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Sample records for efficient unique signature

  1. The unique biogeochemical signature of the marine diazotroph Trichodesmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen eNuester

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The elemental composition of phytoplankton can depart from canonical Redfield values under conditions of nutrient limitation or production (e.g., N fixation. Similarly, the trace metal metallome of phytoplankton may be expected to vary as a function of both ambient nutrient concentrations and the biochemical processes of the cell. Diazotrophs such as the colonial cyanobacteria Trichodesmium are likely to have unique metal signatures due to their cell physiology. We present metal (Fe, V, Zn, Ni, Mo, Mn, Cu, Cd quotas for Trichodesmium collected from the Sargasso Sea which highlight the unique metallome of this organism. The element concentration of bulk colonies and trichomes sections was analyzed by ICPMS and synchrotron x-ray fluorescence, respectively. The cells were characterized by low P contents but enrichment in V, Fe, Mo, Ni and Zn in comparison to other phytoplankton. Vanadium was the most abundant metal in Trichodesmium, and the V quota was up to 4-fold higher than the corresponding Fe quota. The stoichiometry of 647C:111N:1P (mol•mol-1 reflects P-limiting conditions. Iron and V were enriched spatially in contiguous cells of 10% and 50% of Trichodesmium trichomes, respectively. The distribution of Ni differed from other elements, with the highest concentration in the transverse walls between attached cells. We hypothesize that the enrichment of V, Fe, Mo and Ni is linked to the biochemical requirements for N fixation either directly through enrichment in the N-fixing enzyme nitrogenase or indirectly by the expression of enzymes responsible for the removal of reactive oxygen species. Unintentional uptake of V via P pathways may also be occurring. Overall, the cellular content of trace metals and macronutrients differs significantly from the (extended Redfield ratio. The Trichodesmium metallome is an example of how physiology and environmental conditions can cause significant deviations from the idealized stoichiometry.

  2. The unique biogeochemical signature of the marine diazotroph trichodesmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuester, Jochen; Vogt, Stefan; Newville, Matthew; Kustka, Adam B; Twining, Benjamin S

    2012-01-01

    The elemental composition of phytoplankton can depart from canonical Redfield values under conditions of nutrient limitation or production (e.g., N fixation). Similarly, the trace metal metallome of phytoplankton may be expected to vary as a function of both ambient nutrient concentrations and the biochemical processes of the cell. Diazotrophs such as the colonial cyanobacteria Trichodesmium are likely to have unique metal signatures due to their cell physiology. We present metal (Fe, V, Zn, Ni, Mo, Mn, Cu, Cd) quotas for Trichodesmium collected from the Sargasso Sea which highlight the unique metallome of this organism. The element concentrations of bulk colonies and trichomes sections were analyzed by ICP-MS and synchrotron x-ray fluorescence, respectively. The cells were characterized by low P contents but enrichment in V, Fe, Mo, Ni, and Zn in comparison to other phytoplankton. Vanadium was the most abundant metal in Trichodesmium, and the V quota was up to fourfold higher than the corresponding Fe quota. The stoichiometry of 600C:101N:1P (mol mol(-1)) reflects P-limiting conditions. Iron and V were enriched in contiguous cells of 10 and 50% of Trichodesmium trichomes, respectively. The distribution of Ni differed from other elements, with the highest concentration in the transverse walls between attached cells. We hypothesize that the enrichments of V, Fe, Mo, and Ni are linked to the biochemical requirements for N fixation either directly through enrichment in the N-fixing enzyme nitrogenase or indirectly by the expression of enzymes responsible for the removal of reactive oxygen species. Unintentional uptake of V via P pathways may also be occurring. Overall, the cellular content of trace metals and macronutrients differs significantly from the (extended) Redfield ratio. The Trichodesmium metallome is an example of how physiology and environmental conditions can cause significant deviations from the idealized stoichiometry.

  3. Unique proteomic signatures distinguish macrophages and dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lev Becker

    Full Text Available Monocytes differentiate into heterogeneous populations of tissue macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs that regulate inflammation and immunity. Identifying specific populations of myeloid cells in vivo is problematic, however, because only a limited number of proteins have been used to assign cellular phenotype. Using mass spectrometry and bone marrow-derived cells, we provided a global view of the proteomes of M-CSF-derived macrophages, classically and alternatively activated macrophages, and GM-CSF-derived DCs. Remarkably, the expression levels of half the plasma membrane proteins differed significantly in the various populations of cells derived in vitro. Moreover, the membrane proteomes of macrophages and DCs were more distinct than those of classically and alternatively activated macrophages. Hierarchical cluster and dual statistical analyses demonstrated that each cell type exhibited a robust proteomic signature that was unique. To interrogate the phenotype of myeloid cells in vivo, we subjected elicited peritoneal macrophages harvested from wild-type and GM-CSF-deficient mice to mass spectrometric and functional analysis. Unexpectedly, we found that peritoneal macrophages exhibited many features of the DCs generated in vitro. These findings demonstrate that global analysis of the membrane proteome can help define immune cell phenotypes in vivo.

  4. Unique human immune signature of Ebola virus disease in Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruibal, Paula; Oestereich, Lisa; Lüdtke, Anja; Becker-Ziaja, Beate; Wozniak, David M.; Kerber, Romy; Korva, Miša; Cabeza-Cabrerizo, Mar; Bore, Joseph A.; Koundouno, Fara Raymond; Duraffour, Sophie; Weller, Romy; Thorenz, Anja; Cimini, Eleonora; Viola, Domenico; Agrati, Chiara; Repits, Johanna; Afrough, Babak; Cowley, Lauren A; Ngabo, Didier; Hinzmann, Julia; Mertens, Marc; Vitoriano, Inês; Logue, Christopher H.; Boettcher, Jan Peter; Pallasch, Elisa; Sachse, Andreas; Bah, Amadou; Nitzsche, Katja; Kuisma, Eeva; Michel, Janine; Holm, Tobias; Zekeng, Elsa-Gayle; García-Dorival, Isabel; Wölfel, Roman; Stoecker, Kilian; Fleischmann, Erna; Strecker, Thomas; Di Caro, Antonino; Avšič-Županc, Tatjana; Kurth, Andreas; Meschi, Silvia; Mély, Stephane; Newman, Edmund; Bocquin, Anne; Kis, Zoltan; Kelterbaum, Anne; Molkenthin, Peter; Carletti, Fabrizio; Portmann, Jasmine; Wolff, Svenja; Castilletti, Concetta; Schudt, Gordian; Fizet, Alexandra; Ottowell, Lisa J.; Herker, Eva; Jacobs, Thomas; Kretschmer, Birte; Severi, Ettore; Ouedraogo, Nobila; Lago, Mar; Negredo, Anabel; Franco, Leticia; Anda, Pedro; Schmiedel, Stefan; Kreuels, Benno; Wichmann, Dominic; Addo, Marylyn M.; Lohse, Ansgar W.; De Clerck, Hilde; Nanclares, Carolina; Jonckheere, Sylvie; Van Herp, Michel; Sprecher, Armand; Xiaojiang, Gao; Carrington, Mary; Miranda, Osvaldo; Castro, Carlos M.; Gabriel, Martin; Drury, Patrick; Formenty, Pierre; Diallo, Boubacar; Koivogui, Lamine; Magassouba, N’Faly; Carroll, Miles W.; Günther, Stephan; Muñoz-Fontela, César

    2016-01-01

    Despite the magnitude of the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa, there is still a fundamental lack of knowledge about the pathophysiology of EVD1. In particular, very little is known about human immune responses to Ebola virus (EBOV)2,3. Here, we have for the first time evaluated the physiology of the human T cell immune response in EVD patients at the time of admission at the Ebola Treatment Center (ETC) in Guinea, and longitudinally until discharge or death. Through the use of multiparametric flow cytometry established by the European Mobile Laboratory in the field, we have identified an immune signature that is unique in EVD fatalities. Fatal EVD was characterized by high percentage of CD4 and CD8 T cells expressing the inhibitory molecules cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death-1 (PD-1), which was correlated with elevated inflammatory markers and high virus load. Conversely, surviving individuals showed significantly lower expression of CTLA-4 and PD-1 as well as lower inflammation despite comparable overall T cell activation. Concommittant with virus clearance, survivors mounted a robust EBOV-specific T cell response. Our findings suggest that dysregulation of the T cell response is a key component of EVD pathophysiology. PMID:27147028

  5. Unique Protein Signature of Circulating Microparticles in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Ole; Nielsen, Christoffer; Iversen, Line V

    2013-01-01

    To characterize the unique qualities of proteins associated with circulating subcellular material in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients compared with healthy controls and patients with other chronic autoimmune diseases.......To characterize the unique qualities of proteins associated with circulating subcellular material in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients compared with healthy controls and patients with other chronic autoimmune diseases....

  6. The Laccaria and Tuber Genomes Reveal Unique Signatures of Mycorrhizal Symbiosis Evolution (2010 JGI User Meeting)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, Steve

    2010-03-24

    Francis Martin from the French agricultural research institute INRA talks on how "The Laccaria and Tuber genomes reveal unique signatures of mycorrhizal symbiosis evolution" on March 24, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting

  7. Unique small RNA signatures uncovered in the tammar wallaby genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay James

    2012-10-01

    discovered crasiRNAs. These small RNAs are derived largely from centromere-enriched retroelements, including a novel SINE. Conclusions This study encompasses the first analyses of the major classes of small RNAs for the newly completed tammar genome, validates preliminary annotations using deep sequencing and computational approaches, and provides a foundation for future work on tammar-specific as well as conserved, but previously unknown small RNA progenitors and targets identified herein. The characterization of new miRNA target genes and a unique profile for crasiRNAs has allowed for insight into multiple RNA mediated processes in the tammar, including gene regulation, species incompatibilities, centromere and chromosome function.

  8. Real time early detection imaging system of failed wounds and heterotopic ossification using unique Raman signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papour, Asael; Taylor, Zach; Stafsudd, Oscar; Grundfest, Warren

    2015-03-01

    Our team has established a method to enable imaging of heterotopic ossification and bone growth locations in tissue using Stokes Raman signals with fast acquisition times. This technique relies on the unique Raman signatures of bone to capture parallel, full-field, 1 cm2 field of view, without utilizing a spectrometer. This system was built in mind as a compact complementary tool for in vivo patient monitoring that can offer a high resolution optical characterization for early detection of failed wounds. Preliminary results of bone detection in flesh are presented here and pave the way for further development of this tool in clinical setting.

  9. Unique Hg stable isotope signatures of compact fluorescent lamp-sourced Hg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Chris; Lyons, James R; Johnson, Thomas M; Anbar, Ariel D

    2013-03-19

    The recent widespread adoption of compact fluorescent lamps (CFL) has increased their importance as a source of environmental Hg. Stable isotope analysis can identify the sources of environmental Hg, but the isotopic composition of Hg from CFL is not yet known. Results from analyses of CFL with a range of hours of use show that the Hg they contain is isotopically fractionated in a unique pattern during normal CFL operation. This fractionation is large by comparison to other known fractionating processes for Hg and has a distinctive, mass-independent signature, such that CFL Hg could be uniquely identified from other sources. The fractionation process described here may also explain anomalous fractionation of Hg isotopes in precipitation.

  10. Individual MHCI-Restricted T-Cell Receptors are Characterized by a Unique Peptide Recognition Signature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooldridge, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Effective immunity requires that a limited TCR repertoire is able to recognize a vast number of foreign peptide-MHCI (peptide-major histocompatibility complex class I) molecules. This challenge is overcome by the ability of individual TCRs to recognize large numbers of peptides. Recently, it was demonstrated that MHCI-restricted TCRs can recognize up to 10(6) peptides of a defined length. Astonishingly, this remarkable level of promiscuity does not extend to peptides of different lengths, a fundamental observation that has broad implications for CD8(+) T-cell immunity. In particular, the findings suggest that effective immunity can only be achieved by mobilization of "length-matched" CD8(+) T-cell clonotypes. Overall, recent findings suggest that every TCR is specific for a unique set of peptides, which can be described as a unique "peptide recognition signature" (PRS) and consists of three components: (1) peptide length preference, (2) number of peptides recognized; and, (3) sequence identity (e.g., self versus pathogen derived). In future, the ability to de-convolute peptide recognition signatures across the normal and pathogenic repertoire will be essential for understanding the system requirements for effective CD8(+) T-cell immunity and elucidating mechanisms which underlie CD8(+) T-cell mediated disease.

  11. Unique Reduced Graphene Oxide as Efficient Anode Material in Li ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    19

    Unique Reduced Graphene Oxide as Efficient Anode Material in Li Ion Battery. Sampath Kumar Puttapati1, Venkataramana Gedela1, Vadali V. S. S. Srikanth1,*. , M. V.. Reddy2,3,#. , Stefan Adams3 and B. V. R. Chowdari2. 1School of Engineering Sciences and Technology, University of Hyderabad, Gachibowli,. Hyderabad ...

  12. Individual MHCI-Restricted T-Cell Receptors are Characterized by a Unique Peptide Recognition Signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooldridge, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Effective immunity requires that a limited TCR repertoire is able to recognize a vast number of foreign peptide-MHCI (peptide-major histocompatibility complex class I) molecules. This challenge is overcome by the ability of individual TCRs to recognize large numbers of peptides. Recently, it was demonstrated that MHCI-restricted TCRs can recognize up to 106 peptides of a defined length. Astonishingly, this remarkable level of promiscuity does not extend to peptides of different lengths, a fundamental observation that has broad implications for CD8+ T-cell immunity. In particular, the findings suggest that effective immunity can only be achieved by mobilization of “length-matched” CD8+ T-cell clonotypes. Overall, recent findings suggest that every TCR is specific for a unique set of peptides, which can be described as a unique “peptide recognition signature” (PRS) and consists of three components: (1) peptide length preference, (2) number of peptides recognized; and, (3) sequence identity (e.g., self versus pathogen derived). In future, the ability to de-convolute peptide recognition signatures across the normal and pathogenic repertoire will be essential for understanding the system requirements for effective CD8+ T-cell immunity and elucidating mechanisms which underlie CD8+ T-cell mediated disease. PMID:23888160

  13. Phase change events of volatile liquid perfluorocarbon contrast agents produce unique acoustic signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeran, Paul S; Matsunaga, Terry O; Dayton, Paul A

    2014-01-20

    Phase-change contrast agents (PCCAs) provide a dynamic platform to approach problems in medical ultrasound (US). Upon US-mediated activation, the liquid core vaporizes and expands to produce a gas bubble ideal for US imaging and therapy. In this study, we demonstrate through high-speed video microscopy and US interrogation that PCCAs composed of highly volatile perfluorocarbons (PFCs) exhibit unique acoustic behavior that can be detected and differentiated from standard microbubble contrast agents. Experimental results show that when activated with short pulses PCCAs will over-expand and undergo unforced radial oscillation while settling to a final bubble diameter. The size-dependent oscillation phenomenon generates a unique acoustic signal that can be passively detected in both time and frequency domain using confocal piston transducers with an 'activate high' (8 MHz, 2 cycles), 'listen low' (1 MHz) scheme. Results show that the magnitude of the acoustic 'signature' increases as PFC boiling point decreases. By using a band-limited spectral processing technique, the droplet signals can be isolated from controls and used to build experimental relationships between concentration and vaporization pressure. The techniques shown here may be useful for physical studies as well as development of droplet-specific imaging techniques.

  14. Evolution, homology conservation, and identification of unique sequence signatures in GH19 family chitinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udaya Prakash, N A; Jayanthi, M; Sabarinathan, R; Kangueane, P; Mathew, Lazar; Sekar, K

    2010-05-01

    The discovery of GH (Glycoside Hydrolase) 19 chitinases in Streptomyces sp. raises the possibility of the presence of these proteins in other bacterial species, since they were initially thought to be confined to higher plants. The present study mainly concentrates on the phylogenetic distribution and homology conservation in GH19 family chitinases. Extensive database searches are performed to identify the presence of GH19 family chitinases in the three major super kingdoms of life. Multiple sequence alignment of all the identified GH19 chitinase family members resulted in the identification of globally conserved residues. We further identified conserved sequence motifs across the major sub groups within the family. Estimation of evolutionary distance between the various bacterial and plant chitinases are carried out to better understand the pattern of evolution. Our study also supports the horizontal gene transfer theory, which states that GH19 chitinase genes are transferred from higher plants to bacteria. Further, the present study sheds light on the phylogenetic distribution and identifies unique sequence signatures that define GH19 chitinase family of proteins. The identified motifs could be used as markers to delineate uncharacterized GH19 family chitinases. The estimation of evolutionary distance between chitinase identified in plants and bacteria shows that the flowering plants are more related to chitinase in actinobacteria than that of identified in purple bacteria. We propose a model to elucidate the natural history of GH19 family chitinases.

  15. A unique epigenetic signature is associated with active DNA replication loci in human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing; Su, Trent; Ferrari, Roberto; Li, Jing-Yu; Kurdistani, Siavash K

    2014-02-01

    The cellular epigenetic landscape changes as pluripotent stem cells differentiate to somatic cells or when differentiated cells transform to a cancerous state. These epigenetic changes are commonly correlated with differences in gene expression. Whether active DNA replication is also associated with distinct chromatin environments in these developmentally and phenotypically diverse cell types has not been known. Here, we used BrdU-seq to map active DNA replication loci in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), normal primary fibroblasts and a cancer cell line, and correlated these maps to the epigenome. In all cell lines, the majority of BrdU peaks were enriched in euchromatin and at DNA repetitive elements, especially at microsatellite repeats, and coincided with previously determined replication origins. The most prominent BrdU peaks were shared between all cells but a sizable fraction of the peaks were specific to each cell type and associated with cell type-specific genes. Surprisingly, the BrdU peaks that were common to all cell lines were associated with H3K18ac, H3K56ac, and H4K20me1 histone marks only in hESCs but not in normal fibroblasts or cancer cells. Depletion of the histone acetyltransferases for H3K18 and H3K56 dramatically decreased the number and intensity of BrdU peaks in hESCs. Our data reveal a unique epigenetic signature that distinguishes active replication loci in hESCs from normal somatic or malignant cells.

  16. An efficient modified Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm | Kiros ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many digital signatures which are based on Elliptic Curves Cryptography (ECC) have been proposed. Among these digital signatures, the Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) is the widely standardized one. However, the verification process of ECDSA is slower than the signature generation process. Hence ...

  17. Unique signatures of natural background radiation on human Y chromosomes from Kerala, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Premi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The most frequently observed major consequences of ionizing radiation are chromosomal lesions and cancers, although the entire genome may be affected. Owing to its haploid status and absence of recombination, the human Y chromosome is an ideal candidate to be assessed for possible genetic alterations induced by ionizing radiation. We studied the human Y chromosome in 390 males from the South Indian state of Kerala, where the level of natural background radiation (NBR is ten-fold higher than the worldwide average, and that from 790 unexposed males as control. RESULTS: We observed random microdeletions in the Azoospermia factor (AZF a, b and c regions in >90%, and tandem duplication and copy number polymorphism (CNP of 11 different Y-linked genes in about 80% of males exposed to NBR. The autosomal homologues of Y-linked CDY genes largely remained unaffected. Multiple polymorphic copies of the Y-linked genes showing single Y-specific signals suggested their tandem duplication. Some exposed males showed unilocus duplication of DAZ genes resulting in six copies. Notably, in the AZFa region, approximately 25% of exposed males showed deletion of the DBY gene, whereas flanking genes USP9Y and UTY remained unaffected. All these alterations were detected in blood samples but not in the germline (sperm samples. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to high levels of NBR correlated with several interstitial polymorphisms of the human Y chromosome. CNPs and enhanced transcription of the SRY gene after duplication are envisaged to compensate for the loss of Y chromosome in some cells. The aforesaid changes, confined to peripheral blood lymphocytes, suggest a possible innate mechanism protecting the germline DNA from the NBR. Genome analysis of a larger population focusing on greater numbers of genes may provide new insights into the mechanisms and risks of the resultant genetic damages. The present work demonstrates unique signatures of NBR on human Y chromosomes

  18. Gegenees: fragmented alignment of multiple genomes for determining phylogenomic distances and genetic signatures unique for specified target groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joakim Agren

    Full Text Available The rapid development of Next Generation Sequencing technologies leads to the accumulation of huge amounts of sequencing data. The scientific community faces an enormous challenge in how to deal with this explosion. Here we present a software tool, 'Gegenees', that uses a fragmented alignment approach to facilitate the comparative analysis of hundreds of microbial genomes. The genomes are fragmented and compared, all against all, by a multithreaded BLAST control engine. Ready-made alignments can be complemented with new genomes without recalculating the existing data points. Gegenees gives a phylogenomic overview of the genomes and the alignment can then be mined for genomic regions with conservation patterns matching a defined target group and absent from a background group. The genomic regions are given biomarker scores forming a uniqueness signature that can be viewed and explored, graphically and in tabular form. A primer/probe alignment tool is also included for specificity verification of currently used or new primers. We exemplify the use of Gegenees on the Bacillus cereus group, on Foot and Mouth Disease Viruses, and on strains from the 2011 Escherichia coli O104:H4 outbreak. Gegenees contributes towards an increased capacity of fast and efficient data mining as more and more genomes become sequenced.

  19. Gegenees: fragmented alignment of multiple genomes for determining phylogenomic distances and genetic signatures unique for specified target groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agren, Joakim; Sundström, Anders; Håfström, Therese; Segerman, Bo

    2012-01-01

    The rapid development of Next Generation Sequencing technologies leads to the accumulation of huge amounts of sequencing data. The scientific community faces an enormous challenge in how to deal with this explosion. Here we present a software tool, 'Gegenees', that uses a fragmented alignment approach to facilitate the comparative analysis of hundreds of microbial genomes. The genomes are fragmented and compared, all against all, by a multithreaded BLAST control engine. Ready-made alignments can be complemented with new genomes without recalculating the existing data points. Gegenees gives a phylogenomic overview of the genomes and the alignment can then be mined for genomic regions with conservation patterns matching a defined target group and absent from a background group. The genomic regions are given biomarker scores forming a uniqueness signature that can be viewed and explored, graphically and in tabular form. A primer/probe alignment tool is also included for specificity verification of currently used or new primers. We exemplify the use of Gegenees on the Bacillus cereus group, on Foot and Mouth Disease Viruses, and on strains from the 2011 Escherichia coli O104:H4 outbreak. Gegenees contributes towards an increased capacity of fast and efficient data mining as more and more genomes become sequenced.

  20. High-Efficient Arbitrated Quantum Signature Scheme Based on Cluster States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatahi, Negin; Naseri, Mosayeb; Gong, Li-Hua; Liao, Qing-Hong

    2017-02-01

    The arbitrated quantum signature characteristics including the security and the efficiency are investigated and a new efficient and secure arbitrated quantum signature is proposed. It is shown that the proposed scheme exhibits an efficiency of 64 %. Furthermore, to gain a higher security, the decoy photons security checking is employed.

  1. Unique glycan signatures regulate adeno-associated virus tropism in the developing brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murlidharan, Giridhar; Corriher, Travis; Ghashghaei, H Troy; Asokan, Aravind

    2015-04-01

    Adeno-associated viruses (AAV) are thought to spread through the central nervous system (CNS) by exploiting cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flux and hijacking axonal transport pathways. The role of host receptors that mediate these processes is not well understood. In the current study, we utilized AAV serotype 4 (AAV4) as a model to evaluate whether ubiquitously expressed 2,3-linked sialic acid and the developmentally regulated marker 2,8-linked polysialic acid (PSA) regulate viral transport and tropism in the neonatal brain. Modulation of the levels of SA and PSA in cell culture studies using specific neuraminidases revealed possibly opposing roles of the two glycans in AAV4 transduction. Interestingly, upon intracranial injection into lateral ventricles of the neonatal mouse brain, a low-affinity AAV4 mutant (AAV4.18) displayed a striking shift in cellular tropism from 2,3-linked SA(+) ependymal lining to 2,8-linked PSA(+) migrating progenitors in the rostral migratory stream and olfactory bulb. In addition, this gain-of-function phenotype correlated with robust CNS spread of AAV4.18 through paravascular transport pathways. Consistent with these observations, altering glycan dynamics within the brain by coadministering SA- and PSA-specific neuraminidases resulted in striking changes to the cellular tropisms and transduction efficiencies of both parental and mutant vectors. We postulate that glycan signatures associated with host development can be exploited to redirect novel AAV vectors to specific cell types in the brain. Viruses invade the CNS through various mechanisms. In the current study, we utilized AAV as a model to study the dynamics of virus-carbohydrate interactions in the developing brain and their impact on viral tropism. Our findings suggest that carbohydrate content can be exploited to regulate viral transport and tropism in the brain. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. A Certificateless Ring Signature Scheme with High Efficiency in the Random Oracle Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ring signature is a kind of digital signature which can protect the identity of the signer. Certificateless public key cryptography not only overcomes key escrow problem but also does not lose some advantages of identity-based cryptography. Certificateless ring signature integrates ring signature with certificateless public key cryptography. In this paper, we propose an efficient certificateless ring signature; it has only three bilinear pairing operations in the verify algorithm. The scheme is proved to be unforgeable in the random oracle model.

  3. Transcriptional profiling of whole blood identifies a unique 5-gene signature for myelofibrosis and imminent myelofibrosis transformation.

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    Hans Carl Hasselbalch

    Full Text Available Identifying a distinct gene signature for myelofibrosis may yield novel information of the genes, which are responsible for progression of essential thrombocythemia and polycythemia vera towards myelofibrosis. We aimed at identifying a simple gene signature - composed of a few genes - which were selectively and highly deregulated in myelofibrosis patients. Gene expression microarray studies have been performed on whole blood from 69 patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms. Amongst the top-20 of the most upregulated genes in PMF compared to controls, we identified 5 genes (DEFA4, ELA2, OLFM4, CTSG, and AZU1, which were highly significantly deregulated in PMF only. None of these genes were significantly regulated in ET and PV patients. However, hierarchical cluster analysis showed that these genes were also highly expressed in a subset of patients with ET (n = 1 and PV (n = 4 transforming towards myelofibrosis and/or being featured by an aggressive phenotype. We have identified a simple 5-gene signature, which is uniquely and highly significantly deregulated in patients in transitional stages of ET and PV towards myelofibrosis and in patients with PMF only. Some of these genes are considered to be responsible for the derangement of bone marrow stroma in myelofibrosis. Accordingly, this gene-signature may reflect key processes in the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of myelofibrosis development.

  4. A Secure and Efficient Certificateless Short Signature Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Cheng

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Certificateless public key cryptography combines advantage of traditional public key cryptography and identity-based public key cryptography as it avoids usage of certificates and resolves the key escrow problem. In 2007, Huang et al. classified adversaries against certificateless signatures according to their attack power into normal, strong and super adversaries (ordered by their attack power. In this paper, we propose a new certificateless short signature scheme and prove that it is secure against both of the super type I and the super type II adversaries. Our new scheme not only achieves the strongest security level but also has the shortest signature length (one group element. Compared with the other short certificateless signature schemes which have a similar security level, our new scheme has less operation cost.

  5. Bone marrow-derived and resident liver macrophages display unique transcriptomic signatures but similar biological functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Lynette; Sawtell, Amy; Mann, Jason; Frame, Teija C M; Teal, Bianca; de Labastida Rivera, Fabian; Brown, Najmeeyah; Walwyn-Brown, Katherine; Moore, John W J; MacDonald, Sandy; Lim, Eng-Kiat; Dalton, Jane E; Engwerda, Christian R; MacDonald, Kelli P; Kaye, Paul M

    2016-10-01

    Kupffer cells (KCs), the resident tissue macrophages of the liver, play a crucial role in the clearance of pathogens and other particulate materials that reach the systemic circulation. Recent studies have identified KCs as a yolk sac-derived resident macrophage population that is replenished independently of monocytes in the steady state. Although it is now established that following local tissue injury, bone marrow derived monocytes may infiltrate the tissue and differentiate into macrophages, the extent to which newly differentiated macrophages functionally resemble the KCs they have replaced has not been extensively studied. We studied the two populations of KCs using intravital microscopy, morphometric analysis and gene expression profiling. An ion homeostasis gene signature, including genes associated with scavenger receptor function and extracellular matrix deposition, allowed discrimination between these two KC sub-types. Bone marrow derived "KCs" accumulating as a result of genotoxic injury, resemble but are not identical to their yolk sac counterparts. Reflecting the differential expression of scavenger receptors, yolk sac-derived KCs were more effective at accumulating acetylated low density lipoprotein, whereas surprisingly, they were poorer than bone marrow-derived KCs when assessed for uptake of a range of bacterial pathogens. The two KC populations were almost indistinguishable in regard to i) response to lipopolysaccharide challenge, ii) phagocytosis of effete red blood cells and iii) their ability to contain infection and direct granuloma formation against Leishmania donovani, a KC-tropic intracellular parasite. Bone marrow-derived KCs differentiate locally to resemble yolk sac-derived KC in most but not all respects, with implications for models of infectious diseases, liver injury and bone marrow transplantation. In addition, the gene signature we describe adds to the tools available for distinguishing KC subpopulations based on their ontology

  6. Unique transcriptome signatures and GM-CSF expression in lymphocytes from patients with spondyloarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mossawi, M H; Chen, L; Fang, H; Ridley, A; de Wit, J; Yager, N; Hammitzsch, A; Pulyakhina, I; Fairfax, B P; Simone, D; Yi, Yao; Bandyopadhyay, S; Doig, K; Gundle, R; Kendrick, B; Powrie, F; Knight, J C; Bowness, P

    2017-11-15

    Spondyloarthritis encompasses a group of common inflammatory diseases thought to be driven by IL-17A-secreting type-17 lymphocytes. Here we show increased numbers of GM-CSF-producing CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes in the blood and joints of patients with spondyloarthritis, and increased numbers of IL-17A+GM-CSF+ double-producing CD4, CD8, γδ and NK cells. GM-CSF production in CD4 T cells occurs both independently and in combination with classical Th1 and Th17 cytokines. Type 3 innate lymphoid cells producing predominantly GM-CSF are expanded in synovial tissues from patients with spondyloarthritis. GM-CSF+CD4+ cells, isolated using a triple cytokine capture approach, have a specific transcriptional signature. Both GM-CSF+ and IL-17A+GM-CSF+ double-producing CD4 T cells express increased levels of GPR65, a proton-sensing receptor associated with spondyloarthritis in genome-wide association studies and pathogenicity in murine inflammatory disease models. Silencing GPR65 in primary CD4 T cells reduces GM-CSF production. GM-CSF and GPR65 may thus serve as targets for therapeutic intervention of spondyloarthritis.

  7. Signature movements lead to efficient search for threatening actions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen J A van Boxtel

    Full Text Available The ability to find and evade fighting persons in a crowd is potentially life-saving. To investigate how the visual system processes threatening actions, we employed a visual search paradigm with threatening boxer targets among emotionally-neutral walker distractors, and vice versa. We found that a boxer popped out for both intact and scrambled actions, whereas walkers did not. A reverse correlation analysis revealed that observers' responses clustered around the time of the "punch", a signature movement of boxing actions, but not around specific movements of the walker. These findings support the existence of a detector for signature movements in action perception. This detector helps in rapidly detecting aggressive behavior in a crowd, potentially through an expedited (subcortical threat-detection mechanism.

  8. Identification of unique expression signatures and therapeutic targets in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wusheng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC, the predominant histological subtype of esophageal cancer, is characterized by high mortality. Previous work identified important mRNA expression differences between normal and tumor cells; however, to date there are limited ex vivo studies examining expression changes occurring during normal esophageal squamous cell differentiation versus those associated with tumorigenesis. In this study, we used a unique tissue microdissection strategy and microarrays to measure gene expression profiles associated with cell differentiation versus tumorigenesis in twelve cases of patient-matched normal basal squamous epithelial cells (NB, normal differentiated squamous epithelium (ND, and squamous cell cancer. Class comparison and pathway analysis were used to compare NB versus tumor in a search for unique therapeutic targets. Results As a first step towards this goal, gene expression profiles and pathways were evaluated. Overall, ND expression patterns were markedly different from NB and tumor; whereas, tumor and NB were more closely related. Tumor showed a general decrease in differentially expressed genes relative to NB as opposed to ND that exhibited the opposite trend. FSH and IgG networks were most highly dysregulated in normal differentiation and tumorigenesis, respectively. DNA repair pathways were generally elevated in NB and tumor relative to ND indicating involvement in both normal and pathological growth. PDGF signaling pathway and 12 individual genes unique to the tumor/NB comparison were identified as therapeutic targets, and 10 associated ESCC gene-drug pairs were identified. We further examined the protein expression level and the distribution patterns of four genes: ODC1, POSTN, ASPA and IGF2BP3. Ultimately, three genes (ODC1, POSTN, ASPA were verified to be dysregulated in the same pattern at both the mRNA and protein levels. Conclusions These data reveal insight into genes and

  9. Transcriptome of interstitial cells of Cajal reveals unique and selective gene signatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon Young Lee

    Full Text Available Transcriptome-scale data can reveal essential clues into understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms behind specific cellular functions and biological processes. Transcriptomics is a continually growing field of research utilized in biomarker discovery. The transcriptomic profile of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC, which serve as slow-wave electrical pacemakers for gastrointestinal (GI smooth muscle, has yet to be uncovered. Using copGFP-labeled ICC mice and flow cytometry, we isolated ICC populations from the murine small intestine and colon and obtained their transcriptomes. In analyzing the transcriptome, we identified a unique set of ICC-restricted markers including transcription factors, epigenetic enzymes/regulators, growth factors, receptors, protein kinases/phosphatases, and ion channels/transporters. This analysis provides new and unique insights into the cellular and biological functions of ICC in GI physiology. Additionally, we constructed an interactive ICC genome browser (http://med.unr.edu/physio/transcriptome based on the UCSC genome database. To our knowledge, this is the first online resource that provides a comprehensive library of all known genetic transcripts expressed in primary ICC. Our genome browser offers a new perspective into the alternative expression of genes in ICC and provides a valuable reference for future functional studies.

  10. Microarray karyotyping of commercial wine yeast strains reveals shared, as well as unique, genomic signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Barbara; Levine, R Paul; Sherlock, Gavin

    2005-01-01

    Background Genetic differences between yeast strains used in wine-making may account for some of the variation seen in their fermentation properties and may also produce differing sensory characteristics in the final wine product itself. To investigate this, we have determined genomic differences among several Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine strains by using a "microarray karyotyping" (also known as "array-CGH" or "aCGH") technique. Results We have studied four commonly used commercial wine yeast strains, assaying three independent isolates from each strain. All four wine strains showed common differences with respect to the laboratory S. cerevisiae strain S288C, some of which may be specific to commercial wine yeasts. We observed very little intra-strain variation; i.e., the genomic karyotypes of different commercial isolates of the same strain looked very similar, although an exception to this was seen among the Montrachet isolates. A moderate amount of inter-strain genomic variation between the four wine strains was observed, mostly in the form of depletions or amplifications of single genes; these differences allowed unique identification of each strain. Many of the inter-strain differences appear to be in transporter genes, especially hexose transporters (HXT genes), metal ion sensors/transporters (CUP1, ZRT1, ENA genes), members of the major facilitator superfamily, and in genes involved in drug response (PDR3, SNQ1, QDR1, RDS1, AYT1, YAR068W). We therefore used halo assays to investigate the response of these strains to three different fungicidal drugs (cycloheximide, clotrimazole, sulfomethuron methyl). Strains with fewer copies of the CUP1 loci showed hypersensitivity to sulfomethuron methyl. Conclusion Microarray karyotyping is a useful tool for analyzing the genome structures of wine yeasts. Despite only small to moderate variations in gene copy numbers between different wine yeast strains and within different isolates of a given strain, there was enough

  11. Microarray karyotyping of commercial wine yeast strains reveals shared, as well as unique, genomic signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levine R Paul

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic differences between yeast strains used in wine-making may account for some of the variation seen in their fermentation properties and may also produce differing sensory characteristics in the final wine product itself. To investigate this, we have determined genomic differences among several Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine strains by using a "microarray karyotyping" (also known as "array-CGH" or "aCGH" technique. Results We have studied four commonly used commercial wine yeast strains, assaying three independent isolates from each strain. All four wine strains showed common differences with respect to the laboratory S. cerevisiae strain S288C, some of which may be specific to commercial wine yeasts. We observed very little intra-strain variation; i.e., the genomic karyotypes of different commercial isolates of the same strain looked very similar, although an exception to this was seen among the Montrachet isolates. A moderate amount of inter-strain genomic variation between the four wine strains was observed, mostly in the form of depletions or amplifications of single genes; these differences allowed unique identification of each strain. Many of the inter-strain differences appear to be in transporter genes, especially hexose transporters (HXT genes, metal ion sensors/transporters (CUP1, ZRT1, ENA genes, members of the major facilitator superfamily, and in genes involved in drug response (PDR3, SNQ1, QDR1, RDS1, AYT1, YAR068W. We therefore used halo assays to investigate the response of these strains to three different fungicidal drugs (cycloheximide, clotrimazole, sulfomethuron methyl. Strains with fewer copies of the CUP1 loci showed hypersensitivity to sulfomethuron methyl. Conclusion Microarray karyotyping is a useful tool for analyzing the genome structures of wine yeasts. Despite only small to moderate variations in gene copy numbers between different wine yeast strains and within different isolates of a given

  12. Efficient Signature Based Malware Detection on Mobile Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Venugopal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The threat of malware on mobile devices is gaining attention recently. It is important to provide security solutions to these devices before these threats cause widespread damage. However, mobile devices have severe resource constraints in terms of memory and power. Hence, even though there are well developed techniques for malware detection on the PC domain, it requires considerable effort to adapt these techniques for mobile devices. In this paper, we outline the considerations for malware detection on mobile devices and propose a signature based malware detection method. Specifically, we detail a signature matching algorithm that is well suited for use in mobile device scanning due to its low memory requirements. Additionally, the matching algorithm is shown to have high scanning speed which makes it unobtrusive to users. Our evaluation and comparison study with the well known Clam-AV scanner shows that our solution consumes less than 50% of the memory used by Clam-AV while maintaining a fast scanning rate.

  13. Prediction of Solar Flares Using Unique Signatures of Magnetic Field Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raboonik, Abbas; Safari, Hossein; Alipour, Nasibe; Wheatland, Michael S.

