP8.5,(1)). Populations of the cultivars were grown under ambient and climate change...... conditions in a climate-phytotron. The treatments were ambient (360 ppm CO2, 19/12 degrees C (day/night), 20/20 ppb O-3 (day/night)), all factors elevated (650 ppm CO2, 24/17 degrees C, 60/20 ppb O-3), as well as two- and single-factor treatments with the elevated factors.The overall trend was that oil...

  13. Investigation of the potential of Cyperus alternifolius in the phytoremediation of palm oil mill effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa'at, Siti Kamariah Md; Zaman, Nastaein Qamaruz; Yusoff, Suffian Mohd; Ismail, Hirun Azaman

    2017-10-01

    Phytoremediation is an emerging technology nowadays due to demand in environmental sustainability which requires cost-effective solutions in terms of capital and operational cost. The treatment gain attention due to their potential in wastewater treatment especially in organics, nutrients, and heavy metal removal of domestics, agricultural, and industrial wastewater treatment. Plant functions in phytoremediation make the plant selection as an essential element. The plant should have the ability to tolerate with the toxic effluent and able to uptake the contaminant. Cyperus alternifolius (umbrella grass) was chosen as aquatic plant due to the ability to tolerance in municipal and industrial effluent sources with strong and dense root systems. Thus, the objectives of this study are to determine the potential and effectiveness of Cyperus alternifolius in the palm oil mill effluent treatment especially in the removal of organics (COD), nutrients (NH3-N and TP) and suspended solid. The batch experiment was run using Cyperus alternifolius to determine their potential of aerobic pond effluent for 21 days of treatment. Cyperus alternifolius treatment shows the great removal of COD and TSS with 96% and 91%, respectively at the end of 21 days of treatment. Nutrients removal achieved the maximum removal of 92% NH3-N and 99% TP shows after 11 days of treatment and percentage slowly decrease until the end of 21 days of treatment. Cyperus alternifolius had shown potential in the palm oil mill effluent treatment and can be combined with ponding treatment to enhance to water quality prior discharge.

  14. Modification of oil and glucosinolate content in canola seeds with altered expression of Brassica napus LEAFY COTYLEDON1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elahi, Nosheen; Duncan, Robert W; Stasolla, Claudio

    2016-03-01

    Over the last few decades, research focusing on canola (Brassica napus L.) seed oil content and composition has expanded. Oil production and accumulation are influenced by genes participating in embryo and seed development. The Arabidopsis LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1) is a well characterized regulator of embryo development that also enhances the expression of genes involved in fatty acid (FA) synthesis. B. napus lines over-expressing or down-regulating BnLEC1 were successfully generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The constitutive expression of BnLEC1 in B. napus var. Polo, increased seed oil content by 7-16%, while the down-regulation of BnLEC1 in B. napus var. Topas reduced oil content by 9-12%. Experimental manipulation of BnLEC1 caused transcriptional changes in enzymes participating in sucrose metabolism, glycolysis, and FA biosynthesis, suggesting an enhanced carbon flux towards FA biosynthesis in tissues over-expressing BnLEC1. The increase in oil content induced by BnLEC1 was not accompanied by alterations in FA composition, oil nutritional value or glucosinolate (GLS) levels. Suppression of BnLEC1 reduced seed oil accumulation and elevated the level of GLS possibly through the transcriptional regulation of BnST5a (Sulphotransferase5a), the last GLS biosynthetic enzyme. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that experimental alterations of BnLEC1 expression can be used to influence oil production and quality in B. napus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Identification of the Relationship between Oil Body Morphology and Oil Content by Microstructure Comparison Combining with QTL Analysis inBrassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jianwei; Chao, Hongbo; Wang, Hao; Li, Yonghong; Li, Dianrong; Xiang, Jun; Gan, Jianping; Lu, Guangyuan; Zhang, Xuekun; Long, Yan; Li, Maoteng

    2016-01-01

    Oil bodies (OBs) are relatively simple but very important organelles comprising a matrix of triacylglycerol (TAG) surrounded by a phospholipid monolayer embedded and covered with unique proteins. The OB structure in Brassica napus with different oil content and the relationship between the oil content and the OB structure needs to be better understood. In this paper, the characteristics of OBs in the embryo of a series of B. napus materials with different oil content ranging from 34% to over 60% were studied. The results indicated that the OB size was significantly positively correlated with the oil content but was significantly negatively correlated with the glucosinolates and the protein content. Many genes associated with TAG synthesis, OB-membrane proteins, and the cell progress regulatory pathway were identified in the confidence interval of co-located QTLs for oil content, fatty acid (FA) compositions, and protein content. Our results suggested that the morphology of OBs might be directly controlled by the genes associated with OB-membrane proteins and indirectly controlled by the genes associated with TAG synthesis and cell progress regulatory pathway.

  16. Wrinkled1 accelerates flowering and regulates lipid homeostasis between oil accumulation and membrane lipid anabolism in Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing eLi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Wrinkled1 (WRI1 belongs to the APETALA2 transcription factor family; it is unique to plants and is a central regulator of oil synthesis in Arabidopsis. The effects of WRI1 on comprehensive lipid metabolism and plant development were unknown, especially in crop plants. This study found that BnWRI1 in Brassica napus accelerated flowering and enhanced oil accumulation in both seeds and leaves without leading to a visible growth inhibition. BnWRI1 decreased storage carbohydrates and increased soluble sugars to facilitate the carbon flux to lipid anabolism. BnWRI1 is localized to the nucleus and directly binds to the AW-box at proximal upstream regions of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis and lipid assembly. The overexpression (OE of BnWRI1 resulted in the up-regulation of genes involved in glycolysis, fatty acid synthesis, lipid assembly, and flowering. Lipid profiling revealed increased galactolipid monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG, digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG, and phosphatidylcholine (PC in the leaves of OE plants, whereas it exhibited a reduced level of the galactolipids DGDG and MGDG and increased levels of PC, phosphatidylethanolamide (PE, and oil (triacylglycerol, TAG in the siliques of OE plants during the early seed development stage. These results suggest that BnWRI1 is important for homeostasis among TAG, membrane lipids and sugars, and thus facilitates flowering and oil accumulation in B. napus.

  17. In Vivo Assessment of Antihyperglycemic and Antioxidant Activity from Oil of Seeds of Brassica Nigra in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study was made to investigate the antihyperglycemic and antioxidant potential of oil of seeds of Brassica nigra (BNO in streptozotocin -nicotinamide (STZ induced type 2 diabetic rats. Methods: BNO was orally administered to diabetic rats to study its effect in both acute and chronic antihyperglycemic study. The body weight, oral glucose tolerance test and biochemical parameters viz. glucose level, insulin level, liver glycogen content, glycosylated hemoglobin and antioxidant parameters were estimated for all treated groups and compared against diabetic control group. Results: Administration of BNO at a dose 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg body weight p.o. to STZ diabetic rats showed reduction in blood glucose level from 335 mg/dl to 280 mg/dl at 4th h and from 330 mg/dl to 265 mg/dl respectively which was found significant (p<0.01 as compared with diabetic control. BNO (500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg and glibenclamide (0.6 mg/kg in respective groups of diabetic animals administered for 28 days reduced the blood glucose level in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats. There was significant increase in body weight, liver glycogen content, plasma insulin level and decrease in glycosylated hemoglobin in test groups as compared to control group. In vivo antioxidant studies on STZ-nicotinamide induced diabetic rat’s revealed decreased malondialdehyde (MDA and increased reduced glutathione (GSH. Conclusion: Thus the results showed that the oil of seeds of Brassica nigra has significant antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activity.

  18. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF PALM OIL MILL EFFLUENT AND OIL PALM FROND WASTE MIXTURE AS AN ALTERNATIVE BIOMASS FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. HASSAN, L. S. KEE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil mill effluent (POME sludge generated from palm oil mill industry and oil palm frond (OPF from oil palm plantation are considered biomass wastes that can be fully utilized as a renewable energy sources. In this study, an attempt has been made to convert these residues into solid biomass fuel. The study was conducted by developing experimental testing on the POME and OPF mixture. The performance of each sample with different weight percentage was investigated using standard tests. The biomass mixture was converted into compressed form of briquette through a simple process. The properties of the briquettes were observed and compared at different weight percentage following standard testing methods included ultimate and proximate analyses, burning characteristics, dimensional stability and crack analysis. Experimental results showed that POME sludge and OPF mixture is feasible as an alternative biomass fuel, with briquette of 90:10 POME sludge to OPF ratio has a good combination of properties as an overall.

  19. Bioremediation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) Polluted Soil Using Microorganisms Found in Organic Wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Okwute, Ojonoma L.; Ijah, Udeme J.J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the use of chicken droppings and cow dung in the amendment of soil polluted with palm oil mill effluent (POME) in bioremediation. Soil polluted with 20 % raw (POME) in the laboratory was amended with different concentrations of chicken droppings, cow dung and a combination of the wastes (10 %, 20 % and 30 %). Isolation, characterization and identification of microorganisms were carried out and compared over time with respect to the different concentrat...

  20. Conventional methods and emerging wastewater polishing technologies for palm oil mill effluent treatment: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Wai Loan; Kassim, Mohd Azraai; Muda, Khalida; Loh, Soh Kheang; Affam, Augustine Chioma

    2015-02-01

    The Malaysian palm oil industry is a major revenue earner and the country is ranked as one of the largest producers in the world. However, growth of the industry is synonymous with a massive production of agro-industrial wastewater. As an environmental protection and public health concern, the highly polluting palm oil mill effluent (POME) has become a major attention-grabber. Hence, the industry is targeting for POME pollution abatement in order to promote a greener image of palm oil and to achieve sustainability. At present, most palm oil mills have adopted the ponding system for treatment. Due to the successful POME pollution abatement experiences, Malaysia is currently planning to revise the effluent quality standards towards a more stringent discharge limits. Hence, the current trend of POME research focuses on developing tertiary treatment or polishing systems for better effluent management. Biotechnologically-advanced POME tertiary (polishing) technologies as well as other physicochemical methods are gaining much attention as these processes are the key players to push the industry towards the goal of environmental sustainability. There are still ongoing treatment technologies being researched and the outcomes maybe available in a while. However, the research completed so far are compiled herein and reported for the first time to acquire a better perspective and insight on the subject with a view of meeting the new standards. To this end, the most feasible technology could be the combination of advanced biological processes (bioreactor systems) with extended aeration, followed by solids separation prior to discharge. Chemical dosing is favoured only if effluent of higher quality is anticipated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Contaminant Characterization of Effluent from Pennsylvania Brine Treatment, Inc., Josephine Facility: Implications for Disposal of Oil and Gas Flowback Fluids from Brine Treatment Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The PBT-Josephine Facility accepts only wastewater from the oil and gas industry. This report describes the concentrations of selected contaminants in the effluent water and compares the contaminant effluent concentrations to state and federal standards.

  2. Metabolic Changes during Storage of Brassica napus Seeds under Moist Conditions and the Consequences for the Sensory Quality of the Resulting Virgin Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonte, Anja; Schweiger, Rabea; Pons, Caroline; Wagner, Claudia; Brühl, Ludger; Matthäus, Bertrand; Müller, Caroline

    2017-12-20

    Virgin rapeseed (Brassica napus) oil is a valuable niche product, if delivered with a high quality. In this study, the effects of moist storage of B. napus seeds for 1 to 4 days on the seed metabolome and the chemo-sensory properties of the produced oils were determined. The concentrations of several primary metabolites, including monosaccharides and amino acids, rapidly increased in the seeds, probably indicating the breakdown of storage compounds to support seed germination. Seed concentrations of indole glucosinolates increased with a slight time offset suggesting that amino acids may be used to modify secondary metabolism. The volatile profiles of the oils were pronouncedly influenced by moist seed storage, with the sensory quality of the oils decreasing. This study provides a direct time-resolved link between seed metabolism under moist conditions and the quality of the resulting oils, thereby emphasizing the crucial role of dry seed storage in ensuring high oil quality.

  3. Zero Discharge Performance of an Industrial Pilot-Scale Plant Treating Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Chi, Li-Na; Li, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated “zero discharge” pilot-scale industrial plant comprising “pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation” was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and sold and anaerobically digested through 2 AnaEG reactors followed by a dissolved air flotation (DAF); average COD reduced to about 3587 mg/L, and biogas production was 27.65 times POME injection which was used to generate electricity. The aerobic effluent was settled for 3 h or/and treated in MBR which could remove BOD3 (30°C) to less than 20 mg/L as required by Department of Environment of Malaysia. After filtration by UF and RO membrane, all organic compounds and most of the salts were removed; RO permeate could be reused as the boiler feed water. RO concentrate combined with anaerobic surplus sludge could be used as biofertilizer. PMID:25685798

  4. Zero Discharge Performance of an Industrial Pilot-Scale Plant Treating Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated “zero discharge” pilot-scale industrial plant comprising “pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation” was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and sold and anaerobically digested through 2 AnaEG reactors followed by a dissolved air flotation (DAF; average COD reduced to about 3587 mg/L, and biogas production was 27.65 times POME injection which was used to generate electricity. The aerobic effluent was settled for 3 h or/and treated in MBR which could remove BOD3 (30°C to less than 20 mg/L as required by Department of Environment of Malaysia. After filtration by UF and RO membrane, all organic compounds and most of the salts were removed; RO permeate could be reused as the boiler feed water. RO concentrate combined with anaerobic surplus sludge could be used as biofertilizer.

  5. Zero discharge performance of an industrial pilot-scale plant treating palm oil mill effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Chi, Li-Na; Li, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated "zero discharge" pilot-scale industrial plant comprising "pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation" was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and sold and anaerobically digested through 2 AnaEG reactors followed by a dissolved air flotation (DAF); average COD reduced to about 3587 mg/L, and biogas production was 27.65 times POME injection which was used to generate electricity. The aerobic effluent was settled for 3 h or/and treated in MBR which could remove BOD3 (30°C) to less than 20 mg/L as required by Department of Environment of Malaysia. After filtration by UF and RO membrane, all organic compounds and most of the salts were removed; RO permeate could be reused as the boiler feed water. RO concentrate combined with anaerobic surplus sludge could be used as biofertilizer.

  6. Utilization of Cocoa Peel as Biosorbent for Oil and Color Removal in Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandia, S.; Hutagalung, A. T.; Siahaan, A. D.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to discover the effectiveness of cocoa peel as biosorbents for oil and color removal in POME. This study used biosorbent from cocoa peel with variation of particle size which passed through 70 mesh, 100 mesh, and 120 mesh and was activated with the ratio of biosorbent and 0,6 M HNO3 of 1:2, 1:4, and 1:6 (m/v). The adsorption process was carried out using biosorbent with the highest iodine number in varying biosorbent mass and contact time. The highest iodine number was 596,684 mg/g and obtained at particle size 120 mesh and the ratio of biosorbent : HNO3 as 1 : 4. The resulting biosorbents were analyzed for their characterization, such as vapor content, ash content, and volatile matter, including FT-IR and SEM-EDX. The POME were analyzed for their oil and color content, using gravimetric method and UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The best removal is were 80,88% for oil and 83.45% for color at 1.5 g biosorbent mass and 3 h contact time. The resullt for oil removal was close to the standard of Indonesian Environment Minister for oil in effluent. Also the adsorption of oil and color behaves as a pseudo-second-order kinetic models.

  7. Screening and application of thermotolerant microorganisms and their flocculant for treatment of palm oil mill effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saithong Kaewchai

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Among fifteen thermotolerant polymer-producing isolates, three strains SM 29, WD 90, and SM 38 produced polymer posessing very high flocculating activities (24.81, 14.63 and 10.84, respectively and flocculation rates (94.29, 90.69 and 87.84, respectively. These three strains were identified to be Bacillus subtilis WD90, Bacillus subtilis SM 29, and Enterobacter agglomerans SM 38. Treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME by these three selected strains under aerobic condition at 45ºC for 48 h revealed that neither oil separation nor flocculation of solids was observed. However, all three strains were able to decolorize the POME from dark brown to very light yellow. Flocculant produced from the three selected isolates could not separate the suspended solids and oil from the POME.

  8. Microbial Succession in Co-Composting of Chipped-Ground Oil Palm Frond and Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Najib Ahmad; Siti Ramlah Ahmad Ali; Mohd Ali Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Succession and phylogenetic profile of microbial communities during co-composting of chipped-ground oil palm frond (CG-OPF) and palm oil mill effluent (POME) were studied by apply-ing polymerase chain reaction-denaturant gel gradient electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis. The results indicated that the dominant microbial community detected was γ-Pro bacteria such as Pseudomonas sp. at almost throughout the composting process. Whilst Bacillales such as Bacillus psychrodurans were found toward the end of the composting process. Bacteroidetes such as Pedobacter solani were detected at the final stage of composting. This study contributed to a better understanding of microbial shifting and functioning throughout CG-OPF composting. Therefore, PCR-DGGE is recommended to be used as a tool to identify potential microbes that can contribute to a better performance of composting process. (author)

  9. Thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of oil palm empty fruit bunches with palm oil mill effluent for efficient biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O-Thong, Sompong; Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2012-01-01

    The effect of pretreatment methods for improved biodegradability and biogas production of oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) and its co-digestion with palm oil mill effluent (POME) was investigated. The maximum methane potential of POME was 502mL CH4/gVS-added corresponding to 33.2m3 CH4/ton POME......-digestion of treated EFB by NaOH presoaking and hydrothermal treatment with POME, which resulted in 98% improvement in methane yield comparing with co-digesting untreated EFB. The maximum methane production of co-digestion treated EFB with POME was 82.7m3 CH4/ton of mixed treated EFB and POME (6.8:1), corresponding...

  10. Performance and emissions of an engine fuelled by biogas of palm oil mill effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjuna, J.; Sitorus, T. B.; Ambarita, H.; Abda, S.

    2018-02-01

    This research investigates the performance and emissions of an engine by biogas and gasoline. The experiments use biogas of palm oil mill effluent (POME) with turbocharger at engine loading conditions (100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 Watt). Specific fuel consumption and thermal efficiency are used to compare engine performance, and emission analysis is based on parameters such as carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC), carbon dioxide (CO2) and oxide (O2). The experimental data show that the maximum thermal efficiency when engine use biogas and gasoline is 20.44% and 22.22% respectively. However, there was CO emission reduction significantly when the engine using POME biogas.

  11. Effects of volatile fatty acids in biohydrogen effluent on biohythane production from palm oil mill effluent under thermophilic condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chonticha Mamimin

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Preventing the high concentration of butyric acid, and propionic acid in the hydrogenic effluent could enhance methane production in two-stage anaerobic digestion for biohythane production.

  12. Reclamation from palm oil mill effluent using an integrated zero discharge membrane-based process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad A.L.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research emphasizes eloquently on membrane technology for treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME as it is the Malaysia’s largest and most important agro based industry. Findings established significant quality improvement with an efficient recovery of water from palm oil mill via innovative membrane application. Conventional bio-methods, whilst adhering to the Department of Environment’s (DOE discharge regulations, produces brownish liquid which pales in comparison to the crystal clear water obtained through membrane treatment. The pre-treatment process consists of coagulation-flocculation using green environmental coagulant bases such as Moringa oleifera (MO seeds. The ultrafiltration polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF and thin film composite (TFC reverse osmosis were vital for the membrane processes. The system gave 99% suspended solids reduction in suspended solid and 78% of water present was successfully recovered. This technology guarantees water recovery with drinking water quality; meeting the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA standard or could be recycled into the plant with sludge utilization for palm oil estates, thus enabling the concept of zero discharge to be executed in the industries. In addition, green and healthy antioxidants such as oil and beta-carotene can be recovered from POME further demonstrate. Silica gel showed better performance in separation of carotenes from oil at temperature 40°C using adsorption chromatography with 1154.55 ppm. The attractiveness of this technology, enabling the utilization of reuse of agricultural waste into potentially value added products.

  13. Characterization of Oily and Non-Oily Natural Sediments in Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem A. Alrawi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil is one of the many vegetable oils widely consumed around the world. The production of palm oil requires voluminous amount of water with the concurrent generation of large amount of wastewater known as palm oil mill effluent (POME. POME is a mixture of water, oil, and natural sediments (solid particles and fibres.There is a dearth of information on the physical properties of these POME sediments. This study intends to distinguish the physical properties of oily and non-oily POME sediments which include sediment size, particle size distribution (PSD, sediment shape, sediment surface morphology, and sediment density. These characterizations are important for future researches because these properties have significant effects on the settling process that occurs either under natural gravity or by coagulations. It was found that the oily and non-oily POME sediments have different sizes with nonspherical irregular shapes, and because of that, the aspect ratio (AR and circularity shape factors were adopted to describe the shapes of these sediments. The results also indicate that the density of oily POME sediment decreases as the sediment size increases.

  14. Baseline study of methane emission from anaerobic ponds of palm oil mill effluent treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacob, Shahrakbah; Ali Hassan, Mohd; Shirai, Yoshihito; Wakisaka, Minato; Subash, Sunderaj

    2006-07-31

    The world currently obtains its energy from the fossil fuels such as oil, natural gas and coal. However, the international crisis in the Middle East, rapid depletion of fossil fuel reserves as well as climate change have driven the world towards renewable energy sources which are abundant, untapped and environmentally friendly. Malaysia has abundant biomass resources generated from the agricultural industry particularly the large commodity, palm oil. This paper will focus on palm oil mill effluent (POME) as the source of renewable energy from the generation of methane and establish the current methane emission from the anaerobic treatment facility. The emission was measured from two anaerobic ponds in Felda Serting Palm Oil Mill for 52 weeks. The results showed that the methane content was between 35.0% and 70.0% and biogas flow rate ranged between 0.5 and 2.4 L/min/m(2). Total methane emission per anaerobic pond was 1043.1 kg/day. The total methane emission calculated from the two equations derived from relationships between methane emission and total carbon removal and POME discharged were comparable with field measurement. This study also revealed that anaerobic pond system is more efficient than open digesting tank system for POME treatment. Two main factors affecting the methane emission were mill activities and oil palm seasonal cropping.

  15. Physico-chemical studies of effluents and emission of ghee/edible oil industries in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, I.; Ali, S.; Jan, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    Samples of the effluents from various Ghee/Edible Oil Industries were collected on fortnightly basis from July 1993 to June 1994 and the emissions from January to April 1994. Parameters such as temperature, pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), total alkalinity total acidity, total hardness, chemical oxygen demand (COD). chlorides, sulphates, phosphates, silica, calcium magnesium, sodium, and iron were determined in the effluents, Trace metals like copper, manganese, nickel, and zinc were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy, whereas SO/sub 2/, CO CO/sub 2/, hydrocarbons, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and argon were examined in the flue gases by Gas Chromatography and other standard techniques such as Orsat Gas Analyzer and Dragger Detection Tubes. Remedial measures were suggested for the pollutants exceeding the National Environmental Quality Standards, (NEQS). Parameters like chlorine, ammonia, sulphides, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead and tin were also analyzed in the effluents and were found to be nil or below the detection limit, while particulate matters, HCl, chlorine, HF, H/sub 2/S, mercaptans and NH/sub 3/ were found to be nil in the flue gases. (author)

  16. Palm oil mill effluent treatment using coconut shell – based activated carbon: Adsorption equilibrium and isotherm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaman Sherlynna Parveen Deshon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The current ponding system applied for palm oil mill effluent (POME treatment often struggle to comply with the POME discharge limit, thus it has become a major environmental concern. Batch adsorption study was conducted for reducing the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, Total Suspended Solids (TSS and Color of pre-treated POME using coconut shell-based activated carbon (CS-AC. The CS-AC showed BET surface area of 744.118 m2/g, with pore volume of 04359cm3/g. The adsorption uptake was studied at various contact time and POME initial concentration. The CS-AC exhibited good ability with average percentage removal of 70% for COD, TSS and Color. The adsorption uptake increased over time and attained equilibrium in 30 hours. The equilibrium data were analyzed using the Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin–Radushkevich isotherm models. Based on the coefficient regression and sum of squared errors, the Langmuir isotherm described the adsorption of COD satisfactorily, while best described the TSS and Color adsorption; giving the highest adsorption capacity of 10.215 mg/g, 1.435 mg/g, and 63.291 PtCo/g respectively. The CS-AC was shown to be a promising adsorbent for treating POME and was able to comply with the Environmental Quality Act (EQA discharge limit. The outcome of treated effluent using CS-AC was shown to be cleaner than the industrial biologically treated effluent, achieved within shorter treatment time.

  17. Edible oil mill effluent; a low-cost source for economizing biodiesel production: Electrospun nanofibrous coalescing filtration approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad A. Shirazi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels have increased in popularity because of rising oil prices and the need for energy security. However, finding new raw sources for biodiesel production is still challenging. The oil which comes from wastewater effluent generated in edible oil mills (EOM can be considered a low-cost, widely available, emerging and interesting source for biodiesel production. This study tries to improve the coalescing filtration by using electrospun nanofibrous filters for oil recovery from the EOM effluent. In order to improve the separation efficiency of the filters, thermal treatments (90oC to 150oC were used. Results indicate that oil recovery using coalescing filtration is a promising method for providing a new source for making biodiesel production more economical.

  18. Methane Emission from Digestion of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME in a Thermophilic Anaerobic Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Irvan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available As the issue of global warming draws increasing concern, many studies to reduce CO2 and CH4 gases (greenhouse gases, GHG have been implemented in several countries, including in Indonesia. Considering that Indonesia has a huge numbers of palm oil mills, no doubt if their waste water treatment as one of the major sources in GHG.  This paper presents the results from a research project between Metawater Co., Ltd.-Japan and University of Sumatera Utara-Indonesia. The objective of the research is to study the methane emission of thermophilic fermentation in the treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME on a laboratory scale. Anaerobic digestion was performed in two-litre water jacketed biodigester type continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR and operated at a thermophilic temperature (55 oC. As raw material, a real liquid waste (POME from palm oil mill was used. Fresh POME was obtained from seeding pond of PTPN II waste water treatment facility which has concentration of 39.7 g of VS/L and COD value of 59,000 mg/L. To gain precise results, complete recording and reliable equipment of reactor was employed. As the experimental results, for hydraulic retention time (HRT 8 days, VS decomposition rate of 63.5% and gas generation of 6.05-9.82 L/day were obtained, while for HRT 6 and 4 days, VS decomposition rate of 61.2, 53.3% and gas generation of  6.93-8.94  and  13.95-16.14 L/day were obtained respectively. Keywords—methane (CH4, palm oil mill effluent (POME, anaerobic digestion, thermophilic, green house gases (GHG

  19. Variations in fatty acid composition, glucosinolate profile and some phytochemical contents in selected oil seed rape (Brassica napus L. cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Mohamed, Amal

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. is now the third most important source of edible oil in the world after soybean and palm oil. In this study seeds of five different rapeseed cultivars namely; pactol, silvo, topas, serw 4 and serw 6 were evaluated for their fatty acid composition, glucosinolate profile, amino acids, total tocopherols and phenolic content. Among all cultivars significant variability in fatty acids were observed. The oleic acid (C18:1 ranged from 56.31% to 58.67%, linoleic acid (C18:2 from 10.52% to 13.74%, α-linolenic acid (C18:3 from 8.83% to 10.32% and erucic acid (22:1 from 0.15% to 0.91%. The glucosinolate profile of rapeseed was also separated and identified using high-performance liquid chromatography. Small variations in the glucosinolate profile were observed among all tested cultivars; however, progoitrin and gluconapin were the major glucosinolate found. Additionally, silvo cultivar showed the highest total glucosinolate c ontents (5.97 μmol/g dw. Generally, the contents of aspartic, glutamic, arginine and leucine were high, while the contents of tyrosine and isoleucine were low among all cultivars. For total tocopherols, the results indicated that both serw 6 and pactol cultivars had the highest total tocopherol contents (138.3 and 102.8 mg/100 g oil, respectively. Total phenolic contents varied from 28.0 to 35.4 mg/g dw. The highest total phenolic content was found in topas while the lowest value was detected in serw 6. These parameters; fatty acid contents, glucosinolate profile and amino acids together with total tocopherols and phenolic contents, could be taken into consideration by oilseed rape breeders as selection criteria for developing genotypes with modified seed quality traits in Brassica napus L.La colza (Brassica napus L. es hoy en día el tercer cultivo más importante de aceites comestibles en el mundo tras el aceite de soja y de palma. En este estudio semillas de cinco cultivos diferentes de colza

  20. Palm Oil Mill Effluent Treatment Through Combined Process Adsorption and Membrane Filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Said

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The growth in palm oil production also leads to an Increase in the production of palm oil mill effluent (POME. Nowadays, POME was treated using an open lagoon but this method is ineffectiveness in complying with the standards for water disposal. Therefore, efficient and cohesive treatment system is highly desired to ensure the final discharge of the treated water meets the effluent discharge standards. Initially, the POME was treated through adsorption, followed by UF membranes roomates were intended to reduce COD, TSS and turbidity up to 88%, 99%, and 98%, while the final treatment of RO membranes can reduce BOD, COD and color up to 92%, 98% and 99%. To determine the optimum condition of the RO membrane, response surface methodology (RSM was used. The results showed there was correlation between all key variables. POME concentration, trans-membrane pressure, pH and time would give significant effects in reducing the parameters in POME treatment with the optimum condition of 15.77% for POME concentration, 3.73 for pH, 0.5 bar trans-membrane pressure and 5 hours for filtration time. To predict COD removal, the results were analyzed by applying the artificial neural network (ANN to derive a mathematical model.

  1. Lignin recovery and it effects quality of anaerobic treated palm oil mill effluent (AT-POME)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haqi Ibrahim, Abdul; Fahmi Ridwan, Muhammad; Zulzikrami Azner Abidin, Che; Ong, Soon Ann; Shian Wong, Yee; Wazira Azhari, Ayu; Norruhaidawati Ozir, Siti

    2018-03-01

    Lignin is one of the main structural polymers present in plant tissue. It can also be found as an isolated product of the pulp and paper industry. Palm oil mill effluent (POME) has been known as high strength industrial wastewater that is difficult to treat due to its large variety of inorganic and organic contents. The main purpose of this study is to recover soluble lignin from anaerobically treated palm oil mill effluent (AT-POME) and indirectly improves the quality of AT-POME. AT-POME was adjusted to different pH using different type of acids. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was utilized to obtain the optimum operating parameters as well as to analyse the interaction between them. Model shows that 74.67 % of lignin can be recovered from AT-POME after 5 minutes reaction time using sulfuric acid (H2S04) at pH 5. Hence from the experiment, it was proved that simple pH adjustment could precipitate the soluble lignin from AT-POME.

  2. Enhancement of Biodegradation of Palm Oil Mill Effluents by Local Isolated Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimaninanadegani, Mohammadreza; Manshad, Soheila

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the microorganisms associated with palm oil mill effluent (POME) in Johor Bahru state, Malaysia. Biodegradation of palm oil mill effluents (POME) was conducted to measure the discarded POME based on physicochemical quality. The bacteria that were isolated are Micrococcus species, Bacillus species, Pseudomonas species, and Staphylococcus aureus, while the fungi that were isolated are Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida species, Fusarium species, Mucor species, and Penicillium species. The autoclaved and unautoclaved raw POME samples were incubated for 7 days and the activities of the microorganisms were observed each 12 hours. The supernatants of the digested POME were investigated for the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), color (ADMI), and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) at the end of each digestion cycle. The results showed that the unautoclaved raw POME sample degraded better than the inoculated POME sample and this suggests that the microorganisms that are indigenous in the POME are more effective than the introduced microorganisms. This result, however, indicates the prospect of isolating indigenous microorganisms in the POME for effective biodegradation of POME. Moreover, the effective treatment of POME yields useful products such as reduction of BOD, COD, and color.

  3. Enhancement of Biodegradation of Palm Oil Mill Effluents by Local Isolated Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimaninanadegani, Mohammadreza

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the microorganisms associated with palm oil mill effluent (POME) in Johor Bahru state, Malaysia. Biodegradation of palm oil mill effluents (POME) was conducted to measure the discarded POME based on physicochemical quality. The bacteria that were isolated are Micrococcus species, Bacillus species, Pseudomonas species, and Staphylococcus aureus, while the fungi that were isolated are Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida species, Fusarium species, Mucor species, and Penicillium species. The autoclaved and unautoclaved raw POME samples were incubated for 7 days and the activities of the microorganisms were observed each 12 hours. The supernatants of the digested POME were investigated for the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), color (ADMI), and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) at the end of each digestion cycle. The results showed that the unautoclaved raw POME sample degraded better than the inoculated POME sample and this suggests that the microorganisms that are indigenous in the POME are more effective than the introduced microorganisms. This result, however, indicates the prospect of isolating indigenous microorganisms in the POME for effective biodegradation of POME. Moreover, the effective treatment of POME yields useful products such as reduction of BOD, COD, and color. PMID:27433516

  4. Recovery and Utilization of Palm Oil Mill Effluent Source as Value-Added Food Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Soek Sin; Hock Ong, Augustine Soon; Mah, Siau Hui

    2017-01-01

    The environmental impacts of palm oil mill effluent (POME) have been a concern due to the water pollution and greenhouse gases emissions. Thus, this study was conducted to recover the value-added products from POME source before being discharged. The samples, before (X) and after (Y) the pre-recovery system in the clarification tank were sampled and analysed and proximate analysis indicated that both samples are energy rich source of food due to high contents of fats and carbohydrates. GCMS analysis showed that the oil extracts contain predominantly palmitic, oleic, linoleic and stearic acids. Regiospecific analysis of oil extracts by quantitative 13 C-NMR spectroscopy demonstrated that both oil extracts contain similar degree of saturation of fatty acids at sn-2 and sn-1,3 positions. The samples are rich in various phytonutrients, pro-vitamin A, vitamin E, squalene and phytosterols, thus contributing to exceptionally high total flavonoid contents and moderate antioxidant activities. Overall, samples X and Y are good alternative food sources, besides reducing the environmental impact of POME.

  5. Performance Evaluation on Otto Engine Generator Using Gasoline and Biogas from Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvan; Trisakti, B.; Husaini, T.; Sitio, A.; Sitorus, TB

    2017-06-01

    Biogas is a flammable gas produced from the fermentation of organic materials by anaerobic bacteria originating from household waste manure and organic waste including palm oil mill effluent (POME). POME is mainly discharged from the sterilization unit of palm oil processing into crude palm oil. This study utilized biogas produced from liquid waste palm oil for use as fuel in the Otto engine generator 4 - stroke, type STARKE GFH1900LX with a peak power of 1.3 kW, 1.0 kW average power, bore 55 mm, stroke 40 mm, Vd 95 × 10-6 m3, Vc 10 × 10-6 m3, compression ratio of 10.5 : 1, and the number of cylinders = 1. The objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of Otto engine generator fueled with biogas that generated from POME, then comparing its performance fueled by gasoline. The performance included power, torque, specific fuel consumption, thermal efficiency, and the air-fuel ratio. Experiment was conducted by using a variation of the lamp load of 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 W. The results revealed that the use of biogas as fuel decreased in power, torque, brake thermal efficiency, and air fuel ratio (AFR), while there is an increasing of value specific fuel consumption (SFC).

  6. Performance and kinetic evaluation of an integrated anaerobic-aerobic bioreactor in the treatment of palm oil mill effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yi Jing; Chong, Mei Fong; Law, Chung Lim

    2017-04-01

    This work presents the evaluation of biokinetic coefficients for a novel integrated anaerobic-aerobic bioreactor (IAAB) at different organic loading rates (OLRs) (10.5-22.5 g COD/L per day) treating palm oil mill effluent. The overall efficiencies of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) were more than 99% for OLR up to 19.5 g COD/L day with biogas production containing 48-64% of methane. The effluent quality remained stable (BOD palm oil mill effluent; RAS: returned activated sludge; SBR: sequencing batch reactor; SVI: sludge volume index; TA: total alkalinity; TN: total nitrogen; TS: total solids; TSS: total suspended solids; UASB: upflow anaerobic sludge blanket; UASFF: upflow anaerobic sludge blanket fixed film; VFA: volatile fatty acid; VSS: volatile suspended solids.

  7. Trend and current practices of palm oil mill effluent polishing: Application of advanced oxidation processes and their future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Mustapha Mohammed; Abdul Raman, Abdul Aziz

    2017-08-01

    Palm oil processing is a multi-stage operation which generates large amount of effluent. On average, palm oil mill effluent (POME) may contain up to 51, 000 mg/L COD, 25,000 mg/L BOD, 40,000 TS and 6000 mg/L oil and grease. Due to its potential to cause environmental pollution, palm oil mills are required to treat the effluent prior to discharge. Biological treatments using open ponding system are widely used for POME treatment. Although these processes are capable of reducing the pollutant concentrations, they require long hydraulic retention time and large space, with the effluent frequently failing to satisfy the discharge regulation. Due to more stringent environmental regulations, research interest has recently shifted to the development of polishing technologies for the biologically-treated POME. Various technologies such as advanced oxidation processes, membrane technology, adsorption and coagulation have been investigated. Among these, advanced oxidation processes have shown potentials as polishing technologies for POME. This paper offers an overview on the POME polishing technologies, with particularly emphasis on advanced oxidation processes and their prospects for large scale applications. Although there are some challenges in large scale applications of these technologies, this review offers some perspectives that could help in overcoming these challenges. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Acclimatization Study for Biohydrogen Production from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) in Continuous-flow System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, N.; Lutpi, N. A.; Wong, Y. S.; Tengku Izhar, T. N.

    2018-03-01

    This research aims to study the acclimatization phase for biohydrogen production from palm oil mill effluent (POME) by adapting the microorganism to the new environment in continuous-flow system of thermophilic bioreactor. The thermophilic fermentation was continuously loaded with 0.4 L/day of raw POME for 35 days to acclimatize the microorganism until a steady state of biohydrogen production was obtained. The significance effect of acclimatization phase on parameter such as pH, microbial growth, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and alkalinity were also studied besides the production of biogas. This study had found that the thermophilic bioreactor reach its steady state with 1960 mL/d of biogas produced, which consist of 894 ppm of hydrogen composition.

  9. Palm oil mill effluent treatment: Influence of zeolite, municipal wastewater and combined aerobic SBR system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farraji, Hossein; Zaman, Nastaein Qamaruz; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Sa'at, Siti Kamariah Md

    2017-10-01

    Anaerobically treated palm oil mill effluent (POME) used as an infant in the aerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR). Three different treatments such as 15 g/L zeolite, municipal wastewater (MWW) and combining zeolite and municipal wastewater in comparing with the only aeration used in a lab scale batch study. Spectrophotometric analysis carried out for chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia nitrogen, total suspended solids, colour and total phosphorus as target characteristics of raw and treated POME. Zeolite and MWW augmented SBR contain POME + zeolite + MWW had significantly more performance compared with POME (blank) in all analyzed target factors. The results of this study indicate that MWW has significantly higher influence in decontamination of POME in comparing with zeolite. Combining zeolite and MWW in aerobic SBR could meet Malaysian environmental discharge for POME in 22 hours.

  10. Genetic diversity evaluation of rapeseed genotypes ( Brassica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oilseed is the most important source of vegetable oil and the basis of breeding strategies is genetic diversity assessment. Genetic diversity of 19 rapeseed genotypes as well as their ancient ancestors Brassica rapa L. and Brassica oleracea L. were assessed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers and ...

  11. Baseline study of methane emission from open digesting tanks of palm oil mill effluent treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacob, Shahrakbah; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Shirai, Yoshihito; Wakisaka, Minato; Subash, Sunderaj

    2005-06-01

    Anthropogenic release of greenhouse gases, especially CO2 and CH4 has been recognized as one of the main causes of global warming. Several measures under the Kyoto Protocol 1997 have been drawn up to reduce the greenhouse gases emission. One of the measures is Clean Development Mechanisms (CDM) that was created to enable developed countries to cooperate with developing countries in emission reduction activities. In Malaysia, palm oil industry particularly from palm oil mill effluent (POME) anaerobic treatment has been identified as an important source of CH4. However, there is no study to quantify the actual CH4 emission from the commercial scale wastewater treatment facility. Hence, this paper shall address the CH4 emission from the open digesting tanks in Felda Serting Hilir Palm Oil Mill. CH4 emission pattern was recorded for 52 weeks from 3600 m3 open digesting tanks. The findings indicated that the CH4 content was between 13.5% and 49.0% which was lower than the value of 65% reported earlier. The biogas flow rate ranged between 0.8l min(-1)m(-2) and 9.8l min(-1)m(-2). Total CH4 emission per open digesting tank was 518.9 kgday(-1). Relationships between CH4 emission and total carbon removal and POME discharged were also discussed. Fluctuation of biogas production was observed throughout the studies as a result of seasonal oil palm cropping, mill activities, variation of POME quality and quantity discharged from the mill. Thus only through long-term field measurement CH4 emission can be accurately estimated.

  12. The BnGRF2 gene (GRF2-like gene from Brassica napus) enhances seed oil production through regulating cell number and plant photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Hua, Wei; Yang, Hong-Li; Zhan, Gao-Miao; Li, Rong-Jun; Deng, Lin-Bin; Wang, Xin-Fa; Liu, Gui-Hua; Wang, Han-Zhong

    2012-06-01

    Seed yield and oil content are two important agricultural characteristics in oil crop breeding, and a lot of functional gene research is being concentrated on increasing these factors. In this study, by differential gene expression analyses between rapeseed lines (zy036 and 51070) which exhibit different levels of seed oil production, BnGRF2 (Brassica napus growth-regulating factor 2-like gene) was identified in the high oil-producing line zy036. To elucidate the possible roles of BnGRF2 in seed oil production, the cDNA sequences of the rapeseed GRF2 gene were isolated. The Blastn result showed that rapeseed contained BnGRF2a/2b which were located in the A genome (A1 and A3) and C genome (C1 and C6), respectively, and the dominantly expressed gene BnGRF2a was chosen for transgenic research. Analysis of 35S-BnGRF2a transgenic Arabidopsis showed that overexpressed BnGRF2a resulted in an increase in seed oil production of >50%. Moreover, BnGRF2a also induced a >20% enlargement in extended leaves and >40% improvement in photosynthetic efficiency because of an increase in the chlorophyll content. Furthermore, transcriptome analyses indicated that some genes associated with cell proliferation, photosynthesis, and oil synthesis were up-regulated, which revealed that cell number and plant photosynthesis contributed to the increased seed weight and oil content. Because of less efficient self-fertilization induced by the longer pistil in the 35S-BnGRF2a transgenic line, Napin-BnGRF2a transgenic lines were further used to identify the function of BnGRF2, and the results showed that seed oil production also could increase >40% compared with the wild-type control. The results suggest that improvement to economically important characteristics in oil crops may be achieved by manipulation of the GRF2 expression level.

  13. Performance comparison between mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic reactors for treatment of palm oil mill effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Joo-Young; Son, Sung-Min; Pyon, Jun-Hyeon; Park, Joo-Yang

    2014-08-01

    The anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent (POME) was carried out under mesophilic (37°C) and thermophilic (55°C) conditions without long-time POME storage in order to compare the performance of each condition in the field of Sumatra Island, Indonesia. The anaerobic treatment system was composed of anaerobic hybrid reactor and anaerobic baffled filter. Raw POME was pretreated by screw decanter to reduce suspended solids and residual oil. The total COD removal rate of 90-95% was achieved in both conditions at the OLR of 15kg[COD]/m(3)/d. The COD removal in thermophilic conditions was slightly better, however the biogas production was much higher than that in the mesophilic one at high OLR. The organic contents in pretreated POME were highly biodegradable in mesophilic under the lower OLRs. The biogas production was 13.5-20.0l/d at the 15kg[COD]/m(3)/d OLR, and the average content of carbon dioxide was 5-35% in both conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Phytoremediation Potential of Vetiver System Technology for Improving the Quality of Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negisa Darajeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil mill effluent (POME, a pollutant produced by the palm oil industry, was treated by the Vetiver system technology (VST. This technology was applied for the first time to treat POME in order to decrease biochemical oxygen demand (BOD and chemical oxygen demand (COD. In this study, two different concentrations of POME (low and high were treated with Vetiver plants for 2 weeks. The results showed that Vetiver was able to reduce the BOD up to 90% in low concentration POME and 60% in high concentration POME, while control sets (without plant only was able to reduce 15% of BOD. The COD reduction was 94% in low concentration POME and 39% in high concentration POME, while control just shows reduction of 12%. Morphologically, maximum root and shoot lengths were 70 cm, the number of tillers and leaves was 344 and 86, and biomass production was 4.1 kg m−2. These results showed that VST was effective in reducing BOD and COD in POME. The treatment in low concentration was superior to the high concentration. Furthermore, biomass of plant can be considered as a promising raw material for biofuel production while high amount of biomass was generated in low concentration of POME.

  15. Cultivation of Chlorella sp. as Biofuel Sources in Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Hadiyanto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy is essential and vital aspect for development in Indonesia especially less oil reserve for coming 15 years. Biodiesel has received much attention as renewable energy in recent years. One of potential biodiesel is produced from microalgae. Due to high content of nutrients in Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME, this waste is a potential for nutrient growth for microalgae. Chlorella is one of high potential for biodiesel since it has high lipid content (20-30%. The objective of the research is to determine growth rate and biomass productivity in Chlorella Sp cultured in POME. Chlorella Sp was cultured in 20%, 50%, 70% POME using urea concentration 0.1gr/L (low nitrogen source and 1gr/l (high nitrogen source at flask disk, pH 6.8-7.2; aerated using aquarium pump and fluorescence lamp 3000-6000 lux as light. Medium was measured using spectrophotometer Optima Sp-300 OD at 680 wave length in 15 days to calculate specific growth rate. At end of cultivation, Chlorella sp was filtered and measured as dry weight. Result indicated that Chlorella sp at 50% POME 1gr/L urea showed higher specific growth rate (0.066/day. Factor affecting growth rate of microalgae is CNP ratio, POME concentration, and urea concentration.

  16. Influence of Nutrient Impregnated into Zeolite Addition on Anaerobic Digestion of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellyanawaty, M.; Chusna, F. M. A.; Sudibyo, H.; Nurjanah, N.; Budhijanto, W.

    2018-03-01

    Palm oil mill effluent (POME) was wastewater generated from palm oil milling activities which was brownish liquid, acidic with pH 3-4, and contained soluble materials which were hazardous to the environment. It was characterized by high organic loading (COD 40,000–60,000 mg/L). According to its characteristics, POME was identified as a potential source to generate renewable energy through anaerobic digestion. In other words, a combination of wastewater treatment and renewable energy production would be an additional advantage to the palm oil industries. Methanogenesis was the rate limiting step in anaerobic digestion. In the conventional anaerobic digester, it required large reactors and long retention time. The addition of microbial immobilization media was to improve anaerobic reactor performance in term of higher organic removal and methane production. Additionally, better performance could lead to reduction of reactor volume and shorter retention time in high rate anaerobic digester. The loading of essential microorganism nutrient into the media might increase the affinity of bacteria to attach and grow on the media surface. Activating or inhibition effects of natural and modified zeolite addition in anaerobic digestion of POME was studied in batch reactors using erlenmeyer of 1,000 mL at COD concentrations of about 8,000 mg/L. Zeolite was impregnated with nickel and magnesium at concentrations of 0.0561 mg Ni/g zeolite and 0.0108 mg Mg/g zeolite. The effect of the different zeolite addition was determined by the measurement of soluble COD (sCOD), Volatile Fatty Acids (VFAs) and biogas production. Greater effect of modified zeolite was observed in zeolite impregnated with nickel with a 54% increase of biogas production. Meanwhile, the modified zeolite impregnated with magnesium had no positive impact to the methanogenic bacteria activities.

  17. Variations in fatty acid composition, glucosinolate profile and some phyto chemical contents in selected oil seed rape (Brassica napus L.) cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Din Saad El-Beltag, H.; Mohamed, A. A.

    2010-07-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is now the third most important source of edible oil in the world after soybean and palm oil. In this study seeds of five different rapeseed cultivars namely; pactol, silvo, topas, serw 4 and serw 6 were evaluated for their fatty acid composition, glucosinolate profile, amino acids, total tocopherols and phenolic content. Among all cultivars significant variability in fatty acids were observed. The oleic acid (C18:1) ranged from 56.31% to 58.67%, linoleic acid (C18:2) from 10.52% to 13.74%, {alpha}-linolenic acid (C18:3) from 8.83% to 10.32% and erucic acid (22:1) from 0.15% to 0.91%. The glucosinolate profile of rapeseed was also separated and identified using high-performance liquid chromatography. Small variations in the glucosinolate profile were observed among all tested cultivars; however, progoitrin and gluconapin were the major glucosinolate found. Additionally, silvo cultivar showed the highest total glucosinolate contents (5.97 {mu}mol/g dw). Generally, the contents of aspartic, glutamic, arginine and leucine were high, while the contents of tyrosine and isoleucine were low among all cultivars. For total tocopherols, the results indicated that both serw 6 and pactol cultivars had the highest total tocopherol contents (138.3 and 102.8 mg/100 g oil, respectively). Total phenolic contents varied from 28.0 to 35.4 mg/g dw. The highest total phenolic content was found in topas while the lowest value was detected in serw 6. These parameters; fatty acid contents, glucosinolate profile and amino acids together with total tocopherols and phenolic contents, could be taken into consideration by oilseed rape breeders as selection criteria for developing genotypes with modified seed quality traits in Brassica napus L. (Author)

  18. Increasing the stearate content in seed oil of Brassica juncea by heterologous expression of MlFatB affects lipid content and germination frequency of transgenic seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Surajit; Sinha, Saheli; Das, Natasha; Maiti, Mrinal K

    2015-11-01

    Fatty acids from dietary lipids can impart both beneficial and harmful health effects. The compositional balance between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids plays a decisive role in maintaining the physiological harmony, proper growth and development in the human system. In case of Brassica juncea seed oil, the level of saturated fatty acid, especially desirable stearate is very much lower than the recommended value, along with a high content of nutritionally undesirable erucic acid. Therefore, in order to shift the carbon flux towards the production of stearate at the expense of erucate, the MlFatB gene encoding a FatB thioesterase from Madhuca longifolia (latifolia) was expressed heterologously in seed tissues of B. juncea. The functional MlFatB competed with the highly active endogenous BjFatA thioesterase, and the transgenic B. juncea lines showed noteworthy changes in their seed fatty acid profiles. The proportion of stearate increased up to 16-fold, constituting almost 31% of the total fatty acids along with the production of arachidic acid in significant amount (up to ∼11%). Moreover, the content of erucate was reduced up to 71% in the seed oils of transgenic lines. Although a nutritionally desirable fatty acid profile was achieved, the transgenic seeds exhibit reduction or abolition of seed germination in addition to a decrease in seed lipid content. The findings of the present study revealing the stearoyl-ACP thioesterase-mediated enhancement of the stearate content that is associated with reduced germination frequency of transgenic B. juncea seeds, may explain why no natural or induced stearate-rich Brassica has been found or developed. Furthermore, this study also suggests that the newly characterized MlFatB is a potential candidate gene for refined metabolic engineering strategy in B. juncea or other plant species for increasing stearate content in seed oil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Use of Plackett-Burman design for rapid screening of nitrogen and carbon sources for the production of lipase in solid state fermentation by Yarrowia lipolytica from mustard oil cake (Brassica napus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imandi, Sarat Babu; Karanam, Sita Kumari; Garapati, Hanumantha Rao

    2013-01-01

    Mustard oil cake (Brassica napus), the residue obtained after extraction of mustard oil from mustard oil seeds, was investigated for the production of lipase under solid state fermentation (SSF) using the marine yeast Yarrowia lipolytica NCIM 3589. Process parameters such as incubation time, biomass concentration, initial moisture content, carbon source concentration and nitrogen source concentration of the medium were optimized. Screening of ten nitrogen and five carbon sources has been accomplished with the help of Plackett-Burman design. The highest lipase activity of 57.89 units per gram of dry fermented substrate (U/gds) was observed with the substrate of mustard oil cake in four days of fermentation.

  20. BnDGAT1s Function Similarly in Oil Deposition and Are Expressed with Uniform Patterns in Tissues of Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuizhu Zhao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As an allotetraploid oilcrop, Brassica napus contains four duplicated Acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1 genes, which catalyze one of the rate-limiting steps in triacylglycerol (TAG biosynthesis in plants. While all four BnDGAT1s have been expressed functionally in yeast, their expression patterns in different germplasms and tissues and also consequent contribution to seed oil accumulation in planta remain to be elucidated. In this study, the coding regions of the four BnDGAT1s were expressed in an Arabidopsis dgat1 mutant. All four BnDGAT1s showed similar effects on oil content and fatty acid composition, a result which is different from that observed in previous studies of their expression in yeast. Expression patterns of BnDGAT1s were analyzed in developing seeds of 34 B. napus inbred lines and in different tissues of 14 lines. Different expression patterns were observed for the four BnDGAT1s, which suggests that they express independently or randomly in different germplasm sources. Higher expression of BnDGAT1s was correlated with higher seed oil content lines. Tissue-specific analyses showed that the BnDGAT1s were expressed in a uniform pattern in different tissues. Our results suggest that it is important to maintain expression of the four BnDGAT1s for maximum return on oil content.

  1. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of two Brassica napus near-isogenic lines reveals a network of genes that influences seed oil accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxue Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed (Brassica napus is an important oil seed crop, providing more than 13% of the world’s supply of edible oils. An in-depth knowledge of the gene network involved in biosynthesis and accumulation of seed oil is critical for the improvement of B. napus. Using available genomic and transcriptomic resources, we identified 1,750 acyl lipid metabolism (ALM genes that are distributed over 19 chromosomes in the B. napus genome. B. rapa and B. oleracea, two diploid progenitors of B. napus, contributed almost equally to the ALM genes. Genome collinearity analysis demonstrated that the majority of the ALM genes have arisen due to genome duplication or segmental duplication events. In addition, we profiled the expression patterns of the ALM genes in four different developmental stages. Furthermore, we developed two B. napus near isogenic lines (NILs. The high oil NIL, YC13-559, accumulates more than 10% of seed oil compared to the other, YC13-554. Comparative gene expression analysis revealed upregulation of lipid biosynthesis-related regulatory genes in YC13-559, including SHOOTMERISTEMLESS, LEAFY COTYLEDON 1 (LEC1, LEC2, FUSCA3, ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3, ABI4, ABI5, and WRINKLED1, as well as structural genes, such as ACETYL-CoA CARBOXYLASE, ACYL-CoA DIACYLGLYCEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE, and LONG-CHAIN ACYL-CoA SYNTHETASES. We observed that several genes related to the phytohormones, gibberellins, jasmonate, and indole acetic acid, were differentially expressed in the NILs. Our findings provide a broad account of the numbers, distribution, and expression profiles of acyl lipid metabolism genes, as well as gene networks that potentially control oil accumulation in B. napus seeds. The upregulation of key regulatory and structural genes related to lipid biosynthesis likely plays a major role for the increased seed oil in YC13-559.

  2. Evaluation of the dispersion of oil refinery liquid effluent; Avaliacao da dispersao de efluente liquido de refinaria de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariano, Adriano Pinto; Silva, Ariovaldo Jose da; Oliveira, Valdenilson Jose Alves de; Angelis, Dejanira de Franceschi de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica e Microbiologia. Inst. de Biociencias], e-mail: adrianomariano@yahoo.com.br

    2010-07-15

    In this paper, two techniques to evaluate the dispersion of the effluent of an oil refinery are presented. Thus, the dispersion plume was characterized by field measurements of electrical conductivity and by computational simulation (Cormix simulator). An oil refinery whose effluent is discharged on the Atibaia river (Paulinia/SP) is taken as study case. The behavior of the effluent was evaluated until 1000 m after the discharge. The results show that the measurement of electrical conductivity is a suitable technique to evaluate the dispersion of oil refinery wastewaters, since they have high conductivity and for this reason there is a strong contrast between the values of the wastewater and the ambient background. Furthermore, other water quality parameters had a dispersion behavior similar to that shown by the conductivity. The dispersion plume generated by the computational simulator showed high concordance with the field data. In this manner, computational simulation can be a useful tool to evaluate the dispersion of discharges considering hypothetical scenarios, as well as to design the discharge channel. (author)

  3. Genetic dissection of leaf development in Brassica rapa using a ‘geneticalgenomics’ approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiao, D.; Wang, H.; Basnet, R.K.; Jianjun Zhao, Jianjun; Lin, K.; Hou, X.; Bonnema, A.B.

    2014-01-01

    The paleohexaploid crop Brassica rapa harbors an enormous reservoir of morphological variation, encompassing leafy vegetables, vegetable and fodder turnips (Brassica rapa, ssp. campestris), and oil crops, with different crops having very different leaf morphologies. In the triplicated B. rapa

  4. Preliminary Study on Treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME by Sand Filtration-DBD Plasma System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadi Hazmi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the palm oil industry, open ponding, aerobic and anaerobic digestion, physicochemical treatment and membrane filtration are generally applied as conventional treatments of palm oil mill effluent (POME. In this study, a sand filtration-dielectric barrier discharge (DBD system was investigated as an alternative process for treating POME. This system can reduce land usage, processing time and costs compared to conventional systems. The removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD, biological oxygen demand (BOD5, and oil-grease in relation to the applied voltage were studied. Furthermore, the pH and temperature profiles were investigated. The obtained results indicate that the removal efficiency of COD, BOD5, and oil-grease increased with an increase of the applied voltage. The electrical energy consumption needed is about 10.56 kWh/L of POME.

  5. Optimal Condition of Fenton's Reagent to Enhance the Alcohol Production from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supawadee Sinnaraprasat

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Application of Fenton's reaction for a proper hydrolysis step is an essential and important step in obtaining a higher level of readily biodegradable sugars from palm oil mill effluent (POME for improving the alcohol production by using immobilized Clostridium acetobutylicum. The objective of this research was, therefore, to investigate the optimum condition of Fenton's reaction in terms of COD: H2O2 ratios (w/w and H2O2: Fe2+ ratios (molar ratio used to oxidize carbohydrate and high molecular organic compounds into simple sugars, which are further fermented into alcohol. The experiments were carried out at H2O2: Fe2+ ratios (molar ratios of 5, 10, 20, 30 and 40 and the COD: H2O2 ratios (w/w of 50, 70, 100 and 130 (initial COD about 50,000 mg/L. The total sugar concentrations and organic compounds biodegradability (BOD5/COD ratios were also used for investigating suitable conditions for Fenton's reaction. The concentration of Fenton's reagent at H2O2:Fe2+ and COD:H2O2 ratio of 20 and 130 was identified as the optimum operating condition for the highest simple sugars of about 0.865% and BOD5/COD ratios of 0.539. The alcohol productions were carried out in the continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR under an anaerobic continuous immobilization system. At a hydraulic retention time of 12 hours and POME pH of 4.8, the maximum total ABE concentration of 495 mg/L and the ABE yield of 0.236 grams of ABE produced/gram of reducing sugars were achieved at the mixed polyvinyl alcohol (PVA and palm oil ash (POA ratio of 10 : 3.

  6. Morphological Characterization of Photosynthetic Microbial Granule from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najib, M.Z.M.

    2013-01-01

    Presently, global warming is the most highlighted subjects in the environmental issues which relates closely to greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. In 2007, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assigns only methane (CH 4 ) emissions to wastewater treatment rather than GHG emissions specifically carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) gas from the aerobic treatment processes. Focusing on the palm oil industry in Malaysia, the most commonly used treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) which is the conventional pounding system, has caused excessive generation of GHG such as CH 4 and CO 2 gases. To develop a novel, innovative and environmental-friendly mitigation method, this study explores into the possibility of growing the photosynthetic bacteria in the form of granules via the aerobic granulation process with potential applications in reducing CO 2 gases. The cultivation of photosynthetic microbial granules was investigated using POME as the substrate in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system via the sequencing cycle of feeding, reacting, settling and decanting. Evidence of the formation of granule was based on microscopic examination of the morphological changes during the development of the granule in the SBR system over a period of 90 days. It shows changes from dispersed loose structure of the sludge merging into small flocs of irregular shapes and finally into dense and compact granular form. The granule was formed by applying an organic loading rate (OLR) at 2.75 kg COD/ m 3 .day, hydraulic retention time (HRT) at 4 h and superficial air velocity of 2.07 cm/ s. The biomass concentration began to decreased first (initial sludge biomass = 16750 mg/ L) and then increased steadily to a constant value of 32000 mg/ L after 90 days. Besides, the results also demonstrated a good accumulation of biomass as the settleability between raw sludge and granule increased from 0.03 cm/ s to 0.94 cm/ s. The maximum settling velocity obtained in the reactor was approximately 2

  7. The digester modification for biogas production from palm oil mill effluent by Fed-batch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznury, M.; Amin, J. M.; Hasan, A.; Harsyah, A.

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to biogas production in the digester modification equipment by Fed-batch of the palm oil mill effluent (POME) to determine the quality of POME after a treatment and the concentration of biogas that is formed every 24 hours within 10 days. The raw materials used are POME from PT Mitra Ogan, Tbk. In the initial stage is sedimentation process in the first digester tank at a flow rate 6 liters/minute and then observing the retention time of 24 hours. POME flowed into the second digester tank for fermentation process with the addition of active microbes seed every 24 hours to produce biogas. After the fermentation process is complete, POME flowed to third digester tank for water treatment stage before being released into the environment. COD content test values obtained after processing are 766, 362 and 350 mg/L, approximately. While the BOD value is 212.75; 125 and 110.9 mg/L, approximately. Biogas production for 10 days fermentation are 10.88% methane, 19.2% oxygen and 75.83% nitrogen, approximately.

  8. Oil Production by a Consortium of Oleaginous Microorganisms grown on primary effluent wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Jacqueline; Hetrick, Mary; French, Todd; Hernandez, Rafael; Donaldson, Janet; Mondala, Andro; Holmes, William

    2011-01-01

    Municipal wastewater could be a potential growth medium that has not been considered for cultivating oleaginous microorganisms. This study is designed to determine if a consortium of oleaginous microorganism can successfully compete for carbon and other nutrients with the indigenous microorganisms contained in primary effluent wastewater. RESULTS: The oleaginous consortium inoculated with indigenous microorganisms reached stationary phase within 24 h, reaching a maximum cell concentration of 0.58 g L -1. Water quality post-oleaginous consortium growth reached a maximum chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction of approximately 81%, supporting the consumption of the glucose within 8 h. The oleaginous consortium increased the amount of oil produced per gram by 13% compared with indigenous microorganisms in raw wastewater. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) results show a substantial population increase in bacteria within the first 24 h when the consortium is inoculated into raw wastewater. This result, along with the fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) results, suggests that conditions tested were not sufficient for the oleaginous consortium to compete with the indigenous microorganisms.

  9. Respirometric analysis of activated sludge models from palm oil mill effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damayanti, A; Ujang, Z; Salim, M R; Olsson, G; Sulaiman, A Z

    2010-01-01

    Activated sludge models (ASMs) have been widely used as a basis for further model development in wastewater treatment processes. Values for parameters to be used are vital for the accuracy of the modeling approach. A continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), as open respirometer with continuous flow for 20 h is used in ASMs. The dissolved oxygen (DO) profile for 11 days was monitored. It was found the mass transfer coefficient K(La) is 0.3 h(-1) during lag and start feed phase and 0.01 h(-1) during stop feed phase, while the heterotrophic yield coefficient Y(H) is 0.44. Some of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) fractionations of palm oil mill effluent (POME) using respirometric test in ASM models are S(s) 50 mg/L, S(I) 16,600 mg/L, X(S) 25,550 mg/L, and X(I) 2,800 mg/L. The comparison of experimental and ASM1 from OUR concentration is found to fit well.

  10. Anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent (POME) using bio-methane potential (BMP) test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Nur Izzah Hamna A.; Hanafiah, Marlia M.

    2018-04-01

    Biogas is a promising sustainable and renewable energy alternative to reduce the dependence on fossil fuel. In Malaysia, the conversion of palm oil mill effluent (POME) to bioenergy has recently been expanded due to its high potential in generating energy. However, without a proper treatment and management, POME could be harmful to environment because it emits greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere and could also pollutes the watercourses if discharge directly due to the high acidity and chemical oxygen demand (COD) content. Many initiatives have been taken by the government towards sustainable development. Therefore, more efforts need to be practiced to improve and upscale the technology for a better waste management. In this study, the anaerobic digestion of POME was carried out using Bio-methane potential (BMP) test in batch and laboratory scales. Physicochemical characteristics and the biogas production of POME were measured. The BMP test under mesophilic condition was conducted for 23 consecutive days to measure the biogas production. The POME produced 721.3 cm3 of biogas by using anaerobic sludge as inoculum. The results also found that the methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) gases produced with 360.65 cm3 and 288.52 cm3, respectively.

  11. Enhanced seed oil production in canola by conditional expression of Brassica napus LEAFY COTYLEDON1 and LEC1-LIKE in developing seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Helin; Yang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Fengxia; Zheng, Xiu; Qu, Cunmin; Mu, Jinye; Fu, Fuyou; Li, Jiana; Guan, Rongzhan; Zhang, Hongsheng; Wang, Guodong; Zuo, Jianru

    2011-07-01

    The seed oil content in oilseed crops is a major selection trait to breeders. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1) and LEC1-LIKE (L1L) are key regulators of fatty acid biosynthesis. Overexpression of AtLEC1 and its orthologs in canola (Brassica napus), BnLEC1 and BnL1L, causes an increased fatty acid level in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, which, however, also show severe developmental abnormalities. Here, we use truncated napin A promoters, which retain the seed-specific expression pattern but with a reduced expression level, to drive the expression of BnLEC1 and BnL1L in transgenic canola. Conditional expression of BnLEC1 and BnL1L increases the seed oil content by 2% to 20% and has no detrimental effects on major agronomic traits. In the transgenic canola, expression of a subset of genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis and glycolysis is up-regulated in developing seeds. Moreover, the BnLEC1 transgene enhances the expression of several genes involved in Suc synthesis and transport in developing seeds and the silique wall. Consistently, the accumulation of Suc and Fru is increased in developing seeds of the transgenic rapeseed, suggesting the increased carbon flux to fatty acid biosynthesis. These results demonstrate that BnLEC1 and BnL1L are reliable targets for genetic improvement of rapeseed in seed oil production.

  12. Toxicity of effluents from gasoline stations oil-water separators to early life stages of zebrafish Danio rerio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Romulo Nepomuceno; Mariz, Célio Freire; Paulo, Driele Ventura de; Carvalho, Paulo S M

    2017-07-01

    Used petroleum hydrocarbons and gasoline stations runoff are significant sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to aquatic ecosystems. Samples of the final effluent of oil-water-separators were collected at gasoline stations in the metropolitan region of Recife, Brazil, before release to sewage or rainwater systems. Effluent soluble fractions (ESF) were prepared and bioassays were performed according to the Fish Embryo Toxicity Test. The test involved exposing zebrafish Danio rerio embryos to dilutions of the ESFs for 96 h, with daily examination of lethality and sublethal morphological effects integrated through the General Morphology Score (GMS), based on the achievement of developmental hallmarks. Frequencies of abnormalities were recorded after exposures. ESF LC50-96h (lethal concentration to 50% of exposed embryos) in the most toxic effluent achieved 8.9% (v/v), equivalent to 11 μg phenanthrene equivalents L -1 . GMS scores indicated significantly delayed embryo-larval development at ESF dilutions of 10% and 20% from effluents of all gas stations. Major abnormalities detected after the 96 h exposure included the presence of a yolk sac not fully absorbed coupled with the lack of an inflated swim bladder, lack of both pectoral fins, and the failure to develop a protruding mouth. Effective equivalent PAH concentrations that induce a 50% frequency of larvae without an inflated swim bladder (EC50) were 4.9 μg phenanthrene L -1 , 21.8 μg naphthalene L -1 , and 34.1 μg chrysene L -1 . This study shows that PAHs in ESFs from gas stations oil water separators are toxic to zebrafish, contributing to the toxicity of urban storm waters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Renewable and sustainable bioenergies production from palm oil mill effluent (POME): win-win strategies toward better environmental protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Man Kee; Lee, Keat Teong

    2011-01-01

    Palm oil industry is one of the leading agricultural industries in Malaysia with average crude palm oil production of more than 13 million tonne per year. However, production of such huge amount of crude palm oil has consequently resulted to even larger amount of palm oil mill effluent (POME). POME is a highly polluting wastewater with high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) in which can caused severe pollution to the environment, typically pollution to water resources. On the other hand, POME was identified as a potential source to generate renewable bioenergies such as biomethane and biohydrogen through anaerobic digestion. In other words, a combination of wastewater treatment and renewable bioenergies production would be an added advantage to the palm oil industry. In line with the world's focus on sustainability concept, such strategy should be implemented immediately to ensure palm oil is produced in an environmental friendly and sustainable manner. This review aims to discuss various technologies to convert POME to biomethane and biohydrogen in a commercial scale. Furthermore, discussion on using POME to culture microalgae for biodiesel and bioethanol production was included in the present paper as a new remedy to utilize POME with a greater beneficial return. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Thiourea, a ROS scavenger, regulates source-to-sink relationship to enhance crop yield and oil content in Brassica juncea (L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Pandey

    Full Text Available In the present agricultural scenario, the major thrust is to increase crop productivity so as to ensure sustainability. In an earlier study, foliar application of thiourea (TU; a non physiological thiol based ROS scavenger has been demonstrated to enhance the stress tolerance and yield of different crops under field condition. Towards this endeavor, present work deals with the effect of TU on photosynthetic efficiency and source-to-sink relationship of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea for understanding its mode of action. The application of TU increased the efficiency of both PSI and PSII photosystems and vegetative growth of plant. The comparative analysis of sucrose to starch ratio and expression level of sugar transporters confirmed the higher source and sink strength in response to TU treatment. The biochemical evidence in support of this was derived from higher activities of sucrose phosphate synthase and fructose-1,6-bis-phosphatase at source; and sucrose synthase and different classes of invertases at both source and sink. This indicated an overall increase in photoassimilate level at sink. An additional contribution through pod photosynthesis was confirmed through the analysis of phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase enzyme activity and level of organic acids. The increased photoassimilate level was also co-ordinated with acetyl coA carboxylase mediated oil biosynthesis. All these changes were ultimately reflected in the form of 10 and 20% increase in total yield and oil content, respectively under TU treatment as compared to control. Additionally, no change was observed in oil composition of seeds derived from TU treated plants. The study thus signifies the co-ordinated regulation of key steps of photosynthesis and source-to-sink relationship through the external application of TU resulting in increased crop yield and oil content.

  15. Identification and growth conditions of purple non-sulfur photosynthetic bacteria isolated from palm oil mill effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radziah Ariffin

    2004-01-01

    An indigenous strain of the purple non-sulphur photosynthetic bacterium, isolated from palm oil mill effluent was presumably identified as species of Rhodopseudomonas palustris. Cultivation in synthetic medium under different conditions indicated that it gave maximum carotenoid and bacteriophyll synthesis under anaerobic conditions in the light with values of 12.6 and 108.1 mg/g dry cell weight respectively. These values were significantly higher than the pigment content obtained from aerobic cultivation. The specific growth rates in anaerobic was twice those in aerobic conditions in the light. Growth was not occurred in anaerobic or aerobic conditions in the dark. (Author)

  16. Effect of pre-treatment of Palm oil Mill effluent (POME) and Cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    way Interaction was not significant in all the parameters measured. Management plans for these effluent streams should consist of well designed pond system, metal tanks equipped with blowers for proper decomposition before disposal.

  17. A holistic approach to managing palm oil mill effluent (POME): biotechnological advances in the sustainable reuse of POME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ta Yeong; Mohammad, Abdul Wahab; Jahim, Jamaliah Md; Anuar, Nurina

    2009-01-01

    During the last century, a great deal of research and development as well as applications has been devoted to waste. These include waste minimization and treatment, the environmental assessment of waste, minimization of environmental impact, life cycle assessment and others. The major reason for such huge efforts is that waste generation constitutes one of the major environmental problems where production industries are concerned. Until now, an increasing pressure has been put on finding methods of reusing waste, for instance through cleaner production, thus mirroring rapid changes in environmental policies. The palm oil industry is one of the leading industries in Malaysia with a yearly production of more than 13 million tons of crude palm oil and plantations covering 11% of the Malaysian land area. However, the production of such amounts of crude palm oil result in even larger amounts of palm oil mill effluent (POME), estimated at nearly three times the quantity of crude palm oil. Normally, POME is treated using end-of-pipe processes, but it is worth considering the potential value of POME prior to its treatment through introduction of a cleaner production. It is envisaged that POME can be sustainably reused as a fermentation substrate in the production of various metabolites, fertilizers and animal feeds through biotechnological advances. The present paper thus discusses various technically feasible and economically beneficial means of transforming the POME into low or preferably high value added products.

  18. Geobacillus zalihae sp. nov., a thermophilic lipolytic bacterium isolated from palm oil mill effluent in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salleh Abu

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thermophilic Bacillus strains of phylogenetic Bacillus rRNA group 5 were described as a new genus Geobacillus. Their geographical distribution included oilfields, hay compost, hydrothermal vent or soils. The members from the genus Geobacillus have a growth temperatures ranging from 35 to 78°C and contained iso-branched saturated fatty acids (iso-15:0, iso-16:0 and iso-17:0 as the major fatty acids. The members of Geobacillus have similarity in their 16S rRNA gene sequences (96.5–99.2%. Thermophiles harboring intrinsically stable enzymes are suitable for industrial applications. The quest for intrinsically thermostable lipases from thermophiles is a prominent task due to the laborious processes via genetic modification. Results Twenty-nine putative lipase producers were screened and isolated from palm oil mill effluent in Malaysia. Of these, isolate T1T was chosen for further study as relatively higher lipase activity was detected quantitatively. The crude T1 lipase showed high optimum temperature of 70°C and was also stable up to 60°C without significant loss of crude enzyme activity. Strain T1T was a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, endospore forming bacterium. On the basic of 16S rDNA analysis, strain T1T was shown to belong to the Bacillus rRNA group 5 related to Geobacillus thermoleovorans (DSM 5366T and Geobacillus kaustophilus (DSM 7263T. Chemotaxonomic data of cellular fatty acids supported the affiliation of strain T1T to the genus Geobacillus. The results of physiological and biochemical tests, DNA/DNA hybridization, RiboPrint analysis, the length of lipase gene and protein pattern allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain T1T from its validly published closest phylogenetic neighbors. Strain T1T therefore represents a novel species, for which the name Geobacillus zalihae sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain T1T (=DSM 18318T; NBRC 101842T. Conclusion Strain T1T was able to secrete extracellular

  19. Development of Microbial Fuel Cell for Palm Oil Mill Effluent Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, L.S.; Jamaliah Mohd Jahim; Siti Norhana Shari; Manal Ismail; Wan Ramli Wan Daud

    2012-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are a device that utilises microorganisms as a bio catalyst, to oxidize organic and inorganic matters to generate electric current. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate laboratory scale MFC which was inoculated with sludge containing mixed culture grown in palm oil mill effluent (POME). This work also aimed to construct a suitable design of MFC and to observe mixed culture activation that could lead to electricity power production. POME was used in diluted form with COD concentration of 3750 mg-COD L -1 . The performance of power generation and the efficiency of waste-water treatment in term of COD, nitrogen and total carbohydrate removal, in dual chamber MFC were recorded and analysed everyday for 15 days. The plots between experimental data and polarization model fit well and are able to describe the ability of power density generated in each day. Power density increased from 1.607 mW m -2 (3.816 mA m -2 ), in the first day of the experiments to a maximum value on the third day 1.979 mW m -2 (4.780 mA m -2 ) and then slowed down in day seventh to a minimum value of 1.311 mW m -2 (3.346 mA m -2 ). The removal efficiency in MFC could be divided into three different levels. The first level is in term of poor efficiency although the power was increasing, while in the second level, the efficiency was getting higher and finally in third level, power production of MFC started to diminish. The highest efficiency occurs during the third level when steady power generation took place at certain level. The treatment efficiency in term of COD removal, nitrogen and carbohydrate utilization at day 15 th were 54.9, 100 and 98.9 %, respectively. The relationship between electricity power generation and treatment efficiency was successfully modelled into linear equation based on the respective power generation levels. (author)

  20. Valorization of Waste Obtained from Oil Extraction in Moringa Oleifera Seeds: Coagulation of Reactive Dyes in Textile Effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercè Vilaseca

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera seeds contain about 40% of highly valued oil due to its wide range of applications, from nutritional issues to cosmetics or biodiesel production. The extraction of Moringa oil generates a waste (65%–75% of seeds weight which contains a water soluble protein able to be used either in drinking water clarification or wastewater treatment. In this paper, the waste of Moringa oleifera extraction was used as coagulant to remove five reactive dyes from synthetic textile effluents. This waste constitutes a natural coagulant which was demonstrated to be effective for the treatment of industrial reactive dyestuff effluents, characterized by alkaline pH, high NaCl content and hydrolyzed dyes. The coagulation yield increased at high NaCl concentration, whereas the pH did not show any significant effect on dye removal. Moringa oleifera showed better results for dye removal than the conventional treatment of coagulation-flocculation with FeCl3 and polyelectrolyte. Treated water can be reused in new dyeing processes of cotton fabrics with high quality results.

  1. The effect of the natural bentonite to reduce COD in palm oil mill effluent by using a hybrid adsorption-flotation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, Ratni; Sari, Ratna; Syafruddin

    2017-06-01

    Palm oil mill effluent is waste produced from palm oil processing activities. This waste are comingfrom condensate water, process water and hydrocyclone water. The high levels of contaminants in the palm oil mill effluent causes the waste becomes inappropriate to be discharged to water body before processing, one of the most major contaminants in wastewater is fats, oils and COD.This study investigated the effectiveness of chemically activated bentonite that serves as an alternative to reduce the COD in adsorption and floatation based palm oil effluent waste processing. Natural bentonite was activated by using nitrit acid and benzene. In the existing adsorption material to improve COD reduction capability whereas the flotation method was used to further remove residual effluent which is still remain after the adsorption process. An adsorption columns which operated in batch was used in the present study. By varying the circulation time and adsorbent treatment (activated and non-activated), it was shown that percentage of COD reduction reached 75% at the circulation time of 180 minutes for non activated adsorbent. On the other hand the percentof COD reduction in adsorption and flotation process using activated bentonite reached as high as 88% and 93% at the circulation time of 180 minutes.

  2. Evaluation of physiological, growth and yield responses of a tropical oil crop (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) under ambient ozone pollution at varying NPK levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Poonam; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Agrawal, Shashi Bhushan

    2009-01-01

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the impact of ambient ozone on mustard (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) plants grown under recommended and 1.5 times recommended NPK doses at a rural site of India using filtered (FCs) and non-filtered open top chambers (NFCs). Ambient mean O 3 concentration varied from 41.65 to 54.2 ppb during the experiment. Plants growing in FCs showed higher photosynthetic rate at both NPK levels, but higher stomatal conductance only at recommended NPK. There were improvements in growth parameters and biomass of plants in FCs as compared to NFCs at both NPK levels with higher increments at 1.5 times recommended. Seed yield and harvest index decreased significantly only at recommended NPK in NFCs. Seed quality in terms of nutrients, protein and oil contents reduced in NFCs at recommended NPK. The application of 1.5 times recommended NPK provided protection against yield loss due to ambient O 3 . - NPK level above recommended alleviates the adverse effects of ambient ozone on a tropical mustard cultivar

  3. Cadmium tolerance and its phytoremediation by two oil yielding plants Ricinus communis (L.) and Brassica juncea (L.) from the contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauddh, Kuldeep; Singh, Rana P

    2012-09-01

    The effect of increasing level of cadmium in soil was investigated on biomass production, antioxidants, Cd bioaccumulation and translocation in Ricinus communis vis-à-vis a commonly studied oil crop Brassica juncea. The plants were exposed to 25, 50, 75, 100, and 150 mg Cd/Kg soil for up to 60 days. It was found that R. communis produced higher biomass at all the contamination levels than that of B. juncea. Proline and malondialdehyde in the leaves increased with increase in Cd level in both the species, whereas soluble protein decreased. The bioaccumulation of Cd was higher in B. juncea on the basis of the per unit biomass, total metal accumulation per plant was higher in R. communis. The translocation of Cdfrom roots to shoot was also higher in B. juncea at all Cd concentrations. R. communis appeared more tolerant and capable to clean Cd contaminated soil for longer period in one sowing than B. juncea and the former can grow in wasteland soil also in which later cannot be cultivated.

  4. Use of Plackett-Burman design for rapid screening of nitrogen and carbon sources for the production of lipase in solid state fermentation by Yarrowia lipolytica from mustard oil cake (Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarat Babu Imandi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mustard oil cake (Brassica napus, the residue obtained after extraction of mustard oil from mustard oil seeds, was investigated for the production of lipase under solid state fermentation (SSF using the marine yeast Yarrowia lipolytica NCIM 3589. Process parameters such as incubation time, biomass concentration, initial moisture content, carbon source concentration and nitrogen source concentration of the medium were optimized. Screening of ten nitrogen and five carbon sources has been accomplished with the help of Plackett-Burman design. The highest lipase activity of 57.89 units per gram of dry fermented substrate (U/gds was observed with the substrate of mustard oil cake in four days of fermentation.

  5. Investigation on the Influence of Bio-catalytic Enzyme Produced from Fruit and Vegetable Waste on Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasit, Nazaitulshila; Chee Kuan, Ooi

    2018-04-01

    Pre-consumer waste from supermarkets, such as vegetables and fruits dreg are always discarded as solid waste and disposed to landfill. Implementing waste recovery method as a form of waste management strategy will reduce the amount of waste disposed. One of the ways to achieve this goal is through fermentation of the pre-consumer supermarket waste to produce a solution known as garbage enzyme. This study has been conducted to produce and characterize biocatalytic garbage enzyme and to evaluate its influence on palm oil mill effluent as a pre-treatment process before further biological process takes place. Garbage enzyme was produced by three-month long fermentation of a mixture of molasses, pre-consumer supermarket residues, and water in the ratio of 1:3:10. Subsequently, the characterization of enzyme was conducted based on pH, total solids (TS), total suspended solids (TSS), total dissolved solids (TDS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and enzyme activities. The influence of produced enzyme was evaluated on oil & grease (O&G), TSS and COD of palm oil mill effluent (POME). Different levels of dilution of garbage enzyme to POME samples (5%, 10%, 15%) were explored as pre-treatment (duration of six days) and the results showed that the garbage enzyme contained bio-catalytic enzyme such as amylase, protease, and lipase. The pre-treatment showed removal of 90% of O&G in 15% dilution of garbage enzyme. Meanwhile, reduction of TSS and COD in dilution of 10% garbage enzyme were measured at 50% and 25% respectively. The findings of this study are important to analyse the effectiveness of pre-treatment for further improvement of anaerobic treatment process of POME, especially during hydrolysis stage.

  6. Comparative studies on the adsorption properties of powdered activated carbon and propenoic acid modified sawdust in the treatment of secondary palm oil mill effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osuide, M.O.; Okojie, V.U.; Igbinavbier, E.E.; Ademoroti, C.M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Propenoic acid monomer was used to modify pulped cellulosic materials (sawdust). The sorption properties of the propenoic acid modified sawdust (PAMS) were compared with those of powdered activated carbon (PAC) in the tertiary treatment of palm oil mill effluent, previously clarified with iron (III) chloride plus lime (secondary effluent). The adsorption processes were effected in a fluidized bed reactor (FBR) at a pressure of 80 kilo Newton per meter square (kNm/sup -2/). Optimum amount of PAC and PAMS used for the fluidized adsorption of contaminants from the secondary palm oil mill effluent (POME) were 2.5 g/1 and 4.0 g/1, respectively. These sorption processes were found to be optimum at 10 min and 50 min for PAC and PAMS, respectively. At optimum sorption conditions, removal differentials of 28.6%/g chemical oxygen demand, 19.1%/g suspended solids, and 19.3%/g colour in favour of PAC were established. The application of optimum conditions for adsorption, for both adsorbents, to the bulk treatment of the palm oil mill effluent yielded a clear effluent with wider reuse applicability. (author)

  7. The preventive effect of Brassica napus L. oil on pathophysiological changes of respiratory system in experimental asthmatic rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Kabiri rad

    2012-12-01

    Results: Eosinophil numbers in the submucosal layer, as well as smooth muscle layer thicknesses were significantly lower in the rat group treated with 0.75 mg/kg B. napus oil as compared with asthmatic group (p

  8. Annealing optimization in the process of making membrane PSF19%DMFEVA2 for wastewater treatment of palm oil mill effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, A. A.; Mustafa

    2018-02-01

    A small proportion of the Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) treatment has used its wastewater to converted to methane gas which will then be converted again into electrical energy. However, for Palm Oil Mill whose has a value of Chemical Oxygen Demand in its wastewater is less than 60.000 mg / L this can’t so that the purpose wastewater treatment only to reach the standard that can be safe to dispose into the environment. Wastewater treatment systems that are general applied by Palm Oil Mill especially in North Sumatera are aerobic and anaerobic, this method takes a relatively long time due to very dependent on microbial activity. An alternative method for wastewater treatment offered is membrane technology because the process is much more effective, the time is relatively short, and expected to give more optimal result. The optimum membrane obtained is PSF19%DMFEVA2T75 membrane,while the parameter condition of the permeate analysis produced in the treatment of POME wastewater with membrane PSF19%DMFEVA2T75 obtained at pH = 7.0; TSS = 148 mg / L; BOD = 149 mg / L; And COD = 252 mg / L. The results obtained is accordance with the standard of the quality of POME.

  9. Immobilized oleaginous microalgae for production of lipid and phytoremediation of secondary effluent from palm oil mill in fluidized bed photobioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheirsilp, Benjamas; Thawechai, Tipawan; Prasertsan, Poonsuk

    2017-10-01

    Oleaginous microalga Nannochloropsis sp. was immobilized in alginate gel beads and cultivated under optimal conditions that their growth and lipid production were comparable to those of free cells. The immobilized cells were used in phytoremediation of secondary effluent from palm oil mill and easily recovered by simple sieving method. The immobilized cells contributed to removal of nitrogen and phosphorus >90% and CO 2 mitigation >99%. They also gave the biomass and lipid production of 1.300±0.050g/L and 0.356±0.097g/L, respectively. The repeated-batch cultivation improved the biomass and lipid production by 2.66 folds and 1.41 folds, respectively. The scale up in 3L-fluidized bed photobioreactor gave the maximum biomass of 3.280±0.049g/L and lipid production of 0.362±0.010g/L. Fatty acid compositions of Nannochloropsis sp. lipids showed their suitability as biodiesel feedstocks. This system not only contributes as tertiary treatment of industrial effluent and CO 2 mitigation but also low-cost production of renewable energy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Palm oil mill effluent treatment using a two-stage microbial fuel cells system integrated with immobilized biological aerated filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jia; Zhu, Xiuping; Ni, Jinren; Borthwick, Alistair

    2010-04-01

    An integrated system of two-stage microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and immobilized biological aerated filters (I-BAFs) was used to treat palm oil mill effluent (POME) at laboratory scale. By replacing the conventional two-stage up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) with a newly proposed upflow membrane-less microbial fuel cell (UML-MFC) in the integrated system, significant improvements on NH(3)-N removal were observed and direct electricity generation implemented in both MFC1 and MFC2. Moreover, the coupled iron-carbon micro-electrolysis in the cathode of MFC2 further enhanced treatment efficiency of organic compounds. The I-BAFs played a major role in further removal of NH(3)-N and COD. For influent COD and NH(3)-N of 10,000 and 125 mg/L, respectively, the final effluents COD and NH(3)-N were below 350 and 8 mg/L, with removal rates higher than 96.5% and 93.6%. The GC-MS analysis indicated that most of the contaminants were satisfactorily biodegraded by the integrated system. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. BIODEGRADATION OF EFFLUENT CONTAMINATED WITH DIESEL OIL AND GASOLINE USING CHITOSAN AS A NATURAL COAGULANT IN A CONTINUOUS PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract This study evaluated the effects of aeration (constant aeration, intermittent aeration and a lack of aeration and hydraulic retention time (HRT (2, 3 and 4 days on a continuous process with cell recycling, using chitosan as a natural coagulant for the sedimentation of a C1 mixed culture. This culture was used for the biodegradation of hydrocarbons present in the effluent contaminated with diesel oil and gasoline. The responses monitored included the turbidity removal (TR, total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH removal and volatile suspended solids (VSS. Constant aeration and an HRT of 4 days produced the best results for the continuous process, resulting in the highest TPH removals (94% and 75% reductions in the supernatant and reaction tank, respectively and TR (95%.

  12. Effect of Recycle Sludge on Anaerobic Digestion of Palm Oil Mill Effluent in A Thermophilic Continuous Digester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvan; Trisakti, B.; Tomiuchi, Y.; Harahap, U.; Daimon, H.

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this research is to maintain short retention time and high degradation of palm oil mill effluent (POME) to biogas by applying recycle sludge. Fresh POME from Rambutan Mill without further treatment was used as feed. Two lab-scale digesters supported from Metawater Co. Ltd. have been applied to treat POME at thermophilic (55°C) condition. Both digesters were operated under intermittent operation mode. Experiments were performed in two methods: with and without recycle sludge. Hydraulic retention time (HRT) of both methods was maintained at 6 days, while sludge retention time (SRT) was maintained at various days. The result showed that by extending SRT in return sludge process where 25% of digested slurry recycled to the digester, improvement of volatile solid (VS) decomposition was obtained around 84% at HRT of 6 days and SRT of 21 days. Then, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency could be reached until 85% by using recycle sludge.

  13. Regulatory impact analysis of final effluent limitations guidelines and standards for the offshore oil and gas industry. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    For all major rulemaking actions, Executive Order 12291 requires a Regulatory Impact Analysis (RIA), in which benefits of the regulation are compared to costs imposed by the regulation. The report presents the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA, or the Agency) RIA of the final rule on the effluent limitations guidelines for the Offshore Subcategory of the Oil and Gas Extraction Industry. The principal requirement of the Executive Order is that the Agency perform an analysis comparing the benefits of the regulation to the costs that the regulation imposes. Three types of benefits are analyzed in this RIA: quantified and monetized benefits; quantified and non-monetized benefits; and non-quantified and non-monetized benefits

  14. Effect of palm oil mill effluent (POME) on an Arenic kandiustult in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the impact of long term application of palm oil waste on physical and chemical properties of a sandy Ultisols (Arenic Kandiustult) in Uga, Nigeria. Soil samples were collected from the surface (0-10cm) and (15-25cm) of palm oil polluted site. Another surface sample of (0-10) and (15-25) samples were ...

  15. Bacterial community shift for monitoring the co-composting of oil palm empty fruit bunch and palm oil mill effluent anaerobic sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainudin, Mohd Huzairi Mohd; Ramli, Norhayati; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Shirai, Yoshihito; Tashiro, Kosuke; Sakai, Kenji; Tashiro, Yukihiro

    2017-06-01

    A recently developed rapid co-composting of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) and palm oil mill effluent (POME) anaerobic sludge is beginning to attract attention from the palm oil industry in managing the disposal of these wastes. However, a deeper understanding of microbial diversity is required for the sustainable practice of the co-compositing process. In this study, an in-depth assessment of bacterial community succession at different stages of the pilot scale co-composting of OPEFB-POME anaerobic sludge was performed using 454-pyrosequencing, which was then correlated with the changes of physicochemical properties including temperature, oxygen level and moisture content. Approximately 58,122 of 16S rRNA gene amplicons with more than 500 operational taxonomy units (OTUs) were obtained. Alpha diversity and principal component analysis (PCoA) indicated that bacterial diversity and distributions were most influenced by the physicochemical properties of the co-composting stages, which showed remarkable shifts of dominant species throughout the process. Species related to Devosia yakushimensis and Desemzia incerta are shown to emerge as dominant bacteria in the thermophilic stage, while Planococcus rifietoensis correlated best with the later stage of co-composting. This study proved the bacterial community shifts in the co-composting stages corresponded with the changes of the physicochemical properties, and may, therefore, be useful in monitoring the progress of co-composting and compost maturity.

  16. Utilization of biogas released from palm oil mill effluent for power generation using self-preheated reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini, Seyed Ehsan; Wahid, Mazlan Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A lab-scale reactor called self-preheating flameless combustion (SPFC) system is experimented. • Feasibility of power generation by POME biogas is modeled using SPFC system. • 4 MW power is available by POME biogas utilization in a typical palm oil mill with 300,000 tons production. • The rate of power generation increases when 2% hydrogen is added to POME biogas ingredients. - Abstract: In palm oil mills, for one ton crude palm oil (CPO) production, 70 m 3 biogas is released from palm oil mill effluent (POME) which can endanger the environment. Palm oil mills without appropriate strategies for biogas collection can participate in greenhouse gases (GHGs) generation actively. In this paper, a typical palm oil mill with annual capacity of 300,000 ton oil palm production and 3 MW electricity demand is considered as a pilot plant and feasibility of power generation by POME biogas is modeled by Aspen Plus considering flameless mode in combustion system. A new design of lab-scale flameless reactor called self-preheated flameless combustion (SPFC) system is presented and employed in power generation modeling. In SPFC system, the flameless chamber is employed as a heater to preheat an oxidizer over the self-ignition temperature of the fuel. A helical stainless steel pipe (called self-preheating pipe) is installed inside the chamber to conduct the oxidizer from exhaust zone to the combustion zone inside the chamber and preheat oxidizer. In the flameless mode, the diluted oxidizer is injected to the helical pipe from the exhaust zone and the preheated oxidizer at the burner is conducted to the flameless furnace through a distributor. In SPFC system external heater for preheating oxidizer is removed and the rate of power generation increases. The results show that 10.8 MW power could be generated in ultra-lean POME biogas SPFC. However, the rate of pollutant especially CO 2 and NO x is high in this circumstances. In stoichiometric condition, 4 MW power

  17. Oil use of the effluent plant ETEO (Effluent Station of Oil Treatment) as combustible for generation of energy in the power plant UG-50Hz; Utulizacao de oleo da ETEO (Estacao de Tratamento de Efluentes Oleosos) para geracao de energia na UG-50Hz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Jose Francisco de; Nascimento, Jose Maria do; Silva, Luiz Antonio da; Salazar, Marcos Vinicios; Baptista, Reinaldo Lopes; Barros, Sueli Aguiar [Companhia Siderurgica Nacional (CSN), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-11-01

    The areas of finishing products of CSN Steel Plant generate contaminated effluents with oil and grease , that are treated in ETEO (Effluent Station of Oil Treatment). In this plant, the oil is processed to be sold for the consuming market. However, some seasons of the year, the market does not absorb the oil, and CSN is obliged to defray the burning of this oil, to not interrupt the productive process and cause an environmental impact. Because of this situation, we search alternatives for the viable use of this oil inside CSN steel plant, taking care for the security of the processes and the impact to the environment. This paper describes the details of the work and the implantation of the burning of this oil of the ETEO with BPF oil (type of petrochemical oil) as combustible in the boiler 7 of the power plant UG 50 Hz. For the implantation of this project, operational contingencies of security for equipment was prepared . Moreover, the work included chemical analyses of the oil and the conditions of the boiler using this mixing of oils. The reached results demonstrate the total viability of this project and it was proved another alternative of the use of this residue, with reduction of the fuel costs , steam costs and the electric energy generated in the power plant of CSN. (author)

  18. Factors affecting the density of Brassica napus seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Young, L.; Jalink, H.; Denkert, R.; Reaney, M.

    2006-01-01

    Brassica napus seed is composed of low density oil (0.92 g.cm(-3)) and higher density solids (1.3-1.45 g.cm(-3)). Seed buoyant density may potentially be used to determine seed oil content and to separate seeds with different oil contents, however, we have found that seeds with the lowest buoyant

  19. AN OVERVIEW OF GAS-UPGRADING TECHNOLOGIES FOR BIOHYDROGEN PRODUCED FROM TREATMENT OF PALM OIL MILL EFFLUENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IZZATI NADIA MOHAMAD

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available To date, a high energy demand has led to massive research efforts towards improved gas-separation techniques for more energy-efficient and environmenttally friendly methods. One of the potential alternative energies is biogas produced from the fermentation of liquid waste generated from the oil-extraction process, which is known as palm oil mill effluent (POME. Basically, the gas produced from the POME fermentation process consists mainly of a CO2 and H2 gas mixture. CO2 is known as an anthropogenic greenhouse gas, which contributes towards the climate change phenomenon. Hence, it is crucial to determine a suitable technique for H2 separation and purification with good capability for CO2 capture, as this will reduce CO2 emission to the environment as well. This paper reviewed the current gas-separation techniques that consist of absorption, adsorption and a membrane in order to determine the advantages and disadvantages of these techniques towards the efficiency of the separation system. Crucial aspects for gas-separation techniques such as energy, economic, and environmental considerations are discussed, and a potential biohydrogen and biogas-upgrading technique for industrial POME application is presented and concluded in this paper. Based on the comparison on these aspects, water scrubbing is found to be the best technique to be used in the biogas-upgrading industry, followed by membrane and chemical scrubbing as well as PSA. Hence, these guidelines are justified for selecting the best gas-upgrading technique to be used in palm oil mill industry applications.

  20. Ecotoxicological impacts of effluents generated by oil sands bitumen extraction and oil sands lixiviation on Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debenest, T., E-mail: tdebenest@yahoo.fr [Environment Canada, Fluvial Ecosystem Research, 105 McGill Street, 7 floor, Montreal, Quebec, H2Y 2E7 (Canada); Turcotte, P. [Environment Canada, Fluvial Ecosystem Research, 105 McGill Street, 7 floor, Montreal, Quebec, H2Y 2E7 (Canada); Gagne, F., E-mail: francois.gagne@ec.gc.ca [Environment Canada, Fluvial Ecosystem Research, 105 McGill Street, 7 floor, Montreal, Quebec, H2Y 2E7 (Canada); Gagnon, C.; Blaise, C. [Environment Canada, Fluvial Ecosystem Research, 105 McGill Street, 7 floor, Montreal, Quebec, H2Y 2E7 (Canada)

    2012-05-15

    The exploitation of Athabasca oil sands deposits in northern Alberta has known an intense development in recent years. This development has raised concern about the ecotoxicological risk of such industrial activities adjacent to the Athabasca River. Indeed, bitumen extraction generated large amounts of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) which are discharged in tailing ponds in the Athabasca River watershed. This study sought to evaluate and compare the toxicity of OSPW and oil sands lixiviate water (OSLW) with a baseline (oil sands exposed to water; OSW) on a microalgae, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, at different concentrations (1.9, 5.5, 12.25, 25 and 37.5%, v/v). Chemical analyses of water-soluble contaminants showed that OSPW and OSLW were enriched in different elements such as vanadium (enrichment factor, EF = 66 and 12, respectively), aluminum (EF = 64 and 15, respectively), iron (EF = 52.5 and 17.1, respectively) and chromium (39 and 10, respectively). The toxicity of OSPW on cells with optimal intracellular esterase activity and chlorophyll autofluorescence (viable cells) (72 h-IC 50% < 1.9%) was 20 times higher than the one of OSW (72 h-IC 50% > 37.5%, v/v). OSLW was 4.4 times less toxic (IC 50% = 8.5%, v/v) than OSPW and 4.5 times more toxic than OSW. The inhibition of viable cell growth was significantly and highly correlated (<-0.7) with the increase of arsenic, beryllium, chromium, copper, lead, molybdenum and vanadium concentrations. The specific photosynthetic responses studied with JIP-test (rapid and polyphasic chlorophyll a fluorescence emission) showed a stimulation of the different functional parameters (efficiency of PSII to absorb energy from photons, size of effective PSII antenna and vitality of photosynthetic apparatus for energy conversion) in cultures exposed to OSPW and OSLW. To our knowledge, our study highlights the first evidence of physiological effects of OSPW and OSLW on microalgae.

  1. Effect of agitation on methanogenesis stage of two-stage anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent (POME) into biogas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trisakti, Bambang; Irvan, Zahara, Intan; Taslim, Turmuzi, Muhammad

    2017-05-01

    This study is an assessment of the effect of agitation on biogas production on methanogenesis stage. Methanogenesis is the second stage of two-stage anaerobic digestion of palm oil effluent (POME) into biogas. The purpose of this study is to get the effect of agitation on growth of microorganisms, degradation of organic substances, and biogas production and composition. Initially, the suitable loading up was determined by varying the HRT at 100, 40, 6, and 4 days in the continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with agitation rate 100 rpm, pH 6.7-7.5, at room temperature. Next, effect of agitation on the process was determined by varying agitation rate at 50, 100, 150, and 200 rpm. The substrate used was the effluent of the acidogenesis stage that fed to the CSTR four times a day. Analysis of total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS), total suspended solids (TSS), volatile suspended solids (VSS), and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were conducted in order to study the growth of microorganisms and their abilities in converting organic compound to produce biogas. Production and composition of biogas were also determined by measuring the volume of biogas and content of H2S and CO2. The result showed that the pH and alkalinity it was still within the range of methanogenesis process. The growth of microorganisms were increased with the increasing of agitation rate. However, the best degradation of organic substances, biogas production, and biogas composition were achieved at 100 rpm. The VS decomposition, COD removal, biogas production, CO2 content, and CH4 content at 100 rpm were 67.44 ± 3.59%, 81.00%, 58.87 ± 6.27 L/kg-ΔVS, 23.36%, and 76.64%, respectively.

  2. Treatment and decolorization of biologically treated Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) using banana peel as novel biosorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Rafie Rushdy; Chong, Mei Fong

    2014-01-01

    Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) treatment has always been a topic of research in Malaysia. This effluent that is extremely rich in organic content needs to be properly treated to minimize environmental hazards before it is released into watercourses. The main aim of this work is to evaluate the potential of applying natural, chemically and thermally modified banana peel as sorbent for the treatment of biologically treated POME. Characteristics of these sorbents were analyzed with BET surface area and SEM. Batch adsorption studies were carried out to remove color, total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), tannin and lignin, and biological oxygen demand (BOD) onto natural banana peel (NBP), methylated banana peel (MBP), and banana peel activated carbon (BPAC) respectively. The variables of pH, adsorbent dosage, and contact time were investigated in this study. Maximum percentage removal of color, TSS, COD, BOD, and tannin and lignin (95.96%, 100%, 100%, 97.41%, and 76.74% respectively) on BPAC were obtained at optimized pH of 2, contact time of 30 h and adsorbent dosage of 30 g/100 ml. The isotherm data were well described by the Redlich-Peterson isotherm model with correlation coefficient of more than 0.99. Kinetic of adsorption was examined by Langergren pseudo first order, pseudo second order, and second order. The pseudo second order was identified to be the governing mechanism with high correlation coefficient of more than 0.99. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Determination of optimum polymeric coagulant in palm oil mill effluent coagulation using multiple-objective optimisation on the basis of ratio analysis (MOORA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamrin, K F; Zahrim, A Y

    2017-07-01

    The main limitation of a conventional palm oil mill effluent (POME) ponding system lies in its inability to completely decolourise effluent. Decolourisation of effluent is aesthetically and environmentally crucial. However, determination of the optimum process parameters is becoming more complex with the increase of the number of coagulants and responses. The primary objective of this study is to determine the optimum polymeric coagulant in the coagulation-flocculation process of palm oil mill effluent by considering all output responses, namely lignin-tannin, low molecular mass coloured compounds (LMMCC), chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia nitrogen (NH 3 -N), pH and conductivity. Here, multiple-objective optimisation on the basis of ratio analysis (MOORA) is employed to discretely measure multiple response characteristics of five different types of coagulants as a function of assessment value. The optimum coagulant is determined based on the highest assessment value and was identified as QF25610 (cationic polyacrylamide). On the other hand, the lowest assessment value was represented by AN1800 (anionic polyacrylamide). This study highlights the simplicity of MOORA approach in handling various input and output parameters, and it may be useful in other wastewater treatment processes as well.

  4. Transesterification of mustard (Brassica nigra) seed oil with ethanol: Purification of the crude ethyl ester with activated carbon produced from de-oiled cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadhil, Abdelrahman B.; Abdulahad, Waseem S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Biodiesel ethyl ester has been developed from mustard seed oil. • Variables affect the transesterification were investigated. • Dry washing using the activated carbon produced from the extraction remaining was applied to purify the ethyl esters. • Properties of the produced fuels were measured. • Blending of the produced ethyl ester with petro diesel was also investigated. - Abstract: The present study reports the production of mustard seed oil ethyl esters (MSOEE) through alkali-catalyzed transesterification with ethanol using potassium hydroxide as a catalyst. The influence of the process parameters such as catalyst concentration, ethanol to oil molar ratio, reaction temperature, reaction duration and the catalyst type was investigated so as to find out the optimal conditions for the transesterification process. As a result, optimum conditions for production of MSOEE were found to be: 0.90% KOH wt/wt of oil, 8:1 ethanol to oil molar ratio, a reaction temperature of 60 °C, and a reaction time of 60 min. Dry washing method with (2.50% wt.) of the activated carbon that was produced from the de-oiled cake was used to purify the crude ethyl ester from the residual catalyst and glycerol. The transesterification process provided a yield of 94% w/w of ethyl esters with an ester content of 98.22% wt. under the optimum conditions. Properties of the produced ethyl esters satisfied the specifications prescribed by the ASTM standards. Blending MSOEE with petro diesel was also investigated. The results showed that the ethyl esters had a slight influence on the properties of petro diesel

  5. The Effect of Fe Concentration on the Quality and Quantity of Biogas Produced From Fermentation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irvan Matseh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to study the effect of Fe concentration as a trace metal on the quality and quantity of biogas produced from the fermentation of palm oil mill effluent (POME. Raw POME as feed was obtained from one of the palm oil mills belong to PTPN IV, other materials used were hydrochloric acid, sodium bicarbonate, and trace metals. Observed variables were volume of biogas, concentration of Fe in raw POME and biodigester, degradation rate of total solid (TS and volatile solid (VS, M-Alkalinity, pH, H2S and CO2 concentration in biogas at hydraulic retention time (HRT 6 days. Before HRT of 6 days reached, initial trace metal compositions were 25.2 mg/L of Fe, 0.42 mg/L of Co, and 0.49 mg/L of Ni. After that, composition of trace metal were consisted only Co and Ni. The results showed that Fe as a trace metal did not affect the production or quantity of biogas. When Fe concentration reached over to 330 mg/L then concentration of CH4, total solid (TS and volatile solid (VS decreased. Moreover, the higher the Fe contents the smaller of H2S production. Fe content in POME from the same mill had different concentration, as the consequence biogas with different H2S concentrations were produced as well. Thus, Fe in the trace metals is no longer required if high concentration of Fe already existed in POME because it can reduce the formation of H2S. In addition, too high concentration of Fe in POME can be toxic for microorganism in the fermentation of biogas.

  6. Comparison of UASB and EGSB reactors performance, for treatment of raw and deoiled palm oil mill effluent (POME)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Cheng; O-Thong, Sompong; Boe, Kanokwan

    2011-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent (POME) and deoiled POME was investigated both in batch assays and continuous reactor experiments using up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors. The methane potential determined from batch assays of POME...... and deoiled POME was 503 and 610mL-CH4/gVS-added, respectively. For the treatment of POME in continuously fed reactors, both in UASB and EGSB reactors more than 90% COD removal could be obtained, at HRT of 5 days, corresponding to OLR of 5.8gVS/(L-reactor.d). Similar methane yields of 436–438mL-CH4/g......VS-added were obtained for UASB and EGSB respectively. However, for treatment of deoiled POME, both UASB and EGSB reactors could operate at lower OLR of 2.6gVS/(L-reactor.d), with the methane yield of 600 and 555mL-CH4/gVS-added for UASB and EGSB, respectively. The higher methane yield achieved from the deoiled...

  7. Comparison of UASB and EGSB reactors performance, for treatment of raw and deoiled palm oil mill effluent (POME)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Cheng; O-Thong, Sompong; Boe, Kanokwan [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Building 113, DK-2800, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Angelidaki, Irini, E-mail: ria@env.dtu.dk [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Building 113, DK-2800, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2011-05-15

    Anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent (POME) and deoiled POME was investigated both in batch assays and continuous reactor experiments using up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors. The methane potential determined from batch assays of POME and deoiled POME was 503 and 610 mL-CH{sub 4}/gVS-added, respectively. For the treatment of POME in continuously fed reactors, both in UASB and EGSB reactors more than 90% COD removal could be obtained, at HRT of 5 days, corresponding to OLR of 5.8 gVS/(L-reactor.d). Similar methane yields of 436-438 mL-CH{sub 4}/gVS-added were obtained for UASB and EGSB respectively. However, for treatment of deoiled POME, both UASB and EGSB reactors could operate at lower OLR of 2.6 gVS/(L-reactor.d), with the methane yield of 600 and 555 mL-CH{sub 4}/gVS-added for UASB and EGSB, respectively. The higher methane yield achieved from the deoiled POME was attributed to lower portion of biofibers which are more recalcitrant compared the rest of organic matter in POME. The UASB reactor was found to be more stable than EGSB reactor under the same OLR, as could be seen from lower VFA concentration, especially propionic acid, compared to the EGSB reactor.

  8. Comparison of UASB and EGSB reactors performance, for treatment of raw and deoiled palm oil mill effluent (POME)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Cheng; O-Thong, Sompong; Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2011-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent (POME) and deoiled POME was investigated both in batch assays and continuous reactor experiments using up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors. The methane potential determined from batch assays of POME and deoiled POME was 503 and 610 mL-CH 4 /gVS-added, respectively. For the treatment of POME in continuously fed reactors, both in UASB and EGSB reactors more than 90% COD removal could be obtained, at HRT of 5 days, corresponding to OLR of 5.8 gVS/(L-reactor.d). Similar methane yields of 436-438 mL-CH 4 /gVS-added were obtained for UASB and EGSB respectively. However, for treatment of deoiled POME, both UASB and EGSB reactors could operate at lower OLR of 2.6 gVS/(L-reactor.d), with the methane yield of 600 and 555 mL-CH 4 /gVS-added for UASB and EGSB, respectively. The higher methane yield achieved from the deoiled POME was attributed to lower portion of biofibers which are more recalcitrant compared the rest of organic matter in POME. The UASB reactor was found to be more stable than EGSB reactor under the same OLR, as could be seen from lower VFA concentration, especially propionic acid, compared to the EGSB reactor.

  9. Comparison of UASB and EGSB reactors performance, for treatment of raw and deoiled palm oil mill effluent (POME).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Cheng; O-Thong, Sompong; Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2011-05-15

    Anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent (POME) and deoiled POME was investigated both in batch assays and continuous reactor experiments using up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors. The methane potential determined from batch assays of POME and deoiled POME was 503 and 610 mL-CH(4)/gVS-added, respectively. For the treatment of POME in continuously fed reactors, both in UASB and EGSB reactors more than 90% COD removal could be obtained, at HRT of 5 days, corresponding to OLR of 5.8 gVS/(L-reactor.d). Similar methane yields of 436-438 mL-CH(4)/gVS-added were obtained for UASB and EGSB respectively. However, for treatment of deoiled POME, both UASB and EGSB reactors could operate at lower OLR of 2.6 gVS/(L-reactor.d), with the methane yield of 600 and 555 mL-CH(4)/gVS-added for UASB and EGSB, respectively. The higher methane yield achieved from the deoiled POME was attributed to lower portion of biofibers which are more recalcitrant compared the rest of organic matter in POME. The UASB reactor was found to be more stable than EGSB reactor under the same OLR, as could be seen from lower VFA concentration, especially propionic acid, compared to the EGSB reactor. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Role of calcium oxide in sludge granulation and methanogenesis for the treatment of palm oil mill effluent using UASB reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Anwar; Ghufran, Rumana; Abd Wahid, Zularisam

    2011-12-30

    The granulation process in palm oil mill effluent using calcium oxide-cement kiln dust (CaO-CKD) provides an attractive and cost effective treatment option. In this study the efficiency of CaO-CKD at doses of 1.5-20 g/l was tested in batch experiments and found that 10 g of CaO/l caused the greatest degradation of VFA, butyrate and acetate. An upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor was operated continuously at 35°C for 150 days to investigate the effect of CaO-CKD on sludge granulation and methanogenesis during start-up. The treatment of POME emphasized the influence of varying organic loading rates (OLR). Up to 94.9% of COD was removed when the reactor was fed with the 15.5-65.5 g-CODg/l at an OLR of 4.5-12.5 kg-COD/m(3)d, suggesting the feasibility of using CaO in an UASB process to treat POME. The ratio of volatile solids/total solids (VS/TS) and volatile fatty acids in the anaerobic sludge in the UASB reactor decreased significantly after long-term operation due to the precipitation of calcium carbonate in the granules. Granulation and methanogenesis decreased with an increase in the influent CaO-CKD concentration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Treatment of palm oil mill effluent using combination system of microbial fuel cell and anaerobic membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Sze Pin; Kong, Hong Feng; Bashir, Mohammed J K; Lo, Po Kim; Ho, Chii-Dong; Ng, Choon Aun

    2017-12-01

    It was found that the operational temperature and the incorporation of microbial fuel cell (MFC) into anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) have significant effect on AnMBRs' filtration performance. This paper addresses two issues (i) effect of temperature on AnMBR; and (ii) effect of MFC on AnMBRs' performance. The highest COD removal efficiency was observed in mesophilic condition (45°C). It was observed that the bioreactors operated at 45°C had the highest filtration resistance compared to others, albeit the excellent performance in removing the organic pollutant. Next, MFC was combined with AnMBR where the MFC acted as a pre-treatment unit prior to AnMBR and it was fed directly with palm oil mill effluent (POME). The supernatant from MFC was further treated by AnMBR. Noticeable improvement in filtration performance was observed in the combined system. Decrease in polysaccharide amount was observed in combined system which in turn suggested that the better filtration performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Esterification for butyl butyrate formation using Candida cylindracea lipase produced from palm oil mill effluent supplemented medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliyu Salihu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability of Candida cylindracea lipase produced using palm oil mill effluent (POME as a basal medium to catalyze the esterification reaction for butyl butyrate formation was investigated. Butyric acid and n-butanol were used as substrates at different molar ratios. Different conversion yields were observed according to the affinity of the produced lipase toward the substrates. The n-butanol to butyric acid molar ratio of 8 and lipase concentration of 75 U/mg gave the highest butyl butyrate formation of 63.33% based on the statistical optimization using face centered central composite design (FCCCD after 12 h reaction. The esterification potential of the POME based lipase when compared with the commercial lipase from the same strain using the optimum levels was found to show a similar pattern. It can be concluded therefore that the produced lipase possesses appropriate characteristics to be used as a biocatalyst in the esterification reactions for butyl butyrate formation.

  13. Influence of the metal addition for biohydrogen production from the conversion of palm oil mill effluent (POME) by anaerobic process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumilar, Andri; Syafila, Mindriany; Handajani, Marisa

    2017-11-01

    Biohydrogen is one of the main alternative fuels promising for the future. Bioconversion of the wastewater with the high concentration of organic using biological processes or microorganism by anaerobic processes can produce biogas which can be used as fuel instead of fossil fuels. In this study, palm oil mill effluent (POME) with the concentration of COD is 24,500 mg/L has been used as a substrate. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of metal addition for the formation of biohydrogen. Circulating bed reactor (CBR) is used with the flushing N2 1L/min for 24 hr and continued operates for 72 hr by internal biogas. The additional variation concentration of Fe(II) ion are 0.5; 1.0 and 2.5 mg/L, and Mg(II) are 0.5 and 1.5 mg/L were added by combination. The results showed that the combination of Fe(II) 1.0 mg/L and Mg(II) 1.5 mg/L produced the highest biohydrogen production is 17.12 %v/v and the rate of biohydrogen production is 0.010-0.233 % v/v /hr. Another combination of Fe(II) and Mg(II) provide results for the biohydrogen production is 10.46-16.37 %v/v with the highest rate of biohydrogen production is 0.008-0.278 %v/v/hr.

  14. Performance of cellulose acetate - polyethersulphone blend membrane prepared using microwave heating for palm oil mill effluent treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, A; Ahmed, I; Jye, H W

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this research is to investigate the performance of blend cellulose acetate (CA)-polyethersulphone (PES) membranes prepared using microwave heating (MWH) techniques and then compare it with blend CA-PES membranes prepared using conventional heating (CH) methods using bovine serum albumin solution. The superior membranes were then used in the treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME). Various blends of CA-PES have been blended with PES in the range of 1-5 wt%. This distinctive series of dope formulations of blend CA/PES and pure CA was prepared using N, N-dimethylformamide (DMF) as solvent. The dope solution was prepared by MW heating for 5 min at a high pulse and the membranes were prepared by phase inversion method. The performances of these membranes were evaluated in terms of pure water and permeate flux, percentage removal of total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). The results indicate that blend membranes prepared using the microwave technique is far more superior compared to that prepared using CH. Blend membranes with 19% CA, 1-3% PES and 80% of DMF solvent were found to be the best membrane formulation.