    2017-01-01

    Prediction of solar flares is an important task in solar physics. The occurrence of solar flares is highly dependent on the structure and topology of solar magnetic fields. A new method for predicting large (M- and X-class) flares is presented, which uses machine learning methods applied to the Zernike moments (ZM) of magnetograms observed by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory for a period of six years from 2010 June 2 to 2016 August 1. Magnetic field images consisting of the radial component of the magnetic field are converted to finite sets of ZMs and fed to the support vector machine classifier. ZMs have the capability to elicit unique features from any 2D image, which may allow more accurate classification. The results indicate whether an arbitrary active region has the potential to produce at least one large flare. We show that the majority of large flares can be predicted within 48 hr before their occurrence, with only 10 false negatives out of 385 flaring active region magnetograms and 21 false positives out of 179 non-flaring active region magnetograms. Our method may provide a useful tool for the prediction of solar flares, which can be employed alongside other forecasting methods.

  14. Unique amino acid signatures that are evolutionarily conserved distinguish simple-type, epidermal and hair keratins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strnad, Pavel; Usachov, Valentyn; Debes, Cedric; Gräter, Frauke; Parry, David A. D.; Omary, M. Bishr

    2011-01-01

    Keratins (Ks) consist of central α-helical rod domains that are flanked by non-α-helical head and tail domains. The cellular abundance of keratins, coupled with their selective cell expression patterns, suggests that they diversified to fulfill tissue-specific functions although the primary structure differences between them have not been comprehensively compared. We analyzed keratin sequences from many species: K1, K2, K5, K9, K10, K14 were studied as representatives of epidermal keratins, and compared with K7, K8, K18, K19, K20 and K31, K35, K81, K85, K86, which represent simple-type (single-layered or glandular) epithelial and hair keratins, respectively. We show that keratin domains have striking differences in their amino acids. There are many cysteines in hair keratins but only a small number in epidermal keratins and rare or none in simple-type keratins. The heads and/or tails of epidermal keratins are glycine and phenylalanine rich but alanine poor, whereas parallel domains of hair keratins are abundant in prolines, and those of simple-type epithelial keratins are enriched in acidic and/or basic residues. The observed differences between simple-type, epidermal and hair keratins are highly conserved throughout evolution. Cysteines and histidines, which are infrequent keratin amino acids, are involved in de novo mutations that are markedly overrepresented in keratins. Hence, keratins have evolutionarily conserved and domain-selectively enriched amino acids including glycine and phenylalanine (epidermal), cysteine and proline (hair), and basic and acidic (simple-type epithelial), which reflect unique functions related to structural flexibility, rigidity and solubility, respectively. Our findings also support the importance of human keratin ‘mutation hotspot’ residues and their wild-type counterparts. PMID:22215855

  15. An efficient forward-secure group certificate digital signature scheme to enhance EMR authentication process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yao-Chang; Hou, Ting-Wei

    2014-05-01

    The frequently used digital signature algorithms, such as RSA and the Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA), lack forward-secure function. The result is that, when private keys are renewed, trustworthiness is lost. In other words, electronic medical records (EMRs) signed by revoked private keys are no longer trusted. This significant security threat stands in the way of EMR adoption. This paper proposes an efficient forward-secure group certificate digital signature scheme that is based on Shamir's (t,n) threshold scheme and Schnorr's digital signature scheme to ensure trustworthiness is maintained when private keys are renewed and to increase the efficiency of EMRs' authentication processes in terms of number of certificates, number of keys, forward-secure ability and searching time.

  16. Unique proteomic signature for radiation sensitive patients; a comparative study between normo-sensitive and radiation sensitive breast cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skiöld, Sara [Center for Radiation Protection Research, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wernner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Azimzadeh, Omid [Institute of Radiation Biology, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Helmholtz Zentrum München (Germany); Merl-Pham, Juliane [Research Unit Protein Science, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Neuherberg (Germany); Naslund, Ingemar; Wersall, Peter; Lidbrink, Elisabet [Division of Radiotherapy, Radiumhemmet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Tapio, Soile [Institute of Radiation Biology, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Helmholtz Zentrum München (Germany); Harms-Ringdahl, Mats [Center for Radiation Protection Research, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wernner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Haghdoost, Siamak, E-mail: Siamak.Haghdoost@su.se [Center for Radiation Protection Research, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wernner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • The unique protein expression profiles were found that separate radiosensitive from normal sensitive breast cancer patients. • The oxidative stress response, coagulation properties and acute phase response suggested to be the hallmarks of radiation sensitivity. - Abstract: Radiation therapy is a cornerstone of modern cancer treatment. Understanding the mechanisms behind normal tissue sensitivity is essential in order to minimize adverse side effects and yet to prevent local cancer reoccurrence. The aim of this study was to identify biomarkers of radiation sensitivity to enable personalized cancer treatment. To investigate the mechanisms behind radiation sensitivity a pilot study was made where eight radiation-sensitive and nine normo-sensitive patients were selected from a cohort of 2914 breast cancer patients, based on acute tissue reactions after radiation therapy. Whole blood was sampled and irradiated in vitro with 0, 1, or 150 mGy followed by 3 h incubation at 37 °C. The leukocytes of the two groups were isolated, pooled and protein expression profiles were investigated using isotope-coded protein labeling method (ICPL). First, leukocytes from the in vitro irradiated whole blood from normo-sensitive and extremely sensitive patients were compared to the non-irradiated controls. To validate this first study a second ICPL analysis comparing only the non-irradiated samples was conducted. Both approaches showed unique proteomic signatures separating the two groups at the basal level and after doses of 1 and 150 mGy. Pathway analyses of both proteomic approaches suggest that oxidative stress response, coagulation properties and acute phase response are hallmarks of radiation sensitivity supporting our previous study on oxidative stress response. This investigation provides unique characteristics of radiation sensitivity essential for individualized radiation therapy.

  17. Secure Computation, I/O-Efficient Algorithms and Distributed Signatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Kölker, Jonas; Toft, Tomas

    2012-01-01

    adversary corrupting a constant fraction of the players and servers. Using packed secret sharing, the data can be stored in a compact way but will only be accessible in a block-wise fashion. We explore the possibility of using I/O-efficient algorithms to nevertheless compute on the data as efficiently...... as if random access was possible. We show that for sorting, priority queues and data mining, this can indeed be done. We show actively secure protocols of complexity within a constant factor of the passively secure solution. As a technical contribution towards this goal, we develop techniques for generating...

  18. Genome-wide profiling of pluripotent cells reveals a unique molecular signature of human embryonic germ cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikta Pashai

    Full Text Available Human embryonic germ cells (EGCs provide a powerful model for identifying molecules involved in the pluripotent state when compared to their progenitors, primordial germ cells (PGCs, and other pluripotent stem cells. Microarray and Principal Component Analysis (PCA reveals for the first time that human EGCs possess a transcription profile distinct from PGCs and other pluripotent stem cells. Validation with qRT-PCR confirms that human EGCs and PGCs express many pluripotency-associated genes but with quantifiable differences compared to pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs, induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSCs, and embryonal carcinoma cells (ECCs. Analyses also identified a number of target genes that may be potentially associated with their unique pluripotent states. These include IPO7, MED7, RBM26, HSPD1, and KRAS which were upregulated in EGCs along with other pluripotent stem cells when compared to PGCs. Other potential target genes were also found which may contribute toward a primed ESC-like state. These genes were exclusively up-regulated in ESCs, IPSCs and ECCs including PARP1, CCNE1, CDK6, AURKA, MAD2L1, CCNG1, and CCNB1 which are involved in cell cycle regulation, cellular metabolism and DNA repair and replication. Gene classification analysis also confirmed that the distinguishing feature of EGCs compared to ESCs, ECCs, and IPSCs lies primarily in their genetic contribution to cellular metabolism, cell cycle, and cell adhesion. In contrast, several genes were found upregulated in PGCs which may help distinguish their unipotent state including HBA1, DMRT1, SPANXA1, and EHD2. Together, these findings provide the first glimpse into a unique genomic signature of human germ cells and pluripotent stem cells and provide genes potentially involved in defining different states of germ-line pluripotency.

  19. Genome-Wide Profiling of Pluripotent Cells Reveals a Unique Molecular Signature of Human Embryonic Germ Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashai, Nikta; Hao, Haiping; All, Angelo; Gupta, Siddharth; Chaerkady, Raghothama; De Los Angeles, Alejandro; Gearhart, John D.; Kerr, Candace L.

    2012-01-01

    Human embryonic germ cells (EGCs) provide a powerful model for identifying molecules involved in the pluripotent state when compared to their progenitors, primordial germ cells (PGCs), and other pluripotent stem cells. Microarray and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) reveals for the first time that human EGCs possess a transcription profile distinct from PGCs and other pluripotent stem cells. Validation with qRT-PCR confirms that human EGCs and PGCs express many pluripotency-associated genes but with quantifiable differences compared to pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs), induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSCs), and embryonal carcinoma cells (ECCs). Analyses also identified a number of target genes that may be potentially associated with their unique pluripotent states. These include IPO7, MED7, RBM26, HSPD1, and KRAS which were upregulated in EGCs along with other pluripotent stem cells when compared to PGCs. Other potential target genes were also found which may contribute toward a primed ESC-like state. These genes were exclusively up-regulated in ESCs, IPSCs and ECCs including PARP1, CCNE1, CDK6, AURKA, MAD2L1, CCNG1, and CCNB1 which are involved in cell cycle regulation, cellular metabolism and DNA repair and replication. Gene classification analysis also confirmed that the distinguishing feature of EGCs compared to ESCs, ECCs, and IPSCs lies primarily in their genetic contribution to cellular metabolism, cell cycle, and cell adhesion. In contrast, several genes were found upregulated in PGCs which may help distinguish their unipotent state including HBA1, DMRT1, SPANXA1, and EHD2. Together, these findings provide the first glimpse into a unique genomic signature of human germ cells and pluripotent stem cells and provide genes potentially involved in defining different states of germ-line pluripotency. PMID:22737227

  20. Heat and water stress induce unique transcriptional signatures of heat-shock proteins and transcription factors in grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocheta, Margarida; Becker, Jörg D; Coito, João L; Carvalho, Luísa; Amâncio, Sara

    2014-03-01

    Grapevine is an extremely important crop worldwide.In southern Europe, post-flowering phases of the growth cycle can occur under high temperatures, excessive light, and drought conditions at soil and/or atmospheric level. In this study, we subjected greenhouse grown grapevine, variety Aragonez, to two individual abiotic stresses, water deficit stress(WDS), and heat stress (HS). The adaptation of plants to stress is a complex response triggered by cascades of molecular net works involved in stress perception, signal transduction, and the expression of specific stress-related genes and metabolites. Approaches such as array-based transcript profiling allow assessing the expression of thousands of genes in control and stress tissues. Using microarrays, we analyzed the leaf transcriptomic profile of the grapevine plants. Photosynthesis measurements verified that the plants were significantly affected by the stresses applied. Leaf gene expression was obtained using a high-throughput transcriptomic grapevine array, the 23K custom-made Affymetrix Vitis GeneChip. We identified 1,594 genes as differentially expressed between control and treatments and grouped them into ten major functional categories using MapMan software. The transcriptome of Aragonez was more significantly affected by HS when compared with WDS. The number of genes coding for heat-shock proteins and transcription factors expressed solely in response to HS suggesting their expression as unique signatures of HS. However, across-talk between the response pathways to both stresses was observed at the level of AP2/ERF transcription factors.

  1. ELECTRONIC SIGNATURES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    'electronic signature' means data attached to, incorporated in, or logically associated with other data and which is intended by the user to serve as a signature;. The suggested new definition for an electronic signature reads as follows: 'electronic signature' means a sound, symbol or process that is (i) uniquely linked to the ...

  2. Identifying the unique ground motion signatures of supershear earthquakes - The one-two punch effect on high-rise buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosakis, A.; Mello, M.; Bhat, H.; Krishnan, S.; Kanamori, H.

    2011-12-01

    Directly studying earthquakes presents a host of insurmountable difficulties, the least of which is our inability to trigger earthquakes of various magnitudes at will and the lack of means of scrutinizing the behavior at depth while the quake propagates. We have developed techniques to produce miniature (or surrogate) laboratory earthquakes and follow their progress with high-speed imaging tools. Our laboratory quakes mimic actual ones, and have allowed us to demonstrate the existence of ruptures of super-shear or intersonic rupture speeds. The propagating fronts of such supershear ruptures feature a Mach-cone of shear shock waves similar to that of supersonic aircraft. For earthquake ruptures transitioning from sub-Rayleigh to supershear rupture speeds, this unusual shear Mach cone feature is also followed by a trailing Rayleigh disturbance which is all that remains of the old sub-Rayleigh rupture after transition is complete. Each propagating disturbance contributes to the unique ground motion signature in the near field. We refer to this as a one-two punch scenario. In particular, ground motion associated with passage of the shear Mach features a dominant fault-parallel velocity component while ground motion from the trailing Rayleigh field is characterized by a dominant fault-normal velocity component (characteristic of common, sub-shear earthquake ruptures). Appropriate scaling of the laboratory ground velocity measurements are used to shake 3-D numerical models of high-rise buildings (located in near fault locations) with hypothetical supershear and sub-Rayleigh earthquakes with unexpected implication to building safety and seismic hazard analysis.

  3. RNA-seq Analysis Reveals Unique Transcriptome Signatures in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patients with Distinct Autoantibody Specificities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa Rai

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE patients exhibit immense heterogeneity which is challenging from the diagnostic perspective. Emerging high throughput sequencing technologies have been proved to be a useful platform to understand the complex and dynamic disease processes. SLE patients categorised based on autoantibody specificities are reported to have differential immuno-regulatory mechanisms. Therefore, we performed RNA-seq analysis to identify transcriptomics of SLE patients with distinguished autoantibody specificities. The SLE patients were segregated into three subsets based on the type of autoantibodies present in their sera (anti-dsDNA+ group with anti-dsDNA autoantibody alone; anti-ENA+ group having autoantibodies against extractable nuclear antigens (ENA only, and anti-dsDNA+ENA+ group having autoantibodies to both dsDNA and ENA. Global transcriptome profiling for each SLE patients subsets was performed using Illumina® Hiseq-2000 platform. The biological relevance of dysregulated transcripts in each SLE subsets was assessed by ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA software. We observed that dysregulation in the transcriptome expression pattern was clearly distinct in each SLE patients subsets. IPA analysis of transcripts uniquely expressed in different SLE groups revealed specific biological pathways to be affected in each SLE subsets. Multiple cytokine signaling pathways were specifically dysregulated in anti-dsDNA+ patients whereas Interferon signaling was predominantly dysregulated in anti-ENA+ patients. In anti-dsDNA+ENA+ patients regulation of actin based motility by Rho pathway was significantly affected. The granulocyte gene signature was a common feature to all SLE subsets; however, anti-dsDNA+ group showed relatively predominant expression of these genes. Dysregulation of Plasma cell related transcripts were higher in anti-dsDNA+ and anti-ENA+ patients as compared to anti-dsDNA+ ENA+. Association of specific canonical pathways

  4. An Efficient Code-Based Threshold Ring Signature Scheme with a Leader-Participant Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guomin Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital signature schemes with additional properties have broad applications, such as in protecting the identity of signers allowing a signer to anonymously sign a message in a group of signers (also known as a ring. While these number-theoretic problems are still secure at the time of this research, the situation could change with advances in quantum computing. There is a pressing need to design PKC schemes that are secure against quantum attacks. In this paper, we propose a novel code-based threshold ring signature scheme with a leader-participant model. A leader is appointed, who chooses some shared parameters for other signers to participate in the signing process. This leader-participant model enhances the performance because every participant including the leader could execute the decoding algorithm (as a part of signing process upon receiving the shared parameters from the leader. The time complexity of our scheme is close to Courtois et al.’s (2001 scheme. The latter is often used as a basis to construct other types of code-based signature schemes. Moreover, as a threshold ring signature scheme, our scheme is as efficient as the normal code-based ring signature.

  5. Somatic mutation footprinting reveals a unique tetranucleotide signature associated with intron-exon boundaries in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormald, Samuel; Lerch, Anita; Mouradov, Dmitri; O'Connor, Liam

    2018-02-09

    Cigarette smoke comprises a large number of carcinogenic substances that can increase DNA mutation load in epithelial cells of the mouth, throat and lungs. While a strong C:A substitution preference is abundant in tobacco-related cancer genomes, detection of complex or less abundant somatic mutation signatures may be confounded by the heterogeneity of carcinogens present in smoke. Trinucleotide signatures are defined for a variety of somatic mutation processes, yet the extent to which this configuration optimally defines and discriminates between mutational processes is not clear. Here, we describe a method that determines whether trinucleotide patterns do a good job at encapsulating a mutation signature or whether they mask underlying heterogeneity that alternative pattern structures would better define. The approach works by mapping the dependency of trinucleotide signatures in relation to sequence context to establish a 'footprint' of context dependency. Applying this technique to smoke-associated cancers, we show that a robust tetranucleotide substitution is prevalent in 17% of lung squamous cell carcinoma genomes. The signature is dominated by the substitution CT(C:A)G and is strongly associated with gene expression level and intron-exon junctions. Intriguingly, its distribution across the genome is biased towards 5' splice junctions, suggesting a novel mechanism of mutation. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Efficient versus flexible mentalizing in complex social settings: Exploring signature limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Dana; Low, Jason

    2016-02-01

    Wu, Sheppard, and Mitchell (Br. J. Psychol., 2016; 107, 1-22) investigate in a fascinating study the fact that adults can detect empathic traits in others after only briefly watching or listening to a person. In this commentary, we highlight how the processes of an efficient, implicit, but inflexible mentalizing system are likely to operate in such situations. Further, we specify how testing signature limits over time-, attribute-, and protagonist-restrictions can help distinguish whether an efficient-implicit or flexible-explicit mentalizing system is of relevance when processing complex social settings. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  7. Unique Tracheal Fluid MicroRNA Signature Predicts Response to FETO in Patients With Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-Terra, Patrícia; Deprest, Jan A; Kholdebarin, Ramin; Khoshgoo, Naghmeh; DeKoninck, Philip; Munck, Anne A Boerema-De; Wang, Jinxia; Zhu, Fuqin; Rottier, Robbert J; Iwasiow, Barbara M; Correia-Pinto, Jorge; Tibboel, Dick; Post, Martin; Keijzer, Richard

    2015-12-01

    Our objective was to determine the fetal in vivo microRNA signature in hypoplastic lungs of human fetuses with severe isolated congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) and changes in tracheal and amniotic fluid of fetuses undergoing fetoscopic endoluminal tracheal occlusion (FETO) to reverse severe lung hypoplasia due to CDH. We profiled microRNA expression in prenatal human lungs by microarray analysis. We then validated this signature with real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction in tracheal and amniotic fluid of CDH patients undergoing FETO. We further explored the role of miR-200b using semiquantitative in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry for TGF-β2 in postnatal lung sections. We investigated miR-200b effects on TGF-β signaling using a SMAD-luciferase reporter assay and Western blotting for phospho-SMAD2/3 and ZEB-2 in cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells. CDH lungs display an increased expression of 2 microRNAs: miR-200b and miR-10a as compared to control lungs. Fetuses undergoing FETO display increased miR-200 expression in their tracheal fluid at the time of balloon removal. Future survivors of FETO display significantly higher miR-200 expression than those with a limited response. miR-200b was expressed in bronchial epithelial cells and vascular endothelial cells. TGF-β2 expression was lower in CDH lungs. miR-200b inhibited TGF-β-induced SMAD signaling in cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells. Human fetal hypoplastic CDH lungs have a specific miR-200/miR-10a signature. Survival after FETO is associated with increased miR-200 family expression. miR-200b overexpression in CDH lungs results in decreased TGF-β/SMAD signaling.

  8. Temporally isolated lineages of Pink salmon reveal unique signatures of selection on distinct pools of standing genetic variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Limborg, Morten; Waples, R.K.; Seeb, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    gorbuscha) using genome scans coupled with inference from a haploid-assisted linkage map. Pink salmon have a strict 2-year semelparous life history which has resulted in temporally isolated (allochronic) lineages that remain sympatric through sharing of spawning habitats in alternate years. The lineages...... differ in a range of adaptive traits, suggesting different genetic backgrounds. We used genotyping by sequencing of haploids to generate a high-density linkage map with 7035 loci and screened an existing panel of 8036 loci for signatures of selection. The linkage map enabled identification of novel...

  9. EBV and vitamin D status in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients with a unique cytokine signature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejati, Ahmad; Shoja, Zabihollah; Shahmahmoodi, Shohreh; Tafakhori, Abbas; Mollaei-Kandelous, Yaghoub; Rezaei, Farhad; Hamid, Kabir Magaji; Mirshafiey, Abbas; Doosti, Rozita; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Mahmoudi, Mahmood; Shokri, Fazel; Emery, Vince; Marashi, Sayed Mahdi

    2016-04-01

    Multiple sclerosis, a debilitating autoimmune and inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, is associated with both infectious and non-infectious factors. We investigated the role of EBV infection, vitamin D level, and cytokine signature in MS patients. Molecular and serological assays were used to investigate immune biomarkers, vitamin D level, and EBV status in 83 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis and 62 healthy controls. In total, 98.8 % of MS patients showed a history of EBV exposure compared to 88.6 % in the healthy group (p = 0.005). EBV DNA load was significantly higher in MS patients than healthy subjects (p vitamin D concentration and EBV load, but not EBNA-1 IgG antibody levels. Our data highlight biomarker correlates in MS patients together with a complex interplay between EBV replication and vitamin D levels.

  10. Systematic CpT (ApG) Depletion and CpG Excess Are Unique Genomic Signatures of Large DNA Viruses Infecting Invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Mohita; Sharma, Neha; Vivekanandan, Perumal

    2014-01-01

    Differences in the relative abundance of dinucleotides, if any may provide important clues on host-driven evolution of viruses. We studied dinucleotide frequencies of large DNA viruses infecting vertebrates (n = 105; viruses infecting mammals = 99; viruses infecting aves = 6; viruses infecting reptiles = 1) and invertebrates (n = 88; viruses infecting insects = 84; viruses infecting crustaceans = 4). We have identified systematic depletion of CpT(ApG) dinucleotides and over-representation of CpG dinucleotides as the unique genomic signature of large DNA viruses infecting invertebrates. Detailed investigation of this unique genomic signature suggests the existence of invertebrate host-induced pressures specifically targeting CpT(ApG) and CpG dinucleotides. The depletion of CpT dinucleotides among large DNA viruses infecting invertebrates is at least in part, explained by non-canonical DNA methylation by the infected host. Our findings highlight the role of invertebrate host-related factors in shaping virus evolution and they also provide the necessary framework for future studies on evolution, epigenetics and molecular biology of viruses infecting this group of hosts. PMID:25369195

  11. Unique biofilm signature, drug susceptibility and decreased virulence in Drosophila through the Pseudomonas aeruginosa two-component system PprAB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bentzmann, Sophie; Giraud, Caroline; Bernard, Christophe S; Calderon, Virginie; Ewald, Friederike; Plésiat, Patrick; Nguyen, Cathy; Grunwald, Didier; Attree, Ina; Jeannot, Katy; Fauvarque, Marie-Odile; Bordi, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial biofilm is considered as a particular lifestyle helping cells to survive hostile environments triggered by a variety of signals sensed and integrated through adequate regulatory pathways. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a Gram-negative bacterium causing severe infections in humans, forms biofilms and is a fantastic example for fine-tuning of the transition between planktonic and community lifestyles through two-component systems (TCS). Here we decipher the regulon of the P. aeruginosa response regulator PprB of the TCS PprAB. We identified genes under the control of this TCS and once this pathway is activated, analyzed and dissected at the molecular level the PprB-dependent phenotypes in various models. The TCS PprAB triggers a hyper-biofilm phenotype with a unique adhesive signature made of BapA adhesin, a Type 1 secretion system (T1SS) substrate, CupE CU fimbriae, Flp Type IVb pili and eDNA without EPS involvement. This unique signature is associated with drug hyper-susceptibility, decreased virulence in acutely infected flies and cytotoxicity toward various cell types linked to decreased Type III secretion (T3SS). Moreover, once the PprB pathway is activated, decreased virulence in orally infected flies associated with enhanced biofilm formation and dissemination defect from the intestinal lumen toward the hemolymph compartment is reported. PprB may thus represent a key bacterial adaptation checkpoint of multicellular and aggregative behavior triggering the production of a unique matrix associated with peculiar antibiotic susceptibility and attenuated virulence, a particular interesting breach for therapeutic intervention to consider in view of possible eradication of P. aeruginosa biofilm-associated infections.

  12. Unique biofilm signature, drug susceptibility and decreased virulence in Drosophila through the Pseudomonas aeruginosa two-component system PprAB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie de Bentzmann

    Full Text Available Bacterial biofilm is considered as a particular lifestyle helping cells to survive hostile environments triggered by a variety of signals sensed and integrated through adequate regulatory pathways. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a Gram-negative bacterium causing severe infections in humans, forms biofilms and is a fantastic example for fine-tuning of the transition between planktonic and community lifestyles through two-component systems (TCS. Here we decipher the regulon of the P. aeruginosa response regulator PprB of the TCS PprAB. We identified genes under the control of this TCS and once this pathway is activated, analyzed and dissected at the molecular level the PprB-dependent phenotypes in various models. The TCS PprAB triggers a hyper-biofilm phenotype with a unique adhesive signature made of BapA adhesin, a Type 1 secretion system (T1SS substrate, CupE CU fimbriae, Flp Type IVb pili and eDNA without EPS involvement. This unique signature is associated with drug hyper-susceptibility, decreased virulence in acutely infected flies and cytotoxicity toward various cell types linked to decreased Type III secretion (T3SS. Moreover, once the PprB pathway is activated, decreased virulence in orally infected flies associated with enhanced biofilm formation and dissemination defect from the intestinal lumen toward the hemolymph compartment is reported. PprB may thus represent a key bacterial adaptation checkpoint of multicellular and aggregative behavior triggering the production of a unique matrix associated with peculiar antibiotic susceptibility and attenuated virulence, a particular interesting breach for therapeutic intervention to consider in view of possible eradication of P. aeruginosa biofilm-associated infections.

  13. Low dose irradiation of thyroid cells reveals a unique transcriptomic and epigenetic signature in RET/PTC-positive cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abou-El-Ardat, Khalil, E-mail: kabouela@sckcen.be [Radiobiology Unit, Molecular and Cellular Biology, GKD Building, Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie - Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire (SCK-CEN), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Universiteit Gent, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Monsieurs, Pieter [Radiobiology Unit, Molecular and Cellular Biology, GKD Building, Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie - Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire (SCK-CEN), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Anastasov, Natasa; Atkinson, Mike [Department of Radiation Sciences, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Munich (Germany); Derradji, Hanane [Radiobiology Unit, Molecular and Cellular Biology, GKD Building, Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie - Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire (SCK-CEN), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); De Meyer, Tim [Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Universiteit Gent, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Department of Applied Mathematics, Biometrics and Process Control, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Universiteit Gent, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Bekaert, Sofie [Clinical Research Center, Faculty for Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiteit Gent, 185 De Pintelaan, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Van Criekinge, Wim [Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Universiteit Gent, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); and others

    2012-03-01

    The high doses of radiation received in the wake of the Chernobyl incident and the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki have been linked to the increased appearance of thyroid cancer in the children living in the vicinity of the site. However, the data gathered on the effect of low doses of radiation on the thyroid remain limited. We have examined the genome wide transcriptional response of a culture of TPC-1 human cell line of papillary thyroid carcinoma origin with a RET/PTC1 translocation to various doses (0.0625, 0.5, and 4 Gy) of X-rays and compared it to response of thyroids with a RET/PTC3 translocation and against wild-type mouse thyroids irradiated with the same doses using Affymetrix microarrays. We have found considerable overlap at a high dose of 4 Gy in both RET/PTC-positive systems but no common genes at 62.5 mGy. In addition, the response of RET/PTC-positive system at all doses was distinct from the response of wild-type thyroids with both systems signaling down different pathways. Analysis of the response of microRNAs in TPC-1 cells revealed a radiation-responsive signature of microRNAs in addition to dose-responsive microRNAs. Our results point to the fact that a low dose of X-rays seems to have a significant proliferative effect on normal thyroids. This observation should be studied further as opposed to its effect on RET/PTC-positive thyroids which was subtle, anti-proliferative and system-dependent.

  14. The sRNAome mining revealed existence of unique signature small RNAs derived from 5.8SrRNA from Piper nigrum and other plant lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asha, Srinivasan; Soniya, E V

    2017-02-01

    Small RNAs derived from ribosomal RNAs (srRNAs) are rarely explored in the high-throughput data of plant systems. Here, we analyzed srRNAs from the deep-sequenced small RNA libraries of Piper nigrum, a unique magnoliid plant. The 5' end of the putative long form of 5.8S rRNA (5.8SLrRNA) was identified as the site for biogenesis of highly abundant srRNAs that are unique among the Piperaceae family of plants. A subsequent comparative analysis of the ninety-seven sRNAomes of diverse plants successfully uncovered the abundant existence and precise cleavage of unique rRF signature small RNAs upstream of a novel 5' consensus sequence of the 5.8S rRNA. The major cleavage process mapped identically among the different tissues of the same plant. The differential expression and cleavage of 5'5.8S srRNAs in Phytophthora capsici infected P. nigrum tissues indicated the critical biological functions of these srRNAs during stress response. The non-canonical short hairpin precursor structure, the association with Argonaute proteins, and the potential targets of 5'5.8S srRNAs reinforced their regulatory role in the RNAi pathway in plants. In addition, this novel lineage specific small RNAs may have tremendous biological potential in the taxonomic profiling of plants.

  15. Corrected near infrared spectroscopy, C-NIRS: An optical system for extracting hemodynamic signatures unique to the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saager, Rolf B.

    We propose a method, dubbed Corrected Near Infrared Spectroscopy (C-NIRS), to isolate absorption trends confined to the lower layer of a two-layer turbid medium, as is desired in near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) of cerebral hemodynamics. The theory behind the operation of this method has been developed and discussed. Several two-layer Monte-Carlo simulations of NIRS time series were generated using a physiologically relevant range of optical properties. Initial results show that by measuring absorption trends at two source-detector separations and performing a least-squares fit of one to the other, processed signals strongly resemble the simulated absorption properties unique to the bottom-layer. Through this approach, it has been demonstrated that fitting coefficients can be estimated without any a priori knowledge of the optical properties present in the model. An analytical approximation for the least squares coefficient provides physical insight into the nature of errors and suggests ways to reduce them. Next, a multi-detector, continuous wave, near infrared spectroscopy system has been developed to examine whether the hemodynamics of the scalp and brain in adults contain significant layer-like hemodynamic trends. NIRS measurements were made using contrasting geometries, one with four detectors equidistant from a source 33 mm away, and one with detectors collinear with the source (5-33 mm away). When NIRS time series were acquired over the prefrontal cortex from resting adults using both geometries, variations among the time series were consistent with a substantially homogeneous two-layer model ( p brain over that offered by established cw NIRS methods. There are many additional avenues where this research can be advanced even further. Some of these future directions are considered.

  16. Secure and Efficient Signature Scheme Based on NTRU for Mobile Payment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yunhao; You, Lirong; Sun, Zhe; Sun, Zhixin

    2017-10-01

    Mobile payment becomes more and more popular, however the traditional public-key encryption algorithm has higher requirements for hardware which is not suitable for mobile terminals of limited computing resources. In addition, these public-key encryption algorithms do not have the ability of anti-quantum computing. This paper researches public-key encryption algorithm NTRU for quantum computation through analyzing the influence of parameter q and k on the probability of generating reasonable signature value. Two methods are proposed to improve the probability of generating reasonable signature value. Firstly, increase the value of parameter q. Secondly, add the authentication condition that meet the reasonable signature requirements during the signature phase. Experimental results show that the proposed signature scheme can realize the zero leakage of the private key information of the signature value, and increase the probability of generating the reasonable signature value. It also improve rate of the signature, and avoid the invalid signature propagation in the network, but the scheme for parameter selection has certain restrictions.

  17. Unique electrophysiological and impedance signatures between encapsulation types: An analysis of biological Utah array failure and benefit of a biomimetic coating in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, Patrick A; Eles, James R; Lagenaur, Carl F; Kozai, Takashi D Y; Cui, X Tracy

    2018-04-01

    Intracortical microelectrode arrays, especially the Utah array, remain the most common choice for obtaining high dimensional recordings of spiking neural activity for brain computer interface and basic neuroscience research. Despite the widespread use and established design, mechanical, material and biological challenges persist that contribute to a steady decline in recording performance (as evidenced by both diminished signal amplitude and recorded cell population over time) or outright array failure. Device implantation injury causes acute cell death and activation of inflammatory microglia and astrocytes that leads to a chronic neurodegeneration and inflammatory glial aggregation around the electrode shanks and often times fibrous tissue growth above the pia along the bed of the array within the meninges. This multifaceted deleterious cascade can result in substantial variability in performance even under the same experimental conditions. We track both impedance signatures and electrophysiological performance of 4 × 4 floating microelectrode Utah arrays implanted in the primary monocular visual cortex (V1m) of Long-Evans rats over a 12-week period. We employ a repeatable visual stimulation method to compare signal-to-noise ratio as well as single- and multi-unit yield from weekly recordings. To explain signal variability with biological response, we compare arrays categorized as either Type 1, partial fibrous encapsulation, or Type 2, complete fibrous encapsulation and demonstrate performance and impedance signatures unique to encapsulation type. We additionally assess benefits of a biomolecule coating intended to minimize distance to recordable units and observe a temporary improvement on multi-unit recording yield and single-unit amplitude. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Efficient purification of unique antibodies using peptide affinity-matrix columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Liselotte Brix; Riise, Erik; Nielsen, Leif Kofoed

    2004-01-01

    Phage display technology was used to identify peptide ligands with unique specificity for a monoclonal model antibody, MK16, that recognises the human multiple sclerosis associated MHC class II molecule DR2 in complex with a myelin basic protein (MBP)-derived peptide corresponding to residue 85...... fragments and had no affinity for other antibodies. Using this peptide matrix MK16 IgG could be purified from cell culture supernatants thereby separating MK16 IgG from bovine IgG normally present in the enriched growth media used for such cells. Investigations of the fine specificity of the ER6.1 peptide...... demonstrated that it recognised a unique epitope within the heavy chain CDR3 region of the MK16 antibody. Thus, variants of MK16 antibody, which had retained the specificity and affinity of the original antibody but had slightly different amino acid composition in the CDR3 region, were not recognised by the ER...

  19. A Rare HBV Subgenotype D4 with Unique Genomic Signatures Identified in North-Eastern India –An Emerging Clinical Challenge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Priyanka; Mondal, Rajiv Kumar; Nandi, Madhuparna; Ghosh, Sumantra; Khatun, Mousumi; Chakraborty, Nabendu; Bhattacharya, Swatilekha; RoyChoudhury, Arindam; Banerjee, Soma; Santra, Amal; Sil, Samir; Chowdhury, Abhijit; Bhaumik, Pradip; Datta, Simanti

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims HBV has been classified into ten genotypes (A–J) and multiple subgenotypes, some of which strongly influence disease outcome and their distribution also correlate with human migration. HBV infection is highly prevalent in India and its diverse population provides an excellent opportunity to study the distinctiveness of HBV, its evolution and disease biology in variegated ethnic groups. The North-East India, having international frontiers on three sides, is one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse region of the country. Given the paucity of information on molecular epidemiology of HBV in this region, the study aimed to carry out an in-depth genetic characterization of HBV prevailing in North-East state of Tripura. Methods From sera of chronically HBV infected patients biochemical/serological tests, HBV DNA quantification, PCR-amplification, sequencing of PreS/S or full-length HBV genomes were done. HBV genotype/subgenotype determination and sequence variability were assessed by MEGA5-software. The evolutionary divergence times of different HBV subgenotypes were estimated by DNAMLK/PHYLIP program while jpHMM method was used to detect any recombination event in HBV genomes. Results HBV genotypes D (89.5%), C (6.6%) and A (3.9%) were detected among chronic carriers. While all HBV/A and HBV/C isolates belonged to subgenotype-A1 and C1 respectively, five subgenotypes of HBV/D (D1–D5) were identified including the first detection of rare D4. These non-recombinant Indian D4 (IndD4) formed a distinct phylogenetic clade, had 2.7% nucleotide divergence and recent evolutionary radiation than other global D4. Ten unique amino acids and 9 novel nucleotide substitutions were identified as IndD4 signatures. All IndD4 carried T120 and R129 in ORF-S that may cause immune/vaccine/diagnostic escape and N128 in ORF-P, implicated as compensatory Lamivudine resistance mutation. Conclusions IndD4 has potential to undermine vaccination programs or anti

  20. Rapid Evolutionary Rates and Unique Genomic Signatures Discovered in the First Reference Genome for the Southern Ocean Salp, Salpa thompsoni (Urochordata, Thaliacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jue, Nathaniel K; Batta-Lona, Paola G; Trusiak, Sarah; Obergfell, Craig; Bucklin, Ann; O'Neill, Michael J; O'Neill, Rachel J

    2016-10-30

    A preliminary genome sequence has been assembled for the Southern Ocean salp, Salpa thompsoni (Urochordata, Thaliacea). Despite the ecological importance of this species in Antarctic pelagic food webs and its potential role as an indicator of changing Southern Ocean ecosystems in response to climate change, no genomic resources are available for S. thompsoni or any closely related urochordate species. Using a multiple-platform, multiple-individual approach, we have produced a 318,767,936-bp genome sequence, covering >50% of the estimated 602 Mb (±173 Mb) genome size for S. thompsoni Using a nonredundant set of predicted proteins, >50% (16,823) of sequences showed significant homology to known proteins and ∼38% (12,151) of the total protein predictions were associated with Gene Ontology functional information. We have generated 109,958 SNP variant and 9,782 indel predictions for this species, serving as a resource for future phylogenomic and population genetic studies. Comparing the salp genome to available assemblies for four other urochordates, Botryllus schlosseri, Ciona intestinalis, Ciona savignyi and Oikopleura dioica, we found that S. thompsoni shares the previously estimated rapid rates of evolution for these species. High mutation rates are thus independent of genome size, suggesting that rates of evolution >1.5 times that observed for vertebrates are a broad taxonomic characteristic of urochordates. Tests for positive selection implemented in PAML revealed a small number of genes with sites undergoing rapid evolution, including genes involved in ribosome biogenesis and metabolic and immune process that may be reflective of both adaptation to polar, planktonic environments as well as the complex life history of the salps. Finally, we performed an initial survey of small RNAs, revealing the presence of known, conserved miRNAs, as well as novel miRNA genes; unique piRNAs; and mature miRNA signatures for varying developmental stages. Collectively, these

  1. Efficient purification of unique antibodies using peptide affinity-matrix columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Liselotte Brix; Riise, Erik; Nielsen, Leif Kofoed

    2004-01-01

    -99. Several peptide epitopes were identified and all of them recognised specifically MK16. One peptide, ER6.1, was selected and linked to beaded agarose and demonstrated excellent performance as a peptide affinity chromatography matrix. This epitope matrix was efficient in the purification of MK16 Fab...