  15. Mass transfer kinetics of biosorption of nitrogenous matter from palm oil mill effluent by aerobic granules in sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulazzaky, Mohamad Ali; Nuid, Maria; Aris, Azmi; Muda, Khalida

    2017-07-13

    Understanding of mass transfer kinetics is important for biosorption of nitrogen compounds from palm oil mill effluent (POME) to gain a mechanistic insight into future biological processes for the treatment of high organic loading wastewater. In this study, the rates of global and sequential mass transfer were determined using the modified mass transfer factor equations for the experiments to remove nitrogen by aerobic granular sludge accumulation in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The maximum efficiencies as high as 97% for the experiment run at [k L a] g value of 1421.8 h -1 and 96% for the experiment run at [k L a] g value of 9.6 × 10 37  h -1 were verified before and after the addition of Serratia marcescens SA30, respectively. The resistance of mass transfer could be dependent on external mass transfer that controls the transport of nitrogen molecule along the experimental period of 256 days. The increase in [k L a] g value leading to increased performance of the SBR was verified to contribute to the future applications of the SBR because this phenomenon provides new insight into the dynamic response of biological processes to treat POME.

  16. Utilization of palm oil mill effluent as a novel and promising substrate for biosurfactant production by Nevskia ramosa NA3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamas Cheirsilp

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces palm oil mill effluent as a promising substrate for biosurfactant production. Potential strains ofbacteria were isolated from various hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and screened for biosurfactant production with the helpof the drop collapse method and surface tension measurements. Out of 26 isolates of bacteria, the strain NA3 showed thehighest bacterial growth with the highest surface tension reduction of 27.2 mN/m. It was then identified as Nevskia ramosaNA3 by biochemical and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. The Plackett-Burman experimental design was employed to determinethe important nutritional requirements for biosurfactant production by N. ramosa NA3 under controlled conditions. Six outof 11 factors of the production medium were found to significantly affect the production of biosurfactant. FeCl2 and NaNO3had a direct proportional correlation with the biosurfactant production. Commercial sugar, glucose, K2HPO4 and MgCl2showed inversely proportional relationship with biosurfactant production in the selected experimental range.

  17. Adsorption of Heavy Metal from Palm Oil Mill Effluent on the Mixed Media Used For the Preparation of Composite Adsorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyekanmi Adeleke Abdulrahman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of lead ion from palm oil mill effluent produced directly from the mill was investigated using mixed adsorbents that were used to prepare the composite. Experiments were carried out under predetermined conditions of pH, shaking speed, contact time and particle size. Equilibrium study was carried out to determine the adsorption capacity of the mixed media. The reduction of the lead ion was effective on the adsorbent materials. The Temkin and Freundlich models were applied to describe the adsorption pattern on the mixed media. The experimental data fitted well to the Temkin isotherm with a correlation coefficient of 1, this was used to indicate the level of interaction of the adsorbent-adsorbate and also the energy utilized in the adsorption process. The hydrophobic behaviour of the activated coconutshell and cow bone carbons was observed for average contact angle of 105° and 95° for the coconut shell and cow bone respectively. The influence of the hydrophobic materials in the mixed media and the zeolite assisted in the ion exchange and in the adsorption of the heavy metal.

  18. Comparison between four and seven-day Ceriodaphnia dubia survival and reproduction test protocols using oil refinery effluent samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Cyrino Oliveira-Filho

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the 7-day Ceriodaphnia dubia survival and reproduction test with a 4 day test to evaluate the toxicity of oil refinery effluents. Both shown identical NOECs with three of 6 tested samples. With one of the tested samples, the 4-day NOEC was one tested-concentration lower, and with the remaining two samples, it was one tested-concentration higher than those obtained using the 7-day protocol. Then results suggested that 4 and 7-day protocols were comparable to detect toxic effects.O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar os protocolos de sobrevivência e reprodução de Ceriodaphnia dubia com 7 e 4 dias de duração, avaliando a toxicidade de amostras de efluentes de refinaria de petróleo. Ambos os protocolos apresentaram NOECs idênticos para 3 das 6 amostras testadas. Com uma das amostras o NOEC no ensaio de 4 dias ficou numa concentração testada menor, e nas duas amostras restantes ele ficou numa concentração testada maior do que os NOECs obtidos no ensaio de 7 dias. Esses resultados sugerem que os protocolos de ensaio com 4 e 7 dias são comparáveis quanto a sensibilidade para detectar o efeito tóxico crônico de efluentes de refinaria de petróleo.

  19. Palm oil mill effluent and municipal wastewater co-treatment by zeolite augmented sequencing batch reactors: Turbidity removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farraji, Hossein; Zaman, Nastaein Qamaruz; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Sa'at, Siti Kamariah Md

    2017-10-01

    Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is the largest wastewater in Malaysia. Of the 60 million tons of POME produced annually, 2.4-3 million tons are total solids. Turbidity is caused by suspended solids, and 75% of total suspended solids are organic matter. Coagulation and flocculation are popular treatments for turbidity removal. Traditional commercial treatments do not meet discharge standards. This study evaluated natural zeolite and municipal wastewater (MWW)-augmented sequencing batch reactor as a microbiological digestion method for the decontamination of POME in response surface methodology. Aeration, contact time, and MWW/POME ratio were selected as response factors for turbidity removal. Results indicated that turbidity removal varied from 96.7% (MWW/POME ratio=50 %, aeration flow=0.5 L/min, and contact time=12) to 99.31% (MWW/POME ratio=80%, aeration flow 4L/min, and contact time 12 h). This study is the first to present MWW augmentation as a suitable microorganism supplier for turbidity biodegradation in high-strength agroindustrial wastewater.

  20. Brassica napus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... 1999). Rapeseed meal, a byproduct of rape- seed oil milling contains amino acids that are an important source of nutrition for animals (Goding et al. 1972; Huis- man and Tolman 1990). The nutrition value of rapeseed is not less than that of soybean (Josefesson and Muhlenberg 1968;. Simbaya et al. 1995).

  1. Introduction of beet cyst nematode resistance from Sinapis alba L. and Raphanus sativus L. into Brassica napus L. (oil-seed rape) through sexual and somatic hybridization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lelivelt, C.L.C.

    1993-01-01

    Experiments were performed to select for beet cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii Schm., abbrev. BCN) resistant genotypes of Brassica napus L. (oilseed rape), and to introduce BCN-resistance from the related species Raphanus

  2. The genome of the mesopolyploid crop species Brassica rapa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiaowu; Wang, Hanzhong; Wang, Jun

    2011-01-01

    We report the annotation and analysis of the draft genome sequence of Brassica rapa accession Chiifu-401-42, a Chinese cabbage. We modeled 41,174 protein coding genes in the B. rapa genome, which has undergone genome triplication. We used Arabidopsis thaliana as an outgroup for investigating....... Variation in the number of members of gene families present in the genome may contribute to the remarkable morphological plasticity of Brassica species. The B. rapa genome sequence provides an important resource for studying the evolution of polyploid genomes and underpins the genetic improvement...... of Brassica oil and vegetable crops....

  3. Sorption of (226)Ra from oil effluents onto synthetic cation exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Attar, Lina; Safia, Bassam

    2013-07-30

    Increasing environmental awareness is being urged for the safe disposal of (226)Ra-contaminated production water generated in the oil industry. Birnessite, antimony silicate and their cationic derivatives were studied for the take-up of (226)Ra using the batch-type method under experimentally determined parameters, viz. contact time, solution-solid ratio and (226)Ra concentration. Data was expressed in terms of distribution coefficients. Sorption experiments were performed in different concentrations of nitric acid in order to speculate the mechanism of (226)Ra uptake. Variation in the magnitude of sorption efficiency of the materials in the presence of the major components of waste streams, i.e. Na(+), K(+) and Ca(2+), revealed that K(+) was the greatest competitor and Na(+) the least. The application of the materials to sorb (226)Ra from actual oil co-production water samples, collected from Der Ezzor and Al Fourat petroleum companies (DEZPC and AFPC), was interpreted in terms of the exchange properties of the materials and water characterisation. Of the parameters studied, the selectivity of materials was shown to be greatly dependent on the pH of wastewater to be treated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Study the Growth of Microalgae in Palm Oil Mill Effluent Waste Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selmani, Nabila; Mirghani, Mohamed E S; Alam, Md Zahangir

    2013-01-01

    This paper emphasizes mainly on the biomass productivity and lipids content of two microalgae strains known by their high lipids content namely: Botryoccoccus sudeticus and Chlorella vulgaris. These strains were first screened for the highest biomass and lipids content, then Plackett–Burman design was used to evaluate the significant media for the growth when using POME waste water as culture medium. Results show that Botryoccocus sudeticus contains high content of biomass and lipids yield. Moreover, all the three factors have positive effect on the biomass productivity, while using one nutrient factor gives much lower biomass. These results can be used further as an insight for optimizing the biomass and the oil productivity of the microalgae.

  5. Study the Growth of Microalgae in Palm Oil Mill Effluent Waste Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmani, Nabila; Mirghani, Mohamed E. S.; Zahangir Alam, Md

    2013-06-01

    This paper emphasizes mainly on the biomass productivity and lipids content of two microalgae strains known by their high lipids content namely: Botryoccoccus sudeticus and Chlorella vulgaris. These strains were first screened for the highest biomass and lipids content, then Plackett-Burman design was used to evaluate the significant media for the growth when using POME waste water as culture medium. Results show that Botryoccocus sudeticus contains high content of biomass and lipids yield. Moreover, all the three factors have positive effect on the biomass productivity, while using one nutrient factor gives much lower biomass. These results can be used further as an insight for optimizing the biomass and the oil productivity of the microalgae.

  6. Genome resequencing and comparative variome analysis in a Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Feng; Wu, Jian; Cai, Chengcheng; Fu, Lixia; Liang, Jianli; Borm, Theo; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Zhang, Fenglan; Bonnema, Guusje; Wang, Xiaowu

    2016-01-01

    The closely related species Brassica rapa and B. oleracea encompass a wide range of vegetable, fodder and oil crops. The release of their reference genomes has facilitated resequencing collections of B. rapa and B. oleracea aiming to build their variome datasets. These data can be used to

  7. Application of biomass in oil and fat reduction content in aqueous effluent; Aplicacao de biomassa na reducao do teor de oleos e graxas presentes em efluentes aquosos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boni, Hevelin Tabata; Souza, Antonio Augusto Ulson de; Souza, Selene Maria de Arruda Guelli Ulson de [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), SC (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    In this work, we have studied the bagasse from sugarcane as an alternative bioadsorbent in the treatment to oils and greases contaminated waters. The synthetic effluent was simulated by a distilled water and decahydronaphthalene dispersion, with initial concentration of 8900 mg . L {sup -1}. Gas chromatography was the analytical operation chosen to quantify the oil residual after the adsorption. The biomass was characterized by moisture analysis, CHNS and SEM. The experiments were carried out in batch process with agitation of 120 rpm, evaluating the equilibrium time of adsorptive process and the influence of pH of aqueous level. Results showed that the adsorption process achieved equilibrium quickly, in just 5 minutes of contact between the dispersion and biomass. No significant influence was noticed in the removal of hydrocarbon with the change in pH. The adsorption isotherm was developed changing by the mass of bioadsorbent, at 25 deg C, pH 6 and 120 rpm of agitation. The experimental results were fitted by Langmuir and Langmuir- Freundlich models. The best fit was obtained with Langmuir-Freundlich, providing a maximum adsorption capacity of 6,65 g hydrocarbon / g biomass. The experiments showed the great potential of the sugarcane bagasse to be used as bioadsorbent in reducing the oil and grease levels in industrial effluents. This alternative presents itself as a sustainable route due to the abundance of sugar cane bagasse in the sugar and alcohol industry, avoided the impact of aqueous sources contamination coming from oil and petrochemical industry. (author)

  8. Biosynthesis and characterization of polyhydroxyalkanoates copolymers produced by Pseudomonas putida Bet001 isolated from palm oil mill effluent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mohammed Gumel

    Full Text Available The biosynthesis and characterization of medium chain length poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHA produced by Pseudomonas putida Bet001 isolated from palm oil mill effluent was studied. The biosynthesis of mcl-PHA in this newly isolated microorganism follows a growth-associated trend. Mcl-PHA accumulation ranging from 49.7 to 68.9% on cell dry weight (CDW basis were observed when fatty acids ranging from octanoic acid (C(8:0 to oleic acid (C(18:1 were used as sole carbon and energy source. Molecular weight of the polymer was found to be ranging from 55.7 to 77.7 kDa. Depending on the type of fatty acid used, the (1H NMR and GCMSMS analyses of the chiral polymer showed a composition of even and odd carbon atom chain with monomer length of C4 to C14 with C8 and C10 as the principal monomers. No unsaturated monomer was detected. Thermo-chemical analyses showed the accumulated PHA to be semi-crystalline polymer with good thermal stability, having a thermal degradation temperature (T(d of 264.6 to 318.8 (± 0.2 (oC, melting temperature (T(m of 43. (± 0.2 (oC, glass transition temperature (T(g of -1.0 (± 0.2 (oC and apparent melting enthalpy of fusion (ΔH(f of 100.9 (± 0.1 J g(-1.

  9. Improving photofermentative biohydrogen production by using intermittent ultrasonication and combined industrial effluents from palm oil, pulp and paper mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budiman, Pretty Mori; Wu, Ta Yeong; Ramanan, Ramakrishnan Nagasundara; Md Jahim, Jamaliah

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Intermittent ultrasonication onto broth improved biohydrogen production. • A20T10 treatment produced 14.438 mL H 2 /mL medium with 7.412% light efficiency. • Excessive ultrasonication (>306.1 J/mL) inhibited biohydrogen production. - Abstract: An ultrasonication technique was applied intermittently onto photofermentation broth during the first six hours of photofermentation to improve biohydrogen production by using Rhodobacter sphaeroides NCIMB8253. In this research, photofermentation broth consisted of a combination of palm oil (25%, v/v), pulp and paper (75%, v/v) mill effluents as well as liquid inoculum. The effects of amplitude (10, 20 and 30%, A) and ultrasonication duration (5, 10 and 15 min, T) were investigated in terms of their influences on photofermentative biohydrogen yield and total chemical oxygen demand (COD total ) removal. The recommended ultrasonication parameters were found at the middle range of amplitude and duration (A20T10). Using A20T10 intermittent treatment, the production of biohydrogen could be maximized up to 14.438 mL H 2 /mL medium with a COD total removal and light efficiency of 52.2% and 7.412%, respectively. By comparing the treatment without intermittent ultrasonication, an increase of biohydrogen yield by 44.6% was achieved in A20T10 treatment. A total energy input of 306.1 J/mL (A20T10 treatment) was supplied to improve substrate consumption and light distribution during the photofermentation, which led to the increase of biohydrogen yield.

  10. Effect of iron and magnesium addition for ethanol production from the conversion of palm oil mill effluent by anaerobic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handajani, M.; Gumilar, A.; Syafila, M.

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays, crisis of the energy is the main problem in the world. Currently, most the energy resource derived from the fossil material that cannot be refurbished. Ethanol is an alternative fuel that content as a fossil fuels. Wastewater with the high concentration of the organic can be used for the ethanol production to replace foodstuff as a raw material. In this study, palm oil mill effluent (POME) with the concentration of COD is 24,500 mg/L has been used as a substrate. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the metal addition in the substrate metabolic pathways. Circulating batch reactor (CBR) is used with the flushing N2 1L/min for 24 hours and continued operates for 72 hours by internal biogas. The additional variation concentration of Fe(II) ion are 0.5; 1.0 and 2.5 mg/L, and Mg(II) are 0.5 and 1.5 mg/L were added by combination. The results showed that the combination of Fe (II) 2.5 mg/L and Mg(II) 1.5 mg/L produced the highest ethanol concentration is 715.8 mg/L and degree of acidification (DA) 0.284-0.357. Another combination of Fe(II) and Mg(II) provide results for the ethanol production 463.7-689.7 mg/L with the rate of ethanol production is 1.09-26.5 mg/L/hour.

  11. Towards sustainable membrane filtration of palm oil mill effluent: analysis of fouling phenomena from a hybrid PAC-UF process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amosa, Mutiu Kolade

    2017-10-01

    Sustainability of a membrane process depends on many factors of which fouling mitigation is the most central. Because membrane fouling phenomenon is very complex, extent of fouling potential of a feedwater with respect to a membrane has to be identified right from the design stage. This will acquaint engineers with the proper fouling mitigation measures during operation. This study presents a preliminary fouling data from the ultrafiltration of biotreated palm oil mill effluent (POME) after an upstream adsorption process. The flux decline is studied in a typical constant-pressure experiments with a cross-flow ultrafiltration of biotreated POME through Sartocon® polyethersulfone membranes (MWCOs 1, 5 and 10 kDa) at applied pressures of 40, 80 and 120 kPa. Results are examined, within the frame of the common blocking mechanisms and it was found that the blocking index η decreased from 2 to 0. Pore blocking phenomenon was successively observed from complete blocking ( η = 2) down to cake filtration ( η = 0), and the early blockage of the pores and a formation of a cake resulted in a limiting cake height. Thus, cake filtration could be best used to explain the fouling mechanisms of biotreated POME on the ultrafiltration membranes based on the R 2 values at all applied pressures. This demonstrates that the fouling was as a result of gradual reversible cake deposition which could easily be removed by less onerous cleaning methods. In addition, it could be concluded that the upstream adsorption reduced the particulate deposition on the membrane surface.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF A METHANE-FREE, CONTINUOUS BIOHYDROGEN PRODUCTION SYSTEM FROM PALM OIL MILL EFFLUENT (POME IN CSTR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIATUL FADZILLAH MANSOR

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop the start-up experiment for producing biological hydrogen in 2 L continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR from palm oil mill effluent (POME by the use of mixed culture sludge under non-sterile conditions. Besides using different source of starter culture, the effects of acid treated culture and various operating temperature from 35 °C to 55 °C were studied against the evolved gas in terms of volumetric H2 production rate (VHPR and soluble metabolite products (SMPs. The formation of methane was closely observed throughout the run. Within the studied temperature, VHPR was found as low as 0.71 L/L.d and ethanol was the main by-products (70-80% of total soluble metabolites. Attempts were made to produce biohydrogen without methane formation at higher thermophilic temperature (45-55 °C than the previous range. The average of 1.7 L H2 of 2 L working volume per day was produced at 55 oC with VHPR of 1.16 L/L.d. The results of soluble metabolites also are in agreement with the volatile fatty acids (VFAs which is higher than ethanol. Higher VFAs of 2269 mg/L was obtained with acetic acid being the main by-product. At this time methanogen has been deactivated and no methane was produced. From this study, it can be concluded that thermophilic environment may offer a better option in a way to eliminate methane from the biogas and at the same time improving hydrogen production rate as well.

  13. Effect of temperature on methanogenesis stage of two-stage anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent (POME) into biogas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trisakti, B.; Irvan, Mahdalena; Taslim; Turmuzi, M.

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of temperature on methanogenesis stage of conversion of palm oil mill effluent into biogas. Methanogenesis is the second stage of methanogenic anaerobic digestion. Improved performance of the methanogenesis process was determined by measuring the growth of microorganisms, degradation of organic materials, biogas production and composition. Initially, the suitable loading up was determined by varying the HRT 100, 40, 6, and 4.0 days in the continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with mixing rate 100 rpm, pH 6.7-7.5 at room temperature. Next, effect of temperature on the process was determined by varying temperature at mesophilic range (30-42°C) and thermophilic range (43-55°C). Analysis of total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS), total suspended solids (TSS), volatile suspended solids (VSS), and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were conducted in order to study the growth of microorganisms and their abilities in converting organic compound to produce biogas. Degradation of organic content i.e. VS decomposition and COD removal increased with the increasing of temperature. At mesophilic range, VS decomposition and COD removal were 51.56 ± 8.30 and 79.82 ± 6.03, respectively. Meanwhile at thermopilic range, VS decomposition and COD removal were 67.44 ± 3.59 and 79.16 ± 1.75, respectively. Biogas production and its methane content also increased with the increasing of temperature, but CO2 content also increased. Biogas production at mesophilic range was 31.77 ± 3.46 L/kg-ΔVS and methane content was 75 . Meanwhile, biogas production at thermopilic range was 37.03 ± 5.16 L/kg-ΔVS and methane content was 62.25 ± 5.50 .

  14. Effects of an oil production effluent on gametogenesis and gamete performance in the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus Stimpson)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, P.R.

    1994-01-01

    Adult organisms subjected to chronic discharges from a point source of pollution may exhibit several sublethal responses. One such response is the impairment of gamete production. This may be expressed in the amount and/or quality of gametes produced by adults. In this study the effects of chronic exposure to produced water (an oil production effluent) on the gametogenesis and gamete performance of the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus Stimpson) were examined using an in situ caging experiment. Adult purple sea urchins were kept in benthic cages arrayed down-field from a discharging diffuser at 13 sites, with distances ranging from 5 to 1,000 m. Cage exposures were maintained in the field for eight weeks, and each cage held 25 animals. Gametogenesis was examined for each sex by comparing a size-independent measure of relative gonads ass as determined by analysis of covariance. Results showed that there was a significant negative relationship between these estimates of relative gonad mass and distance from the outfall for both sexes, indicating that sea urchins living closer to the outfall produced significantly larger gonads. Gamete performance was measured through a fertilization kinetics bioassay that held the concentration of eggs constant and varied the amount of sperm added. The proportion of eggs fertilized under each sperm concentration was determined and the response fit to a model of fertilizability showed a positive relationship with distance away from the outfall. These findings indicate that although adult sea urchins exposed to a produced water outfall exhibit larger gonads, they suffer a marked decrease in a gamete performance

  15. Optimization and microbial community analysis for production of biohydrogen from palm oil mill effluent by thermophilic fermentative process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasertsan, Poonsuk [Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla 90112 (Thailand); Palm Oil Product and Technology Research Center, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla 90112 (Thailand); O-Thong, Sompong [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Thaksin University, Phatthalung 93110 (Thailand); Birkeland, Nils-Kaare [Department of Biology and Centre for Geobiology, University of Bergen, P.O. Box 7800, N-5020 Bergen (Norway)

    2009-09-15

    The optimum values of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and organic loading rate (OLR) of an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) for biohydrogen production from palm oil mill effluent (POME) under thermophilic conditions (60 C) were investigated in order to achieve the maximum process stability. Microbial community structure dynamics in the ASBR was studied by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) aiming at improved insight into the hydrogen fermentation microorganisms. The optimum values of 2-d HRT with an OLR of 60 gCOD l{sup -1} d{sup -1} gave a maximum hydrogen yield of 0.27 l H{sub 2} g COD{sup -1} with a volumetric hydrogen production rate of 9.1 l H{sub 2} l{sup -1} d{sup -1} (16.9 mmol l{sup -1}h{sup -1}). The hydrogen content, total carbohydrate consumption, COD (chemical oxygen demand) removal and suspended solids removal were 55 {+-} 3.5%, 92 {+-} 3%, 57 {+-} 2.5% and 78 {+-} 2%, respectively. Acetic acid and butyric acid were the major soluble end-products. The microbial community structure was strongly dependent on the HRT and OLR. DGGE profiling illustrated that Thermoanaerobacterium spp., such as Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum and Thermoanaerobacterium bryantii, were dominant and probably played an important role in hydrogen production under the optimum conditions. The shift in the microbial community from a dominance of T. thermosaccharolyticum to a community where also Caloramator proteoclasticus constituted a major component occurred at suboptimal HRT (1 d) and OLR (80 gCOD l{sup -1} d{sup -1}) conditions. The results showed that the hydrogen production performance was closely correlated with the bacterial community structure. This is the first report of a successful ASBR operation achieving a high hydrogen production rate from real wastewater (POME). (author)

  16. NMR metabolomics of ripened and developing oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and turnip rape (Brassica rapa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortesniemi, Maaria; Vuorinen, Anssi L; Sinkkonen, Jari; Yang, Baoru; Rajala, Ari; Kallio, Heikki

    2015-04-01

    The oilseeds of the commercially important oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and turnip rape (Brassica rapa) were investigated with (1)H NMR metabolomics. The compositions of ripened (cultivated in field trials) and developing seeds (cultivated in controlled conditions) were compared in multivariate models using principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). Differences in the major lipids and the minor metabolites between the two species were found. A higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids and sucrose were observed in turnip rape, while the overall oil content and sinapine levels were higher in oilseed rape. The genotype traits were negligible compared to the effect of the growing site and concomitant conditions on the oilseed metabolome. This study demonstrates the applicability of NMR-based analysis in determining the species, geographical origin, developmental stage, and quality of oilseed Brassicas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fabrication of Flower-like ZnO Micro/Nanostructures for Photodegradation of Pre-treated Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Sze-Mun; Wong, Kok-Ann; Sin, Jin-Chung

    2018-01-01

    Flower-like ZnO micro/nanostructures were fabricated by a simple and surfactant-free reflux method. X-ray diffraction findings showed that the prepared ZnO product was highly crystallite with hexagonal wurtzite structure. The band gap energy of ZnO sample was measured to be 3.18 eV via an optical reflectance spectrum. The flower-like morphological features of ZnO micro/nanostructures were witnessed through field-emission scanning electron microscopy. Such micro/nanoparticles could be used in the photodegradation of pre-treated palm oil mil effluent (POME) under UV irradiation.

  18. [Isolation, Identification and Characteristic Analysis of an Oil-producing Chlorella sp. Tolerant to High-strength Anaerobic Digestion Effluent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuang; Wang, Wen-guo; Ma, Dan-wei; Tang, Xiao-yu; Hu, Qi-chun

    2015-07-01

    A Chlorella strain tolerant to high-strength anaerobic digestion effluent was isolated from the anaerobic digestion effluent with a long-term exposure to air. The strain was identified as a Chlorella by morphological and molecular biological methods, and named Chlorella sp. BWY-1, The anaerobic digestion effluent used in this study was from a biogas plant with the raw materials of swine wastewater after solid-liquid separation. The Chlorella regularis (FACHB-729) was used as the control strain. The comparative study showed that Chlorella sp, BWY-Ihad relatively higher growth rate, biomass accumulation capacity and pollutants removal rate in BG11. and different concentrations of anaerobic digestion effluent. Chlorella sp. BWY-1 had the highest growth rate and biomass productivity (324.40 mg.L-1) in BG11, but its lipid productivity and lipid content increased with the increase of anaerobic digestion effluent concentration, In undiluted anaerobic digestion effluent, the lipid productivity and lipid content of Chlorella sp. BWY-1 were up to 44. 43% and 108. 70 mg.L-1, respectively. Those results showed that the isolated algal strain bad some potential applications in livestock wastewater treatment and bioenergy production, it could be combined with a solid-liquid separation, anaerobic fermentation and other techniques for processing livestock wastewater and producing biodiesel.

  19. Role of calcium oxide in sludge granulation and methanogenesis for the treatment of palm oil mill effluent using UASB reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Anwar; Ghufran, Rumana; Wahid, Zularisam Abd.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: SEM micrograph of granules; Outer surface of the granule; Scanning electron micrographs of the granule: Archaea (Methanosarcina sp.) showing the arrangement of bacterial cells in granule surrounded by extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), the seed sludge and granules sampled on day 150. Highlights: ► Examine the treatability of POME and effects of CaO–CKD on the granulation process in UASB reactors. ► The main objective was to determine the influent CaO–CKD concentration and the relationship between the CaO concentration in the feed and biomass accumulation, specific granulation, methanogenic activity, and the density and composition of granules. ► The biomass concentration profiles along the reactors and the size distribution of granules were also measured to track and to assess granulation, methanogenesis, and COD removal on levels at the industrial scale. ► SEM micrograph are showing smooth surface of granule with a large opening cavities likely for biogas escape. - Abstract: The granulation process in palm oil mill effluent using calcium oxide-cement kiln dust (CaO–CKD) provides an attractive and cost effective treatment option. In this study the efficiency of CaO–CKD at doses of 1.5–20 g/l was tested in batch experiments and found that 10 g of CaO/l caused the greatest degradation of VFA, butyrate and acetate. An upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor was operated continuously at 35 °C for 150 days to investigate the effect of CaO–CKD on sludge granulation and methanogenesis during start-up. The treatment of POME emphasized the influence of varying organic loading rates (OLR). Up to 94.9% of COD was removed when the reactor was fed with the 15.5–65.5 g-COD g/l at an OLR of 4.5–12.5 kg-COD/m 3 d, suggesting the feasibility of using CaO in an UASB process to treat POME. The ratio of volatile solids/total solids (VS/TS) and volatile fatty acids in the anaerobic sludge in the UASB reactor decreased

  20. Role of calcium oxide in sludge granulation and methanogenesis for the treatment of palm oil mill effluent using UASB reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Anwar, E-mail: anwarak218@yahoo.co.uk [Faculty of Civil Engineering and Earth Resources, University Malaysia Pahang (UMP), Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300 Gambang, Kuantan, Pahang (Malaysia); Ghufran, Rumana; Wahid, Zularisam Abd. [Faculty of Civil Engineering and Earth Resources, University Malaysia Pahang (UMP), Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300 Gambang, Kuantan, Pahang (Malaysia)

    2011-12-30

    Graphical abstract: SEM micrograph of granules; Outer surface of the granule; Scanning electron micrographs of the granule: Archaea (Methanosarcina sp.) showing the arrangement of bacterial cells in granule surrounded by extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), the seed sludge and granules sampled on day 150. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Examine the treatability of POME and effects of CaO-CKD on the granulation process in UASB reactors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The main objective was to determine the influent CaO-CKD concentration and the relationship between the CaO concentration in the feed and biomass accumulation, specific granulation, methanogenic activity, and the density and composition of granules. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The biomass concentration profiles along the reactors and the size distribution of granules were also measured to track and to assess granulation, methanogenesis, and COD removal on levels at the industrial scale. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SEM micrograph are showing smooth surface of granule with a large opening cavities likely for biogas escape. - Abstract: The granulation process in palm oil mill effluent using calcium oxide-cement kiln dust (CaO-CKD) provides an attractive and cost effective treatment option. In this study the efficiency of CaO-CKD at doses of 1.5-20 g/l was tested in batch experiments and found that 10 g of CaO/l caused the greatest degradation of VFA, butyrate and acetate. An upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor was operated continuously at 35 Degree-Sign C for 150 days to investigate the effect of CaO-CKD on sludge granulation and methanogenesis during start-up. The treatment of POME emphasized the influence of varying organic loading rates (OLR). Up to 94.9% of COD was removed when the reactor was fed with the 15.5-65.5 g-COD g/l at an OLR of 4.5-12.5 kg-COD/m{sup 3} d, suggesting the feasibility of using CaO in an UASB process to treat POME. The ratio of volatile solids

  1. Tolerance of Brassica nigra to Pieris brassicae herbivory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blatt, S.E.; Smallegange, R.C.; Hess, L.; Harvey, J.A.; Dicke, M.; Loon, van J.J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Black mustard, Brassica nigra (L.) Koch, is a wild annual species found throughout Europe and fed on by larvae of the large cabbage-white butterfly, Pieris brassicae L. We examined the impact of herbivory from P. brassicae, a gregarious herbivore, on B. nigra grown from wild seed collected locally.

  2. Oilseed brassica improvement through induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.A.; Ali, I.; Rehman, K.

    1992-07-01

    The improvement in processing and refining technologies of oil seed brassica have now made possible the use of rape seed mustard oil as cooking medium shortening, salad ingredients and in margarine in many countries. Different promising rape seed mutants were tested for yield and other agronomic traits in eight preliminary yields trails and results of these trails are presented in this report. Three varieties of rape seeds were subjected to 80, 100, 120 krads and two varieties of mustard were treated 60, 80, 100 krads dose of gamma rays. (A.B.)

  3. 76 FR 28776 - Re-Proposal of Effluent Limits Under the NPDES General Permit for Oil and Gas Exploration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... hydrocarbons (TAH), total aqueous hydrocarbons (TAqH), silver, and whole effluent toxicity (WET). As proposed... water quality standards. EPA obtained a draft certification from the Alaska Department of Environmental... business hours. Viewing and/or Obtaining Copies of Documents. A copy of the Permit re-proposal, the fact...

  4. 76 FR 68749 - Effluent Limits Under the NPDES General Permit for Oil and Gas Exploration, Development and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ...-31-5000 (Permit). The effluent limits subject to the final action are: mercury, copper, total...), pursuant to the provisions of the Clean Water Act (CWA or ``the Act''), 33 U.S.C. 1251. The Permit...: This action is taken under the authority of Section 402 of the Clean Water Act as amended, 42 U.S.C...

  5. Anaerobic treatment of palm oil mill effluent in batch reactor with digested biodiesel waste as starter and natural zeolite for microbial immobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyowati, Paulina Adina Hari; Halim, Lenny; Mellyanawaty, Melly; Sudibyo, Hanifrahmawan; Budhijanto, Wiratni

    2017-05-01

    Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is the wastewater discharged from sludge separation, sterilization, and clarification process of palm oil industries. Each ton of palm oil produces about half ton of high organic load wastewater. Up to now, POME treatment is done in lagoon, leaving major problems in land requirement and greenhouse gasses release. The increasing of palm oil production provokes the urgency of appropriate technology application in treating POME to prevent the greenhouse gasses emission while exploit POME as renewable energy source. The purposes of this study were firstly to test the effectiveness of using the digested biodiesel waste as the inoculum and secondly to evaluate the effectiveness of natural zeolite addition in minimizing the inhibitory effect in digesting POME. It was expected that the oil-degrading bacteria in the inoculum would shorten the adaptation period in digesting POME. Furthermore, the consortium formation of anaerobic bacteria accelerated by natural zeolite powder addition would increase the microbial resistance to the inhibitors contained in the POME. The batch digesters, containing 0 (control); 17; 38; and 63 g natural zeolite/g sCOD substrate were observed for 43 days. The result showed that zeolite addition did not give significant effect on sCOD reduction (97.3-98.6% of initial sCOD). Moreover, addition of immobilization media up to 17 g natural zeolite/g stimulated the acidification and biogas production up to 10% higher than control. The purity of methane produced with various amount of immobilization media did not differ for each variation, i.e. 50-54% v/v methane. The increasing amount of natural zeolite up to 63 g/g sCOD did not significantly enhance biogas product rate nor methane content.

  6. Molecular phylogenetic implications in Brassica napus based on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Brassica napus L. (canola, rapeseed) is one of the most important oil crops in many countries (Abdelmigid 2012;. Fayyaz et al. 2014), and thought to have originated from a cross where the maternal donor was closely related to two diploid species, B. oleracea (CC, 2n = 18) and B. rapa (AA, 2n = 20). Here, molecular ...

  7. Origin of new Brassica types from a single intergeneric hybrid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Origin of new Brassica types from a single intergeneric hybrid between B. rapa and Orychophragmus violaceus by rapid chromosome evolution and introgression ... The lines with high productivity showed not only a wide spectrum of phenotypes but also obvious variations in fatty acid profiles of seed oil and glucosinolate ...

  8. Restoration of liquid effluent from oil palm agroindustry in Malaysia using UV/TiO2and UV/ZnO photocatalytic systems: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kim Hoong; Khan, Maksudur R; Ng, Yun Hau; Hossain, Sk Safdar; Cheng, Chin Kui

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we have employed a photocatalytic method to restore the liquid effluent from a palm oil mill in Malaysia. Specifically, the performance of both TiO 2 and ZnO was compared for the photocatalytic polishing of palm oil mill effluent (POME). The ZnO photocatalyst has irregular shape, bigger in particle size but smaller BET specific surface area (9.71 m 2 /g) compared to the spherical TiO 2 photocatalysts (11.34 m 2 /g). Both scavenging study and post-reaction FTIR analysis suggest that the degradation of organic pollutant in the TiO 2 system has occurred in the bulk solution. In contrast, it is necessary for organic pollutant to adsorb onto the surface of ZnO photocatalyst, before the degradation took place. In addition, the reactivity of both photocatalysts differed in terms of mechanisms, photocatalyst loading and also the density of photocatalysts. From the stability test, TiO 2 was found to offer higher stability, as no significant deterioration in activity was observed after three consecutive cycles. On the other hand, ZnO lost around 30% of its activity after the 1st-cycle of photoreaction. The pH studies showed that acidic environment did not improve the photocatalytic degradation of the POME, whilst in the basic environment, the reaction media became cloudy. In addition, longevity study also showed that the TiO 2 was a better photocatalyst compared to the ZnO (74.12%), with more than 80.0% organic removal after 22 h of UV irradiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Insecticidal, food utilisation and biochemical effect of essential oils extracted from seeds of Brassica juncea (Czern. against Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae (Fabricius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shallina Gupta

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The glucosinolate rich hot and cold hexane extracts of Brassica juncea had a negative effect on the development of Spodoptera litura larvae when they were fed on different concentrations of the extracts. Both larval growth index and pupal growth index declined with treatment. However the hot extract with 3-butenyl isothiocyanate as the predominant compound had a more deleterious effect as at 3125ppm the larvae were unable to complete their development. The nutritional indices too were more adversely affected with hot extract as compared to cold extract. The RGR, RCR, ECI and ECD declined significantly with increase in concentration of the hot hexane extract. The activity of antioxidant enzymes, SOD and catalase decreased while that of phosphatases, GSTs, phenol oxidases increased during the initial treatment duration but decreased on prolonged treatment of the larvae with LC50 concentration of hot extract. A similar trend was observed for glutathione and lipid peroxides but a decrease in ascorbate content was observed as compared to control. The findings reveal a toxic effect of 3-butenylisothiocyanate rich hot hexane extract of B. juncea on S. litura larvae.

  10. A rapid method for the simultaneous quantification of the major tocopherols, carotenoids, free and esterified sterols in canola (Brassica napus) oil using normal phase liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flakelar, Clare L; Prenzler, Paul D; Luckett, David J; Howitt, Julia A; Doran, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    A normal phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to simultaneously quantify several prominent bioactive compounds in canola oil vis. α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, δ-tocopherol, β-carotene, lutein, β-sitosterol, campesterol and brassicasterol. The use of sequential diode array detection (DAD) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) allowed direct injection of oils, diluted in hexane without derivatisation or saponification, greatly reducing sample preparation time, and permitting the quantification of both free sterols and intact sterol esters. Further advantages over existing methods included increased analytical selectivity, and a chromatographic run time substantially less than other reported normal phase methods. The HPLC-DAD-MS/MS method was applied to freshly extracted canola oil samples as well as commercially available canola, palm fruit, sunflower and olive oils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The genome of the mesopolyploid crop species Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaowu; Wang, Hanzhong; Wang, Jun; Sun, Rifei; Wu, Jian; Liu, Shengyi; Bai, Yinqi; Mun, Jeong-Hwan; Bancroft, Ian; Cheng, Feng; Huang, Sanwen; Li, Xixiang; Hua, Wei; Wang, Junyi; Wang, Xiyin; Freeling, Michael; Pires, J Chris; Paterson, Andrew H; Chalhoub, Boulos; Wang, Bo; Hayward, Alice; Sharpe, Andrew G; Park, Beom-Seok; Weisshaar, Bernd; Liu, Binghang; Li, Bo; Liu, Bo; Tong, Chaobo; Song, Chi; Duran, Christopher; Peng, Chunfang; Geng, Chunyu; Koh, Chushin; Lin, Chuyu; Edwards, David; Mu, Desheng; Shen, Di; Soumpourou, Eleni; Li, Fei; Fraser, Fiona; Conant, Gavin; Lassalle, Gilles; King, Graham J; Bonnema, Guusje; Tang, Haibao; Wang, Haiping; Belcram, Harry; Zhou, Heling; Hirakawa, Hideki; Abe, Hiroshi; Guo, Hui; Wang, Hui; Jin, Huizhe; Parkin, Isobel A P; Batley, Jacqueline; Kim, Jeong-Sun; Just, Jérémy; Li, Jianwen; Xu, Jiaohui; Deng, Jie; Kim, Jin A; Li, Jingping; Yu, Jingyin; Meng, Jinling; Wang, Jinpeng; Min, Jiumeng; Poulain, Julie; Wang, Jun; Hatakeyama, Katsunori; Wu, Kui; Wang, Li; Fang, Lu; Trick, Martin; Links, Matthew G; Zhao, Meixia; Jin, Mina; Ramchiary, Nirala; Drou, Nizar; Berkman, Paul J; Cai, Qingle; Huang, Quanfei; Li, Ruiqiang; Tabata, Satoshi; Cheng, Shifeng; Zhang, Shu; Zhang, Shujiang; Huang, Shunmou; Sato, Shusei; Sun, Silong; Kwon, Soo-Jin; Choi, Su-Ryun; Lee, Tae-Ho; Fan, Wei; Zhao, Xiang; Tan, Xu; Xu, Xun; Wang, Yan; Qiu, Yang; Yin, Ye; Li, Yingrui; Du, Yongchen; Liao, Yongcui; Lim, Yongpyo; Narusaka, Yoshihiro; Wang, Yupeng; Wang, Zhenyi; Li, Zhenyu; Wang, Zhiwen; Xiong, Zhiyong; Zhang, Zhonghua

    2011-08-28

    We report the annotation and analysis of the draft genome sequence of Brassica rapa accession Chiifu-401-42, a Chinese cabbage. We modeled 41,174 protein coding genes in the B. rapa genome, which has undergone genome triplication. We used Arabidopsis thaliana as an outgroup for investigating the consequences of genome triplication, such as structural and functional evolution. The extent of gene loss (fractionation) among triplicated genome segments varies, with one of the three copies consistently retaining a disproportionately large fraction of the genes expected to have been present in its ancestor. Variation in the number of members of gene families present in the genome may contribute to the remarkable morphological plasticity of Brassica species. The B. rapa genome sequence provides an important resource for studying the evolution of polyploid genomes and underpins the genetic improvement of Brassica oil and vegetable crops.

  12. Antioxidant properties of Brassica vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Soengas Fernández, María del Pilar; Sotelo Pérez, Tamara; Velasco Pazos, Pablo; Cartea González, María Elena

    2011-01-01

    Brassica vegetables include some economically interesting crops such as cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, kale and turnip, which are consumed all over the world. A high intake of Brassica vegetables reduces the risk of age-related chronic illness such as cardiovascular health and other degenerative diseases and reduces the risk of several types of cancer, thanks in part to the antioxidant properties of different compounds. Compared to other vegetables, Brassica vegetables have...

  13. Scenedesmus-based treatment of nitrogen and phosphorus from effluent of anaerobic digester and bio-oil production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ga-Yeong; Yun, Yeo-Myeong; Shin, Hang-Sik; Kim, Hee-Sik; Han, Jong-In

    2015-11-01

    In this study, a microalgae-based technology was employed to treat wastewater and produce biodiesel at the same time. A local isolate Scenedesmus sp. was found to be a well suited species, particularly for an effluent from anaerobic digester (AD) containing low carbon but high nutrients (NH3-N=273mgL(-1), total P=58.75mgL(-1)). This algae-based treatment was quite effective: nutrient removal efficiencies were over 99.19% for nitrogen and 98.01% for phosphorus. Regarding the biodiesel production, FAME contents of Scenedesmus sp. were found to be relatively low (8.74% (w/w)), but overall FAME productivity was comparatively high (0.03gL(-1)d(-1)) due to its high biomass productivity (0.37gL(-1)d(-1)). FAMEs were satisfactory to the several standards for the biodiesel quality. The Scenedesmus-based technology may serve as a promising option for the treatment of nutrient-rich wastewater and especially so for the AD effluent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Determination of Flowering Phenology, Number of Flowers, Nectar and Pollen Potential of Oil Rape (Brassica napus L., Plant in Black Sea Coastal Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necda Çankaya

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out in 2011 and 2012 in order to determine the flowering phenology, number of flowers, nectar and pollen potential in the Samsun province of the oilseed rape (Brassica napus L., which is widely used in agriculture in our country. In the first year of the study (2011, it was determined that the rapeseed plant was in flower for 44 days, there were 2.694 flowers per plant, 1.89 kg/da nectar per day and 1330 kg/da pollen production. In the second year of the research (2012, it was revealed that the rapeseed plant was in flower for 39 days, there were 701 plants/flower in the plant, 0.38 kg/da nectar secreted daily and 331.57 kg/da pollen. According to the results of two years, the yield of rapeseed was found to be 41.5 days, the daily nectar production was 0.23 mg/flower/day, the nectar dry matter level was 20.25% and the pollen production was 0.48 mg/flower/day. In Samsun province, it was determined that rapeseed plants flowered before the flowering of many plants in the vicinity in the early spring, and provided honey bees, Apis mellifera L., and many other honey bees, nectar and pollen. It has been demonstrated that the cultivation of rapeseed is cultivated in the early spring, and it can be a convenient source of food for honey bees and other dusty insects.

  15. Modeling BOD and COD removal from Palm Oil Mill Secondary Effluent in floating wetland by Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darajeh, Negisa; Idris, Azni; Fard Masoumi, Hamid Reza; Nourani, Abolfazl; Truong, Paul; Sairi, Nor Asrina

    2016-10-01

    While the oil palm industry has been recognized for its contribution towards economic growth and rapid development, it has also contributed to environmental pollution due to the production of huge quantities of by-products from the oil extraction process. A phytoremediation technique (floating Vetiver system) was used to treat Palm Oil Mill Secondary Effluent (POMSE). A batch study using 40 L treatment tanks was carried out under different conditions and Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the treatment process. A three factor central composite design (CCD) was used to predict the experimental variables (POMSE concentration, Vetiver plant density and time). An extraordinary decrease in organic matter as measured by BOD and COD (96% and 94% respectively) was recorded during the experimental duration of 4 weeks using a density of 30 Vetiver plants. The best and lowest final BOD of 2 mg/L was obtained when using 15 Vetiver plants after 13 days for low concentration POMSE (initial BOD = 50 mg/L). The next best result of BOD at 32 mg/L was obtained when using 30 Vetiver plants after 24 days for medium concentration POMSE (initial BOD = 175 mg/L). These results confirmed the validity of the model, and the experimental value was determined to be quite close to the predicted value, implying that the empirical model derived from RSM experimental design can be used to adequately describe the relationship between the independent variables and response. The study showed that the Vetiver system is an effective method of treating POMSE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent with lampung natural zeolite as microbe immobilization medium and digested cow manure as starter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Lenny; Mellyanawaty, Melly; Cahyono, Rochim Bakti; Sudibyo, Hanifrahmawan; Budhijanto, Wiratni

    2017-05-01

    Indonesia is well-known as the world's biggest palm oil producer with 32.5 million tons of annual production. Palm oil processing contributes to 60% wastewater, leading to environmental problem caused by excessive production of wastewater. This wastewater, i.e. Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME), has high organic content (40,000-60,000 mg COD/L) which is potential for biogas production. However, its low pH value and long chain fatty acid content likely inhibit the anaerobic digestion. Porous media might reduce the inhibitory effect during POME digestion since the media act as both immobilization media for bacteria and as inhibitor adsorbent. Excessive amount of porous media might interfere with the nutrient consumption by microbes. There will be an optimum amount of porous media added, which depends on the wastewater characteristics. This research studied Lampung natural zeolite as immobilization media in digesting POME. The batch experiment was conducted for 40 days with different amount of natural zeolite, i.e. 0; 45; 100; and 200 g/g COD. Digested cow manure was used as the starter inoculum, considering the abundance of anaerobic bacteria therein. Zeolite addition was proven to accelerate COD reduction and stabilized the volatile fatty acid as the intermediate product of anaerobic digestion. The addition of natural zeolite up to 45 g/g COD is considered enough to increase the COD removal (85.695 %), maintain the methane content up to 50%, and enhance the bacteria activity. However, larger amount of natural zeolite lowered the methane production and COD reduction, which indicated nutrient adsorption on to the media and hence caused decreasing nutrient access by the microbes.

  17. Kinetics of Anaerobic Digestion of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) in Double-Stage Batch Bioreactor with Recirculation and Fluidization of Microbial Immobilization Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadhani, L. I.; Damayanti, S. I.; Sudibyo, H.; Budhijanto, W.

    2018-03-01

    Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) becomes big problem for palm oil industries, especially for Crude Palm Oil (CPO) industry since it produces 3 tons of POME for every ton of CPO production.The high amount of organic loading in POME makes it potential as a substrate in anaerobic digestion to generate biogas as renewable energy source. The most common but conventional method by using open lagoon is still preferred for most CPO industry in Indonesia to treat POME because of its simplicity and easiness. However, this method creates new major problem for the water bodies since it has no significant chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and needs wide area. Besides, greenhouse gas (CH4) is also released during the process. An innovation was made in this study by designing vertical column process equipment to run an anaerobic digestion of POME. The vertical column was functioned as anaerobic fluidized bed reactor (AFBR). To enhance the digestion rate in AFBR, natural zeolite was used as the immobilization media and the inoculum was taken from digested biodiesel waste. This research aimed to determine the kinetic constants of double-stage anaerobic POME digestion for COD removal and biogas production. To get close to the real condition, the POME used in this experiment had 8,000 mg/L of sCOD (the real sCOD was ±16,000 mg/L). The experiment was conducted under room temperature with up-flow velocity between 1.75 and 2.3 cm/s for optimum fluidization of immobilization media.

  18. Agent orange herbicides, organophosphate and triazinic pesticides analysis in olive oil and industrial oil mill waste effluents using new organic phase immunosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Elisabetta; Merola, Giovanni; Tomassetti, Mauro; Campanella, Luigi

    2015-02-15

    New immunosensors working in organic solvent mixtures (OPIEs) for the analysis of traces of different pesticides (triazinic, organophosphates and chlorurates) present in hydrophobic matrices such as olive oil were developed and tested. A Clark electrode was used as transducer and peroxidase enzyme as marker. The competitive process took place in a chloroform-hexane 50% (V/V) mixture, while the subsequent enzymatic final measurement was performed in decane and using tert-butylhydroperoxide as substrate of the enzymatic reaction. A linear response of between about 10nM and 5.0μM was usually obtained in the presence of olive oil. Recovery tests were carried out in commercial or artisanal extra virgin olive oil. Traces of pesticides were also checked in the oily matrix, in pomace and mill wastewaters from an industrial oil mill. Immunosensors show good selectivity and satisfactory precision and recovery tests performed in olive oil gave excellent results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Brassica napus L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... time PCR analysis revealed that they were salt-inducible genes and their transcript levels were gradually increased during 0 - 24 ... Key words: Salt stress, Brassica napus L., anti-oxidant enzymes, quantitative real-time PCR. .... mol.l-1 pH 7.0 ice-cold phosphate buffer (1 mmol.l-1 EDTA, pH7.8,. 0.1% Triton ...

  20. METODE EKSTRAKSI PELARUT BERBANTUAN ULTRASONIK UNTUK RECOVERY MINYAK DARI LIMBAH CAIR PABRIK KELAPA SAWIT Application of Ultrasound-assisted Solvent Extraction for Recovery of Oil from Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Dani Supardan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, application of ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction for recovery of oil from palm oil mill effluent (POMEwas studied. Extraction conditions such as volume ratio of POME to solvent, extraction time and type of solvent were investigated. Extraction was carried out at room temperature with total volume (POME and solvent of 300 ml. The experimental results showed that ultrasound-assisted extraction provided higher yield than without ultrasound using mechanical stirring. The highest oil yield of 0.265 % obtained at ultrasound-assisted extraction condition of volume ratio of POME to solvent 5:1, extraction time of 60 minutes using n-hexane as solvent. The highest oil yield and carotene concentration were obtained by n-hexane. Meanwhile, there was no significant differenece of carotene concentration obtained from ultrasound-assisted and without ultrasound-assisted extraction. ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan mempelajari metode ekstraksi pelarut berbantuan ultrasonik untuk recovery minyak dari limbahcair pabrik kelapa sawit. Ekstraksi dilakukan pada temperatur kamar dengan menggunakan volum total campuran (limbah dan pelarut sebanyak 300 ml. Variabel penelitian yang digunakan adalah rasio volum limbah terhadap pelarut (1:1; 2:1; 4:1; dan 5:1, waktu ekstraksi (30, 60, 90 dan 120 menit, dan jenis pelarut (n-heksan dan petroleum eter. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ekstraksi berbantuan ultrasonik menghasilkan rendemen minyak yang lebih besar dibandingkan ekstraksi tanpa bantuan ultrasonik dengan menggunakan pengadukan mekanik. Rendemen minyak tertinggi sebesar 0,265 % diperoleh pada proses ekstraksi berbantuan ultrasonik dengan rasio volum limbah terhadap pelarut 5:1, waktu ekstraksi 90 menit dengan menggunakan pelarut n-heksan. Rendemen minyak dan konsentrasi karoten yang lebih tinggi diperoleh pada ekstraksi menggunakan pelarut n-heksan. Metode ekstraksi pelarut berbantuan ultrasonik dan tanpa bantuan ultrasonik memberikan perbedaan

  1. The Use of Kitchen Effluent as Alternative Nutrient Source for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The recovery of oil based drilling muds was monitored for a period of 12 weeks upon inoculation with kitchen effluent. Oil based drilling muds inoculated with varying volumes (200ml, 250ml and 300ml) of kitchen effluent constituted the experimental set-ups, while the control set-ups were made up of oil based drilling muds ...

  2. Significant reductions in oil quality and lipid content of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) under climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Namazkar, Shahla; Egsgaard, Helge; Frenck, Georg

    2015-01-01

    significantly reduced, except in the scenario with elevated [CO2] alone. Of the six analyzed fatty acids five - oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), linolenic acid (C18:3, omega-3), palmitic (C16:0), eicosenoic acid (C20:1) - showed reductions, the only exception being stearic acid, C18:0. For example we...... found that in the two- factor treatment, where elevated [CO2] and temperature were combined, the essential fatty acid omega-3, C18:3, decreased by 45% and oil content declined 10%.Total losses in fatty acid and oil yields would be even larger, when also considering reported reductions in seed biomass...... in the future scenarios (2,3): We estimate that when [CO2] and temperature are elevated simultaneously, the oil yield per hectare will drop 58% and the production of omega-3 (C18:3) will be reduced by 77%/hectare. Also the proportion between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids was changed for the worse...

  3. Optimization of fermentative hydrogen production from palm oil mill effluent in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket fixed film bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Mohammadi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Response surface methodology with a central composite design was applied to optimize fermentative hydrogen production from palm oil mill effluent (POME in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket fixed film reactor. In this study, the concurrent effects of up-flow velocity (Vup and feed flow rate (QF as independent operating variables on biological hydrogen production were investigated. A broad range of organic loading rate between 10 and 60 g COD L−1 d−1 was used as the operating variables. The dependent parameters as multiple responses were evaluated. Experimental results showed the highest value of yield at 0.31 L H2 g−1 COD was obtained at Vup and QF of 0.5 m h−1 and 1.7 L d−1, respectively. The optimum conditions for the fermentative hydrogen production using pre-settled POME were QF = 2.0–3.7 L d−1 and Vup = 1.5–2.3 m h−1. The experimental results agreed very well with the model prediction.

  4. Preliminary experimental results of Sewage Sludge (SS) Co-digestion with Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) for Enhanced Biogas Production in Laboratory Scale Anaerobic Digester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasankari, R.; Kumaran, P.; Normanbhay, Saifuddin; Halim Shamsuddin, Abd

    2013-06-01

    An investigation on the feasibility of co-digesting Sewage Sludge with Palm Oil Mill Effluent for enhancing the biogas production and the corresponding effect of the co-digestion substrate ratio on the biogas production has been evaluated. Anaerobic co-digestion of POME with SS was performed at ratios of 100:0, 70:30, 60:40 and 0:100 to find the optimum blend required for enhanced waste digestion and biogas production. Single stage batch digestion was carried out for 12 days in a laboratory scale anaerobic digester. Co-digestion of sludge's at the 70:30 proportion resulted in optimal COD and C: N ratio which subsequently recorded the highest performance with regards to biogas production at 28.1 L's compared to the 1.98 L's of biogas produced from digestion of SS alone. From the results obtained, it is evident that co-digestion of POME and SS is an attractive option to be explored for enhancement of biogas production in anaerobic digesters.

  5. Preliminary experimental results of Sewage Sludge (SS) Co-digestion with Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) for Enhanced Biogas Production in Laboratory Scale Anaerobic Digester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivasankari, R; Kumaran, P; Normanbhay, Saifuddin; Shamsuddin, Abd Halim

    2013-01-01

    An investigation on the feasibility of co-digesting Sewage Sludge with Palm Oil Mill Effluent for enhancing the biogas production and the corresponding effect of the co-digestion substrate ratio on the biogas production has been evaluated. Anaerobic co-digestion of POME with SS was performed at ratios of 100:0, 70:30, 60:40 and 0:100 to find the optimum blend required for enhanced waste digestion and biogas production. Single stage batch digestion was carried out for 12 days in a laboratory scale anaerobic digester. Co-digestion of sludge's at the 70:30 proportion resulted in optimal COD and C: N ratio which subsequently recorded the highest performance with regards to biogas production at 28.1 L's compared to the 1.98 L's of biogas produced from digestion of SS alone. From the results obtained, it is evident that co-digestion of POME and SS is an attractive option to be explored for enhancement of biogas production in anaerobic digesters.

  6. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using palm oil mill effluent (POME): a low-cost and eco-friendly viable approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Pei Pei; Ng, Shi Han; Huang, Yan; Li, Sam Fong Yau

    2012-06-01

    The present study reports the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNps) from gold precursor using palm oil mill effluent (POME) without adding external surfactant, capping agent or template. The biosynthesized AuNps were characterized by using UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). According to the image analysis performed on a representative TEM micrograph by counting 258 particles, the obtained AuNps are predominantly spherical with an average size of 18.75 ± 5.96 nm. In addition, some triangular and hexagonal nanoparticles were also observed. The influence of various reaction parameters such as reaction pH, concentration of gold precursor and interaction time to the morphology and size of biosynthesized AuNps was investigated. This study shows the feasibility of using agro waste material for the biosynthesis of AuNps which is potentially more scalable and economic due to its lower cost. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Unusual poly(3-hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA) biosynthesis behavior of Pseudomonas putida Bet001 and Delftia tsuruhatensis Bet002 isolated from palm oil mill effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razaif-Mazinah, Mohd Rafais Mohd; Anis, Siti Nor Syairah; Harun, Hazwani Izzati; Rashid, Khairunnisa Abdul; Annuar, Mohamad Suffian Mohamad

    2017-03-01

    Pseudomonas putida Bet001 and Delftia tsuruhatensis Bet002, isolated from palm oil mill effluent, accumulated poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) (PHAs) when grown on aliphatic fatty acids, sugars, and glycerol. The substrates were supplied at 20:1 C/N mole ratio. Among C-even n-alkanoic acids, myristic acid gave the highest PHA content 26 and 28 wt% in P. putida and D. tsuruhatensis, respectively. Among C-odd n-alkanoic acids, undecanoic gave the highest PHA content at 40 wt% in P. putida and 46 wt% in D. tsuruhatensis on pentadecanoic acid. Sugar and glycerol gave putida, the major hydroxyalkanoates unit was 3-hydroxyoctanoate and 3-hydroxydecanoate when grown on C-even acids. Conversely, 3-hydroxyheptanoate, 3-hydrxoynonanoate, and 3-hydroxyundecanoate were accumulated with C-odd acids. Weight-averaged molecular weight (M w ) was in the range of 53-81 kDa and 107-415 kDa for P. putida and D. tsuruhatensis, respectively. Calorimetric analyses indicated that both bacteria synthesized semicrystalline polymer with good thermal stability with degradation temperature (T d ) ranging from 178 to 282 °C. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Quality Improvement of Compost from Empty Oil Palm Fruit Bunch by the Addition of Boiler Ash and its effect on Chemical Properties of Ultisols and the Production of Mustard ( Brassica juncea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Mulyani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Productions of crude palm oil (CPO produce waste which include the empty oil palm fruit bunch (EOPFB, palm oil mill effluent, shells, and fiber. The combustions of shell and fiber as boiler feed produce waste in the form of boiler ash. Boiler ash is very potential to use as an additive to improve quality of the EOPFB compost. The objectives of this research were to study : 1 effect of boiler ash on the quality of the EOPFB compost, 2 effect of EOPFB compost on the chemical properties of Ultisol, and the yield of mustard. The first experiment was about quality improvement of compost from EOPFB by the addition of boiler ash. The treatments applied were four dose levels of boiler ash: K1= 0%, K2 = 15%, K3 = 25%, and K4 = 35%. The second experiment was greenhouse pot experiment. This experiment was consisted of thirteen treatments with three replications arranged in completely randomized design (CRD. The treatments applied were: four types of compost from the first experimental results aplied to the soil with four dose levels, i.e : 0, 10, 20 and 30 Mg ha-1. The results showed that the addition of boiler ash at the beginning of the composting process improved the quality of the EOPFB compost: which increased pH, amount of humic acids, macro and micro nutrients content and decreased content of Pb. The aplication of all compost –K1, K2, K3, K4– to Ultisol increased pH H2O, P2O5, organic-C, total-N, exchangeable-Ca, exchangeable-K and yield of mustard and decreased exchangeable-H, exchangeable-Al. Moreover the yield of mustard was increased about 84% (33.9 g plant-1 with K4 at doses 20 Mg ha-1 and 85% (34.1 g plant-1 with K3 at doses 10 Mg ha-1.

  9. Changes in Growth and Oil Yield Indices of Rapeseed (Brassica napus L., cv. Hyola 401 in Different Concentrations andTimes of Application of Supplementary Nitrogen Fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tousi Kehal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of concentration and time of supplementary nitrogen fertilizer spray on growth indices of rapeseed (cv. Hyola 401, a field experiment was conducted at Rice Research Institute of Iran as a randomized complete blocks design with 16 treatments and 3 replications in 2008-2009. The treatments included concentration of nitrogen fertilizer (urea at two levels (5 and 10 ppm in seven levels of application time:1 spraying at 6-8- leaf stage, 2 beginning of stem elongation, 3 prior to flowering, 4 at 6-8- leaf stage + beginning of stem elongation, 5 at 6-8- leaf + prior to flowering, 6 beginning of stem elongation+ prior to flowering, and 7 at 6-8- leaf + beginning of stem elongation+ prior to flowering, which were compared with two control treatments (no fertilizer nitrogen and conventional soil fertilization. Results showed that significant difference was observed between spray treatments including concentration and times of nitrogen application, between controls and between controls with spray treatments, of grain and oil yield, crop growth rate (CGR, leaf area index (LAI and leaf area duration (LAD. Application of nitrogen (10 ppm at the beginning of stem elongation+ prior to flowering stages produced maximum grain yield (4221.7 kg/ha and oil yield (1771.1 kg/ha. Spray treatments produced maximum oil yield index (15.3% compared to controls. Maximum LAI (6.9 and 5.6 respectively, CGR (15.2 and 14.3 g/m2.10 GDD, respectively and LAD (1204 and 1029 cm2/10 GDD, respectively were also obtained from spray application of nitrogen (10 ppm at the beginning of stem elongation+ prior to flowering stages and at 6-8-leaf stage + beginning of stem elongation + prior to flowering. According to the results of the present investigation, it seems that foliar application of supplementary nitrogen fertilizer at the end growth stages (beginning of stem elongation and prior to flowering of rapeseed plants may help to enhance growth indices

  10. The progress of intersubgenomic heterosis studies in Brassica napus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The new nomenclature of Brassica has been suggested in a previous study by same authours where the symbols of Ar, Aj and An represented the A genome in the Brassica rapa, Brassica juncea and Brassica napus, Bb, Bj and Bc for the B genome of Brassica nigra (black mustard), B. juncea and Brassica carinata, Co, Cn ...

  11. The effect of biological fertilizers on yield, yield components and seed oil contents of three cultivars of canola (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Koocheki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Canola is the world third oil crop with 25 to 55 percent oil content (Hezbavi & Minaei, 2008. In recent years, tendency towards expansion of the acreage of canola in Iran has been increasing and for the years 2010-2011 an area of 93000 ha with a total production of 190000 tons has been reported (Ministry of Jihad of Agriculture, 2013. Application of biological fertilizers which are environmentally friendly agents have been reported to enhance yield and quality of different crops (Shoghi Kalkhoran et al., 2012; Afrasiabi et al., 2011. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of biological fertilizers on quantitative and quality criteria of canola. Material and methods For this study, a factorial arrangement based on randomized complete block design and three replicates was used. The experimental treatments were three canola cultivars namely Okapi, Zarfam and Modena which was combined with four levels of biological fertilizers: Nitroxin, Phosphat solubilizing bacteria (PSB, Nitroxin+PSB and a control. Seeds were planted in plots of 2×3 m2. All field managements were carried out based on conventional practices. The measured criteria were plant height, number of pods per plant, 1000- seed weight, biomass yield, harvest index, oil content and yield. Results and discussion The results showed that in all studied criteria except 1000- seed weight there were significant differences between cultivars. Different fertilizer treatments had a significant effect on all criteria except 1000- seed weight and HI. Modena cultivar had the highest oil yield and quantitative characteristics. Composition of phosphate solubilizing bacteria+nitroxin also had the highest oil yield and quantitative characteristics. The interactions between biofertilizer treatments and cultivars in all criteria were not significant. The result of this experiment indicated the effectiveness of use of biofertilizers. References Afrasiabi, M., Amini

  12. Varietal improvement of Brassica species through introduction, hybridization and mutation breeding techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhaman, A.

    1988-11-01

    Germplasm of Brassica campestris and Brassica juncea was collected from various parts of Bangladesh and evaluated for yield, oil content etc. prior to the breeding programme. Seeds of the B. campestris variety YS-52, possessing good agronomic characteristics, were treated with mutagens (gamma rays and sodium azide) to widen the genetic variation. Mutants were selected for higher yield and resistance against Alternaria brassicae. The two mutant lines BINA 1 and BINA 2 were selected exceeding the parent variety considerably in yield and disease resistance. They are candidates for recommended varieties. Brassica juncea variety RCM 625 was treated with gamma rays and EMS. Four higher yielding and earlier maturing mutants are being evaluated further. 6 tabs

  13. Effects of different roasting conditions on the nutritional value and oxidative stability of high-oleic and yellow-seeded Brassica napus oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rękas, A.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the possibility of enhancing the nutritional value and oxidative stability of rapeseed oil obtained from seeds subjected to thermal treatment prior to pressing. The yellowseeded and high-oleic B. napus lines, harvested in Poland, were roasted prior to pressing for 1 h at 100 and 150 °C. This study highlighted how rapeseed breeding lines affect the quality profile of the oils obtained both before and after the roasting process. In principle, the high-oleic B. napus was accompanied by a nearly 2-fold increase in oxidative stability compared to the yellow-seeded B. napus, most likely due to a higher content of oxidation-resistant oleic fatty acids (~74.24% vs. ~60.76% and a decreased concentration of oxidizable PUFAs (~16.32% vs. ~31.09%. Similar to the case of roasting black-seeded rapeseed, the thermal pre-treatment of yellow-seeded and high-oleic B. napus prior to pressing did not alter the composition of their fatty acids. Based on the results obtained in this study, it can be concluded that roasting seeds prior to pressing does not reduce the amount of tocopherols in the oil; moreover, a slight increase in γ-tocopherol content was observed.Este estudio se realizó para evaluar la posibilidad de aumentar el valor nutritivo y la estabilidad oxidativa del aceite de colza obtenido a partir de semillas sometidas a tratamiento térmico antes del prensado. Las líneas de B. napus sembrados amarillos y alto oleico, cosechadas en Polonia, fueron tostadas antes de ser prensadas durante 1 hora a 100 y 150 °C. Este estudio pone de relieve cómo las líneas de colza mejoradas ven afectado el perfil de calidad de los aceites obtenidos antes y después del proceso de tostado. En principio, el alto oleico B. napus aumenta casi 2 veces la estabilidad a la oxidación en comparación con semilla amarilla B. napus, muy probablemente debido a un mayor contenido de ácido graso oleico resistente a la oxidación (~74,24% vs

  14. Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket-hollow centered packed bed (UASB-HCPB) reactor for thermophilic palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poh, P.E.; Chong, M.F.

    2014-01-01

    Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket-hollow centered packed bed (UASB-HCPB) reactor was developed with the aim to minimize operational problems in the anaerobic treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) under thermophilic conditions. The performance of UASB-HCPB reactor on POME treatment was investigated at 55 °C. Subsequent to start-up, the performance of the UASB-HCPB reactor was evaluated in terms of i) effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT); ii) effect of organic loading rate (OLR); and iii) effect of mixed liquor volatile suspended solid (MLVSS) concentration on thermophilic POME treatment. Start-up up of the UASB-HCPB reactor was completed in 36 days, removing 88% COD and 90% BOD respectively at an OLR of 28.12 g L −1  d −1 , producing biogas with 52% of methane. Results from the performance study of the UASB-HCPB reactor on thermophilic POME treatment indicated that HRT of 2 days, OLR of 27.65 g L −1  d −1 and MLVSS concentration of 14.7 g L −1 was required to remove 90% of COD and BOD, 80% of suspended solid and at the same time produce 60% of methane. - Highlights: • UASB-HCPB was proposed for POME treatment under thermophilic conditions. • Start-up up of the UASB-HCPB reactor was completed in 36 days. • 88% COD and 90% BOD were removed at an OLR of 28.12 g COD/L.day during start-up. • HRT of 2 days and OLR of 27.65 g COD/L.day was required to produce 60% methane. • Methanosarcina sp. forms the majority of microbial population in the UASB section

  15. Identification of seed-related QTL in Brassica rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bagheri

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available To reveal the genetic variation, and loci involved, for a range of seed-related traits, a new F2 mapping population was developed by crossing Brassica rapa ssp. parachinensis L58 (CaiXin with B. rapa ssp. trilocularis R-o-18 (spring oil seed, both rapid flowering and self-compatible. A linkage map was constructed using 97 AFLPs and 21 SSRs, covering a map distance of 757 cM with an average resolution of 6.4 cM, and 13 quantitative trait loci (QTL were detected for nine traits. A strong seed colour QTL (LOD 26 co-localized with QTL for seed size (LOD 7, seed weight (LOD 4.6, seed oil content (LOD 6.6, number of siliques (LOD 3 and number of seeds per silique (LOD 3. There was only a significant positive correlation between seed colour and seed oil content in the yellow coloured classes. Seed coat colour and seed size were controlled by the maternal plant genotype. Plants with more siliques tended to have more, but smaller, seeds and higher seed oil content. Seed colour and seed oil content appeared to be controlled by two closely linked loci in repulsion phase. Thus, it may not always be advantageous to select for yellow-seededness when breeding for high seed oil content in Brassicas.

  16. Development of a sequential injection-liquid microextraction procedure with GC-FID for analysis of short-chain fatty acids in palm oil mill effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruksatrakul, Thapanee; Phoopraintra, Pattamaporn; Wilairat, Prapin; Chaiyen, Pimchai; Chantiwas, Rattikan

    2017-04-01

    Short-chain fatty acids, such as acetic, propionic, butyric, iso-valeric and valeric acids, play an important role in methanogenesis activity for biogas production processes. Thus, simple and rapid procedures for monitoring the levels of short-chain fatty acids are requisite for sustaining biogas production. This work presents the development of a sequential injection-liquid microextraction (SI-LME) procedure with GC-FID analysis for determination of short-chain fatty acids. GC-FID was employed for detection of the short-chain fatty acids. Calibration curves were linear with good coefficients of determination (r 2 >0.999), using methacrylic acid as the internal standard. Limits of quantification (LOQ) were in the range of 0.03-0.19mM. The SI-LME procedure employed tert-butyl methyl ether (TBME) as the extracting solvent. Various SI-LME conditions were investigated and optimized to obtain the highest recovery of extraction. With these optimized conditions, an extraction recovery of the five key short-chain fatty acids of 67-90% was obtained, with less than 2% RSD (n=3). The final SI-LME procedure employed two fluidic zones of TBME with a single aqueous fluidic zone of sample sandwiched between the TBME zones, with 5 cycles of flow reversal at a flow rate of 5µL/s for the extraction process. Intra- and inter-day precision values were 0.5-4.0% RSD and 3.3-4.8% RSD, respectively. Accuracy based on percentage of sample recovery were in the range of 69-96, 102-107, and 82-101% (n=4) for acetic, propionic and butyric acids, respectively. The proposed method was applied for the measurement of short-chain fatty acids in palm oil mill effluents used in biogas production in a factory performing palm oil extraction process. The SI-LME method provides improved extraction performance with high precision, and is both simple and rapid with its economical extraction technique. The SI-LME procedure with GC-FID has strong potential for use as a quality control process for monitoring

  17. Removal of the toxic contaminants of the liquid effluents derived from the activity of oil production in the sea; Remocao de contaminantes toxicos dos efluentes liquidos oriundos da atividade de producao de petroleo no mar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Roberto Carlos Goncalves de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Setor de Tecnologia de Processamento e Transporte; Oliveira, Marcia Cristina Khalil de [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Fundacao Universitaria Jose Bonifacio

    2000-07-01

    Special attention has been given to the activities of oil production in offshore areas, where the recovery processes need many times of great volumes of water to the pressure maintenance of the producer tank. The consequence of that fact is the generation of great volumes of water to be, afterwards, discarded in the sea. The volume of produced water represents frequently a clog to the production in mature fields. So, the treatment cost of this water has strong influence over the operational continuity of the field and over the final quantity of recovered oil. By the other hand, the oil companies have been pledging to their effluents fit themselves on the established limits by the environmental legislation. They are presented, here, different routes of processing used to the removal of toxic contaminants presented on produced water. From the analysis of these routes, became evident the need of using different processes, in a complementary way, to the total removal of the harmful components to the environment. It was also verified that the choice of the more indicated process depends on the localization of the treatment unity, on the exigencies of present legislation, on the chemical constitution and on the flowing of the effluent to be discarded. (author)

  18. Effect of organic loading rate on methane and volatile fatty acids productions from anaerobic treatment of palm oil mill effluent in UASB and UFAF reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumate Chaiprapat

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME with the separation of the acidogenic and methanogenic phase was studied in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor and an up-flowanaerobic filter (UFAF reactor. Furthermore, the effect of OLR on methane and volatile fatty acid productions in UASB and UFAF reactors was investigated. In this research, UASB as acidogenic reactor wasused for volatile fatty acid production and UFAF as methanogenic reactor was used for methane production. Therefore, POME without pH adjustment was used as influent for the UASB reactor. Moreover, the syntheticwastewater with pH adjustment to 6.00 was fed into the UFAF reactor. The inoculum source for both reactors was the combination of POME sludge collected from the CSTR of a POME treatment plant and granulesludge collected from the UASB reactor of a frozen sea food industry treatment plant. During experimental operation, the organic loading rate (OLR was gradually increased from 2.50 to 17.5 g COD/l/day in theUASB reactor and 1.10 to 10.0 g COD/l/day in the UFAF reactor. Consequently, hydraulic retention time (HRT ranged from 20.0 to 2.90 days in the UASB reactor and from 13.5 to 1.50 days in the UFAF reactor.The result showed that the COD removal efficiency from both reactors was greater than 60.0%. In addition, the total volatile fatty acids increased with the increasing OLR. The total volatile fatty acids and acetic acidproduction in the UASB reactor reached 5.50 g/l and 4.90 g/l, respectively at OLR of 17.5 g COD/l/day and HRT of 2.90 days before washout was observed. In the UFAF reactor, the methane and biogas productionincreased with increasing OLR until an OLR of 7.50 g COD/l/day. However, the methane and biogas production significantly decreased when OLR increased up to 10.0 g COD/l/day. Therefore, the optimum OLR inthe laboratory-scale UASB and UFAF reactors were concluded to be 15.5 and 7.50 g COD/l/day, respectively.

  19. Plant defence responses in oilseed rape MINELESS plants after attack by the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Ishita; van Dam, Nicole Marie; Winge, Per; Trælnes, Marianne; Heydarova, Aysel; Rohloff, Jens; Langaas, Mette; Bones, Atle Magnar

    2015-02-01

    The Brassicaceae family is characterized by a unique defence mechanism known as the 'glucosinolate-myrosinase' system. When insect herbivores attack plant tissues, glucosinolates are hydrolysed by the enzyme myrosinase (EC 3.2.1.147) into a variety of degradation products, which can deter further herbivory. This process has been described as 'the mustard oil bomb'. Additionally, insect damage induces the production of glucosinolates, myrosinase, and other defences. Brassica napus seeds have been genetically modified to remove myrosinase-containing myrosin cells. These plants are termed MINELESS because they lack myrosin cells, the so-called toxic mustard oil mines. Here, we examined the interaction between B. napus wild-type and MINELESS plants and the larvae of the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae. No-choice feeding experiments showed that M. brassicae larvae gained less weight and showed stunted growth when feeding on MINELESS plants compared to feeding on wild-type plants. M. brassicae feeding didn't affect myrosinase activity in MINELESS plants, but did reduce it in wild-type seedlings. M. brassicae feeding increased the levels of indol-3-yl-methyl, 1-methoxy-indol-3-yl-methyl, and total glucosinolates in both wild-type and MINELESS seedlings. M. brassicae feeding affected the levels of glucosinolate hydrolysis products in both wild-type and MINELESS plants. Transcriptional analysis showed that 494 and 159 genes were differentially regulated after M. brassicae feeding on wild-type and MINELESS seedlings, respectively. Taken together, the outcomes are very interesting in terms of analysing the role of myrosin cells and the glucosinolate-myrosinase defence system in response to a generalist cabbage moth, suggesting that similar studies with other generalist or specialist insect herbivores, including above- and below-ground herbivores, would be useful. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  20. Phenolic Compounds in Brassica Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Velasco

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are a large group of phytochemicals widespread in the plant kingdom. Depending on their structure they can be classified into simple phenols, phenolic acids, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids. Phenolic compounds have received considerable attention for being potentially protective factors against cancer and heart diseases, in part because of their potent antioxidative properties and their ubiquity in a wide range of commonly consumed foods of plant origin. The Brassicaceae family includes a wide range of horticultural crops, some of them with economic significance and extensively used in the diet throughout the world. The phenolic composition of Brassica vegetables has been recently investigated and, nowadays, the profile of different Brassica species is well established. Here, we review the significance of phenolic compounds as a source of beneficial compounds for human health and the influence of environmental conditions and processing mechanisms on the phenolic composition of Brassica vegetables.

  1. EFFECTS OF REFINERY EFFLUENT ON THE PHYSICO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Managing oil and gas industrial environment requires constant monitoring of the effluent discharges from such industries. ... The samples were analysed for physico-chemical parameters such as pH, TDS, TSS, COD, Oil and Grease, Temperature, Cations (Pb2+, Fe (total), Cu2+ , Cr6+, Ca2+, and Mg2+) and Anions (PO3-4, ...

  2. Tritium effluent removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamberger, P.H.; Gibbs, G.E.

    1978-01-01

    An air detritiation system has been developed and is in routine use for removing tritium and tritiated compounds from glovebox effluent streams before they are released to the atmosphere. The system is also used, in combination with temporary enclosures, to contain and decontaminate airborne releases resulting from the opening of tritium containment systems during maintenance and repair operations. This detritiation system, which services all the tritium handling areas at Mound Facility, has played an important role in reducing effluents and maintaining them at 2 percent of the level of 8 y ago. The system has a capacity of 1.7 m 3 /min and has operated around the clock for several years. A refrigerated in-line filtration system removes water, mercury, or pump oil and other organics from gaseous waste streams. The filtered waste stream is then heated and passed through two different types of oxidizing beds; the resulting tritiated water is collected on molecular sieve dryer beds. Liquids obtained from regenerating the dryers and from the refrigerated filtration system are collected and transferred to a waste solidification and packaging station. Component redundancy and by-pass capabilities ensure uninterrupted system operation during maintenance. When processing capacity is exceeded, an evacuated storage tank of 45 m 3 is automatically opened to the inlet side of the system. The gaseous effluent from the system is monitored for tritium content and recycled or released directly to the stack. The average release is less than 1 Ci/day. The tritium effluent can be reduced by isotopically swamping the tritium; this is accomplished by adding hydrogen prior to the oxidizer beds, or by adding water to the stream between the two final dryer beds

  3. Genome resequencing and comparative variome analysis in a Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Feng; Wu, Jian; Cai, Chengcheng; Fu, Lixia; Liang, Jianli; Borm, Theo; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Zhang, Fenglan; Bonnema, Guusje; Wang, Xiaowu

    2016-12-20

    The closely related species Brassica rapa and B. oleracea encompass a wide range of vegetable, fodder and oil crops. The release of their reference genomes has facilitated resequencing collections of B. rapa and B. oleracea aiming to build their variome datasets. These data can be used to investigate the evolutionary relationships between and within the different species and the domestication of the crops, hereafter named morphotypes. These data can also be used in genetic studies aiming at the identification of genes that influence agronomic traits. We selected and resequenced 199 B. rapa and 119 B. oleracea accessions representing 12 and nine morphotypes, respectively. Based on these resequencing data, we obtained 2,249,473 and 3,852,169 high quality SNPs (single-nucleotide polymorphisms), as well as 303,617 and 417,004 InDels for the B. rapa and B. oleracea populations, respectively. The variome datasets of B. rapa and B. oleracea represent valuable resources to researchers working on evolution, domestication or breeding of Brassica vegetable crops.

  4. The origins of edible brassicas

    OpenAIRE

    Dixon, Geoffrey Richard

    2017-01-01

    A summary of the horticultural types of Brassica oleracea (European vegetables) and B. rapa (Oriental vegetables) and the manner by which they both evolved from a common ancestor. This paper examines the evolution in cultivation of the two species which in parallel developed similar forms of edible plants.

  5. Different myrosinase and idioblast distribution in Arabidopsis and Brassica napus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasson, Erik; Jørgensen, Lise Bolt; Höglund, Anna-Stina

    2001-01-01

    Arabidopsis, Brassica napus, Myrosinase, Myrosinase Binding Protein, Glucosinolates, Myrosin Cell, Immunocytochemistry......Arabidopsis, Brassica napus, Myrosinase, Myrosinase Binding Protein, Glucosinolates, Myrosin Cell, Immunocytochemistry...

  6. User Guidelines for the Brassica Database: BRAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaobo; Cheng, Feng; Wang, Xiaowu

    2016-01-01

    The genome sequence of Brassica rapa was first released in 2011. Since then, further Brassica genomes have been sequenced or are undergoing sequencing. It is therefore necessary to develop tools that help users to mine information from genomic data efficiently. This will greatly aid scientific exploration and breeding application, especially for those with low levels of bioinformatic training. Therefore, the Brassica database (BRAD) was built to collect, integrate, illustrate, and visualize Brassica genomic datasets. BRAD provides useful searching and data mining tools, and facilitates the search of gene annotation datasets, syntenic or non-syntenic orthologs, and flanking regions of functional genomic elements. It also includes genome-analysis tools such as BLAST and GBrowse. One of the important aims of BRAD is to build a bridge between Brassica crop genomes with the genome of the model species Arabidopsis thaliana, thus transferring the bulk of A. thaliana gene study information for use with newly sequenced Brassica crops.

  7. Applications and challenges of next-generation sequencing in Brassica species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lijuan; Xiao, Meili; Hayward, Alice; Fu, Donghui

    2013-12-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) produces numerous (often millions) short DNA sequence reads, typically varying between 25 and 400 bp in length, at a relatively low cost and in a short time. This revolutionary technology is being increasingly applied in whole-genome, transcriptome, epigenome and small RNA sequencing, molecular marker and gene discovery, comparative and evolutionary genomics, and association studies. The Brassica genus comprises some of the most agro-economically important crops, providing abundant vegetables, condiments, fodder, oil and medicinal products. Many Brassica species have undergone the process of polyploidization, which makes their genomes exceptionally complex and can create difficulties in genomics research. NGS injects new vigor into Brassica research, yet also faces specific challenges in the analysis of complex crop genomes and traits. In this article, we review the advantages and limitations of different NGS technologies and their applications and challenges, using Brassica as an advanced model system for agronomically important, polyploid crops. Specifically, we focus on the use of NGS for genome resequencing, transcriptome sequencing, development of single-nucleotide polymorphism markers, and identification of novel microRNAs and their targets. We present trends and advances in NGS technology in relation to Brassica crop improvement, with wide application for sophisticated genomics research into agronomically important polyploid crops.

  8. Genetic dissection of leaf development in Brassica rapa using a genetical genomics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Dong; Wang, Huange; Basnet, Ram Kumar; Zhao, Jianjun; Lin, Ke; Hou, Xilin; Bonnema, Guusje

    2014-03-01

    The paleohexaploid crop Brassica rapa harbors an enormous reservoir of morphological variation, encompassing leafy vegetables, vegetable and fodder turnips (Brassica rapa, ssp. campestris), and oil crops, with different crops having very different leaf morphologies. In the triplicated B. rapa genome, many genes have multiple paralogs that may be regulated differentially and contribute to phenotypic variation. Using a genetical genomics approach, phenotypic data from a segregating doubled haploid population derived from a cross between cultivar Yellow sarson (oil type) and cultivar Pak choi (vegetable type) were used to identify loci controlling leaf development. Twenty-five colocalized phenotypic quantitative trait loci (QTLs) contributing to natural variation for leaf morphological traits, leaf number, plant architecture, and flowering time were identified. Genetic analysis showed that four colocalized phenotypic QTLs colocalized with flowering time and leaf trait candidate genes, with their cis-expression QTLs and cis- or trans-expression QTLs for homologs of genes playing a role in leaf development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The leaf gene Brassica rapa KIP-related protein2_A03 colocalized with QTLs for leaf shape and plant height; Brassica rapa Erecta_A09 colocalized with QTLs for leaf color and leaf shape; Brassica rapa Longifolia1_A10 colocalized with QTLs for leaf size, leaf color, plant branching, and flowering time; while the major flowering time gene, Brassica rapa flowering locus C_A02, colocalized with QTLs explaining variation in flowering time, plant architectural traits, and leaf size. Colocalization of these QTLs points to pleiotropic regulation of leaf development and plant architectural traits in B. rapa.

  9. Genetic Dissection of Leaf Development in Brassica rapa Using a Genetical Genomics Approach1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Dong; Wang, Huange; Basnet, Ram Kumar; Zhao, Jianjun; Lin, Ke; Hou, Xilin; Bonnema, Guusje

    2014-01-01

    The paleohexaploid crop Brassica rapa harbors an enormous reservoir of morphological variation, encompassing leafy vegetables, vegetable and fodder turnips (Brassica rapa, ssp. campestris), and oil crops, with different crops having very different leaf morphologies. In the triplicated B. rapa genome, many genes have multiple paralogs that may be regulated differentially and contribute to phenotypic variation. Using a genetical genomics approach, phenotypic data from a segregating doubled haploid population derived from a cross between cultivar Yellow sarson (oil type) and cultivar Pak choi (vegetable type) were used to identify loci controlling leaf development. Twenty-five colocalized phenotypic quantitative trait loci (QTLs) contributing to natural variation for leaf morphological traits, leaf number, plant architecture, and flowering time were identified. Genetic analysis showed that four colocalized phenotypic QTLs colocalized with flowering time and leaf trait candidate genes, with their cis-expression QTLs and cis- or trans-expression QTLs for homologs of genes playing a role in leaf development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The leaf gene BRASSICA RAPA KIP-RELATED PROTEIN2_A03 colocalized with QTLs for leaf shape and plant height; BRASSICA RAPA ERECTA_A09 colocalized with QTLs for leaf color and leaf shape; BRASSICA RAPA LONGIFOLIA1_A10 colocalized with QTLs for leaf size, leaf color, plant branching, and flowering time; while the major flowering time gene, BRASSICA RAPA FLOWERING LOCUS C_A02, colocalized with QTLs explaining variation in flowering time, plant architectural traits, and leaf size. Colocalization of these QTLs points to pleiotropic regulation of leaf development and plant architectural traits in B. rapa. PMID:24394778

  10. Production of transgenic brassica juncea with the synthetic chitinase gene (nic) conferring resistance to alternaria brassicicola

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munir, I.; Hussan, W.; Kazi, M.; Mian, A.

    2016-01-01

    Brassica juncea is an important oil seed crop throughout the world. The demand and cultivation of oil seed crops has gained importance due to rapid increase in world population and industrialization. Fungal diseases pose a great threat to Brassica productivity worldwide. Absence of resistance genes against fungal infection within crossable germplasms of this crop necessitates deployment of genetic engineering approaches to produce transgenic plants with resistance against fungal infections. In the current study, hypocotyls and cotyledons of Brassica juncea, used as explants, were transformed with Agrobacterium tumefacien strain EHA101 harboring binary vector pEKB/NIC containing synthetic chitinase gene (NIC), an antifungal gene under the control of cauliflower mosaic virus promoter (CaMV35S). Bar genes and nptII gene were used as selectable markers. Presence of chitinase gene in trangenic lines was confirmed by PCR and southern blotting analysis. Effect of the extracted proteins from non-transgenic and transgenic lines was observed on the growth of Alternaria brassicicola, a common disease causing pathogen in brassica crop. In comparison to non-transgenic control lines, the leaf tissue extracts of the transgenic lines showed considerable resistance and antifungal activity against A. brassicicola. The antifungal activity in transgenic lines was observed as corresponding to the transgene copy number. (author)

  11. Identification of expressed genes during infection of chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis) by Plasmodiophora brassicae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundelin, Thomas; Jensen, Dan Funck; Lübeck, Mette

    2011-01-01

    and that the introns are small. These results show that it is possible to discover new P. brassicae genes from a mixed pool of both plant and pathogen cDNA. The results also revealed that some of the P. brassicae genes expressed in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis) were identical to the genes expressed......Plasmodiophora brassicae is an obligate, biotrophic pathogen causing the club-root disease of crucifers. Despite its importance as a plant pathogen, little is known about P. brassicae at the molecular level as most of its life cycle takes place inside the plant host, and axenic culturing...... is impossible. Discovery of genes expressed during infection and gene organization are the first steps toward a better understanding of the pathogen–host interaction. Here, suppression subtractive hybridization was used to search for the P. brassicae genes expressed during plant infection. One-hundred and forty...

  12. The respective effects of soil heavy metal fractions by sequential extraction procedure and soil properties on the accumulation of heavy metals in rice grains and brassicas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ling; Guan, Dongsheng; Peart, M R; Chen, Yujuan; Li, Qiqi

    2017-01-01

    This study was carried out to examine heavy metal accumulation in rice grains and brassicas and to identify the different controls, such as soil properties and soil heavy metal fractions obtained by the Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) sequential extraction, in their accumulation. In Guangdong Province, South China, rice grain and brassica samples, along with their rhizospheric soil, were collected from fields on the basis of distance downstream from electroplating factories, whose wastewater was used for irrigation. The results showed that long-term irrigation using the electroplating effluent has not only enriched the rhizospheric soil with Cd, Cr, Cu, and Zn but has also increased their mobility and bioavailability. The average concentrations of Cd and Cr in rice grains and brassicas from closest to the electroplating factories were significantly higher than those from the control areas. Results from hybrid redundancy analysis (hRDA) and redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that the BCR fractions of soil heavy metals could explain 29.0 and 46.5 % of total eigenvalue for heavy metal concentrations in rice grains and brassicas, respectively, while soil properties could only explain 11.1 and 33.4 %, respectively. This indicated that heavy metal fractions exerted more control upon their concentrations in rice grains and brassicas than soil properties. In terms of metal interaction, an increase of residual Zn in paddy soil or a decrease of acid soluble Cd in the brassica soil could enhance the accumulation of Cd, Cu, Cr, and Pb in both rice grains and brassicas, respectively, while the reducible or oxidizable Cd in soil could enhance the plants' accumulation of Cr and Pb. The RDA showed an inhibition effect of sand content and CFO on the accumulation of heavy metals in rice grains and brassicas. Moreover, multiple stepwise linear regression could offer prediction for Cd, Cu, Cr, and Zn concentrations in the two crops by soil heavy metal fractions and soil properties.

  13. Liquid effluent processing group. Activity details 1963

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-08-01

    This report first gives a quantitative overview of volumes of effluents of high activity, medium activity and low activity which passed through the department for effluent processing. It also makes the distinction between the shape or type of container of these effluents. A table indicates their origin and another indicates their destination. The β and α decontamination rates are determined, and the assessment of stored aqueous and organic effluents on the 31 December 1963 is given. The next part proposes an assessment of laboratory activities: control operations (input controls, control of processed effluent before discarding), controls related to processing (processing types, radiochemical and chemical dosing performed on effluent mixes before processing). Tables indicate the characteristics of medium activity effluents collected in 1963, the results of high activity liquid analysis, and Beryllium dosing results. A summary of ALEA processing, a table of the characteristics of stored oils and solvents are given. The third part reports data related to transport activities, and various works performed in the Saclay plant to improve exploitation conditions and results

  14. QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF EFFLUENT DISCHARGES FROM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    Abstract. The quality of effluent discharges from a vegetable oil processing company, located in Anambra State –. South east Nigeria, was evaluated relative to regulatory body – Federal Environmental Protection. Agency (FEPA) standard. Wastewater quality parameters namely; biochemical oxygen demand (BOD),.

  15. Methods and apparatuses for deoxygenating pyrolysis oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Lance Awender; Brandvold, Timothy A.; Frey, Stanley Joseph

    2017-09-12

    Methods and apparatuses are provided for deoxygenating pyrolysis oil. A method includes contacting a pyrolysis oil with a deoxygenation catalyst in a first reactor at deoxygenation conditions to produce a first reactor effluent. The first reactor effluent has a first oxygen concentration and a first hydrogen concentration, based on hydrocarbons in the first reactor effluent, and the first reactor effluent includes an aromatic compound. The first reactor effluent is contacted with a dehydrogenation catalyst in a second reactor at conditions that deoxygenate the first reactor effluent while preserving the aromatic compound to produce a second reactor effluent. The second reactor effluent has a second oxygen concentration lower than the first oxygen concentration and a second hydrogen concentration that is equal to or lower than the first hydrogen concentration, where the second oxygen concentration and the second hydrogen concentration are based on the hydrocarbons in the second reactor effluent.

  16. The Plasmodiophora brassicae genome reveals insights in its life cycle and ancestry of chitin synthases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwelm, Arne; Fogelqvist, Johan; Knaust, Andrea; Jülke, Sabine; Lilja, Tua; Bonilla-Rosso, German; Karlsson, Magnus; Shevchenko, Andrej; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Choi, Su Ryun; Kim, Hong Gi; Park, Ju Young; Lim, Yong Pyo; Ludwig-Müller, Jutta; Dixelius, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodiophora brassicae causes clubroot, a major disease of Brassica oil and vegetable crops worldwide. P. brassicae is a Plasmodiophorid, obligate biotrophic protist in the eukaryotic kingdom of Rhizaria. Here we present the 25.5 Mb genome draft of P. brassicae, developmental stage-specific transcriptomes and a transcriptome of Spongospora subterranea, the Plasmodiophorid causing powdery scab on potato. Like other biotrophic pathogens both Plasmodiophorids are reduced in metabolic pathways. Phytohormones contribute to the gall phenotypes of infected roots. We report a protein (PbGH3) that can modify auxin and jasmonic acid. Plasmodiophorids contain chitin in cell walls of the resilient resting spores. If recognized, chitin can trigger defense responses in plants. Interestingly, chitin-related enzymes of Plasmodiophorids built specific families and the carbohydrate/chitin binding (CBM18) domain is enriched in the Plasmodiophorid secretome. Plasmodiophorids chitin synthases belong to two families, which were present before the split of the eukaryotic Stramenopiles/Alveolates/Rhizaria/Plantae and Metazoa/Fungi/Amoebozoa megagroups, suggesting chitin synthesis to be an ancient feature of eukaryotes. This exemplifies the importance of genomic data from unexplored eukaryotic groups, such as the Plasmodiophorids, to decipher evolutionary relationships and gene diversification of early eukaryotes. PMID:26084520

  17. The Plasmodiophora brassicae genome reveals insights in its life cycle and ancestry of chitin synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwelm, Arne; Fogelqvist, Johan; Knaust, Andrea; Jülke, Sabine; Lilja, Tua; Bonilla-Rosso, German; Karlsson, Magnus; Shevchenko, Andrej; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Choi, Su Ryun; Kim, Hong Gi; Park, Ju Young; Lim, Yong Pyo; Ludwig-Müller, Jutta; Dixelius, Christina

    2015-06-18

    Plasmodiophora brassicae causes clubroot, a major disease of Brassica oil and vegetable crops worldwide. P. brassicae is a Plasmodiophorid, obligate biotrophic protist in the eukaryotic kingdom of Rhizaria. Here we present the 25.5 Mb genome draft of P. brassicae, developmental stage-specific transcriptomes and a transcriptome of Spongospora subterranea, the Plasmodiophorid causing powdery scab on potato. Like other biotrophic pathogens both Plasmodiophorids are reduced in metabolic pathways. Phytohormones contribute to the gall phenotypes of infected roots. We report a protein (PbGH3) that can modify auxin and jasmonic acid. Plasmodiophorids contain chitin in cell walls of the resilient resting spores. If recognized, chitin can trigger defense responses in plants. Interestingly, chitin-related enzymes of Plasmodiophorids built specific families and the carbohydrate/chitin binding (CBM18) domain is enriched in the Plasmodiophorid secretome. Plasmodiophorids chitin synthases belong to two families, which were present before the split of the eukaryotic Stramenopiles/Alveolates/Rhizaria/Plantae and Metazoa/Fungi/Amoebozoa megagroups, suggesting chitin synthesis to be an ancient feature of eukaryotes. This exemplifies the importance of genomic data from unexplored eukaryotic groups, such as the Plasmodiophorids, to decipher evolutionary relationships and gene diversification of early eukaryotes.

  18. Infection of Plasmodiophora brassicae in Chinese cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, R; Zhao, L; Xing, M; Shen, X; Bi, Q; Peng, S; Feng, H

    2014-12-19

    Brassica crops infected by Plasmodiophora brassicae can produce root galls (clubroots) and be prevented from growing normally. To understand the series of changes that occur in the host root during root gall production, the resistance character of 21 Chinese cabbage lines were identified and then resistant and susceptible lines were used for infection observation. Hydroponic technology system was used for plants growing, and the infection process of P. brassicae in the roots of resistant and susceptible Chinese cabbage was examined based on morphology and microscopic characteristics using micoscope. In susceptible Chinese cabbage, the root hair infection stage occurred over approximately 7 days after inoculation, the cortical infection happened over approximatly 14 days after inoculation, and clubroots formed in approximately 30 days after inoculation. However, in resistant Chinese cabbage, the pathogen could be prevented and maintained in the root hair infection stage. This research provides a foundation for the subsequent studies of cabbage resistance of P. brassicae.

  19. Genetic diversity and relationships among cabbage ( Brassica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The integration of our data with historical documents confirmed that traditional cabbage landraces cultivated in North of China were first introduced from Russia. Key words: Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), genetic diversity, cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata), landraces, population structure.

  20. A Novel Photocatalyst with Ferromagnetic Core Used for the Treatment of Olive Oil Mill Effluents from Two-Phase Production Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Miguel Ochando-Pulido

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalytic degradation of olive oil mill wastewater from two-phase continuous centrifugation process was studied. A novel photocatalyst with ferromagnetic properties was characterized and investigated. The degradation capacity of the photocatalytic process of olive oil washing wastewater (OMW and mixture of olives and olive oil (1 v/v washing wastewaters (MOMW was demonstrated. At lab-scale, the %COD removal and residence time (τ for MOMW and OMW were 58.4% (τ=2 h and 21.4% (τ=3 h, respectively. On the other hand, at pilot scale, 23.4% CODremoval, 19.2% total phenolsremoval, and 28.1% total suspended solidsremoval were registered at the end of the UV/TiO2 process for OMW, whereas 58.3% CODremoval, 27.5% total phenolsremoval, and 25.0% total suspended solidsremoval for MOMW. Also, before the UV/TiO2 reaction, a pH-T flocculation operation as pretreatment was realized. The overall efficiency of the treatment process for MOMW was up to 91% of CODremoval, in contrast with 33.2% of CODremoval for OMW.

  1. Oilseed brassica improvement: through induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.A.; Ali, I.; Rehman, K.

    1990-06-01

    The oilseed brassica improvement programme is discussed in this report. Some observations on different plant mutants were made throughout the growth period and results revealed that most of the selected mutants of both the varieties expressed better performance than the parent by showing superior plant traits. A new species named brassica carinata has tremendous untapped potential as an oilseed crop. Efforts for creating maximum variability in rapeseed mustard varieties by means other than gamma radiation continued. (A.B.)

  2. Ozone affects growth and development of Pieris brassicae on the wild host plant Brassica nigra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khaling, E.; Papazian, S.; Poelman, E.H.; Holopainen, J.K.; Albrectsen, B.R.; Blande, J.D.

    2015-01-01

    When plants are exposed to ozone they exhibit changes in both primary and secondary metabolism, which may affect their interactions with herbivorous insects. Here we investigated the performance and preferences of the specialist herbivore Pieris brassicae on the wild plant Brassica nigra under

  3. Genetic variation in glucosinolate content within Brassica rapa vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, H.; Ping, L.; Bonnema, G.; Dekker, M.; Verkerk, R.

    2012-01-01

    Glucosinolates (GSs) were analyzed in 56 accessions of Brassica rapa grown in the greenhouse. Eight different glucosinolates were identified in the Brassica rapa group. They are the aliphatic glucosinolates progoitrin (PRO), gluconapin (NAP), glucobrassicanapin (GBN), the indolyl glucosinolates

  4. SSR marker variations in Brassica species provide insight into the origin and evolution of Brassica amphidiploids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Ajay Kumar; Singh, Kunwar Harendra; Singh, Lal; Nanjundan, Joghee; Khan, Yasin Jeshima; Singh, Dhiraj

    2018-01-01

    Oilseed Brassica represents an important group of oilseed crops with a long history of evolution and cultivation. To understand the origin and evolution of Brassica amphidiploids, simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to unravel genetic variations in three diploids and three amphidiploid Brassica species of U's triangle along with Eruca sativa as an outlier. Of 124 Brassica-derived SSR loci assayed, 100% cross-transferability was obtained for B. juncea and three subspecies of B. rapa , while lowest cross-transferability (91.93%) was obtained for Eruca sativa . The average % age of cross-transferability across all the seven species was 98.15%. The number of alleles detected at each locus ranged from one to six with an average of 3.41 alleles per primer pair. Neighbor-Joining-based dendrogram divided all the 40 accessions into two main groups composed of B. juncea / B. nigra/B. rapa and B. carinata/B. napus/B. oleracea . C-genome of oilseed Brassica species remained relatively more conserved than A- and B-genome. A- genome present in B. juncea and B. napus seems distinct from each other and hence provides great opportunity for generating diversity through synthesizing amphidiploids from different sources of A- genome. B. juncea had least intra-specific distance indicating narrow genetic base. B. rapa appears to be more primitive species from which other two diploid species might have evolved. The SSR marker set developed in this study will assist in DNA fingerprinting of various Brassica species cultivars, evaluating the genetic diversity in Brassica germplasm, genome mapping and construction of linkage maps, gene tagging and various other genomics-related studies in Brassica species. Further, the evolutionary relationship established among various Brassica species would assist in formulating suitable breeding strategies for widening the genetic base of Brassica amphidiploids by exploiting the genetic diversity present in diploid progenitor gene pools.

  5. The Use of Kitchen Effluent as Alternative Nutrient Source for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    level indicating that the magnitude of loss in residual oil concentration increases as the volume of kitchen effluent ... The discharge of oil based drilling muds as well as the release of crude petroleum and petroleum products into human environments have resulted in many ... with surfactants or alternate carbon substrate to.

  6. Tolerence of Braccica nigra to Pieris brassicae herbivory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blatt, S.E.; Smallegange, R.C.; Hess, L.; Harvey, J.A.; Dicke, D.; van Loon, J.J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Black mustard, Brassica nigra (L.) Koch, is a wild annual species found throughout Europe and fed on by larvae of the large cabbage-white butterfly, Pieris brassicae L. We examined the impact of herbivory from P. brassicae, a gregarious herbivore, on B. nigra grown from wild seed collected locally.

  7. Differences in Thermal Stability of Glucosinolates in Five Brassica Vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, M.; Hennig, K.; Verkerk, R.

    2009-01-01

    The thermal stability of individual glucosinolates within five different Brassica vegetables was studied at 100°C for different incubation times up to 120 minutes. Three vegetables that were used in this study were Brassica oleracea (red cabbage, broccoli and Brussels sprouts) and two were Brassica

  8. NAPUS 2000 Rapeseed (Brassica napus breeding for improved human nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedt Wolfgang

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Following a competition announcement of the Federal Ministry of Research and Education (BMBF a project dealing with the improvement of the nutritional value of oilseed rape (Brassica napus for food applications and human nutrition was worked out and started in autumn 1999. A number of partners (Figure 2 are carrying out a complex project reaching from the discovery, characterisation, isolation and transfer of genes of interest up to breeding of well performing varieties combined with important agronomic traits. Economic studies and processing trials as well as nutritional investigations of the new qualities are undertaken. B. napus seed quality aspects with respect to seed coat colour, oil composition, lecithin and protein fractions and antioxidants like tocopherols and resveratrol will be improved.

  9. BrassicaTED - a public database for utilization of miniature transposable elements in Brassica species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murukarthick, Jayakodi; Sampath, Perumal; Lee, Sang Choon; Choi, Beom-Soon; Senthil, Natesan; Liu, Shengyi; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2014-06-20

    MITE, TRIM and SINEs are miniature form transposable elements (mTEs) that are ubiquitous and dispersed throughout entire plant genomes. Tens of thousands of members cause insertion polymorphism at both the inter- and intra- species level. Therefore, mTEs are valuable targets and resources for development of markers that can be utilized for breeding, genetic diversity and genome evolution studies. Taking advantage of the completely sequenced genomes of Brassica rapa and B. oleracea, characterization of mTEs and building a curated database are prerequisite to extending their utilization for genomics and applied fields in Brassica crops. We have developed BrassicaTED as a unique web portal containing detailed characterization information for mTEs of Brassica species. At present, BrassicaTED has datasets for 41 mTE families, including 5894 and 6026 members from 20 MITE families, 1393 and 1639 members from 5 TRIM families, 1270 and 2364 members from 16 SINE families in B. rapa and B. oleracea, respectively. BrassicaTED offers different sections to browse structural and positional characteristics for every mTE family. In addition, we have added data on 289 MITE insertion polymorphisms from a survey of seven Brassica relatives. Genes with internal mTE insertions are shown with detailed gene annotation and microarray-based comparative gene expression data in comparison with their paralogs in the triplicated B. rapa genome. This database also includes a novel tool, K BLAST (Karyotype BLAST), for clear visualization of the locations for each member in the B. rapa and B. oleracea pseudo-genome sequences. BrassicaTED is a newly developed database of information regarding the characteristics and potential utility of mTEs including MITE, TRIM and SINEs in B. rapa and B. oleracea. The database will promote the development of desirable mTE-based markers, which can be utilized for genomics and breeding in Brassica species. BrassicaTED will be a valuable repository for scientists

  10. Colorless chlorophyll catabolites in senescent florets of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roiser, Matthias H; Müller, Thomas; Kräutler, Bernhard

    2015-02-11

    Typical postharvest storage of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) causes degreening of this common vegetable with visible loss of chlorophyll (Chl). As shown here, colorless Chl-catabolites are generated. In fresh extracts of degreening florets of broccoli, three colorless tetrapyrrolic Chl-catabolites accumulated and were detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC): two "nonfluorescent" Chl-catabolites (NCCs), provisionally named Bo-NCC-1 and Bo-NCC-2, and a colorless 1,19-dioxobilin-type "nonfluorescent" Chl-catabolite (DNCC), named Bo-DNCC. Analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry of these three linear tetrapyrroles revealed their structures. In combination with a comparison of their HPL-chromatographic properties, this allowed their identification with three known catabolites from two other brassicacea, namely two NCCs from oil seed rape (Brassica napus) and a DNCC from degreened leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana.

  11. Inheritance of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) RAPD markers in a backcross progeny with Brassica campestris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, T.R.; Jensen, J.; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    1996-01-01

    Different cultivars/transgenic lines of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) were crossed (as females) with different cultivars/populations of Brassica campestris. All cross combinations produced seed, with an average seed set per pollination of 9.8. Backcrossing of selected interspecific hybrids (as...... markers could be assigned to six linkage groups, most probably reflecting six B. napus C-chromosomes. The presence of backcross plants with recombinant genotypes suggests that complex genetic processes can take place during the interspecific hybridisation and backcrossing in these Brassica species...

  12. Microbial Communities and Their Performances in Anaerobic Hybrid Sludge Bed-Fixed Film Reactor for Treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent under Various Organic Pollutant Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanlayanee Meesap

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The anaerobic hybrid reactor consisting of sludge and packed zones was operated with organic pollutant loading rates from 6.2 to 8.2 g COD/L day, composed mainly of suspended solids (SS and oil and grease (O&G concentrations between 5.2 to 10.2 and 0.9 to 1.9 g/L, respectively. The overall process performance in terms of chemical oxygen demands (COD, SS, and O&G removals was 73, 63, and 56%, respectively. When the organic pollutant concentrations were increased, the resultant methane potentials were higher, and the methane yield increased to 0.30 L CH4/g CODremoved. It was observed these effects on the microbial population and activity in the sludge and packed zones. The eubacterial population and activity in the sludge zone increased to 6.4 × 109 copies rDNA/g VSS and 1.65 g COD/g VSS day, respectively, whereas those in the packed zone were lower. The predominant hydrolytic and fermentative bacteria were Pseudomonas, Clostridium, and Bacteroidetes. In addition, the archaeal population and activity in the packed zone were increased from to 9.1 × 107 copies rDNA/g VSS and 0.34 g COD-CH4/g VSS day, respectively, whereas those in the sludge zone were not much changed. The most represented species of methanogens were the acetoclastic Methanosaeta, the hydrogenotrophic Methanobacterium sp., and the hydrogenotrophic Methanomicrobiaceae.

  13. The effect of natural zeolite as microbial immobilization media in anaerobic digestion at various concentrations of palm oil mill effluent (POME)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayu, Erika Dyah; Halim, Lenny; Mellyanawaty, Melly; Sudibyo, Hanifrahmawan; Budhijanto, Wiratni

    2017-05-01

    Anaerobic digestion is one of the solutions in POME treatment because it generates energy in the form of biogas. Nevertheless, high concentration of POME fed into the digester will cause high acidification level and eventually cause process failure. The failure can also be affected by high inhibitor concentration contained in POME, one of which is long chain fatty acid. The addition of immobilization media is commonly used to increase the bacteria resistance to inhibitor. Natural zeolite is considered as appropriate immobilization media for waste treatment purpose since it is cheap, has high mechanical strength, high immobilization capacity, and its ability as cation exchanger. The digested biodiesel waste was used as starter inoculum for its good capability in digesting oil-containing feed such as POME. This research was conducted to evaluate critical concentration of POME fed to digester where the natural zeolite could not reduce the inhibitory effect. The concentrations of POME evaluated were 10,000 mg sCOD/L and 17,000 mg sCOD/L, which were higher than previous studies(5,000 to 8,000 mg sCOD/L). The research showed that at such high sCOD concentrations, the addition of zeolite did not significantly increase COD reduction nor biogas production rate, for both POME concentrations to be compared to control. The biogas produced by digester fed by 10,000 mg/L POME and 17,000 mg/L POME was 751 and 100 mL/g sCOD, respectively, indicating higher inhibitor effect in the digester with 17,000 mg SCOD/L initial concentration.

  14. Modeling Lab-sized Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Reactor (AFBR) for Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) treatment: from Batch to Continuous Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mufti Azis, Muhammad; Sudibyo, Hanifrahmawan; Budhijanto, Wiratni

    2018-03-01

    Indonesia is aiming to produce 30 million tones/year of crude palm oil (CPO) by 2020. As a result, 90 million tones/year of POME will be produced. POME is highly polluting wastewater which may cause severe environmental problem due to its high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). Due to the limitation of open pond treatment, the use of AFBR has been considered as a potential technology to treat POME. This study aims to develop mathematical models of lab-sized Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Reactor (AFBR) in batch and continuous processes. In addition, the AFBR also utilized natural zeolite as an immobilized media for microbes. To initiate the biomass growth, biodiesel waste has been used as an inoculum. In the first part of this study, a batch AFBR was operated to evaluate the COD, VFA, and CH4 concentrations. By comparing the batch results with and without zeolite, it showed that the addition of 17 g/gSCOD zeolite gave larger COD decrease within 20 days of operation. In order to elucidate the mechanism, parameter estimations of 12 kinetic parameters were proposed to describe the batch reactor performance. The model in general could describe the batch experimental data well. In the second part of this study, the kinetic parameters obtained from batch reactor were used to simulate the performance of double column AFBR where the acidogenic and methanogenic biomass were separated. The simulation showed that a relatively long residence time (Hydraulic Residence Time, HRT) was required to treat POME using the proposed double column AFBR. Sensitivity analyses was conducted and revealed that μm1 appeared to be the most sensitive parameter to reduce the HRT of double column AFBR.

  15. Scale up of 2,4-dichlorophenol removal from aqueous solutions using Brassica napus hairy roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelini, Vanina A. [Departamento de Biologia Molecular, FCEFQN, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto, 5800 Rio Cuarto, Cordoba (Argentina); Orejas, Joaquin [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto, 5800 Rio Cuarto, Cordoba (Argentina); Medina, Maria I. [Departamento de Biologia Molecular, FCEFQN, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto, 5800 Rio Cuarto, Cordoba (Argentina); Agostini, Elizabeth, E-mail: eagostini@exa.unrc.edu.ar [Departamento de Biologia Molecular, FCEFQN, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto, 5800 Rio Cuarto, Cordoba (Argentina)

    2011-01-15

    Research highlights: {yields}B. napus hairy roots were effectively used for a large scale removal of 2,4-DCP. {yields} High removal efficiencies were obtained (98%) in a short time (30 min). {yields} Roots were re-used for six consecutive cycles with high efficiency. {yields} Post removal solutions showed no toxicity. {yields} This method could be used for continuous and safe treatment of phenolic effluents. - Abstract: Chlorophenols are harmful pollutants, frequently found in the effluents of several industries. For this reason, many environmental friendly technologies are being explored for their removal from industrial wastewaters. The aim of the present work was to study the scale up of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) removal from synthetic wastewater, using Brassica napus hairy roots and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in a discontinuous stirred tank reactor. We have analyzed some operational conditions, because the scale up of such process was poorly studied. High removal efficiencies were obtained (98%) in a short time (30 min). When roots were re-used for six consecutive cycles, 2,4-DCP removal efficiency decreased from 98 to 86%, in the last cycle. After the removal process, the solutions obtained from the reactor were assessed for their toxicity using an acute test with Lactuca sativa L. seeds. Results suggested that the treated solution was less toxic than the parent solution, because neither inhibition of lettuce germination nor effects in root and hypocotyl lengths were observed. Therefore, we provide evidence that Brassica napus hairy roots could be effectively used to detoxify solutions containing 2,4-DCP and they have considerable potential for a large scale removal of this pollutant. Thus, this study could help to design a method for continuous and safe treatment of effluents containing chlorophenols.

  16. Quantitative genetic analysis of total glucosinolate, oil and protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quantitative genetic analysis of total glucosinolate, oil and protein contents in Ethiopian mustard ( Brassica carinata A. Braun) ... Seeds were analyzed using HPLC (glucosinolates), NMR (oil) and NIRS (protein). Analyses of variance, Hayman's method of diallel analysis and a mixed linear model of genetic analysis were ...

  17. Effluent generation by the dairy industry: preventive attitudes and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Brião

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Work aimed to identify the effluent is generating areas in a dairy company for purpose of changing concept pollution prevention. methodology consisted measuring volumes and collecting samples effluents production sectors. analysis was conducted by sector, order those which generated excessive amounts effluents. results show that dry products (powdered milk powdered whey are greatest generators BOD, nitrogen phosphorus, while fluid form (UHT milk, formulated UHT, pasteurized cream butter produced large quantities oils grease. solids recovery, waste segregation water reuse can be applied with saving potential as much R$ 28,000 ($ 11,200 per month only raw materials also environmental gains in pollution prevention.