  2. Finding unique filter sets in PLATO: a precursor to efficient interaction analysis in GWAS data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Benjamin J; Torstenson, Eric; Dudek, Scott M; Giles, Justin; Sexton, David; Ritchie, Marylyn D

    2010-01-01

    The methods to detect gene-gene interactions between variants in genome-wide association study (GWAS) datasets have not been well developed thus far. PLATO, the Platform for the Analysis, Translation and Organization of large-scale data, is a filter-based method bringing together many analytical methods simultaneously in an effort to solve this problem. PLATO filters a large, genomic dataset down to a subset of genetic variants, which may be useful for interaction analysis. As a precursor to the use of PLATO for the detection of gene-gene interactions, the implementation of a variety of single locus filters was completed and evaluated as a proof of concept. To streamline PLATO for efficient epistasis analysis, we determined which of 24 analytical filters produced redundant results. Using a kappa score to identify agreement between filters, we grouped the analytical filters into 4 filter classes; thus all further analyses employed four filters. We then tested the MAX statistic put forth by Sladek et al. (1) in simulated data exploring a number of genetic models of modest effect size. To find the MAX statistic, the four filters were run on each SNP in each dataset and the smallest p-value among the four results was taken as the final result. Permutation testing was performed to empirically determine the p-value. The power of the MAX statistic to detect each of the simulated effects was determined in addition to the Type 1 error and false positive rates. The results of this simulation study demonstrates that PLATO using the four filters incorporating the MAX statistic has higher power on average to find multiple types of effects and a lower false positive rate than any of the individual filters alone. In the future we will extend PLATO with the MAX statistic to interaction analyses for large-scale genomic datasets.

  3. Efficient phosphate sequestration for water purification by unique sandwich-like MXene/magnetic iron oxide nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingrui; Teng, Jie; Zou, Guodong; Peng, Qiuming; Du, Qing; Jiao, Tifeng; Xiang, Jianyong

    2016-03-01

    Rationally tailored intercalation for two-dimensional (2D) layered MXene materials has aroused extraordinary enthusiasm for broadening their applications. Herein, a novel sandwiched structural 2D MXene-iron oxide (MXI) material, prepared by selectively exfoliating an Al layer followed by magnetic ferric oxide intercalation, exhibits remarkable applicability to trace phosphate sequestration in the environmental remediation realm. Compared with commercial adsorbents, the resultant MXI nanocomposite exhibits a fast separation in 120 s together with the superior treatment capacities of 2100 kg and 2400 kg per kg in simulated and real phosphate wastewater applications, respectively. Such efficient sequestration is ascribed to the formation of a unique nano-ferric oxide morphology. The ultrafine nano-Fe2O3 particles can intercalate into the interior layers of MXene, widening the layer distance, and stimulating the available overlapping activated layers; while the efficient phosphate removal can be achieved by the strong complexation onto the embedded magnetic nano-Fe3O4 with a unique sandwich-structure as well as the stimulated Ti-O terminal within MXene. Apart from the fact that this approach suggests a complementary means for environmental remediation, it opens a new trajectory to achieve the functionalization of MXene.Rationally tailored intercalation for two-dimensional (2D) layered MXene materials has aroused extraordinary enthusiasm for broadening their applications. Herein, a novel sandwiched structural 2D MXene-iron oxide (MXI) material, prepared by selectively exfoliating an Al layer followed by magnetic ferric oxide intercalation, exhibits remarkable applicability to trace phosphate sequestration in the environmental remediation realm. Compared with commercial adsorbents, the resultant MXI nanocomposite exhibits a fast separation in 120 s together with the superior treatment capacities of 2100 kg and 2400 kg per kg in simulated and real phosphate wastewater

  4. SLE Peripheral Blood B Cell, T Cell and Myeloid Cell Transcriptomes Display Unique Profiles and Each Subset Contributes to the Interferon Signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bobby Kwanghoon; Kornu, Roger; Lakhanpal, Shuchi; Mobley, Angela B.; Li, Quan-Zhen; Lian, Yun; Wu, Tianfu; Reimold, Andreas M.; Olsen, Nancy J.; Karp, David R.; Chowdhury, Fatema Z.; Farrar, J. David; Satterthwaite, Anne B.; Mohan, Chandra; Lipsky, Peter E.; Wakeland, Edward K.; Davis, Laurie S.

    2013-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease that is characterized by defective immune tolerance combined with immune cell hyperactivity resulting in the production of pathogenic autoantibodies. Previous gene expression studies employing whole blood or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) have demonstrated that a majority of patients with active disease have increased expression of type I interferon (IFN) inducible transcripts known as the IFN signature. The goal of the current study was to assess the gene expression profiles of isolated leukocyte subsets obtained from SLE patients. Subsets including CD19+ B lymphocytes, CD3+CD4+ T lymphocytes and CD33+ myeloid cells were simultaneously sorted from PBMC. The SLE transcriptomes were assessed for differentially expressed genes as compared to healthy controls. SLE CD33+ myeloid cells exhibited the greatest number of differentially expressed genes at 208 transcripts, SLE B cells expressed 174 transcripts and SLE CD3+CD4+ T cells expressed 92 transcripts. Only 4.4% (21) of the 474 total transcripts, many associated with the IFN signature, were shared by all three subsets. Transcriptional profiles translated into increased protein expression for CD38, CD63, CD107a and CD169. Moreover, these studies demonstrated that both SLE lymphoid and myeloid subsets expressed elevated transcripts for cytosolic RNA and DNA sensors and downstream effectors mediating IFN and cytokine production. Prolonged upregulation of nucleic acid sensing pathways could modulate immune effector functions and initiate or contribute to the systemic inflammation observed in SLE. PMID:23826184

  5. Mining and characterization of two amidase signature family amidases from Brevibacterium epidermidis ZJB-07021 by an efficient genome mining approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Li-Tao; Zheng, Ren-Chao; Zheng, Yu-Guo

    2016-10-01

    Amidases have received increasing attention for their significant potential in the production of valuable carboxylic acids. In this study, two amidases belonging to amidase signature family (BeAmi2 and BeAmi4) were identified and mined from genomic DNA of Brevibacterium epidermidis ZJB-07021 by an efficient strategy combining comparative analysis of genomes and identification of unknown region by high-efficiency thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR (HiTAIL-PCR). The deduced amino acid sequences of BeAmi2 and BeAmi4 showed low identity (< 40%) with other reported amidases. The two amidases displayed optimum activity toward a wide spectrum of substrates at a mild alkaline pH and 45 °C. Both of them were remarkably inactivated by serine-directed inhibitor and sulfhydryl-reducing agent. Kinetic analysis revealed that nicotinamide was the preferable substrate for both amidases and the chlorine substitutions on the pyridine ring had a negative effect on activity. The bioprocesses for hydrolysis of 100 mM nicotinamide, isonicotinamide, 2-chloronicotinamide and 5-chloronicotinamide with purified BeAmi2 (6 U mL(-1)) were complete in 60 min with full conversion except 2-chloronicotinamide. These results indicated BeAmi2 was an effective catalyst for hydrolysis of several nicotinamide derivatives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Peptide Self-Assembled Biofilm with Unique Electron Transfer Flexibility for Highly Efficient Visible-Light-Driven Photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yun-Xiang; Cong, Huai-Ping; Men, Yu-Long; Xin, Sen; Sun, Zheng-Qing; Liu, Chang-Jun; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2015-11-24

    Inspired by natural photosynthesis, biomaterial-based catalysts are being confirmed to be excellent for visible-light-driven photocatalysis, but are far less well explored. Herein, an ultrathin and uniform biofilm fabricated from cold-plasma-assisted peptide self-assembly was employed to support Eosin Y (EY) and Pt nanoparticles to form an EY/Pt/Film catalyst for photocatalytic water splitting to H2 and photocatalytic CO2 reduction with water to CO, under irradiation of visible light. The H2 evolution rate on EY/Pt/Film is 62.1 μmol h(-1), which is about 5 times higher than that on Pt/EY and 1.5 times higher than that on the EY/Pt/TiO2 catalyst. EY/Pt/Film exhibits an enhanced CO evolution rate (19.4 μmol h(-1)), as compared with Pt/EY (2.8 μmol h(-1)) and EY/Pt/TiO2 (6.1 μmol h(-1)). The outstanding activity of EY/Pt/Film results from the unique flexibility of the biofilm for an efficient transfer of the photoinduced electrons. The present work is helpful for designing efficient biomaterial-based catalysts for visible-light-driven photocatalysis and for imitating natural photosynthesis.

  7. A secure and efficient uniqueness-and-anonymity-preserving remote user authentication scheme for connected health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ashok Kumar; Goswami, Adrijit

    2013-06-01

    Connected health care has several applications including telecare medicine information system, personally controlled health records system, and patient monitoring. In such applications, user authentication can ensure the legality of patients. In user authentication for such applications, only the legal user/patient himself/herself is allowed to access the remote server, and no one can trace him/her according to transmitted data. Chang et al. proposed a uniqueness-and-anonymity-preserving remote user authentication scheme for connected health care (Chang et al., J Med Syst 37:9902, 2013). Their scheme uses the user's personal biometrics along with his/her password with the help of the smart card. The user's biometrics is verified using BioHashing. Their scheme is efficient due to usage of one-way hash function and exclusive-or (XOR) operations. In this paper, we show that though their scheme is very efficient, their scheme has several security weaknesses such as (1) it has design flaws in login and authentication phases, (2) it has design flaws in password change phase, (3) it fails to protect privileged insider attack, (4) it fails to protect the man-in-the middle attack, and (5) it fails to provide proper authentication. In order to remedy these security weaknesses in Chang et al.'s scheme, we propose an improvement of their scheme while retaining the original merit of their scheme. We show that our scheme is efficient as compared to Chang et al.'s scheme. Through the security analysis, we show that our scheme is secure against possible attacks. Further, we simulate our scheme for the formal security verification using the widely-accepted AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications) tool to ensure that our scheme is secure against passive and active attacks. In addition, after successful authentication between the user and the server, they establish a secret session key shared between them for future secure communication.

  8. A unique gene expression signature associated with serotonin 2C receptor RNA editing in the prefrontal cortex and altered in suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Narzo, Antonio Fabio; Kozlenkov, Alexey; Roussos, Panos; Hao, Ke; Hurd, Yasmin; Lewis, David A; Sibille, Etienne; Siever, Larry J; Koonin, Eugene; Dracheva, Stella

    2014-09-15

    Editing of the pre-mRNA for the serotonin receptor 2C (5-HT2CR) by site-specific adenosine deamination (A-to-I pre-mRNA editing) substantially increases the functional plasticity of this key neurotransmitter receptor and is thought to contribute to homeostatic mechanisms in neurons. 5-HT2CR mRNA editing generates up to 24 different receptor isoforms. The extent of editing correlates with 5-HT2CR functional activity: more highly edited isoforms exhibit the least function. Altered 5-HT2CR editing has been reported in postmortem brains of suicide victims. We report a comparative analysis of the connections among 5-HT2CR editing, genome-wide gene expression and DNA methylation in suicide victims, individuals with major depressive disorder and non-psychiatric controls. The results confirm previous findings of an overrepresentation of highly edited mRNA variants (which encode hypoactive 5-HT2CR receptors) in the brains of suicide victims. A large set of genes for which the expression level is associated with editing was detected. This signature set of editing-associated genes is significantly enriched for genes that are involved in synaptic transmission, genes that are preferentially expressed in neurons, and genes whose expression is correlated with the level of DNA methylation. Notably, we report that the link between 5-HT2CR editing and gene expression is disrupted in suicide victims. The results suggest that the postulated homeostatic function of 5-HT2CR editing is dysregulated in individuals who committed suicide. Published by Oxford University Press 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  9. In-Depth, Label-Free Analysis of the Erythrocyte Cytoplasmic Proteome in Diamond Blackfan Anemia Identifies a Unique Inflammatory Signature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther N Pesciotta

    Full Text Available Diamond Blackfan Anemia (DBA is a rare, congenital erythrocyte aplasia that is usually caused by haploinsufficiency of ribosomal proteins due to diverse mutations in one of several ribosomal genes. A striking feature of this disease is that a range of different mutations in ribosomal proteins results in similar disease phenotypes primarily characterized by erythrocyte abnormalities and macrocytic anemia, while most other cell types in the body are minimally affected. Previously, we analyzed the erythrocyte membrane proteomes of several DBA patients and identified several proteins that are not typically associated with this cell type and that suggested inflammatory mechanisms contribute to the pathogenesis of DBA. In this study, we evaluated the erythrocyte cytosolic proteome of DBA patients through in-depth analysis of hemoglobin-depleted erythrocyte cytosols. Simple, reproducible, hemoglobin depletion using nickel columns enabled in-depth analysis of over 1000 cytosolic erythrocyte proteins with only moderate total analysis time per proteome. Label-free quantitation and statistical analysis identified 29 proteins with significantly altered abundance levels in DBA patients compared to matched healthy control donors. Proteins that were significantly increased in DBA erythrocyte cytoplasms included three proteasome subunit beta proteins that make up the immunoproteasome and proteins induced by interferon-γ such as n-myc interactor and interferon-induced 35 kDa protein [NMI and IFI35 respectively]. Pathway analysis confirmed the presence of an inflammatory signature in erythrocytes of DBA patients and predicted key upstream regulators including mitogen activated kinase 1, interferon-γ, tumor suppressor p53, and tumor necrosis factor. These results show that erythrocytes in DBA patients are intrinsically different from those in healthy controls which may be due to an inflammatory response resulting from the inherent molecular defect of ribosomal

  10. The DNA methylation signature of human TCRαβ+CD4−CD8− double negative T cells reveals CG demethylation and a unique epigenetic architecture permissive to a broad stimulatory immune response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renauer, Paul A.; Coit, Patrick; Sawalha, Amr H.

    2014-01-01

    T cell receptor (TCR) αβ+CD4−CD8− double negative T cells represent a rare T cell subset implicated in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases. We investigated the DNA methylation signature of double negative T cells to gain insight into the epigenetic architecture of peripheral blood primary human double negative T cells compared to autologous CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. We identified 2984 CG sites across the genome with unique loss of DNA methylation in double negative T cells, and showed significant reduction in mRNA expression of DNA methyltransferases DNMT1, DNMT3A, and DNMT3B. DNA methylation was increased in CD8A/CD8B and CD4 consistent with epigenetic repression of both the CD8 and CD4 genetic loci in double negative T cells. We show a consistent increase in non-CG methylation in double negative T cells, a finding suggestive of pluripotency. Network analyses indicate a strong relationship between double negative T cells and functions related to cell –cell interaction, cell adhesion, and cell activation pathways. Our data also suggest a robust pro-inflammatory epigenetic signature in double negative T cells, consistent with a transcriptional permissiveness in key inflammatory cytokines including IFNγ, IL-17F, IL-12B, IL-5, IL-18, TNFSF11 (RANKL), and TNFSF13B (BLYS or BAFF). These findings highlight an epigenetic basis for a role of double negative T cells in autoimmunity. PMID:25451162

  11. The DNA methylation signature of human TCRαβ+CD4-CD8- double negative T cells reveals CG demethylation and a unique epigenetic architecture permissive to a broad stimulatory immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renauer, Paul A; Coit, Patrick; Sawalha, Amr H

    2015-01-01

    T cell receptor (TCR) αβ+CD4-CD8- double negative T cells represent a rare T cell subset implicated in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases. We investigated the DNA methylation signature of double negative T cells to gain insight into the epigenetic architecture of peripheral blood primary human double negative T cells compared to autologous CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. We identified 2984 CG sites across the genome with unique loss of DNA methylation in double negative T cells, and showed significant reduction in mRNA expression of DNA methyltransferases DNMT1, DNMT3A, and DNMT3B. DNA methylation was increased in CD8A/CD8B and CD4 consistent with epigenetic repression of both the CD8 and CD4 genetic loci in double negative T cells. We show a consistent increase in non-CG methylation in double negative T cells, a finding suggestive of pluripotency. Network analyses indicate a strong relationship between double negative T cells and functions related to cell-cell interaction, cell adhesion, and cell activation pathways. Our data also suggest a robust pro-inflammatory epigenetic signature in double negative T cells, consistent with a transcriptional permissiveness in key inflammatory cytokines including IFNγ, IL-17F, IL-12B, IL-5, IL-18, TNFSF11 (RANKL), and TNFSF13B (BLYS or BAFF). These findings highlight an epigenetic basis for a role of double negative T cells in autoimmunity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sequences of two related multiple antibiotic resistance virulence plasmids sharing a unique IS26-related molecular signature isolated from different Escherichia coli pathotypes from different hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturini, Carola; Hassan, Karl A; Roy Chowdhury, Piklu; Paulsen, Ian T; Walker, Mark J; Djordjevic, Steven P

    2013-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) and atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC) are important zoonotic pathogens that increasingly are becoming resistant to multiple antibiotics. Here we describe two plasmids, pO26-CRL125 (125 kb) from a human O26:H- EHEC, and pO111-CRL115 (115kb) from a bovine O111 aEPEC, that impart resistance to ampicillin, kanamycin, neomycin, streptomycin, sulfathiazole, trimethoprim and tetracycline and both contain atypical class 1 integrons with an identical IS26-mediated deletion in their 3´-conserved segment. Complete sequence analysis showed that pO26-CRL125 and pO111-CRL115 are essentially identical except for a 9.7 kb fragment, present in the backbone of pO26-CRL125 but absent in pO111-CRL115, and several indels. The 9.7 kb fragment encodes IncI-associated genes involved in plasmid stability during conjugation, a putative transposase gene and three imperfect repeats. Contiguous sequence identical to regions within these pO26-CRL125 imperfect repeats was identified in pO111-CRL115 precisely where the 9.7 kb fragment is missing, suggesting it may be mobile. Sequences shared between the plasmids include a complete IncZ replicon, a unique toxin/antitoxin system, IncI stability and maintenance genes, a novel putative serine protease autotransporter, and an IncI1 transfer system including a unique shufflon. Both plasmids carry a derivate Tn21 transposon with an atypical class 1 integron comprising a dfrA5 gene cassette encoding resistance to trimethoprim, and 24 bp of the 3´-conserved segment followed by Tn6026, which encodes resistance to ampicillin, kanymycin, neomycin, streptomycin and sulfathiazole. The Tn21-derivative transposon is linked to a truncated Tn1721, encoding resistance to tetracycline, via a region containing the IncP-1α oriV. Absence of the 5 bp direct repeats flanking Tn3-family transposons, indicates that homologous recombination events played a key role in the formation of this complex antibiotic resistance

  13. Solving for Efficiency or Decision Criteria: When the Non-unique Nature of Solutions Becomes a Benefit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, S. A.; Ciarleglio, M.; Dulay, M.; Lowry, T. S.; Sharp, J. M.; Barnes, J. W.; Eaton, D. J.; Tidwell, V. C.

    2006-12-01

    Work in the literature for groundwater allocation emphasizes finding a truly optimal solution, often with the drawback of limiting the reported results to either maximizing net benefit in regional scale models or minimizing pumping costs for localized cases. From a policy perspective, limited insight can be gained from these studies because the results are restricted to a single, efficient solution and they neglect non-market values that may influence a management decision. Conversely, economically derived objective functions tend to exhibit a plateau upon nearing the optimal value. This plateau effect, or non-uniqueness, is actually a positive feature in the behavior of groundwater systems because it demonstrates that multiple management strategies, serving numerous community preferences, may be considered while still achieving similar quantitative results. An optimization problem takes the same set of initial conditions and looks for the most efficient solution while a decision problem looks at a situation and asks for a solution that meets certain user-defined criteria. In other words, the election of an alternative course of action using a decision support system will not always result in selection of the most `optimized' alternative. To broaden the analytical toolset available for science and policy interaction, we have developed a groundwater decision support system (GWDSS) that generates a suite of management alternatives by pairing a combinatorial search algorithm with a numerical groundwater model for consideration by decision makers and stakeholders. Subject to constraints as defined by community concerns, the tabu optimization engine systematically creates hypothetical management scenarios running hundreds, and even thousands, of simulations, and then saving the best performing realizations. Results of the search are then evaluated against stakeholder preference sets using ranking methods to aid in identifying a subset of alternatives for final

  14. UV Signature Mutations †

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Sequencing complete tumor genomes and exomes has sparked the cancer field's interest in mutation signatures for identifying the tumor's carcinogen. This review and meta-analysis discusses signatures and their proper use. We first distinguish between a mutagen's canonical mutations – deviations from a random distribution of base changes to create a pattern typical of that mutagen – and the subset of signature mutations, which are unique to that mutagen and permit inference backward from mutations to mutagen. To verify UV signature mutations, we assembled literature datasets on cells exposed to UVC, UVB, UVA, or solar simulator light (SSL) and tested canonical UV mutation features as criteria for clustering datasets. A confirmed UV signature was: ≥60% of mutations are C→T at a dipyrimidine site, with ≥5% CC→TT. Other canonical features such as a bias for mutations on the non-transcribed strand or at the 3' pyrimidine had limited application. The most robust classifier combined these features with criteria for the rarity of non-UV canonical mutations. In addition, several signatures proposed for specific UV wavelengths were limited to specific genes or species; non-signature mutations induced by UV may cause melanoma BRAF mutations; and the mutagen for sunlight-related skin neoplasms may vary between continents. PMID:25354245

  15. Signatures de l'invisible

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Press Office. Geneva

    2000-01-01

    "Signatures of the Invisible" is an unique collaboration between contemporary artists and contemporary physicists which has the potential to help redefine the relationship between science and art. "Signatures of the Invisible" is jointly organised by the London Institute - the world's largest college of art and design and CERN*, the world's leading particle physics laboratory. 12 leading visual artists:

  16. Copper(I)-Catalyzed Asymmetric Desymmetrization through Inverse-Electron-Demand aza-Diels-Alder Reaction: Efficient Access to Tetrahydropyridazines Bearing a Unique α-Chiral Silane Moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Liang; Zhou, Yu; Song, Zhi-Min; Tao, Hai-Yan; Lin, Zhenyang; Wang, Chun-Jiang

    2017-04-11

    An unprecedented copper(I)-catalyzed asymmetric desymmetrization of 5-silylcyclopentadienes with in situ formed azoalkene was realized through an inverse-electron-demand aza-Diels-Alder reaction (IEDDA) pathway, in which 5-silylcyclopentadienes served as efficient enophiles. This new protocol provides a facile access to the biologically important heterocyclic tetrahydropyridazines containing a unique α-chiral silane motif and three adjoining stereogenic centers in generally good yield (up to 92 %) with exclusive regioselectivity, high diastereoselectivity (>20:1 diastereomeric ratio), and excellent enantioselectivity (up to 98 % enantiomeric excess). DFT calculations and control experiments further confirmed the proposed reaction mechanism. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Expression cloning screening of a unique and full-length set of cDNA clones is an efficient method for identifying genes involved in Xenopus neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Jana; Chen, Jun-An; Gilchrist, Mike; Amaya, Enrique; Papalopulu, Nancy

    2005-03-01

    Functional screens, where a large numbers of cDNA clones are assayed for certain biological activity, are a useful tool in elucidating gene function. In Xenopus, gain of function screens are performed by pool screening, whereby RNA transcribed in vitro from groups of cDNA clones, ranging from thousands to a hundred, are injected into early embryos. Once an activity is detected in a pool, the active clone is identified by sib-selection. Such screens are intrinsically biased towards potent genes, whose RNA is active at low quantities. To improve the sensitivity and efficiency of a gain of function screen we have bioinformatically processed an arrayed and EST sequenced set of 100,000 gastrula and neurula cDNA clones, to create a unique and full-length set of approximately 2500 clones. Reducing the redundancy and excluding truncated clones from the starting clone set reduced the total number of clones to be screened, in turn allowing us to reduce the pool size to just eight clones per pool. We report that the efficiency of screening this clone set is five-fold higher compared to a redundant set derived from the same libraries. We have screened 960 cDNA clones from this set, for genes that are involved in neurogenesis. We describe the overexpression phenotypes of 18 single clones, the majority of which show a previously uncharacterised phenotype and some of which are completely novel. In situ hybridisation analysis shows that a large number of these genes are specifically expressed in neural tissue. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of a unique full-length set of cDNA clones for uncovering players in a developmental pathway.

  18. Identification of host response signatures of infection.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branda, Steven S.; Sinha, Anupama; Bent, Zachary

    2013-02-01

    Biological weapons of mass destruction and emerging infectious diseases represent a serious and growing threat to our national security. Effective response to a bioattack or disease outbreak critically depends upon efficient and reliable distinguishing between infected vs healthy individuals, to enable rational use of scarce, invasive, and/or costly countermeasures (diagnostics, therapies, quarantine). Screening based on direct detection of the causative pathogen can be problematic, because culture- and probe-based assays are confounded by unanticipated pathogens (e.g., deeply diverged, engineered), and readily-accessible specimens (e.g., blood) often contain little or no pathogen, particularly at pre-symptomatic stages of disease. Thus, in addition to the pathogen itself, one would like to detect infection-specific host response signatures in the specimen, preferably ones comprised of nucleic acids (NA), which can be recovered and amplified from tiny specimens (e.g., fingerstick draws). Proof-of-concept studies have not been definitive, however, largely due to use of sub-optimal sample preparation and detection technologies. For purposes of pathogen detection, Sandia has developed novel molecular biology methods that enable selective isolation of NA unique to, or shared between, complex samples, followed by identification and quantitation via Second Generation Sequencing (SGS). The central hypothesis of the current study is that variations on this approach will support efficient identification and verification of NA-based host response signatures of infectious disease. To test this hypothesis, we re-engineered Sandia's sophisticated sample preparation pipelines, and developed new SGS data analysis tools and strategies, in order to pioneer use of SGS for identification of host NA correlating with infection. Proof-of-concept studies were carried out using specimens drawn from pathogen-infected non-human primates (NHP). This work provides a strong foundation for

  19. Epstein-Barr virus latent gene sequences as geographical markers of viral origin: unique EBNA3 gene signatures identify Japanese viruses as distinct members of the Asian virus family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Akihisa; Croom-Carter, Deborah; Kondo, Osamu; Yasui, Masahiro; Koyama-Sato, Maho; Inoue, Masami; Kawa, Keisei; Rickinson, Alan B; Tierney, Rosemary J

    2011-05-01

    Polymorphisms in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent genes can identify virus strains from different human populations and individual strains within a population. An Asian EBV signature has been defined almost exclusively from Chinese viruses, with little information from other Asian countries. Here we sequenced polymorphic regions of the EBNA1, 2, 3A, 3B, 3C and LMP1 genes of 31 Japanese strains from control donors and EBV-associated T/NK-cell lymphoproliferative disease (T/NK-LPD) patients. Though identical to Chinese strains in their dominant EBNA1 and LMP1 alleles, Japanese viruses were subtly different at other loci. Thus, while Chinese viruses mainly fall into two families with strongly linked 'Wu' or 'Li' alleles at EBNA2 and EBNA3A/B/C, Japanese viruses all have the consensus Wu EBNA2 allele but fall into two families at EBNA3A/B/C. One family has variant Li-like sequences at EBNA3A and 3B and the consensus Li sequence at EBNA3C; the other family has variant Wu-like sequences at EBNA3A, variants of a low frequency Chinese allele 'Sp' at EBNA3B and a consensus Sp sequence at EBNA3C. Thus, EBNA3A/B/C allelotypes clearly distinguish Japanese from Chinese strains. Interestingly, most Japanese viruses also lack those immune-escape mutations in the HLA-A11 epitope-encoding region of EBNA3B that are so characteristic of viruses from the highly A11-positive Chinese population. Control donor-derived and T/NK-LPD-derived strains were similarly distributed across allelotypes and, by using allelic polymorphisms to track virus strains in patients pre- and post-haematopoietic stem-cell transplant, we show that a single strain can induce both T/NK-LPD and B-cell-lymphoproliferative disease in the same patient.

  20. Relinkable Ring Signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Koutarou; Hoshino, Fumitaka; Kobayashi, Tetsutaro

    In this paper, we propose the concept of a relinkable ring signature, which is a ring signature with ring reformation function, i.e., a signer can delegate ring reformation ability separately from signing ability to his/her proxy. The relinkable ring signature can be applicable to proxy ring reformation, anonymization of past-generated signature, or ring signature for dynamic group. We also propose a concrete relinkable ring signature scheme that uses pairing in the random oracle model.

  1. An efficient, second-generation synthesis of the signature dioxabicyclo[3.2.1]octane core of (+)-sorangicin A and elaboration of the (Z,Z,E)-triene acid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Amos B; Dong, Shuzhi

    2009-03-05

    An efficient, second-generation synthesis of the signature dioxabicyclo[3.2.1]octane core of (+)-sorangicin A (1), in conjunction with an effective, stereocontrolled protocol to arrive at the requisite (Z,Z,E)-triene acid system has been developed. Highlights of the core construction entail a three-component union, a KHMDS-promoted epoxide ring formation-ring opening cascade, a Takai olefination, and a chemoselective Sharpless dihydroxylation. Assembly of the triene acid system was then achieved via Stille cross-coupling with the ethyl ester of (Z,Z)-5-tributylstannyl-2,4-pentadienoic acid, followed by mild hydrolysis preserving the triene configuration.

  2. Unique characteristics of AAV1, 2, and 5 viral entry, intracellular trafficking, and nuclear import define transduction efficiency in HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiser, Nicholas W; Yan, Ziying; Zhang, Yulong; Lei-Butters, Diana C M; Engelhardt, John F

    2011-11-01

    Biological differences between recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) serotypes define their efficiencies in expressing a transgene in a particular target cell. Few studies have directly compared how differences in viral entry, intracellular trafficking, and nuclear import of rAAV serotypes influence the effectiveness of transduction in the same cell type. We evaluated these characteristics for three rAAV serotypes in HeLa cells, using biochemical techniques and fluorescence-based detection of multiple serotypes in the same cell. Although rAAV2 exhibited the slowest entry, intracellular trafficking, and nuclear import among the three serotypes, it elicited the highest levels of transduction. Conversely, rAAV1 exhibited more rapid entry and nuclear import than the other serotypes, yet was ineffective at transducing HeLa cells due to impaired capsid disassembly in the nucleus. rAAV5, which entered the cell less rapidly than rAAV1, was imported efficiently into the nucleus, but then rapidly degraded, resulting in poor transduction of HeLa cells. We conclude that rAAV1, 2, and 5 utilize distinct mechanisms for intracellular trafficking, and that post-nuclear events play an important role in determining the efficiency of HeLa cell transduction by these serotypes. Thus, overcoming post-nuclear barriers that limit uncoating and/or promote virion degradation may enhance the efficiency of certain AAV serotypes.

  3. An Arbitrated Quantum Signature Scheme without Entanglement*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-Ran; Luo, Ming-Xing; Peng, Dai-Yuan; Wang, Xiao-Jun

    2017-09-01

    Several quantum signature schemes are recently proposed to realize secure signatures of quantum or classical messages. Arbitrated quantum signature as one nontrivial scheme has attracted great interests because of its usefulness and efficiency. Unfortunately, previous schemes cannot against Trojan horse attack and DoS attack and lack of the unforgeability and the non-repudiation. In this paper, we propose an improved arbitrated quantum signature to address these secure issues with the honesty arbitrator. Our scheme takes use of qubit states not entanglements. More importantly, the qubit scheme can achieve the unforgeability and the non-repudiation. Our scheme is also secure for other known quantum attacks.

  4. Unique Characteristics of AAV1, 2, and 5 Viral Entry, Intracellular Trafficking, and Nuclear Import Define Transduction Efficiency in HeLa Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Keiser, Nicholas W; Yan, Ziying; Zhang, Yulong; Diana C M Lei-Butters; Engelhardt, John F.

    2011-01-01

    Biological differences between recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) serotypes define their efficiencies in expressing a transgene in a particular target cell. Few studies have directly compared how differences in viral entry, intracellular trafficking, and nuclear import of rAAV serotypes influence the effectiveness of transduction in the same cell type. We evaluated these characteristics for three rAAV serotypes in HeLa cells, using biochemical techniques and fluorescence-based detectio...

  5. Developing composite signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Chadwick T.; Carpenter, Tom; Cappelaere, Patrice G.; Frye, Stu; Lemoigne-Stewart, Jacqueline J.; Mandle, Dan; Montgomery, Sarah; Williams-Bess, Autumn

    2011-06-01

    A composite signature is a group of signatures that are related in such a way to more completely or further define a target or operational endeavor at a higher fidelity. This paper explores the merits of using composite signatures, in lieu of waiting for opportunities for the more elusive diagnostic signatures, to satisfy key essential elements of information Keywords: signature, composite signature, civil disaster (EEI) associated with civil disaster-related problems. It discusses efforts to refine composite signature development methodology and quantify the relative value of composite vs. diagnostic signatures. The objectives are to: 1) investigate and develop innovative composite signatures associated with civil disasters, including physical, chemical and pattern/behavioral; 2) explore the feasibility of collecting representative composite signatures using current and emerging intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) collection architectures leveraging civilian and commercial architectures; and 3) collaborate extensively with scientists and engineers from U.S. government organizations and laboratories, the defense industry, and academic institutions.

  6. Very High Fuel Economy, Heavy Duty, Constant Speed, Truck Engine Optimized Via Unique Energy Recovery Turbines and Facilitated High Efficiency Continuously Variable Drivetrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahman Habibzadeh

    2010-01-31

    The project began under a corporative agreement between Mack Trucks, Inc and the Department of Energy starting from September 1, 2005. The major objective of the four year project is to demonstrate a 10% efficiency gain by operating a Volvo 13 Litre heavy-duty diesel engine at a constant or narrow speed and coupled to a continuously variable transmission. The simulation work on the Constant Speed Engine started on October 1st. The initial simulations are aimed to give a basic engine model for the VTEC vehicle simulations. Compressor and turbine maps are based upon existing maps and/or qualified, realistic estimations. The reference engine is a MD 13 US07 475 Hp. Phase I was completed in May 2006 which determined that an increase in fuel efficiency for the engine of 10.5% over the OICA cycle, and 8.2% over a road cycle was possible. The net increase in fuel efficiency would be 5% when coupled to a CVT and operated over simulated highway conditions. In Phase II an economic analysis was performed on the engine with turbocompound (TC) and a Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT). The system was analyzed to determine the payback time needed for the added cost of the TC and CVT system. The analysis was performed by considering two different production scenarios of 10,000 and 60,000 units annually. The cost estimate includes the turbocharger, the turbocompound unit, the interstage duct diffuser and installation details, the modifications necessary on the engine and the CVT. Even with the cheapest fuel and the lowest improvement, the pay back time is only slightly more than 12 months. A gear train is necessary between the engine crankshaft and turbocompound unit. This is considered to be relatively straight forward with no design problems.

  7. Simulating realistic predator signatures in quantitative fatty acid signature analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromaghin, Jeffrey F.

    2015-01-01

    Diet estimation is an important field within quantitative ecology, providing critical insights into many aspects of ecology and community dynamics. Quantitative fatty acid signature analysis (QFASA) is a prominent method of diet estimation, particularly for marine mammal and bird species. Investigators using QFASA commonly use computer simulation to evaluate statistical characteristics of diet estimators for the populations they study. Similar computer simulations have been used to explore and compare the performance of different variations of the original QFASA diet estimator. In both cases, computer simulations involve bootstrap sampling prey signature data to construct pseudo-predator signatures with known properties. However, bootstrap sample sizes have been selected arbitrarily and pseudo-predator signatures therefore may not have realistic properties. I develop an algorithm to objectively establish bootstrap sample sizes that generates pseudo-predator signatures with realistic properties, thereby enhancing the utility of computer simulation for assessing QFASA estimator performance. The algorithm also appears to be computationally efficient, resulting in bootstrap sample sizes that are smaller than those commonly used. I illustrate the algorithm with an example using data from Chukchi Sea polar bears (Ursus maritimus) and their marine mammal prey. The concepts underlying the approach may have value in other areas of quantitative ecology in which bootstrap samples are post-processed prior to their use.

  8. Unique Cytokine Signature in the Plasma of Patients with Fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Sturgill

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia (FMS is a chronic pain syndrome with a complex but poorly understood pathogenesis affecting approximately 10 million adults in the United States. The lack of a clear etiology of FMS has limited the effective diagnosis and treatment of this debilitating condition. The objective of this secondary data analysis was to examine plasma cytokine levels in women with FMS using the Bio-Plex Human Cytokine 17-plex Assay. Post hoc analysis of plasma cytokine levels was performed to evaluate patterns that were not specified a priori. Upon examination, patients with FMS exhibited a marked reduction in TH2 cytokines such as IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13. The finding of this pattern of altered cytokine milieu not only supports the role of inflammation in FMS but also may lead to more definitive diagnostic tools for clinicians treating FMS. The TH2 suppression provides strong evidence of immune dysregulation in patients with FMS.

  9. Barnacles - recorders of environmental conditions with unique geochemical signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinzenz Ullmann, Clemens; Gale, Andy; Korte, Christoph; Frei, Robert; Huggett, Jenny; Wray, Dave

    2017-04-01

    Barnacles are calcite-forming arthropods that occur in a wide range of habitats in modern times and are found in sedimentary successions reaching back to the Paleozoic. Despite potential use of their mostly low-Mg calcite hard parts for palaeoenvironmental reconstructions, their geochemical composition has been little studied. Here, we present the first comprehensive overview of barnacle geochemistry, with C and O isotope, as well as Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca, Mn/Ca and Fe/Ca data for multiple samples of 42 species covering the orders Sessilia, Scalpelliformes, and Lepadiformes. XRD analyses confirm calcite as the only significant carbonate mineral of the studied barnacle shell material. Apart from one species, median Mg/Ca ratios fall below 50 mmol/mol, the approximate limit for low-Mg-calcite. In the order Sessilia, the scuta and terga are on average enriched in Mg by 36 % over the unmoveable plates. Amongst the calcite-forming marine animals, barnacles have very high Sr/Ca ratios of 2.6 to 5.9 mmol/mol, amongst the highest known for calcite secreting animals. Mn/Ca and Fe/Ca ratios are commonly low and compatible with other modern shell calcite, but can be strongly enriched to > 1 mmol/mol in proximal habitats, particularly close to areas strongly affected by human activity. Carbon and oxygen isotope data indicate formation of the calcite in or near isotopic equilibrium with ambient water conditions. Apart from species showing δ18O values below 0 ‰ V-PDB, a negative correlation of oxygen isotope ratios with Sr/Ca ratios is observed, which may be related to metabolic activity. Compositional patterns in barnacle shell material, particularly high Sr concentrations and Mg distribution in shell plates of the Sessilia, point to a great potential of barnacles for high fidelity reconstruction of past seawater chemistry and environmental conditions complementary to other archives.