  18. Assessing the effect of salinity on the oil quality parameters of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czern & Coss using Fourier Transform Near-Infrared Reflectance (FT-NIR spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh, J.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Calibration models were developed for Fourier Transform Near Infrared Reflectance spectroscopy using PLS method and coefficients of determination (r2 for oil, protein, erucic acid and crude fiber contents were estimated 0.907, 0.922, 0.902, 0.903, respectively. Effects of the salinity on these traits were studied under normal and saline environments in the field (ECe 10.7dS·m-1 and nethouse using saline irrigation levels (ECiw 0, 9, 12, 15, 18 dS/m during 2011–12 and 2012–13. At higher salinity; oil, protein and crude fiber contents decreased by 7.27, 14.78, 34.25% and 5.78, 29.31, 20.45% in nethouse and field conditions respectively, whereas erucic acid content increased by 72.43 and 12.20%. Thus, FT-NIRS may be useful for quick and nondestructive estimations of oil quality parameters in Indian mustard.Se han desarrollado modelos de calibración, con espectroscopía de reflectancia en el infrarrojo cercano, mediante transformada de Fourier utilizando el método PLS; los coeficientes de determinación (r2 para el aceite, proteína, ácido erúcico y contenidos de fibra bruta se estimaron en: 0,907, 0,922, 0,902, 0,903, respectivamente. Se ha estudiado durante 2011–12 y 2012–13 el efecto de la salinidad sobre las características estudiadas, en entornos normales y salinos en el campo (ECe 10.7dS·m-1 y en condiciones controladas bajo irrigación salina (ECiw 0, 9, 12, 15 y 18 dSm-1. Con altos niveles de salinidad los contenidos de aceite, proteína y fibra cruda se redujeron a 7,27, 14,78, 34,25 % and 5,78, 29,31, 20,45 % en el estudio controlado y en condiciones de campo respectivamente, mientras que el contenido de ácido erúcico incrementó a 72,43 y 12,20 %. Por lo tanto, FT-NIRS puede ser de gran utilidad para las estimaciones rápidas y no destructivas de los parámetros de calidad del aceite de mostaza de la India.

  19. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of black mustard (Brassica nigra; BB) and comparison with Brassica oleracea (CC) and Brassica carinata (BBCC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Terachi, Toru

    2014-11-01

    Crop species of Brassica (Brassicaceae) consist of three monogenomic species and three amphidiploid species resulting from interspecific hybridizations among them. Until now, mitochondrial genome sequences were available for only five of these species. We sequenced the mitochondrial genome of the sixth species, Brassica nigra (nuclear genome constitution BB), and compared it with those of Brassica oleracea (CC) and Brassica carinata (BBCC). The genome was assembled into a 232 145 bp circular sequence that is slightly larger than that of B. oleracea (219 952 bp). The genome of B. nigra contained 33 protein-coding genes, 3 rRNA genes, and 17 tRNA genes. The cox2-2 gene present in B. oleracea was absent in B. nigra. Although the nucleotide sequences of 52 genes were identical between B. nigra and B. carinata, the second exon of rps3 showed differences including an insertion/deletion (indel) and nucleotide substitutions. A PCR test to detect the indel revealed intraspecific variation in rps3, and in one line of B. nigra it amplified a DNA fragment of the size expected for B. carinata. In addition, the B. carinata lines tested here produced DNA fragments of the size expected for B. nigra. The results indicate that at least two mitotypes of B. nigra were present in the maternal parents of B. carinata.

  20. Brassica villosa, a system for studying non-glandular trichomes and genes in the Brassicas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayidu, Naghabushana K; Tan, Yifang; Taheri, Ali; Li, Xiang; Bjorndahl, Trent C; Nowak, Jacek; Wishart, David S; Hegedus, Dwayne; Gruber, Margaret Y

    2014-07-01

    Brassica villosa is a wild Brassica C genome species with very dense trichome coverage and strong resistance to many insect pests of Brassica oilseeds and vegetables. Transcriptome analysis of hairy B. villosa leaves indicated higher expression of several important trichome initiation genes compared with glabrous B. napus leaves and consistent with the Arabidopsis model of trichome development. However, transcripts of the TRY inhibitory gene in hairy B. villosa were surprisingly high relative to B. napus and relative transcript levels of SAD2, EGL3, and several XIX genes were low, suggesting potential ancillary or less important trichome-related roles for these genes in Brassica species compared with Arabidopsis. Several antioxidant, calcium, non-calcium metal and secondary metabolite genes also showed differential expression between these two species. These coincided with accumulation of two alkaloid-like compounds, high levels of calcium, and other metals in B. villosa trichomes that are correlated with the known tolerance of B. villosa to high salt and the calcium-rich natural habitat of this wild species. This first time report on the isolation of large amounts of pure B. villosa trichomes, on trichome content, and on relative gene expression differences in an exceptionally hairy Brassica species compared with a glabrous species opens doors for the scientific community to understand trichome gene function in the Brassicas and highlights the potential of B. villosa as a trichome research platform.

  1. Coordinate changes in gene expression and triacylglycerol composition in the developing seeds of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and turnip rape (Brassica rapa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuorinen, Anssi L; Kalpio, Marika; Linderborg, Kaisa M; Kortesniemi, Maaria; Lehto, Kirsi; Niemi, Jarmo; Yang, Baoru; Kallio, Heikki P

    2014-02-15

    Crop production for vegetable oil in the northern latitudes utilises oilseed rape (Brassica napus subsp. oleifera) and turnip rape (B. rapa subsp. oleifera), having similar oil compositions. The oil consists mostly of triacylglycerols, which are synthesised during seed development. In this study, we characterised the oil composition and the expression levels of genes involved in triacylglycerol biosynthesis in the developing seeds in optimal, low temperature (15 °C) and short day (12-h day length) conditions. Gene expression levels of several genes were altered during seed development. Low temperature and short day treatments increased the level of 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid (18:3n-3) in turnip rape and short day treatment decreased the total oil content in both species. This study gives a novel view on seed oil biosynthesis under different growth conditions, bringing together gene expression levels of the triacylglycerol biosynthesis pathway and oil composition over a time series in two related oilseed species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. modelling effluent assimila modelling effluent assimilat modelling

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    have applied the theory to water quality management studies and several modifications as well had been proposed ... other factors in a water body which affect the DO-BOD relationship. According to them these factors are: ... large breweries which also channel their effluent discharge into it. Also, along the river bank of this.

  3. INEEL Liquid Effluent Inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Major, C.A.

    1997-06-01

    The INEEL contractors and their associated facilities are required to identify all liquid effluent discharges that may impact the environment at the INEEL. This liquid effluent information is then placed in the Liquid Effluent Inventory (LEI) database, which is maintained by the INEEL prime contractor. The purpose of the LEI is to identify and maintain a current listing of all liquid effluent discharge points and to identify which discharges are subject to federal, state, or local permitting or reporting requirements and DOE order requirements. Initial characterization, which represents most of the INEEL liquid effluents, has been performed, and additional characterization may be required in the future to meet regulations. LEI information is made available to persons responsible for or concerned with INEEL compliance with liquid effluent permitting or reporting requirements, such as the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, Wastewater Land Application, Storm Water Pollution Prevention, Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures, and Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment. The State of Idaho Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Program also needs the information for tracking liquid effluent discharges at the INEEL. The information provides a baseline from which future liquid discharges can be identified, characterized, and regulated, if appropriate. The review covered new and removed buildings/structures, buildings/structures which most likely had new, relocated, or removed LEI discharge points, and at least 10% of the remaining discharge points.

  4. Unleashing the Genome of Brassica Rapa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Haibao; Lyons, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The completion and release of the Brassica rapa genome is of great benefit to researchers of the Brassicas, Arabidopsis, and genome evolution. While its lineage is closely related to the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana, the Brassicas experienced a whole genome triplication subsequent to their divergence. This event contemporaneously created three copies of its ancestral genome, which had diploidized through the process of homeologous gene loss known as fractionation. By the fractionation of homeologous gene content and genetic regulatory binding sites, Brassica’s genome is well placed to use comparative genomic techniques to identify syntenic regions, homeologous gene duplications, and putative regulatory sequences. Here, we use the comparative genomics platform CoGe to perform several different genomic analyses with which to study structural changes of its genome and dynamics of various genetic elements. Starting with whole genome comparisons, the Brassica paleohexaploidy is characterized, syntenic regions with A. thaliana are identified, and the TOC1 gene in the circadian rhythm pathway from A. thaliana is used to find duplicated orthologs in B. rapa. These TOC1 genes are further analyzed to identify conserved non-coding sequences that contain cis-acting regulatory elements and promoter sequences previously implicated in circadian rhythmicity. Each “cookbook style” analysis includes a step-by-step walk-through with links to CoGe to quickly reproduce each step of the analytical process. PMID:22866056

  5. Intraspecific chromosomal and genetic polymorphism in Brassica ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-04-16

    Apr 16, 2014 ... A. V., Lemesh V. A. and Muravenko O. V. 2014 Intraspecific chromosomal and genetic polymorphism in Brassica napus L. detected by cytogenetic and molecular markers. J. Genet. ...... Howell E. C., Kearsey M. J., Jones G. H., King G. J. and Armstrong. S. J. 2008 A and C genome distinction and ...

  6. Comparative mitochondrial genome analysis reveals the evolutionary rearrangement mechanism in Brassica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J; Liu, G; Zhao, N; Chen, S; Liu, D; Ma, W; Hu, Z; Zhang, M

    2016-05-01

    The genus Brassica has many species that are important for oil, vegetable and other food products. Three mitochondrial genome types (mitotype) originated from its common ancestor. In this paper, a B. nigra mitochondrial main circle genome with 232,407 bp was generated through de novo assembly. Synteny analysis showed that the mitochondrial genomes of B. rapa and B. oleracea had a better syntenic relationship than B. nigra. Principal components analysis and development of a phylogenetic tree indicated maternal ancestors of three allotetraploid species in Us triangle of Brassica. Diversified mitotypes were found in allotetraploid B. napus, in which napus-type B. napus was derived from B. oleracea, while polima-type B. napus was inherited from B. rapa. In addition, the mitochondrial genome of napus-type B. napus was closer to botrytis-type than capitata-type B. oleracea. The sub-stoichiometric shifting of several mitochondrial genes suggested that mitochondrial genome rearrangement underwent evolutionary selection during domestication and/or plant breeding. Our findings clarify the role of diploid species in the maternal origin of allotetraploid species in Brassica and suggest the possibility of breeding selection of the mitochondrial genome. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  7. Antioxidant Enzyme Activities of some Brassica Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica SOARE

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper set out to comparatively study five species: white cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata alba Alef., red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata f. rubra Alef., Kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. Acephala, cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis and broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. cymosa in order to identify those with high enzymatic and antioxidant activities. The enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and soluble peroxidase (POX as well as the antioxidant activity against 2.2’-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS radical cation were determined. Total superoxide dismutase activity was measured spectrophotometrically based on inhibition in the photochemical reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium. Total soluble peroxidase was assayed by measuring the increase in A436 due to the guaiacol oxidation and the catalase activity was assayed through the colorimetric method. The capacity of extracts to scavenge the ABTS radical cation was assessed colorimetric using Trolox as a standard. The obtained results show that studied enzymatic activities and the antioxidant activity against ABTS vary depending on the analyzed species. So, among the studied Brassicaceae species, it emphasize red cabbage with the highest enzymatic activity (CAT 22.54 mM H2O2/min/g and POX 187.2 mM ΔA/1min/1g f.w. and kale with highest antioxidant activity, of 767 μmol TE/100g f.w. The results of this study recommendintroducing the studied varieties in diet due to the rich antioxidant properties.

  8. Liquid Effluent Retention Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) is located in the central part of the Hanford Site. LERF is permitted by the State of Washington and has three liquid...

  9. Genotoxicity of swine effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techio, V H; Stolberg, J; Kunz, A; Zanin, E; Perdomo, C C

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of genotoxic effects of swine effluents from different stages of a treatment system for swine wastes through bioassay of stamen hairs and micronuclei in Tradescantia (clone BNL 4430). No significant differences (p≥0.05) regarding the genic mutations were found in the bioassay of stamen hairs, independently of the effluent analysed. For the genotoxicity test with micronuclei, the plants exposed to raw wastes, to sludge, and to effluent of the biodigester have presented higher rates of chromosomal damages (micronuclei), with significant differences in relation to the control group and other effluent of the waste treatment system (p≤0.05). The association between the chemical parameters and the genotoxicity data have shown that the variables COD and TKN have presented significant correlation (p≤0.05) with the number of mutagenic events in the tetrads.

  10. Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Treated non-hazardous and non-radioactive liquid wastes are collected and then disposed of through the systems at the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). More...

  11. Pretreatment of brewery effluent to cultivate Spirulina sp. for nutrients removal and biomass production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qian; Liu, Hui; Liu, Wen; Zhong, Yuming; Ming, Caibing; Qian, Wei; Wang, Qin; Liu, Jianliang

    2017-10-01

    Due to the low concentration of nitrate and high contents of organics, brewery effluent was not suitable for the cultivation of Spirulina sp. This work changed the nutrient profile of brewery effluent effectively by dilution, addition of nitrate, and anaerobic digestion. The result showed that the optimum dilution rate and NaNO 3 addition for brewery effluent were 20% and 0.5 g/L, respectively. Spirulina sp. grown in pretreated brewery effluent produced 1.562 mg/L biomass and reduced concentrations of nutrients to reach the permissible dischargeable limits. In addition, Spirulina sp. grown in pretreated brewery effluent had much higher protein content and oil content. So the appropriate treatment converted brewery effluent into a nutrient balanced medium for algae cultivation and alleviated the potential environmental problems. Pretreatment procedure developed in this work is an effective way to realize the sustainable utilization of brewery effluent and produce algal biomass with valuable nutrients.

  12. Genetic Variability in Glucosinolates in Seed of Brassica juncea: Interest in Mustard Condiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othmane Merah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Brassica juncea is mostly used for oil production which implies selection of genotypes with low glucosinolates level and high oil content. In contrast, condiment production needs varieties with high level in some glucosinolates including sinigrin. The genetic variability was studied mostly by molecular tools. The objectives were almost the decrease of glucosinolates level in order to use the oilcake for animal feed. The aim of this work is to study the genetic variability for different glucosinolates and their relationships with agronomical traits within a large collection of Brassica juncea genotypes for condiment uses. A collection of 190 genotypes from different origins was studied in Dijon (France. Oil content and total glucosinolates, and sinigrin and gluconapin levels were measured. Flowering and maturation durations, seed yield, and yield components were also measured. Large variability was observed between genotypes for the measured traits within the studied collection. Total glucosinolates varied twofold between extreme genotypes. Values of sinigrin content varied from 0 to more than 134 µmol·g−1. Correlations between glucosinolates traits and both phenological and agronomical characters are presented and discussed for their potential for industrial condiment uses.

  13. Treatment of oil refinery effluent in a continuous reactor using Powdered Activated Carbon (PAC) in the activated sludge process; Tratamento de efluente de refinaria de petroleo em um reator continuo utilizando carvao ativado em po (CAP) no sistema de lodo ativado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Lidia; Campos, Juacyara C.; Valle, Alexandre Ornellas do; Souza, Andre Lopes de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    The process of oil refining generates effluent containing toxic substances as high molecular weight hydrocarbons which have toxicity or are recalcitrant to biological degradation. This study examined the introduction of powdered activated carbon (PAC) in the system of activated sludge used to treat of oil refinery effluent. The process was conducted in two bioreactors continued, with a capacity of 2L: one to monitoring the performance of the activated sludge system without the addition of PAC and another to monitoring the performance of biological treatment using 2,0 g/L of PAC. The degradation of organic matter through activated sludge turned to physical adsorption associated with the addition of CAP promoted the values of COD reduction of 360 to 36 mg / L, which corresponds to an average of 90% of removal. It was also observed the reduction of the values of total organic carbon (TOC) of 285 to 86mg / L, which represents an increase of TOC removal of around 10 percentage points, which, probably, can be the portion of persistent organic matter that is not degraded by the biological system without CAP. (author)

  14. (EFB)-palm oil mill effluent

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-15

    Jun 15, 2011 ... 3Department of Biological Functions and Engineering, Graduate School of Life Science and System Engineering,. Kyushu Institute ... Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis showed that the shredding-pressing treatment on EFB gave better .... efficient for CPO recovery, the composition of N, P and K.

  15. (EFB) and palm oil mill effluent (POME)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... The fungal strain of T. virens was procured from Universiti. Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM). The fungal culture was maintained by subculturing it on potato dextrose agar and keeping it at room temperature for 7 days. Lignocellulosic content. Lignocellulosic content was analysed using Datta's method (1981).

  16. Performance evaluation of effluent treatment plant for automobile industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansari, Farid [Department of Applied Science and Humanities, PDM College of Engineering, Bahadurgarh (Haryana) (India); Pandey, Yashwant K. [School of Energy and Environmental Studies, Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, Indore (India); Kumar, P.; Pandey, Priyanka [Department of Environmental Science, Post Graduate College Ghazipur (IN

    2013-07-01

    The automobile industry’s wastewater not only contains high levels of suspended and total solids such as oil, grease, dyestuff, chromium, phosphate in washing products, and coloring, at various stages of manufacturing but also, a significant amount of dissolved organics, resulting in high BOD or COD loads. The study reveals the performance, evaluation and operational aspects of effluent treatment plant and its treatability, rather than the contamination status of the real property. The Results revealed that the treated effluent shows most of the parameters are within permissible limits of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), India and based on the site visits, discussion with operation peoples, evaluation of process design, treatment system, existing effluent discharge, results of sample analyzed and found that effluent treatment plant of automobile industry are under performance satisfactory.

  17. Biology and harmfulness of Brassica pod midge (Dasineura brassicae Winn. in winter oilseed rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Draga Graora

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Brassica pod midge (Dasineura brassicae Winn. is an important pest in oilseed rape (Brasica napus L.. It develops two generations per year and overwinters in the larval stage in cocoons in soil. Immigration of the first generation adults lasted from the beginning of April until the end of May. Larvae developed in pods from mid-April to mid-June, causing pod deformation and cracking, which resulted in premature falling out of seeds and yield reduction. Pod damage amounted to 11.6%. The emergence of the second generation adults was detected at the end of May and in the first ten days of June. D. brassicae was found to lay eggs in healthy pods and no correlation was found with the cabbage seed weevil, Ceutorhynchus assimilis Paykull.

  18. Mucilage in Yellow Mustard (Brassica Hirta) Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Siddiqui, I. R.; Yiu, S. H.; Jones, J. D.; Kalab, M.

    1986-01-01

    Release of mucilage from yellow mustard (brassica hirta, also known as Sinapis alba) seed coats (hulls) was studied by optical and scanning electron microscopy. Micrographs were obtained of the mucilage which had exuded from briefly moistened seeds and dried subsequently in the form of small droplets on the seed surface. The mucilage collected from the seed surface and mucilage isolated on a larger scale from seed hulls was hydrolyzed with sulfuric acid and the hydrolyzates were analyzed f...

  19. Biodiesel production from butter factory effluent | Schabort | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increase in energy demand coupled with the depletion of fossil fuels has increased the need for renewable and sustainable energy sources. Butter waste effluent was identified as a possible feedstock for biodiesel. The effects of the temperature, alcohol to oil molar ratio, catalyst concentration and the reaction time were ...

  20. Salt tolerance potential of brassica juncea Linn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrar, M.; Jabeen, M.; Tabassum, J.; Hussain, F.; Ilahi, I.

    2003-01-01

    The present study showed that percent germination, radicle and plumule lengths of Brassica juncea were adversely affected by increasing the level of salinity. As compared to 95 per cent germination of the control, there were 92.50. 90.00. 90.00, 85.00, 87.50 and 80.00 per cent germinations respectively at 2.5, 5.0, 7.5. 10.0. 12.5 and 15.0 dSm/sup -1/ NaCI salinity levels. Similarly. all the parameters tested in the pot experiments showed gradual decline with the corresponding increasing levels of NaCl salinity. At lower levels of salinity (2.5 and 5.0 dSm/sup -l/), Brassica juncea had reasonably good growth and productivity. It showed greatly reduced growth and at 7.5 and 10.0 dSm/sup -1/ while at 12.5 and 15.0 10.0 dSm/sup -1/ salinity levels it was severely production affected. It is concluded from the present work that Brassica juncea can be grown fairly on mild saline soils for a food, fodder and seed production. (author)

  1. The progress of intersubgenomic heterosis studies in Brassica napus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-03-15

    Mar 15, 2010 ... China (Fan and Stefansson, 1986; Downey and. Röbbelen, 1989; Fu, 2000). Lots of research revealed ... THE CONCEPT OF SUBGENOME OF BRASSICA. Long years of evolution and artificial selection have ... To distinguish the difference, the concept of subgenome was introduced to genus Brassicas.

  2. Epidemiological studies on Brassica vegetables and cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, D.T.H.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Poppel, G. van; Verhagen, H.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    1996-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the epidemiological data concerning the cancer-preventive effect of brassica vegetables, including cabbage, kale, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, and cauliflower. The protective effect of brassicas against cancer may be due to their relatively high content of

  3. A review of mechanisms underlying anticarcinogenicity by brassica vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, D.T.H.; Verhagen, H.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Poppel, G. van

    1997-01-01

    The mechanisms by which brassica vegetables might decrease the risk of cancer are reviewed in this paper. Brassicas, including all types of cabbages, broccoli, cauliflower and Brussels sprouts, may be protective against cancer due to their relatively high glucosinolate content. Glucosinolates are

  4. Dispersal behaviour of Trichogramma brassicae in maize fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suverkropp, B.P.; Bigler, F.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2009-01-01

    Glue-sprayed maize plants were used to study dispersal behaviour of the egg parasitoid Trichogramma brassicae Bezdenko (Hymenoptera Trichogrammatidae) in maize fields. To estimate the distance covered during an initial flight, T. brassicae were studied in a field cage with 73 glue-sprayed plants.

  5. Expression of human interferon gamma in Brassica napus seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TUOYO

    2010-08-09

    Aug 9, 2010 ... express human therapeutic protein, interferon gamma (IFN_γ) in Brassica napus seeds. Kozak sequence was linked to the .... witness successful expression of the human interferon gamma in Brassica napus ..... Cytosolic factors block antibody binding to the C-terminal tail of the. KDEL receptor. Eur. J. Cell ...

  6. Subgenome parallel selection is associated with morphotype diversification and convergent crop domestication in Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Feng; Sun, Rifei; Hou, Xilin; Zheng, Hongkun; Zhang, Fenglan; Zhang, Yangyong; Liu, Bo; Liang, Jianli; Zhuang, Mu; Liu, Yunxia; Liu, Dongyuan; Wang, Xiaobo; Li, Pingxia; Liu, Yumei; Lin, Ke; Bucher, Johan; Zhang, Ningwen; Wang, Yan; Wang, Hui; Deng, Jie; Liao, Yongcui; Wei, Keyun; Zhang, Xueming; Fu, Lixia; Hu, Yunyan; Liu, Jisheng; Cai, Chengcheng; Zhang, Shujiang; Zhang, Shifan; Li, Fei; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Jifang; Guo, Ning; Liu, Zhiyuan; Liu, Jin; Sun, Chao; Ma, Yuan; Zhang, Haijiao; Cui, Yang; Freeling, Micheal R; Borm, Theo; Bonnema, Guusje; Wu, Jian; Wang, Xiaowu

    2016-10-01

    Brassica species, including crops such as cabbage, turnip and oilseed, display enormous phenotypic variation. Brassica genomes have all undergone a whole-genome triplication (WGT) event with unknown effects on phenotype diversification. We resequenced 199 Brassica rapa and 119 Brassica oleracea accessions representing various morphotypes and identified signals of selection at the mesohexaploid subgenome level. For cabbage morphotypes with their typical leaf-heading trait, we identified four subgenome loci that show signs of parallel selection among subgenomes within B. rapa, as well as four such loci within B. oleracea. Fifteen subgenome loci are under selection and are shared by these two species. We also detected strong subgenome parallel selection linked to the domestication of the tuberous morphotypes, turnip (B. rapa) and kohlrabi (B. oleracea). Overall, we demonstrated that the mesohexaploidization of the two Brassica genomes contributed to their diversification into heading and tuber-forming morphotypes through convergent subgenome parallel selection of paralogous genes.

  7. Plasmodiophora brassicae: a review of an emerging pathogen of the Canadian canola (Brassica napus) crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sheau-Fang; Strelkov, Stephen E; Feng, Jie; Gossen, Bruce D; Howard, Ron J

    2012-02-01

    Plasmodiophora brassicae causes clubroot disease in cruciferous plants, and is an emerging threat to Canadian canola (Brassica napus) production. This review focuses on recent studies into the pathogenic diversity of P. brassicae populations, mechanisms of pathogenesis and resistance, and the development of diagnostic tests for pathogen detection and quantification. Plasmodiophora brassicae is a soil-borne, obligate parasite within the class Phytomyxea (plasmodiophorids) of the protist supergroup Rhizaria. Clubroot development is characterized by the formation of club-shaped galls on the roots of affected plants. Above-ground symptoms include wilting, stunting, yellowing and premature senescence. DISEASE CYCLE: Plasmodiophora brassicae first infects the root hairs, producing motile zoospores that invade the cortical tissue. Secondary plasmodia form within the root cortex and, by triggering the expression of genes involved in the production of auxins, cytokinins and other plant growth regulators, divert a substantial proportion of plant resources into hypertrophic growth of the root tissues, resulting in the formation of galls. The secondary plasmodia are cleaved into millions of resting spores and the root galls quickly disintegrate, releasing long-lived resting spores into the soil. A serine protease, PRO1, has been shown to trigger resting spore germination. PHYSIOLOGICAL SPECIALIZATION: Physiological specialization occurs in populations of P. brassicae, and various host differential sets, consisting of different collections of Brassica genotypes, are used to distinguish among pathotypes of the parasite. DETECTION AND QUANTIFICATION: As P. brassicae cannot be cultured, bioassays with bait plants were traditionally used to detect the pathogen in the soil. More recent innovations for the detection and quantification of P. brassicae include the use of antibodies, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and qPCR in conjunction with signature fatty acid analysis

  8. Agronomic performance for biodiesel production potential of Brassica carinata A. Braun in Mediterranean marginal areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Montemurro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Brassicaceae are promising oil feedstock for cultivation in centralsouthern Italy. Therefore, a two-year investigation on Brassica carinata A. Braun (cv. CT 204 was carried out in three sites of Apulia region [Site 1, Alberobello - Murgia foreland; Site 2, Troia (Foggia - Daunian sub-Apennines; Site 3, Monteroni (Lecce - Area of Salento], and in one site of Basilicata region (Site 4, Hill of Matera. The aim was to identify site-specific management practices [by comparing minimum vs conventional tillage, low sowing density vs high sowing density; different levels of nitrogen (N supply and organic fertilisers] in the four different marginal areas, to achieve optimum yield performance for biodiesel prospective production. The crop showed a good adaptability in the study sites, and the highest N level positively influenced the yield performance in Sites 1, 2 and 3. Moreover, the reduction of mechanical operations (minimum tillage did not negatively influence crop production and seed oil content. The highest density of sowing tested determined the best crop performance in Site 3, particularly showing the maximum seed oil content with the lowest N supply. Finally, in Site 4 the compost mixed with mineral N fertiliser as well as the sewage sludge from urban wastewater determined productive results comparable to those obtained with mineral fertiliser, evidencing that organic fertilisers could (partially or completely substitute the mineral one for this crop in the study site. On the whole, seed yield and oil content showed a potential for biodiesel production of Brassica carinata cultivated with site-specific agronomic techniques in four different marginal areas of Southern Italy, suggesting it can be likely achieved the crop environmental adaptation.

  9. Evaporation behaviour of different organic effluents from open surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhorar, B S; Malik, R S

    1993-01-01

    Production of large quantities of effluents from different industrial units and the problems of their disposal necessitated this evaporation study. The evaporation of water, sewage water, oil refinery effluent, papermill effluent and liquor distillery effluent was observed in glass beakers when placed (i) in an oven at 60 degrees C and (ii) in screen house for 30 days, by periodically weighing of the beakers. In other experiments, the effect of increasing the frequency of stirring on increasing the evaporation efficiency of the liquor distillery effluent (ELD) was examined in detail. All of the organic effluents except ELD had similar evaporation behaviours as water, but formation of a self-forming film caused the evaporation of ELD to be considerably lower. Resistance to evaporation caused by this film was found to be a decreasing function of the frequency of stirring. This study has a bearing on improving the efficiency of evaporation lagoons, and three stirrings in a day with a manually drawn stirrer in a full-scale lagoon are proposed as a practical and economically viable technique to save 44% of lagoon land in arid and semi-arid regions of the world.

  10. A Phylogenetic Analysis of Chloroplast Genomes Elucidates the Relationships of the Six Economically Important Brassica Species Comprising the Triangle of U

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Peirong; Zhang, Shujiang; Li, Fei; Zhang, Shifan; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Xiaowu; Sun, Rifei; Bonnema, Guusje; Borm, Theo J.A.

    2017-01-01

    The Brassica genus comprises many economically important worldwide cultivated crops. The well-established model of the Brassica genus, U’s triangle, consists of three basic diploid plant species (Brassica rapa, Brassica oleracea, and Brassica nigra) and three amphidiploid species (Brassica napus,

  11. Contamination of Chinese Cabbage Soil with Plasmodiophora brassicae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Woo Soh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was performed to establish basic technology for Chinese cabbage clubroot chemical control by investigating the soil contamination of Plasmodiophora brassicae in major producing regions of fall Chinese cabbage. PCR primers were developed to detect P. brassicae, a causal agent of Chinese cabbage club-root that generally occurs in Cruciferae family. A primer set, PbbtgF761 and PbbtgR961, specifically amplified a 245 bp fragment from P. brassicae only. At places well known for fall Chinese cabbage, 10 out of 33 in Haenam-gun, 5 out of 13 in Yeongam-gun and Yeonggwang-gun, 1 out of 6 in Gochang-gun, 2 out of 12 in Hongseong-gun, and 5 out of 17 in Dangjin-si resulted positive for P. brassicae contamination. The results show that the soil contamination rate of P. brassicae was 30.3% in Haenam-gun, 38.5% in Yeongam-gun and Yeonggwang-gun, 16.7% in Gochang-gun, 16.7% in Hongseong-gun, and 29.4% in Dangjin-si. The six places where Chinese cabbage clubroot was visible by naked eye were 100% confirmed by the PCR test of the P. brassicae contaminated soil. Thus, simple PCR test may be utilized as an index to decide on chemical control of P. brassicae.

  12. Feed preference of weaned pigs fed diets containing soybean meal, Brassica napus canola meal, or Brassica juncea canola meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landero, Jose L; Wang, Li Fang; Beltranena, Eduardo; Bench, Clover J; Zijlstra, Ruurd T

    2018-03-06

    Brassica napus and Brassica juncea canola meal (CM) may replace soybean meal (SBM) in pig diets, but differ in fiber, glucosinolates content and profile. Preference of weaned pigs provided double-choice selections to diets containing 20% SBM, B. napus CM, or B. juncea CM was evaluated in two studies. In experiment 1, 216 pigs (9.4 ± 1.6 kg initial BW) were housed in 27 pens of 8 pigs (four gilts and four barrows). In experiment 2, 144 pigs (8.9 ± 1.1 kg) were housed in 36 pens of 4 pigs (two gilts and two barrows). Pigs were offered three dietary choices: B. napus CM with SBM as reference (B. napus CM [SBM]), B. juncea CM with SBM as reference (B. juncea CM [SBM]), and B. juncea CM with B. napus CM as reference (B. juncea CM [B. napus CM]) in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square. Diets were formulated to provide 2.4 Mcal NE/kg and 4.5 g standardized ileal digestible Lys/Mcal NE and were balanced using canola oil and crystalline AA. Each pair of diets was offered in two self-feeders per pen as mash (experiment 1) or pellets (experiment 2) during three test-periods of 4-d, followed by a 3-d non-test period when a common diet was offered in both feeders. Feeders with different diets were rotated daily among pens during preference periods for both experiments, and feeder positions (right or left) were switched daily in experiment 2. Prior to the study and between periods, pigs were fed non-test diets containing SBM (experiment 1) or without test feedstuffs (experiment 2). Overall in both experiments, pigs preferred (P 0.05) growth performance in both experiments, except for greater G:F (P < 0.05) for pigs fed the B. juncea CM [B. napus CM] diets than pigs fed the B. napus CM [SBM] or B. juncea CM [SBM] diets in experiment 1. In conclusion, weaned pigs preferred SBM over CM diets when given a choice, and preferred B. napus over the B. juncea diet that contained more total glucosinolates especially gluconapin. Weaned pigs fed the B. juncea CM [B. napus CM] diets in the

  13. BRAD, the genetics and genomics database for Brassica plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Pingxia

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brassica species include both vegetable and oilseed crops, which are very important to the daily life of common human beings. Meanwhile, the Brassica species represent an excellent system for studying numerous aspects of plant biology, specifically for the analysis of genome evolution following polyploidy, so it is also very important for scientific research. Now, the genome of Brassica rapa has already been assembled, it is the time to do deep mining of the genome data. Description BRAD, the Brassica database, is a web-based resource focusing on genome scale genetic and genomic data for important Brassica crops. BRAD was built based on the first whole genome sequence and on further data analysis of the Brassica A genome species, Brassica rapa (Chiifu-401-42. It provides datasets, such as the complete genome sequence of B. rapa, which was de novo assembled from Illumina GA II short reads and from BAC clone sequences, predicted genes and associated annotations, non coding RNAs, transposable elements (TE, B. rapa genes' orthologous to those in A. thaliana, as well as genetic markers and linkage maps. BRAD offers useful searching and data mining tools, including search across annotation datasets, search for syntenic or non-syntenic orthologs, and to search the flanking regions of a certain target, as well as the tools of BLAST and Gbrowse. BRAD allows users to enter almost any kind of information, such as a B. rapa or A. thaliana gene ID, physical position or genetic marker. Conclusion BRAD, a new database which focuses on the genetics and genomics of the Brassica plants has been developed, it aims at helping scientists and breeders to fully and efficiently use the information of genome data of Brassica plants. BRAD will be continuously updated and can be accessed through http://brassicadb.org.

  14. Field evaluation of leaf blight-resistant plant introductions of Brassica Juncea and Brassica Rapa and elucidation of inheritance of resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassica leafy greens (Brassica juncea and Brassica rapa) represent one of the most economically important vegetable crop groups in the southeastern United States. In the last 10 years, numerous occurrences of a leaf blight disease on these leafy vegetables have been reported in several states. One ...

  15. Effects of pH control and concentration on microbial oil production from Chlorella vulgaris cultivated in the effluent of a low-cost organic waste fermentation system producing volatile fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyun Uk; Kim, Young Mo; Choi, Yun-Nam; Xu, Xu; Shin, Dong Yun; Park, Jong Moon

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of applying volatile fatty acids (VFAs) produced from low-cost organic waste to the major carbon sources of microalgae cultivation for highly efficient biofuel production. An integrated process that consists of a sewage sludge fermentation system producing VFAs (SSFV) and mixotrophic cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) was operated to produce microbial lipids economically. The effluents from the SSFV diluted to different concentrations at the level of 100%, 50%, and 15% were prepared for the C. vulgaris cultivation and the highest biomass productivity (433±11.9 mg/L/d) was achieved in the 100% culture controlling pH at 7.0. The harvested biomass included lipid contents ranging from 12.87% to 20.01% under the three different effluent concentrations with and without pH control. The composition of fatty acids from C. vulgaris grown on the effluents from the SSFV complied with the requirements of high-quality biodiesel. These results demonstrated that VFAs produced from the SSFV are favorable carbon sources for cultivating C. vulgaris. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Studies on the use of gamma irradiation and tissue culture in improving brassica napus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khedr, E.K.A.

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to:1- Studying the effect of different doses of gamma rays on some growth and yield component traits of three Brassica napus cultivars (Serow6, Serow4 and Pactol) during four consecutive generations aiming to create new genotypes characterized with high yielding traits. 2- Studying the effect of different doses of gamma rays on in vitro biotechnology technique (tissue culture) used in improving Brassica napus. Seeds of three Brassica napus cultivars were irradiated with different gamma ray doses then sown for four consecutive seasons. Data were collected and recorded to clarify the effect gamma irradiation on some yield component traits which were days to flowering , plant height, number of main branches per plant, number of secondary branches per plant, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, weight of 1000-seed, weight of grain yield/plant and oil content of seeds). Results showed that high doses of gamma radiation had enhanced all of the studied traits for each of the three tested cultivars (except the plant height trait for Serow6 and Pactol cultivars). Seven new mutant lines were selected for their superiority in one or more of the studied yield component traits. Regarding the effect of gamma rays on tissue culture techniques, the applied gamma radiation doses did not affect the percentage of seed germination of the three studied cultivars, whereas the percentage of callus induction decreased by increasing the dose of gamma rays for each of the three cultivars and in both types of explants (hypocotyl and cotyledons) used in this experiment.

  17. Transcriptome analysis of Brassica juncea var. tumida Tsen responses to Plasmodiophora brassicae primed by the biocontrol strain Zhihengliuella aestuarii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuanli; Dong, Daiwen; Su, Yu; Wang, Xuyi; Peng, Yumei; Peng, Jiang; Zhou, Changyong

    2018-05-01

    Mustard clubroot, caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae, is a serious disease that affects Brassica juncea var. tumida Tsen, a mustard plant that is the raw material for a traditional fermented food manufactured in Chongqing, China. In our laboratory, we screened the antagonistic bacteria Zhihengliuella aestuarii against P. brassicae. To better understand the biocontrol mechanism, three transcriptome analyses of B. juncea var. tumida Tsen were conducted using Illumina HiSeq 4000, one from B. juncea only inoculated with P. brassicae (P), one inoculated with P. brassica and the biocontrol agent Z. aestuarii at the same time (P + B), and the other was the control (H), in which P. brassicae was replaced by sterile water. A total of 19.94 Gb was generated by Illumina HiSeq sequencing. The sequence data were de novo assembled, and 107,617 unigenes were obtained. In total, 5629 differentially expressed genes between biocontrol-treated (P + B) and infected (P) samples were assigned to 126 KEGG pathways. Using multiple testing corrections, 20 pathways were significantly enriched with Qvalue ≤ 0.05. The resistance-related genes, involved in the production of pathogenesis-related proteins, pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity, and effector-triggered immunity signaling pathways, calcium influx, salicylic acid pathway, reactive oxygen intermediates, and mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades, and cell wall modification, were obtained. The various defense responses induced by the biocontrol strain combatted the P. brassicae infection. The genes and pathways involved in plant resistance were induced by a biocontrol strain. The transcriptome data explained the molecular mechanism of the potential biocontrol strain against P. brassicae. The data will also serve as an important public information platform to study B. juncea var. tumida Tsen and will be useful for breeding mustard plants resistant to P. brassicae.

  18. Zero effluent; Efluente zero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Silvio Rogerio; Santos, Angelo Francisco dos [Liquigas Distribuidora S.A., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    A scenery of water shortage and the search for profitability improvement obligate the companies to exercise their creativity and to adopt alternative methods to the conventional ones to preserve the environmental resources. The 'Effluent Zero' project comes from a paradigms changing that the environmental preservation is a necessary cost. It brings a new analysis approach of this problem with the purpose to adapt the investments and operational costs with the effluents treatment to the demands of the productive processes. In Liquigas, the project brought significant results; made a potential reduction of nearly 90% in the investments of the effluents treatment systems. That means nearly 13% in reduction in the total investments in modernization and upgrade of the existents companies installations and of 1,6% in the total operational costs of the Company. Further more, it has contributed for a reduction of until 43% of the water consumption in the bottling process of the Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG). This way, the project resulted in effective actions of environmental protection with relevant economic benefits. (author)

  19. Anthocyanins facilitate tungsten accumulation in Brassica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, K.L.

    2002-11-01

    Accumulation of molybdenum in Brassica was recently found to be correlated with anthocyanin content, involving the formation of a blue complex. Here the role of anthocyanins in tungsten sequestration was investigated using three species of Brassica: B. rapa (cv. Fast plants), B. juncea (Indian mustard) and B. oleracea (red cabbage). Seedlings of B. rapa and B. juncea turned blue when supplied with colourless tungstate. The blue compound co-localized with anthocyanins in the peripheral cell layers, and the degree of blueness was correlated with anthocyanin content. The direct involvement of anthocyanins in the blue coloration was evident when purified anthocyanins showed a colour change from pink to blue in vitro upon addition of tungstate, over a wide pH range. Anthocyanin production was upregulated 3-fold by W in B. juncea, possibly reflecting a function for anthocyanins in W tolerance or sequestration. The presence of anthocyanins facilitated W accumulation in B. rapa: anthocyanin-containing seedlings accumulated 3-fold more W than an anthocyaninless mutant. There was no correlation between anthocyanin content and W tolerance under these conditions. The nature of the interaction between anthocyanins and tungstate was investigated. X-ray absorption spectroscopy showed no change in the local chemical environment of Wupon uptake of tungstate by the plant; HPLC analysis of purified anthocyanin with or without tungstate showed no peak shift after metal treatment.

  20. new time-saving transformation system for Brassica napus | Kong ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mediated transformation system for Brassica napus was developed. A series of combinations of optical densities, infection durations, concentrations of acetosyringone and silwet L77 were evaluated. Maximum transformation efficiency reached ...

  1. Glucosinolates during preparation of Brassica vegetables in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nugrahedi, P.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Title: Glucosinolates during preparation of Brassica vegetables in Indonesia Dutch translation of title: Effecten van Indonesische bereidingsmethoden op gezondheidsbevorderende stoffen in groenten Title/description for non-professionals: Effects

  2. Radiation treatment of sewage effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawai, Teruko; Sekiguchi, Masayuki; Sawai, Takeshi

    1990-01-01

    The water demand of the past several years increased rapidly. Recycling of municipal wastewater is the effective means of coping with water shortage in Tokyo. We studied the radiation treatment method of further purification of the effluent from sewage treatment plant. By gamma irradiation the refractory organic substances in effluent were decomposed. The COD values decreased and the light brown color faded with increasing dose. The high molecular weight components in effluent were degraded to lower molecular weight substances and were decomposed finally to carbon dioxide. Recent attention has been given to the disadvantages of using chlorine as a disinfectant of municipal wastewater effluents. It has been shown that the chlorination of organic substances in water may produce chlorinated hydrocarbons with carcinogenic properties. So a development of the effective sterilization method for the effluent has been needed instead of chlorine. The radiation sterilization of coliforms and total bacteria in primary effluent, secondary effluent and rapid sand filtered effluent were studied. Coliforms were very sensitive to radiation treatment in comparison with total bacteria. Especially, coliforms in secondary and rapid sand filtered effluents were disinfected to 10 % of initial at 0.1 kGy. (author)

  3. Transcriptome analysis of canola (Brassica napus) under salt stress at the germination stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Weihua; Zou, Xiling; Zhang, Xuekun

    2015-01-01

    Canola (Brassica napus) is one of the most important oil crops in the world. However, its yield has been constrained by salt stress. In this study, transcriptome profiles were explored using Digital Gene Expression (DGE) at 0, 3, 12 and 24 hours after H2O (control) and NaCl treatments on B. napus roots at the germination stage. Comparisons of gene-expression between the control and the treatment were conducted after tag-mapping to the sequenced Brassica rapa genome. The differentially expressed genes during the time course of salt stress were focused on, and 163 genes were identified to be differentially expressed at all the time points. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analyses revealed that some of the genes were involved in proline metabolism, inositol metabolism, carbohydrate metabolic processes and oxidation-reduction processes and may play vital roles in the salt-stress response at the germination stage. Thus, this study provides new candidate salt stress responding genes, which may function in novel putative nodes in the molecular pathways of salt stress resistance.

  4. The compact genome of the plant pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae is adapted to intracellular interactions with host Brassica spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfe, Stephen A; Strelkov, Stephen E; Links, Matthew G; Clarke, Wayne E; Robinson, Stephen J; Djavaheri, Mohammad; Malinowski, Robert; Haddadi, Parham; Kagale, Sateesh; Parkin, Isobel A P; Taheri, Ali; Borhan, M Hossein

    2016-03-31

    The protist Plasmodiophora brassicae is a soil-borne pathogen of cruciferous species and the causal agent of clubroot disease of Brassicas including agriculturally important crops such as canola/rapeseed (Brassica napus). P. brassicae has remained an enigmatic plant pathogen and is a rare example of an obligate biotroph that resides entirely inside the host plant cell. The pathogen is the cause of severe yield losses and can render infested fields unsuitable for Brassica crop growth due to the persistence of resting spores in the soil for up to 20 years. To provide insight into the biology of the pathogen and its interaction with its primary host B. napus, we produced a draft genome of P. brassicae pathotypes 3 and 6 (Pb3 and Pb6) that differ in their host range. Pb3 is highly virulent on B. napus (but also infects other Brassica species) while Pb6 infects only vegetable Brassica crops. Both the Pb3 and Pb6 genomes are highly compact, each with a total size of 24.2 Mb, and contain less than 2 % repetitive DNA. Clustering of genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of Pb3, Pb6 and three additional re-sequenced pathotypes (Pb2, Pb5 and Pb8) shows a high degree of correlation of cluster grouping with host range. The Pb3 genome features significant reduction of intergenic space with multiple examples of overlapping untranslated regions (UTRs). Dependency on the host for essential nutrients is evident from the loss of genes for the biosynthesis of thiamine and some amino acids and the presence of a wide range of transport proteins, including some unique to P. brassicae. The annotated genes of Pb3 include those with a potential role in the regulation of the plant growth hormones cytokinin and auxin. The expression profile of Pb3 genes, including putative effectors, during infection and their potential role in manipulation of host defence is discussed. The P. brassicae genome sequence reveals a compact genome, a dependency of the pathogen on its host for some

  5. Heterodera schachtii nematodes interfere with aphid-plant relations on Brassica oleracea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hol, W.H.G.; Boer, de W.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Meyer, K.M.; Schneider, J.H.M.; Putten, van der W.H.; Dam, N.M.

    2013-01-01

    Aboveground and belowground herbivore species modify plant defense responses differently. Simultaneous attack can lead to non-additive effects on primary and secondary metabolite composition in roots and shoots. We previously found that aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae) population growth on Brassica

  6. Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, X.

    2014-01-01

    Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana. I studied numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana. The large genomic changes are important for

  7. The feasibility of effluent trading in the energy industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J.A.

    1997-05-01

    In January 1996, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released a policy statement endorsing effluent trading in watersheds, hoping to spur additional interest in the subject. The policy describes five types of effluent trades - point source/point source, point source/nonpoint source, pretreatment, intraplant, and nonpoint source/nonpoint source. This report evaluates the feasibility of effluent trading for facilities in the oil and gas industry (exploration and production, refining, and distribution and marketing segments), electric power industry, and the coal industry (mines and preparation plants). Nonpoint source/nonpoint source trades are not considered since the energy industry facilities evaluated here are all point sources. EPA has administered emission trading programs in its air quality program for many years. Programs for offsets, bubbles, banking, and netting are supported by federal regulations, and the 1990 Clean Air Act (CAA) amendments provide a statutory basis for trading programs to control ozone and acid rain. Different programs have had varying degrees of success, but few have come close to meeting their expectations. Few trading programs have been established under the Clean Water Act (CWA). One intraplant trading program was established by EPA in its effluent limitation guidelines (ELGs) for the iron and steel industry. The other existing effluent trading programs were established by state or local governments and have had minimal success.

  8. Pollution from tanneries effluents and its impact on environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajput, A.A.; Memon, Hafeez-ur-Rahman; Sahto, M.H.

    1999-01-01

    The disposal of tanneries effluence has become one of the serious environmental problems. The effluents from tanneries contain highly toxic materials, including chromium salts, ammonium salts, acids, sodium sulphide and suspended solids. Hair, alkalinity, surfactants, dyes and oils are also present in these effluents. The extent of pollution depends upon the volume of the effluent discharged. Many studies have been carried out on the characteristics of these effluents in order to understand the nature of the effluents and their impact on environment. The present study shows measured values of different parameters like Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) about 1950 mg/l, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) about 4500-4600 mg/l, suspended solids about 2600-2700 mg/l, dissolved solids 10000-12000 mg/l and lead, copper, chromium and cadmium about 2, 0.4, 64.4 and 0.31 mg/l respectively. The measured values are compared with that of previous. Some remedial measures for its treatment and disposal are also discussed. (author)

  9. The evolution of Brassica under domestication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crisp, P.

    1989-01-01

    Four species of Brassica show highly diverse cultivated forms of vegetables. Similar morphotypes arose in different species, and in different geographic regions. Morphotypic variation may have originated as major gene mutations which were canalized into stable, polygenically controlled characters. Different genetic systems may control the same phenotype within and between species. It is argued that the likelihood of the success of major gene mutation in fresh domestications, particularly of vegetables, will be increased if the wild species is already edible, and is related to cultivated or highly diverse species. New phenotypes arising from mutation programmes should be assessed by groups of individuals with diverse interests in the exploitation of crop plants. (author). 30 refs, 1 tab

  10. Response of spinach and komatsuna to biogas effluent made from source-separated kitchen garbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Yuichiro; Hasegawa, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    Recycling of kitchen garbage is an urgent task for reducing public spending and environmental burdens by incineration and/or landfill. There is an interesting regional effort in Ogawa, Saitama prefecture, Japan, in which source-separated kitchen garbage is anaerobically fermented with a biogas plant and the resultant effluent is used as a quick-release organic fertilizer by surrounding farmers. However, scientific assessments of fertilizer values and risks in the use of the effluent were lacking. Thus, a field experiment was conducted from 2003 to 2004 in Tohoku National Agricultural Research Center to grow spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and komatsuna (Brassica rapa var. perviridis L. H. Bailey) for evaluating the fertilizer value of the kitchen garbage effluent (KGE), nitrate, coliform group (CG), Escherichia coli, fecal streptococci (FS), and Vibrio parahaemolyticus concentrations of KGE and in the soil and the plant leaves. A cattle manure effluent (CME) and chemical fertilizers (NPK) were used as controls. Total nitrogen (N) and ammonium N concentrations of the KGE were 1.47 and 1.46 g kg(-1), respectively. The bacteria tested were detected in both biogas effluents in the order of 2 to 3 log CFU g(-1), but there was little evidence that the biogas effluents increased these bacteria in the soil and the plant leaves. At the rate of 22 g N m(-2), yield, total N uptake, apparent N recovery rate, and leaf nitrate ion concentration at harvest of spinach and komatsuna in the KGE plot were mostly comparable to those in the NPK and CME plots. We conclude that the KGE is a quick-release N fertilizer comparable to chemical fertilizers and does not cause contamination of CG, E. coli, FS, or V. parahaemolyticus in the soil and spinach and komatsuna leaves.

  11. Could nitrile derivatives of turnip (Brassica rapa) glucosinolates be hepato- or cholangiotoxic in cattle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnip (Brassica rapa ssp. rapa) and rape (Brassica napus ssp. biennis) and other brassica forage crops are regarded as “safe” feed for cattle during late summer and fall in the North Island of New Zealand when high Pithomyces chartarum spore counts in pastures frequently lead to sporidesmin toxicit...

  12. Could nitrile derivatives of turnip (Brassica rapa) glucosinolates be Hepato-and/or cholangiotoxic in cattle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnip (Brassica rapa ssp. rapa) and rape (Brassica napus ssp. biennis) and other brassica forage crops are generally regarded as “safe” feed for cattle during late summer and fall in New Zealand. However, when Pithomyces chartarum spore counts are high there are epidemics of sporidesmin toxicity (...

  13. Microspore culture of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) in conjunction with other in vitro technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cegielska-Taras, T.; Szala, L.; Bartkowiak-Broda, I.

    2001-01-01

    Microspore culture in conjunction with other technologies such as selection, mutagenesis and transformation has been used for the production of novel genotypes of Brassica napus L. for crop improvement. The example of in vitro selection of microspore - derived embryos includes: a) ploidy level, b) seed oil composition (for example: high level of erucic acid), c) genotypes with restorer gene for CMS-ogura system (by means of isozyme marker PGI-2 ), d) herbicide resistant forms. Efficiency of microspore mutagenesis has been tested by the treatment of freshly isolated microspores with UV and MNU. Direct delivery of foreign gene to the microspores (microprojectile bombardment) combined with the use of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to microspore derived embryos seems to be a promising way of oilseed rape transformation. (author)

  14. Gene silencing of BnTT10 family genes causes retarded pigmentation and lignin reduction in the seed coat of Brassica napus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zhang

    Full Text Available Yellow-seed (i.e., yellow seed coat is one of the most important agronomic traits of Brassica plants, which is correlated with seed oil and meal qualities. Previous studies on the Brassicaceae, including Arabidopsis and Brassica species, proposed that the seed-color trait is correlative to flavonoid and lignin biosynthesis, at the molecular level. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the oxidative polymerization of flavonoid and biosynthesis of lignin has been demonstrated to be catalyzed by laccase 15, a functional enzyme encoded by the AtTT10 gene. In this study, eight Brassica TT10 genes (three from B. napus, three from B. rapa and two from B. oleracea were isolated and their roles in flavonoid oxidation/polymerization and lignin biosynthesis were investigated. Based on our phylogenetic analysis, these genes could be divided into two groups with obvious structural and functional differentiation. Expression studies showed that Brassica TT10 genes are active in developing seeds, but with differential expression patterns in yellow- and black-seeded near-isogenic lines. For functional analyses, three black-seeded B. napus cultivars were chosen for transgenic studies. Transgenic B. napus plants expressing antisense TT10 constructs exhibited retarded pigmentation in the seed coat. Chemical composition analysis revealed increased levels of soluble proanthocyanidins, and decreased extractable lignin in the seed coats of these transgenic plants compared with that of the controls. These findings indicate a role for the Brassica TT10 genes in proanthocyanidin polymerization and lignin biosynthesis, as well as seed coat pigmentation in B. napus.

  15. 40 CFR 417.122 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... COD 4.05 1.35 TSS 0.09 .03 Surfactants 0.90 .30 Oil and grease 0.15 .05 pH (1) (1) English units (pounds per 1,000 lb of anhydrous product) BOD5 0.90 0.30 COD 4.05 1.35 TSS 0.09 .03 Surfactants 0.90 .30... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE...

  16. 40 CFR 417.102 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) BOD5 0.90 0.30 COD 4.05 1.35 TSS 0.09 .03 Surfactants 0.90 .30 Oil and grease 0.15 .05 pH (1) (1) English units (pounds per 1,000 lb of anhydrous product) BOD5 0.90 0.30 COD 4.05 1.35 TSS 0.09 .03... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE...

  17. 40 CFR 417.132 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) BOD5 0.90 0.30 COD 4.05 1.35 TSS 0.09 .03 Surfactants 0.90 .30 Oil and grease 0.15 .05 pH (1) (1) English units (pounds per 1,000 lb of anhydrous product) BOD5 0.90 0.30 COD 4.05 1.35 TSS 0.09 .03... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE...

  18. Environmental and potential health effects of growing leafy vegetables on soil irrigated using sewage sludge and effluent: a case of Zn and Cu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandi, N K; Nyamangara, J; Bangira, C

    2004-05-01

    The use of sewage sludge and effluent as a source of nutrients and water for crop production is increasing worldwide. A study was conducted in 2001 at Pension farm (near Harare) to determine the effect of long term (>30 yrs) application of sewage sludge and effluent on Zn and Cu accumulation in top soil, uptake of these metals by lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and mustard rape (Brassica juncea L.), and dry matter yield. Application of sewage sludge/effluent significantly (pPension farm had increased the concentration of Zn and Cu in top soil to levels that pose environmental concern. The consumption of leafy vegetables produced on these soils pose a health risk to poor communities that reside around the study site, especially children, through possible Zn toxicity.

  19. Enzymatic biodiesel production from sludge palm oil (SPO) using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biodiesel is a non-toxic, renewable and environmental friendly fuel. This study involved the production of biodiesel from sludge palm oil (SPO), a low-cost waste oil via enzymatic catalysis. The enzyme catalyst was a Candida cylindracea lipase, locally-produced using palm oil mill effluent as the low cost based medium.

  20. Deciphering the diploid ancestral genome of the Mesohexaploid Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Feng; Mandáková, Terezie; Wu, Jian; Xie, Qi; Lysak, Martin A; Wang, Xiaowu

    2013-05-01

    The genus Brassica includes several important agricultural and horticultural crops. Their current genome structures were shaped by whole-genome triplication followed by extensive diploidization. The availability of several crucifer genome sequences, especially that of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa), enables study of the evolution of the mesohexaploid Brassica genomes from their diploid progenitors. We reconstructed three ancestral subgenomes of B. rapa (n = 10) by comparing its whole-genome sequence to ancestral and extant Brassicaceae genomes. All three B. rapa paleogenomes apparently consisted of seven chromosomes, similar to the ancestral translocation Proto-Calepineae Karyotype (tPCK; n = 7), which is the evolutionarily younger variant of the Proto-Calepineae Karyotype (n = 7). Based on comparative analysis of genome sequences or linkage maps of Brassica oleracea, Brassica nigra, radish (Raphanus sativus), and other closely related species, we propose a two-step merging of three tPCK-like genomes to form the hexaploid ancestor of the tribe Brassiceae with 42 chromosomes. Subsequent diversification of the Brassiceae was marked by extensive genome reshuffling and chromosome number reduction mediated by translocation events and followed by loss and/or inactivation of centromeres. Furthermore, via interspecies genome comparison, we refined intervals for seven of the genomic blocks of the Ancestral Crucifer Karyotype (n = 8), thus revising the key reference genome for evolutionary genomics of crucifers.

  1. Role of livestock effluent suspended particulate in sealing effluent ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J McL; Warren, B R

    2015-05-01

    Intensive livestock feed-lots have become more prevalent in recent years to help in meeting the predicted food production targets based on expected population growth. Effluent from these is stored in ponds, representing a potential concern for seepage and contamination of groundwater. Whilst previous literature suggests that effluent particulate can limit seepage adequately in combination with a clay liner, this research addresses potential concerns for sealing of ponds with low concentration fine and then evaluates this against proposed filter-cake based methodologies to describe and predict hydraulic reduction. Short soil cores were compacted to 98% of the maximum dry density and subject to ponded head percolation with unfiltered-sediment-reduced effluent, effluent filtered to soil surface. Management considerations based on the results are presented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Liquid Effluent Retention Facility/Effluent Treatment Facility Hazards Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simiele, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning activities for the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and Effluent Treatment Facility the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE ORDER 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated

  3. Reduction of antinutritional glucosinolates in Brassica oilseeds by mutation of genes encoding transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nour-Eldin, Hussam Hassan; Madsen, Svend Roesen; Engelen, Steven

    2017-01-01

    -of-function phenotypes into Brassica crops is challenging because Brassica is polyploid. We mutated one of seven and four of 12 GTR orthologs and reduced glucosinolate levels in seeds by 60-70% in two different Brassica species (Brassica rapa and Brassica juncea). Reduction in seed glucosinolates was stably inherited......The nutritional value of Brassica seed meals is reduced by the presence of glucosinolates, which are toxic compounds involved in plant defense. Mutation of the genes encoding two glucosinolate transporters (GTRs) eliminated glucosinolates from Arabidopsis thaliana seeds, but translation of loss...... over multiple generations and maintained in field trials of two mutant populations at three locations. Successful translation of the gtr loss-of-function phenotype from model plant to two Brassica crops suggests that our transport engineering approach could be broadly applied to reduce seed...