  10. Genome analysis of the platypus reveals unique signatures of evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Wesley C.; Hillier, LaDeana W.; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A.; Birney, Ewan; Ponting, Chris P.; Grützner, Frank; Belov, Katherine; Miller, Webb; Clarke, Laura; Chinwalla, Asif T.; Yang, Shiaw-Pyng; Heger, Andreas; Locke, Devin P.; Miethke, Pat; Waters, Paul D.; Veyrunes, Frédéric; Fulton, Lucinda; Fulton, Bob; Graves, Tina; Wallis, John; Puente, Xose S.; López-Otín, Carlos; Ordóñez, Gonzalo R.; Eichler, Evan E.; Chen, Lin; Cheng, Ze; Deakin, Janine E.; Alsop, Amber; Thompson, Katherine; Kirby, Patrick; Papenfuss, Anthony T.; Wakefield, Matthew J.; Olender, Tsviya; Lancet, Doron; Huttley, Gavin A.; Smit, Arian F. A.; Pask, Andrew; Temple-Smith, Peter; Batzer, Mark A.; Walker, Jerilyn A.; Konkel, Miriam K.; Harris, Robert S.; Whittington, Camilla M.; Wong, Emily S. W.; Gemmell, Neil J.; Buschiazzo, Emmanuel; Vargas Jentzsch, Iris M.; Merkel, Angelika; Schmitz, Juergen; Zemann, Anja; Churakov, Gennady; Kriegs, Jan Ole; Brosius, Juergen; Murchison, Elizabeth P.; Sachidanandam, Ravi; Smith, Carly; Hannon, Gregory J.; Tsend-Ayush, Enkhjargal; McMillan, Daniel; Attenborough, Rosalind; Rens, Willem; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm; Lefèvre, Christophe M.; Sharp, Julie A.; Nicholas, Kevin R.; Ray, David A.; Kube, Michael; Reinhardt, Richard; Pringle, Thomas H.; Taylor, James; Jones, Russell C.; Nixon, Brett; Dacheux, Jean-Louis; Niwa, Hitoshi; Sekita, Yoko; Huang, Xiaoqiu; Stark, Alexander; Kheradpour, Pouya; Kellis, Manolis; Flicek, Paul; Chen, Yuan; Webber, Caleb; Hardison, Ross; Nelson, Joanne; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kym; Delehaunty, Kim; Markovic, Chris; Minx, Pat; Feng, Yucheng; Kremitzki, Colin; Mitreva, Makedonka; Glasscock, Jarret; Wylie, Todd; Wohldmann, Patricia; Thiru, Prathapan; Nhan, Michael N.; Pohl, Craig S.; Smith, Scott M.; Hou, Shunfeng; Renfree, Marilyn B.; Mardis, Elaine R.; Wilson, Richard K.

    2009-01-01

    We present a draft genome sequence of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus. This monotreme exhibits a fascinating combination of reptilian and mammalian characters. For example, platypuses have a coat of fur adapted to an aquatic lifestyle; platypus females lactate, yet lay eggs; and males are equipped with venom similar to that of reptiles. Analysis of the first monotreme genome aligned these features with genetic innovations. We find that reptile and platypus venom proteins have been co-opted independently from the same gene families; milk protein genes are conserved despite platypuses laying eggs; and immune gene family expansions are directly related to platypus biology. Expansions of protein, non-protein-coding RNA and microRNA families, as well as repeat elements, are identified. Sequencing of this genome now provides a valuable resource for deep mammalian comparative analyses, as well as for monotreme biology and conservation. PMID:18464734

  11. Unique human immune signature of Ebola virus disease in Guinea

    OpenAIRE

    Ruibal, Paula; Oestereich, Lisa; Lüdtke, Anja; Becker-Ziaja, Beate; Wozniak, David M.; Kerber, Romy; Korva, Miša; Cabeza-Cabrerizo, Mar; Bore, Joseph A.; Koundouno, Fara Raymond; Duraffour, Sophie; Weller, Romy; Thorenz, Anja; Cimini, Eleonora; Viola, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Despite the magnitude of the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa, there is still a fundamental lack of knowledge about the pathophysiology of EVD 1 . In particular, very little is known about human immune responses to Ebola virus (EBOV) 2,3 . Here, we have for the first time evaluated the physiology of the human T cell immune response in EVD patients at the time of admission at the Ebola Treatment Center (ETC) in Guinea, and longitudinally until discharge or death. Through the u...

  12. Determination of unique power conversion efficiency of solar cell showing hysteresis in the I-V curve under various light intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cojocaru, Ludmila; Uchida, Satoshi; Tamaki, Koichi; Jayaweera, Piyankarage V V; Kaneko, Shoji; Nakazaki, Jotaro; Kubo, Takaya; Segawa, Hiroshi

    2017-09-18

    Energy harvesting at low light intensities has recently attracted a great deal of attention of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) which are regarded as promising candidate for indoor application. Anomalous hysteresis of the PSCs a complex issue for reliable evaluation of the cell performance. In order to address these challenges, we constructed two new evaluation methods to determinate the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of PSCs. The first setup is a solar simulator based on light emitting diodes (LEDs) allowing evaluation of the solar cells at wider range of light intensities, ranging from 10 2  to 10 -3  mW·cm -2 . As the overestimate error, we found that the PCEs of dye sensitized solar cell (DSC) and PSCs increase dramatically at low light intensities conditions. Due to the internal capacitance at the interfaces on hybrid solar cells, the measurement of current below 10 -2  mW·cm -2 shows constant value given high PCE, which is related to the capacitive current and origin of the hysteresis. The second setup is a photovoltaic power analyzing system, designed for tracking the maximum power (P max ) with time. The paper suggests the combination of the LED solar simulator and P max tracking technique as a standard to evaluate the PCE of capacitive solar cells.

  13. Unique Identification Project Issues and Challenges Unique ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unique Identification Project Issues and Challenges Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) · Agenda · UIDAI will issue numbers, not cards · UIDAI will authenticate IDs online · Verifying ID is a common challenge · ID is the only focus of UIDAI · Who gets UID number? Inclusive potential of UID · UID ecosystem – A ...

  14. Fast switching and signature of efficient domain wall motion driven by spin-orbit torques in a perpendicular anisotropy magnetic insulator/Pt bilayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Can Onur; Rosenberg, Ethan; Baumgartner, Manuel; Beran, Lukáš; Quindeau, Andy; Gambardella, Pietro; Ross, Caroline A.; Beach, Geoffrey S. D.

    2017-08-01

    We report fast and efficient current-induced switching of a perpendicular anisotropy magnetic insulator thulium iron garnet by using spin-orbit torques (SOT) from the Pt overlayer. We first show that, with quasi-DC (10 ms) current pulses, SOT-induced switching can be achieved with an external field as low as 2 Oe, making TmIG an outstanding candidate to realize efficient switching in heterostructures that produce moderate stray fields without requiring an external field. We then demonstrate deterministic switching with fast current pulses (≤20 ns) with an amplitude of ˜1012 A/m2, similar to all-metallic structures. We reveal that, in the presence of an initially nucleated domain, the critical switching current is reduced by up to a factor of five with respect to the fully saturated initial state, implying efficient current-driven domain wall motion in this system. Based on measurements with 2 ns-long pulses, we estimate the domain wall velocity of the order of ˜400 m/s per j = 1012 A/m2.

  15. A novel data mining method to identify assay-specific signatures in functional genomic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guidarelli Jack W

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The highly dimensional data produced by functional genomic (FG studies makes it difficult to visualize relationships between gene products and experimental conditions (i.e., assays. Although dimensionality reduction methods such as principal component analysis (PCA have been very useful, their application to identify assay-specific signatures has been limited by the lack of appropriate methodologies. This article proposes a new and powerful PCA-based method for the identification of assay-specific gene signatures in FG studies. Results: The proposed method (PM is unique for several reasons. First, it is the only one, to our knowledge, that uses gene contribution, a product of the loading and expression level, to obtain assay signatures. The PM develops and exploits two types of assay-specific contribution plots, which are new to the application of PCA in the FG area. The first type plots the assay-specific gene contribution against the given order of the genes and reveals variations in distribution between assay-specific gene signatures as well as outliers within assay groups indicating the degree of importance of the most dominant genes. The second type plots the contribution of each gene in ascending or descending order against a constantly increasing index. This type of plots reveals assay-specific gene signatures defined by the inflection points in the curve. In addition, sharp regions within the signature define the genes that contribute the most to the signature. We proposed and used the curvature as an appropriate metric to characterize these sharp regions, thus identifying the subset of genes contributing the most to the signature. Finally, the PM uses the full dataset to determine the final gene signature, thus eliminating the chance of gene exclusion by poor screening in earlier steps. The strengths of the PM are demonstrated using a simulation study, and two studies of real DNA microarray data – a study of

  16. Blind Quantum Signature with Blind Quantum Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Shi, Ronghua; Guo, Ying

    2017-04-01

    Blind quantum computation allows a client without quantum abilities to interact with a quantum server to perform a unconditional secure computing protocol, while protecting client's privacy. Motivated by confidentiality of blind quantum computation, a blind quantum signature scheme is designed with laconic structure. Different from the traditional signature schemes, the signing and verifying operations are performed through measurement-based quantum computation. Inputs of blind quantum computation are securely controlled with multi-qubit entangled states. The unique signature of the transmitted message is generated by the signer without leaking information in imperfect channels. Whereas, the receiver can verify the validity of the signature using the quantum matching algorithm. The security is guaranteed by entanglement of quantum system for blind quantum computation. It provides a potential practical application for e-commerce in the cloud computing and first-generation quantum computation.

  17. The postprocessing of quantum digital signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tian-Yin; Ma, Jian-Feng; Cai, Xiao-Qiu

    2017-01-01

    Many novel quantum digital signature proposals have been proposed, which can effectively guarantee the information-theoretic security of the signature for a singe bit against forging and denying. Using the current basic building blocks of signing a single bit, we give a new proposal to construct an entire protocol for signing a long message. Compared with the previous work, it can improve at least 33.33% efficiency.

  18. An algorithm of discovering signatures from DNA databases on a computer cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsiao Ping; Sheu, Tzu-Fang

    2014-10-05

    Signatures are short sequences that are unique and not similar to any other sequence in a database that can be used as the basis to identify different species. Even though several signature discovery algorithms have been proposed in the past, these algorithms require the entirety of databases to be loaded in the memory, thus restricting the amount of data that they can process. It makes those algorithms unable to process databases with large amounts of data. Also, those algorithms use sequential models and have slower discovery speeds, meaning that the efficiency can be improved. In this research, we are debuting the utilization of a divide-and-conquer strategy in signature discovery and have proposed a parallel signature discovery algorithm on a computer cluster. The algorithm applies the divide-and-conquer strategy to solve the problem posed to the existing algorithms where they are unable to process large databases and uses a parallel computing mechanism to effectively improve the efficiency of signature discovery. Even when run with just the memory of regular personal computers, the algorithm can still process large databases such as the human whole-genome EST database which were previously unable to be processed by the existing algorithms. The algorithm proposed in this research is not limited by the amount of usable memory and can rapidly find signatures in large databases, making it useful in applications such as Next Generation Sequencing and other large database analysis and processing. The implementation of the proposed algorithm is available at http://www.cs.pu.edu.tw/~fang/DDCSDPrograms/DDCSD.htm.

  19. A Meta-Assembly of Selection Signatures in Cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imtiaz A S Randhawa

    Full Text Available Since domestication, significant genetic improvement has been achieved for many traits of commercial importance in cattle, including adaptation, appearance and production. In response to such intense selection pressures, the bovine genome has undergone changes at the underlying regions of functional genetic variants, which are termed "selection signatures". This article reviews 64 recent (2009-2015 investigations testing genomic diversity for departure from neutrality in worldwide cattle populations. In particular, we constructed a meta-assembly of 16,158 selection signatures for individual breeds and their archetype groups (European, African, Zebu and composite from 56 genome-wide scans representing 70,743 animals of 90 pure and crossbred cattle breeds. Meta-selection-scores (MSS were computed by combining published results at every given locus, within a sliding window span. MSS were adjusted for common samples across studies and were weighted for significance thresholds across and within studies. Published selection signatures show extensive coverage across the bovine genome, however, the meta-assembly provides a consensus profile of 263 genomic regions of which 141 were unique (113 were breed-specific and 122 were shared across cattle archetypes. The most prominent peaks of MSS represent regions under selection across multiple populations and harboured genes of known major effects (coat color, polledness and muscle hypertrophy and genes known to influence polygenic traits (stature, adaptation, feed efficiency, immunity, behaviour, reproduction, beef and dairy production. As the first meta-assembly of selection signatures, it offers novel insights about the hotspots of selective sweeps in the bovine genome, and this method could equally be applied to other species.

  20. Radar Signature Calculation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: The calculation, analysis, and visualization of the spatially extended radar signatures of complex objects such as ships in a sea multipath environment and...

  1. Blind Collective Signature Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay A. Moldovyan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Using the digital signature (DS scheme specified by Belarusian DS standard there are designed the collective and blind collective DS protocols. Signature formation is performed simultaneously by all of the assigned signers, therefore the proposed protocols can be used also as protocols for simultaneous signing a contract. The proposed blind collective DS protocol represents a particular implementation of the blind multisignature schemes that is a novel type of the signature schemes. The proposed protocols are the first implementations of the multisignature schemes based on Belarusian signature standard.

  2. Unconditionally Secure Quantum Signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Amiri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Signature schemes, proposed in 1976 by Diffie and Hellman, have become ubiquitous across modern communications. They allow for the exchange of messages from one sender to multiple recipients, with the guarantees that messages cannot be forged or tampered with and that messages also can be forwarded from one recipient to another without compromising their validity. Signatures are different from, but no less important than encryption, which ensures the privacy of a message. Commonly used signature protocols—signatures based on the Rivest–Adleman–Shamir (RSA algorithm, the digital signature algorithm (DSA, and the elliptic curve digital signature algorithm (ECDSA—are only computationally secure, similar to public key encryption methods. In fact, since these rely on the difficulty of finding discrete logarithms or factoring large primes, it is known that they will become completely insecure with the emergence of quantum computers. We may therefore see a shift towards signature protocols that will remain secure even in a post-quantum world. Ideally, such schemes would provide unconditional or information-theoretic security. In this paper, we aim to provide an accessible and comprehensive review of existing unconditionally securesecure signature schemes for signing classical messages, with a focus on unconditionally secure quantum signature schemes.

  3. Digital Signature Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, Vesna; Biely, Helmut

    1999-01-01

    Describes the Digital Signature Project that was developed in Austria to establish an infrastructure for applying smart card-based digital signatures in banking and electronic-commerce applications. Discusses the need to conform to international standards, an international certification infrastructure, and security features for a public directory…

  4. Extraction and analysis of signatures from the Gene Expression Omnibus by the crowd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zichen; Monteiro, Caroline D.; Jagodnik, Kathleen M.

    2016-01-01

    expression profiles from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). Through a massive open online course on Coursera, over 70 participants from over 25 countries identify and annotate 2,460 single-gene perturbation signatures, 839 disease versus normal signatures, and 906 drug perturbation signatures. All...... these signatures are unique and are manually validated for quality. Global analysis of these signatures confirms known associations and identifies novel associations between genes, diseases and drugs. The manually curated signatures are used as a training set to develop classifiers for extracting similar...

  5. Microwave transitions as a signature of coherent parity mixing effects in the Majorana-transmon qubit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginossar, Eran; Grosfeld, Eytan

    2014-09-01

    Solid-state Majorana fermions are generating intensive interest because of their unique properties and possible applications in fault tolerant quantum memory devices. Here we propose a method to detect signatures of Majorana fermions in hybrid devices by employing the sensitive apparatus of the superconducting charge-qubit architecture and its efficient coupling to microwave photons. In the charge and transmon regimes of this device, we find robust signatures of the underlying Majorana fermions that are, remarkably, not washed out by the smallness of the Majorana contribution to the Josephson current. It is predicted that at special gate bias points the photon-qubit coupling can be switched off via quantum interference, and in other points it is exponentially dependent on the control parameter EJ/EC. We propose that this device could be used to manipulate the quantum state of the Majorana fermion and realize a tunable high coherence four-level system in the superconducting-circuit architecture.

  6. Unique Path Partitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bessenrodt, Christine; Olsson, Jørn Børling; Sellers, James A.

    2013-01-01

    We give a complete classification of the unique path partitions and study congruence properties of the function which enumerates such partitions.......We give a complete classification of the unique path partitions and study congruence properties of the function which enumerates such partitions....

  7. Advanced Missile Signature Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Missile Signature Center (AMSC) is a national facility supporting the Missile Defense Agency (MDA) and other DoD programs and customers with analysis,...

  8. THE ELECTRONIC SIGNATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voiculescu Madalina Irena

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Article refers to significance and the digital signature in electronic commerce. Internet and electronic commerce open up many new opportunities for the consumer, yet, the security (or perceived lack of security of exchanging personal and financial data

  9. Digital signature feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the advantages and disadvantages of using digital signatures to assist the Arizona Department of Transportation in conducting business. The Department is evaluating the potential of performing more electronic t...

  10. Are there molecular signatures?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, W.P.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes molecular signatures and mutational spectrum analysis. The mutation spectrum is defined as the type and location of DNA base change. There are currently about five well documented cases. Mutations and radon-associated tumors are discussed.

  11. New digital signature protocol based on elliptic curves

    OpenAIRE

    Abid, Ounasser; Ettanfouhi, Jaouad; Khadir, Omar

    2013-01-01

    In this work, a new digital signature based on elliptic curves is presented. We established its efficiency and security. The method, derived from a variant of ElGamal signature scheme, can be seen as a secure alternative protocol if known systems are completely broken.

  12. Technology of Electronic Signatur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Sadovsky

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An electronic signature uses a hash of message and an asymetrical algorithm of encryption for its generation. During verification of message on receiver side the hash of original message must be identical with the hash of received message. Electronic message is secured autentization of author and integrity of transmission date. By electronic signature it is possible to sign everything what is in digital form.

  13. Meteor signature interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavan, G.H.

    1997-01-01

    Meteor signatures contain information about the constituents of space debris and present potential false alarms to early warnings systems. Better models could both extract the maximum scientific information possible and reduce their danger. Accurate predictions can be produced by models of modest complexity, which can be inverted to predict the sizes, compositions, and trajectories of object from their signatures for most objects of interest and concern.

  14. Signature verification: A comprehensive study of the hidden signature method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putz-Leszczyńska Joanna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Many handwritten signature verification algorithms have been developed in order to distinguish between genuine signatures and forgeries. An important group of these methods is based on dynamic time warping (DTW. Traditional use of DTW for signature verification consists in forming a misalignment score between the verified signature and a set of template signatures. The right selection of template signatures has a big impact on that verification. In this article, we describe our proposition for replacing the template signatures with the hidden signature-an artificial signature which is created by minimizing the mean misalignment between itself and the signatures from the enrollment set. We present a few hidden signature estimation methods together with their comprehensive comparison. The hidden signature opens a number of new possibilities for signature analysis. We apply statistical properties of the hidden signature to normalize the error signal of the verified signature and to use the misalignment on the normalized errors as a verification basis. A result, we achieve satisfying error rates that allow creating an on-line system, ready for operating in a real-world environment

  15. Addressing Different Active Neutron Interrogation Signatures from Fissionable Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. L. Chichester; E. H. Seabury

    2009-10-01

    In a continuing effort to examine portable methods for implementing active neutron interrogation for detecting shielded fissionable material research is underway to investigate the utility of analyzing multiple time-correlated signatures. Time correlation refers here to the existence of unique characteristics of the fission interrogation signature related to the start and end of an irradiation, as well as signatures present in between individual pulses of an irradiating source. Traditional measurement approaches in this area have typically worked to detect die-away neutrons after the end of each pulse, neutrons in between pulses related to the decay of neutron emitting fission products, or neutrons or gamma rays related to the decay of neutron emitting fission products after the end of an irradiation exposure. In this paper we discus the potential weaknesses of assessing only one signature versus multiple signatures and make the assertion that multiple complimentary and orthogonal measurements should be used to bolster the performance of active interrogation systems, helping to minimize susceptibility to the weaknesses of individual signatures on their own. Recognizing that the problem of detection is a problem of low count rates, we are exploring methods to integrate commonly used signatures with rarely used signatures to improve detection capabilities for these measurements. In this paper we will discuss initial activity in this area with this approach together with observations of some of the strengths and weaknesses of using these different signatures.

  16. Analysis and computational dissection of molecular signature multiplicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Statnikov

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Molecular signatures are computational or mathematical models created to diagnose disease and other phenotypes and to predict clinical outcomes and response to treatment. It is widely recognized that molecular signatures constitute one of the most important translational and basic science developments enabled by recent high-throughput molecular assays. A perplexing phenomenon that characterizes high-throughput data analysis is the ubiquitous multiplicity of molecular signatures. Multiplicity is a special form of data analysis instability in which different analysis methods used on the same data, or different samples from the same population lead to different but apparently maximally predictive signatures. This phenomenon has far-reaching implications for biological discovery and development of next generation patient diagnostics and personalized treatments. Currently the causes and interpretation of signature multiplicity are unknown, and several, often contradictory, conjectures have been made to explain it. We present a formal characterization of signature multiplicity and a new efficient algorithm that offers theoretical guarantees for extracting the set of maximally predictive and non-redundant signatures independent of distribution. The new algorithm identifies exactly the set of optimal signatures in controlled experiments and yields signatures with significantly better predictivity and reproducibility than previous algorithms in human microarray gene expression datasets. Our results shed light on the causes of signature multiplicity, provide computational tools for studying it empirically and introduce a framework for in silico bioequivalence of this important new class of diagnostic and personalized medicine modalities.

  17. Practical quantum digital signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hua-Lei; Fu, Yao; Chen, Zeng-Bing

    2016-03-01

    Guaranteeing nonrepudiation, unforgeability as well as transferability of a signature is one of the most vital safeguards in today's e-commerce era. Based on fundamental laws of quantum physics, quantum digital signature (QDS) aims to provide information-theoretic security for this cryptographic task. However, up to date, the previously proposed QDS protocols are impractical due to various challenging problems and most importantly, the requirement of authenticated (secure) quantum channels between participants. Here, we present the first quantum digital signature protocol that removes the assumption of authenticated quantum channels while remaining secure against the collective attacks. Besides, our QDS protocol can be practically implemented over more than 100 km under current mature technology as used in quantum key distribution.

  18. Factor models for cancer signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakushadze, Zura; Yu, Willie

    2016-11-01

    We present a novel method for extracting cancer signatures by applying statistical risk models (http://ssrn.com/abstract=2732453) from quantitative finance to cancer genome data. Using 1389 whole genome sequenced samples from 14 cancers, we identify an ;overall; mode of somatic mutational noise. We give a prescription for factoring out this noise and source code for fixing the number of signatures. We apply nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) to genome data aggregated by cancer subtype and filtered using our method. The resultant signatures have substantially lower variability than those from unfiltered data. Also, the computational cost of signature extraction is cut by about a factor of 10. We find 3 novel cancer signatures, including a liver cancer dominant signature (96% contribution) and a renal cell carcinoma signature (70% contribution). Our method accelerates finding new cancer signatures and improves their overall stability. Reciprocally, the methods for extracting cancer signatures could have interesting applications in quantitative finance.

  19. Current signature sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotti, Jose M. (Inventor); Lucena, Angel (Inventor); Ihlefeld, Curtis (Inventor); Burns, Bradley (Inventor); Bassignani, Karin E. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A solenoid health monitoring system uses a signal conditioner and controller assembly in one embodiment that includes analog circuitry and a DSP controller. The analog circuitry provides signal conditioning to the low-level raw signal coming from a signal acquisition assembly. Software running in a DSP analyzes the incoming data (recorded current signature) and determines the state of the solenoid whether it is energized, de-energized, or in a transitioning state. In one embodiment, the software identifies key features in the current signature during the transition phase and is able to determine the health of the solenoid.

  20. Extraction and analysis of signatures from the Gene Expression Omnibus by the crowd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zichen; Monteiro, Caroline D.; Jagodnik, Kathleen M.; Fernandez, Nicolas F.; Gundersen, Gregory W.; Rouillard, Andrew D.; Jenkins, Sherry L.; Feldmann, Axel S.; Hu, Kevin S.; McDermott, Michael G.; Duan, Qiaonan; Clark, Neil R.; Jones, Matthew R.; Kou, Yan; Goff, Troy; Woodland, Holly; Amaral, Fabio M. R.; Szeto, Gregory L.; Fuchs, Oliver; Schüssler-Fiorenza Rose, Sophia M.; Sharma, Shvetank; Schwartz, Uwe; Bausela, Xabier Bengoetxea; Szymkiewicz, Maciej; Maroulis, Vasileios; Salykin, Anton; Barra, Carolina M.; Kruth, Candice D.; Bongio, Nicholas J.; Mathur, Vaibhav; Todoric, Radmila D.; Rubin, Udi E.; Malatras, Apostolos; Fulp, Carl T.; Galindo, John A.; Motiejunaite, Ruta; Jüschke, Christoph; Dishuck, Philip C.; Lahl, Katharina; Jafari, Mohieddin; Aibar, Sara; Zaravinos, Apostolos; Steenhuizen, Linda H.; Allison, Lindsey R.; Gamallo, Pablo; de Andres Segura, Fernando; Dae Devlin, Tyler; Pérez-García, Vicente; Ma'Ayan, Avi

    2016-09-01

    Gene expression data are accumulating exponentially in public repositories. Reanalysis and integration of themed collections from these studies may provide new insights, but requires further human curation. Here we report a crowdsourcing project to annotate and reanalyse a large number of gene expression profiles from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). Through a massive open online course on Coursera, over 70 participants from over 25 countries identify and annotate 2,460 single-gene perturbation signatures, 839 disease versus normal signatures, and 906 drug perturbation signatures. All these signatures are unique and are manually validated for quality. Global analysis of these signatures confirms known associations and identifies novel associations between genes, diseases and drugs. The manually curated signatures are used as a training set to develop classifiers for extracting similar signatures from the entire GEO repository. We develop a web portal to serve these signatures for query, download and visualization.

  1. Signatures of Extended Storage of Used Nuclear Fuel in Casks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauch, Eric Benton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-28

    As the amount of used nuclear fuel continues to grow, more and more used nuclear fuel will be transferred to storage casks. A consolidated storage facility is currently in the planning stages for storing these casks, where at least 10,000 MTHM of fuel will be stored. This site will have potentially thousands of casks once it is operational. A facility this large presents new safeguards and nuclear material accounting concerns. A new signature based on the distribution of neutron sources and multiplication within casks was part of the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Material Protection, Account and Control Technologies (MPACT) campaign. Under this project we looked at fingerprinting each cask's neutron signature. Each cask has a unique set of fuel, with a unique spread of initial enrichment, burnup, cooling time, and power history. The unique set of fuel creates a unique signature of neutron intensity based on the arrangement of the assemblies. The unique arrangement of neutron sources and multiplication produces a reliable and unique identification of the cask that has been shown to be relatively constant over long time periods. The work presented here could be used to restore from a loss of continuity of knowledge at the storage site. This presentation will show the steps used to simulate and form this signature from the start of the effort through its conclusion in September 2016.

  2. Lattice-Based Revocable Certificateless Signature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Hao Hung

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Certificateless signatures (CLS are noticeable because they may resolve the key escrow problem in ID-based signatures and break away the management problem regarding certificate in conventional signatures. However, the security of the mostly previous CLS schemes relies on the difficulty of solving discrete logarithm or large integer factorization problems. These two problems would be solved by quantum computers in the future so that the signature schemes based on them will also become insecure. For post-quantum cryptography, lattice-based cryptography is significant due to its efficiency and security. However, no study on addressing the revocation problem in the existing lattice-based CLS schemes is presented. In this paper, we focus on the revocation issue and present the first revocable CLS (RCLS scheme over lattices. Based on the short integer solution (SIS assumption over lattices, the proposed lattice-based RCLS scheme is shown to be existential unforgeability against adaptive chosen message attacks. By performance analysis and comparisons, the proposed lattice-based RCLS scheme is better than the previously proposed lattice-based CLS scheme, in terms of private key size, signature length and the revocation mechanism.

  3. Molecular Signatures in Urologic Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer Larkin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Urologic tumors continue to represent a huge fraction of cancer cases in the United States, with over 376,310 estimated new diagnoses in 2013. As with many types of tumors, urologic tumors vary greatly in their phenotype, ranging from minimally invasive to malignancies possessing great metastatic potential. The increasing need for more efficient and less invasive methods of cancer detection, as well as the ability to predict severity of the disease phenotype is readily evident—yet reliable methods remain elusive in a clinical setting today. Comprehensive panels of gene clusters are being developed toward the generation of molecular signatures in order to better diagnose urologic malignancies, and identify effective treatment strategies in the emerging era of personalized medicine. In this review, we discuss the current literature on the credibility and biomarker value of such molecular signatures in the context of clinical significance relating to the pathological aggressiveness of urologic tumors (prostate, bladder and renal cancer—also exploiting their predictive potential in the response to treatment.

  4. Statistical clumped isotope signatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Röckmann, T.; Popa, M.E.; Krol, M.C.; Hofmann, M.E.G.

    2016-01-01

    High precision measurements of molecules containing more than one heavy isotope may provide novel constraints on element cycles in nature. These so-called clumped isotope signatures are reported relative to the random (stochastic) distribution of heavy isotopes over all available isotopocules of

  5. Statistical clumped isotope signatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Röckmann, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304838233; Popa, M. E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/375806407; Krol, M. C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/078760410; Hofmann, M. E. G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/374642907

    2016-01-01

    High precision measurements of molecules containing more than one heavy isotope may provide novel constraints on element cycles in nature. These so-called clumped isotope signatures are reported relative to the random (stochastic) distribution of heavy isotopes over all available isotopocules of a

  6. Signatures of the Invisible

    CERN Multimedia

    Strom, D

    2003-01-01

    On the Net it is possible to take a look at art from afar via Virtual Museums. One such exhibition was recently in the New York Museum of Modern Art's branch, PS1. Entitled 'Signatures of the Invisible' it was a collaborative effort between artists and physicists (1/2 page).

  7. Free-Space Quantum Signatures Using Heterodyne Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croal, Callum; Peuntinger, Christian; Heim, Bettina; Khan, Imran; Marquardt, Christoph; Leuchs, Gerd; Wallden, Petros; Andersson, Erika; Korolkova, Natalia

    2016-09-02

    Digital signatures guarantee the authorship of electronic communications. Currently used "classical" signature schemes rely on unproven computational assumptions for security, while quantum signatures rely only on the laws of quantum mechanics to sign a classical message. Previous quantum signature schemes have used unambiguous quantum measurements. Such measurements, however, sometimes give no result, reducing the efficiency of the protocol. Here, we instead use heterodyne detection, which always gives a result, although there is always some uncertainty. We experimentally demonstrate feasibility in a real environment by distributing signature states through a noisy 1.6 km free-space channel. Our results show that continuous-variable heterodyne detection improves the signature rate for this type of scheme and therefore represents an interesting direction in the search for practical quantum signature schemes. For transmission values ranging from 100% to 10%, but otherwise assuming an ideal implementation with no other imperfections, the signature length is shorter by a factor of 2 to 10. As compared with previous relevant experimental realizations, the signature length in this implementation is several orders of magnitude shorter.

  8. Hereditary family signature of facial expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Gili; Katzir, Gadi; Peleg, Ofer; Kamara, Michal; Brodsky, Leonid; Hel-Or, Hagit; Keren, Daniel; Nevo, Eviatar

    2006-10-24

    Although facial expressions of emotion are universal, individual differences create a facial expression "signature" for each person; but, is there a unique family facial expression signature? Only a few family studies on the heredity of facial expressions have been performed, none of which compared the gestalt of movements in various emotional states; they compared only a few movements in one or two emotional states. No studies, to our knowledge, have compared movements of congenitally blind subjects with their relatives to our knowledge. Using two types of analyses, we show a correlation between movements of congenitally blind subjects with those of their relatives in think-concentrate, sadness, anger, disgust, joy, and surprise and provide evidence for a unique family facial expression signature. In the analysis "in-out family test," a particular movement was compared each time across subjects. Results show that the frequency of occurrence of a movement of a congenitally blind subject in his family is significantly higher than that outside of his family in think-concentrate, sadness, and anger. In the analysis "the classification test," in which congenitally blind subjects were classified to their families according to the gestalt of movements, results show 80% correct classification over the entire interview and 75% in anger. Analysis of the movements' frequencies in anger revealed a correlation between the movements' frequencies of congenitally blind individuals and those of their relatives. This study anticipates discovering genes that influence facial expressions, understanding their evolutionary significance, and elucidating repair mechanisms for syndromes lacking facial expression, such as autism.

  9. NASA's unique networking environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marjory J.

    1988-01-01

    Networking is an infrastructure technology; it is a tool for NASA to support its space and aeronautics missions. Some of NASA's networking problems are shared by the commercial and/or military communities, and can be solved by working with these communities. However, some of NASA's networking problems are unique and will not be addressed by these other communities. Individual characteristics of NASA's space-mission networking enviroment are examined, the combination of all these characteristics that distinguish NASA's networking systems from either commercial or military systems is explained, and some research areas that are important for NASA to pursue are outlined.

  10. Is Life Unique?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Is life physicochemically unique? No. Is life unique? Yes. Life manifests innumerable formalisms that cannot be generated or explained by physicodynamics alone. Life pursues thousands of biofunctional goals, not the least of which is staying alive. Neither physicodynamics, nor evolution, pursue goals. Life is largely directed by linear digital programming and by the Prescriptive Information (PI) instantiated particularly into physicodynamically indeterminate nucleotide sequencing. Epigenomic controls only compound the sophistication of these formalisms. Life employs representationalism through the use of symbol systems. Life manifests autonomy, homeostasis far from equilibrium in the harshest of environments, positive and negative feedback mechanisms, prevention and correction of its own errors, and organization of its components into Sustained Functional Systems (SFS). Chance and necessity—heat agitation and the cause-and-effect determinism of nature’s orderliness—cannot spawn formalisms such as mathematics, language, symbol systems, coding, decoding, logic, organization (not to be confused with mere self-ordering), integration of circuits, computational success, and the pursuit of functionality. All of these characteristics of life are formal, not physical. PMID:25382119

  11. The defining DNA methylation signature of Floating-Harbor Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Rebecca L; Schenkel, Laila C; Nikkel, Sarah M; Ainsworth, Peter J; Pare, Guillaume; Boycott, Kym M; Bulman, Dennis E; Sadikovic, Bekim

    2016-12-09

    Floating-Harbor syndrome (FHS) is an autosomal dominant genetic condition characterized by short stature, delayed osseous maturation, expressive language impairment, and unique facial dysmorphology. We previously identified mutations in the chromatin remodeling protein SRCAP (SNF2-related CBP Activator Protein) as the cause of FHS. SRCAP has multiple roles in chromatin and transcriptional regulation; however, specific epigenetic consequences of SRCAP mutations remain to be described. Using high resolution genome-wide DNA methylation analysis, we identified a unique and highly specific DNA methylation "epi-signature" in the peripheral blood of individuals with FHS. Both hyper and hypomethylated loci are distributed across the genome, preferentially occurring in CpG islands. Clonal bisulfite sequencing of two hypermethylated (FIGN and STPG2) and two hypomethylated (MYO1F and RASIP1) genes confirmed these findings. The identification of a unique methylation signature in FHS provides further insight into the biological function of SRCAP and provides a unique biomarker for this disorder.

  12. Deciphering Signatures of Mutational Processes Operative in Human Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Ludmil B.; Nik-Zainal, Serena; Wedge, David C.; Campbell, Peter J.; Stratton, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The genome of a cancer cell carries somatic mutations that are the cumulative consequences of the DNA damage and repair processes operative during the cellular lineage between the fertilized egg and the cancer cell. Remarkably, these mutational processes are poorly characterized. Global sequencing initiatives are yielding catalogs of somatic mutations from thousands of cancers, thus providing the unique opportunity to decipher the signatures of mutational processes operative in human cancer. However, until now there have been no theoretical models describing the signatures of mutational processes operative in cancer genomes and no systematic computational approaches are available to decipher these mutational signatures. Here, by modeling mutational processes as a blind source separation problem, we introduce a computational framework that effectively addresses these questions. Our approach provides a basis for characterizing mutational signatures from cancer-derived somatic mutational catalogs, paving the way to insights into the pathogenetic mechanism underlying all cancers. PMID:23318258

  13. A Behavioral Handwriting Model for Static and Dynamic Signature Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Miguel A; Diaz, Moises; Carmona-Duarte, Cristina; Morales, Aythami

    2017-06-01

    The synthetic generation of static handwritten signatures based on motor equivalence theory has been recently proposed for biometric applications. Motor equivalence divides the human handwriting action into an effector dependent cognitive level and an effector independent motor level. The first level has been suggested by others as an engram, generated through a spatial grid, and the second has been emulated with kinematic filters. Our paper proposes a development of this methodology in which we generate dynamic information and provide a unified comprehensive synthesizer for both static and dynamic signature synthesis. The dynamics are calculated by lognormal sampling of the 8-connected continuous signature trajectory, which includes, as a novelty, the pen-ups. The forgery generation imitates a signature by extracting the most perceptually relevant points of the given genuine signature and interpolating them. The capacity to synthesize both static and dynamic signatures using a unique model is evaluated according to its ability to adapt to the static and dynamic signature inter- and intra-personal variability. Our highly promising results suggest the possibility of using the synthesizer in different areas beyond the generation of unlimited databases for biometric training.

  14. The core and unique proteins of haloarchaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capes Melinda D

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the first genome of a halophilic archaeon was sequenced in 2000, biologists have been advancing the understanding of genomic characteristics that allow for survival in the harsh natural environments of these organisms. An increase in protein acidity and GC-bias in the genome have been implicated as factors in tolerance to extreme salinity, desiccation, and high solar radiation. However, few previous attempts have been made to identify novel genes that would permit survival in such extreme conditions. Results With the recent release of several new complete haloarchaeal genome sequences, we have conducted a comprehensive comparative genomic analysis focusing on the identification of unique haloarchaeal conserved proteins that likely play key roles in environmental adaptation. Using bioinformatic methods, we have clustered 31,312 predicted proteins from nine haloarchaeal genomes into 4,455 haloarchaeal orthologous groups (HOGs. We assigned likely functions by association with established COG and KOG databases in NCBI. After identifying homologs in four additional haloarchaeal genomes, we determined that there were 784 core haloarchaeal protein clusters (cHOGs, of which 83 clusters were found primarily in haloarchaea. Further analysis found that 55 clusters were truly unique (tucHOGs to haloarchaea and qualify as signature proteins while 28 were nearly unique (nucHOGs, the vast majority of which were coded for on the haloarchaeal chromosomes. Of the signature proteins, only one example with any predicted function, Ral, involved in desiccation/radiation tolerance in Halobacterium sp. NRC-1, was identified. Among the core clusters, 33% was predicted to function in metabolism, 25% in information transfer and storage, 10% in cell processes and signaling, and 22% belong to poorly characterized or general function groups. Conclusion Our studies have established conserved groups of nearly 800 protein clusters present in all

  15. Oil pollution signatures by remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catoe, C. E.; Mclean, J. T.

    1972-01-01

    Study of the possibility of developing an effective remote sensing system for oil pollution monitoring which would be capable of detecting oil films on water, mapping the areal extent of oil slicks, measuring slick thickness, and identifying the oil types. In the spectral regions considered (ultraviolet, visible, infrared, microwave, and radar), the signatures were sufficiently unique when compared to the background so that it was possible to detect and map oil slicks. Both microwave and radar techniques are capable of operating in adverse weather. Fluorescence techniques show promise in identifying oil types. A multispectral system will be required to detect oil, map its distribution, estimate film thickness, and characterize the oil pollutant.

  16. Sensitive quantitative detection/identification of infectious Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts by signature lipid biomarker analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.C. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Center for Environmental Biotechnology]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Alugupalli, S.; Schrum, D.P. [Microbial Insights, Inc., Rockford, TN (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    Unique signature lipid biomarkers were found in the acid-fast oocytes of Cryptosporidium parvum. This makes possible the rapid detection/identification and potential infectivity directly from drinking water membrane filtrates.

  17. Signatures of topological superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Yang

    2017-07-19

    The prediction and experimental discovery of topological insulators brought the importance of topology in condensed matter physics into the limelight. Topology hence acts as a new dimension along which more and more new states of matter start to emerge. One of these topological states of matter, namely topological superconductors, comes into the focus because of their gapless excitations. These gapless excitations, especially in one dimensional topological superconductors, are Majorana zero modes localized at the ends of the superconductor and exhibit exotic nonabelian statistics, which can be potentially applied to fault-tolerant quantum computation. Given their highly interesting physical properties and potential applications to quantum computation, both theorists and experimentalists spend great efforts to realize topological supercondoctors and to detect Majoranas. In two projects within this thesis, we investigate the properties of Majorana zero modes in realistic materials which are absent in simple theoretical models. We find that the superconducting proximity effect, an essential ingredient in all existing platforms for topological superconductors, plays a significant role in determining the localization property of the Majoranas. Strong proximity coupling between the normal system and the superconducting substrate can lead to strongly localized Majoranas, which can explain the observation in a recent experiment. Motivated by experiments in Molenkamp's group, we also look at realistic quantum spin Hall Josephson junctions, in which charge puddles acting as magnetic impurities are coupled to the helical edge states. We find that with this setup, the junction generically realizes an exotic 8π periodic Josephson effect, which is absent in a pristine Josephson junction. In another two projects, we propose more pronounced signatures of Majoranas that are accessible with current experimental techniques. The first one is a transport measurement, which uses

  18. Clustering signatures classify directed networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahnert, S. E.; Fink, T. M. A.

    2008-09-01

    We use a clustering signature, based on a recently introduced generalization of the clustering coefficient to directed networks, to analyze 16 directed real-world networks of five different types: social networks, genetic transcription networks, word adjacency networks, food webs, and electric circuits. We show that these five classes of networks are cleanly separated in the space of clustering signatures due to the statistical properties of their local neighborhoods, demonstrating the usefulness of clustering signatures as a classifier of directed networks.

  19. Electronic Warfare Signature Measurement Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electronic Warfare Signature Measurement Facility contains specialized mobile spectral, radiometric, and imaging measurement systems to characterize ultraviolet,...

  20. Expressiveness considerations of XML signatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Meiko; Meyer, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    XML Signatures are used to protect XML-based Web Service communication against a broad range of attacks related to man-in-the-middle scenarios. However, due to the complexity of the Web Services specification landscape, the task of applying XML Signatures in a robust and reliable manner becomes...... more and more challenging. In this paper, we investigate this issue, describing how an attacker can still interfere with Web Services communication even in the presence of XML Signatures. Additionally, we discuss the interrelation of XML Signatures and XML Encryption, focussing on their security...

  1. Digital gene expression signatures for maize development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eveland, Andrea L; Satoh-Nagasawa, Namiko; Goldshmidt, Alexander; Meyer, Sandra; Beatty, Mary; Sakai, Hajime; Ware, Doreen; Jackson, David

    2010-11-01

    Genome-wide expression signatures detect specific perturbations in developmental programs and contribute to functional resolution of key regulatory networks. In maize (Zea mays) inflorescences, mutations in the RAMOSA (RA) genes affect the determinacy of axillary meristems and thus alter branching patterns, an important agronomic trait. In this work, we developed and tested a framework for analysis of tag-based, digital gene expression profiles using Illumina's high-throughput sequencing technology and the newly assembled B73 maize reference genome. We also used a mutation in the RA3 gene to identify putative expression signatures specific to stem cell fate in axillary meristem determinacy. The RA3 gene encodes a trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase and may act at the interface between developmental and metabolic processes. Deep sequencing of digital gene expression libraries, representing three biological replicate ear samples from wild-type and ra3 plants, generated 27 million 20- to 21-nucleotide reads with frequencies spanning 4 orders of magnitude. Unique sequence tags were anchored to 3'-ends of individual transcripts by DpnII and NlaIII digests, which were multiplexed during sequencing. We mapped 86% of nonredundant signature tags to the maize genome, which associated with 37,117 gene models and unannotated regions of expression. In total, 66% of genes were detected by at least nine reads in immature maize ears. We used comparative genomics to leverage existing information from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and rice (Oryza sativa) in functional analyses of differentially expressed maize genes. Results from this study provide a basis for the analysis of short-read expression data in maize and resolved specific expression signatures that will help define mechanisms of action for the RA3 gene.

  2. Identification of single- and multiple-class specific signature genes from gene expression profiles by group marker index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shuen Tsai

    Full Text Available Informative genes from microarray data can be used to construct prediction model and investigate biological mechanisms. Differentially expressed genes, the main targets of most gene selection methods, can be classified as single- and multiple-class specific signature genes. Here, we present a novel gene selection algorithm based on a Group Marker Index (GMI, which is intuitive, of low-computational complexity, and efficient in identification of both types of genes. Most gene selection methods identify only single-class specific signature genes and cannot identify multiple-class specific signature genes easily. Our algorithm can detect de novo certain conditions of multiple-class specificity of a gene and makes use of a novel non-parametric indicator to assess the discrimination ability between classes. Our method is effective even when the sample size is small as well as when the class sizes are significantly different. To compare the effectiveness and robustness we formulate an intuitive template-based method and use four well-known datasets. We demonstrate that our algorithm outperforms the template-based method in difficult cases with unbalanced distribution. Moreover, the multiple-class specific genes are good biomarkers and play important roles in biological pathways. Our literature survey supports that the proposed method identifies unique multiple-class specific marker genes (not reported earlier to be related to cancer in the Central Nervous System data. It also discovers unique biomarkers indicating the intrinsic difference between subtypes of lung cancer. We also associate the pathway information with the multiple-class specific signature genes and cross-reference to published studies. We find that the identified genes participate in the pathways directly involved in cancer development in leukemia data. Our method gives a promising way to find genes that can involve in pathways of multiple diseases and hence opens up the possibility of

  3. Molecular signatures for the Crenarchaeota and the Thaumarchaeota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Radhey S; Shami, Ali

    2011-02-01

    Crenarchaeotes found in mesophilic marine environments were recently placed into a new phylum of Archaea called the Thaumarchaeota. However, very few molecular characteristics of this new phylum are currently known which can be used to distinguish them from the Crenarchaeota. In addition, their relationships to deep-branching archaeal lineages are unclear. We report here detailed analyses of protein sequences from Crenarchaeota and Thaumarchaeota that have identified many conserved signature indels (CSIs) and signature proteins (SPs) (i.e., proteins for which all significant blast hits are from these groups) that are specific for these archaeal groups. Of the identified signatures 6 CSIs and 13 SPs are specific for the Crenarchaeota phylum; 6 CSIs and >250 SPs are uniquely found in various Thaumarchaeota (viz. Cenarchaeum symbiosum, Nitrosopumilus maritimus and a number of uncultured marine crenarchaeotes) and 3 CSIs and ~10 SPs are found in both Thaumarchaeota and Crenarchaeota species. Some of the molecular signatures are also present in Korarchaeum cryptofilum, which forms the independent phylum Korarchaeota. Although some of these molecular signatures suggest a distant shared ancestry between Thaumarchaeota and Crenarchaeota, our identification of large numbers of Thaumarchaeota-specific proteins and their deep branching between the Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota phyla in phylogenetic trees shows that they are distinct from both Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota in both genetic and phylogenetic terms. These observations support the placement of marine mesophilic archaea into the separate phylum Thaumarchaeota. Additionally, many CSIs and SPs have been found that are specific for different orders within Crenarchaeota (viz. Sulfolobales-3 CSIs and 169 SPs, Thermoproteales-5 CSIs and 25 SPs, Desulfurococcales-4 SPs, and Sulfolobales and Desulfurococcales-2 CSIs and 18 SPs). The signatures described here provide novel means for distinguishing the Crenarchaeota and

  4. Ship Signature Management System : Functionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arciszewski, H.F.R.; Lier, L. van; Meijer, Y.G.S.; Noordkamp, H.W.; Wassenaar, A.S.

    2010-01-01

    A signature of a platform is the manner in which the platform manifests itself to a certain type of sensor and how observable it is when such a sensor is used to detect the platform. Because many military platforms use sensors in different media, it is the total of its different signatures that

  5. Students Discover Unique Planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    , they were a good test case for the students' algorithm, who showed that for one of stars observed, OGLE-TR-L9, the variations could be due to a transit -- the passage of a planet in front of its star. The team then used the GROND instrument on the 2.2 m telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory to follow up the observations and find out more about the star and the planet. "But to make sure it was a planet and not a brown dwarf or a small star that was causing the brightness variations, we needed to resort to spectroscopy, and for this, we were glad we could use ESO's Very Large Telescope," says Snellen. The planet, which is about five times as massive as Jupiter, circles its host star in about 2.5 days. It lies at only three percent of the Earth-Sun distance from its star, making it very hot and much larger than normal planets. The spectroscopy also showed that the star is pretty hot -- almost 7000 degrees, or 1200 degrees hotter than the Sun. It is the hottest star with a planet ever discovered, and it is rotating very fast. The radial velocity method -- that was used to discover most extrasolar planets known -- is less efficient on stars with these characteristics. "This makes this discovery even more interesting," concludes Snellen.

  6. On the signature of LINCOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollongren, Alexander

    2010-12-01

    Suppose the international SETI effort yields the discovery of some signal of evidently non-natural origin. Could it contain linguistic information formulated in some kind of Lingua Cosmica? One way to get insight into this matter is to consider what specific (bio) linguistic signature( s) could be attached to a cosmic language for interstellar communication—designed by humans or an alien society having reached a level of intelligence (and technology) comparable to or surpassing ours. For this purpose, we consider in the present paper the logico-linguistic system LINCOS for ( A)CETI, developed during a number of years by the author in several papers and a monograph [1]. The system has a two-fold signature, which distinguishes it significantly from natural languages. In fact abstract and concrete signatures can be distinguished. That an abstract kind occurs is due to the manner in which abstractions of reality are represented in LINCOS-texts. They can take compound forms because the system is multi-expressive—partly due to the availability of inductive (recursive) entities. On the other hand, the concrete signature of LINCOS is related to the distribution of delimiters and predefined tokens in texts. Assigning measures to concrete signatures will be discussed elsewhere. The present contribution concentrates on the abstract signature of the language. At the same time, it is realized that an alien Lingua Cosmica might, but not necessarily needs to have this kind of signatures.

  7. Statistical clumped isotope signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röckmann, T.; Popa, M. E.; Krol, M. C.; Hofmann, M. E. G.

    2016-01-01

    High precision measurements of molecules containing more than one heavy isotope may provide novel constraints on element cycles in nature. These so-called clumped isotope signatures are reported relative to the random (stochastic) distribution of heavy isotopes over all available isotopocules of a molecule, which is the conventional reference. When multiple indistinguishable atoms of the same element are present in a molecule, this reference is calculated from the bulk (≈average) isotopic composition of the involved atoms. We show here that this referencing convention leads to apparent negative clumped isotope anomalies (anti-clumping) when the indistinguishable atoms originate from isotopically different populations. Such statistical clumped isotope anomalies must occur in any system where two or more indistinguishable atoms of the same element, but with different isotopic composition, combine in a molecule. The size of the anti-clumping signal is closely related to the difference of the initial isotope ratios of the indistinguishable atoms that have combined. Therefore, a measured statistical clumped isotope anomaly, relative to an expected (e.g. thermodynamical) clumped isotope composition, may allow assessment of the heterogeneity of the isotopic pools of atoms that are the substrate for formation of molecules. PMID:27535168

  8. Searchable Signatures: Context and the Struggle for Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Schlesselman-Tarango

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Social networking sites made possible through Web 2.0 allow for unique user-generated tags called “searchable signatures.”  These tags move beyond the descriptive and act as means for users to assert online individual and group identities.  A study of searchable signatures on the Instagram application demonstrates that these types of tags are valuable not only because they allow for both individuals and groups to engage in what social theorist Axel Honneth calls the struggle for recognition, but also because they provide contextual use data and sociohistorical information so important to the understanding of digital objects.  This article explores how searchable signatures might be used by both patrons and staff in library environments.

  9. Identification of unique reciprocal and non reciprocal cross packaging relationships between HIV-1, HIV-2 and SIV reveals an efficient SIV/HIV-2 lentiviral vector system with highly favourable features for in vivo testing and clinical usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caldwell Maeve

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lentiviral vectors have shown immense promise as vehicles for gene delivery to non-dividing cells particularly to cells of the central nervous system (CNS. Improvements in the biosafety of viral vectors are paramount as lentiviral vectors move into human clinical trials. This study investigates the packaging relationship between gene transfer (vector and Gag-Pol expression constructs of HIV-1, HIV-2 and SIV. Cross-packaged vectors expressing GFP were assessed for RNA packaging, viral vector titre and their ability to transduce rat primary glial cell cultures and human neural stem cells. Results HIV-1 Gag-Pol demonstrated the ability to cross package both HIV-2 and SIV gene transfer vectors. However both HIV-2 and SIV Gag-Pol showed a reduced ability to package HIV-1 vector RNA with no significant gene transfer to target cells. An unexpected packaging relationship was found to exist between HIV-2 and SIV with SIV Gag-Pol able to package HIV-2 vector RNA and transduce dividing SV2T cells and CNS cell cultures with an efficiency equivalent to the homologous HIV-1 vector however HIV-2 was unable to deliver SIV based vectors. Conclusion This new non-reciprocal cross packaging relationship between SIV and HIV-2 provides a novel way of significantly increasing bio-safety with a reduced sequence homology between the HIV-2 gene transfer vector and the SIV Gag-Pol construct thus ensuring that vector RNA packaging is unidirectional.

  10. Password-based digital signatures

    OpenAIRE

    Sivagnanasuntharam, Sangeepan

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is about implementing a digital signature scheme proposed by associate professor Kristian Gjøsteen and Oystein Thuen.The thesis explains the implementation, the challenges met and a security assessment of the implementation.

  11. Intrusion detection using secure signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Trent Darnel; Haile, Jedediah

    2014-09-30

    A method and device for intrusion detection using secure signatures comprising capturing network data. A search hash value, value employing at least one one-way function, is generated from the captured network data using a first hash function. The presence of a search hash value match in a secure signature table comprising search hash values and an encrypted rule is determined. After determining a search hash value match, a decryption key is generated from the captured network data using a second hash function, a hash function different form the first hash function. One or more of the encrypted rules of the secure signatures table having a hash value equal to the generated search hash value are then decrypted using the generated decryption key. The one or more decrypted secure signature rules are then processed for a match and one or more user notifications are deployed if a match is identified.

  12. Epigenetic Signatures of Cigarette Smoking

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joehanes, Roby; Just, A.C; Marioni, Riccardo; Pilling, Luke; Reynolds, Lindsay; Mandaviya, P.R; Guan, Weihua; Xu, T; Elks, Cathy; Aslibekyan, S; Moreno-Macías, Hortensia; Smith, Jennifer A; Brody, Jennifer; Dhingra, R; Yousefi, Paul; Pankow, James; Kunze, S; Shah, S.H; McRae, Allan F; Lohman, Kurt; Sha, J; Absher, Devin; Ferrucci, Luigi; Zhao, W; Demerath, Ellen; Bressler, Jan; Grove, Megan; Huan, Tianxiao; Liu, Chunyu; Mendelson, M.M; Yao, Chen; Kiel, Douglas P; Peters, Annette; Wang-Sattler, Rui; Visscher, Peter; Wray, Naomi; Starr, John; Ding, J; Roiguez, C.J; Wareham, Nick; Irvin, M.R; Zhi, D; Barrdahl, Myrto; Vineis, Paolo; Ambatipudi, S; Uitterlinden, Ané; Hofman, Albert; Schwartz, J; Colicino, E; Hou, L; Vokonas, P.S; Hernandez, Dena; Singleton, Anew; Bandinelli, Stefania; Turner, Stephen; Ware, Erin B; Smith, A.K; Klengel, Torsten; Binder, Elisabeth B; Psaty, Bruce; Taylor, Kent; Gharib, Sina; Swenson, B.R; Liang, L; Demeo, Dawn L; O'Connor, George; Herceg, Zdenko; Ressler, K.J; Conneely, Karen N; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Kardia, S.L.R; Melzer, David; Baccarelli, Anea A; Meurs, Joyce; Romieu, Isabelle; Arnett, Donna; Ong, K.K; Liu, Yongmei; Waldenberger, Melanie; Deary, Ian J; Fornage, Myriam; Levy, Daniel; London, Stephanie J

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground-DNA methylation leaves a long-term signature of smoking exposure and is one potential mechanism by which tobacco exposure predisposes to adverse health outcomes, such as cancers...

  13. Initial Semantics for Strengthened Signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Hirschowitz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We give a new general definition of arity, yielding the companion notions of signature and associated syntax. This setting is modular in the sense requested by Ghani and Uustalu: merging two extensions of syntax corresponds to building an amalgamated sum. These signatures are too general in the sense that we are not able to prove the existence of an associated syntax in this general context. So we have to select arities and signatures for which there exists the desired initial monad. For this, we follow a track opened by Matthes and Uustalu: we introduce a notion of strengthened arity and prove that the corresponding signatures have initial semantics (i.e. associated syntax. Our strengthened arities admit colimits, which allows the treatment of the λ-calculus with explicit substitution.

  14. Thermal imaging as a biometrics approach to facial signature authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, A M; Goryawala, M; Wang, Jin; Barreto, A; Andrian, J; Rishe, N; Adjouadi, M

    2013-01-01

    A new thermal imaging framework with unique feature extraction and similarity measurements for face recognition is presented. The research premise is to design specialized algorithms that would extract vasculature information, create a thermal facial signature and identify the individual. The proposed algorithm is fully integrated and consolidates the critical steps of feature extraction through the use of morphological operators, registration using the Linear Image Registration Tool and matching through unique similarity measures designed for this task. The novel approach at developing a thermal signature template using four images taken at various instants of time ensured that unforeseen changes in the vasculature over time did not affect the biometric matching process as the authentication process relied only on consistent thermal features. Thirteen subjects were used for testing the developed technique on an in-house thermal imaging system. The matching using the similarity measures showed an average accuracy of 88.46% for skeletonized signatures and 90.39% for anisotropically diffused signatures. The highly accurate results obtained in the matching process clearly demonstrate the ability of the thermal infrared system to extend in application to other thermal imaging based systems. Empirical results applying this approach to an existing database of thermal images proves this assertion.

  15. An RNA-based signature enables high specificity detection of circulating tumor cells in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinich, Mark; Bhan, Irun; Kwan, Tanya T; Miyamoto, David T; Javaid, Sarah; LiCausi, Joseph A; Milner, John D; Hong, Xin; Goyal, Lipika; Sil, Srinjoy; Choz, Melissa; Ho, Uyen; Kapur, Ravi; Muzikansky, Alona; Zhang, Huidan; Weitz, David A; Sequist, Lecia V; Ryan, David P; Chung, Raymond T; Zhu, Andrew X; Isselbacher, Kurt J; Ting, David T; Toner, Mehmet; Maheswaran, Shyamala; Haber, Daniel A

    2017-01-31

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are shed into the bloodstream by invasive cancers, but the difficulty inherent in identifying these rare cells by microscopy has precluded their routine use in monitoring or screening for cancer. We recently described a high-throughput microfluidic CTC-iChip, which efficiently depletes hematopoietic cells from blood specimens and enriches for CTCs with well-preserved RNA. Application of RNA-based digital PCR to detect CTC-derived signatures may thus enable highly accurate tissue lineage-based cancer detection in blood specimens. As proof of principle, we examined hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a cancer that is derived from liver cells bearing a unique gene expression profile. After identifying a digital signature of 10 liver-specific transcripts, we used a cross-validated logistic regression model to identify the presence of HCC-derived CTCs in nine of 16 (56%) untreated patients with HCC versus one of 31 (3%) patients with nonmalignant liver disease at risk for developing HCC (P digital CTC scoring was not correlated with the standard HCC serum protein marker alpha fetoprotein (P = 0.57). Modeling the sequential use of these two orthogonal markers for liver cancer screening in patients with high-risk cirrhosis generates positive and negative predictive values of 80% and 86%, respectively. Thus, digital RNA quantitation constitutes a sensitive and specific CTC readout, enabling high-throughput clinical applications, such as noninvasive screening for HCC in populations where viral hepatitis and cirrhosis are prevalent.

  16. Forgery attack to Kang-Tang digital signature scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jie; Guo, Yongning; Liu, Chenglian

    2014-10-01

    In 2006, Kang and Tang proposed a digital signature scheme without hash functions and message redundancy. They claimed their scheme are more efficient in computation and communication for small device. In this paper, we will point out an new attack to certain the Kang-Tang scheme is insecure.

  17. Unique Factors Affecting Canadian Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquhar, Robin H.

    In a background statement identifying what is unique about Canada and the issues it currently faces, this paper begins by discussing the concurrent movements toward Canadian nationalism and Quebec nationalism as an illustration of the problems caused by large size and great diversity. It then focuses on unique aspects of Canadian education,…

  18. Imposing Uniqueness to Achieve Sparsity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Keith; Wang, Yu-Ping

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we take a novel approach to the regularization of underdetermined linear systems. Typically, a prior distribution is imposed on the unknown to hopefully force a sparse solution, which often relies on uniqueness of the regularized solution (something which is typically beyond our control) to work as desired. But here we take a direct approach, by imposing the requirement that the system takes on a unique solution. Then we seek a minimal residual for which this uniqueness requirement holds. When applied to systems with non-negativity constraints or forms of regularization for which sufficient sparsity is a requirement for uniqueness, this approach necessarily gives a sparse result. The approach is based on defining a metric of distance to uniqueness for the system, and optimizing an adjustment that drives this distance to zero. We demonstrate the performance of the approach with numerical experiments.

  19. Genome signature analysis of thermal virus metagenomes reveals Archaea and thermophilic signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pride David T

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metagenomic analysis provides a rich source of biological information for otherwise intractable viral communities. However, study of viral metagenomes has been hampered by its nearly complete reliance on BLAST algorithms for identification of DNA sequences. We sought to develop algorithms for examination of viral metagenomes to identify the origin of sequences independent of BLAST algorithms. We chose viral metagenomes obtained from two hot springs, Bear Paw and Octopus, in Yellowstone National Park, as they represent simple microbial populations where comparatively large contigs were obtained. Thermal spring metagenomes have high proportions of sequences without significant Genbank homology, which has hampered identification of viruses and their linkage with hosts. To analyze each metagenome, we developed a method to classify DNA fragments using genome signature-based phylogenetic classification (GSPC, where metagenomic fragments are compared to a database of oligonucleotide signatures for all previously sequenced Bacteria, Archaea, and viruses. Results From both Bear Paw and Octopus hot springs, each assembled contig had more similarity to other metagenome contigs than to any sequenced microbial genome based on GSPC analysis, suggesting a genome signature common to each of these extreme environments. While viral metagenomes from Bear Paw and Octopus share some similarity, the genome signatures from each locale are largely unique. GSPC using a microbial database predicts most of the Octopus metagenome has archaeal signatures, while bacterial signatures predominate in Bear Paw; a finding consistent with those of Genbank BLAST. When using a viral database, the majority of the Octopus metagenome is predicted to belong to archaeal virus Families Globuloviridae and Fuselloviridae, while none of the Bear Paw metagenome is predicted to belong to archaeal viruses. As expected, when microbial and viral databases are combined, each of

  20. Attribute-Based Digital Signature System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ibraimi, L.; Asim, Muhammad; Petkovic, M.

    2011-01-01

    An attribute-based digital signature system comprises a signature generation unit (1) for signing a message (m) by generating a signature (s) based on a user secret key (SK) associated with a set of user attributes, wherein the signature generation unit (1) is arranged for combining the user secret

  1. Practical Certificateless Aggregate Signatures From Bilinear Maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gong, Zheng; Long, Y.; Hong, X.; Chen, Kefei

    2010-01-01

    Aggregate signature is a digital signature with a striking property that anyone can aggregate n individual signatures on n different messages which are signed by n distinct signers, into a single compact signature to reduce computational and storage costs. In this work, two practical certificateless

  2. VAR2CSA signatures of high Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia in the placenta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Rovira-Vallbona

    Full Text Available Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes (IE accumulate in the placenta through the interaction between Duffy-binding like (DBL domains of parasite-encoded ligand VAR2CSA and chondroitin sulphate-A (CSA receptor. Polymorphisms in these domains, including DBL2X and DBL3X, may affect their antigenicity or CSA-binding affinity, eventually increasing parasitemia and its adverse effects on pregnancy outcomes. A total of 373 DBL2X and 328 DBL3X sequences were obtained from transcripts of 20 placental isolates infecting Mozambican women, resulting in 176 DBL2X and 191 DBL3X unique sequences at the protein level. Sequence alignments were divided in segments containing combinations of correlated polymorphisms and the association of segment sequences with placental parasite density was tested using Bonferroni corrected regression models, taking into consideration the weight of each sequence in the infection. Three DBL2X and three DBL3X segments contained signatures of high parasite density (P<0.003 that were highly prevalent in the parasite population (49-91%. Identified regions included a flexible loop that contributes to DBL3X-CSA interaction and two DBL3X motifs with evidence of positive natural selection. Limited antibody responses against signatures of high parasite density among malaria-exposed pregnant women could not explain the increased placental parasitemia. These results suggest that a higher binding efficiency to CSA rather than reduced antigenicity might provide a biological advantage to parasites with high parasite density signatures in VAR2CSA. Sequences contributing to high parasitemia may be critical for the functional characterization of VAR2CSA and the development of tools against placental malaria.

  3. Observational Signature of High Spin at the Event Horizon Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gralla, Samuel E.; Lupsasca, Alexandru; Strominger, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    We analytically compute the observational appearance of an isotropically emitting point source orbiting near a rapidly spinning black hole. The primary image moves on a vertical line segment, in contrast to the primarily horizontal motion of the spinless case. Secondary images, also on the vertical line, display a rich caustic structure. If detected, this unique signature could serve as a "smoking gun" for a high spin black hole in nature.

  4. SIGNATURE: A workbench for gene expression signature analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Jeffrey T

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The biological phenotype of a cell, such as a characteristic visual image or behavior, reflects activities derived from the expression of collections of genes. As such, an ability to measure the expression of these genes provides an opportunity to develop more precise and varied sets of phenotypes. However, to use this approach requires computational methods that are difficult to implement and apply, and thus there is a critical need for intelligent software tools that can reduce the technical burden of the analysis. Tools for gene expression analyses are unusually difficult to implement in a user-friendly way because their application requires a combination of biological data curation, statistical computational methods, and database expertise. Results We have developed SIGNATURE, a web-based resource that simplifies gene expression signature analysis by providing software, data, and protocols to perform the analysis successfully. This resource uses Bayesian methods for processing gene expression data coupled with a curated database of gene expression signatures, all carried out within a GenePattern web interface for easy use and access. Conclusions SIGNATURE is available for public use at http://genepattern.genome.duke.edu/signature/.

  5. Security analysis of the unrestricted identity-based aggregate signature scheme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwangsu Lee

    Full Text Available Aggregate signatures allow anyone to combine different signatures signed by different signers on different messages into a short signature. An ideal aggregate signature scheme is an identity-based aggregate signature (IBAS scheme that supports full aggregation since it can reduce the total transmitted data by using an identity string as a public key and anyone can freely aggregate different signatures. Constructing a secure IBAS scheme that supports full aggregation in bilinear maps is an important open problem. Recently, Yuan et al. proposed such a scheme and claimed its security in the random oracle model under the computational Diffie-Hellman assumption. In this paper, we show that there is an efficient forgery on their IBAS scheme and that their security proof has a serious flaw.

  6. Significance analysis of prognostic signatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew H Beck

    Full Text Available A major goal in translational cancer research is to identify biological signatures driving cancer progression and metastasis. A common technique applied in genomics research is to cluster patients using gene expression data from a candidate prognostic gene set, and if the resulting clusters show statistically significant outcome stratification, to associate the gene set with prognosis, suggesting its biological and clinical importance. Recent work has questioned the validity of this approach by showing in several breast cancer data sets that "random" gene sets tend to cluster patients into prognostically variable subgroups. This work suggests that new rigorous statistical methods are needed to identify biologically informative prognostic gene sets. To address this problem, we developed Significance Analysis of Prognostic Signatures (SAPS which integrates standard prognostic tests with a new prognostic significance test based on stratifying patients into prognostic subtypes with random gene sets. SAPS ensures that a significant gene set is not only able to stratify patients into prognostically variable groups, but is also enriched for genes showing strong univariate associations with patient prognosis, and performs significantly better than random gene sets. We use SAPS to perform a large meta-analysis (the largest completed to date of prognostic pathways in breast and ovarian cancer and their molecular subtypes. Our analyses show that only a small subset of the gene sets found statistically significant using standard measures achieve significance by SAPS. We identify new prognostic signatures in breast and ovarian cancer and their corresponding molecular subtypes, and we show that prognostic signatures in ER negative breast cancer are more similar to prognostic signatures in ovarian cancer than to prognostic signatures in ER positive breast cancer. SAPS is a powerful new method for deriving robust prognostic biological signatures from clinically

  7. Immune signatures of protective spleen memory CD8 T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinza, Lilia; Djebali, Sophia; Tomkowiak, Martine; Mafille, Julien; Loiseau, Céline; Jouve, Pierre-Emmanuel; de Bernard, Simon; Buffat, Laurent; Lina, Bruno; Ottmann, Michèle; Rosa-Calatrava, Manuel; Schicklin, Stéphane; Bonnefoy, Nathalie; Lauvau, Grégoire; Grau, Morgan; Wencker, Mélanie; Arpin, Christophe; Walzer, Thierry; Leverrier, Yann; Marvel, Jacqueline

    2016-11-24

    Memory CD8 T lymphocyte populations are remarkably heterogeneous and differ in their ability to protect the host. In order to identify the whole range of qualities uniquely associated with protective memory cells we compared the gene expression signatures of two qualities of memory CD8 T cells sharing the same antigenic-specificity: protective (Influenza-induced, Flu-TM) and non-protective (peptide-induced, TIM) spleen memory CD8 T cells. Although Flu-TM and TIM express classical phenotypic memory markers and are polyfunctional, only Flu-TM protects against a lethal viral challenge. Protective memory CD8 T cells express a unique set of genes involved in migration and survival that correlate with their unique capacity to rapidly migrate within the infected lung parenchyma in response to influenza infection. We also enlighten a new set of poised genes expressed by protective cells that is strongly enriched in cytokines and chemokines such as Ccl1, Ccl9 and Gm-csf. CCL1 and GM-CSF genes are also poised in human memory CD8 T cells. These immune signatures are also induced by two other pathogens (vaccinia virus and Listeria monocytogenes). The immune signatures associated with immune protection were identified on circulating cells, i.e. those that are easily accessible for immuno-monitoring and could help predict vaccines efficacy.

  8. Signature molecular descriptor : advanced applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visco, Donald Patrick, Jr. (Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, TN)

    2010-04-01

    In this work we report on the development of the Signature Molecular Descriptor (or Signature) for use in the solution of inverse design problems as well as in highthroughput screening applications. The ultimate goal of using Signature is to identify novel and non-intuitive chemical structures with optimal predicted properties for a given application. We demonstrate this in three studies: green solvent design, glucocorticoid receptor ligand design and the design of inhibitors for Factor XIa. In many areas of engineering, compounds are designed and/or modified in incremental ways which rely upon heuristics or institutional knowledge. Often multiple experiments are performed and the optimal compound is identified in this brute-force fashion. Perhaps a traditional chemical scaffold is identified and movement of a substituent group around a ring constitutes the whole of the design process. Also notably, a chemical being evaluated in one area might demonstrate properties very attractive in another area and serendipity was the mechanism for solution. In contrast to such approaches, computer-aided molecular design (CAMD) looks to encompass both experimental and heuristic-based knowledge into a strategy that will design a molecule on a computer to meet a given target. Depending on the algorithm employed, the molecule which is designed might be quite novel (re: no CAS registration number) and/or non-intuitive relative to what is known about the problem at hand. While CAMD is a fairly recent strategy (dating to the early 1980s), it contains a variety of bottlenecks and limitations which have prevented the technique from garnering more attention in the academic, governmental and industrial institutions. A main reason for this is how the molecules are described in the computer. This step can control how models are developed for the properties of interest on a given problem as well as how to go from an output of the algorithm to an actual chemical structure. This report

  9. Copies of Unique Comment Letters

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Belles; Bureau of Reclamation

    2005-01-01

    Unique letters and messages regarding the "Notice to solicit comments and hold public meetings on the development of management strategies for Lake Powell and Lake Mead, including Lower Basin shortage guidelines, under low reservoir conditions."

  10. Is life on Earth unique?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawardhana, Ray

    2013-10-01

    From finding unusual creatures on Earth to spying life's building blocks beyond our solar system, Ray Jayawardhana examines what we know about the nature of life's uniqueness, and the possibility of its existence in faraway realms such as extrasolar planets.

  11. Stroke: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Problems Osteoporosis Urinary Incontinence Join our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Stroke Unique to Older ... it is often a sign of worse mental consequences, longer hospitalization, and a higher risk of death. ...

  12. Nutrition: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Monday, March 23, 2015 Join our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Nutrition Unique to Older ... lack of B vitamins can lead to serious consequences for older adults. B vitamins include B6, B12, ...

  13. COPD: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z COPD Unique to Older Adults This section provides information ... care and improve or maintain quality of life. COPD and Other Medical Conditions Depression and COPD When ...

  14. Diabetes: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke Urinary Incontinence Related Documents PDF Choosing Wisely: Diabetes Tests and Treatments Download Related Video Join our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Diabetes Unique to Older Adults This section provides information ...

  15. Uniqueness property for quasiharmonic functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevdiyor A. Imomkulov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider a class of continuous functions, called quasiaharmonic functions, admitting best approximations by harmonic polynomials. In this class we prove a uniqueness theorem by analogy with the analytic functions.

  16. Molecular signatures in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Samir; McCart Reed, Amy E; de Luca, Xavier M; Simpson, Peter T

    2017-12-01

    The use of molecular signatures to add value to standard clinical and pathological parameters has impacted clinical practice in many cancer types, but perhaps most notably in the breast cancer field. This is, in part, due to the considerable complexity of the disease at the clinical, morphological and molecular levels. The adoption of molecular profiling of DNA, RNA and protein continues to reveal important differences in the intrinsic biology between molecular subtypes and has begun to impact the way patients are managed. Several bioinformatic tools have been developed using DNA or RNA-based signatures to stratify the disease into biologically and/or clinically meaningful subgroups. Here, we review the approaches that have been used to develop gene expression signatures into currently available diagnostic assays (e.g., OncotypeDX® and Mammaprint®), plus we describe the latest work on genome sequencing, the methodologies used in the discovery process of mutational signatures, and the potential of these signatures to impact the clinic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Phase signature for particle detection with digital in-line holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weidong; Kostinski, Alexander B; Shaw, Raymond A

    2006-05-15

    The spatial phase resulting from the digital reconstruction of an in-line hologram of a particle field is shown to yield a unique pattern that can be used for particle detection. This phase signature is present only when viewed along with the reference light. The existence of the phase pattern is verified computationally and confirmed in laboratory experiments with holograms of calibrated glass spheres. The phase signature provides an alternative to the widely used intensity method for particle detection.

  18. Molecular signature of primary retinal pigment epithelium and stem-cell-derived RPE cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jo-Ling; Yu, Juehua; Huang, Kevin; Hu, Jane; Diemer, Tanja; Ma, Zhicheng; Dvash, Tamar; Yang, Xian-Jie; Travis, Gabriel H.; Williams, David S.; Bok, Dean; Fan, Guoping

    2010-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is characterized by the loss or dysfunction of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and is the most common cause of vision loss among the elderly. Stem-cell-based strategies, using human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) or human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), may provide an abundant donor source for generating RPE cells in cell replacement therapies. Despite a significant amount of research on deriving functional RPE cells from various stem cell sources, it is still unclear whether stem-cell-derived RPE cells fully mimic primary RPE cells. In this report, we demonstrate that functional RPE cells can be derived from multiple lines of hESCs and hiPSCs with varying efficiencies. Stem-cell-derived RPE cells exhibit cobblestone-like morphology, transcripts, proteins and phagocytic function similar to human fetal RPE (fRPE) cells. In addition, we performed global gene expression profiling of stem-cell-derived RPE cells, native and cultured fRPE cells, undifferentiated hESCs and fibroblasts to determine the differentiation state of stem-cell-derived RPE cells. Our data indicate that hESC-derived RPE cells closely resemble human fRPE cells, whereas hiPSC-derived RPE cells are in a unique differentiation state. Furthermore, we identified a set of 87 signature genes that are unique to human fRPE and a majority of these signature genes are shared by stem-cell-derived RPE cells. These results establish a panel of molecular markers for evaluating the fidelity of human pluripotent stem cell to RPE conversion. This study contributes to our understanding of the utility of hESC/hiPSC-derived RPE in AMD therapy. PMID:20709808

  19. Signature Visualization of Software Binaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panas, T

    2008-07-01

    In this paper we present work on the visualization of software binaries. In particular, we utilize ROSE, an open source compiler infrastructure, to pre-process software binaries, and we apply a landscape metaphor to visualize the signature of each binary (malware). We define the signature of a binary as a metric-based layout of the functions contained in the binary. In our initial experiment, we visualize the signatures of a series of computer worms that all originate from the same line. These visualizations are useful for a number of reasons. First, the images reveal how the archetype has evolved over a series of versions of one worm. Second, one can see the distinct changes between version. This allows the viewer to form conclusions about the development cycle of a particular worm.