  4. Reduction of antinutritional glucosinolates in Brassica oilseeds by mutation of genes encoding transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour-Eldin, Hussam Hassan; Madsen, Svend Roesen; Engelen, Steven; Jørgensen, Morten Egevang; Olsen, Carl Erik; Andersen, Jonathan Sonne; Seynnaeve, David; Verhoye, Thalia; Fulawka, Rudy; Denolf, Peter; Halkier, Barbara Ann

    2017-04-01

    The nutritional value of Brassica seed meals is reduced by the presence of glucosinolates, which are toxic compounds involved in plant defense. Mutation of the genes encoding two glucosinolate transporters (GTRs) eliminated glucosinolates from Arabidopsis thaliana seeds, but translation of loss-of-function phenotypes into Brassica crops is challenging because Brassica is polyploid. We mutated one of seven and four of 12 GTR orthologs and reduced glucosinolate levels in seeds by 60-70% in two different Brassica species (Brassica rapa and Brassica juncea). Reduction in seed glucosinolates was stably inherited over multiple generations and maintained in field trials of two mutant populations at three locations. Successful translation of the gtr loss-of-function phenotype from model plant to two Brassica crops suggests that our transport engineering approach could be broadly applied to reduce seed glucosinolate content in other oilseed crops, such as Camelina sativa or Crambe abyssinica.

  5. Light influence in the nutritional composition of Brassica oleracea sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, A P; Santos, J; Brito, N V; Peixoto, V; Carvalho, Rosa; Rosa, E; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2015-07-01

    Brassica sprouts are considered a healthy food product, whose nutritional quality can be influenced by several factors. The aim of this work was to monitor the nutritional composition changes promoted by different sprouting conditions of four varieties of Brassica oleracea (red cabbage, broccoli, Galega kale and Penca cabbage). Sprouts were grown under light/darkness cycles and complete darkness. Standard AOAC methods were applied for nutritional value evaluation, while chromatographic methods with UV-VIS and FID detection were used to determine the free amino acids and fatty acids, respectively. Mineral content was analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. Sprouts composition revealed them as an excellent source of protein and dietary fiber. Selenium content was one of the most distinctive feature of sprouts, being the sprouting conditions determinant for the free amino acid and fatty acids profile. The use of complete darkness was beneficial to the overall nutritional quality of the brassica sprouts studied. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Profiling Gene Expression in Germinating Brassica Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myoung Ryoul; Wang, Yi-Hong; Hasenstein, Karl H

    2014-01-01

    Based on previously developed solid-phase gene extraction (SPGE) we examined the mRNA profile in primary roots of Brassica rapa seedlings for highly expressed genes like ACT7 (actin7), TUB (tubulin1), UBQ (ubiquitin), and low expressed GLK (glucokinase) during the first day post-germination. The assessment was based on the mRNA load of the SPGE probe of about 2.1 ng. The number of copies of the investigated genes changed spatially along the length of primary roots. The expression level of all genes differed significantly at each sample position. Among the examined genes ACT7 expression was most even along the root. UBQ was highest at the tip and root-shoot junction (RS). TUB and GLK showed a basipetal gradient. The temporal expression of UBQ was highest in the MZ 9 h after primary root emergence and higher than at any other sample position. Expressions of GLK in EZ and RS increased gradually over time. SPGE extraction is the result of oligo-dT and oligo-dA hybridization and the results illustrate that SPGE can be used for gene expression profiling at high spatial and temporal resolution. SPGE needles can be used within two weeks when stored at 4 °C. Our data indicate that gene expression studies that are based on the entire root miss important differences in gene expression that SPGE is able to resolve for example growth adjustments during gravitropism.

  7. The broccoli (Brassica oleracea) phloem tissue proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstead, James A; Hartson, Steven D; Thompson, Gary A

    2013-11-07

    The transport of sugars, hormones, amino acids, proteins, sugar alcohols, and other organic compounds from the sites of synthesis to the sites of use or storage occurs through the conducting cells of the phloem. To better understand these processes a comprehensive understanding of the proteins involved is required. While a considerable amount of data has been obtained from proteomic analyses of phloem sap, this has mainly served to identify the soluble proteins that are translocated through the phloem network. In order to obtain more comprehensive proteomic data from phloem tissue we developed a simple dissection procedure to isolate phloem tissue from Brassica oleracea. The presence of a high density of phloem sieve elements was confirmed using light microscopy and fluorescently labeled sieve element-specific antibodies. To increase the depth of the proteomic analysis for membrane bound and associated proteins, soluble proteins were extracted first and subsequent extractions were carried out using two different detergents (SDS and CHAPSO). Across all three extractions almost four hundred proteins were identified and each extraction method added to the analysis demonstrating the utility of an approach combining several extraction protocols. The phloem was found to be enriched in proteins associated with biotic and abiotic stress responses and structural proteins. Subsequent expression analysis identified a number of genes that appear to be expressed exclusively or at very high levels in phloem tissue, including genes that are known to express specifically in the phloem as well as novel phloem genes.

  8. Valorization of palm oil (mill) residues. Identifyin and solving the challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbersen, H.W.; Meesters, K.P.H.; Bakker, R.R.C.

    2013-01-01

    This report explains in brief how the palm oil production system is set-up and how by-products of palm oil extraction (Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB), Mesocarp Fibre, Shells and Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME)) are generated in the Palm oil Mill and what the composition of each stream is. Then the options

  9. Isolation of a kernel oleoyl-ACP thioesterase gene from the oil palm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We have isolated a cDNA clone from the developing kernel of the oil palm Elaeis guineensis which encodes a thioesterase enzyme. Its highest homology was to the Brassica napus oleoyl-ACP thioesterase with which it had 72% homology at the nucleotide level, over the coding region examined, and 83% identity (90% ...

  10. Waste Treatment Plant Liquid Effluent Treatability Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LUECK, K.J.

    2001-01-01

    Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) provided a forecast of the radioactive, dangerous liquid effluents expected to be generated by the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The forecast represents the liquid effluents generated from the processing of 25 distinct batches of tank waste through the WTP. The WTP liquid effluents will be stored, treated, and disposed of in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) and the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) evaluated the treatability of the WTP liquid effluents in the LERFIETF. The evaluation was conducted by comparing the forecast to the LERFIETF treatability envelope, which provides information on the items that determine if a liquid effluent is acceptable for receipt and treatment at the LERFIETF. The WTP liquid effluent forecast is outside the current LERFlETF treatability envelope. There are several concerns that must be addressed before the WTP liquid effluents can be accepted at the LERFIETF

  11. 40 CFR 426.113 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Television Picture... applicable to the abrasive polishing and acid polishing waste water streams. Effluent characteristic Effluent...

  12. 40 CFR 426.112 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Television... stream): Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values for...

  13. Genome-Wide Microsatellite Characterization and Marker Development in the Sequenced Brassica Crop Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiaqin; Huang, Shunmou; Zhan, Jiepeng; Yu, Jingyin; Wang, Xinfa; Hua, Wei; Liu, Shengyi; Liu, Guihua; Wang, Hanzhong

    2014-01-01

    Although much research has been conducted, the pattern of microsatellite distribution has remained ambiguous, and the development/utilization of microsatellite markers has still been limited/inefficient in Brassica, due to the lack of genome sequences. In view of this, we conducted genome-wide microsatellite characterization and marker development in three recently sequenced Brassica crops: Brassica rapa, Brassica oleracea and Brassica napus. The analysed microsatellite characteristics of these Brassica species were highly similar or almost identical, which suggests that the pattern of microsatellite distribution is likely conservative in Brassica. The genomic distribution of microsatellites was highly non-uniform and positively or negatively correlated with genes or transposable elements, respectively. Of the total of 115 869, 185 662 and 356 522 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers developed with high frequencies (408.2, 343.8 and 356.2 per Mb or one every 2.45, 2.91 and 2.81 kb, respectively), most represented new SSR markers, the majority had determined physical positions, and a large number were genic or putative single-locus SSR markers. We also constructed a comprehensive database for the newly developed SSR markers, which was integrated with public Brassica SSR markers and annotated genome components. The genome-wide SSR markers developed in this study provide a useful tool to extend the annotated genome resources of sequenced Brassica species to genetic study/breeding in different Brassica species. PMID:24130371

  14. Genome-wide microsatellite characterization and marker development in the sequenced Brassica crop species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiaqin; Huang, Shunmou; Zhan, Jiepeng; Yu, Jingyin; Wang, Xinfa; Hua, Wei; Liu, Shengyi; Liu, Guihua; Wang, Hanzhong

    2014-02-01

    Although much research has been conducted, the pattern of microsatellite distribution has remained ambiguous, and the development/utilization of microsatellite markers has still been limited/inefficient in Brassica, due to the lack of genome sequences. In view of this, we conducted genome-wide microsatellite characterization and marker development in three recently sequenced Brassica crops: Brassica rapa, Brassica oleracea and Brassica napus. The analysed microsatellite characteristics of these Brassica species were highly similar or almost identical, which suggests that the pattern of microsatellite distribution is likely conservative in Brassica. The genomic distribution of microsatellites was highly non-uniform and positively or negatively correlated with genes or transposable elements, respectively. Of the total of 115 869, 185 662 and 356 522 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers developed with high frequencies (408.2, 343.8 and 356.2 per Mb or one every 2.45, 2.91 and 2.81 kb, respectively), most represented new SSR markers, the majority had determined physical positions, and a large number were genic or putative single-locus SSR markers. We also constructed a comprehensive database for the newly developed SSR markers, which was integrated with public Brassica SSR markers and annotated genome components. The genome-wide SSR markers developed in this study provide a useful tool to extend the annotated genome resources of sequenced Brassica species to genetic study/breeding in different Brassica species.

  15. Utilização de substâncias naturais no controle de pulgões em cultivo orgânico de brócolis, Brassica oleracea var. itálica (Brassicaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Adriano Jorge Nunes dos

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of aqueous extracts of leaves of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss), Meliaceae, leaves and foliage of bitter melon, in Brazil named melão-de-são-caetano (Mormodica charantia L.), Cucurbitaceae, Chili Pepper fruits (Capsicum frutescens), Solanaceae, black pepper seeds (Piper nigrum), Piperaceae, NeenMax® (neem oil) and water (control) to control aphid infestations in organic cultivation of Brassica oleracea var. italic, in Arapiraca city, Alagoas...

  16. Overexpression of NPR1 in Brassica juncea Confers Broad Spectrum Resistance to Fungal Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajad Ali

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Brassica juncea (Indian mustard is a commercially important oil seed crop, which is highly affected by many biotic stresses. Among them, Alternaria leaf blight and powdery mildew are the most devastating diseases leading to huge yield losses in B. juncea around the world. In this regard, genetic engineering is a promising tool that may possibly allow us to enhance the B. juncea disease resistance against these pathogens. NPR1 (non-expressor of pathogen-related gene 1 is a bonafide receptor of salicylic acid (SA which modulates multiple immune responses in plants especially activation of induced and systemic acquired resistance (SAR. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of new NPR1 homolog (BjNPR1 from B. juncea. The phylogenetic tree constructed based on the deduced sequence of BjNPR1 with homologs from other species revealed that BjNPR1 grouped together with other known NPR1 proteins of Cruciferae family, and was nearest to B. napus. Furthermore, expression analysis showed that BjNPR1 was upregulated after SA treatment and fungal infection but not by jasmonic acid or abscisic acid. To understand the defensive role of this gene, we generated B. juncea transgenic lines overexpressing BjNPR1, and further confirmed by PCR and Southern blotting. The transgenic lines showed no phenotypic abnormalities, and constitutive expression of BjNPR1 activates defense signaling pathways by priming the expression of antifungal PR genes. Moreover, BjNPR1 transgenic lines showed enhanced resistance to Alternaria brassicae and Erysiphe cruciferarum as there was delay in symptoms and reduced disease severity than non-transgenic plants. In addition, the rate of disease spreading to uninfected or distal parts was also delayed in transgenic plants thus suggesting the activation of SAR. Altogether, the present study suggests that BjNPR1 is involved in broad spectrum of disease resistance against fungal pathogens.

  17. Genomic inferences of domestication events are corroborated by written records in Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xinshuai; An, Hong; Ragsdale, Aaron P; Hall, Tara E; Gutenkunst, Ryan N; Chris Pires, J; Barker, Michael S

    2017-07-01

    Demographic modelling is often used with population genomic data to infer the relationships and ages among populations. However, relatively few analyses are able to validate these inferences with independent data. Here, we leverage written records that describe distinct Brassica rapa crops to corroborate demographic models of domestication. Brassica rapa crops are renowned for their outstanding morphological diversity, but the relationships and order of domestication remain unclear. We generated genomewide SNPs from 126 accessions collected globally using high-throughput transcriptome data. Analyses of more than 31,000 SNPs across the B. rapa genome revealed evidence for five distinct genetic groups and supported a European-Central Asian origin of B. rapa crops. Our results supported the traditionally recognized South Asian and East Asian B. rapa groups with evidence that pak choi, Chinese cabbage and yellow sarson are likely monophyletic groups. In contrast, the oil-type B. rapa subsp. oleifera and brown sarson were polyphyletic. We also found no evidence to support the contention that rapini is the wild type or the earliest domesticated subspecies of B. rapa. Demographic analyses suggested that B. rapa was introduced to Asia 2,400-4,100 years ago, and that Chinese cabbage originated 1,200-2,100 years ago via admixture of pak choi and European-Central Asian B. rapa. We also inferred significantly different levels of founder effect among the B. rapa subspecies. Written records from antiquity that document these crops are consistent with these inferences. The concordance between our age estimates of domestication events with historical records provides unique support for our demographic inferences. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Integration of a constraint-based metabolic model of Brassica napus developing seeds with 13C-Metabolic Flux Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan eHay

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of large-scale or genome-scale metabolic reconstructions for modeling and simulation of plant metabolism and integration of those models with large-scale omics and experimental flux data is becoming increasingly important in plant metabolic research. Here we report an updated version of bna572, a bottom-up reconstruction of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.; Brassicaceae developing seeds with emphasis on representation of biomass-component biosynthesis. New features include additional seed-relevant pathways for isoprenoid, sterol, phenylpropanoid, flavonoid, and choline biosynthesis. Being now based on standardized data formats and procedures for model reconstruction, bna572+ is available as a COBRA-compliant Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML model and conforms to the Minimum Information Requested in the Annotation of Biochemical Models (MIRIAM standards for annotation of external data resources. Bna572+ contains 966 genes, 671 reactions, and 666 metabolites distributed among 11 subcellular compartments. It is referenced to the Arabidopsis thaliana genome, with gene-protein-reaction associations resolving subcellular localization. Detailed mass and charge balancing and confidence scoring were applied to all reactions. Using Brassica napus seed specific transcriptome data, expression was verified for 78% of bna572+ genes and 97% of reactions. Alongside bna572+ we also present a revised carbon centric model for 13C-Metabolic Flux Analysis (13C-MFA with all its reactions being referenced to bna572+ based on linear projections. By integration of flux ratio constraints obtained from 13C-MFA and by elimination of infinite flux bounds around thermodynamically infeasible loops based on COBRA loopless methods, we demonstrate improvements in predictive power of Flux Variability Analysis (FVA. Using this combined approach we characterize the difference in metabolic flux of developing seeds of two Brassica napus genotypes contrasting in starch and

  19. A high-density SNP map for accurate mapping of seed fibre QTL in Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liezhao Liu

    Full Text Available A high density genetic linkage map for the complex allotetraploid crop species Brassica napus (oilseed rape was constructed in a late-generation recombinant inbred line (RIL population, using genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers assayed by the Brassica 60 K Infinium BeadChip Array. The linkage map contains 9164 SNP markers covering 1832.9 cM. 1232 bins account for 7648 of the markers. A subset of 2795 SNP markers, with an average distance of 0.66 cM between adjacent markers, was applied for QTL mapping of seed colour and the cell wall fiber components acid detergent lignin (ADL, cellulose and hemicellulose. After phenotypic analyses across four different environments a total of 11 QTL were detected for seed colour and fiber traits. The high-density map considerably improved QTL resolution compared to the previous low-density maps. A previously identified major QTL with very high effects on seed colour and ADL was pinpointed to a narrow genome interval on chromosome A09, while a minor QTL explaining 8.1% to 14.1% of variation for ADL was detected on chromosome C05. Five and three QTL accounting for 4.7% to 21.9% and 7.3% to 16.9% of the phenotypic variation for cellulose and hemicellulose, respectively, were also detected. To our knowledge this is the first description of QTL for seed cellulose and hemicellulose in B. napus, representing interesting new targets for improving oil content. The high density SNP genetic map enables navigation from interesting B. napus QTL to Brassica genome sequences, giving useful new information for understanding the genetics of key seed quality traits in rapeseed.

  20. TBP production plant effluent treatment process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sriniwas, C.; Sugilal, G.; Wattal, P.K.

    2004-06-01

    TBP production facility at Heavy Water Plant, Talcher generates about 2000 litres of effluent per 200 kg batch. The effluent is basically an aqueous solution containing dissolved and dispersed organics such as dibutyl phosphate, butanol etc. The effluent has high salinity, chemical oxygen demand (30-80 g/L) and pungent odour. It requires treatment before discharge. A chemical precipitation process using ferric chloride was developed for quantitative separation of organics from the aqueous part of the effluent. This process facilitates the discharge of the aqueous effluent. Results of the laboratory and bench scale experiments on actual effluent samples are presented in this report. (author)

  1. Oxygen dependency of germinating Brassica seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myoung Ryoul; Hasenstein, Karl H.

    2016-02-01

    Establishing plants in space, Moon or Mars requires adaptation to altered conditions, including reduced pressure and composition of atmospheres. To determine the oxygen requirements for seed germination, we imbibed Brassica rapa seeds under varying oxygen concentrations and profiled the transcription patterns of genes related to early metabolism such as starch degradation, glycolysis, and fermentation. We also analyzed the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and measured starch degradation. Partial oxygen pressure (pO2) greater than 10% resulted in normal germination (i.e., protrusion of radicle about 18 hours after imbibition) but lower pO2 delayed and reduced germination. Imbibition in an oxygen-free atmosphere for three days resulted in no germination but subsequent transfer to air initiated germination in 75% of the seeds and the root growth rate was transiently greater than in roots germinated under ambient pO2. In hypoxic seeds soluble sugars degraded faster but the content of starch after 24 h was higher than at ambient oxygen. Transcription of genes related to starch degradation, α-amylase (AMY) and Sucrose Synthase (SUS), was higher under ambient O2 than under hypoxia. Glycolysis and fermentation pathway-related genes, glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI), 6-phosphofructokinase (PFK), fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (ALD), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), LDH, and ADH, were induced by low pO2. The activity of LDH and ADH was the highest in anoxic seeds. Germination under low O2 conditions initiated ethanolic fermentation. Therefore, sufficient oxygen availability is important for germination before photosynthesis provides necessary oxygen and the determination of an oxygen carrying capacity is important for uniform growth in space conditions.

  2. The genome of the mesopolyploid crop species Brassica rapa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Xiaowu; Wang, Hanzhong; Sun, Rifei; Bonnema, A.B.

    2011-01-01

    We report the annotation and analysis of the draft genome sequence of Brassica rapa accession Chiifu-401-42, a Chinese cabbage. We modeled 41,174 protein coding genes in the B. rapa genome, which has undergone genome triplication. We used Arabidopsis thaliana as an outgroup for investigating the

  3. Phytotoxicity assay for seed production using Brassica rapa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although pesticide drift can affect crop yield adversely, current plant testing protocols emphasize only the potential impacts on vegetative plant growth. The present study was conducted to determine whether a plant species with a short life cycle, such as Brassica rapa L. Wiscon...

  4. Anti-ulcer activity of Brassica oleracea on induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The animals were sacrificed following mild anesthesia using chloroform inhalation. The dissected stomach and duodenum were examined macroscopically, tissue blocks taken, fixed in 10% formol saline and prepared for histopathological diagnosis. Brassica oleracea exhibited better healing activity of gastric ulcers than ...

  5. Production of Sauerkraut (Picked) from Cabbage (Brassica oleracea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production of Sauerkraut (Picked) from Cabbage (Brassica oleracea) by the Action of Lactic Acid Bacteria. ... These decreased to 2.167x107 cfu/ml of day 7 of fermentation, from 11 to the 28 days no microorganism was detected in the test sample. Concurrently, increased CO2 production was observed between day one and ...

  6. Glucosinolates during preparation of Brassica vegetables in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nugrahedi, P.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Title:

    Glucosinolates during preparation of Brassica vegetables in Indonesia

    Dutch translation of title:

    Effecten van Indonesische bereidingsmethoden op gezondheidsbevorderende stoffen in groenten

    Title/description

  7. Processing of Brassica seeds for feedstock in biofuels production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several Brassica species are currently being evaluated to develop regionalized production systems based on their suitability to the environment and with the prevailing practices of growing commodity food crops like wheat, corn, and soybeans. This integrated approach to farming will provide high qual...

  8. Ring spot disease of brassica crops : resistance and epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ende, van den J.E.

    1998-01-01

    Ring spot disease of brassica crops is caused by the fungus Mycosphaerella brassicicola . The disease can cause severe qualitative and quantitative losses, depending on the initial inoculum, the environmental conditions during the growing season and the susceptibility

  9. Genetic diversity analysis of mustard ( Brassica spp.) germplasm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular characterization of 16 mustard (Brassica spp.) genotypes by using 12 RAPD markers revealed that three primers GLA-11, OPB-04 and OPD-02 showed good technical resolution and sufficient variations among different genotypes. A total of 40 RAPD bands were scored of which 38 (94.87%) polymorphic ...

  10. Ascorbate peroxidase gene from Brassica napus enhances salt and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A full-length cDNA clone, BnAPX (GenBank: FJ965556.1) encoding ascorbate peroxidase and isolated from Brassica napus, was successfully introduced into Arabidopsis thaliana. Investigation into the function of BnAPX demonstrated that BnAPX transgenic plants grew better than wild type under NaCl stress, and also had ...

  11. Morphology and cytology of flower chimeras in hybrids of Brassica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hybridization between white flowered Brassica carinata and yellow flowered B. rapa were made, and the flower chimeras were observed in a few hybrids. The simple single sequence molecular markers verified the hybridity of those hybrids. Chimeras were justified and totally classified based on the morphological ...

  12. Occurrence of Escherichia coli in Brassica rapa L. chinensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low quality water has become valuable resource with restricted or unrestricted use in food production depending on its quality. This study has quantified the occurrence of Escherichia coli in Brassica rapa L. chinensis (Chinese cabbage) vegetables and low quality irrigation water. A total of 106 samples including Chinese ...

  13. Origin of new Brassica types from a single intergeneric hybrid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rieseberg L. H., Raymond O., Rosenthal D. M., Lai Z., Livingstone. K., Nakazato T. et al. 2003 Major ecological transition in wild sunflowers facilitated by hybridization. Science 301, 1211–1216. Snowdon R. J., Köhler W., Friedt W. and Köhler A. 1997 Genomic in situ hybridization in Brassica amphidiploids and interspecific.

  14. Study of total seed storage protein in indigenous Brassica species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic diversity was studied in 234 accessions of locally collected Brassica species for total seed protein content through sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). These accessions were collected from different locations of Pakistan. After the study of these accessions on SDS-PAGE, ...

  15. Metabolomic changes of Brassica rapa under biotic stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdel-Farid Ali, Ibrahim Bayoumi

    2009-01-01

    It has been shown by this thesis that plant metabolomics is a promising tool for studying the interaction between B. rapa and pathogenic fungi. It gives a picture of the plant metabolites during the interaction. Brassica rapa has many defense related compounds such as glucosinolates, IAA,

  16. Mineral, vitamin C and crude protein contents in kale (Brassica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-10-27

    Oct 27, 2011 ... Key words: Kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala), harvesting stage, vitamin C, crude protein, mineral content. INTRODUCTION. Cabbage .... Weeding activity was performed when needed in the growing periods. All data were .... metabolism, nucleic acids, and binding agents of cell walls (Russel, 1973).

  17. Classification of temperature response in germination of Brassicas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since soil temperature affects germination and emergence of canola (Brassica napus L.), mustard [B. juncea (L.) Czerniak. and Sinapsis alba L.], and camelina [Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz.], planting dates have to be adjusted to prevent crop failures. These crops can be used as biofuel feedstocks, a...

  18. Generation and characterization of Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-09-11

    Sep 11, 2015 ... Abstract. Five monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) of Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis – B. oleracea var. capitata were obtained by hybridization and backcrossing between B. rapa ssp. pekinensis (female parent) and B. oleracea var. capitata. The alien link- age groups were identified using 42 B. oleracea ...

  19. Screening of Chinese brassica species for anti-cancer sulforaphane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natural sulforaphane and erucin have been of increasing interest for nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries due to their anti-cancer effect. The sulforaphane and/or erucin contents in seeds of 43 different Chinese Brassica oleracea L. varieties were analyzed by HPLC and GC-MS. Among them, 21 cultivars seed meal ...

  20. Proteome level changes in the root of Brassica alboglabra induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra) is a famous and extensively grown vegetable in Southeast Asia. Despite its nutritional values, pesticides are heavily applied to it. In this study, changes in protein expression due to alachlor treatment on B. alboglabra were investigated by using the 2-dimensional PAGE. Differential protein ...

  1. Carbon and nitrogen stoichiometry in Brassica napus L. seedlings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exposure of plants to long periods of water scarcity, mainly in arid and semi-arid regions, is one of the major reasons for over 50% reduction in average yields. Proper management of Brassica napus to enhance its ability to survive under drought and high temperature stress at early growth stages, besides development of ...

  2. Molecular characterization of some local and exotic Brassica juncea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The production of Brassica germplasm with a wider genetic base is essential for using them properly in the genetic improvement of rapeseed/mustard. During the present study, different RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) primers were used to estimate the genetic distances among thirty different genotypes in all ...

  3. Floristic diversity and vegetation analysis of Brassica nigra (L.) Koch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The floristic composition and species diversity of Brassica nigra communities were investigated in Beni Suef Governorate, Egypt. In 46 stands, a total of 49 species belonging to 42 genera and 18 families were recorded. Vegetation classification and ordination distinguished seven groups: two in reclaimed land only, three ...

  4. Genetic diversity and relationship analysis of the Brassica napus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is an important oilseed crop worldwide. The objective of this research was to study the genetic diversity and relationships of B. napus accessions using simple sequence repeat (SSR). A set of 217 genotypes was characterized using 37 SSR markers of mapping on the B. napus genome.

  5. Mineral, vitamin C and crude protein contents in kale ( Brassica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study compares mineral, vitamin C and crude protein contents at different harvesting stages in kale (Brassica oleraceae var. acephala). Three different harvest periods as first harvest stage (at the rosette stage), second harvest stage (at the budding stage) and third harvest stage (at the flowering/blooming stage) were ...

  6. Local cabbage ( Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) populations from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In previous experiments, we were able to augment cabbages (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.) with two new local open pollinated (OP) populations and one cultivar. The type of use indicated that these are cabbages with thinner and juicier leaves, which predisposes their heads for fine grating and also makes their ...

  7. Immunopurification and characterization of a rape ( Brassica napus L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lipase or triacylglycerol acylhydrolase (E.C.3.1.1.3) was purified to homogeneity from rapeseed-germinated cotyledons (Brassica napus L.). The purification scheme involved homogenization, centrifugation, ultracentrifugation and affinity chromatography using polyclonal antibodies raised against porcine pancreatic lipase.

  8. Study of total seed storage protein in indigenous Brassica species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-11-08

    Nov 8, 2010 ... presented in Figures 1, 2 and 3 showed close relation- ship among these studied accessions, while the diffe- .... Dendrogram showing the relationship between different protein types in indigenous brassica species based on ... Bangladesh, Japan and China. Similarly, Munazza et al. (2009) evaluated 30 ...

  9. Allelopathic potentials of residues of 6 brassica species on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Johnsongrass ( Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.) is a troublesome weed species of many crops in Turkey as well as worldwide. Allelopathic potential of residues of some brassica species, which are round white radish (Raphanus sativus L.), garden radish (R. sativus L.), black radish (R. sativus L. var. niger), little radish (R.

  10. Plant regeneration of Brassica oleracea subsp. italica (Broccoli) CV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-03

    Jun 3, 2009 ... Department of Agriculture Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor Darul. Ehsan, Malaysia. Accepted 20 March, 2009. Hypocotyls and shoot tips were used as explants in in vitro plant regeneration of broccoli (Brassica oleracea subsp.italica) cv. Green Marvel.

  11. Suitability of an artificial diet for rape aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-15

    Sep 15, 2009 ... discs (a) and artificial diet (b). structure of our testing material and show just the effect of that. The results in this investigation showed that this artificial diet can support all life stages of B. brassicae and this aphid can be established on that. The compare- son of results with life table parameters that Francisco.

  12. Screening of Chinese brassica species for anti-cancer sulforaphane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-01-18

    Jan 18, 2008 ... Natural sulforaphane and erucin have been of increasing interest for nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries due to their anti-cancer effect. The sulforaphane and/or erucin contents in seeds of 43 different Chinese Brassica oleracea L. varieties were analyzed by HPLC and GC-MS. Among them, 21.

  13. Distillery effluent as a liquid fertilizer: a win-win option for sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, K; Ranjan, N; Kumar, S; Sinha, R C

    2016-01-01

    A promising approach to recycle the residual distillery waste as a potential liquid fertilizer has been discussed in this paper. Field studies were conducted on Brassica compestris to assess the potential of the diluted post- methanated distillery effluent. The results indicated that there was not much variation in pH, conductivity and nitrate of soil, whereas total dissolved solids, conductivity, nitrate and chemical oxygen demand of the well water increased slightly but well within the permissible limit. However, there was a significant increase in the plant biomass, diameter of the shoot and root, area of leaf, as well as number and length of pods and root hairs. The hydrophilic colloids of the seed increased significantly (p < .01) and the yield of mustard seeds was increased by 30% as compared to the conventional fertilizer. The carbohydrate, chlorophyll and ascorbic acid content of the leaf, stem and root were also analysed and its morpho- physiological significance is also presented in this paper.

  14. Methanization of industrial liquid effluents; Methanisation des effluents industriels liquides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederic, S.; Lugardon, A. [Societe Naskeo Environnement, 92 - Levallois-Perret (France)

    2007-09-15

    In a first part, this work deals with the theoretical aspects of the methanization of the industrial effluents; the associated reactional processes are detailed. The second part presents the technological criteria for choosing the methanization process in terms of the characteristics of the effluent to be treated. Some of the methanization processes are presented with their respective advantages and disadvantages. At last, is described the implementation of an industrial methanization unit. The size and the main choices are detailed: the anaerobic reactor, the control, the valorization aspects of the biogas produced. Some examples of industrial developments illustrate the different used options. (O.M.)

  15. Transposon variation by order during allopolyploidisation between Brassica oleracea and Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Z; Tang, Z; Ma, B; Mason, A S; Guo, Y; Yin, J; Gao, C; Wei, L; Li, J; Fu, D

    2014-07-01

    Although many studies have shown that transposable element (TE) activation is induced by hybridisation and polyploidisation in plants, much less is known on how different types of TE respond to hybridisation, and the impact of TE-associated sequences on gene function. We investigated the frequency and regularity of putative transposon activation for different types of TE, and determined the impact of TE-associated sequence variation on the genome during allopolyploidisation. We designed different types of TE primers and adopted the Inter-Retrotransposon Amplified Polymorphism (IRAP) method to detect variation in TE-associated sequences during the process of allopolyploidisation between Brassica rapa (AA) and Brassica oleracea (CC), and in successive generations of self-pollinated progeny. In addition, fragments with TE insertions were used to perform Blast2GO analysis to characterise the putative functions of the fragments with TE insertions. Ninety-two primers amplifying 548 loci were used to detect variation in sequences associated with four different orders of TE sequences. TEs could be classed in ascending frequency into LTR-REs, TIRs, LINEs, SINEs and unknown TEs. The frequency of novel variation (putative activation) detected for the four orders of TEs was highest from the F1 to F2 generations, and lowest from the F2 to F3 generations. Functional annotation of sequences with TE insertions showed that genes with TE insertions were mainly involved in metabolic processes and binding, and preferentially functioned in organelles. TE variation in our study severely disturbed the genetic compositions of the different generations, resulting in inconsistencies in genetic clustering. Different types of TE showed different patterns of variation during the process of allopolyploidisation. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  16. Atmospheric H2S and SO2 as sulfur sources for Brassica juncea and Brassica rapa: Regulation of sulfur uptake and assimilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aghajanzadeh, T.; Hawkesford, M.J.; De Kok, L.J.

    2016-01-01

    Brassica juncea and Brassica rapa were able to utilize foliarly absorbed H2S and SO2 as sulfur source for growth and resulted in a decreased sink capacity of the shoot for sulfur supplied by the root and subsequently in a partial decrease in sulfate uptake capacity of the roots. Sulfate-deprived

  17. Genome Wide Identification and Expression Profiling of SWEET Genes Family Reveals Its Role During Plasmodiophora brassicae-Induced Formation of Clubroot in Brassica rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodiophora brassicae is a soil borne pathogen and the causal agent of clubroot, a devastating disease of Brassica crops. The pathogen lives inside roots, and hijacks nutrients from the host plants. It is suggested that clubroot galls created an additional nutrient sink in infected roots. However, the molecular mechanism underlying P. brassicae infection and sugar transport is unclear. Here, we analyzed sugar contents in leaves and roots before and after P. brassicae infection using a pair of Chinese cabbage near-isogenic lines (NILs, carrying either a clubroot resistant (CR or susceptible (CS allele at the CRb locus. P. brassicae infection caused significant increase of glucose and fructose contents in the root of CS-NIL compared to CR-NIL, suggesting that sugar translocation and P. brassicae growth are closely related. Among 32 B. rapa SWEET homologs, several BrSWEETs belonging to Clade I and III were significantly up-regulated, especially in CS-NIL upon P. brassicae infection. Moreover, Arabidopsis sweet11 mutant exhibited slower gall formation compared to the wild-type plants. Our studies suggest that P. brassicae infection probably triggers active sugar translocation between the sugar producing tissues and the clubbed tissues, and the SWEET family genes are involved in this process.

  18. Determination of the net energy content of canola meal from Brassica napus yellow and Brassica juncea yellow fed to growing pigs using indirect calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jung Min; Adewole, Deborah; Nyachoti, Martin

    2014-07-01

    The net energy (NE) content of canola meals (CM; i.e. Brassica napus yellow and Brassica juncea yellow) in growing pigs was determined using an indirect calorimetry chamber or published prediction equations. The study was conducted as a completely randomized design (n=6), with (i) a basal diet and (ii) 2 diets containing 700 g/kg of the basal diet and 300 g/kg of either of the two varieties of CM. A total of 18 growing barrows were housed in metabolism crates for the determination of digestible (DE) and metabolizable (ME) energy. Thereafter, pigs were transferred to the indirect calorimetry chamber to determine heat production (HP). The NE contents of diets containing Brassica napus yellow and Brassica juncea yellow determined with the direct determination technique and prediction equations were 9.8 versus 10.3 MJ/kg dry matter (DM) and 10.2 versus 10.4 MJ/kg DM, respectively. Retained energy (RE) and fasting heat production (FHP) of diets containing Brassica napus yellow and Brassica juncea yellow were 5.5 versus 5.7 MJ/kg and 4.3 versus 4.5 MJ/kg, respectively, when measured with the direct determination technique and prediction equations. The NE contents of Brassica napus yellow and Brassica juncea yellow were determined to be 8.8 and 9.8 MJ/kg DM, respectively, using the direct determination technique. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  19. A candidate gene-based association study of tocopherol content and composition in rapeseed (Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffi eFritsche

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. is the most important oil crop of temperate climates. Rapeseed oil contains tocopherols, also known as vitamin E, which is an indispensable nutrient for humans and animals due to its antioxidant and radical scavenging abilities. Moreover, tocopherols are also important for the oxidative stability of vegetable oils. Therefore, seed oil with increased tocopherol content or altered tocopherol composition is a target for breeding. We investigated the role of nucleotide variations within candidate genes from the tocopherol biosynthesis pathway. Field trials were carried out with 229 accessions from a worldwide B. napus collection which was divided into two panels of 96 and 133 accessions. Seed tocopherol content and composition were measured by HPLC. High heritabilities were found for both traits, ranging from 0.62 to 0.94. We identified polymorphisms by sequencing selected regions of the tocopherol genes from the 96 accession panel. Subsequently, we determined the population structure (Q and relative kinship (K as detected by genotyping with genome-wide distributed SSR markers. Association studies were performed using two models, the structure-based GLM+Q and the PK mixed model. Between 26 and 12 polymorphisms within two genes (BnaX.VTE3.a, BnaA.PDS1.c were significantly associated with tocopherol traits. The SNPs explained up to 16.93 % of the genetic variance for tocopherol composition and up to 10.48 % for total tocopherol content. Based on the sequence information we designed CAPS markers for genotyping the 133 accessions from the 2nd panel. Significant associations with various tocopherol traits confirmed the results from the first experiment. We demonstrate that the polymorphisms within the tocopherol genes clearly impact tocopherol content and composition in B. napus seeds. We suggest that these nucleotide variations may be used as selectable markers for breeding rapeseed with enhanced tocopherol quality.

  20. SNP diversity within and among Brassica rapa accessions reveals no geographic differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanhuanpää, P; Erkkilä, M; Tenhola-Roininen, T; Tanskanen, J; Manninen, O

    2016-01-01

    Genetic diversity was studied in a collection of 61 accessions of Brassica rapa, which were mostly oil-type turnip rapes but also included two oil-type subsp. dichotoma and five subsp. trilocularis accessions, as well as three leaf-type subspecies (subsp. japonica, pekinensis, and chinensis) and five turnip cultivars (subsp. rapa). Two-hundred and nine SNP markers, which had been discovered by amplicon resequencing, were used to genotype 893 plants from the B. rapa collection using Illumina BeadXpress. There was great variation in the diversity indices between accessions. With STRUCTURE analysis, the plant collection could be divided into three groups that seemed to correspond to morphotype and flowering habit but not to geography. According to AMOVA analysis, 65% of the variation was due to variation within accessions, 25% among accessions, and 10% among groups. A smaller subset of the plant collection, 12 accessions, was also studied with 5727 GBS-SNPs. Diversity indices obtained with GBS-SNPs correlated well with those obtained with Illumina BeadXpress SNPs. The developed SNP markers have already been used and will be used in future plant breeding programs as well as in mapping and diversity studies.

  1. Growth and yield of different brassica genotypes under saline sodic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.; Mahmood, I.A.; Salim, M.

    2013-01-01

    A field study was conducted at farmer's salt-affected field (ECe=12.3 dS m/sup -1/; pH=9.7; SAR=46.2) in Hafizabad to test growth and yield response of six Brassica cultivars (BARD-I, Dunkled, Rainbow, BRS-II, Sultan Raya and cv. 95102-5) under saline sodic conditions. Data on growth and yield parameters were collected randomly (average of five plants per replication) at the time of crop maturity. Ionic concentration in plant tissues and oil content in seeds were also determined. Comparatively more number of branches and pods per plant were produced by cultivar Dunkled closely followed by BARD-I while maximum seed yield (241.7 and 235.1 kg ha ) was obtained from Dunkled and Sultan Raya, respectively which was statistically at par. However, BRS-II and Rainbow showed significantly more percent oil contents in their seeds but genotype Dunkled showed minimum Na+ and K+ concentration in their tissues. (author)

  2. In-vitro fermentation characteristics and methane reduction potential of mustard cake (Brassica juncea L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durge, S. M.; Tripathi, M. K.; Dutta, N.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To assess the effect of mustard cake (Brassica juncea L.) levels in concentrate mixtures and in composite feed mixtures (CFMs) on in-vitro fermentation characteristics and methane production. Materials and Methods: Five concentrate mixtures were prepared with containing 30% oil cake, where linseed cake was replaced by mustard cake at the rate of 0%, 7.5%, 15.0%, 22.5%, and 30% in concentrate mixture. Mustard cake contained glucosinolate 72.58 µmol/g oil free dry matter (DM) and contents in diet were 0, 5.4, 10.9, 16.3, and 21.8 µmol/g of concentrate mixture, respectively. Concentrate mixture containing 15.0% mustard cake was found to produced minimum methane which was then used for the preparation of CFM containing 0%, 25%, 50%, and 75% levels with gram straw. Result: Increased levels of mustard cake in concentrate mixtures had a linear decrease (pgas production, and the 15% inclusion showed lowest methane concentration (quadratic, pmustard cake levels. Increased levels of 15% mustard cake containing concentrate mixture in CFMs exhibited a trend (p=0.052) of increased gas production, whereas methane concentration in total gas, methane produced and degradability of DM and OM were also displayed a linear increase (pmustard cake in concentrate mixture at 15% level, and the CFMs with 25% concentrate, which contained 15% mustard cake, exhibited an improved fermentation and reduced methane production. PMID:27847426

  3. Segregation for fertility and meiotic stability in novel Brassica allohexaploids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwathi, Margaret W; Gupta, Mehak; Atri, Chaya; Banga, Surinder S; Batley, Jacqueline; Mason, Annaliese S

    2017-04-01

    Allohexaploid Brassica populations reveal ongoing segregation for fertility, while genotype influences fertility and meiotic stability. Creation of a new Brassica allohexaploid species is of interest for the development of a crop type with increased heterosis and adaptability. At present, no naturally occurring, meiotically stable Brassica allohexaploid exists, with little data available on chromosome behaviour and meiotic control in allohexaploid germplasm. In this study, 100 plants from the cross B. carinata × B. rapa (A2 allohexaploid population) and 69 plants from the cross (B. napus × B. carinata) × B. juncea (H2 allohexaploid population) were assessed for fertility and meiotic behaviour. Estimated pollen viability, self-pollinated seed set, number of seeds on the main shoot, number of pods on the main shoot, seeds per ten pods and plant height were measured for both the A2 and H2 populations and for a set of reference control cultivars. The H2 population had high segregation for pollen viability and meiotic stability, while the A2 population was characterised by low pollen fertility and a high level of chromosome loss. Both populations were taller, but had lower average fertility trait values than the control cultivar samples. The study also characterises fertility and meiotic chromosome behaviour in genotypes and progeny sets in heterozygous allotetraploid Brassica derived lines, and indicates that genotypes of the parents and H1 hybrids are affecting chromosome pairing and fertility phenotypes in the H2 population. The identification and characterisation of factors influencing stability in novel allohexaploid Brassica populations will assist in the development of this as a new crop species for food and agricultural benefit.

  4. Functional analysis and tissue-differential expression of four FAD2 genes in amphidiploid Brassica napus derived from Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyeong-Ryeol; In Sohn, Soo; Jung, Jin Hee; Kim, Sun Hee; Roh, Kyung Hee; Kim, Jong-Bum; Suh, Mi Chung; Kim, Hyun Uk

    2013-12-01

    Fatty acid desaturase 2 (FAD2), which resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), plays a crucial role in producing linoleic acid (18:2) through catalyzing the desaturation of oleic acid (18:1) by double bond formation at the delta 12 position. FAD2 catalyzes the first step needed for the production of polyunsaturated fatty acids found in the glycerolipids of cell membranes and the triacylglycerols in seeds. In this study, four FAD2 genes from amphidiploid Brassica napus genome were isolated by PCR amplification, with their enzymatic functions predicted by sequence analysis of the cDNAs. Fatty acid analysis of budding yeast transformed with each of the FAD2 genes showed that whereas BnFAD2-1, BnFAD2-2, and BnFAD2-4 are functional enzymes, and BnFAD2-3 is nonfunctional. The four FAD2 genes of B. napus originated from synthetic hybridization of its diploid progenitors Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea, each of which has two FAD2 genes identical to those of B. napus. The BnFAD2-3 gene of B. napus, a nonfunctional pseudogene mutated by multiple nucleotide deletions and insertions, was inherited from B. rapa. All BnFAD2 isozymes except BnFAD2-3 localized to the ER. Nonfunctional BnFAD2-3 localized to the nucleus and chloroplasts. Four BnFAD2 genes can be classified on the basis of their expression patterns. © 2013.

  5. Responses of Brassica oleracea cultivars to infestation by the aphid Brevicoryne brassicae: an ecological and molecular approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekgaarden, C.; Poelman, E.H.; Steenhuis, M.M.; Voorrips, R.E.; Dicke, M.; Vosman, B.

    2008-01-01

    Intraspecific variation in resistance or susceptibility to herbivorous insects has been widely studied through bioassays. However, few studies have combined this with a full transcriptomic analysis. Here, we take such an approach to study the interaction between the aphid Brevicoryne brassicae and

  6. Digestibility and intestinal fermentability of canola meal from Brassica juncea and Brassica napus fed to ileal-cannulated grower pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le, M.H.A.; Buchet, A.D.G.; Beltranena, E.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Zijlstra, R.T.

    2017-01-01

    Yellow-seeded Brassica (B.) juncea is a novel canola species. Therefore, its meal co-product requires feed quality evaluation and comparison to conventional, dark-seeded B. napus canola meal for pigs. The B. juncea canola meal contains less fibre than B. napus canola meal (190 vs. 260 g NDF/kg, as

  7. Kajian Awal Pembuatan Pupuk Cair Organik Aktif dari Effluent Pengolahan Lanjut Limbah Cair Pabrik Kelapa Sawit (LCPKS) Skala Pilot

    OpenAIRE

    Anwar, Dedy

    2015-01-01

    This study is an assessment of the design of the pilot plant liquid organic fertilizer. This study aims to design an organic liquid fertilizer manufacturing process of palm oil mill effluent (POME) and produce fertilizer. Materials used are Effluent further processing of POME and starter mixture of molasses, yeast and EM-4. The variables measured were Total Solid (TS), Volatile Solid (VS), Total Suspended Solid (TSS), Volatile Suspended Solid (VSS), Chemical Oxygen Demand (C...

  8. Perancangan dan Pabrikasi Pembuatan Pupuk Organik Aktif dari Effluent Pengolahan Lanjut Limbah Cair Pabrik Kelapa Sawit (LCPKS) Skala Pilot Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Harahap, Basril Amirza

    2016-01-01

    This study is an assessment of the design of the pilot plant liquid organic fertilizer . This study aims to design a manufacturing process of the active organic liquid fertilizer effluent wastewater treatment plant palm oil (LCPKS) into biogas, calibration and get major equipment performance and accecoris and overcome any confounding factors in the process of making organic fertilizer active on the pilot plant scale. The material used is a further processing Effluent starter LC...

  9. Source terms for airborne effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomeke, J.O.; Perona, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    The origin and nature of fuel cycle wastes are discussed with regard to high-level wastes, cladding, noble gases, iodine, tritium, 14 C, low-level and intermediate-level transuranic wastes, non-transuranic wastes, and ore tailings. The current practice for gaseous effluent treatment is described for light water reactors and high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. Other topics discussed are projections of nuclear power generation; projected accumulation of gaseous wastes; the impact of nuclear fuel cycle centers; and global buildup of airborne effluents

  10. Methanization of industrial liquid effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederic, S.; Lugardon, A.

    2007-01-01

    In a first part, this work deals with the theoretical aspects of the methanization of the industrial effluents; the associated reactional processes are detailed. The second part presents the technological criteria for choosing the methanization process in terms of the characteristics of the effluent to be treated. Some of the methanization processes are presented with their respective advantages and disadvantages. At last, is described the implementation of an industrial methanization unit. The size and the main choices are detailed: the anaerobic reactor, the control, the valorization aspects of the biogas produced. Some examples of industrial developments illustrate the different used options. (O.M.)

  11. Morphology, carbohydrate composition and vernalization response in a genetically diverse collection of Asian and European turnips (Brassica rapa subsp. rapa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ningwen; Zhao, Jianjun; Lens, Frederic; de Visser, Joan; Menamo, Temesgen; Fang, Wen; Xiao, Dong; Bucher, Johan; Basnet, Ram Kumar; Lin, Ke; Cheng, Feng; Wang, Xiaowu; Bonnema, Guusje

    2014-01-01

    Brassica rapa displays enormous morphological diversity, with leafy vegetables, turnips and oil crops. Turnips (Brassica rapa subsp. rapa) represent one of the morphotypes, which form tubers and can be used to study the genetics underlying storage organ formation. In the present study we investigated several characteristics of an extensive turnip collection comprising 56 accessions from both Asia (mainly Japanese origin) and Europe. Population structure was calculated using data from 280 evenly distributed SNP markers over 56 turnip accessions. We studied the anatomy of turnip tubers and measured carbohydrate composition of the mature turnip tubers of a subset of the collection. The variation in 16 leaf traits, 12 tuber traits and flowering time was evaluated in five independent experiments for the entire collection. The effect of vernalization on flowering and tuber formation was also investigated. SNP marker profiling basically divided the turnip accessions into two subpopulations, with admixture, generally corresponding with geographical origin (Europe or Asia). The enlarged turnip tuber consists of both hypocotyl and root tissue, but the proportion of the two tissues differs between accessions. The ratio of sucrose to fructose and glucose differed among accessions, while generally starch content was low. The evaluated traits segregated in both subpopulations, with leaf shape, tuber colour and number of shoots per tuber explaining most variation between the two subpopulations. Vernalization resulted in reduced flowering time and smaller tubers for the Asian turnips whereas the European turnips were less affected by vernalization.

  12. Quantification of Plasmodiophora brassicae Using a DNA-Based Soil Test Facilitates Sustainable Oilseed Rape Production

    OpenAIRE

    Ann-Charlotte Wallenhammar; Albin Gunnarson; Fredrik Hansson; Anders Jonsson

    2016-01-01

    Outbreaks of clubroot disease caused by the soil-borne obligate parasite Plasmodiophora brassicae are common in oilseed rape (OSR) in Sweden. A DNA-based soil testing service that identifies fields where P. brassicae poses a significant risk of clubroot infection is now commercially available. It was applied here in field surveys to monitor the prevalence of P. brassicae DNA in field soils intended for winter OSR production and winter OSR field experiments. In 2013 in Scania, prior to plantin...

  13. Molecular breeding in Brassica for salt tolerance: importance of microsatellite (SSR) markers for molecular breeding in Brassica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manu; Choi, Ju-Young; Kumari, Nisha; Pareek, Ashwani; Kim, Seong-Ryong

    2015-01-01

    Salinity is one of the important abiotic factors for any crop management in irrigated as well as rainfed areas, which leads to poor harvests. This yield reduction in salt affected soils can be overcome by improving salt tolerance in crops or by soil reclamation. Salty soils can be reclaimed by leaching the salt or by cultivation of salt tolerance crops. Salt tolerance is a quantitative trait controlled by several genes. Poor knowledge about mechanism of its inheritance makes slow progress in its introgression into target crops. Brassica is known to be a good reclamation crop. Inter and intra specific variation within Brassica species shows potential of molecular breeding to raise salinity tolerant genotypes. Among the various molecular markers, SSR markers are getting high attention, since they are randomly sparsed, highly variable and show co-dominant inheritance. Furthermore, as sequencing techniques are improving and softwares to find SSR markers are being developed, SSR markers technology is also evolving rapidly. Comparative SSR marker studies targeting Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica species which lie in the same family will further aid in studying the salt tolerance related QTLs and subsequent identification of the “candidate genes” and finding out the origin of important QTLs. Although, there are a few reports on molecular breeding for improving salt tolerance using molecular markers in Brassica species, usage of SSR markers has a big potential to improve salt tolerance in Brassica crops. In order to obtain best harvests, role of SSR marker driven breeding approaches play important role and it has been discussed in this review especially for the introgression of salt tolerance traits in crops. PMID:26388887

  14. Characterisation of potential aquaculture pond effluents, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conventional treatment of effluents from these small-scale, low-volume operations, which discharge relatively dilute effluents infrequently, might not be cost-effective. Keywords: aquaculture–environment interaction, earthen ponds, effluent characterisation, K-means clustering, t ilapia, water quality. African Journal of Aquatic ...

  15. Secondary Metabolism in Brassica Rapa Under Hypergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Lanfang; Darnell, Rebecca; Allen, Joan; Musgrave, Mary; Bisbee, Patricia

    Effect of altered gravity on secondary metabolism is of critical importance not only from the viewpoint of plant evolution, but also of productivity (carbon partition between edible and non-edible parts), plant fitness, as well as culinary and nutraceutical values to human diet. Previous work found that lignin content decreases in microgravity as the need for mechanical support decreases, while the response of other small molecular secondary metabolites to microgravity varies. Our recent ISS experiment showed that 3-butenyl glucosinolate (a predominant glucosinolate in Brassica rapa) increased in stems of B. rapa grown in the microgravity conditions. To further elucidate the role of gravity in plant secondary metabolism, a series of hypergravity (the other end of gravity spectrum) experiments were carried out using the 24-ft centrifuge at Ames Research Center. Thirteen-day-old B. rapa L. (cv. Astroplants) were transferred to the Plant Growth Facility attached to the centrifuge following previous experimental conditions, and subsequently grown for 16 days. Plants were harvested, immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen, and lyophilized prior to analysis for glucosinolates and lignin. In general, glucosinolate concentration was the highest in stems, followed by leaves, then roots. Glucosinolate concentration was significantly lower in stems of the 2-g and 4-g plants - averaging 4.6 and 2.5 ng/g DW, respectively - compared with the stationary control plants, which averaged 7.9 ng/g DW. Similarly, there was a 2.2-fold and 7.5-fold decrease in 3-butenyl glucosinolate in roots of the 2-g and 4-g plants, respectively, compared with the control (2.6 ng/g DW). There was a significant decrease in 3-butenyl glucosinolate concentration in leaves of the 4-g compared to leaves of the control plants (2.6 and 4.5 ng/g DW, respectively); however, there was no effect of 2-g on leaf glucosinolate concentration. Increasing gravity from 1-g to 2-g to 4-g generally resulted in further

  16. Embryogenesis of brassica rapa l. under clinorotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, A.; Ivanenko, G.

    Investigation of reproductive development of higher plants in spaceflight represents scientific interest first of all with the necessity to work out the plant space technologies for creation of controlled life-support systems. In such systems mainly the higher plants are considered to be an important component that makes it necessary to obtain the several generations of higher plants with their full ontogenesis. As a rule, seeds obtained in three species of the higher plants in a series of experiments differ from the control by some parameters (Merkis, Laurinavichius, 1983; Musgrave et al., 1998; 2000; Levinskikh et all. 1999; Stankovich et al., 2002). It was shown, that immature embryos generated in microgravity were at a range of developmental stage, while the ground control embryos had all reached the premature stage of development (Kuang et al., 2003). Besides, the distinctions in a degree of nutrient substances accumulation in them were revealed (Kuang et al., 2000). Therefore, the elucidation of the possible reasons for distortion of plant reproduction in microgravity demands the further research. In this study we examined embryogenesis of higher plant Brassica rapa L. with an application of slow horizontal clinostats, that allows to deprive the plants the opportunity to perceive the gravitational stimulus. Some plants were clinorotated from the moment sowing of seeds; in other series the experiment plants were placed on clinostats after formation of flower buds. Temporal fixation of the material was used in these experiments, which allow to obtain material for studying of consecutive stages of embryogenesis. The development of 2-21 day-old embryos was studied. Comparative embryological analysis has shown a similarity in the main of process of embryo differentiation produced under clinorotation and in the stationary control. At the early stages of embryogenesis, the distortion in suspensor formation was observed more frequently. Embryos generated in

  17. Radiation effects on Brassica seeds and seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deoli, Naresh; Hasenstein, Karl H.

    2016-07-01

    Space radiation consists of high energy charged particles and affects biological systems, but because of its stochastic, non-directional nature is difficult to replicate on Earth. Radiation damages biological systems acutely at high doses or cumulatively at low doses through progressive changes in DNA organization. These damages lead to death or cause of mutations. While radiation biology typically focuses on mammalian or human systems, little is known as to how radiation affects plants. In addition, energetic ion beams are widely used to generate new mutants in plants considering their high-LET (Linear Energy Transfer) as compared to gamma rays and X-rays. Understanding the effect of ionizing radiation on plant provides a basis for studying effects of radiation on biological systems and will help mitigate (space) radiation damage in plants. We exposed dry and imbibed Brassica rapa seeds and seedling roots to proton beams of varying qualities and compared the theoretical penetration range of different energy levels with observable growth response. We used 1, 2 and 3 MeV protons in air at the varying fluences to investigate the effect of direct irradiation on the seeds (1012 - 1015 ions/cm2) and seedlings (1013 ions/cm2). The range of protons in the tissue was calculated using Monte-Carlo based SRIM (Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter) software. The simulation and biological results indicate that ions did not penetrate the tissue of dry or hydrated seeds at all used ion energies. Therefore the entire energy was transferred to the treated tissue. Irradiated seeds were germinated vertically under dim light and roots growth was observed for two days after imbibition. The LD50 of the germination was about 2×1014 ions/cm2 and about 5×1014 ions/cm2 for imbibed and dry seeds, respectively. Since seedlings are most sensitive to gravity, the change in gravitropic behavior is a convenient means to assess radiation damage on physiological responses other than direct tissue

  18. Characterization and expression patterns of small RNAs in synthesized Brassica hexaploids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yanyue; Zhao, Qin; Zou, Jun; Wang, Wenliang; Gao, Yi; Meng, Jinling; Wang, Jianbo

    2014-06-01

    Polyploidy has played an important role in promoting plant evolution through genomic merging and doubling. We used high-throughput sequencing to compare miRNA expression profiles between Brassica hexaploid and its parents. A total of 613, 784 and 742 known miRNAs were identified in Brassica rapa, Brassica carinata, and Brassica hexaploid, respectively. We detected 618 miRNAs were differentially expressed (log(2)Ratio ≥ 1, P ≤ 0.05) between Brassica hexaploid and its parents, and 425 miRNAs were non-additively expressed in Brassica hexaploid, which suggest a trend of non-additive miRNA regulation following hybridization and polyploidization. Remarkably, majority of the non-additively expressed miRNAs in the Brassica hexaploid are repressed, and there was a bias toward repression of B. rapa miRNAs, which is consistent with the progenitor-biased gene repression in the synthetic allopolyploids. In addition, we identified 653 novel mature miRNAs in Brassica hexaploid and its parents. Finally, we found that almost all the non-additive accumulation of siRNA clusters exhibited a low-parent pattern in Brassica hexaploid. Non-additive small RNA regulation is involved in a range of biological pathways, probably providing a driving force for variation and adaptation in allopolyploids.