  20. Method of Anti-Virus Protection Based on (n, t Threshold Proxy Signature with an Arbitrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Tolyupa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article suggests the method of anti-virus protection of mobile devices based on the usage of proxy digital signatures and an (n;t-threshold proxy signature scheme with an arbitrator. The unique feature of the suggested method is in the absence of necessity to install anti-virus software in a mobile device. It will be enough only to have the software verifying digital signatures and the Internet. The method is used on the base of public keys infrastructure /PKI/, thus minimizing implementation expenses.

  1. In vivo analysis of the calcium signature in the plant Golgi apparatus reveals unique dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordenes, Viviana R; Moreno, Ignacio; Maturana, Daniel; Norambuena, Lorena; Trewavas, Anthony J; Orellana, Ariel

    2012-11-01

    The Golgi apparatus is thought to play a role in calcium homeostasis in plant cells. However, the calcium dynamics in this organelle is unknown in plants. To monitor the [Ca2+]Golgiin vivo, we obtained and analyzed Arabidopsis thaliana plants that express aequorin in the Golgi. Our results show that free [Ca2+] levels in the Golgi are higher than in the cytosol (0.70 μM vs. 0.05 μM, respectively). Stimuli such as cold shock, mechanical stimulation and hyperosmotic stress, led to a transient increase in cytosolic calcium; however, no instant change in the [Ca2+]Golgi concentration was detected. Nevertheless, a delayed increase in the [Ca2+]Golgi up to 2-3 μM was observed. Cyclopiazonic acid and thapsigargin inhibited the stimuli-induced [Ca2+]Golgi increase, suggesting that [Ca2+]Golgi levels are dependent upon the activity of Ca2+-ATPases. Treatment of these plants with the synthetic auxin analog, 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D), produced a slow decrease of free calcium in the organelle. Our results indicate that the plant Golgi apparatus is not involved in the generation of cytosolic calcium transients and exhibits its own dynamics modulated in part by the activity of Ca2+ pumps and hormones. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Unique Glycan Signatures Regulate Adeno-Associated Virus Tropism in the Developing Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Murlidharan, Giridhar; Corriher, Travis; Ghashghaei, H. Troy; Asokan, Aravind

    2015-01-01

    Adeno-associated viruses (AAV) are thought to spread through the central nervous system (CNS) by exploiting cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flux and hijacking axonal transport pathways. The role of host receptors that mediate these processes is not well understood. In the current study, we utilized AAV serotype 4 (AAV4) as a model to evaluate whether ubiquitously expressed 2,3-linked sialic acid and the developmentally regulated marker 2,8-linked polysialic acid (PSA) regulate viral transport and t...

  3. Proteolytic signatures define unique thrombin-derived peptides present in human wound fluid in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saravanan, Rathi; Adav, Sunil S; Choong, Yeu Khai

    2017-01-01

    The disease burden of failing skin repair and non-healing ulcers is extensive. There is an unmet need for new diagnostic approaches to better predict healing activity and wound infection. Uncontrolled and excessive protease activity, of endogenous or bacterial origin, has been described as a major...... contributor to wound healing impairments. Proteolytic peptide patterns could therefore correlate and "report" healing activity and infection. This work describes a proof of principle delineating a strategy by which peptides from a selected protein, human thrombin, are detected and attributed to proteolytic...... aureolysin, respectively. Corresponding peptide sequences were identified in wound fluids from acute and non-healing ulcers, and notably, one peptide, FYT21 (FYTHVFRLKKWIQKVIDQFGE), was only present in wound fluid from non-healing ulcers colonized by P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. Our result is a proof...

  4. Identification of unique microRNA signature associated with lupus nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te, Jeannie L; Dozmorov, Igor M; Guthridge, Joel M; Nguyen, Kim L; Cavett, Joshua W; Kelly, Jennifer A; Bruner, Gail R; Harley, John B; Ojwang, Joshua O

    2010-05-11

    MicroRNAs (miRNA) have emerged as an important new class of modulators of gene expression. In this study we investigated miRNA that are differentially expressed in lupus nephritis. Microarray technology was used to investigate differentially expressed miRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)-transformed cell lines obtained from lupus nephritis affected patients and unaffected controls. TaqMan-based stem-loop real-time polymerase chain reaction was used for validation. Microarray analysis of miRNA expressed in both African American (AA) and European American (EA) derived lupus nephritis samples revealed 29 and 50 differentially expressed miRNA, respectively, of 850 tested. There were 18 miRNA that were differentially expressed in both racial groups. When samples from both racial groups and different specimen types were considered, there were 5 primary miRNA that were differentially expressed. We have identified 5 miRNA; hsa-miR-371-5P, hsa-miR-423-5P, hsa-miR-638, hsa-miR-1224-3P and hsa-miR-663 that were differentially expressed in lupus nephritis across different racial groups and all specimen types tested. Hsa-miR-371-5P, hsa-miR-1224-3P and hsa-miR-423-5P, are reported here for the first time to be associated with lupus nephritis. Our work establishes EBV-transformed B cell lines as a useful model for the discovery of miRNA as biomarkers for SLE. Based on these findings, we postulate that these differentially expressed miRNA may be potential novel biomarkers for SLE as well as help elucidate pathogenic mechanisms of lupus nephritis. The investigation of miRNA profiles in SLE may lead to the discovery and development of novel methods to diagnosis, treat and prevent SLE.

  5. Unique transcriptomic signature of omental adipose tissue in Ossabaw swine: a model of childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toedebusch, Ryan G; Roberts, Michael D; Wells, Kevin D; Company, Joseph M; Kanosky, Kayla M; Padilla, Jaume; Jenkins, Nathan T; Perfield, James W; Ibdah, Jamal A; Booth, Frank W; Rector, R Scott

    2014-05-15

    To better understand the impact of childhood obesity on intra-abdominal adipose tissue phenotype, a complete transcriptomic analysis using deep RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) was performed on omental adipose tissue (OMAT) obtained from lean and Western diet-induced obese juvenile Ossabaw swine. Obese animals had 88% greater body mass, 49% greater body fat content, and a 60% increase in OMAT adipocyte area (all P function and maintenance, and 3) connective tissue development and function, while transcripts associated with RNA posttranslational modification, lipid metabolism, and small molecule biochemistry were reduced. DAVID and Gene Ontology analyses showed that many of the classically recognized gene pathways associated with adipose tissue dysfunction in obese adults including hypoxia, inflammation, angiogenesis were not altered in OMAT in our model. The current study indicates that obesity in juvenile Ossabaw swine is characterized by increases in overall OMAT transcript number and provides novel data describing early transcriptomic alterations that occur in response to excess caloric intake in visceral adipose tissue in a pig model of childhood obesity.

  6. Unique proteome signature of post-chemotherapy ovarian cancer ascites-derived tumor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nuzhat; Greening, David; Samardzija, Chantel; Escalona, Ruth M.; Chen, Maoshan; Findlay, Jock K.; Kannourakis, George

    2016-01-01

    Eighty % of ovarian cancer patients diagnosed at an advanced-stage have complete remission after initial surgery and chemotherapy. However, most patients die within <5 years due to episodes of recurrences resulting from the growth of residual chemoresistant cells. In an effort to identify mechanisms associated with chemoresistance and recurrence, we compared the expression of proteins in ascites-derived tumor cells isolated from advanced-stage ovarian cancer patients obtained at diagnosis (chemonaive, CN) and after chemotherapy treatments (chemoresistant/at recurrence, CR) by using in-depth, high-resolution label-free quantitative proteomic profiling. A total of 2,999 proteins were identified. Using a stringent selection criterion to define only significantly differentially expressed proteins, we report identification of 353 proteins. There were significant differences in proteins encoding for immune surveillance, DNA repair mechanisms, cytoskeleton rearrangement, cell-cell adhesion, cell cycle pathways, cellular transport, and proteins involved with glycine/proline/arginine synthesis in tumor cells isolated from CR relative to CN patients. Pathway analyses revealed enrichment of metabolic pathways, DNA repair mechanisms and energy metabolism pathways in CR tumor cells. In conclusion, this is the first proteomics study to comprehensively analyze ascites-derived tumor cells from CN and CR ovarian cancer patients. PMID:27470985

  7. Unique behavioral characteristics and microRNA signatures in a drug resistant epilepsy model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jangsup Moon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pharmacoresistance is a major issue in the treatment of epilepsy. However, the mechanism underlying pharmacoresistance to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs is still unclear, and few animal models have been established for studying drug resistant epilepsy (DRE. In our study, spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRSs were investigated by video-EEG monitoring during the entire procedure. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the mouse pilocarpine-induced epilepsy model, we administered levetiracetam (LEV and valproate (VPA in sequence. AED-responsive and AED-resistant mice were naturally selected after 7-day treatment of LEV and VPA. Behavioral tests (open field, object exploration, elevated plus maze, and light-dark transition test and a microRNA microarray test were performed. Among the 37 epileptic mice with SRS, 23 showed significantly fewer SRSs during administration of LEV (n = 16, LEV sensitive (LS group or VPA (n = 7, LEV resistant/VPA sensitive (LRVS group, while 7 epileptic mice did not show any amelioration with either of the AEDs (n = 7, multidrug resistant (MDR group. On the behavioral assessment, MDR mice displayed distinctive behaviors in the object exploration and elevated plus maze tests, which were not observed in the LS group. Expression of miRNA was altered in LS and MDR groups, and we identified 4 miRNAs (miR-206, miR-374, miR-468, and miR-142-5p, which were differently modulated in the MDR group versus both control and LS groups. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to identify a pharmacoresistant subgroup, resistant to 2 AEDs, in the pilocarpine-induced epilepsy model. We hypothesize that modulation of the identified miRNAs may play a key role in developing pharmacoresistance and behavioral alterations in the MDR group.

  8. Urticarial vasculitis: a unique presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigall, Landon E; Sigmon, Justin R; Leicht, Stuart S

    2009-05-01

    Urticarial vasculitis is a relatively rare diagnosis in a patient presenting with urticaria. The process is classically described as a generalized eruption, painful more so than pruritic, lasting longer than 24 hours. Two forms of urticarial vasculitis have been described: ahypocomplementemic form more commonly associated with systemic disease, and a normocomplementemic form that is generally limited to the skin. We report on a uniquely distributed vasculitic eruption restricted mainly to the anterior belt line area in a patient presenting with urticaria and intense pruritus. Urticarial vasculitis as a unique entity is reviewed along with its clinical and histopathologic presentation and the pharmacologic agents used for treatment.

  9. Motif signatures of transcribed enhancers

    KAUST Repository

    Kleftogiannis, Dimitrios

    2017-09-14

    In mammalian cells, transcribed enhancers (TrEn) play important roles in the initiation of gene expression and maintenance of gene expression levels in spatiotemporal manner. One of the most challenging questions in biology today is how the genomic characteristics of enhancers relate to enhancer activities. This is particularly critical, as several recent studies have linked enhancer sequence motifs to specific functional roles. To date, only a limited number of enhancer sequence characteristics have been investigated, leaving space for exploring the enhancers genomic code in a more systematic way. To address this problem, we developed a novel computational method, TELS, aimed at identifying predictive cell type/tissue specific motif signatures. We used TELS to compile a comprehensive catalog of motif signatures for all known TrEn identified by the FANTOM5 consortium across 112 human primary cells and tissues. Our results confirm that distinct cell type/tissue specific motif signatures characterize TrEn. These signatures allow discriminating successfully a) TrEn from random controls, proxy of non-enhancer activity, and b) cell type/tissue specific TrEn from enhancers expressed and transcribed in different cell types/tissues. TELS codes and datasets are publicly available at http://www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/TELS.

  10. Galaxy interactions : The HI signature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sancisi, R; Barnes, JE; Sanders, DB

    1999-01-01

    HI observations are an excellent tool for investigating tidal interactions. Ongoing major and minor interactions which can lead to traumatic mergers or to accretion and the triggering of star formation, show distinct HI signatures. Interactions and mergers in the recent past can also be recognized

  11. Signature simulation of mixed materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Tyler D.; Salvaggio, Carl

    2015-05-01

    Soil target signatures vary due to geometry, chemical composition, and scene radiometry. Although radiative transfer models and function-fit physical models may describe certain targets in limited depth, the ability to incorporate all three signature variables is difficult. This work describes a method to simulate the transient signatures of soil by first considering scene geometry synthetically created using 3D physics engines. Through the assignment of spectral data from the Nonconventional Exploitation Factors Data System (NEFDS), the synthetic scene is represented as a physical mixture of particles. Finally, first principles radiometry is modeled using the Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) model. With DIRSIG, radiometric and sensing conditions were systematically manipulated to produce and record goniometric signatures. The implementation of this virtual goniometer allows users to examine how a target bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) will change with geometry, composition, and illumination direction. By using 3D computer graphics models, this process does not require geometric assumptions that are native to many radiative transfer models. It delivers a discrete method to circumnavigate the significant cost of time and treasure associated with hardware-based goniometric data collections.

  12. Epigenetic Signatures of Cigarette Smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Joehanes (Roby); Just, A.C. (Allan C.); R.E. Marioni (Riccardo); L.C. Pilling (Luke); L.M. Reynolds (Lindsay); Mandaviya, P.R. (Pooja R.); W. Guan (Weihua); Xu, T. (Tao); C.E. Elks (Cathy); Aslibekyan, S. (Stella); H. Moreno-Macías (Hortensia); J.A. Smith (Jennifer A); J. Brody (Jennifer); Dhingra, R. (Radhika); P. Yousefi (Paul); J.S. Pankow (James); Kunze, S. (Sonja); Shah, S.H. (Sonia H.); A.F. McRae (Allan F.); K. Lohman (Kurt); Sha, J. (Jin); D. Absher (Devin); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); Zhao, W. (Wei); E.W. Demerath (Ellen); J. Bressler (Jan); M.L. Grove (Megan); T. Huan (Tianxiao); C. Liu (Chunyu); Mendelson, M.M. (Michael M.); C. Yao (Chen); D.P. Kiel (Douglas P.); A. Peters (Annette); R. Wang-Sattler (Rui); P.M. Visscher (Peter); N.R. Wray (Naomi); J.M. Starr (John); Ding, J. (Jingzhong); Rodriguez, C.J. (Carlos J.); N.J. Wareham (Nick); Irvin, M.R. (Marguerite R.); Zhi, D. (Degui); M. Barrdahl (Myrto); P. Vineis (Paolo); Ambatipudi, S. (Srikant); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); A. Hofman (Albert); Schwartz, J. (Joel); Colicino, E. (Elena); Hou, L. (Lifang); Vokonas, P.S. (Pantel S.); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); A. Singleton (Andrew); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); S.T. Turner (Stephen); E.B. Ware (Erin B.); Smith, A.K. (Alicia K.); T. Klengel (Torsten); E.B. Binder (Elisabeth B.); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); K.D. Taylor (Kent); S.A. Gharib (Sina); Swenson, B.R. (Brenton R.); Liang, L. (Liming); D.L. Demeo (Dawn L.); G.T. O'Connor (George); Z. Herceg (Zdenko); Ressler, K.J. (Kerry J.); K.N. Conneely (Karen N.); N. Sotoodehnia (Nona); Kardia, S.L.R. (Sharon L. R.); D. Melzer (David); A.A. Baccarelli (Andrea A.); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); I. Romieu (Isabelle); D.K. Arnett (Donna); Ong, K.K. (Ken K.); Y. Liu (Yongmei); M. Waldenberger (Melanie); I.J. Deary (Ian J.); M. Fornage (Myriam); D. Levy (Daniel); S.J. London (Stephanie J.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground-DNA methylation leaves a long-term signature of smoking exposure and is one potential mechanism by which tobacco exposure predisposes to adverse health outcomes, such as cancers, osteoporosis, lung, and cardiovascular disorders. Methods and Results-To comprehensively determine

  13. Disaster relief through composite signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Chadwick T.; Hyde, Brian; Carpenter, Tom; Nichols, Steve

    2012-06-01

    A composite signature is a group of signatures that are related in such a way to more completely or further define a target or operational endeavor at a higher fidelity. This paper builds on previous work developing innovative composite signatures associated with civil disasters, including physical, chemical and pattern/behavioral. For the composite signature approach to be successful it requires effective data fusion and visualization. This plays a key role in both preparedness and the response and recovery which are critical to saving lives. Visualization tools enhance the overall understanding of the crisis by pulling together and analyzing the data, and providing a clear and complete analysis of the information to the organizations/agencies dependant on it for a successful operation. An example of this, Freedom Web, is an easy-to-use data visualization and collaboration solution for use in homeland security, emergency preparedness, situational awareness, and event management. The solution provides a nationwide common operating picture for all levels of government through a web based, map interface. The tool was designed to be utilized by non-geospatial experts and is easily tailored to the specific needs of the users. Consisting of standard COTS and open source databases and a web server, users can view, edit, share, and highlight information easily and quickly through a standard internet browser.

  14. Latitudinal Trends in Stable Isotope Signatures of Northeast Atlantic Rhodoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Laurie

    2017-04-01

    Rhodoliths are free-living calcifying red algae that form extensive beds in shallow marine benthic environments (plasticity of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) uptake mechanisms of rhodoliths along a latitudinal gradient in the Northeast (NE) Atlantic using natural stable isotope signatures. The delta 13C signature of macroalgae can be used to provide an indication of the preferred inorganic carbon source (CO2 vs. HCO3-). Here we present the total and organic delta 13C signatures of NE Atlantic rhodoliths with respect to changing temperature and light along the latitudinal gradient from the Canary Islands to Spitsbergen. A decreasing trend in delta 13C signatures with increasing latitude suggests that rhodoliths rely solely on CO2 as an inorganic carbon source at mid latitudes, while those at low latitudes may be able to utilize HCO3-. Polar rhodoliths deviate from this trend, suggesting they may have unique physiological mechanisms related to inorganic carbon acquisition and assimilation, which may have important implications for calcification in an environment undergoing rapid changing ocean chemistry.

  15. Gene Expression Signature in Endemic Osteoarthritis by Microarray Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Kashin-Beck Disease (KBD is an endemic osteochondropathy with an unknown pathogenesis. Diagnosis of KBD is effective only in advanced cases, which eliminates the possibility of early treatment and leads to an inevitable exacerbation of symptoms. Therefore, we aim to identify an accurate blood-based gene signature for the detection of KBD. Previously published gene expression profile data on cartilage and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from adults with KBD were compared to select potential target genes. Microarray analysis was conducted to evaluate the expression of the target genes in a cohort of 100 KBD patients and 100 healthy controls. A gene expression signature was identified using a training set, which was subsequently validated using an independent test set with a minimum redundancy maximum relevance (mRMR algorithm and support vector machine (SVM algorithm. Fifty unique genes were differentially expressed between KBD patients and healthy controls. A 20-gene signature was identified that distinguished between KBD patients and controls with 90% accuracy, 85% sensitivity, and 95% specificity. This study identified a 20-gene signature that accurately distinguishes between patients with KBD and controls using peripheral blood samples. These results promote the further development of blood-based genetic biomarkers for detection of KBD.

  16. Analysis of unique beta transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eman, B.; Krmpotic, F.; Tadic, D

    1967-01-01

    The Heidelberg group measurements [For abstr. see Phys. Rev. Nucl. Sci. Vol. 15 (1965)] of unique forbidden transitions have been analysed. It has been found that experimental shape factors can be reproduced only with the induced pseudoscalar form factor d <0, and/or with the induced G-non-conser...

  17. Analytic radar micro-Doppler signatures classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Beom-Seok; Gu, Zhaoning; Wang, Guan; Toh, Kar-Ann; Lin, Zhiping

    2017-06-01

    Due to its capability of capturing the kinematic properties of a target object, radar micro-Doppler signatures (m-DS) play an important role in radar target classification. This is particularly evident from the remarkable number of research papers published every year on m-DS for various applications. However, most of these works rely on the support vector machine (SVM) for target classification. It is well known that training an SVM is computationally expensive due to its nature of search to locate the supporting vectors. In this paper, the classifier learning problem is addressed by a total error rate (TER) minimization where an analytic solution is available. This largely reduces the search time in the learning phase. The analytically obtained TER solution is globally optimal with respect to the classification total error count rate. Moreover, our empirical results show that TER outperforms SVM in terms of classification accuracy and computational efficiency on a five-category radar classification problem.

  18. Electronic Signatures in Law: 4th Edition

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Stephen Mason is a leading authority on electronic signatures and electronic evidence, having advised global corporations and governments on these topics. He is also the founder and editor of the international open source journal the Digital Evidence and Electronic Signature Law Review. Stephen is an Associate Research Fellow at the IALS.\\ud \\ud This fourth edition of the well-established practitioner text sets out what constitutes an electronic signature; the form an electronic signature can...

  19. Polygraph: Automatically Generating Signatures for Polymorphic Worms

    OpenAIRE

    Newsome, J.; Karp, B.; Song, D.

    2005-01-01

    It is widely believed that content-signature-based intrusion detection systems (IDSes) are easily evaded by polymorphic worms, which vary their payload on every infection attempt. In this paper, we present Polygraph, a signature generation system that successfully produces signatures that match polymorphic worms. Polygraph generates signatures that consist of multiple disjoint content substrings. In doing so, Polygraph leverages our insight that for a real-world exploit to function properly, ...

  20. SIGNCRYPTION BASED ON DIFFERENT DIGITAL SIGNATURE SCHEMES

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian Atanasiu; Laura Savu

    2012-01-01

    This article presents two new signcryption schemes. The first one is based on Schnorr digital signature algorithm and the second one is using Proxy Signature scheme introduced by Mambo. Schnorr Signcryption has been implemented in a program and here are provided the steps of the algorithm, the results and some examples. The Mambo’s Proxy Signature is adapted for Shortened Digital Signature Standard, being part of a new Proxy Signcryption scheme.

  1. 1 CFR 18.7 - Signature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... under § 18.4(c) may be authenticated as original documents by digital signatures. ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Signature. 18.7 Section 18.7 General Provisions... PREPARATION AND TRANSMITTAL OF DOCUMENTS GENERALLY § 18.7 Signature. The original and each duplicate original...

  2. Signature Size: A Key to Status Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweigenhaft, Richard L.

    1970-01-01

    Hypothesizing that signature size is related to status, signatures of undergraduates, blue collar workers, and professors were compared and found to be ranked in the above order. Further, case studies of professors revealed a 50 percent increase in size of signature from several months prior to attainment of the Ph. D. to four years afterward. (DB)

  3. Kosovo case: A unique arbitrariness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakarada Radmila

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The end of Cold war, contrary to expectations has brought new conflicts and forms of violence, new divisions and new relativizations of the international legal order. Taking as an example the endeavors to resolve the Kosovo conflict, the author attempts to indicate the broader implications of the international efforts to constitute an independent state on part of the territory of an existing sovereign state. The arguments used to justify the redefinition of the borders of the Serbian state without its consent, the moral, democratic, peace arguments, are reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the argument that Kosovo is a unique case and therefore unique rules should be applied. The author seeks to understand the deeper significance of these efforts, concluding that dismantling the present international legal order is not only a potential danger but a possible aim.

  4. Uniqueness theorems in linear elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Knops, Robin John

    1971-01-01

    The classical result for uniqueness in elasticity theory is due to Kirchhoff. It states that the standard mixed boundary value problem for a homogeneous isotropic linear elastic material in equilibrium and occupying a bounded three-dimensional region of space possesses at most one solution in the classical sense, provided the Lame and shear moduli, A and J1 respectively, obey the inequalities (3 A + 2 J1) > 0 and J1>O. In linear elastodynamics the analogous result, due to Neumann, is that the initial-mixed boundary value problem possesses at most one solution provided the elastic moduli satisfy the same set of inequalities as in Kirchhoffs theorem. Most standard textbooks on the linear theory of elasticity mention only these two classical criteria for uniqueness and neglect altogether the abundant literature which has appeared since the original publications of Kirchhoff. To remedy this deficiency it seems appropriate to attempt a coherent description ofthe various contributions made to the study of uniquenes...

  5. Biological signatures in clumped isotopes of O2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Laurence Y.; Ash, Jeanine L.; Young, Edward D.

    2015-04-01

    The abundances of molecules containing more than one rare isotope have been applied broadly to determine formation temperatures of natural materials. These applications of “clumped” isotopes rely on the assumption that isotope-exchange equilibrium is reached, or at least approached, during the formation of those materials. In a closed-system terrarium experiment, we demonstrate that biological oxygen (O2) cycling drives the clumped-isotope composition of O2 away from isotopic equilibrium. Our model of the system suggests that unique biological signatures are present in clumped isotopes of O2—and not formation temperatures. Photosynthetic O2 is depleted in 18O18O and 17O18O relative to a stochastic distribution of isotopes, unlike at equilibrium, where heavy-isotope pairs are enriched. Similar signatures may be widespread in nature, offering new tracers of biological and geochemical cycling.

  6. Isotope geochemistry. Biological signatures in clumped isotopes of O₂.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Laurence Y; Ash, Jeanine L; Young, Edward D

    2015-04-24

    The abundances of molecules containing more than one rare isotope have been applied broadly to determine formation temperatures of natural materials. These applications of "clumped" isotopes rely on the assumption that isotope-exchange equilibrium is reached, or at least approached, during the formation of those materials. In a closed-system terrarium experiment, we demonstrate that biological oxygen (O2) cycling drives the clumped-isotope composition of O2 away from isotopic equilibrium. Our model of the system suggests that unique biological signatures are present in clumped isotopes of O2—and not formation temperatures. Photosynthetic O2 is depleted in (18)O(18)O and (17)O(18)O relative to a stochastic distribution of isotopes, unlike at equilibrium, where heavy-isotope pairs are enriched. Similar signatures may be widespread in nature, offering new tracers of biological and geochemical cycling. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. Air-gun signature modelling considering the influence of mechanical structure factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guofa; Liu, Zhao; Wang, Jianhua; Cao, Mingqiang

    2014-04-01

    In marine seismic prospecting, as the air-gun array is usually composed of different types of air-guns, the signature modelling of different air-guns is particularly important to the array design. Different types of air-guns have different mechanical structures, which directly or indirectly affect the signatures. In order to simulate the influence of the mechanical structure, five parameters—the throttling constant, throttling power law exponent, mass release efficiency, fluid viscosity and heat transfer coefficient—are used in signature modelling. Through minimizing the energy relative error between the simulated and the measured signatures by the simulated annealing method, the five optimal parameters can be estimated. The method is tested in a field experiment, and the consistency between the simulated and the measured signatures is improved with the optimal parameters.

  8. Uniqueness of large positive solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gómez, Julián; Maire, Luis

    2017-08-01

    We establish the uniqueness of the positive solution of the singular problem (1.1) through some standard comparison techniques involving the maximum principle. Our proofs do not invoke to the blow-up rates of the solutions, as in most of the specialized literature. We give two different types of results according to the geometrical properties of Ω and the regularity of partial Ω . Even in the autonomous case, our theorems are extremely sharp extensions of all existing results. Precisely, when a(x)≡ 1, it is shown that the monotonicity and superadditivity of f( u) with constant C≥ 0 entail the uniqueness; f is said to be superadditive with constant C≥ 0 if f(a+b) ≥ f(a) + f(b) - C \\quad for all a, b ≥ 0. This condition, introduced by Marcus and Véron (J Evol Equ 3:637-652, 2004), weakens all previous sufficient conditions for uniqueness, as it will become apparent in this paper.

  9. Signatures of a shadow biosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Paul C W; Benner, Steven A; Cleland, Carol E; Lineweaver, Charles H; McKay, Christopher P; Wolfe-Simon, Felisa

    2009-03-01

    Astrobiologists are aware that extraterrestrial life might differ from known life, and considerable thought has been given to possible signatures associated with weird forms of life on other planets. So far, however, very little attention has been paid to the possibility that our own planet might also host communities of weird life. If life arises readily in Earth-like conditions, as many astrobiologists contend, then it may well have formed many times on Earth itself, which raises the question whether one or more shadow biospheres have existed in the past or still exist today. In this paper, we discuss possible signatures of weird life and outline some simple strategies for seeking evidence of a shadow biosphere.

  10. Epigenetic signatures of cigarette smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Deary, Ian; Joehanes, Roby; Just, Allan C.; Marioni, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Background—DNA methylation leaves a long-term signature of smoking exposure and is one potential mechanism by which tobacco exposure predisposes to adverse health outcomes, such as cancers, osteoporosis, lung, and cardiovascular disorders. Methods and Results—To comprehensively determine the association between cigarette smoking and DNA methylation, we conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide DNA methylation assessed using the Illumina BeadChip 450K array on 15 907 blood-derived DNA samples f...

  11. Cancer metabolism: the volatile signature of glycolysis-in vitro model in lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Tali; Herbig, Jens; Kohl, Ingrid; Las, Guy; Cancilla, John C; Torrecilla, Jose S; Ilouze, Maya; Haick, Hossam; Peled, Nir

    2017-01-09

    Discovering the volatile signature of cancer cells is an emerging approach in cancer research, as it may contribute to a fast and simple diagnosis of tumors in vivo and in vitro. One of the main contributors to such a volatile signature is hyperglycolysis, which characterizes the cancerous cell. The metabolic perturbation in cancer cells is known as the Warburg effect; glycolysis is preferred over oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), even in the presence of oxygen. The precise mitochondrial alterations that underlie the increased dependence of cancer cells on aerobic glycolysis for energy generation have remained a mystery. We aimed to profile the volatile signature of the glycolysis activity in lung cancer cells. For that an in vitro model, using lung cancer cell line cultures (A549, H2030, H358, H322), was developed. The volatile signature was measured by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry under normal conditions and glycolysis inhibition. Glycolysis inhibition and mitochondrial activity were also assessed by mitochondrial respiration capacity measurements. Cells were divided into two groups upon their glycolytic profile (PET positive and PET negative). Glycolysis blockade had a unique characteristic that was shared by all cells. Furthermore, each group had a characteristic volatile signature that enabled us to discriminate between those sub-groups of cells. In conclusion, lung cancer cells may have different subpopulations of cells upon low and high mitochondrial capacity. In both groups, glycolysis blockade induced a unique volatile signature.

  12. Infrared signature studies of aerospace vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahulikar, Shripad P.; Sonawane, Hemant R.; Arvind Rao, G.

    2007-10-01

    Infrared (IR) emissions from aircraft are used to detect, track, and lock-on to the target. MAN Portable Air Defence Systems (MANPADS) have emerged as a major cause of aircraft and helicopter loss. Therefore, IR signature studies are important to counter this threat for survivability enhancement, and are an important aspect of stealth technology. This paper reviews contemporary developments in this discipline, with particular emphasis on IR signature prediction from aerospace vehicles. The role of atmosphere in IR signature analysis, and relation between IR signature level and target susceptibility are illustrated. Also, IR signature suppression systems and countermeasure techniques are discussed, to highlight their effectiveness and implications in terms of penalties.

  13. Time Series Based for Online Signature Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Gede Darma Putra

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Signature verification system is to match the tested signature with a claimed signature. This paper proposes time series based for feature extraction method and dynamic time warping for match method. The system made by process of testing 900 signatures belong to 50 participants, 3 signatures for reference and 5 signatures from original user, simple imposters and trained imposters for signatures test. The final result system was tested with 50 participants with 3 references. This test obtained that system accuracy without imposters is 90,44897959% at threshold 44 with rejection errors (FNMR is 5,2% and acceptance errors (FMR is 4,35102%, when with imposters system accuracy is 80,1361% at threshold 27 with error rejection (FNMR is 15,6% and acceptance errors (average FMR is 4,263946%, with details as follows: acceptance errors is 0,391837%, acceptance errors simple imposters is 3,2% and acceptance errors trained imposters is 9,2%.

  14. Edges and vertices in a unique signed circle in a signed graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Behr

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We examine the conditions under which a signed graph contains an edge or a vertex that is contained in a unique negative circle or a unique positive circle. For an edge in a unique signed circle, the positive and negative case require the same structure on the underlying graph, but the requirements on the signature are different. We characterize the structure of the underlying graph necessary to support such an edge in terms of bridges of a circle. We then use the results from the edge version of the problem to help solve the vertex version.

  15. Quantifying radionuclide signatures from a γ-γ coincidence system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Richard; Jackson, Mark J; Davies, Ashley V

    2015-11-01

    A method for quantifying gamma coincidence signatures has been developed, and tested in conjunction with a high-efficiency multi-detector system to quickly identify trace amounts of radioactive material. The γ-γ system utilises fully digital electronics and list-mode acquisition to time-stamp each event, allowing coincidence matrices to be easily produced alongside typical 'singles' spectra. To quantify the coincidence signatures a software package has been developed to calculate efficiency and cascade summing corrected branching ratios. This utilises ENSDF records as an input, and can be fully automated, allowing the user to quickly and easily create/update a coincidence library that contains all possible γ and conversion electron cascades, associated cascade emission probabilities, and true-coincidence summing corrected γ cascade detection probabilities. It is also fully searchable by energy, nuclide, coincidence pair, γ multiplicity, cascade probability and half-life of the cascade. The probabilities calculated were tested using measurements performed on the γ-γ system, and found to provide accurate results for the nuclides investigated. Given the flexibility of the method, (it only relies on evaluated nuclear data, and accurate efficiency characterisations), the software can now be utilised for a variety of systems, quickly and easily calculating coincidence signature probabilities. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Dual signature tracer: A new tool for soil management and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poleykett, Jack; Quinton, John; Armstrong, Alona; Maher, Barbara; Black, Kevin

    2015-04-01

    The significant detrimental effects that occur, both on and off site due to the transport of soil are well documented. Now more than ever, it is vital to understand the pathways, processes and fate of transported sediments, to underpin environmental strategy and develop robust forecast models. Researchers have employed a broad range of materials and techniques to trace the movement of soil through space and time. However, three primary challenges still remain: 1) to develop a tracer that has the same or similar hydraulic characteristics as soil: 2) to develop a tracer able to replicate the broad and variable particle size distribution of soils; and: 3) to develop a tracing methodology that increases the volume, and quality of data collected from the field. This study approaches these challenges using a unique 'dual signature' tracer comprising natural mineral material directly coated with a fluorescent dye pigment and loaded during coating with a naturally occurring magnetic mineral oxide creating a tracer with both fluorescent properties and para-magnetic character. An assessment of the effectiveness of the tracer as a tracer of soil was conducted at the soil box and plot scale under controlled rainfall conditions, to: 1) examine the behaviour of the tracer, and: 2) to assess the efficiency of the different tools available to monitor the tracer post- deployment. At the plot scale, a unique site specific tracer was developed to match the hydraulic characteristics (particle size distribution and specific gravity), of the native soil enabling the source-sink relationship, transport pathways and transport rate through the environment to be investigated. Spatial mapping of the tracer distribution within each plot was also conducted using photography and Ultra Violet (UV) illumination. The results of this study provide the basis for the development of a unique soil tracing methodology, which can be applied to investigate soil transport processes, at a range of scales in

  17. Dynamics and gravitational wave signature of collapsar formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, C D; Reisswig, C; Schnetter, E; O'Connor, E; Sperhake, U; Löffler, F; Diener, P; Abdikamalov, E; Hawke, I; Burrows, A

    2011-04-22

    We perform 3+1 general relativistic simulations of rotating core collapse in the context of the collapsar model for long gamma-ray bursts. We employ a realistic progenitor, rotation based on results of stellar evolution calculations, and a simplified equation of state. Our simulations track self-consistently collapse, bounce, the postbounce phase, black hole formation, and the subsequent early hyperaccretion phase. We extract gravitational waves from the spacetime curvature and identify a unique gravitational wave signature associated with the early phase of collapsar formation.

  18. The energetic and chemical signatures of persistent soil organic matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barré, Pierre; Plante, Alain F.; Cecillon, Lauric

    2016-01-01

    A large fraction of soil organic matter (OM) resists decomposition over decades to centuries as indicated by long radiocarbon residence times, but the mechanisms responsible for the long-term (multi-decadal) persistence are debated. The current lack of mechanistic understanding limits our ability...... to accurately predict soil OM stock evolution under climate and land-use changes. Using a unique set of historic soil samples from five long-term (27–79 years) bare fallow experiments, we demonstrate that despite wide pedo-climatic diversity, persistent OM shows specific energetic signatures, but no uniform...

  19. The Structure of Allophanate Hydrolase from Granulibacter bethesdensis Provides Insights into Substrate Specificity in the Amidase Signature Family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yi [Marquette Univ., Milwaukee, WI (United States); Maurice, Martin [Marquette Univ., Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    2013-01-02

    Allophanate hydrolase (AH) catalyzes the hydrolysis of allophanate, an intermediate in atrazine degradation and urea catabolism pathways, to NH3 and CO2. AH belongs to the amidase signature family, which is characterized by a conserved block of 130 amino acids rich in Gly and Ser and a Ser-cis-Ser-Lys catalytic triad. In this study, the first structures of AH fromGranulibacter bethesdensis were determined, with and without the substrate analogue malonate, to 2.2 and 2.8 Å, respectively. The structures confirm the identity of the catalytic triad residues and reveal an altered dimerization interface that is not conserved in the amidase signature family. The structures also provide insights into previously unrecognized substrate specificity determinants in AH. Two residues, Tyr299 and Arg307, are within hydrogen bonding distance of a carboxylate moiety of malonate. Both Tyr299 and Arg307 were mutated, and the resulting modified enzymes revealed >3 order of magnitude reductions in both catalytic efficiency and substrate stringency. It is proposed that Tyr299 and Arg307 serve to anchor and orient the substrate for attack by the catalytic nucleophile, Ser172. The structure further suggests the presence of a unique C-terminal domain in AH. While this domain is conserved, it does not contribute to catalysis or to the structural integrity of the core domain, suggesting that it may play a role in mediating transient and specific interactions with the urea carboxylase component of urea amidolyase. Analysis of the AH active site architecture offers new insights into common determinants of catalysis and specificity among divergent members of the amidase signature family.

  20. Radiomic signature as a diagnostic factor for histologic subtype classification of non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xinzhong; Dong, Di; Chen, Zhendong; Fang, Mengjie; Zhang, Liwen; Song, Jiangdian; Yu, Dongdong; Zang, Yali; Liu, Zhenyu; Shi, Jingyun; Tian, Jie

    2018-02-15

    To distinguish squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) from lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) based on a radiomic signature METHODS: This study involved 129 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (81 in the training cohort and 48 in the independent validation cohort). Approximately 485 features were extracted from a manually outlined tumor region. The LASSO logistic regression model selected the key features of a radiomic signature. Receiver operating characteristic curve and area under the curve (AUC) were used to evaluate the performance of the radiomic signature in the training and validation cohorts. Five features were selected to construct the radiomic signature for histologic subtype classification. The performance of the radiomic signature to distinguish between lung ADC and SCC in both training and validation cohorts was good, with an AUC of 0.905 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.838 to 0.971), sensitivity of 0.830, and specificity of 0.929. In the validation cohort, the radiomic signature showed an AUC of 0.893 (95% CI: 0.789 to 0.996), sensitivity of 0.828, and specificity of 0.900. A unique radiomic signature was constructed for use as a diagnostic factor for discriminating lung ADC from SCC. Patients with NSCLC will benefit from the proposed radiomic signature. • Machine learning can be used for auxiliary distinguish in lung cancer. • Radiomic signature can discriminate lung ADC from SCC. • Radiomics can help to achieve precision medical treatment.

  1. Literacy Course Priorities and Signature Aspects of Nine Elementary Initial Licensure Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenski, Susan; Ganske, Kathy; Chambers, Sandy; Wold, Linda; Dobler, Elizabeth; Grisham, Dana L.; Scales, Roya; Smetana, Linda; Wolsey, Thomas Devere; Yoder, Karen K.; Young, Janet

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the first part of a three-phase study to learn what makes an effective elementary literacy initial licensure program. The first step was to identify how nine programs prioritized research-based literacy practices and to identify each program's unique features, which we called "signature aspects." Findings…

  2. Efficient thermal spin injection in metallic nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Tatsuya; Ariki, Taisei; Hu, Shaojie; Kimura, Takashi

    2017-11-01

    Thermal spin injection is a unique and fascinating method for generating spin current. If magnetization can be controlled by thermal spin injection, various advantages will be provided in spintronic devices, through its wireless controllability. However, the generation efficiency of thermal spin injection is believed to be lower than that of electrical spin injection. Here, we explore a suitable ferromagnetic metal for an efficient thermal spin injection, via systematic experiments based on diffusive spin transport under temperature gradients. Since a ferromagnetic metal with strong spin splitting is expected to have a large spin-dependent Seebeck coefficient, a lateral spin valve based on CoFe electrodes has been fabricated. However, the superior thermal spin injection property has not been observed, because the CoFe electrode retained its crystalline signature—where s-like electrons dominate the transport property in the ferromagnet. To suppress the crystalline signature, we adopt a CoFeAl electrode, in which the Al impurity significantly reduces the contribution from s-like electrons. Highly efficient thermal spin injection has been demonstrated using this CoFeAl electrode. Further optimization for thermal spin injection has been demonstrated by adjusting the Co and Fe composition.

  3. The Evolution of Human Uniqueness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Robert

    2017-01-09

    The human species is an outlier in the natural world. Two million years ago our ancestors were a slightly odd apes. Now we occupy the largest ecological and geographical range of any species, have larger biomass, and process more energy. Usually, this transformation is explained in terms of cognitive ability-people are just smarter than all the rest. In this paper I argue that culture, our ability to learn from each other, and cooperation, our ability to make common cause with large groups of unrelated individuals are the real roots of human uniqueness, and sketch an evolutionary account of how these crucial abilities co-evolved with each other and with other features of our life histories.

  4. Challenge to unique researches; Unique na kenkyu eno challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, M. [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-05-10

    Mr. Takashi Tachibana, a critic, enumerates two reasons for why the U.S.A. is maintaining the high research level. One is the U.S. research institution in which foreigners can perform their actions freely. Another is the American frontier spirit that evaluates highly the challenge to new things. In the fields where the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry of Japan has achieved world-wide excellent accomplishments, many are the cases in which foreign researchers participate and work actively as the visiting researchers or the Science and Technology Agency (STA) fellows. In the latter case, the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry has introduced since a few years ago a system in which challenges can be made on unique researches that the researchers can draw their inspirations by themselves. Results are beginning to appear in several subjects, including the environmental hormone measuring method utilizing biotechnology. The 21st century requires solution of different problems in the electric power business, such as energy and environment issues. It would become increasingly important to work positively on creative and advanced researches and further strengthen the research power as the base for problem solution under the internationally opened research institution where first-class researchers inside and outside the country will get together. (NEDO)

  5. Observational Signatures of Magnetic Reconnection in the Extended Corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Sabrina; West, Matthew J.; Seaton, Daniel B.; Kobelski, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Observational signatures of reconnection have been studied extensively in the lower corona for decades, successfully providing insight into energy release mechanisms in the region above post-flare arcade loops and below 1.5 solar radii. During large eruptive events, however, energy release continues to occur well beyond the presence of reconnection signatures at these low heights. Supra-Arcade Downflows (SADs) and Supra-Arcade Downflowing Loops (SADLs) are particularly useful measures of continual reconnection in the corona as they may indicate the presence and path of retracting post-reconnection loops. SADs and SADLs have been faintly observed up to 18 hours beyond the passage of corona mass ejections through the SOHO/LASCO field of view, but a recent event from 2014 October 14 associated with giant arches provides very clear observations of these downflows for days after the initial eruption. We report on this unique event and compare these findings with observational signatures of magnetic reconnection in the extended corona for more typical eruptions.

  6. Cryptoschemes Based on New Signature Formation Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A.Moldovyan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Several variants of new digital signature schemes (DSS based on the discrete logarithm and factorization problems have been proposed. Considered DSS are characterized in that a novel mechanism of the signature generation is used, in which two parameters of the (k,S or (R,S signature are defined after solving a system of two congruences. In the case of composite modulus additional restrictions conditions have been introduced for selection of the public key.

  7. Cryptographic key generation using handwritten signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire-Santos, M.; Fierrez-Aguilar, J.; Ortega-Garcia, J.

    2006-04-01

    Based on recent works showing the feasibility of key generation using biometrics, we study the application of handwritten signature to cryptography. Our signature-based key generation scheme implements the cryptographic construction named fuzzy vault. The use of distinctive signature features suited for the fuzzy vault is discussed and evaluated. Experimental results are reported, including error rates to unlock the secret data by using both random and skilled forgeries from the MCYT database.

  8. On reliable discovery of molecular signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björkegren Johan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular signatures are sets of genes, proteins, genetic variants or other variables that can be used as markers for a particular phenotype. Reliable signature discovery methods could yield valuable insight into cell biology and mechanisms of human disease. However, it is currently not clear how to control error rates such as the false discovery rate (FDR in signature discovery. Moreover, signatures for cancer gene expression have been shown to be unstable, that is, difficult to replicate in independent studies, casting doubts on their reliability. Results We demonstrate that with modern prediction methods, signatures that yield accurate predictions may still have a high FDR. Further, we show that even signatures with low FDR may fail to replicate in independent studies due to limited statistical power. Thus, neither stability nor predictive accuracy are relevant when FDR control is the primary goal. We therefore develop a general statistical hypothesis testing framework that for the first time provides FDR control for signature discovery. Our method is demonstrated to be correct in simulation studies. When applied to five cancer data sets, the method was able to discover molecular signatures with 5% FDR in three cases, while two data sets yielded no significant findings. Conclusion Our approach enables reliable discovery of molecular signatures from genome-wide data with current sample sizes. The statistical framework developed herein is potentially applicable to a wide range of prediction problems in bioinformatics.

  9. Institute of Geophysics, Planetary Physics, and Signatures

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Institute of Geophysics, Planetary Physics, and Signatures at Los Alamos National Laboratory is committed to promoting and supporting high quality, cutting-edge...

  10. Novel Quantum Proxy Signature without Entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guang-bao

    2015-08-01

    Proxy signature is an important research topic in classic cryptography since it has many application occasions in our real life. But only a few quantum proxy signature schemes have been proposed up to now. In this paper, we propose a quantum proxy signature scheme, which is designed based on quantum one-time pad. Our scheme can be realized easily since it only uses single-particle states. Security analysis shows that it is secure and meets all the properties of a proxy signature, such as verifiability, distinguishability, unforgeability and undeniability.

  11. Crossover Can Be Constructive When Computing Unique Input Output Sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehre, Per Kristian; Yao, Xin

    2010-01-01

    Unique input output (UIO) sequences have important applications in conformance testing of finite state machines (FSMs). Previous experimental and theoretical research has shown that evolutionary algorithms (EAs) can compute UIOs efficiently on many FSM instance classes, but fail on others. However...

  12. Empirical Analysis of Signature-Based Sign Language Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaira Kausar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The significance of automated SLR (Sign Language Recognition proved not only in the deaf community but in various other spheres of life. The automated SLR are mainly based on the machine learning methods.PSL (Pakistani Sign Languageis an emerging area in order to benefit a big community in this region of the world. This paper presents recognition of PSL using machine learning methods. We propose an efficient and invariant method of classification of signs of PSL. This paper also presents a thorough empirical analysis of signature-based classification methods. Six different signatures are analyzed for two distinct groups of signs having total of forty five signs. Signs of PSL are close enough in terms of inter-sign similarity distancetherefore, it is a challenge to make the classification. Methodical empirical analysis proves that proposed method deals with these challenges adequately and effectively

  13. Experimental measurement-device-independent quantum digital signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, G L; Lucamarini, M; Yuan, Z L; Dynes, J F; Comandar, L C; Sharpe, A W; Shields, A J; Curty, M; Puthoor, I V; Andersson, E

    2017-10-23

    The development of quantum networks will be paramount towards practical and secure telecommunications. These networks will need to sign and distribute information between many parties with information-theoretic security, requiring both quantum digital signatures (QDS) and quantum key distribution (QKD). Here, we introduce and experimentally realise a quantum network architecture, where the nodes are fully connected using a minimum amount of physical links. The central node of the network can act either as a totally untrusted relay, connecting the end users via the recently introduced measurement-device-independent (MDI)-QKD, or as a trusted recipient directly communicating with the end users via QKD. Using this network, we perform a proof-of-principle demonstration of QDS mediated by MDI-QKD. For that, we devised an efficient protocol to distil multiple signatures from the same block of data, thus reducing the statistical fluctuations in the sample and greatly enhancing the final QDS rate in the finite-size scenario.

  14. Impact of Electronic Signatures and Time Stamping for the Protection of Electronic Agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadas Limba

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article e495 valuates the impact of e-signatures and time stamping on electronic contracts and electronic documents for performing e-business opportunities and goals, and analyses e-signature application for business cases. Various electronic services, virtual shopping, electronic cash transactions are becoming increasingly popular as they allow users to quickly perform different actions, operations and functions. It is important not only for convenience, but also to ensure consumer data security and reliability. Security reasons are not enough for security transmitted data, since this method does not allow clarification of information about sender identity.Use of electronic signatures, electronic identities, checgs and ensures a very high level of data security in interchange data processes. E-signature allows e-business companies to transfer the company’s operation business processes and their application to the organization and management in the electronic environment, also automate internal and external compans processes, includinggon-going business processes.The object of paper is .-signature and time stamping application in the theoretical and practical way.The goal of this paper while evaluating and estimating the .-signature and time stamping application, i’s regulation and legal implementation worldwidesand in Lithuania—is to provideluseful recommendations for more efficient impact developing -commerce and -business in situations when -signature and time stamping is used for ensuring electronic contracs security.

  15. Impact of Electronic Signatures and Time Stamping for the Protection of Electronic Agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadas Limba

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article e495 valuates the impact of e-signatures and time stamping on electronic contracts and electronic documents for performing e-business opportunities and goals, and analyses e-signature application for business cases. Various electronic services, virtual shopping, electronic cash transactions are becoming increasingly popular as they allow users to quickly perform different actions, operations and functions. It is important not only for convenience, but also to ensure consumer data security and reliability. Security reasons are not enough for security transmitted data, since this method does not allow clarification of information about sender identity. Use of electronic signatures, electronic identities, checgs and ensures a very high level of data security in interchange data processes. E-signature allows e-business companies to transfer the company’s operation business processes and their application to the organization and management in the electronic environment, also automate internal and external compans processes, includinggon-going business processes. The object of paper is .-signature and time stamping application in the theoretical and practical way. The goal of this paper while evaluating and estimating the .-signature and time stamping application, i’s regulation and legal implementation worldwidesand in Lithuania—is to provideluseful recommendations for more efficient impact developing -commerce and -business in situations when -signature and time stamping is used for ensuring electronic contracs security.

  16. Symbols are not uniquely human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Sidarta; Loula, Angelo; de Araújo, Ivan; Gudwin, Ricardo; Queiroz, João

    2007-01-01

    Modern semiotics is a branch of logics that formally defines symbol-based communication. In recent years, the semiotic classification of signs has been invoked to support the notion that symbols are uniquely human. Here we show that alarm-calls such as those used by African vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops), logically satisfy the semiotic definition of symbol. We also show that the acquisition of vocal symbols in vervet monkeys can be successfully simulated by a computer program based on minimal semiotic and neurobiological constraints. The simulations indicate that learning depends on the tutor-predator ratio, and that apprentice-generated auditory mistakes in vocal symbol interpretation have little effect on the learning rates of apprentices (up to 80% of mistakes are tolerated). In contrast, just 10% of apprentice-generated visual mistakes in predator identification will prevent any vocal symbol to be correctly associated with a predator call in a stable manner. Tutor unreliability was also deleterious to vocal symbol learning: a mere 5% of "lying" tutors were able to completely disrupt symbol learning, invariably leading to the acquisition of incorrect associations by apprentices. Our investigation corroborates the existence of vocal symbols in a non-human species, and indicates that symbolic competence emerges spontaneously from classical associative learning mechanisms when the conditioned stimuli are self-generated, arbitrary and socially efficacious. We propose that more exclusive properties of human language, such as syntax, may derive from the evolution of higher-order domains for neural association, more removed from both the sensory input and the motor output, able to support the gradual complexification of grammatical categories into syntax.

  17. Automated Offline Arabic Signature Verification System using Multiple Features Fusion for Forensic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad M. Darwish

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The signature of a person is one of the most popular and legally accepted behavioral biometrics that provides a secure means for verification and personal identification in many applications such as financial, commercial and legal transactions. The objective of the signature verification system is to classify between genuine and forged signatures that are often associated with intrapersonal and interpersonal variability. Unlike other languages, Arabic has unique features; it contains diacritics, ligatures, and overlapping. Because of lacking any form of dynamic information during the Arabic signature’s writing process, it will be more difficult to obtain higher verification accuracy. This paper addresses the above difficulty by introducing a novel offline Arabic signature verification algorithm. The key point is using multiple feature fusion with fuzzy modeling to capture different aspects of a signature individually in order to improve the verification accuracy. State-of-the-art techniques adopt the fuzzy set to describe the properties of the extracted features to handle a signature’s uncertainty; this work also employs the fuzzy variables to describe the degree of similarity of the signature’s features to deal with the ambiguity of questioned document examiner judgment of signature similarity. It is concluded from the experimental results that the verification system performs well and has the ability to reduce both False Acceptance Rate (FAR and False Rejection Rate (FRR.

  18. Geochemical signature of radioactive waste: oil NORM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Gilberto T. de Paula; Costa-de-Moura, Jorge; Gomes, Carlos de Almeida; Sampaio, Emidio A. Lopes, E-mail: gilberto.costa@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: jcmoura@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: cgomes@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Controle de Rejeitos e Transporte de Materiais Radioativos

    2017-07-01

    The Brazilian Nuclear Agency (CNEN) rules all nuclear activity in Brazil as demanded by the Federal Constitution, articles 21, XXIII, and 177, V, and by the Federal Acts 4.118/62 and 10.308/2001. Therefore, the CNEN is responsible for any radioactive waste disposal in the country. Oil Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (Oil NORM) in this paper refers to waste coming from oil exploration. Oil NORM has called much attention during the last decades, mostly because it is not possible to determine its primary source due to the actual absence of regulatory control mechanism. There is no efficient regulatory tool which allows determining the origin of such NORM wastes even among those facilities under regulatory control. This fact may encourage non-authorized radioactive material transportation, smuggling and terrorism. The aim of this project is to provide a geochemical signature for each oil NORM waste using its naturally occurring isotopic composition to identify its origin. The here proposed method is a specific geochemical modeling of oil sludge NORM samples which are analyzed for radioisotopes normally present in oil pipes, such as {sup 228}Ac, {sup 214}Bi and {sup 214}Pb. The activity ratios are plotted in scatter diagrams. This method was successfully tested with data of different sources obtained from analysis reports from the Campos Basin/Brazil and from literature. (author)

  19. Analysis of signature wrapping attacks and countermeasures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gajek, Sebastian; Jensen, Meiko; Liao, Lijun

    2009-01-01

    In recent research it turned out that Boolean verification, of digital signatures in the context of WSSecurity, is likely to fail: If parts of a SOAP message, are signed and the signature verification applied to, the whole document returns true, then nevertheless the, document may have been...

  20. Prediction of soil effects on GPR signatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhebergen, J.B.; Lensen, H.A.; Wijk, C.V. van; Hendrickx, J.M.H.; Dam, R. van; Borchers, B.

    2004-01-01

    In previous work we have shown that GPR signatures are affected by soil texture and soil water content. In this contribution we will use a three dimensional electromagnetic model and a hydrological soil model to explore in more detail the relationships between GPR signatures, soil physical

  1. Measuring ship acoustic signatures against mine threat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, C.A.F. de; Quesson, B.A.J.; Ainslie, M.A.; Vermeulen, R.C.N.

    2012-01-01

    The NATO standard ‘AMP-15’ [1] provides procedures for the measurement and reporting of the acoustic signature of ships and for the establishment of acoustic signature goals to counter the naval mine threat. Measurements are carried out at dedicated shallow water acoustic ranges. Measurements

  2. 21 CFR 11.50 - Signature manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ELECTRONIC RECORDS; ELECTRONIC SIGNATURES Electronic Records § 11.50 Signature manifestations. (a) Signed electronic... the same controls as for electronic records and shall be included as part of any human readable form...

  3. Interim Report on Multiple Sequence Alignments and TaqMan Signature Mapping to Phylogenetic Trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, S; Jaing, C

    2012-03-27

    The goal of this project is to develop forensic genotyping assays for select agent viruses, addressing a significant capability gap for the viral bioforensics and law enforcement community. We used a multipronged approach combining bioinformatics analysis, PCR-enriched samples, microarrays and TaqMan assays to develop high resolution and cost effective genotyping methods for strain level forensic discrimination of viruses. We have leveraged substantial experience and efficiency gained through year 1 on software development, SNP discovery, TaqMan signature design and phylogenetic signature mapping to scale up the development of forensics signatures in year 2. In this report, we have summarized the Taqman signature development for South American hemorrhagic fever viruses, tick-borne encephalitis viruses and henipaviruses, Old World Arenaviruses, filoviruses, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Rift Valley fever virus and Japanese encephalitis virus.

  4. Feature analysis and classification of manufacturing signatures based on semiconductor wafermaps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin, K.W.; Gleason, S.S.; Karnowski, T.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Cohen, S.L. [SEMATECH, Austin, TX (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Automated tools for semiconductor wafer defect analysis are becoming more necessary as device densities and wafer sizes continue to increase. Trends towards larger wafer formats and smaller critical dimensions have caused an exponential increase in the volume of defect data which must be analyzed and stored. To accommodate these changing factors, automatic analysis tools are required that can efficiently and robustly process the increasing amounts of data, and thus quickly characterize manufacturing processes and accelerate yield learning. During the first year of this cooperative research project between SEMATECH and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a robust methodology for segmenting signature events prior to feature analysis and classification was developed. Based on the results of this segmentation procedure, a feature measurement strategy has been designed based on interviews with process engineers coupled with the analysis of approximately 1500 electronic wafermap files. In this paper, the authors represent an automated procedure to rank and select relevant features for use with a fuzzy pair-wise classifier and give examples of the efficacy of the approach taken. Results of the feature selection process are given for two uniquely different types of class data to demonstrate a general improvement in classifier performance.

  5. On the information content of hydrological signatures and their relationship to catchment attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addor, Nans; Clark, Martyn P.; Prieto, Cristina; Newman, Andrew J.; Mizukami, Naoki; Nearing, Grey; Le Vine, Nataliya

    2017-04-01

    Hydrological signatures, which are indices characterizing hydrologic behavior, are increasingly used for the evaluation, calibration and selection of hydrological models. Their key advantage is to provide more direct insights into specific hydrological processes than aggregated metrics (e.g., the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency). A plethora of signatures now exists, which enable characterizing a variety of hydrograph features, but also makes the selection of signatures for new studies challenging. Here we propose that the selection of signatures should be based on their information content, which we estimated using several approaches, all leading to similar conclusions. To explore the relationship between hydrological signatures and the landscape, we extended a previously published data set of hydrometeorological time series for 671 catchments in the contiguous United States, by characterizing the climatic conditions, topography, soil, vegetation and stream network of each catchment. This new catchment attributes data set will soon be in open access, and we are looking forward to introducing it to the community. We used this data set in a data-learning algorithm (random forests) to explore whether hydrological signatures could be inferred from catchment attributes alone. We find that some signatures can be predicted remarkably well by random forests and, interestingly, the same signatures are well captured when simulating discharge using a conceptual hydrological model. We discuss what this result reveals about our understanding of hydrological processes shaping hydrological signatures. We also identify which catchment attributes exert the strongest control on catchment behavior, in particular during extreme hydrological events. Overall, climatic attributes have the most significant influence, and strongly condition how well hydrological signatures can be predicted by random forests and simulated by the hydrological model. In contrast, soil characteristics at the

  6. Signatures of Extended Storage of Used Nuclear Fuel Comprehensive Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauch, Eric Benton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-21

    This report serves as a comprehensive overview of the Extended Storage of Used Nuclear Fuel work performed for the Material Protection, Accounting and Control Technologies campaign under the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy. This paper describes a signature based on the source and fissile material distribution found within a population of used fuel assemblies combined with the neutron absorbers found within cask design that is unique to a specific cask with its specific arrangement of fuel. The paper describes all the steps used in producing and analyzing this signature from the beginning to the project end.

  7. Redactable signatures for signed CDA Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhen-Yu; Hsueh, Chih-Wen; Tsai, Cheng-Yu; Lai, Feipei; Lee, Hung-Chang; Chung, Yufang

    2012-06-01

    The Clinical Document Architecture, introduced by Health Level Seven, is a XML-based standard intending to specify the encoding, structure, and semantics of clinical documents for exchange. Since the clinical document is in XML form, its authenticity and integrity could be guaranteed by the use of the XML signature published by W3C. While a clinical document wants to conceal some personal or private information, the document needs to be redacted. It makes the signed signature of the original clinical document not be verified. The redactable signature is thus proposed to enable verification for the redacted document. Only a little research does the implementation of the redactable signature, and there still not exists an appropriate scheme for the clinical document. This paper will investigate the existing web-technologies and find a compact and applicable model to implement a suitable redactable signature for the clinical document viewer.

  8. Real time gamma-ray signature identifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Mark [Alamo, CA; Gosnell, Tom B [Moraga, CA; Ham, Cheryl [Livermore, CA; Perkins, Dwight [Livermore, CA; Wong, James [Dublin, CA

    2012-05-15

    A real time gamma-ray signature/source identification method and system using principal components analysis (PCA) for transforming and substantially reducing one or more comprehensive spectral libraries of nuclear materials types and configurations into a corresponding concise representation/signature(s) representing and indexing each individual predetermined spectrum in principal component (PC) space, wherein an unknown gamma-ray signature may be compared against the representative signature to find a match or at least characterize the unknown signature from among all the entries in the library with a single regression or simple projection into the PC space, so as to substantially reduce processing time and computing resources and enable real-time characterization and/or identification.

  9. Event identification by acoustic signature recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dress, W.B.; Kercel, S.W.

    1995-07-01

    Many events of interest to the security commnnity produce acoustic emissions that are, in principle, identifiable as to cause. Some obvious examples are gunshots, breaking glass, takeoffs and landings of small aircraft, vehicular engine noises, footsteps (high frequencies when on gravel, very low frequencies. when on soil), and voices (whispers to shouts). We are investigating wavelet-based methods to extract unique features of such events for classification and identification. We also discuss methods of classification and pattern recognition specifically tailored for acoustic signatures obtained by wavelet analysis. The paper is divided into three parts: completed work, work in progress, and future applications. The completed phase has led to the successful recognition of aircraft types on landing and takeoff. Both small aircraft (twin-engine turboprop) and large (commercial airliners) were included in the study. The project considered the design of a small, field-deployable, inexpensive device. The techniques developed during the aircraft identification phase were then adapted to a multispectral electromagnetic interference monitoring device now deployed in a nuclear power plant. This is a general-purpose wavelet analysis engine, spanning 14 octaves, and can be adapted for other specific tasks. Work in progress is focused on applying the methods previously developed to speaker identification. Some of the problems to be overcome include recognition of sounds as voice patterns and as distinct from possible background noises (e.g., music), as well as identification of the speaker from a short-duration voice sample. A generalization of the completed work and the work in progress is a device capable of classifying any number of acoustic events-particularly quasi-stationary events such as engine noises and voices and singular events such as gunshots and breaking glass. We will show examples of both kinds of events and discuss their recognition likelihood.

  10. Integrative Metabolic Signatures for Hepatic Radiation Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwin Jack Kurland

    Full Text Available Radiation-induced liver disease (RILD is a dose-limiting factor in curative radiation therapy (RT for liver cancers, making early detection of radiation-associated liver injury absolutely essential for medical intervention. A metabolomic approach was used to determine metabolic signatures that could serve as biomarkers for early detection of RILD in mice.Anesthetized C57BL/6 mice received 0, 10 or 50 Gy Whole Liver Irradiation (WLI and were contrasted to mice, which received 10 Gy whole body irradiation (WBI. Liver and plasma samples were collected at 24 hours after irradiation. The samples were processed using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry and Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry.Twenty four hours after WLI, 407 metabolites were detected in liver samples while 347 metabolites were detected in plasma. Plasma metabolites associated with 50 Gy WLI included several amino acids, purine and pyrimidine metabolites, microbial metabolites, and most prominently bradykinin and 3-indoxyl-sulfate. Liver metabolites associated with 50 Gy WLI included pentose phosphate, purine, and pyrimidine metabolites in liver. Plasma biomarkers in common between WLI and WBI were enriched in microbial metabolites such as 3 indoxyl sulfate, indole-3-lactic acid, phenyllactic acid, pipecolic acid, hippuric acid, and markers of DNA damage such as 2-deoxyuridine. Metabolites associated with tryptophan and indoles may reflect radiation-induced gut microbiome effects. Predominant liver biomarkers in common between WBI and WLI were amino acids, sugars, TCA metabolites (fumarate, fatty acids (lineolate, n-hexadecanoic acid and DNA damage markers (uridine.We identified a set of metabolomic markers that may prove useful as plasma biomarkers of RILD and WBI. Pathway analysis also suggested that the unique metabolic changes observed after liver irradiation was an integrative response of the intestine, liver and kidney.

  11. Implementing Signature Neural Networks with Spiking Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Medina, José Luis; Latorre, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Spiking Neural Networks constitute the most promising approach to develop realistic Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs). Unlike traditional firing rate-based paradigms, information coding in spiking models is based on the precise timing of individual spikes. It has been demonstrated that spiking ANNs can be successfully and efficiently applied to multiple realistic problems solvable with traditional strategies (e.g., data classification or pattern recognition). In recent years, major breakthroughs in neuroscience research have discovered new relevant computational principles in different living neural systems. Could ANNs benefit from some of these recent findings providing novel elements of inspiration? This is an intriguing question for the research community and the development of spiking ANNs including novel bio-inspired information coding and processing strategies is gaining attention. From this perspective, in this work, we adapt the core concepts of the recently proposed Signature Neural Network paradigm-i.e., neural signatures to identify each unit in the network, local information contextualization during the processing, and multicoding strategies for information propagation regarding the origin and the content of the data-to be employed in a spiking neural network. To the best of our knowledge, none of these mechanisms have been used yet in the context of ANNs of spiking neurons. This paper provides a proof-of-concept for their applicability in such networks. Computer simulations show that a simple network model like the discussed here exhibits complex self-organizing properties. The combination of multiple simultaneous encoding schemes allows the network to generate coexisting spatio-temporal patterns of activity encoding information in different spatio-temporal spaces. As a function of the network and/or intra-unit parameters shaping the corresponding encoding modality, different forms of competition among the evoked patterns can emerge even in the absence

  12. Implementing Signature Neural Networks with Spiking Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Medina, José Luis; Latorre, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Spiking Neural Networks constitute the most promising approach to develop realistic Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs). Unlike traditional firing rate-based paradigms, information coding in spiking models is based on the precise timing of individual spikes. It has been demonstrated that spiking ANNs can be successfully and efficiently applied to multiple realistic problems solvable with traditional strategies (e.g., data classification or pattern recognition). In recent years, major breakthroughs in neuroscience research have discovered new relevant computational principles in different living neural systems. Could ANNs benefit from some of these recent findings providing novel elements of inspiration? This is an intriguing question for the research community and the development of spiking ANNs including novel bio-inspired information coding and processing strategies is gaining attention. From this perspective, in this work, we adapt the core concepts of the recently proposed Signature Neural Network paradigm—i.e., neural signatures to identify each unit in the network, local information contextualization during the processing, and multicoding strategies for information propagation regarding the origin and the content of the data—to be employed in a spiking neural network. To the best of our knowledge, none of these mechanisms have been used yet in the context of ANNs of spiking neurons. This paper provides a proof-of-concept for their applicability in such networks. Computer simulations show that a simple network model like the discussed here exhibits complex self-organizing properties. The combination of multiple simultaneous encoding schemes allows the network to generate coexisting spatio-temporal patterns of activity encoding information in different spatio-temporal spaces. As a function of the network and/or intra-unit parameters shaping the corresponding encoding modality, different forms of competition among the evoked patterns can emerge even in the

  13. Maximizing biomarker discovery by minimizing gene signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Chang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of gene signatures can potentially be of considerable value in the field of clinical diagnosis. However, gene signatures defined with different methods can be quite various even when applied the same disease and the same endpoint. Previous studies have shown that the correct selection of subsets of genes from microarray data is key for the accurate classification of disease phenotypes, and a number of methods have been proposed for the purpose. However, these methods refine the subsets by only considering each single feature, and they do not confirm the association between the genes identified in each gene signature and the phenotype of the disease. We proposed an innovative new method termed Minimize Feature's Size (MFS based on multiple level similarity analyses and association between the genes and disease for breast cancer endpoints by comparing classifier models generated from the second phase of MicroArray Quality Control (MAQC-II, trying to develop effective meta-analysis strategies to transform the MAQC-II signatures into a robust and reliable set of biomarker for clinical applications. Results We analyzed the similarity of the multiple gene signatures in an endpoint and between the two endpoints of breast cancer at probe and gene levels, the results indicate that disease-related genes can be preferably selected as the components of gene signature, and that the gene signatures for the two endpoints could be interchangeable. The minimized signatures were built at probe level by using MFS for each endpoint. By applying the approach, we generated a much smaller set of gene signature with the similar predictive power compared with those gene signatures from MAQC-II. Conclusions Our results indicate that gene signatures of both large and small sizes could perform equally well in clinical applications. Besides, consistency and biological significances can be detected among different gene signatures, reflecting the

  14. The Average Mutual Information Profile as a Genomic Signature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuster Sheldon M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Occult organizational structures in DNA sequences may hold the key to understanding functional and evolutionary aspects of the DNA molecule. Such structures can also provide the means for identifying and discriminating organisms using genomic data. Species specific genomic signatures are useful in a variety of contexts such as evolutionary analysis, assembly and classification of genomic sequences from large uncultivated microbial communities and a rapid identification system in health hazard situations. Results We have analyzed genomic sequences of eukaryotic and prokaryotic chromosomes as well as various subtypes of viruses using an information theoretic framework. We confirm the existence of a species specific average mutual information (AMI profile. We use these profiles to define a very simple, computationally efficient, alignment free, distance measure that reflects the evolutionary relationships between genomic sequences. We use this distance measure to classify chromosomes according to species of origin, to separate and cluster subtypes of the HIV-1 virus, and classify DNA fragments to species of origin. Conclusion AMI profiles of DNA sequences prove to be species specific and easy to compute. The structure of AMI profiles are conserved, even in short subsequences of a species' genome, rendering a pervasive signature. This signature can be used to classify relatively short DNA fragments to species of origin.

  15. Security analysis and improvements of arbitrated quantum signature schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiangfu; Qiu, Daowen

    2010-10-01

    A digital signature is a mathematical scheme for demonstrating the authenticity of a digital message or document. For signing quantum messages, some arbitrated quantum signature (AQS) schemes have been proposed. It was claimed that these AQS schemes could guarantee unconditional security. However, we show that they can be repudiated by the receiver Bob. To conquer this shortcoming, we construct an AQS scheme using a public board. The AQS scheme not only avoids being disavowed by the receiver but also preserves all merits in the existing schemes. Furthermore, we discover that entanglement is not necessary while all these existing AQS schemes depend on entanglement. Therefore, we present another AQS scheme without utilizing entangled states in the signing phase and the verifying phase. This scheme has three advantages: it does not utilize entangled states and it preserves all merits in the existing schemes; the signature can avoid being disavowed by the receiver; and it provides a higher efficiency in transmission and reduces the complexity of implementation.

  16. Stable isotope signatures reflect dietary diversity in European forest moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Marc-Oliver; Seifert, Carlo Lutz; Lehner, Lisamarie; Truxa, Christine; Wanek, Wolfgang; Fiedler, Konrad

    2016-01-01

    Information on larval diet of many holometabolous insects remains incomplete. Carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stable isotope analysis in adult wing tissue can provide an efficient tool to infer such trophic relationships. The present study examines whether moth feeding guild affiliations taken from literature are reflected in isotopic signatures. Non-metric multidimensional scaling and permutational analysis of variance indicate that centroids of dietary groups differ significantly. In particular, species whose larvae feed on mosses or aquatic plants deviated from those that consumed vascular land plants. Moth δ(15)N signatures spanned a broader range, and were less dependent on species identity than δ(13)C values. Comparison between moth samples and ostensible food sources revealed heterogeneity in the lichenivorous guild, indicating only Lithosia quadra as an obligate lichen feeder. Among root-feeding Agrotis segetum, some specimens appear to have developed on crop plants in forest-adjacent farm land. Reed-feeding stem-borers may partially rely on intermediary trophic levels such as fungal or bacterial growth. Diagnostic partitioning of moth dietary guilds based on isotopic signatures alone could not be achieved, but hypotheses on trophic relationships based on often vague literature records could be assessed with high resolution. Hence, the approach is well suited for basic categorization of moths where diet is unknown or notoriously difficult to observe (i.e. Microlepidoptera, lichen-feeders).

  17. Biomechanics of the unique pterosaur pteroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Colin; Dyke, Gareth J

    2010-04-07

    Pterosaurs, flying reptiles from the Mesozoic, had wing membranes that were supported by their arm bones and a super-elongate fourth finger. Associated with the wing, pterosaurs also possessed a unique wrist bone--the pteroid--that functioned to support the forward part of the membrane in front of the leading edge, the propatagium. Pteroid shape varies across pterosaurs and reconstructions of its orientation vary (projecting anteriorly to the wing leading edge or medially, lying alongside it) and imply differences in the way that pterosaurs controlled their wings. Here we show, using biomechanical analysis and considerations of aerodynamic efficiency of a representative ornithocheirid pterosaur, that an anteriorly orientated pteroid is highly unlikely. Unless these pterosaurs only flew steadily and had very low body masses, their pteroids would have been likely to break if orientated anteriorly; the degree of movement required for a forward orientation would have introduced extreme membrane strains and required impractical tensioning in the propatagium membrane. This result can be generalized for other pterodactyloid pterosaurs because the resultant geometry of an anteriorly orientated pteroid would have reduced the aerodynamic performance of all wings and required the same impractical properties in the propatagium membrane. We demonstrate quantitatively that the more traditional reconstruction of a medially orientated pteroid was much more stable both structurally and aerodynamically, reflecting likely life position.