  19. Process for the reduction of nitrogen oxides in an effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epperly, W.R.; Sullivan, J.C.; Sprague, B.N.

    1989-07-04

    This patent describes a process for the reduction of the concentration of nitrogen oxides in the effluent from the combustion of a carbonaceous fuel. The process comprises introducing a treatment agent which comprises a composition selected from the group consisting of NH/sub 4/-lignosulfonate, calcium lignosulfonate, 2-furoic acid, 1,3 dioxolane, tetrahydrofuran, furfurylamine, furfurylalcohol, gluconic acid, citric acid, n-butyl acetate, 1,3 butylene glycol, methylal, tetrahydrofuryl alcohol, furan, fish oil, coumalic acid, furfuryl acetate, tetrahydrofuran 2,3,4,5-tetracarboxylic acid, tetrahydrofurylamine, furylacrylic acid, tetrahydropyran, 2,5-furandimethanol, mannitol, hexamethylenediamine, barbituric acid, acetic anhydride, oxalic acid, mucic acid and d-galactose.

  20. Exhaust Gas Scrubber Washwater Effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    oceans . However, this effect is minor compared to ocean acidification due to Exhaust Gas Scrubber Washwater Effluent...Section 6 -Assessment of Pollutants Discharged in Scrubber Washwater and Protectiveness of IMO Guidelines 29 increased carbon dioxide ...June 11, 2010 (http://www.motorship.com/news101/breakthrough-order-for-krystallon-scrubbers). Orr, J.C. et al. 2005. Anthropogenic ocean acidification

  1. Genome-wide analysis of coordinated transcript abundance during seed development in different Brassica rapa morphotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basnet, Ram Kumar; Moreno-Pachon, Natalia; Lin, Ke; Bucher, Johan; Visser, Richard G F; Maliepaard, Chris; Bonnema, Guusje

    2013-12-01

    Brassica seeds are important as basic units of plant growth and sources of vegetable oil. Seed development is regulated by many dynamic metabolic processes controlled by complex networks of spatially and temporally expressed genes. We conducted a global microarray gene co-expression analysis by measuring transcript abundance of developing seeds from two diverse B. rapa morphotypes: a pak choi (leafy-type) and a yellow sarson (oil-type), and two of their doubled haploid (DH) progenies, (1) to study the timing of metabolic processes in developing seeds, (2) to explore the major transcriptional differences in developing seeds of the two morphotypes, and (3) to identify the optimum stage for a genetical genomics study in B. rapa seed. Seed developmental stages were similar in developing seeds of pak choi and yellow sarson of B. rapa; however, the colour of embryo and seed coat differed among these two morphotypes. In this study, most transcriptional changes occurred between 25 and 35 DAP, which shows that the timing of seed developmental processes in B. rapa is at later developmental stages than in the related species B. napus. Using a Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (WGCNA), we identified 47 "gene modules", of which 27 showed a significant association with temporal and/or genotypic variation. An additional hierarchical cluster analysis identified broad spectra of gene expression patterns during seed development. The predominant variation in gene expression was according to developmental stages rather than morphotype differences. Since lipids are the major storage compounds of Brassica seeds, we investigated in more detail the regulation of lipid metabolism. Four co-regulated gene clusters were identified with 17 putative cis-regulatory elements predicted in their 1000 bp upstream region, either specific or common to different lipid metabolic pathways. This is the first study of genome-wide profiling of transcript abundance during seed development in B

  2. First report of bacterial leaf blight on mustard greens (Brassica juncea) caused by pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis in Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2010, a brassica leafy greens grower in Sunflower County, Mississippi, observed scattered outbreaks of a leaf blight disease on mustard greens (Brassica juncea) in a 180-hectare field. A severe outbreak of leaf blight occurred on mustard greens and turnip greens (Brassica rapa) in the same field...

  3. Erosion of Brassica incana Genetic Resources: Causes and Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscolo, A.; Settineri, G.; Mallamaci, C.; Papalia, T.; Sidari, M.

    2017-07-01

    Brassica incana Ten., possessing a number of useful agronomic traits, represents a precious genetic resource to be used in plant breeding programs to broaden the genetic base in most Brassica crop species. B. incana that grows on limestone cliffs is at risk of genetic erosion for environmental constraints and human activities. We studied the pedological conditions of a Calabrian site where the B. incana grows, and we correlated the soil properties to the physiological and biochemical aspects of B. incana to identify the causes and effects of the genetic erosion of this species. Our results evidenced that physical soil conditions did not affect B. incana growth and nutraceutical properties; conversely, biological soil properties modified its properties. We identified leaf pigments and secondary metabolites that can be used routinely as early warning indicators of plant threat, to evaluate in a short term the dynamic behavior of plants leading to species extinction.

  4. Effect of Heavy Metals in Plants of the Genus Brassica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourato, Miguel P.; Moreira, Inês N.; Leitão, Inês; Pinto, Filipa R.; Sales, Joana R.; Louro Martins, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Several species from the Brassica genus are very important agricultural crops in different parts of the world and are also known to be heavy metal accumulators. There have been a large number of studies regarding the tolerance, uptake and defense mechanism in several of these species, notably Brassica juncea and B. napus, against the stress induced by heavy metals. Numerous studies have also been published about the capacity of these species to be used for phytoremediation purposes but with mixed results. This review will focus on the latest developments in the study of the uptake capacity, oxidative damage and biochemical and physiological tolerance and defense mechanisms to heavy metal toxicity on six economically important species: B. juncea, B. napus, B. oleracea, B. carinata, B. rapa and B. nigra. PMID:26247945

  5. Omics Approach to Identify Factors Involved in Brassica Disease Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Marta; Soengas, Pilar; Velasco, Pablo; Bhadauria, Vijai; Cartea, Maria E; Rodríguez, Victor M

    2016-01-01

    Understanding plant's defense mechanisms and their response to biotic stresses is of fundamental meaning for the development of resistant crop varieties and more productive agriculture. The Brassica genus involves a large variety of economically important species and cultivars used as vegetable source, oilseeds, forage and ornamental. Damage caused by pathogens attack affects negatively various aspects of plant growth, development, and crop productivity. Over the last few decades, advances in plant physiology, genetics, and molecular biology have greatly improved our understanding of plant responses to biotic stress conditions. In this regard, various 'omics' technologies enable qualitative and quantitative monitoring of the abundance of various biological molecules in a high-throughput manner, and thus allow determination of their variation between different biological states on a genomic scale. In this review, we have described advances in 'omic' tools (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics) in the view of conventional and modern approaches being used to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that underlie Brassica disease resistance.

  6. Effect of Heavy Metals in Plants of the Genus Brassica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourato, Miguel P; Moreira, Inês N; Leitão, Inês; Pinto, Filipa R; Sales, Joana R; Martins, Luisa Louro

    2015-08-04

    Several species from the Brassica genus are very important agricultural crops in different parts of the world and are also known to be heavy metal accumulators. There have been a large number of studies regarding the tolerance, uptake and defense mechanism in several of these species, notably Brassica juncea and B. napus, against the stress induced by heavy metals. Numerous studies have also been published about the capacity of these species to be used for phytoremediation purposes but with mixed results. This review will focus on the latest developments in the study of the uptake capacity, oxidative damage and biochemical and physiological tolerance and defense mechanisms to heavy metal toxicity on six economically important species: B. juncea, B. napus, B. oleracea, B. carinata, B. rapa and B. nigra.

  7. Catalytic properties of three catalases from Kohlrabi ( Brassica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Catalase (EC 1.11.1.6) was extracted from kohlrabi bulbs (Brassica oleracea gongylodes) with 0.05 M phosphate buffer, pH 7.0. On the basis of kinetic studies and activity stain for catalase, only three isoenzymes of catalases were detected in kohlrabi bulbs extract with pH optima at 4.5, 6.5 and 10. Highest catalytic ...

  8. Pollination and embryo development in Brassica rapa L. in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, A.; Popova, A.; Xiao, Y.; Musgrave, M. E.

    2000-01-01

    Plant reproduction under spaceflight conditions has been problematic in the past. In order to determine what aspect of reproductive development is affected by microgravity, we studied pollination and embryo development in Brassica rapa L. during 16 d in microgravity on the space shuttle (STS-87). Brassica is self-incompatible and requires mechanical transfer of pollen. Short-duration access to microgravity during parabolic flights on the KC-135A aircraft was used initially to confirm that equal numbers of pollen grains could be collected and transferred in the absence of gravity. Brassica was grown in the Plant Growth Facility flight hardware as follows. Three chambers each contained six plants that were 13 d old at launch. As these plants flowered, thin colored tape was used to indicate the date of hand pollination, resulting in silique populations aged 8-15 d postpollination at the end of the 16-d mission. The remaining three chambers contained dry seeds that germinated on orbit to produce 14-d-old plants just beginning to flower at the time of landing. Pollen produced by these plants had comparable viability (93%) with that produced in the 2-d-delayed ground control. Matched-age siliques yielded embryos of equivalent developmental stage in the spaceflight and ground control treatments. Carbohydrate and protein storage reserves in the embryos, assessed by cytochemical localization, were also comparable. In the spaceflight material, growth and development by embryos rescued from siliques 15 d after pollination lagged behind the ground controls by 12 d; however, in the subsequent generation, no differences between the two treatments were found. The results demonstrate that while no stage of reproductive development in Brassica is absolutely dependent upon gravity, lower embryo quality may result following development in microgravity.

  9. Transcriptomic basis for drought-resistance in Brassica napus L.

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Pei; Yang, Cuiling; Chen, Hao; Song, Chunpeng; Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Daojie

    2017-01-01

    Based on transcriptomic data from four experimental settings with drought-resistant and drought-sensitive cultivars under drought and well-watered conditions, statistical analysis revealed three categories encompassing 169 highly differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in response to drought in Brassica napus L., including 37 drought-resistant cultivar-related genes, 35 drought-sensitive cultivar-related genes and 97 cultivar non-specific ones. We provide evidence that the identified DEGs were ...

  10. Isolate dependency of Brassica rapa resistance QTLs to Botrytis cinerea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei eZhang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Generalist necrotrophic pathogens including Botrytis cinerea cause significant yield and financial losses on Brassica crops. However, there is little knowledge about the mechanisms underlying the complex interactions encoded by both host and pathogen genomes in this interaction. This potentially includes multiple layers of plant defense and pathogen virulence mechanisms that could complicate in breeding broad spectrum resistance within Brassica species. Glucosinolates are a diverse group of defense metabolites that play a key role in interaction between Brassica and biotic attackers. In this study, we utilized a collection of diverse B. cinerea isolates to investigate resistance within the B. rapa R500 x IMB211 recombinant inbred line population. We tested variation on lesion development and glucosinolate accumulation in parental lines and all population lines. We then mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL for both resistances to B. cinerea and defense metabolites in this population. Phenotypic analysis and QTL mapping demonstrate that the genetic basis of resistance to B. cinerea in B. rapa is isolate specific and polygenic with transgressive segregation that both parents contribute resistance alleles. QTLs controlling defensive glucosinolates are highly dependent on pathogen infection. An overlap of two QTLs identified between resistance to B. cinerea and defense metabolites also showed isolate specific effects. This work suggests that directly searching for resistance loci may not be the best approach at improving resistance in B. rapa to necrotrophic pathogen.

  11. Fuel properties of biodiesel from vegetable oils and oil mixtures. Influence of methyl esters distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez, G.; Sánchez, N.; Encinar, J.M.; González, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the quality of biodiesel produced by basic transesterification from several vegetable oils (soybean, rapeseed, sunflower, high oleic sunflower, Cynara Cardunculus L., Brassica Carinata and Jatropha Curca) cultivated in Extremadura has been studied in detail. The influence of raw material composition on properties such as density, viscosity, cetane number, higher heating value, iodine and saponification values and cold filter plugging point has been verified. Other biodiesel properties such as acid value, water content and flash and combustion points were more dependent on characteristics of production process. Biodiesel produced by rapeseed, sunflower and high oleic sunflower oils transesterification have been biofuels with better properties according to Norm EN 14214. Finally, it has been tested that it is possible to use oils mixtures in biodiesel production in order to improve the biodiesel quality. In addition, with the same process conditions and knowing properties of biodiesel from pure oils; for biodiesel from oils mixtures, its methyl esters content, and therefore properties dependent this content can be predicted from a simple mathematical equation proposed in this work. - Highlights: • Biodiesel quality produced by basic transesterification from vegetable oils. • We examine influences of methyl esters distribution on biodiesel properties. • Biofuels from soybean, sunflower and rapeseed oils were with better properties. • Oils mixtures improve biodiesel quality to fulfill Norm EN 14214. • An equation to predict properties of biodiesel from oil mixtures is proposed

  12. Comamonas sp. EB172 isolated from digester treating palm oil mill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... unnecessary use of plastics to complement recycling and ... impact of plastics. Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is the most polluted organic residues generated from palm oil processing and composes of high nutrient content mainly oil and fatty acids is able to .... applications as biodegradable polyesters.

  13. Enteric methane production and ruminal fermentation from forage brassica diets fed in continuous culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassicas provide forage for livestock during the late fall when traditional perennial cool-season forages are not productive. However, little research exists on ruminal fermentation and methane(CH4) production of brassicas fed as forage. A continuous culture fermentor system was used to assess nutr...

  14. Productivity and nutritive quality of three brassica varieties for use in pasture-based systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassicas are gaining popularity among pasture-based livestock producers to extend grazing during the ‘summer slump’ and throughout the fall. A 2-yr study was conducted to compare biomass production and nutrient composition of ‘Barisca’ rapeseed (RAP; Brassica napus L.), ‘Inspiration’ canola (CAN; B...

  15. Genetic diversity and population structure of leafy kale and Brassica rupestris Raf. in south Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maggioni, Lorenzo; von Bothmer, Roland; Poulsen, Gert

    2014-01-01

    Local varieties of leafy kales (Brassica oleracea L.) are grown in home gardens in Calabria and Sicily for self-consumption, in the same area where the wild relative Brassica rupestris Raf. also grows. With the use of AFLP markers, comparisons were made of the genetic diversity and population str...

  16. Integration of linkage maps for the Amphidiploid Brassica napus and comparative mapping with Arabidopsis and Brassica rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delourme Régine

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The large number of genetic linkage maps representing Brassica chromosomes constitute a potential platform for studying crop traits and genome evolution within Brassicaceae. However, the alignment of existing maps remains a major challenge. The integration of these genetic maps will enhance genetic resolution, and provide a means to navigate between sequence-tagged loci, and with contiguous genome sequences as these become available. Results We report the first genome-wide integration of Brassica maps based on an automated pipeline which involved collation of genome-wide genotype data for sequence-tagged markers scored on three extensively used amphidiploid Brassica napus (2n = 38 populations. Representative markers were selected from consolidated maps for each population, and skeleton bin maps were generated. The skeleton maps for the three populations were then combined to generate an integrated map for each LG, comparing two different approaches, one encapsulated in JoinMap and the other in MergeMap. The BnaWAIT_01_2010a integrated genetic map was generated using JoinMap, and includes 5,162 genetic markers mapped onto 2,196 loci, with a total genetic length of 1,792 cM. The map density of one locus every 0.82 cM, corresponding to 515 Kbp, increases by at least three-fold the locus and marker density within the original maps. Within the B. napus integrated map we identified 103 conserved collinearity blocks relative to Arabidopsis, including five previously unreported blocks. The BnaWAIT_01_2010a map was used to investigate the integrity and conservation of order proposed for genome sequence scaffolds generated from the constituent A genome of Brassica rapa. Conclusions Our results provide a comprehensive genetic integration of the B. napus genome from a range of sources, which we anticipate will provide valuable information for rapeseed and Canola research.

  17. Shotgun label-free proteomic analysis of clubroot (Plasmodiophora brassicae resistance conferred by the gene Rcr1 in Brassica rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Song

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Clubroot, caused by the plasmodiophorid pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae, is one of the most serious diseases on Brassica crops worldwide and a major threat to canola production in western Canada. Host resistance is the key strategy for clubroot management on canola. Several clubroot resistance (CR genes have been identified, but the mechanisms associated with these CR genes are poorly understood. In the current study, a label-free shotgun proteomic approach was used to profile and compare the proteomes of B. rapa carrying and not carrying the CR gene Rcr1 upon P. brassicae infection. A total of 527 differentially accumulated proteins (DAPs were identified between the resistant and susceptible samples, and functional annotation of these DAPs indicates that the perception of P. brassicae and activation of defense responses is triggered via an unique signaling pathway distinct from common modes of recognition receptors reported with many other plant-pathogen interactions; this pathway appears to act in a calcium-independent manner through a not-well defined cascade of mitogen-activated protein kinases and may require the ubiquitin-26S proteasome related to abiotic stresses, especially the cold-stress tolerance. Both up-regulation of defense-related and down-regulation of pathogenicity-related metabolism were observed in plants carrying Rcr1, and these functions may all contribute to the clubroot resistance mediated by this CR gene. These results, combined with those of transcriptomic analysis reported earlier, improved our understanding of molecular mechanisms associated with Rcr1 and clubroot resistance at large, and identified candidate metabolites or pathways for further confirmation of specific resistance mechanisms. Deploying CR genes with different modes of action may help improve the durability of clubroot resistance.

  18. Continuous monitoring of gaseous effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasco, A.; Giraut, H.; Prado, M.; Bonino, A.D.

    1990-01-01

    The system allows to continuously determine the radioactive materials discharge (iodine, noble gases and aerosols) to the environment. It consists in compelling, by a pump, a known and fixed fraction of the total flow and preserving the aerosols by a filter. The gas -now free from aerosols- traverses an activated carbon filter which keeps the iodine; after being free from aerosols and iodine, the effluent traverses a measurement chambers for noble gases which has a scintillator. (Author) [es

  19. Waste monitoring system for effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, J.M.; Gomez, B.; Trujillo, L.; Malcom, J.E.; Nekimken, H.; Pope, N.; Bibeau, R.

    1995-07-01

    The waste monitoring system in use at Los Alamos National Laboratory's Plutonium Facility, TA-55, is a computer-based system that proves real-time information on industrial effluents. Remote computers monitor discharge events and data moves from one system to another via a local area network. This report describes the history, system design, summary, instrumentation list, displays, trending screens, and layout of the waste monitoring system

  20. Diesel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil ... Diesel oil ... Diesel oil poisoning can cause symptoms in many parts of the body. EYES, EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT Loss of ... most dangerous effects of hydrocarbon (such as diesel oil) poisoning are due to inhaling the fumes. NERVOUS ...

  1. Palm Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm oil is obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree. Palm oil is used for preventing vitamin A deficiency, cancer, ... high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and cyanide poisoning. Palm oil is used for weight loss and increasing the ...

  2. Liquid Effluents Program mission analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, S.S.

    1994-01-01

    Systems engineering is being used to identify work to cleanup the Hanford Site. The systems engineering process transforms an identified mission need into a set of performance parameters and a preferred system configuration. Mission analysis is the first step in the process. Mission analysis supports early decision-making by clearly defining the program objectives, and evaluating the feasibility and risks associated with achieving those objectives. The results of the mission analysis provide a consistent basis for subsequent systems engineering work. A mission analysis was performed earlier for the overall Hanford Site. This work was continued by a ''capstone'' team which developed a top-level functional analysis. Continuing in a top-down manner, systems engineering is now being applied at the program and project levels. A mission analysis was conducted for the Liquid Effluents Program. The results are described herein. This report identifies the initial conditions and acceptable final conditions, defines the programmatic and physical interfaces and sources of constraints, estimates the resources to carry out the mission, and establishes measures of success. The mission analysis reflects current program planning for the Liquid Effluents Program as described in Liquid Effluents FY 1995 Multi-Year Program Plan

  3. Development of Species-Specific Primers for Plasmodiophora brassicae, Clubroot Pathogen of Kimchi Cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Su Choi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Clubroot caused by the obligate biotrophic protist Plasmodiophora brassicae Woronin is one of the most damaging diseases of Brassicaceae family. In this study, we developed species-specific primer sets for rapid and accurate detection of P. brassicae. The primer sets developed amplified a specific fragment only from P. brassicae DNA while they did not amplify a band from 10 other soilborne pathogens or from Kimchi cabbage. In sensitivity test, the species-specific primer set ITS1-1/ITS1-2 could work for approximately 10 spores/ml of genomic DNA showing more sensitivity and accuracy than previous methods. With quantitative real-time PCR test, the primer set detected less spores of P. brassicae than before, confirming that the species-specific primer set could be useful for rapid and accurate detection of P. brassicae.

  4. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... up. How Oil Harms Animals and Plants in Marine Environments In general, oil spills can affect animals and plants in two ways: from the oil ... up. How Oil Harms Animals and Plants in Marine Environments In general, oil spills can affect animals and plants in two ways: from the oil ...

  5. Fatty acid composition of canola (Brassica napus L.), as affected by agronomical, genotypic and environmental parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidi, Heshmat; Tahmasebi, Zeinaldin; Naghdi Badi, Hassan Ali; Torabi, Hossein; Miransari, Mohammad

    2010-03-01

    Vegetable oils with a high relative amount of unsaturated fatty acids are of great significance for human health. There is not any data on the effects of tillage practices on fatty acid composition of canola (Brassica napus L.). Hence, in a 2-year split plot experiment, the effects of different tillage systems (no (NT), minimum (MT) and conventional tillage (CT)), canola genotypes (Hyola 401 (V1) and PF (V2)) and sowing dates (including Sep. 8, 23 and Oct. 7) on the fatty acid composition of canola were evaluated. Tillage practices and the combination of canola genotypes and sowing dates were randomized to the main and sub-plots, respectively. The highest oleic acid content was the result of combining NT, V1 and Sep. 23, and the lowest was related to the combination of CT, V2 and Oct. 7. While the combination of NT, V1 and D1 resulted in the highest amount of unsaturated fatty acids, this amount was the lowest for the combination of CT, V2 and Sep. 23. For the selection of an appropriate canola producing strategy, all these parameters must be taken into account. The combination of NT, V1 and Sep. 23 may be the most favorable cropping strategy for canola production under a Mediterranean climate. Copyright 2009 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of rhizobacteria inoculation and humic acid application on canola (Brassica napus L.) crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.; Duar, I.; Solaimani, S.G.A.; Mahmood, S.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated eco-friendly approach of utilizing plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and humic acid (HA) as bio-stimulants to improve the growth, yield and nutrition of canola (Brassica napus L.). In this study, we isolated 20 indigenous rhizobacterial strains that were subsequently screened and characterized for their plant growth promoting traits. After that one promising PGPR strain identified as Acinetobacter pittii by 16S rRNA gene sequencing was selected for field trial. The field experiment was conducted using RCB design with split-plot arrangement that was replicated four times. Three levels of humic acid (0, 10 and 20 kg ha-1) as main plot factor and two treatments of PGPR (with and without PGPR) as sub-plot factor were used. Data was recorded on plant height (cm), root dry matter plant-1, number of lateral root plant-1, number of pods plant-1, number of seeds pod-1, 1000 seed weight (g), seed yield(kg ha-1), oil content (%), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) contents and uptake. For most of the above mentioned parameters, significant enhancement was observed with the increment of humic acid, and also PGPR treatments were better than their respective control treatments. Maximum values of these parameters were recorded for the interaction of 20 kg HA ha-1 with the PGPR strain. It can be concluded that integrated application of HA and PGPR is a better strategy to improve nutrition and yield of canola. (author)

  7. Water and Temperature Stresses Impact Canola (Brassica napus L.) Fatty Acid, Protein, and Yield over Nitrogen and Sulfur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammac, W Ashley; Maaz, Tai M; Koenig, Richard T; Burke, Ian C; Pan, William L

    2017-12-06

    Interactive effects of weather and soil nutrient status often control crop productivity. An experiment was conducted to determine effects of nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) fertilizer rate, soil water, and atmospheric temperature on canola (Brassica napus L.) fatty acid (FA), total oil, protein, and grain yield. Nitrogen and sulfur were assessed in a 4-yr study with two locations, five N rates (0, 45, 90, 135, and 180 kg ha -1 ), and two S rates (0 and 17 kg ha -1 ). Water and temperature were assessed using variability across 12 site-years of dryland canola production. Effects of N and S were inconsistent. Unsaturated FA, oleic acid, grain oil, protein, and theoretical maximum grain yield were highly related to water and temperature variability across the site-years. A nonlinear model identified water and temperature conditions that enabled production of maximum unsaturated FA content, oleic acid content, total oil, protein, and theoretical maximum grain yield. Water and temperature variability played a larger role than soil nutrient status on canola grain constituents and yield.

  8. Effluent treatment for nuclear thermal propulsion ground testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipers, Larry R.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives are to define treatment functions, review concept options, discuss PIPET effluent treatment system (ETS), and outline future activities. The topics covered include the following: reactor exhaust; effluent treatment functions; effluent treatment categories; effluent treatment options; concept evaluation; PIPETS ETS envelope; PIPET effluent treatment concept; and future activities.

  9. Cluster Analysis in Rapeseed (Brassica Napus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahasi, J.M

    2002-01-01

    With widening edible deficit, Kenya has become increasingly dependent on imported edible oils. Many oilseed crops (e.g. sunflower, soya beans, rapeseed/mustard, sesame, groundnuts etc) can be grown in Kenya. But oilseed rape is preferred because it very high yielding (1.5 tons-4.0 tons/ha) with oil content of 42-46%. Other uses include fitting in various cropping systems as; relay/inter crops, rotational crops, trap crops and fodder. It is soft seeded hence oil extraction is relatively easy. The meal is high in protein and very useful in livestock supplementation. Rapeseed can be straight combined using adjusted wheat combines. The priority is to expand domestic oilseed production, hence the need to introduce improved rapeseed germplasm from other countries. The success of any crop improvement programme depends on the extent of genetic diversity in the material. Hence, it is essential to understand the adaptation of introduced genotypes and the similarities if any among them. Evaluation trials were carried out on 17 rapeseed genotypes (nine Canadian origin and eight of European origin) grown at 4 locations namely Endebess, Njoro, Timau and Mau Narok in three years (1992, 1993 and 1994). Results for 1993 were discarded due to severe drought. An analysis of variance was carried out only on seed yields and the treatments were found to be significantly different. Cluster analysis was then carried out on mean seed yields and based on this analysis; only one major group exists within the material. In 1992, varieties 2,3,8 and 9 didn't fall in the same cluster as the rest. Variety 8 was the only one not classified with the rest of the Canadian varieties. Three European varieties (2,3 and 9) were however not classified with the others. In 1994, varieties 10 and 6 didn't fall in the major cluster. Of these two, variety 10 is of Canadian origin. Varieties were more similar in 1994 than 1992 due to favorable weather. It is evident that, genotypes from different geographical

  10. Legal provisions governing liquid effluents radiological monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gans, I.; Ruehle, H.

    1985-01-01

    The KTA rule 1504 for radiological monitoring of liquid effluents from nuclear installations is explained. As there are no such rules published to date for establishments handling isotopes, some criteria are discussed which in the future ought to form part of a practical guide for liquid effluents monitoring in isotope handling installations. Monitoring measures described refer to liquid effluents from transfer containers, auxiliary cooling equipment, turbine buildings, main cooling installations, and waste air discharges from closed-circuit cooling systems. (DG) [de

  11. Biodiesel production from Cynara cardunculus L. and Brassica carinata A. Braun seeds and their suitability as fuels in compression ignition engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania De Domenico

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of energy crops can provide environmental benefits and may represent an opportunity to improve agriculture in areas considered at low productivity. In this work, we studied the energy potential of two species (Brassica carinata A. Braun and Cynara cardunculus L. and their seed oil productivity under different growth conditions. Furthermore, the biodiesel from the oil extracted from the seeds of these species was produced and analysed in term of utilisation as fuels in compression ignition engines. In particular, the spray penetration and shape ratio were measured in a constant-volume chamber and compared with the results obtained with a standard diesel fuel. These results were obtained using a standard common rail injection system at different injection pressure, injection duration, and constant-volume chamber pressure.

  12. Surface structure and properties of plant seed oil bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzen, J T; Huang, A H

    1992-04-01

    Storage triacylglycerols (TAG) in plant seeds are present in small discrete intracellular organelles called oil bodies. An oil body has a matrix of TAG, which is surrounded by phospholipids (PL) and alkaline proteins, termed oleosins. Oil bodies isolated from mature maize (Zea mays) embryos maintained their discreteness, but coalesced after treatment with trypsin but not with phospholipase A2 or C. Phospholipase A2 or C exerted its activity on oil bodies only after the exposed portion of oleosins had been removed by trypsin. Attempts were made to reconstitute oil bodies from their constituents. TAG, either extracted from oil bodies or of a 1:2 molar mixture of triolein and trilinolein, in a dilute buffer were sonicated to produce droplets of sizes similar to those of oil bodies; these droplets were unstable and coalesced rapidly. Addition of oil body PL or dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine, with or without charged stearylamine/stearic acid, or oleosins, to the medium before sonication provided limited stabilization effects to the TAG droplets. High stability was achieved only when the TAG were sonicated with both oil body PL (or dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine) and oleosins of proportions similar to or higher than those in the native oil bodies. These stabilized droplets were similar to the isolated oil bodies in chemical properties, and can be considered as reconstituted oil bodies. Reconstituted oil bodies were also produced from TAG of a 1:2 molar mixture of triolein and trilinolein, dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine, and oleosins from rice (Oryza sativa), wheat (Triticum aestivum), rapeseed (Brassica napus), soybean (Glycine max), or jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis). It is concluded that both oleosins and PL are required to stabilize the oil bodies and that oleosins prevent oil bodies from coalescing by providing steric hindrance. A structural model of an oil body is presented. The current findings on seed oil bodies could be extended to the intracellular storage lipid

  13. Radiation treatment of sewage effluent, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawai, Teruko; Sekiguchi, Masayuki; Sawai, Takeshi; Shimokawa, Toshinari; Tanabe, Hiroko

    1991-01-01

    The water demand of the past several years has increased rapidly. Recycling of municipal waste water is an effective mean of coping with the water shortage in Tokyo. We studied the radiation treatment method of further purification of the effluent from sewage treatment plants. By gamma irradiation the refractory organic substances in the effluent were decomposed and the COD values decreased with increasing dose. The high molecular weight components in the effluent were degraded to lower molecular weight substances and were decomposed finally to carbon dioxide. In this paper we studied on the fading color and the reducing of order of sewage effluent. (author)

  14. Analysis of sugar mill effluent and its influence on germination and growth of African marigold ( Tagetes erecta L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaithiyanathan, Thanapal; Sundaramoorthy, Perumal

    2017-12-01

    Sugar industry is a very important agro-based industry in India and it discharges large amount of effluent into water bodies to create high pollution in water bodies which affects the plants and other living organisms. In the present investigation, the physico-chemical analyses of N. P. K. R. Ramaswamy co-operative sugar mill effluent was determined and impact of different concentrations (control, 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100%) of sugar mill effluent on seed germination behavior of African marigold ( Tagetes erecta L.) was studied. The morphological parameters such as germination percentage, shoot length, root length, fresh weight and dry weight of seedlings, seed vigour index, tolerance index and percentage of phytotoxicity were calculated. The results recorded for the analyses of sugar mill effluent indicated their some parameters such as PH, EC, acidity, TDS, TS, BOD, COD, sulphate, magnesium, nitrogen, zinc, iron, copper, lead, manganese and oil and grease exceeded the permissible limit compared to Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board (TNPCB) and then germination and growth parameters increased in lower (10%) concentration of sugar mill effluent and this morphological parameters gradually decreased with increasing effluent concentration. The lower (10%) concentration of sugar mill effluent may be used for irrigation purposes.

  15. Quantifying the Stress Responses of Brassica Rapa Genotypes, With Experimental Drought in Two Nitrogen Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickerson, J. L.; Pleban, J. R.; Mackay, D. S.; Aston, T.; Ewers, B. E.; Weinig, C.

    2014-12-01

    In a greenhouse study designed to quantify and compare stress responses of four genotypes of Brassica rapa, broccolette (bro), cabbage (cab), turnip (tur), and oil, leaf water potential and net CO2 assimilations were measured. Individuals from each genotype, grown either with high or low nitrogen, were exposed to experimental drought of the same duration. One hypothesis was that the genotypes would differ significantly in their responses to periodic drought. The other hypothesis was that the nitrogen treatment versus no nitrogen treatment would play a significant role in the stress responses during drought. It would be expected that the nitrogen treated would have greater dry leaf mass. A LI-6400 XT portable photosynthesis system was used to obtain A/Ci curves (net CO2 assimilation rate versus substomatal CO2) for each treatment group. Predawn and midday water potentials were obtained throughout the hydrated and drought periods using a Model 670 pressure chamber. The dry leaf mass was significantly greater among the high nitrogen group versus the low nitrogen group for each genotype. Nitrogen and genotype were both determinants in variation of water potentials and net CO2 assimilation. Bro and cab genotypes with high nitrogen showed the highest net CO2 assimilation rates during hydration, but the assimilation rates dropped to the lowest during droughts. The water potentials for bro and cab were lower than values for tur and oil. Nitrogen treated genotypes had lower water potentials, but higher net CO2 assimilation rates. Bayesian ecophysiological modeling with the TREES model showed significant differences in trait expression, quantified in terms of differences in model parameter posteriors, among the four genotypes.

  16. In-vitro fermentation characteristics and methane reduction potential of mustard cake (Brassica juncea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Durge

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the effect of mustard cake (Brassica juncea L. levels in concentrate mixtures and in composite feed mixtures (CFMs on in-vitro fermentation characteristics and methane production. Materials and Methods: Five concentrate mixtures were prepared with containing 30% oil cake, where linseed cake was replaced by mustard cake at the rate of 0%, 7.5%, 15.0%, 22.5%, and 30% in concentrate mixture. Mustard cake contained glucosinolate 72.58 μmol/g oil free dry matter (DM and contents in diet were 0, 5.4, 10.9, 16.3, and 21.8 μmol/g of concentrate mixture, respectively. Concentrate mixture containing 15.0% mustard cake was found to produced minimum methane which was then used for the preparation of CFM containing 0%, 25%, 50%, and 75% levels with gram straw. Result: Increased levels of mustard cake in concentrate mixtures had a linear decrease (p<0.05 in the total gas production, and the 15% inclusion showed lowest methane concentration (quadratic, p<0.01. The degradability of DM and organic matter (OM of concentrate mixtures did not change, however, pH and NH3-N concentrations of the fermentation medium showed linear (p<0.05 reductions with increased mustard cake levels. Increased levels of 15% mustard cake containing concentrate mixture in CFMs exhibited a trend (p=0.052 of increased gas production, whereas methane concentration in total gas, methane produced and degradability of DM and OM were also displayed a linear increase (p<0.05. However, the pH, NH3-N, and total volatile fatty acid levels decreased linearly (p<0.05 with increased levels of concentrate in CFMs. Conclusion: Reduction in methane production was evidenced with the inclusion of mustard cake in concentrate mixture at 15% level, and the CFMs with 25% concentrate, which contained 15% mustard cake, exhibited an improved fermentation and reduced methane production.

  17. Fatty Acid and Transcript Profiling in Developing Seeds of Three Brassica napus Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petkova Mariana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid levels and gene expression profiles for selected genes associated with the synthesis of fatty acids (FA, triacylglycerol, and oil body proteins were examined in three oilseed rape (Brassica napus cultivars that have utility for cultivar development in our spring canola breeding program. The seed oil content of Bronowski, Q2, and Westar was 39.0, 40.1, and 40.6%, respectively at 40 days after flowering (DAF. During the 20 to 40 day period of seed development, cultivars had varying levels of palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, α-linolenic, eicosenoic, and erucic acid. In general, the percentage of each FA was similar among the cultivars during seed development. However, the level of oleic acid was lower and the levels of eicosenoic acid and erucic acid were higher in Bronowski than in Q2 and Westar seeds; linoleic acid also tended to be lower in Bronowski. Gene expression among the cultivars was similar from 10 to 40 DAF. The few exceptions were that expression of KAS1 and SAD were higher in Westar and Q2 than in Bronowski at 25 DAF, SAD was highest in Q2, intermediate in Westar, and lowest in Bronowski at 35 DAF, FAD2 was higher in Q2 than in Bronowski at 35 DAF, FAD3 was higher in Q2 than in Bronowski at 15 DAF and Q2 and Westar at 25 and 30 DAF, and FAE1 was higher in Westar and Q2 than in Bronowski at 30 DAF. Correlation analysis for gene expression against DAF for each genotype supported a common trend in gene expression among the three cultivars with gene expression tending to decrease over time; except for LPAAT, which tended to increase. The correlation between the level of FAs and expression of genes by genotype indicated no general trend; rather correlations seem to depend on the genotype.

  18. Spatial and Temporal Mapping of Key Lipid Species inBrassica napusSeeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodfield, Helen K; Sturtevant, Drew; Borisjuk, Ljudmilla; Munz, Eberhard; Guschina, Irina A; Chapman, Kent; Harwood, John L

    2017-04-01

    The regulation of lipid synthesis in oil seeds is still not fully understood. Oilseed rape ( Brassica napus ) is the third most productive vegetable oil crop on the global market; therefore, increasing our understanding of lipid accumulation in oilseed rape seeds is of great economic, as well as intellectual, importance. Matrix-assisted laser/desorption ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) is a technique that allows the mapping of metabolites directly onto intact biological tissues, giving a spatial context to metabolism. We have used MALDI-MSI to study the spatial distribution of two major lipid species, triacylglycerols and phosphatidylcholines. A dramatic, heterogenous landscape of molecular species was revealed, demonstrating significantly different lipid compositions between the various tissue types within the seed. The embryonic axis was found to be particularly enriched in palmitic acid, while the seed coat/aleurone layer accumulated vaccenic, linoleic, and α-linoleic acids. Furthermore, the lipid composition of the inner and outer cotyledons differed from each other, a remarkable discovery given the supposed identical functionality of these two tissues. Triacylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine molecular species distribution was analyzed through a developmental time series covering early seed lipid accumulation to seed maturity. The spatial patterning of lipid molecular species did not vary significantly during seed development. Data gathered using MALDI-MSI was verified through gas chromatography analysis of dissected seeds. The distinct lipid distribution profiles observed imply differential regulation of lipid metabolism between the different tissue types of the seed. Further understanding of this differential regulation will enhance efforts to improve oilseed rape productivity and quality. © 2017 The author(s). All Rights Reserved.

  19. Pollution of Nigerian Aquatic Ecosystems by Industrial Effluents: Effects on Fish Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwagwu, S. N.; Kuyoro, E. O.; Agboola, D. M.; Salau, K. S.; Kuyoro, T. O.

    2016-02-01

    Nigeria is uniquely endowed with vast water resources. The near-shore, estuaries, rivers, lakes and pond all taken together, offer tremendous opportunities for fish production. Globally, water bodies are primary means for disposal of waste especially the effluents from industrial, municipal, sewage and agricultural practices near the water body. Studies carried out in most cities in Nigeria has shown that industrial effluent is one of the main sources of water pollution in Nigeria and less than 10% of industries in Nigeria treat their effluents before discharging them into the water bodies. This effluent can alter the physical, chemical and biological nature of the receiving water body resulting in the death of the inhabiting organisms including fish. Untreated industrial waste discharged into water bodies have resulted in eutrophication of aquatic ecosystem as evidence by substantial algal bloom leading to dissolve oxygen depletion and eventually massive mortality of fish and other organisms. Industries like textile producing factory, paper manufacturing plants, oil refinery, brewery and fermentation factory and metal producing industries discharge their wastes into the aquatic ecosystem. These industrial wastes contain pollutants like acids, heavy metals, oil, cyanide, organic chemicals, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins etc. Some of these pollutants are carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic while some are poisonous depending on the level of exposure and intake by aquatic organisms and man. These pollutants affect the biological growth and reproduction of fishes in the aquatic ecosystem thereby reducing the amount of captured fishes. Fish and other aquatic lives face total extinction due to destruction of aquatic lives and natural habitats by pollution of water bodies. Effluents and wastes produced by industries should be minimised by using low and non-waste technologies; and effluents should be properly treated before they are discharged into

  20. Origins of the amphiploid species Brassica napus L. investigated by chloroplast and nuclear molecular markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allender Charlotte J

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The amphiploid species Brassica napus (oilseed rape, Canola is a globally important oil crop yielding food, biofuels and industrial compounds such as lubricants and surfactants. Identification of the likely ancestors of each of the two genomes (designated A and C found in B. napus would facilitate incorporation of novel alleles from the wider Brassica genepool in oilseed rape crop genetic improvement programmes. Knowledge of the closest extant relatives of the genotypes involved in the initial formation of B. napus would also allow further investigation of the genetic factors required for the formation of a stable amphiploid and permit the more efficient creation of fully fertile re-synthesised B. napus. We have used a combination of chloroplast and nuclear genetic markers to investigate the closest extant relatives of the original maternal progenitors of B. napus. This was based on a comprehensive sampling of the relevant genepools, including 83 accessions of A genome B. rapa L. (both wild and cultivated types, 94 accessions of B. napus and 181 accessions of C genome wild and cultivated B. oleracea L. and related species. Results Three chloroplast haplotypes occurred in B. napus. The most prevalent haplotype (found in 79% of accessions was not present within the C genome accessions but was found at low frequencies in B. rapa. Chloroplast haplotypes characteristic of B. napus were found in a small number of wild and weedy B. rapa populations, and also in two accessions of cultivated B. rapa 'brocoletto'. Whilst introgression of the B. napus chloroplast type in the wild and weedy B. rapa populations has been proposed by other studies, the presence of this haplotype within the two brocoletto accessions is unexplained. Conclusions The distribution of chloroplast haplotypes eliminate any of the C genome species as being the maternal ancestor of the majority of the B. napus accessions. The presence of multiple chloroplast

  1. Treatment of industrial effluents in constructed wetlands: challenges, operational strategies and overall performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shubiao; Wallace, Scott; Brix, Hans; Kuschk, Peter; Kirui, Wesley Kipkemoi; Masi, Fabio; Dong, Renjie

    2015-06-01

    The application of constructed wetlands (CWs) has significantly expanded to treatment of various industrial effluents, but knowledge in this field is still insufficiently summarized. This review is accordingly necessary to better understand this state-of-the-art technology for further design development and new ideas. Full-scale cases of CWs for treating various industrial effluents are summarized, and challenges including high organic loading, salinity, extreme pH, and low biodegradability and color are evaluated. Even horizontal flow CWs are widely used because of their passive operation, tolerance to high organic loading, and decolorization capacity, free water surface flow CWs are effective for treating oil field/refinery and milking parlor/cheese making wastewater for settlement of total suspended solids, oil, and grease. Proper pretreatment, inflow dilutions through re-circulated effluent, pH adjustment, plant selection and intensifications in the wetland bed, such as aeration and bioaugmentation, are recommended according to the specific characteristics of industrial effluents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Identification and characterization of microRNAs in oilseed rape (Brassica napus) responsive to infection with the pathogenic fungus Verticillium longisporum using Brassica AA (Brassica rapa) and CC (Brassica oleracea) as reference genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Dan; Suhrkamp, Ina; Wang, Yu; Liu, Shenyi; Menkhaus, Jan; Verreet, Joseph-Alexander; Fan, Longjiang; Cai, Daguang

    2014-11-01

    Verticillium longisporum, a soil-borne pathogenic fungus, causes vascular disease in oilseed rape (Brassica napus). We proposed that plant microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the plant-V. longisporum interaction. To identify oilseed rape miRNAs, we deep-sequenced two small RNA libraries made from V. longisporum infected/noninfected roots and employed Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea genomes as references for miRNA prediction and characterization. We identified 893 B. napus miRNAs representing 360 conserved and 533 novel miRNAs, and mapped 429 and 464 miRNAs to the AA and CC genomes, respectively. Microsynteny analysis with the conserved miRNAs and their flanking protein coding sequences revealed 137 AA-CC genome syntenic miRNA pairs and 61 AA and 42 CC genome-unique miRNAs. Sixty-two miRNAs were responsive to the V. longisporum infection. We present data for specific interactions and simultaneously reciprocal changes in the expression levels of the miRNAs and their targets in the infected roots. We demonstrate that miRNAs are involved in the plant-fungus interaction and that miRNA168-Argonaute 1 (AGO1) expression modulation might act as a key regulatory module in a compatible plant-V. longisporum interaction. Our results suggest that V. longisporum may have evolved a virulence mechanism by interference with plant miRNAs to reprogram plant gene expression and achieve infection. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. The beneficial effects of Brassica vegetables on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapusta-Duch, Joanna; Kopeć, Aneta; Piatkowska, Ewa; Borczak, Barbara; Leszczyńska, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    The products of plant origin are a rich source of biologically active substances, both nutritive and referred as anti-nutritive. A large group of these compounds are substances with antioxidant activity that fights against free radicals. In the family of Brassicaceae vegetables, Brassica, is the largest and most widely consumed a group of plants in Europe and all over the world. They are characterized by different levels of nutrients. However because of their large and frequent consumption, they may become a significant source of nutrients and bioactive compounds in the daily diet. The beneficial effects of Brassica vegetables on human health have been somewhat linked to phytochemicals. They prevent oxidative stress, induce detoxification enzymes, stimulate immune system, decrease the risk of cancers, inhibit malignant transformation and carcinogenic mutations, as well as, reduce proliferation of cancer cells. Brassica vegetables contain a lot of valuable metabolites, which are effective in chemoprevention of cancer, what has been already documented by numerous studies. Due to the presence of vitamins C and E, carotenoids and antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase, these vegetables are considerable source ofantioxidants, and due to the presence of polyphenols and the sulfur-organic compounds exert also antimutagenic action. Moreover, these vegetables are also rich in glucosinolates, which are unstable compounds and undergo degradation into biologically active indoles and isothiocyanates under the influence of enzyme presented in plant tissues- myrosynase. These substances through the induction of enzymatic systems I and II phase of xenobiotics metabolism may affect the elimination or neutralization of carcinogenic and mutagenic factors, and consequently inhibit DNA methylation and cancer development. Despite many healthy benefits upon eating of cruciferous vegetables, it has been also seen a negative impact of their certain

  4. Assessment Of Labile Metals In Effluents From Lubricating Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In dry season, Pb was more concentrated in exchangeable fraction, Coin residual fraction, Mn in Fe-Mn oxide fraction, Cd in organic matter bound, while Ni was more concentrated in the carbonate fraction. In both seasons for sediment samples, Cd concentrations were found above the set limit by WHO. The speciation study ...

  5. Utilization of petroleum effluent treatment plant sludge in making blended cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saikia, N.J.; Bordoloi, D.; Sengupta, P.; Borthakur, P.C. [Regional Research Laboratory, Jorhat (India)

    2001-07-01

    Treatment plants for effluents from oil-fields generate large quantities of sludge that contains substances with lime, alumina, silica, carbonates, and sulfates. A study was conducted to examine the pozzolanic activity of kaolin, calcined in the presence of effluent treatment plant sludge of the Lakwas oil field in Assam India. The physical properties of blended cements containing metakaolin were identified. It was determined that sludge ash consumes significant amounts of lime. Depending on the amount of sludge used in calcination of the clay, the pozzolanic activity of metakaolin was found to increase or decrease. The compressive strength of the mortar at 3, 7 and 28 days exhibited similar properties in blended cements made with metakaolin. 17 refs., 4 tabs., 1 fig.

  6. Anthocyanin content and UVB sensitivity in Brassica rapa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaper, R.; Frankel, S.; Berenbaum, M.R. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States)

    1996-06-01

    Three genotypes of rapid-cycling Brassica rapa that differ in anthocyanin content were grown in the presence and absence of elevated levels of shortwave ultraviolet (UBV, 280-325 nm) radiation. After 41 days, UVB exposure reduced leaf length and plant height of all genotypes. Plants with low levels of anthocyanin experienced a reduction in flower number twice as great as in genotypes with normal or elevated levels of anthocyanins; however, the absence of differences in flower production by genotypes with normal and elevated levels of anthocyanins suggests that factors other than anthocyanin pigmentation contribute to UVB responses in this species. (UK).

  7. Functional innovations of three chronological mesohexaploid Brassica rapa genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungeun; Lee, Jeongyeo; Choi, Jae-Pil; Park, Inkyu; Yang, Kyungbong; Kim, Min Keun; Lee, Young Han; Nou, Ill-Sup; Kim, Dae-Soo; Min, Sung Ran; Park, Sang Un; Kim, HyeRan

    2014-07-18

    The Brassicaceae family is an exemplary model for studying plant polyploidy. The Brassicaceae knowledge-base includes the well-annotated Arabidopsis thaliana reference sequence; well-established evidence for three rounds of whole genome duplication (WGD); and the conservation of genomic structure, with 24 conserved genomic blocks (GBs). The recently released Brassica rapa draft genome provides an ideal opportunity to update our knowledge of the conserved genomic structures in Brassica, and to study evolutionary innovations of the mesohexaploid plant, B. rapa. Three chronological B. rapa genomes (recent, young, and old) were reconstructed with sequence divergences, revealing a trace of recursive WGD events. A total of 636 fast evolving genes were unevenly distributed throughout the recent and young genomes. The representative Gene Ontology (GO) terms for these genes were 'stress response' and 'development' both through a change in protein modification or signaling, rather than by enhancing signal recognition. In retention patterns analysis, 98% of B. rapa genes were retained as collinear gene pairs; 77% of those were singly-retained in recent or young genomes resulting from death of the ancestral copies, while others were multi-retained as long retention genes. GO enrichments indicated that single retention genes mainly function in the interpretation of genetic information, whereas, multi-retention genes were biased toward signal response, especially regarding development and defense. In the recent genome, 13,302, 5,790, and 20 gene pairs were multi-retained following Brassica whole genome triplication (WGT) events with 2, 3, and 4 homoeologous copies, respectively. Enriched GO-slim terms from B. rapa homomoelogues imply that a major effect of the B. rapa WGT may have been to acquire environmental adaptability or to change the course of development. These homoeologues seem to more frequently undergo subfunctionalization with spatial expression patterns compared with

  8. Alternaria resistance of Brassicae campestris L. improved by induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, M.L.; Rahman, A.

    1989-01-01

    Full text: Seeds of 'YS 52', a cultivar susceptible to Alternaria brassicae (Berk.) Sacc., were exposed to gamma rays (30-90 kR). Eight more resistant mutants were selected in M3 and subjected to further field evaluation. The best mutant '17-5-83' appeared resistant and gave 44% higher yield than the parent, mutant '70-7-82' was found to be moderately resistant and gave a yield 21% higher than the parent. The yield increases seem to be connected with plant architecture changes. (author)

  9. EFFECT OF EXTRACTS FROM GERANIACEAE PLANTS ON PIERIS BRASSICAE L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA WAWRZYNIAK

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The conducted studies comprised the analyses of activity of extracts derived from selected plants of the Geranium family on some processes of large white butterfly (Pieris brassicae development (oviposition, survival of eggs and caterpillar feeding. The results proved that all tested extracts showed activity against large white butterfly. Geranium pratense L. and Geranium senquineum L. showed better activity than other Geranium plants. Water extracts from these species protected cabbage plants against laying eggs, while applied on eggs caused their mortality. Alcohol and water extracts from G. pratense L. and water extracts from G. senquineum L. increased an amount of food put on mass gain of caterpillars.

  10. Tracing the Transcriptomic Changes in Synthetic Trigenomic allohexaploids of Brassica Using an RNA-Seq Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qin; Zou, Jun; Meng, Jinling; Mei, Shiyong; Wang, Jianbo

    2013-01-01

    Polyploidization has played an important role in plant evolution and speciation, and newly formed allopolyploids have experienced rapid transcriptomic changes. Here, we compared the transcriptomic differences between a synthetic Brassica allohexaploid and its parents using a high-throughput RNA-Seq method. A total of 35,644,409 sequence reads were generated, and 32,642 genes were aligned from the data. Totals of 29,260, 29,060, and 29,697 genes were identified in Brassicarapa, Brassicacarinata, and Brassica allohexaploid, respectively. We compared 7,397 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between Brassica hexaploid and its parents, as well as 2,545 nonadditive genes of Brassica hexaploid. We hypothesized that the higher ploidy level as well as secondary polyploidy might have influenced these changes. The majority of the 3,184 DEGs between Brassica hexaploid and its paternal parent, B. rapa, were involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, plant–pathogen interactions, photosynthesis, and circadian rhythm. Among the 2,233 DEGs between Brassica hexaploid and its maternal parent, B. carinata, several played roles in plant–pathogen interactions, plant hormone signal transduction, ribosomes, limonene and pinene degradation, photosynthesis, and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. There were more significant differences in gene expression between the allohexaploid and its paternal parent than between it and its maternal parent, possibly partly because of cytoplasmic and maternal effects. Specific functional categories were enriched among the 2,545 nonadditive genes of Brassica hexaploid compared with the additive genes; the categories included response to stimulus, immune system process, cellular process, metabolic process, rhythmic process, and pigmentation. Many transcription factor genes, methyltransferases, and methylation genes showed differential expression between Brassica hexaploid and its parents. Our results demonstrate that the Brassica

  11. Bioactivity of Five Essential Oils Against Bruchidius incarnatus (Bohemann, 1833

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany Ahmed FOUAD

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In the world, the faba bean beetle Bruchidius incarnatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae is an important insect-pest, especially on faba bean Vicia faba (Leguminosae and it can infest field crops and cause severe damage in storage. Essential oils can be an alternative method to synthetic insecticides for pest management, due to their efficiency and environmental safety. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the toxicity and repellent activity of essential oils of camphor (Eucalyptus globules, castor (Ricinus communis, cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, clove (Syzygium aromaticum and mustard (Brassica rapa against B. incarnatus adults. The treatments which contained essential oils at 0.5, 1, 2 and 4% and acetone (control were applied. All essential oils with 4% concentration repelled the B. incarnatus adult except castor oil. The percentage of repellence was higher when used essential oil of cinnamon with 2 and 4% concentration compared with other essential oils and concentrations. In residual film experiment, the cinnamon oil had the highest toxicity rate on B. incarnatus adult fallowed by clove, camphor, mustard and the lowest effect was by castor oil. Based on our results, I can conclude that essential oils of camphor, cinnamon, clove and mustard have potential for use in the integrated management of B. incarnatus adult.

  12. 40 CFR 421.123 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of Film Stripping Solutions Wet Air Pollution Control. BAT Effluent Limitations Pollutant or... and Filtration of Photographic Solutions Wet Air Pollution Control. BAT Effluent Limitations Pollutant... and Precipitation of Nonphotographic Solutions Wet Air Pollution Control. BAT Effluent Limitations...

  13. 40 CFR 421.122 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and Filtration of Film Stripping Solutions Wet Air Pollution Control. BPT Effluent Limitations... Filtration of Photographic Solutions Wet Air Pollution Control. BPT Effluent Limitations Pollutant or... Precipitation of Nonphotographic Solutions Wet Air Pollution Control. BPT Effluent Limitations Pollutant or...

  14. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: Water Effluent Charts Details

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Detailed Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) data supporting effluent charts for one Clean Water Act discharge permit. Includes effluent parameters, amounts discharged...

  15. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: Water Effluent Charts Downloads

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Detailed Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) data supporting effluent charts for one Clean Water Act discharge permit. Includes effluent parameters, amounts discharged...

  16. POLLUTION EFFECT OF FOOD AND BEVERAGES EFFLUENTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ABSTRACT. The main course of water pollution in the Alaro river is the direct discharge of food and beverages processing effluents. The impact of such effluents on the water quality was studied in detail by monitoring selected physicochemical parameters monthly between January 2003 and December 2007. The combined ...

  17. 324 and 327 Facilities Environmental Effluent Specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JOHNSON, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    These effluent specifications address requirements for the 324/321 Facilities, which are undergoing stabilization activities. Effluent specifications are imposed to protect personnel, the environment and the public, by ensuring adequate implementation and compliance with federal and state regulatory requirements and Hanford programs

  18. Animal alternatives for whole effluent toxicity testing ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since the 1940s, effluent toxicity testing has been utilized to varying degrees in many countries to assess potential ecological impacts and assist in determining necessary treatment options for environmental protection. However, it was only in the early 1980’s that toxicity based effluent assessments and subsequent discharge controls became globally important, when it was recognized that physical and chemical measurements alone did not protect the environment from potential impacts. Consequently, various strategies using different toxicity tests, whole effluent assessment techniques (incorporating bioaccumulation potential and persistence) plus supporting analytical tools have been developed over 30 years of practice. Numerous workshops and meetings have focused on effluent risk assessment through ASTM, SETAC, OSPAR, UK competent authorities, and EU specific country rules. Concurrent with this drive to improve effluent quality using toxicity tests, interest in reducing animal use has risen. The Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) organized and facilitated an international workshop in March 2016 to evaluate strategies for concepts, tools, and effluent assessments and update the toolbox of for effluent testing methods. The workshop objectives were to identify opportunities to use a suite of strategies for effluents, and to identify opportunities to reduce the reliance on animal tests and to determine barriers to implementation of new methodologie

  19. Bioremediation of petroleum refinery effluent by Planococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present investigation, Planococcus halophilus was screened for hydrocarbon degradation and bioremediation of refinery effluent. The test organism, P. halophilus, showed the capability to utilize kerosene as carbon source in minimal medium. Biological treatment of the refinery effluent with P. halophilus reduced the ...

  20. High Speed/ Low Effluent Process for Ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Clark Dale

    2006-10-30

    n this project, BPI demonstrated a new ethanol fermentation technology, termed the High Speed/ Low Effluent (HS/LE) process on both lab and large pilot scale as it would apply to wet mill and/or dry mill corn ethanol production. The HS/LE process allows very rapid fermentations, with 18 to 22% sugar syrups converted to 9 to 11% ethanol ‘beers’ in 6 to 12 hours using either a ‘consecutive batch’ or ‘continuous cascade’ implementation. This represents a 5 to 8X increase in fermentation speeds over conventional 72 hour batch fermentations which are the norm in the fuel ethanol industry today. The ‘consecutive batch’ technology was demonstrated on a large pilot scale (4,800 L) in a dry mill corn ethanol plant near Cedar Rapids, IA (Xethanol Biofuels). The pilot demonstrated that 12 hour fermentations can be accomplished on an industrial scale in a non-sterile industrial environment. Other objectives met in this project included development of a Low Energy (LE) Distillation process which reduces the energy requirements for distillation from about 14,000 BTU/gal steam ($0.126/gal with natural gas @ $9.00 MCF) to as low as 0.40 KW/gal electrical requirements ($0.022/gal with electricity @ $0.055/KWH). BPI also worked on the development of processes that would allow application of the HS/LE fermentation process to dry mill ethanol plants. A High-Value Corn ethanol plant concept was developed to produce 1) corn germ/oil, 2) corn bran, 3) ethanol, 4) zein protein, and 5) nutritional protein, giving multiple higher value products from the incoming corn stream.

  1. Genome-wide identification of aquaporin encoding genes in Brassica oleracea and their phylogenetic sequence comparison to Brassica crops and Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehn, Till A.; Pommerrenig, Benjamin; Bernhardt, Nadine; Hartmann, Anja; Bienert, Gerd P.

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are essential channel proteins that regulate plant water homeostasis and the uptake and distribution of uncharged solutes such as metalloids, urea, ammonia, and carbon dioxide. Despite their importance as crop plants, little is known about AQP gene and protein function in cabbage (Brassica oleracea) and other Brassica species. The recent releases of the genome sequences of B. oleracea and Brassica rapa allow comparative genomic studies in these species to investigate the evolution and features of Brassica genes and proteins. In this study, we identified all AQP genes in B. oleracea by a genome-wide survey. In total, 67 genes of four plant AQP subfamilies were identified. Their full-length gene sequences and locations on chromosomes and scaffolds were manually curated. The identification of six additional full-length AQP sequences in the B. rapa genome added to the recently published AQP protein family of this species. A phylogenetic analysis of AQPs of Arabidopsis thaliana, B. oleracea, B. rapa allowed us to follow AQP evolution in closely related species and to systematically classify and (re-) name these isoforms. Thirty-three groups of AQP-orthologous genes were identified between B. oleracea and Arabidopsis and their expression was analyzed in different organs. The two selectivity filters, gene structure and coding sequences were highly conserved within each AQP subfamily while sequence variations in some introns and untranslated regions were frequent. These data suggest a similar substrate selectivity and function of Brassica AQPs compared to Arabidopsis orthologs. The comparative analyses of all AQP subfamilies in three Brassicaceae species give initial insights into AQP evolution in these taxa. Based on the genome-wide AQP identification in B. oleracea and the sequence analysis and reprocessing of Brassica AQP information, our dataset provides a sequence resource for further investigations of the physiological and molecular functions of

  2. High-throughput multiplex cpDNA resequencing clarifies the genetic diversity and genetic relationships among Brassica napus, Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jiangwei; Cai, Mengxian; Yan, Guixin; Wang, Nian; Li, Feng; Chen, Binyun; Gao, Guizhen; Xu, Kun; Li, Jun; Wu, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    Brassica napus (rapeseed) is a recent allotetraploid plant and the second most important oilseed crop worldwide. The origin of B. napus and the genetic relationships with its diploid ancestor species remain largely unresolved. Here, chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) from 488 B. napus accessions of global origin, 139 B. rapa accessions and 49 B. oleracea accessions were populationally resequenced using Illumina Solexa sequencing technologies. The intraspecific cpDNA variants and their allelic frequencies were called genomewide and further validated via EcoTILLING analyses of the rpo region. The cpDNA of the current global B. napus population comprises more than 400 variants (SNPs and short InDels) and maintains one predominant haplotype (Bncp1). Whole-genome resequencing of the cpDNA of Bncp1 haplotype eliminated its direct inheritance from any accession of the B. rapa or B. oleracea species. The distribution of the polymorphism information content (PIC) values for each variant demonstrated that B. napus has much lower cpDNA diversity than B. rapa; however, a vast majority of the wild and cultivated B. oleracea specimens appeared to share one same distinct cpDNA haplotype, in contrast to its wild C-genome relatives. This finding suggests that the cpDNA of the three Brassica species is well differentiated. The predominant B. napus cpDNA haplotype may have originated from uninvestigated relatives or from interactions between cpDNA mutations and natural/artificial selection during speciation and evolution. These exhaustive data on variation in cpDNA would provide fundamental data for research on cpDNA and chloroplasts. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Beyond genomic variation--comparison and functional annotation of three Brassica rapa genomes: a turnip, a rapid cycling and a Chinese cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ke; Zhang, Ningwen; Severing, Edouard I; Nijveen, Harm; Cheng, Feng; Visser, Richard G F; Wang, Xiaowu; de Ridder, Dick; Bonnema, Guusje

    2014-03-31

    Brassica rapa is an economically important crop species. During its long breeding history, a large number of morphotypes have been generated, including leafy vegetables such as Chinese cabbage and pakchoi, turnip tuber crops and oil crops. To investigate the genetic variation underlying this morphological variation, we re-sequenced, assembled and annotated the genomes of two B. rapa subspecies, turnip crops (turnip) and a rapid cycling. We then analysed the two resulting genomes together with the Chinese cabbage Chiifu reference genome to obtain an impression of the B. rapa pan-genome. The number of genes with protein-coding changes between the three genotypes was lower than that among different accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana, which can be explained by the smaller effective population size of B. rapa due to its domestication. Based on orthology to a number of non-brassica species, we estimated the date of divergence among the three B. rapa morphotypes at approximately 250,000 YA, far predating Brassica domestication (5,000-10,000 YA). By analysing genes unique to turnip we found evidence for copy number differences in peroxidases, pointing to a role for the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway in the generation of morphological variation. The estimated date of divergence among three B. rapa morphotypes implies that prior to domestication there was already considerably divergence among B. rapa genotypes. Our study thus provides two new B. rapa reference genomes, delivers a set of computer tools to analyse the resulting pan-genome and uses these to shed light on genetic drivers behind the rich morphological variation found in B. rapa.

  4. 40 CFR 469.19 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Semiconductor... conventional pollution control technology (BCT): Subpart A—Semiconductor BCT Effluent Limitations Pollutant or...

  5. 40 CFR 469.15 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Semiconductor... best available technology economically achievable (BAT): Subpart A—Semiconductor BAT Effluent...

  6. 40 CFR 440.22 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Ore... pollutants discharged in mine drainage from mines producing bauxite ores shall not exceed: Effluent...

  7. 40 CFR 440.23 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Ore Subcategory... discharged in mine drainage from mines producing bauxite ores shall not exceed: Effluent characteristic...

  8. 40 CFR 415.342 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SOURCE CATEGORY Chrome Pigments Production Subcategory § 415.342 Effluent limitations guidelines... available (BPT): Subpart AH—Chrome Pigments Pollutant or pollutant property BPT effluent limitations Maximum...

  9. 40 CFR 415.647 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CATEGORY Cadmium Pigments and Salts Production Subcategory § 415.647 Effluent limitations guidelines... subject to this subpart and producing cadmium pigments must achieve the following effluent limitations...

  10. 40 CFR 415.643 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CATEGORY Cadmium Pigments and Salts Production Subcategory § 415.643 Effluent limitations guidelines... subject to this subpart and producing cadmium pigments must achieve the following effluent limitations...

  11. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil spills often happen because of accidents, when people make mistakes or equipment breaks down. Other causes include natural disasters or deliberate acts. Oil spills have major environmental and economic effects. Oil ...

  12. Applying CFD in the Analysis of Heavy Oil/Water Separation Process via Hydrocyclone

    OpenAIRE

    K Angelim; A De Lima; J Souza; S Neto; V Oliveira; G Moreira

    2017-01-01

    In recent years most of the oil reserves discovered has been related to heavy oil reservoirs whose reserves are abundant but still show operational difficulties. This fact provoked great interest of the petroleum companies in developing new technologies for increasing the heavy oil production. Produced water generation, effluent recovered from the production wells together with oil and natural gas, is among the greatest potential factors for environmental degradation. Thus, a new scenario of ...

  13. Health effects research in oil shale development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, T.W.; Witschi, H.; Smith, L.H.; Haschek, W.M.; Holland, J.M.; Epler, J.L.; Fry, R.J.M.; Rao, T.K.; Larimer, F.W.; Dumont, J.N.

    1981-11-01

    This task includes the testing of primary effluents and products of oil shales to determine the risk posed to the shale oil industrial worker as well as consumer. Paraho/Sohio Shale Oil was found to be mutagenic in the Ames assay and confirmed in the yeast system. After chemical fractionation of the crude shale oil, it was found that the mutagenic activity was contributed by the organic constituents of the basic and neutral fractions. Hydrotreatment of the shale oil abolished the detectable mutagenic activity and also reduced the cytotoxicity as measured in cellular systems. Refined shale oil, jet fuel, and diesel fuel marine samples were not mutagenic. The samples rank for their mutagenic activity as coal oils > shale oil > natural petroleum crudes and only qualitatively agree with carcinogenic activity. Acute toxicity of Paraho Crude Shale Oil and its upgraded derivatives does not appear to be a problem of immediate concern. The data obtained in the lung adenoma bioassay suggest that Crude Shale Oil has tumorigenic potential. Paraho shale oil is carcinogenic in mouse skin. Hydrotreatment reduces but does not eliminate skin carcinogenicity and appreciable carcinogenic activity remains in the residue material. Kidney injury was noted following chronic dermal exposure to shale and petroleum derived middle distillates.

  14. Benefits of Transgenic Insect Resistance in Brassica Hybrids under Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia L. Sagers

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Field trials of transgenic crops may result in unintentional transgene flow to compatible crop, native, and weedy species. Hybridization outside crop fields may create novel forms with potential negative outcomes for wild and weedy plant populations. We report here the outcome of large outdoor mesocosm studies with canola (Brassica napus, transgenic canola, a sexually compatible weed B. rapa, and their hybrids. Brassica rapa was hybridized with canola and canola carrying a transgene for herbivore resistance (Bt Cry1Ac and grown in outdoor mesocosms under varying conditions of competition and insect herbivory. Treatment effects differed significantly among genotypes. Hybrids were larger than all other genotypes, and produced more seeds than the B. rapa parent. Under conditions of heavy herbivory, plants carrying the transgenic resistance were larger and produced more seeds than non-transgenic plants. Pollen derived gene flow from transgenic canola to B. rapa varied between years (5%–22% and was not significantly impacted by herbivory. These results confirm that canola-weed hybrids benefit from transgenic resistance and are aggressive competitors with congeneric crops and ruderals. Because some crop and crop-weed hybrids may be competitively superior, escapees may alter the composition and ecological functions of plant communities near transgenic crop fields.

  15. A proteomic analysis of seed development in Brassica campestri L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenlan; Gao, Yi; Xu, Hong; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Jianbo

    2012-01-01

    To gain insights into the protein dynamics during seed development, a proteomic study on the developing Brassica campestri L. seeds with embryos in different embryogenesis stages was carried out. The seed proteins at 10, 16, 20, 25 and 35 DAP (days after pollination), respectively, were separated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and identities of 209 spots with altered abundance were determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS). These proteins were classified into 16 groups according to their functions. The most abundant proteins were related to primary metabolism, indicating the heavy demand of materials for rapid embryo growth. Besides, the high amount of proteins involved in protein processing and destination indicated importance of protein renewal during seed development. The remaining were those participated in oxidation/detoxification, energy, defense, transcription, protein synthesis, transporter, cell structure, signal transduction, secondary metabolism, transposition, DNA repair, storage and so on. Protein abundance profiles of each functional class were generated and hierarchical cluster analysis established 8 groups of dynamic patterns. Our results revealed novel characters of protein dynamics in seed development in Brassica campestri L. and provided valuable information about the complex process of seed development in plants.

  16. A proteomic analysis of seed development in Brassica campestri L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenlan Li

    Full Text Available To gain insights into the protein dynamics during seed development, a proteomic study on the developing Brassica campestri L. seeds with embryos in different embryogenesis stages was carried out. The seed proteins at 10, 16, 20, 25 and 35 DAP (days after pollination, respectively, were separated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and identities of 209 spots with altered abundance were determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. These proteins were classified into 16 groups according to their functions. The most abundant proteins were related to primary metabolism, indicating the heavy demand of materials for rapid embryo growth. Besides, the high amount of proteins involved in protein processing and destination indicated importance of protein renewal during seed development. The remaining were those participated in oxidation/detoxification, energy, defense, transcription, protein synthesis, transporter, cell structure, signal transduction, secondary metabolism, transposition, DNA repair, storage and so on. Protein abundance profiles of each functional class were generated and hierarchical cluster analysis established 8 groups of dynamic patterns. Our results revealed novel characters of protein dynamics in seed development in Brassica campestri L. and provided valuable information about the complex process of seed development in plants.

  17. Combining Ability Analysis and Genetic-Effects Studies for Some Important Quality Characters in Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aamar Shehzad

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Combining ability analysis has an important position in rapeseed breeding. To evaluate genetic and combining ability effects, three Brassica napus L. testers “Punjab Sarson, Legend and Durre-NIFA” and five lines “Duncled, K-258, ZN-R-1, ZN-R-8, ZN-M-6” were crossed using line × tester design in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD with three replications. Mean sum of squares of the analysis of variances (ANOVA for genotypes was highly significant for all of the traits. Most of the lines and testers exhibited significant results of mean sum of squares for combining ability. Line ‘Duncled’ was proved good general combiner for oil (8.8, protein (3.7, erucic acid (33.0, oleic acid (13.0 and glucosinolate (-19.3 over other lines and tester ‘Durree-NIFA’ for protein (6.6, erucic acid (-23.4, and linolenic acid (-5.3 over other testers. Significant specific combining ability effects were also observed. The best hybrid combinations were Legend × ZN-R-1 for oil (9.6, Punjab Sarson × Duncled for minimum erucic acid (-14.0 and linolenic acid contents (-6.0, and Legend × ZN-M-6 for maximum protein (8.2 and minimum glucosinolate contents (-11.1. The maximum oil contents were observed in ‘Legend × ZN-R-1’ (52.4%. The cross ‘Punjab Sarson × Duncled’ expressed maximum values of protein (26.5% and oleic acid (62.5% while minimum for erucic acid (2.3%, linolenic acid (5.4% and glucosinolate contents (19.3µmol/g. This research discloses the significance of non-additive genetic effects for most of the studied traits except oil contents. These studies will also help to improve nutritional values of rapeseed crop by selecting noble crosses.

  18. Effects of intensive and alternative production systems on the technological and quality parameters of rapeseed seed (Brassica napus L. 'Siska').

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turinek, Maja; Bavec, Martina; Repič, Milan; Turinek, Matjaž; Krajnc, Andreja Urbanek; Möllers, Christian; Tres, Alba; Bavec, Franc

    2017-06-01

    Organic production is widely assumed to affect quality and nutritional parameters of arable crops. A field experiment was started in 2009 following integrated (INT), organic (ORG) and biodynamic (BD) production standards for wheat, maize and rapeseed production. With resort to standard analytical procedures and chemometrics, compositional parameters of Brassica napus L. 'Siska' seed (water, protein, oil and glucosinolate content) by non-destructive near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), and fatty acid composition determined by gas chromatography, were assessed. The BD and ORG production systems positively influenced oleic fatty acid and oil content in comparison to INT, which had higher levels of protein and water content (19.8% and 4.7%, respectively), as well as linolenic (3.8%), gadoleic (12.6%) and hexadecadienoic (15.5%) fatty acids. Increases in the listed parameters were linked to mineral fertilizer application in the INT production system. With principal component analysis (PCA) the INT samples were clearly differentiated. The PCA results were influenced by differences in linolenic, gadoleic and behenic fatty acid levels as well as protein and water content. Because quality parameters in rapeseed are increased in alternative production systems, production with an understanding of the soil processes and yield formation presents an opportunity for ORG and BD farmers. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Heritability and genetic advance studies for biochemical traits in F2-3 introgressed families of Brassica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhatullah, N.K.; Khalil, I.H.; Nahed, H.

    2015-01-01

    Higher heritability estimates along with high genetic advance values are effective in envisaging gain under selection in developing genotypes. The objective of the present study was to evaluate variability, heritability and genetic advance in 10 interspecific F2-3 families of Brassica species (B. napus * B. juncea, B. napus * B. rapa). These families were studied for heterospecific introgression of biochemical traits. Low to high heritability estimates were recorded for seed quality traits. Considerable variations within F2-3 families were observed for biochemical traits. Most of the F2-3 families for oil content and erucic showed moderate to high heritability indicating the slightest influence of environment thus modification of trait by selection would be more effective. Among F2-3 introgressed families Bn-510 x Bj-109 produced high oil i.e., 49.5% while Bn-532 x Br-118 (24.4%), Bn-533 x Bj-109 (24.1%) and high protein percentage in terms of mean performance. In the present research, individual segregating progenies of interspecific cross populations i.e., which possessed combination of desirable traits, were identified which could be incorporated in the future Breeding programs and it may facilitate varietal development. (author)

  20. Mechanism of aerobic biological destabilisation of wool scour effluent emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Andrew J; Cord-Ruwisch, Ralf; William Jones, F

    2005-07-01

    Wool scouring effluent is a highly polluted industrial wastewater in which the main pollutant, wool wax, is held in a stable oil-in-water emulsion by non-ionic detergent. The use of microbial action to cause emulsion destabilisation has been proposed as a new treatment strategy for this effluent stream. This strategy aims at improving aerobic treatment performance by physically removing the high-COD, slowly bio-degradable wool wax from the system without bio-degradation. The mechanism by which an aerobic-mixed culture destabilises the wool scouring effluent emulsion was investigated. Our results show that destabilisation is due to partial bio-degradation of both the scouring detergent and the wool wax. Cleavage of the wool wax esters was the first stage in wax degradation, when 40-50% of wax was de-emulsified. Over the same period, detergent degradation was low, at 7-21%. With further incubation, detergent degradation increased, aiding further breakdown of the emulsion. The degradation of the detergent, a nonylphenol ethoxylate, resulted in both a reduction in molar concentration (of up to 82%) and a shortening of the ethoxylate chain length. The latter reduced the hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB) from 12 to approximately 7, thereby reducing the ability of the residual detergent to stabilise the emulsion. Analysis of the emulsified and de-emulsified wax fractions could not identify a group of compounds that were preferentially de-emulsified based on molecular weight or polarity. These findings will assist in using a de-emulsification strategy in both existing and new treatment systems in order to save on aeration costs and treatment times for biological treatment of this highly polluted wastewater.

  1. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis between Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) and Wild Cabbage (Brassica macrocarpaGuss.) in Response toPlasmodiophora brassicaeduring Different Infection Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Liu, Yumei; Fang, Zhiyuan; Li, Zhansheng; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao

    2016-01-01

    Clubroot, one of the most devastating diseases to the Brassicaceae family, is caused by the obligate biotrophic pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae . However, studies of the molecular basis of disease resistance are still poor especially in quantitative resistance. In the present paper, two previously identified genotypes, a clubroot-resistant genotype (wild cabbage, B2013) and a clubroot-susceptible genotype (broccoli, 90196) were inoculated by P. brassicae for 0 (T0), 7 (T7), and 14 (T14) day after inoculation (DAI). Gene expression pattern analysis suggested that response changes in transcript level of two genotypes under P. brassicae infection were mainly activated at the primary stage (T7). Based on the results of DEGs functional enrichments from two infection stages, genes associated with cell wall biosynthesis, glucosinolate biosynthesis, and plant hormone signal transduction showed down-regulated at T14 compared to T7, indicating that defense responses to P. brassicae were induced earlier, and related pathways were repressed at T14. In addition, the genes related to NBS-LRR proteins, SA signal transduction, cell wall and phytoalexins biosynthesis, chitinase, Ca 2+ signals and RBOH proteins were mainly up-regulated in B2013 by comparing those of 90196, indicating the pathways of response defense to clubroot were activated in the resistant genotype. This is the first report about comparative transcriptome analysis for broccoli and its wild relative during the different stages of P. brassicae infection and the results should be useful for molecular assisted screening and breeding of clubroot-resistant genotypes.

  2. Conserved microstructure of the Brassica B Genome of Brassica nigra in relation to homologous regions of Arabidopsis thaliana, B. rapa and B. oleracea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The Brassica B genome is known to carry several important traits, yet there has been limited analyses of its underlying genome structure, especially in comparison to the closely related A and C genomes. A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library of Brassica nigra was developed and screened with 17 genes from a 222 kb region of A. thaliana that had been well characterised in both the Brassica A and C genomes. Results Fingerprinting of 483 apparently non-redundant clones defined physical contigs for the corresponding regions in B. nigra. The target region is duplicated in A. thaliana and six homologous contigs were found in B. nigra resulting from the whole genome triplication event shared by the Brassiceae tribe. BACs representative of each region were sequenced to elucidate the level of microscale rearrangements across the Brassica species divide. Conclusions Although the B genome species separated from the A/C lineage some 6 Mya, comparisons between the three paleopolyploid Brassica genomes revealed extensive conservation of gene content and sequence identity. The level of fractionation or gene loss varied across genomes and genomic regions; however, the greatest loss of genes was observed to be common to all three genomes. One large-scale chromosomal rearrangement differentiated the B genome suggesting such events could contribute to the lack of recombination observed between B genome species and those of the closely related A/C lineage. PMID:23586706

  3. Effects of process variables and additives on mustard oil hydrolysis by porcine pancreas lipase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Goswami

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Selective hydrolysis of brown mustard oil (from Brassica juncea with regioselective porcine pancreas lipase was studied in this work. Buffer and oil phase were considered as the continuous and dispersed phases, respectively. Effects of speed of agitation, pH of the buffer phase, temperature, buffer-oil ratio and enzyme concentration on hydrolysis were observed. The best combination of process variables was: 900 rpm, pH 9, 35 ºC, buffer-oil ratio of 1:1 and enzyme concentration of 10 mg/g oil. These standard conditions led to 50% hydrolysis and selective production of 55% erucic acid in 6 h. Cations like Mg2+ and Ca2+ increased hydrolysis, but Cu2+ strongly inhibited it. Organic solvents decreased hydrolysis, though the decrease was minimum for isooctane. A mixed surfactant comprising of Span 80 and Tween 80 increased erucic acid production by 57% at a buffer-oil ratio of 0.2:1.

  4. Suspended solids in liquid effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrath, J.J.

    1988-06-01

    An international literature review and telephone mail survey was conducted with respect to technical and regulatory aspects of suspended solids in radioactive liquid wastes from nuclear power stations. Results of the survey are summarized and show that suspended solids are an important component of some waste streams. The data available, while limited, show these solids to be associated largely with corrosion products. The solids are highly variable in quantity, size and composition. Filtration is commonly applied for their removal from liquid effluents and is effective. Complex interactions with receiving waters can result in physical/chemical changes of released radionuclides and these phenomena have been seen as reason for not applying regulatory controls based on suspended solids content. 340 refs

  5. Studies on Lyari river effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.A.; Hashmi, I.; Rashid, A.; Niaz, G.R.; Khan, F.

    1999-01-01

    The study was aimed to determining the physical (TS, TSS, TDS, TVS) and chemical (Cl, SO/sub 4/, NH/sub 3/, BOD/sub 5/ COD, DO) characteristics as well as heavy present in the Lyari river effluents so as to identify the extent of pollution. The average results of each parameter of twelve different sites were compared with that of National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS), BOD/sub 5/ and COD levels were above the NEQS while the NH/sub 3/-N concentration was low. Concentrations of Cd and Zn were within the range while that of Pb, Cr, Ni and Cu were higher than the NEQS at times. This indicates that heavy pollution load is entering into the Arabian Sea creating tremendous harm especially to marine life. (author)

  6. Effluent monitoring for nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanchi, L.

    1976-01-01

    A microprocessor-based instrument operates a continuous surveillance on effluents from a nuclear facility. It receives and evaluates pulses from two NaI detectors and a set of single-channel analyzers. It has self-diagnosing capability so that it takes actions not only when it recognizes excessive radioactivity but also when it ascertains some abnormal behavior. Power failure procedure and automatic restart are provided. Operative constants such as alarm thresholds, times, and number of successive measurements are permanently stored in a read/write battery operated C-MOS memory. The program allows automatic succession of phases in a peculiar way and has a feature for loading an auxiliary program into RAMs

  7. Oil quality of canola cultivars in response to water stress and super absorbent polymer application

    OpenAIRE

    Moghadam,Hamid Reza Tohidi; Zahedi,Hossein; Ghooshchi,Farshad

    2011-01-01

    Water stress significantly limits plant growth and crop yield. Hence, the efficient management of soil moisture and the study of metabolic changes which occur in response to drought stress are important for agriculture. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of six oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) genotypes (Rgs003, Sarigol, Option500, Hyola401, Hyola330, and Hyola420), with and without drought stress, and with and without the use of super absorbent polymer, on oil quality and...

  8. Glucosinolate profiling of Brassica rapa cultivars after infection by Leptosphaeria maculans and Fusarium oxysporum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdel-Farid, I.B.; Jahangir, M.; Mustafa, N.R.; Van Dam, N.M.; van den Hondel, C.A.M.J.J.; Kim, H.K.; Choi, Y.L.; Verpoorte, R.

    2010-01-01

    The glucosinolate contents of two different cultivars of Brassica rapa (Herfstraap and Oleifera) infected with Leptosphaeria maculans and Fusarium oxysporum were determined. Infection triggered the accumulation of aliphatic glucosinolates (gluconapin, progoitrin, glucobrassicanapin and

  9. Seasonal Effects on Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Six Economically Important Brassica Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A.S. Rosa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Research on natural and bioactive compounds is increasingly focused on their effects on human health, but there are unexpectedly few studies evaluating the relationship between climate and natural antioxidants. The aim of this study was analyze the biological role of six different Brassica vegetables (Brassica oleracea L. and Brassica rapa L. as a natural source of antioxidant compounds. The antioxidant activity may be assigned to high levels of L-ascorbic acid, total phenolics and total flavonoids of each sample. The climate seasons affected directly the concentration of bioactive components and the antioxidant activity. Broccoli inflorescences and Portuguese kale showed high antioxidant activity in Spring-Summer whilst turnip leaves did so in Summer-Winter. The Brassica vegetables can provide considerable amounts of bioactive compounds and thus may constitute an important natural source of dietary antioxidants.

  10. Variation of five major glucosinolate genes in Brassica rapa in relation to Brassica oleracea and Arabidopsis thaliana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, B.; Qiu, D.; Quiros, F.

    2010-07-01

    Glucosinolates and their derivatives isothiocyanates are important secondary metabolites in the Brassica cea that has biological activity, such as cancer protecting and bio fumigant properties. The putative ortho logs of five major genes in the glucosinolate biosynthetic pathway, Bra.GSELONG.a, Bra.GSALK.a, Bra.CYP83B1, Bra.SUR1.a and Bra.ST5.a, were cloned from both cDNA and genomic DNA from different subspecies of Brassica rapa. Inter species comparative analysis disclosed high conservation of exon number and size for GS-Elong, GS-Alk, GS-CYP83B1 and GS-ST5a among B. rapa, B. oleracea and A. thaliana. Splice site mutations caused the differences observed for exon numbers and sizes in GS-SUR1 among the three species. However, the exonic sequences were highly conserved for this gene. There were not major differences of intronic sizes among the three species for these genes, except for intron 1 for GS-Elong in two subspecies of B. rapa. The cloning of the putative ortho logs of all these major genes involved in the glucosinolate biosynthesis pathway of B. rapa and sequence analysis provide a useful base for their genetic manipulation and functional analysis. (Author) 31 refs.

  11. Effect of Brine Composition on Wettability Alteration and Oil Recovery from Oil-wet Carbonate Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purswani, P.; Karpyn, Z.

    2016-12-01

    Brine composition is known to affect the effectiveness of waterflooding during enhanced oil recovery from carbonate reservoirs. Recent studies have identified Mg2+, Ca2+ and SO42- as critical ions, responsible for incremental oil recovery via wettability alteration. To investigate the underlying mechanism of wettability alteration and, to evaluate the individual contribution of these ions towards improving oil recovery, a series of coreflooding experiments are performed. Various characterization techniques like zeta potential (ZP), drop angle analysis and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS) analysis are performed to evaluate the surface interactions taking place at the carbonate core samples, brine solution and crude oil interfaces. Total dissolved solids and electrical conductivity measurements confirm the ionic strength of the brine samples. Acid number calculations, ZP and contact angle measurements confirm the initial oil-wetting state of the core. ICP MS analysis of the effluent brine, confirm the relationship between the ionic interactions and oil recovery.

  12. Identification and characterization of mobile genetic elements LINEs from Brassica genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouroz, Faisal; Noreen, Shumaila; Khan, Muhammad Fiaz; Ahmed, Shehzad; Heslop-Harrison, J S Pat

    2017-09-05

    Among transposable elements (TEs), the LTR retrotransposons are abundant followed by non-LTR retrotransposons in plant genomes, the lateral being represented by LINEs and SINEs. Computational and molecular approaches were used for the characterization of Brassica LINEs, their diversity and phylogenetic relationships. Four autonomous and four non-autonomous LINE families were identified and characterized from Brassica. Most of the autonomous LINEs displayed two open reading frames, ORF1 and ORF2, where ORF1 is a gag protein domain, while ORF2 encodes endonuclease (EN) and a reverse transcriptase (RT). Three of four families encoded an additional RNase H (RH) domain in pol gene common to 'R' and 'I' type of LINEs. The PCR analyses based on LINEs RT fragments indicate their high diversity and widespread occurrence in tested 40 Brassica cultivars. Database searches revealed the homology in LINE sequences in closely related genera Arabidopsis indicating their origin from common ancestors predating their separation. The alignment of 58 LINEs RT sequences from Brassica, Arabidopsis and other plants depicted 4 conserved domains (domain II-V) showing similarity to previously detected domains. Based on RT alignment of Brassica and 3 known LINEs from monocots, Brassicaceae LINEs clustered in separate clade, further resolving 4 Brassica-Arabidopsis specific families in 2 sub-clades. High similarities were observed in RT sequences in the members of same family, while low homology was detected in members across the families. The investigation led to the characterization of Brassica specific LINE families and their diversity across Brassica species and their cultivars. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Genetic variation in the hTAS2R38 taste receptor and brassica vegetable intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorovic, Nela; Afzal, Shoaib; Tjonneland, Anne

    2011-01-01

    on their brassica vegetables intake from the upper quartile (>= a parts per thousand yen23 g/day) and the lower quartile (parts per thousand currency sign7 g/day) daily intake of brassicas from a randomly selected sub-cohort of DCH. DNA was analysed for three functional SNPs in the hTAS2R38 gene. The hTAS2R38...

  14. Controlled-release of Bacillus thurigiensis formulations encapsulated in light-resistant colloidosomal microcapsules for the management of lepidopteran pests of Brassica crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oumar Bashir

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis (B. t. based formulations have been widely used to control lepidopteran pests in agriculture and forestry. One of their weaknesses is their short residual activity when sprayed in the field. Using Pickering emulsions, mixtures of spores and crystals from three B. t. serovars were successfully encapsulated in colloïdosomal microparticles (50 μm using innocuous chemicals (acrylic particles, sunflower oil, iron oxide nanoparticles, ethanol and water. A pH trigger mechanism was incorporated within the particles so that B. t. release occurred only at pH > 8.5 which corresponds to the midgut pH of the target pests. Laboratory assays performed on Trichoplusia ni (T. ni larvae demonstrated that the microencapsulation process did not impair B. t. bioactivity. The best formulations were field-tested on three key lepidopteran pests that attack Brassica crops, i.e., the imported cabbageworm, the cabbage looper and the diamondback moth. After 12 days, the mean number of larvae was significantly lower in microencapsulated formulations than in a commercial B. t. formulation, and the effect of microencapsulated formulations was comparable to a chemical pesticide (lambda-cyhalothrin. Therefore, colloïdosomal microcapsule formulations successfully extend the bioactivity of B. t. for the management of lepidopteran pests of Brassica crops.

  15. Effluents and Solid Waste Analysis in a Petrochemical Company- A Case Study of Eleme Petrochemical Company Ltd, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. U. Israel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Effluents and soil samples where sediments from the treated effluents are dumped were analyzed for physicochemical properties, metallic and non-metallic ions. These parameters were compared with established international standard (FEPA. Effluents were classified as process waste water (PWW, clarified water (CW, and final discharge (FD. The petrochemical effluents contained very high concentration of TDS (284.00±014 mg/L and significant concentrations of TSS (78.89±0.01 mg/L, COD (30.10±0.02 mg/L, DO (13.20±0.01 mg/L, BOD (6.12±0.00 mg/L, PO43- (4.34±0.00 mg/L, SO42- (3.59±0.00 mg/L, Cl- (55.52±0.01 mg/L and NO3- (8.40±0.01 mg/L. Low concentrations of iron, zinc, copper, cadmium, lead, nickel and cobalt was also observed. Some heavy metals were not detected at all in some of the effluent samples analyzed. Apart from temperature and total dissolved solid TDS, all the other parameters were below FEPA effluent limitations for guidelines for Petroleum Refinery, Fuel/Gasoline oil category in Nigeria.

  16. In vitro activity of glucosinolates and their degradation products against brassica-pathogenic bacteria and fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo, T; Lema, M; Soengas, P; Cartea, M E; Velasco, P

    2015-01-01

    Glucosinolates (GSLs) are secondary metabolites found in Brassica vegetables that confer on them resistance against pests and diseases. Both GSLs and glucosinolate hydrolysis products (GHPs) have shown positive effects in reducing soil pathogens. Information about their in vitro biocide effects is scarce, but previous studies have shown sinigrin GSLs and their associated allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) to be soil biocides. The objective of this work was to evaluate the biocide effects of 17 GSLs and GHPs and of leaf methanolic extracts of different GSL-enriched Brassica crops on suppressing in vitro growth of two bacterial (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris and Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola) and two fungal (Alternaria brassicae and Sclerotinia scletoriorum) Brassica pathogens. GSLs, GHPs, and methanolic leaf extracts inhibited the development of the pathogens tested compared to the control, and the effect was dose dependent. Furthermore, the biocide effects of the different compounds studied were dependent on the species and race of the pathogen. These results indicate that GSLs and their GHPs, as well as extracts of different Brassica species, have potential to inhibit pathogen growth and offer new opportunities to study the use of Brassica crops in biofumigation for the control of multiple diseases. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Mitochondrial genome sequencing helps show the evolutionary mechanism of mitochondrial genome formation in Brassica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Angiosperm mitochondrial genomes are more complex than those of other organisms. Analyses of the mitochondrial genome sequences of at least 11 angiosperm species have showed several common properties; these cannot easily explain, however, how the diverse mitotypes evolved within each genus or species. We analyzed the evolutionary relationships of Brassica mitotypes by sequencing. Results We sequenced the mitotypes of cam (Brassica rapa), ole (B. oleracea), jun (B. juncea), and car (B. carinata) and analyzed them together with two previously sequenced mitotypes of B. napus (pol and nap). The sizes of whole single circular genomes of cam, jun, ole, and car are 219,747 bp, 219,766 bp, 360,271 bp, and 232,241 bp, respectively. The mitochondrial genome of ole is largest as a resulting of the duplication of a 141.8 kb segment. The jun mitotype is the result of an inherited cam mitotype, and pol is also derived from the cam mitotype with evolutionary modifications. Genes with known functions are conserved in all mitotypes, but clear variation in open reading frames (ORFs) with unknown functions among the six mitotypes was observed. Sequence relationship analysis showed that there has been genome compaction and inheritance in the course of Brassica mitotype evolution. Conclusions We have sequenced four Brassica mitotypes, compared six Brassica mitotypes and suggested a mechanism for mitochondrial genome formation in Brassica, including evolutionary events such as inheritance, duplication, rearrangement, genome compaction, and mutation. PMID:21988783

  18. Supercritical water oxidation test bed effluent treatment study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, C.M.

    1994-04-01

    This report presents effluent treatment options for a 50 h Supercritical Water Test Unit. Effluent compositions are calculated for eight simulated waste streams, using different assumed cases. Variations in effluent composition with different reactor designs and operating schemes are discussed. Requirements for final effluent compositions are briefly reviewed. A comparison is made of two general schemes. The first is one in which the effluent is cooled and effluent treatment is primarily done in the liquid phase. In the second scheme, most treatment is performed with the effluent in the gas phase. Several unit operations are also discussed, including neutralization, mercury removal, and evaporation

  19. Pollution control of industrial wastewater from soap and oil industries: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Gawad, S; Abdel-Shafy, M

    2002-01-01

    Industrial wastewater from soap and oil industries represents a heavy pollution source on their receiving water body. This paper studies a case of pollution control at Tanta Soap and Oil Company, Banha Factory, Egypt. The factory production includes soap, edible oil, and animal fodder. About 4,347 m3/day of industrial wastewater effluent was discharged via gravity sewers to the public sewerage system. Most of the effluent was cooling water because the cooling process in the factory was open circle. In spite of the huge quantity of cooling water being disposed of, disposal of wastewater was violating pertinent legislation. Three procedures were used for controlling the pollution at the Banha Factory. Firstly, all open circuit cooling systems were converted to closed circuit thus reducing the quantity of the discharged wastewater down to 767 m3/day. Secondly, the heavily polluted oil and grease (O&G) wastewater from the refinery unit is treated via two gravity oil separator (GOS) units, dissolved air floatation (DAF), and biological units in order to reduce the high levels of O&G, BOD, COD, and SS to the allowable limits. Thirdly, the heavily polluted waste effluent from the 'red water' saponification unit is treated separately by acidification to convert the emulsified fatty acid to free form in order to be separated through an oil separation unit. The effluent is then passed to liming stage to neutralize excess acidity and precipitate some of the dissolved matters. The mixture is finally clarified and the pH is adjusted to the allowable limits. The effluent wastewater from the three processes is collected and mixed in a final equalization tank for discharging effluent to the public sewerage system. The characteristics of the effluent water are very good with respect to the allowable Egyptian limits for discharging effluent to the public sewerage system.

  20. Transcriptome analysis of Brassica rapa near-isogenic lines carrying clubroot-resistant and –susceptible alleles in response to Plasmodiophora brassicae during early infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing eChen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although Plasmodiophora brassicae is one of the most common pathogens worldwide, the causal agent of clubroot disease in Brassica crops, resistance mechanisms to it are still only poorly understood. To study the early defense response induced by P. brassicae infection, a global transcriptome profiling of the roots of two near-isogenic lines (NILs of clubroot-resistant (CR BJN3-2 and clubroot-susceptible (BJN3-2 Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa was performed by RNA-seq. Among the 42,730 unique genes mapped to the reference genome of B. rapa, 1,875 and 2,103 genes were found to be up- and down-regulated between CR BJN3-2 and BJN3-2, respectively, at 0, 12, 72, and 96 hours after inoculation (hai. Functional annotation showed that most of the differently expressed genes are involved in metabolism, transport, signal transduction, and defense. Of the genes assigned to plant-pathogen interactions, 151 showed different expression patterns between two NILs, including genes associated with pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs and effectors recognition, calcium ion influx, hormone signaling, pathogenesis-related (PR genes, transcription factors, and cell wall modification. In particular, the expression level of effector receptors (resistance proteins, PR genes involved in salicylic acid (SA signaling pathway, were higher in clubroot-resistant NIL, while half of the PAMP receptors were suppressed in CR BJN3-2. This suggests that there was a more robust effector-triggered immunity (ETI response in CR BJN3-2 and that SA signaling was important to clubroot resistance. The dataset generated by our transcriptome profiling may prove invaluable for further exploration of the different responses to P. brassicae between clubroot-resistant and clubroot-susceptible genotypes, and it will strongly contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of resistance genes of B. rapa against P. brassicae infection.

  1. Cytological and morphological analysis of hybrids between Brassicoraphanus, and Brassica napus for introgression of clubroot resistant trait into Brassica napus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Zongxiang; Nwafor, Chinedu Charles; Hou, Zhaoke; Gong, Jianfang; Zhu, Bin; Jiang, Yingfen; Zhou, Yongming; Wu, Jiangsheng; Piao, Zhongyun; Tong, Yue; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Chunyu

    2017-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization is a powerful tool for improvement of crop species, it has the potential to broaden the genetic base and create new plant forms for breeding programs. Synthetic allopolyploid is a widely-used model for the study of genetic recombination and fixed heterosis in Brassica. In Brassica napus breeding, identification and introgression of new sources of clubroot resistance trait from wild or related species into it by hybridization is a long-term crop management strategy for clubroot disease. Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is a close relative of the Brassica and most radish accessions are immune to the clubroot disease. A synthesized allotetraploid Brassicoraphanus (RRCC, 2n = 36) between R. sativus cv. HQ-04 (2n = 18, RR) and Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra (L.H Bailey) (2n = 18, CC) proved resistant of multiple clubroot disease pathogen P. brassicae. To predict the possibility to transfer the clubroot resistance trait from the RR subgenome of allotetraploid Brassicoraphanus (RRCC, 2n = 36) into Brassica napus (AACC, 2n = 38), we analyzed the frequency of chromosome pairings in the F1 hybrids produced from a cross between B. napus cv. HS5 and the allotetraploid, characterize the genomic composition of some backcrossed progeny (BC1) using GISH, BAC-FISH and AFLP techniques. The level of intergenomic pairing between A and R genomes in the F1 hybrid was high, allosyndetic bivalents formed in 73.53% PMCs indicative of significant level of homeologous recombination between two genomes and high probability of incorporating chromosomal segments/genes from R-genome into A/C-genomes. The BC1 plants inherited variant extra R chromosomes or fragments from allotetraploid as revealed by GISH and AFLP analysis. 13.51% BC2 individuals were resistant to clubroot disease, and several resistance lines had high pollen fertility, Overall, the genetic material presented in this work represents a potential new genetic resource for practical use in breeding B. napus

  2. Genome-wide identification of aquaporin encoding genes in Brassica oleracea and their phylogenetic sequence comparison to Brassica crops and Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till Arvid Diehn

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aquaporins (AQPs are essential channel proteins that regulate plant water homeostasis and the uptake and distribution of uncharged solutes such as metalloids, urea, ammonia and carbon dioxide. Despite their importance as crop plants, little is known about AQP gene and protein function in cabbage (Brassica oleracea and other Brassica species. The recent releases of the genome sequences of B. oleracea and B. rapa allow comparative genomic studies in these species to investigate the evolution and features of Brassica genes and proteins.In this study, we identified all AQP genes in B. oleracea by a genome-wide survey. In total, 67 genes of four plant AQP subfamilies were identified. Their full-length gene sequences and locations on chromosomes and scaffolds were manually curated. The identification of six additional full-length AQP sequences in the B. rapa genome added to the recently published AQP protein family of this species. A phylogenetic analysis of AQPs of A. thaliana, B. oleracea, B. rapa allowed us to follow AQP evolution in closely related species and to systematically classify and (re- name these isoforms. Thirty-three groups of AQP-orthologous genes were identified between B. oleracea and Arabidopsis and their expression was analyzed in different organs. The two selectivity filters, gene structure and coding sequences were highly conserved within each AQP subfamily while sequence variations in some introns and untranslated regions were frequent. These data suggest a similar substrate selectivity and function of Brassica AQPs compared to Arabidopsis orthologs. The comparative analyses of all AQP subfamilies in three Brassicaceae species give initial insights into AQP evolution in these taxa. Based on the genome-wide AQP identification in B. oleracea and the sequence analysis and reprocessing of Brassica AQP information, our dataset provides a sequence resource for further investigations of the physiological and molecular functions of

  3. 40 CFR 464.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Within the range of 7.0 to 10.0 at all times. (c) Die Casting Operations. BPT Effluent Limitations... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS METAL MOLDING AND CASTING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Casting Subcategory § 464.12 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  4. 40 CFR 464.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... poured) for a specific plant. (c) Die Casting Operations. BAT Effluent Limitations Pollutant or pollutant... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS METAL MOLDING AND CASTING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Casting Subcategory § 464.13 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  5. Benthos of Cochin backwaters receiving industrial effluents

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, K.S.; Venugopal, P.

    Faunal composition of benthos and its spatial and temporal distribution at 9 stations in the northern limb of the Cochin backwaters are studied. An industrial belt is located about 18 km upstream of barmouth, and the effluents are discharged...

  6. seed oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wara

    found to be 2.0 cm which is lower than that of Jatropha oil soap(5.4cm), Sesame oil soap(4.8cm), Cotton seed oil soap(4.5cm) and shea nut soap(4.2cm),t higher than that of Castor oil soap(1.6cm) and Castor glycerine soap(1.4cm). The soap was milk in colour and slightly soluble in distilled water. Keywords: Neem oil ...

  7. Methods for deoxygenating biomass-derived pyrolysis oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Lance Awender; Brandvold, Timothy A.

    2015-06-30

    Methods for deoxygenating a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil are provided. A method for deoxygenating a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil comprising the steps of combining a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil stream with a heated low-oxygen-pyoil diluent recycle stream to form a heated diluted pyoil feed stream is provided. The heated diluted pyoil feed stream has a feed temperature of about 150.degree. C. or greater. The heated diluted pyoil feed stream is contacted with a first deoxygenating catalyst in the presence of hydrogen at first hydroprocessing conditions effective to form a low-oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil effluent.

  8. Effluent Treatment Facility tritium emissions monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    An Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approved sampling and analysis protocol was developed and executed to verify atmospheric emissions compliance for the new Savannah River Site (SRS) F/H area Effluent Treatment Facility. Sampling equipment was fabricated, installed, and tested at stack monitoring points for filtrable particulate radionuclides, radioactive iodine, and tritium. The only detectable anthropogenic radionuclides released from Effluent Treatment Facility stacks during monitoring were iodine-129 and tritium oxide. This paper only examines the collection and analysis of tritium oxide

  9. Oil risk in oil stocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert; Wang, L

    2008-01-01

    We assess the oil price sensitivities and oil risk premiums of NYSE listed oil & gas firms' returns by using a two-step regression analysis under two different arbitrage pricing models. Thus, we apply the Fama and French (1992) factor returns in a study of oil stocks. In all, we find that the return

  10. Hormones and Pod Development in Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus) 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bouille, Pierre; Sotta, Bruno; Miginiac, Emile; Merrien, André

    1989-01-01

    The endogenous levels of several plant growth substances (indole acetic acid, IAA; abscisic acid, ABA; zeatin, Z; zeatin riboside, [9R]Z; isopentenyladenine, iP; and isopentenyladenosine, [9R]iP were measured during pod development of field grown oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L. var oleifera cv Bienvenu) with high performance liquid chromatography and immunoenzymic (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA) techniques. Results show that pod development is characterized by high levels of Z and [9R]Z in 3 day old fruits and of IAA on the fourth day. During pod maturation, initially a significant increase of IAA and cytokinins was observed, followed by a progressive rise of ABA levels and a concomitant decline of IAA and cytokinin (except iP) levels. The relationship between hormone levels and development, especially pod number, seed number per pod, and seed weight determination, will be discussed. PMID:16666891

  11. Temperature Distribution Pattern of Brassica chinensis during Vacuum Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-yan Song

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The temperature distribution of leafy vegetables is often less uniform than that of other vegetables during the vacuum cooling process, a factor that can cause undesired effects such as frostbite. Brassica chinensis, a type of classical leafy vegetable, was used as a model in this paper to optimize vacuum cooling technology for the whole and fresh-cut leafy vegetables. We found that noticeable temperature differences between the leaf and the petiole occurred, which resulted from their structural difference. Temperature variations of different parts of the leaf were also observed, indicating that cooling rate of leaf margin was quicker than the other parts. Our experiments show that using a moderate volumetric displacement of the chamber (0.033 s−1 is beneficial for obtaining a relative uniform temperature distribution of the leaf part.

  12. Effects of gamma radiation in cauliflower (Brassica spp) minimally processed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Thomaz, Fernanda S.; Trindade, Reginaldo A.; Villavicencio, Anna L.C.H.; Alencar, Severino M.

    2007-01-01

    Consumers demand for health interests and the latest diet trends. The consumption of vegetables worldwide has increased every year over the past decade, consequently, less extreme treatments or additives are being required. Minimally processed foods have fresh-like characteristics and satisfy the new consumer demand. Food irradiation is an exposure process of the product to controlled sources of gamma radiation with the intention to destroy pathogens and to extend the shelf life. Minimally processed cauliflower (Brassica oleraceae) exposed to low dose of gamma radiation does not show any change in sensory attributes. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of the low doses of gamma radiation on sensorial aspects like appearance, texture and flavor of minimally processed cauliflower. (author)

  13. Quantification of Plasmodiophora brassicae Using a DNA-Based Soil Test Facilitates Sustainable Oilseed Rape Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallenhammar, Ann-Charlotte; Gunnarson, Albin; Hansson, Fredrik; Jonsson, Anders

    2016-04-22

    Outbreaks of clubroot disease caused by the soil-borne obligate parasite Plasmodiophora brassicae are common in oilseed rape (OSR) in Sweden. A DNA-based soil testing service that identifies fields where P. brassicae poses a significant risk of clubroot infection is now commercially available. It was applied here in field surveys to monitor the prevalence of P. brassicae DNA in field soils intended for winter OSR production and winter OSR field experiments. In 2013 in Scania, prior to planting, P. brassicae DNA was detected in 60% of 45 fields on 10 of 18 farms. In 2014, P. brassicae DNA was detected in 44% of 59 fields in 14 of 36 farms, in the main winter OSR producing region in southern Sweden. P. brassicae was present indicative of a risk for >10% yield loss with susceptible cultivars (>1300 DNA copies g soil(-1)) in 47% and 44% of fields in 2013 and 2014 respectively. Furthermore, P. brassicae DNA was indicative of sites at risk of complete crop failure if susceptible cultivars were grown (>50 000 copies g(-1) soil) in 14% and 8% of fields in 2013 and 2014, respectively. A survey of all fields at Lanna research station in western Sweden showed that P. brassicae was spread throughout the farm, as only three of the fields (20%) showed infection levels below the detection limit for P.brassicae DNA, while the level was >50,000 DNA copies g(-1) soil in 20% of the fields. Soil-borne spread is of critical importance and soil scraped off footwear showed levels of up to 682 million spores g(-1) soil. Soil testing is an important tool for determining the presence of P. brassicae and providing an indication of potential yield loss, e.g., in advisory work on planning for a sustainable OSR crop rotation. This soil test is gaining acceptance as a tool that increases the likelihood of success in precision agriculture and in applied research conducted in commercial oilseed fields and at research stations. The present application highlights the importance of prevention of

  14. Quantification of Plasmodiophora brassicae Using a DNA-Based Soil Test Facilitates Sustainable Oilseed Rape Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Charlotte Wallenhammar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of clubroot disease caused by the soil-borne obligate parasite Plasmodiophora brassicae are common in oilseed rape (OSR in Sweden. A DNA-based soil testing service that identifies fields where P. brassicae poses a significant risk of clubroot infection is now commercially available. It was applied here in field surveys to monitor the prevalence of P. brassicae DNA in field soils intended for winter OSR production and winter OSR field experiments. In 2013 in Scania, prior to planting, P. brassicae DNA was detected in 60% of 45 fields on 10 of 18 farms. In 2014, P. brassicae DNA was detected in 44% of 59 fields in 14 of 36 farms, in the main winter OSR producing region in southern Sweden. P. brassicae was present indicative of a risk for >10% yield loss with susceptible cultivars (>1300 DNA copies g soil−1 in 47% and 44% of fields in 2013 and 2014 respectively. Furthermore, P. brassicae DNA was indicative of sites at risk of complete crop failure if susceptible cultivars were grown (>50 000 copies g−1 soil in 14% and 8% of fields in 2013 and 2014, respectively. A survey of all fields at Lanna research station in western Sweden showed that P. brassicae was spread throughout the farm, as only three of the fields (20% showed infection levels below the detection limit for P.brassicae DNA, while the level was >50,000 DNA copies g−1 soil in 20% of the fields. Soil-borne spread is of critical importance and soil scraped off footwear showed levels of up to 682 million spores g−1 soil. Soil testing is an important tool for determining the presence of P. brassicae and providing an indication of potential yield loss, e.g., in advisory work on planning for a sustainable OSR crop rotation. This soil test is gaining acceptance as a tool that increases the likelihood of success in precision agriculture and in applied research conducted in commercial oilseed fields and at research stations. The present application highlights the importance of

  15. Growth and 137Cs uptake and accumulation among 56 Japanese cultivars of Brassica rapa, Brassica juncea and Brassica napus grown in a contaminated field in Fukushima: Effect of inoculation with a Bacillus pumilus strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djedidi, Salem; Kojima, Katsuhiro; Ohkama-Ohtsu, Naoko; Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko Dorothea; Yokoyama, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    Fifty six local Japanese cultivars of Brassica rapa (40 cultivars), Brassica juncea (10 cultivars) and Brassica napus (6 cultivars) were assessed for variability in growth and 137 Cs uptake and accumulation in association with a Bacillus pumilus strain. Field trial was conducted at a contaminated farmland in Nihonmatsu city, in Fukushima prefecture. Inoculation resulted in different responses of the cultivars in terms of growth and radiocesium uptake and accumulation. B. pumilus induced a significant increase in shoot dry weight in 12 cultivars that reached up to 40% in one B. rapa and three B. juncea cultivars. Differences in radiocesium uptake were observed between the cultivars of each Brassica species. Generally, inoculation resulted in a significant increase in 137 Cs uptake in 22 cultivars, while in seven cultivars it was significantly decreased. Regardless of plant cultivar and bacterial inoculation, the transfer of 137 Cs to the plant shoots (TF) varied by a factor of up to 5 and it ranged from to 0.011 to 0.054. Five inoculated cultivars, showed enhanced shoot dry weights and decreased 137 Cs accumulations, among which two B. rapa cultivars named Bitamina and Nozawana had a significantly decreased 137 Cs accumulation in their shoots. Such cultivars could be utilized to minimize the entry of radiocesium into the food chain; however, verifying the consistency of their radiocesium accumulation in other soils is strongly required. Moreover, the variations in growth and radiocesium accumulation, as influenced by Bacillus inoculation, could help selecting well grown inoculated Brassica cultivars with low radiocesium accumulation in their shoots. - Highlights: • Out of 56 Brassica cultivars, inoculation significantly increased shoot dry weight in 12 cultivars. • Inoculation triggered a significant increase and decrease in 137 Cs uptake, respectively in 22 and 7 cultivars. • Five cultivars had an enhanced shoot dry weight and decreased 137 Cs accumulation.

  16. Effects of Water Deficit Stress on Several Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Canola (Brassica napus L. Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad HOSSEINI

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Water deficit stress considered as one of the most important limiting factors for oil seed canola (Brassica napus L. growth and productivity in Iran. To evaluate the effects of water deficit stress on some qualitative and quantitative characteristics of canola cultivars, this experiment in a greenhouse trial carried out as factorial based on completely randomized design with three replications in Shahid Chamran University of Ahwaz (Iran. Canola cultivars, including ‘Hyola 308’, ‘Hyola 401’ and ‘RGS 003’ as first factor, and the second one was three levels of water deficit stress, including stress at early stem elongation stage to early flowering (D1, early flowering stage to early emergence of sacs (D2, beginning of stem elongation stage to early emergence of sacs (D3 and normal irrigation (C, as check. Results showed that the interaction between water deficit stress and cultivars affected biological yield, seed oil yields and harvest index (p≤0.01, dry matter and economic yield (p≤0.05. Water deficit stress reduced grain oil yields. ‘Hyola 308’ under stress at beginning stem elongation stage to early flowering had the lowest oil yields (1.1 g plants-1 and ‘Hyola 401’ under non-stress conditions showed highest oil yields (4.3 g plants-1. The decrease of oil yields at the flowering stage to stem elongation stage was more than the other stages. In addition, water deficit stress reduced harvest index in the three stress levels due to reduced economic yield and reduced biological yield. Stress susceptibility index for ‘Hyola 401’ at the beginning of stem elongation stage to early emergence of sacs was 0.914 and the ‘Hyola 308’ showed 1.12 at the beginning of stem elongation stage to early emergence of sacs respectively, which it can implies that ‘Hyola 308’ is more sensitive than ‘Hyola 401’ to water deficit stress.

  17. 40 CFR 447.10 - Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash ink subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-base solvent wash ink subcategory. 447.10 Section 447.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INK FORMULATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Oil-Base Solvent Wash Ink Subcategory § 447.10 Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash ink...

  18. Palm oil and the emission of carbon-based greenhouse gases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.; Huijbregts, M.A.J.

    2008-01-01

    The current use of South Asian palm oil as biofuel is far from climate neutral. Dependent on assumptions, losses of biogenic carbon associated with ecosystems, emission of CO2 due to the use of fossil fuels and the anaerobic conversion of palm oil mill effluent currently correspond in South Asia

  19. 40 CFR 446.10 - Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash paint subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-base solvent wash paint subcategory. 446.10 Section 446.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PAINT FORMULATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Oil-Base Solvent Wash Paint Subcategory § 446.10 Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash...

  20. Treating domestic effluent wastewater treatment by aerobic biofilter with bioballs medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permatasari, R.; Rinanti, A.; Ratnaningsih, R.

    2018-01-01

    This laboratory scale research aimed to treat wastewater effluent with advanced treatment utilizing aerobic biofilter with bio-balls medium to obtain effluent quality in accordance with DKI Jakarta Governor Regulation No. 122 of 2005. The seeding and acclimatization were conducted in 4 weeks. The effluent were accommodated in a 150 L water barrel supported by a submersible pump. The effluent were treated in two boxes shaped reactors made of glasses with 36 L of each capacity. These reactors were equipped with aquarium aerators, sampling tap is 10 cm from the base of reactors, and bio-balls with 3 cm diameter are made of PVC. Reactors operated continuously with variations of retention time of 4 hours, 8 hours, 12 hours, 18 hours, and 24 hours and also variations of Carbon: Nitrogen: Phosphor = C: N: P ratio were, 100:5:1, 100:8:1, 100:10:1, 100:12:1, 100:15:1. The results showed that the optimum variance of retention time was 24 hours and the ratio of C:N:P was 100:10:1 yielded the largest removal efficiency for 83,33% of COD, 87,33% of BOD, 82,5% of Ammonia, 79,1% of Nitrate, 92% of Nitrite, 84,82% of Oil and Grease. The concentration parameter resulted from outlet biofilter has met the domestic wastewater quality standard of DKI Jakarta.