  18. Signature proteins for the major clades of Cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The phylogeny and taxonomy of cyanobacteria is currently poorly understood due to paucity of reliable markers for identification and circumscription of its major clades. Results A combination of phylogenomic and protein signature based approaches was used to characterize the major clades of cyanobacteria. Phylogenetic trees were constructed for 44 cyanobacteria based on 44 conserved proteins. In parallel, Blastp searches were carried out on each ORF in the genomes of Synechococcus WH8102, Synechocystis PCC6803, Nostoc PCC7120, Synechococcus JA-3-3Ab, Prochlorococcus MIT9215 and Prochlor. marinus subsp. marinus CCMP1375 to identify proteins that are specific for various main clades of cyanobacteria. These studies have identified 39 proteins that are specific for all (or most) cyanobacteria and large numbers of proteins for other cyanobacterial clades. The identified signature proteins include: (i) 14 proteins for a deep branching clade (Clade A) of Gloebacter violaceus and two diazotrophic Synechococcus strains (JA-3-3Ab and JA2-3-B'a); (ii) 5 proteins that are present in all other cyanobacteria except those from Clade A; (iii) 60 proteins that are specific for a clade (Clade C) consisting of various marine unicellular cyanobacteria (viz. Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus); (iv) 14 and 19 signature proteins that are specific for the Clade C Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus strains, respectively; (v) 67 proteins that are specific for the Low B/A ecotype Prochlorococcus strains, containing lower ratio of chl b/a2 and adapted to growth at high light intensities; (vi) 65 and 8 proteins that are specific for the Nostocales and Chroococcales orders, respectively; and (vii) 22 and 9 proteins that are uniquely shared by various Nostocales and Oscillatoriales orders, or by these two orders and the Chroococcales, respectively. We also describe 3 conserved indels in flavoprotein, heme oxygenase and protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase proteins that are specific for

  19. Signature proteins for the major clades of Cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathews Divya W

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The phylogeny and taxonomy of cyanobacteria is currently poorly understood due to paucity of reliable markers for identification and circumscription of its major clades. Results A combination of phylogenomic and protein signature based approaches was used to characterize the major clades of cyanobacteria. Phylogenetic trees were constructed for 44 cyanobacteria based on 44 conserved proteins. In parallel, Blastp searches were carried out on each ORF in the genomes of Synechococcus WH8102, Synechocystis PCC6803, Nostoc PCC7120, Synechococcus JA-3-3Ab, Prochlorococcus MIT9215 and Prochlor. marinus subsp. marinus CCMP1375 to identify proteins that are specific for various main clades of cyanobacteria. These studies have identified 39 proteins that are specific for all (or most cyanobacteria and large numbers of proteins for other cyanobacterial clades. The identified signature proteins include: (i 14 proteins for a deep branching clade (Clade A of Gloebacter violaceus and two diazotrophic Synechococcus strains (JA-3-3Ab and JA2-3-B'a; (ii 5 proteins that are present in all other cyanobacteria except those from Clade A; (iii 60 proteins that are specific for a clade (Clade C consisting of various marine unicellular cyanobacteria (viz. Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus; (iv 14 and 19 signature proteins that are specific for the Clade C Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus strains, respectively; (v 67 proteins that are specific for the Low B/A ecotype Prochlorococcus strains, containing lower ratio of chl b/a2 and adapted to growth at high light intensities; (vi 65 and 8 proteins that are specific for the Nostocales and Chroococcales orders, respectively; and (vii 22 and 9 proteins that are uniquely shared by various Nostocales and Oscillatoriales orders, or by these two orders and the Chroococcales, respectively. We also describe 3 conserved indels in flavoprotein, heme oxygenase and protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase proteins that

  20. L1000CDS2: LINCS L1000 characteristic direction signatures search engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Qiaonan; Reid, St Patrick; Clark, Neil R; Wang, Zichen; Fernandez, Nicolas F; Rouillard, Andrew D; Readhead, Ben; Tritsch, Sarah R; Hodos, Rachel; Hafner, Marc; Niepel, Mario; Sorger, Peter K; Dudley, Joel T; Bavari, Sina; Panchal, Rekha G; Ma'ayan, Avi

    2016-01-01

    The library of integrated network-based cellular signatures (LINCS) L1000 data set currently comprises of over a million gene expression profiles of chemically perturbed human cell lines. Through unique several intrinsic and extrinsic benchmarking schemes, we demonstrate that processing the L1000 data with the characteristic direction (CD) method significantly improves signal to noise compared with the MODZ method currently used to compute L1000 signatures. The CD processed L1000 signatures are served through a state-of-the-art web-based search engine application called L1000CDS2. The L1000CDS2 search engine provides prioritization of thousands of small-molecule signatures, and their pairwise combinations, predicted to either mimic or reverse an input gene expression signature using two methods. The L1000CDS2 search engine also predicts drug targets for all the small molecules profiled by the L1000 assay that we processed. Targets are predicted by computing the cosine similarity between the L1000 small-molecule signatures and a large collection of signatures extracted from the gene expression omnibus (GEO) for single-gene perturbations in mammalian cells. We applied L1000CDS2 to prioritize small molecules that are predicted to reverse expression in 670 disease signatures also extracted from GEO, and prioritized small molecules that can mimic expression of 22 endogenous ligand signatures profiled by the L1000 assay. As a case study, to further demonstrate the utility of L1000CDS2, we collected expression signatures from human cells infected with Ebola virus at 30, 60 and 120 min. Querying these signatures with L1000CDS2 we identified kenpaullone, a GSK3B/CDK2 inhibitor that we show, in subsequent experiments, has a dose-dependent efficacy in inhibiting Ebola infection in vitro without causing cellular toxicity in human cell lines. In summary, the L1000CDS2 tool can be applied in many biological and biomedical settings, while improving the extraction of knowledge

  1. Quantum blind signature based on Two-State Vector Formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Su; Zheng, Huang; Qiaoyan, Wen; Wenmin, Li

    2010-11-01

    Two-State Vector Formalism (TSVF) including pre- and postselected states is a complete description of a system between two measurements. Consequently TSVF gives a perfect solution to the Mean King problem. In this paper, utilizing the dramatic correlation in the verification, we propose a quantum blind signature scheme based on TSVF. Compared with Wen's scheme, our scheme has 100% efficiency. Our scheme guarantees the unconditional security. Moreover, the proposed scheme, which is easy to implement, can be applied to E-payment system.

  2. Bilepton signatures at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcella, Gennaro; Corianò, Claudio; Costantini, Antonio; Frampton, Paul H.

    2017-10-01

    We discuss the main signatures of the Bilepton Model at the Large Hadron Collider, focusing on its gauge boson sector. The model is characterised by five additional gauge bosons, four charged and one neutral, beyond those of the Standard Model, plus three exotic quarks. The latter turn into ordinary quarks with the emission of bilepton doublets (Y++ ,Y+) and (Y- ,Y-) of lepton number L = - 2 and L = + 2 respectively, with the doubly-charged bileptons decaying into same-sign lepton pairs. We perform a phenomenological analysis investigating processes with two doubly-charged bileptons and two jets at the LHC and find that, setting suitable cuts on pseudorapidities and transverse momenta of final-states jets and leptons, the model yields a visible signal and the main Standard Model backgrounds can be suppressed. Compared to previous studies, our investigation is based on a full Monte Carlo implementation of the model and accounts for parton showers, hadronization and an actual jet-clustering algorithm for both signal and Standard Model background, thus providing an optimal framework for an actual experimental search.

  3. Epigenetic Signatures of Cigarette Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joehanes, Roby; Just, Allan C; Marioni, Riccardo E; Pilling, Luke C; Reynolds, Lindsay M; Mandaviya, Pooja R; Guan, Weihua; Xu, Tao; Elks, Cathy E; Aslibekyan, Stella; Moreno-Macias, Hortensia; Smith, Jennifer A; Brody, Jennifer A; Dhingra, Radhika; Yousefi, Paul; Pankow, James S; Kunze, Sonja; Shah, Sonia H; McRae, Allan F; Lohman, Kurt; Sha, Jin; Absher, Devin M; Ferrucci, Luigi; Zhao, Wei; Demerath, Ellen W; Bressler, Jan; Grove, Megan L; Huan, Tianxiao; Liu, Chunyu; Mendelson, Michael M; Yao, Chen; Kiel, Douglas P; Peters, Annette; Wang-Sattler, Rui; Visscher, Peter M; Wray, Naomi R; Starr, John M; Ding, Jingzhong; Rodriguez, Carlos J; Wareham, Nicholas J; Irvin, Marguerite R; Zhi, Degui; Barrdahl, Myrto; Vineis, Paolo; Ambatipudi, Srikant; Uitterlinden, André G; Hofman, Albert; Schwartz, Joel; Colicino, Elena; Hou, Lifang; Vokonas, Pantel S; Hernandez, Dena G; Singleton, Andrew B; Bandinelli, Stefania; Turner, Stephen T; Ware, Erin B; Smith, Alicia K; Klengel, Torsten; Binder, Elisabeth B; Psaty, Bruce M; Taylor, Kent D; Gharib, Sina A; Swenson, Brenton R; Liang, Liming; DeMeo, Dawn L; O'Connor, George T; Herceg, Zdenko; Ressler, Kerry J; Conneely, Karen N; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Kardia, Sharon L R; Melzer, David; Baccarelli, Andrea A; van Meurs, Joyce B J; Romieu, Isabelle; Arnett, Donna K; Ong, Ken K; Liu, Yongmei; Waldenberger, Melanie; Deary, Ian J; Fornage, Myriam; Levy, Daniel; London, Stephanie J

    2016-10-01

    DNA methylation leaves a long-term signature of smoking exposure and is one potential mechanism by which tobacco exposure predisposes to adverse health outcomes, such as cancers, osteoporosis, lung, and cardiovascular disorders. To comprehensively determine the association between cigarette smoking and DNA methylation, we conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide DNA methylation assessed using the Illumina BeadChip 450K array on 15 907 blood-derived DNA samples from participants in 16 cohorts (including 2433 current, 6518 former, and 6956 never smokers). Comparing current versus never smokers, 2623 cytosine-phosphate-guanine sites (CpGs), annotated to 1405 genes, were statistically significantly differentially methylated at Bonferroni threshold of Psmoking-related traits in genome-wide studies including pulmonary function, cancers, inflammatory diseases, and heart disease. Comparing former versus never smokers, 185 of the CpGs that differed between current and never smokers were significant Psmoking cessation. Transcriptomic integration identified effects on gene expression at many differentially methylated CpGs. Cigarette smoking has a broad impact on genome-wide methylation that, at many loci, persists many years after smoking cessation. Many of the differentially methylated genes were novel genes with respect to biological effects of smoking and might represent therapeutic targets for prevention or treatment of tobacco-related diseases. Methylation at these sites could also serve as sensitive and stable biomarkers of lifetime exposure to tobacco smoke. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Metabolomic signature of brain cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Renu; Caflisch, Laura; Lodi, Alessia; Brenner, Andrew J; Tiziani, Stefano

    2017-11-01

    Despite advances in surgery and adjuvant therapy, brain tumors represent one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality and morbidity in both adults and children. Gliomas constitute about 60% of all cerebral tumors, showing varying degrees of malignancy. They are difficult to treat due to dismal prognosis and limited therapeutics. Metabolomics is the untargeted and targeted analyses of endogenous and exogenous small molecules, which charact erizes the phenotype of an individual. This emerging "omics" science provides functional readouts of cellular activity that contribute greatly to the understanding of cancer biology including brain tumor biology. Metabolites are highly informative as a direct signature of biochemical activity; therefore, metabolite profiling has become a promising approach for clinical diagnostics and prognostics. The metabolic alterations are well-recognized as one of the key hallmarks in monitoring disease progression, therapy, and revealing new molecular targets for effective therapeutic intervention. Taking advantage of the latest high-throughput analytical technologies, that is, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (MS), metabolomics is now a promising field for precision medicine and drug discovery. In the present report, we review the application of metabolomics and in vivo metabolic profiling in the context of adult gliomas and paediatric brain tumors. Analytical platforms such as high-resolution (HR) NMR, in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging and high- and low-resolution MS are discussed. Moreover, the relevance of metabolic studies in the development of new therapeutic strategies for treatment of gliomas are reviewed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Reduction of a Ship's Magnetic Field Signatures

    CERN Document Server

    Holmes, John

    2008-01-01

    Decreasing the magnetic field signature of a naval vessel will reduce its susceptibility to detonating naval influence mines and the probability of a submarine being detected by underwater barriers and maritime patrol aircraft. Both passive and active techniques for reducing the magnetic signatures produced by a vessel's ferromagnetism, roll-induced eddy currents, corrosion-related sources, and stray fields are presented. Mathematical models of simple hull shapes are used to predict the levels of signature reduction that might be achieved through the use of alternate construction materials. Al

  6. Supersymmetry Signatures with High-pT Photons or Long-Lived Heavy Particles

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2008-01-01

    In certain Supersymmetry breaking scenarios, characteristic signatures can be expected which would not necessarily be found in generic SUSY searches for events containing high pT multi-jets and large missing transverse energy. This paper describes the expected response of the ATLAS detector to four signatures: high-pT photons which may or may not appear to point back to the primary collision vertex and long-lived charged sleptons and R hadrons. Such processes often have the advantage of small Standard Model backgrounds and their observation could provide unique constraints on the different SUSY breaking scenarios. Using these signatures discovery potentials are estimated for either Gauge-Mediated Supersymmetry Breaking or Split-Supersymmetry scenarios. Using Monte Carlo samples of SUSY and background processes corresponding to integrated luminosity of about 1 fb^-1 we study all aspects of the analysis, including the expected trigger response and offline data reconstruction.

  7. HTSFinder: Powerful Pipeline of DNA Signature Discovery by Parallel and Distributed Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Ramin; Hajdu, Andras

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive effort for low-cost sequencing in the past few years has led to the growth of complete genome databases. In parallel with this effort, a strong need, fast and cost-effective methods and applications have been developed to accelerate sequence analysis. Identification is the very first step of this task. Due to the difficulties, high costs, and computational challenges of alignment-based approaches, an alternative universal identification method is highly required. Like an alignment-free approach, DNA signatures have provided new opportunities for the rapid identification of species. In this paper, we present an effective pipeline HTSFinder (high-throughput signature finder) with a corresponding k-mer generator GkmerG (genome k-mers generator). Using this pipeline, we determine the frequency of k-mers from the available complete genome databases for the detection of extensive DNA signatures in a reasonably short time. Our application can detect both unique and common signatures in the arbitrarily selected target and nontarget databases. Hadoop and MapReduce as parallel and distributed computing tools with commodity hardware are used in this pipeline. This approach brings the power of high-performance computing into the ordinary desktop personal computers for discovering DNA signatures in large databases such as bacterial genome. A considerable number of detected unique and common DNA signatures of the target database bring the opportunities to improve the identification process not only for polymerase chain reaction and microarray assays but also for more complex scenarios such as metagenomics and next-generation sequencing analysis.

  8. HTSFinder: Powerful Pipeline of DNA Signature Discovery by Parallel and Distributed Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Ramin; Hajdu, Andras

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive effort for low-cost sequencing in the past few years has led to the growth of complete genome databases. In parallel with this effort, a strong need, fast and cost-effective methods and applications have been developed to accelerate sequence analysis. Identification is the very first step of this task. Due to the difficulties, high costs, and computational challenges of alignment-based approaches, an alternative universal identification method is highly required. Like an alignment-free approach, DNA signatures have provided new opportunities for the rapid identification of species. In this paper, we present an effective pipeline HTSFinder (high-throughput signature finder) with a corresponding k-mer generator GkmerG (genome k-mers generator). Using this pipeline, we determine the frequency of k-mers from the available complete genome databases for the detection of extensive DNA signatures in a reasonably short time. Our application can detect both unique and common signatures in the arbitrarily selected target and nontarget databases. Hadoop and MapReduce as parallel and distributed computing tools with commodity hardware are used in this pipeline. This approach brings the power of high-performance computing into the ordinary desktop personal computers for discovering DNA signatures in large databases such as bacterial genome. A considerable number of detected unique and common DNA signatures of the target database bring the opportunities to improve the identification process not only for polymerase chain reaction and microarray assays but also for more complex scenarios such as metagenomics and next-generation sequencing analysis. PMID:26884678

  9. Key-Insulated Undetachable Digital Signature Scheme and Solution for Secure Mobile Agents in Electronic Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the security of both the customers’ hosts and the eShops’ servers, we introduce the idea of a key-insulated undetachable digital signature, enabling mobile agents to generate undetachable digital signatures on remote hosts with the key-insulated property of the original signer’s signing key. From the theoretical perspective, we provide the formal definition and security notion of a key-insulated undetachable digital signature. From the practical perspective, we propose a concrete scheme to secure mobile agents in electronic commerce. The scheme is mainly focused on protecting the signing key from leakage and preventing the misuse of the signature algorithm on malicious servers. Agents do not carry the signing key when they generate digital signatures on behalf of the original signer, so the key is protected on remote servers. Furthermore, if a hacker gains the signing key of the original signer, the hacker is still unable to forge a signature for any time period other than the key being accessed. In addition, the encrypted function is combined with the original signer’s requirement to prevent the misuse of signing algorithm. The scheme is constructed on gap Diffie–Hellman groups with provable security, and the performance testing indicates that the scheme is efficient.

  10. E-learning platform for automated testing of electronic circuits using signature analysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherghina, Cǎtǎlina; Bacivarov, Angelica; Bacivarov, Ioan C.; Petricǎ, Gabriel

    2016-12-01

    Dependability of electronic circuits can be ensured only through testing of circuit modules. This is done by generating test vectors and their application to the circuit. Testability should be viewed as a concerted effort to ensure maximum efficiency throughout the product life cycle, from conception and design stage, through production to repairs during products operating. In this paper, is presented the platform developed by authors for training for testability in electronics, in general and in using signature analysis method, in particular. The platform allows highlighting the two approaches in the field namely analog and digital signature of circuits. As a part of this e-learning platform, it has been developed a database for signatures of different electronic components meant to put into the spotlight different techniques implying fault detection, and from this there were also self-repairing techniques of the systems with this kind of components. An approach for realizing self-testing circuits based on MATLAB environment and using signature analysis method is proposed. This paper analyses the benefits of signature analysis method and simulates signature analyzer performance based on the use of pseudo-random sequences, too.

  11. Cryptanalysis and Performance Evaluation of Enhanced Threshold Proxy Signature Scheme Based on RSA for Known Signers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In these days there are plenty of signature schemes such as the threshold proxy signature scheme (Kumar and Verma 2010. The network is a shared medium so that the weakness security attacks such as eavesdropping, replay attack, and modification attack. Thus, we have to establish a common key for encrypting/decrypting our communications over an insecure network. In this scheme, a threshold proxy signature scheme based on RSA, any or more proxy signers can cooperatively generate a proxy signature while or fewer of them cannot do it. The threshold proxy signature scheme uses the RSA cryptosystem to generate the private and the public key of the signers (Rivest et al., 1978. Comparison is done on the basis of time complexity, space complexity, and communication overhead. We compare the performance of four schemes (Hwang et al. (2003, Kuo and Chen (2005, Yong-Jun et al. (2007, and Li et al. (2007, with the performance of a scheme that has been proposed earlier by the authors of this paper. In the proposed scheme, both the combiner and the secret share holder can verify the correctness of the information that they are receiving from each other. Therefore, the enhanced threshold proxy signature scheme is secure and efficient against notorious conspiracy attacks.

  12. Electronic Signatures for Public Procurement across Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ølnes, Jon; Andresen, Anette; Arbia, Stefano; Ernst, Markus; Hagen, Martin; Klein, Stephan; Manca, Giovanni; Rossi, Adriano; Schipplick, Frank; Tatti, Daniele; Wessolowski, Gesa; Windheuser, Jan

    The PEPPOL (Pan-European Public Procurement On-Line) project is a large scale pilot under the CIP programme of the EU, exploring electronic public procurement in a unified European market. An important element is interoperability of electronic signatures across borders, identified today as a major obstacle to cross-border procurement. PEPPOL will address use of signatures in procurement processes, in particular tendering but also post-award processes like orders and invoices. Signature policies, i.e. quality requirements and requirements on information captured in the signing process, will be developed. This as well as technical interoperability of e-signatures across Europe will finally be piloted in demonstrators starting late 2009 or early 2010.

  13. Magnetic Signature of Brushless Electric Motors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clarke, David

    2006-01-01

    Brushless electric motors are used in a number of underwater vehicles. When these underwater vehicles are used for mine clearance operations the magnetic signature of the brushless motors is important...

  14. Signature for the shape of the universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomero, G.I.; Reboucas, M.J.; Teixeira, A.F.F. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: german@cbpf.br; reboucas@cbpf.br; teixeira@cbpf.br

    2001-03-01

    If the universe has a nontrival shape (topology) the sky may show multiple correlated images of cosmic objects. These correlations can be counched in terms of distance correlations. We propose a statistical quantity which can be used to reveal the topological signature of any Roberston-Walker (RW) spacetime with nontrivial topology. We also show through computer-aided simulations how one can extract the topological signatures of flat elliptic and hyperbolic RW universes with nontrivial topology. (author)

  15. Quantum blind signature with an offline repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, J.; Souto, A.; Mateus, P.

    2015-04-01

    We propose a quantum blind signature scheme that achieves perfect security under the assumption of an honest offline repository. The security of the protocol also relies on perfect private quantum channels, which are achievable using quantum one-time pads with keys shared via a quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol. The proposed approach ensures that signatures cannot be copied and that the sender must compromise to a single message, which are important advantages over classical protocols for certain applications.

  16. Signature-based store checking buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Vilas; Gurumurthi, Sudhanva

    2015-06-02

    A system and method for optimizing redundant output verification, are provided. A hardware-based store fingerprint buffer receives multiple instances of output from multiple instances of computation. The store fingerprint buffer generates a signature from the content included in the multiple instances of output. When a barrier is reached, the store fingerprint buffer uses the signature to verify the content is error-free.

  17. AuNPs for identification of molecular signatures of resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno eVeigas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The increasing levels of drug resistance are one of biggest threats to overcome microbial infection. The ability to rapidly and accurately detect a given pathogen and its drug resistance profile is essential for the appropriate treatment of patients and for preventing further spread of drug-resistant strains. The predictive and informative value of these molecular markers needs to be translated into robust surveillance tools that correlate to the target and extent of resistance, monitor multiresistance and provide real time assessment at point-of-need. Rapid molecular assays for the detection of drug-resistance signatures in clinical specimens are based on the detection of specific nucleotide sequences and/or mutations within pre-selected biomarkers in the genome, indicative of the presence of the pathogen and/or associated with drug resistance. DNA and/or RNA based assays offer advantages over phenotypic assays, such as specificity and time from collection to result.Nanotechnology has provided new and robust tools for the detection of pathogens and more crucially to the fast and sensitive characterisation of molecular signatures of drug resistance. Amongst the plethora of nanotechnology based approaches, gold nanoparticles have prompt for the development of new strategies and platforms capable to provide valuable data at point-of-need with increased versatility but reduced costs. Gold nanoparticles, due to their unique spectral, optical and electrochemical properties, are one of the most widely used nanotechnology systems for molecular diagnostics. This review will focus on the use of gold nanoparticles for screening molecular signatures of drug resistance that have been reported thus far, and provide a critical evaluation of current and future developments of these technologies assisting pathogen identification and characterisation.

  18. Variability of grip kinetics during adult signature writing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassma Ghali

    Full Text Available Grip kinetics and their variation are emerging as important considerations in the clinical assessment of handwriting pathologies, fine motor rehabilitation, biometrics, forensics and ergonomic pen design. This study evaluated the intra- and inter-participant variability of grip shape kinetics in adults during signature writing. Twenty (20 adult participants wrote on a digitizing tablet using an instrumented pen that measured the forces exerted on its barrel. Signature samples were collected over 10 days, 3 times a day, to capture temporal variations in grip shape kinetics. A kinetic topography (i.e., grip shape image was derived per signature by time-averaging the measured force at each of 32 locations around the pen barrel. The normalized cross correlations (NCC of grip shape images were calculated within- and between-participants. Several classification algorithms were implemented to gauge the error rate of participant discrimination based on grip shape kinetics. Four different grip shapes emerged and several participants made grip adjustments (change in grip shape or grip height or rotated the pen during writing. Nonetheless, intra-participant variation in grip kinetics was generally much smaller than inter-participant force variations. Using the entire grip shape images as a 32-dimensional input feature vector, a K-nearest neighbor classifier achieved an error rate of 1.2±0.4% in discriminating among participants. These results indicate that writers had unique grip shape kinetics that were repeatable over time but distinct from those of other participants. The topographic analysis of grip kinetics may inform the development of personalized interventions or customizable grips in clinical and industrial applications, respectively.

  19. A gene expression signature that can predict the recurrence of tamoxifen-treated primary breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanrion, Maïa; Negre, Vincent; Fontaine, Hélène; Salvetat, Nicolas; Bibeau, Frédéric; Mac Grogan, Gaëtan; Mauriac, Louis; Katsaros, Dionyssios; Molina, Franck; Theillet, Charles; Darbon, Jean-Marie

    2008-03-15

    The identification of a molecular signature predicting the relapse of tamoxifen-treated primary breast cancers should help the therapeutic management of estrogen receptor-positive cancers. A series of 132 primary tumors from patients who received adjuvant tamoxifen were analyzed for expression profiles at the whole-genome level by 70-mer oligonucleotide microarrays. A supervised analysis was done to identify an expression signature. We defined a 36-gene signature that correctly classified 78% of patients with relapse and 80% of relapse-free patients (79% accuracy). Using 23 independent tumors, we confirmed the accuracy of the signature (78%) whose relevance was further shown by using published microarray data from 60 tamoxifen-treated patients (63% accuracy). Univariate analysis using the validation set of 83 tumors showed that the 36-gene classifier is more efficient in predicting disease-free survival than the traditional histopathologic prognostic factors and is as effective as the Nottingham Prognostic Index or the "Adjuvant!" software. Multivariate analysis showed that the molecular signature is the only independent prognostic factor. A comparison with several already published signatures demonstrated that the 36-gene signature is among the best to classify tumors from both training and validation sets. Kaplan-Meier analyses emphasized its prognostic power both on the whole cohort of patients and on a subgroup with an intermediate risk of recurrence as defined by the St. Gallen criteria. This study identifies a molecular signature specifying a subgroup of patients who do not gain benefits from tamoxifen treatment. These patients may therefore be eligible for alternative endocrine therapies and/or chemotherapy.

  20. Peripheral Blood Signatures of Lead Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBreche, Heather G.; Meadows, Sarah K.; Nevins, Joseph R.; Chute, John P.

    2011-01-01

    Background Current evidence indicates that even low-level lead (Pb) exposure can have detrimental effects, especially in children. We tested the hypothesis that Pb exposure alters gene expression patterns in peripheral blood cells and that these changes reflect dose-specific alterations in the activity of particular pathways. Methodology/Principal Finding Using Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430 2.0 arrays, we examined gene expression changes in the peripheral blood of female Balb/c mice following exposure to per os lead acetate trihydrate or plain drinking water for two weeks and after a two-week recovery period. Data sets were RMA-normalized and dose-specific signatures were generated using established methods of supervised classification and binary regression. Pathway activity was analyzed using the ScoreSignatures module from GenePattern. Conclusions/Significance The low-level Pb signature was 93% sensitive and 100% specific in classifying samples a leave-one-out crossvalidation. The high-level Pb signature demonstrated 100% sensitivity and specificity in the leave-one-out crossvalidation. These two signatures exhibited dose-specificity in their ability to predict Pb exposure and had little overlap in terms of constituent genes. The signatures also seemed to reflect current levels of Pb exposure rather than past exposure. Finally, the two doses showed differential activation of cellular pathways. Low-level Pb exposure increased activity of the interferon-gamma pathway, whereas high-level Pb exposure increased activity of the E2F1 pathway. PMID:21829687

  1. Unique Physician Identification Number (UPIN) Directory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Unique Physician Identification Number (UPIN) Directory contains selected information on physicians, doctors of Osteopathy, limited licensed practitioners and...

  2. Global transcriptional profiling of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense using Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Donald M

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dinoflagellates are one of the most important classes of marine and freshwater algae, notable both for their functional diversity and ecological significance. They occur naturally as free-living cells, as endosymbionts of marine invertebrates and are well known for their involvement in "red tides". Dinoflagellates are also notable for their unusual genome content and structure, which suggests that the organization and regulation of dinoflagellate genes may be very different from that of most eukaryotes. To investigate the content and regulation of the dinoflagellate genome, we performed a global analysis of the transcriptome of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense under nitrate- and phosphate-limited conditions using Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS. Results Data from the two MPSS libraries showed that the number of unique signatures found in A. fundyense cells is similar to that of humans and Arabidopsis thaliana, two eukaryotes that have been extensively analyzed using this method. The general distribution, abundance and expression patterns of the A. fundyense signatures were also quite similar to other eukaryotes, and at least 10% of the A. fundyense signatures were differentially expressed between the two conditions. RACE amplification and sequencing of a subset of signatures showed that multiple signatures arose from sequence variants of a single gene. Single signatures also mapped to different sequence variants of the same gene. Conclusion The MPSS data presented here provide a quantitative view of the transcriptome and its regulation in these unusual single-celled eukaryotes. The observed signature abundance and distribution in Alexandrium is similar to that of other eukaryotes that have been analyzed using MPSS. Results of signature mapping via RACE indicate that many signatures result from sequence variants of individual genes. These data add to the growing body of evidence for widespread gene

  3. A TCRβ Repertoire Signature Can Predict Experimental Cerebral Malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Encarnita Mariotti-Ferrandiz

    Full Text Available Cerebral Malaria (CM is associated with a pathogenic T cell response. Mice infected by P. berghei ANKA clone 1.49 (PbA developing CM (CM+ present an altered PBL TCR repertoire, partly due to recurrently expanded T cell clones, as compared to non-infected and CM- infected mice. To analyse the relationship between repertoire alteration and CM, we performed a kinetic analysis of the TRBV repertoire during the course of the infection until CM-related death in PbA-infected mice. The repertoires of PBL, splenocytes and brain lymphocytes were compared between infected and non-infected mice using a high-throughput CDR3 spectratyping method. We observed a modification of the whole TCR repertoire in the spleen and blood of infected mice, from the fifth and the sixth day post-infection, respectively, while only three TRBV were significantly perturbed in the brain of infected mice. Using multivariate analysis and statistical modelling, we identified a unique TCRβ signature discriminating CM+ from CTR mice, enriched during the course of the infection in the spleen and the blood and predicting CM onset. These results highlight a dynamic modification and compartmentalization of the TCR diversity during the course of PbA infection, and provide a novel method to identify disease-associated TCRβ signature as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers.

  4. Signature Optical Cues: Emerging Technologies for Monitoring Plant Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand K. Asundi

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Optical technologies can be developed as practical tools for monitoring plant health by providing unique spectral signatures that can be related to specific plant stresses. Signatures from thermal and fluorescence imaging have been used successfully to track pathogen invasion before visual symptoms are observed. Another approach for noninvasive plant health monitoring involves elucidating the manner with which light interacts with the plant leaf and being able to identify changes in spectral characteristics in response to specific stresses. To achieve this, an important step is to understand the biochemical and anatomical features governing leaf reflectance, transmission and absorption. Many studies have opened up possibilities that subtle changes in leaf reflectance spectra can be analyzed in a plethora of ways for discriminating nutrient and water stress, but with limited success. There has also been interest in developing transgenic phytosensors to elucidate plant status in relation to environmental conditions. This approach involves unambiguous signal creation whereby genetic modification to generate reporter plants has resulted in distinct optical signals emitted in response to specific stressors. Most of these studies are limited to laboratory or controlled greenhouse environments at leaf level. The practical translation of spectral cues for application under field conditions at canopy and regional levels by remote aerial sensing remains a challenge. The movement towards technology development is well exemplified by the Controlled Ecological Life Support System under development by NASA which brings together technologies for monitoring plant status concomitantly with instrumentation for environmental monitoring and feedback control.

  5. 21 CFR 11.70 - Signature/record linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ELECTRONIC RECORDS; ELECTRONIC SIGNATURES Electronic Records § 11.70 Signature/record linking. Electronic signatures and handwritten signatures executed to electronic records shall be linked to their respective...

  6. Quark Nova Signatures in Super-luminous Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostka, M.; Koning, N.; Leahy, D.; Ouyed, R.; Steffen, W.

    2014-10-01

    Recent observational surveys have uncovered the existence of super-luminous supernovae (SLSNe). In this work we study the light curves of eight SLSNe in the context of dual-shock quark novae. We find that progenitor stars in the range of 25 - 35 M⊙ provide ample energy to power each light curve. An examination into the effects of varying the physical properties of a dual-shock quark nova on light curve composition is undertaken. We conclude that the wide variety of SLSN light curve morphologies can be explained predominantly by variations in the length of time between supernova and quark nova. Our analysis shows that a singular H alpha spectral profile found in three SLSNe can be naturally described in the dual-shock quark nova scenario. Predictions of spectral signatures unique to the dual-shock quark nova are presented.

  7. Combinatorial Channel Signature Modulation for Wireless ad-hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Piechocki, Robert

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a novel modulation and multiplexing method which facilitates highly efficient and simultaneous communication between multiple terminals in wireless ad-hoc networks. We term this method Combinatorial Channel Signature Modulation (CCSM). The CCSM method is particularly efficient in situations where communicating nodes operate in highly time dispersive environments. This is all achieved with a minimal MAC layer overhead, since all users are allowed to transmit and receive at the same time/frequency (full simultaneous duplex). The CCSM method has its roots in sparse modelling and the receiver is based on compressive sampling techniques. Towards this end, we develop a new low complexity algorithm termed Group Subspace Pursuit. Our analysis suggests that CCSM at least doubles the throughput when compared to the state-of-the art.

  8. Metric spaces with unique pretangent spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Dovgoshey, Oleksiy; Abdullayev, Fahreddin; Kuchukaslan, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    We find necessary and sufficient conditions under which an arbitrary metric space $X$ has a unique pretangent space at the marked point $a\\in X$. Key words: Metric spaces; Tangent spaces to metric spaces; Uniqueness of tangent metric spaces; Tangent space to the Cantor set.

  9. Uniqueness of time-independent electromagnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Per W.

    1974-01-01

    As a comment on a recent paper by Steele, a more general uniqueness theorem for time-independent fields is mentioned. ©1974 American Institute of Physics......As a comment on a recent paper by Steele, a more general uniqueness theorem for time-independent fields is mentioned. ©1974 American Institute of Physics...

  10. Does Twitter trigger bursts in signature collections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Rui; Imoto, Seiya; Kami, Masahiro; Watanabe, Kenji; Miyano, Satoru; Yuji, Koichiro

    2013-01-01

    The quantification of social media impacts on societal and political events is a difficult undertaking. The Japanese Society of Oriental Medicine started a signature-collecting campaign to oppose a medical policy of the Government Revitalization Unit to exclude a traditional Japanese medicine, "Kampo," from the public insurance system. The signature count showed a series of aberrant bursts from November 26 to 29, 2009. In the same interval, the number of messages on Twitter including the keywords "Signature" and "Kampo," increased abruptly. Moreover, the number of messages on an Internet forum that discussed the policy and called for signatures showed a train of spikes. In order to estimate the contributions of social media, we developed a statistical model with state-space modeling framework that distinguishes the contributions of multiple social media in time-series of collected public opinions. We applied the model to the time-series of signature counts of the campaign and quantified contributions of two social media, i.e., Twitter and an Internet forum, by the estimation. We found that a considerable portion (78%) of the signatures was affected from either of the social media throughout the campaign and the Twitter effect (26%) was smaller than the Forum effect (52%) in total, although Twitter probably triggered the initial two bursts of signatures. Comparisons of the estimated profiles of the both effects suggested distinctions between the social media in terms of sustainable impact of messages or tweets. Twitter shows messages on various topics on a time-line; newer messages push out older ones. Twitter may diminish the impact of messages that are tweeted intermittently. The quantification of social media impacts is beneficial to better understand people's tendency and may promote developing strategies to engage public opinions effectively. Our proposed method is a promising tool to explore information hidden in social phenomena.

  11. Does Twitter trigger bursts in signature collections?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Yamaguchi

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The quantification of social media impacts on societal and political events is a difficult undertaking. The Japanese Society of Oriental Medicine started a signature-collecting campaign to oppose a medical policy of the Government Revitalization Unit to exclude a traditional Japanese medicine, "Kampo," from the public insurance system. The signature count showed a series of aberrant bursts from November 26 to 29, 2009. In the same interval, the number of messages on Twitter including the keywords "Signature" and "Kampo," increased abruptly. Moreover, the number of messages on an Internet forum that discussed the policy and called for signatures showed a train of spikes. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In order to estimate the contributions of social media, we developed a statistical model with state-space modeling framework that distinguishes the contributions of multiple social media in time-series of collected public opinions. We applied the model to the time-series of signature counts of the campaign and quantified contributions of two social media, i.e., Twitter and an Internet forum, by the estimation. We found that a considerable portion (78% of the signatures was affected from either of the social media throughout the campaign and the Twitter effect (26% was smaller than the Forum effect (52% in total, although Twitter probably triggered the initial two bursts of signatures. Comparisons of the estimated profiles of the both effects suggested distinctions between the social media in terms of sustainable impact of messages or tweets. Twitter shows messages on various topics on a time-line; newer messages push out older ones. Twitter may diminish the impact of messages that are tweeted intermittently. CONCLUSIONS: The quantification of social media impacts is beneficial to better understand people's tendency and may promote developing strategies to engage public opinions effectively. Our proposed method is a promising tool to explore

  12. A note on uniquely (nil clean ring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Sahebi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A ring $R$ is uniquely (nil clean in case for any $a\\in R$‎ ‎there exists a uniquely idempotent $e\\in R$ such that $a-e$ is‎ ‎invertible (nilpotent‎. ‎Let‎ ‎$C=\\small\\left(‎‎\\begin{array}{cc}‎‎A & V \\\\‎ ‎W & B‎‎\\end{array}‎‎\\right$‎ ‎be the Morita Context ring‎. ‎We determine conditions under which the rings $A‎, ‎B$‎ ‎are uniquely (nil clean‎. ‎Moreover we show that the center of a uniquely (nil‎‎clean ring is uniquely (nil clean.

  13. Current signature analysis for condition monitoring of cage induction motors industrial application and case histories

    CERN Document Server

    Thomson, William T

    2017-01-01

    This book has 13 chapters and contains a unique database of 50 industrial case histories on theapplication of MCSA to diagnose broken rotor bars or unacceptable levels of airgap eccentricity in cage induction motors with ratings from 127 kW (170 H.P.) to 10,160 kW (13,620 H.P.). There are also unsuccessful case histories which is another unique feature of the book. The case studies also illustrate the effects of mechanical load dynamics downstream of the motor on the interpretation of current signatures. A number of cases are presented where abnormal operation of the driven loadwas diagnosed.

  14. A Protocol for Digital Signature Based on the Elliptic Curve Discrete Logarithm Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikooghadam, Morteza; Bonyadi, Mohammad Reza; Malekian, Ehsan; Zakerolhosseini, Ali

    Digital signature and cryptography algorithms based on the Elliptic Curve Discrete Logarithm Problem (ECDLP) have recently received significant attention by researchers due to their high performances. In this research, a novel protocol for digital signature based on the ECDLP has been presented which in comparison with the other protocols is shown to be more efficient. An acceptable security level of the proposed protocol similar to other protocols is also verified. The performance and the time complexity of the proposed protocol in comparison to previous protocols is analyzed and some advantages outlined.

  15. Development of Extraction Techniques for the Detection of Signature Lipids from Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borglin, Sharon; Geller, Jil; Chakraborty, Romy; Hazen, Terry; Mason, Olivia

    2010-05-17

    Pure cultures, including Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Methanococcus maripaludus, were combined with model oil samples and oil/diesel mixtures to optimize extraction techniques of signature lipids from oil in support of investigation of microbial communities in oil deposit samples targets for microbial enhanced hydrocarbon recovery. Several techniques were evaluated, including standard phospholipid extraction, ether linked lipid for Archaeal bacterial detection, and high pressure extractiontechniques. Recovery of lipids ranged from 50-80percent as compared to extraction of the pure culture. Extraction efficiency was evaluated by the use of internal standards. Field samples will also be tested for recovery of signature lipids with optimized extraction techniques.

  16. Research on a New Signature Scheme on Blockchain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rise of Bitcoin, blockchain which is the core technology of Bitcoin has received increasing attention. Privacy preserving and performance on blockchain are two research points in academia and business, but there are still some unresolved issues in both respects. An aggregate signature scheme is a digital signature that supports making signatures on many different messages generated by many different users. Using aggregate signature, the size of the signature could be shortened by compressing multiple signatures into a single signature. In this paper, a new signature scheme for transactions on blockchain based on the aggregate signature was proposed. It was worth noting that elliptic curve discrete logarithm problem and bilinear maps played major roles in our signature scheme. And the security properties of our signature scheme were proved. In our signature scheme, the amount will be hidden especially in the transactions which contain multiple inputs and outputs. Additionally, the size of the signature on transaction is constant regardless of the number of inputs and outputs that the transaction contains, which can improve the performance of signature. Finally, we gave an application scenario for our signature scheme which aims to achieve the transactions of big data on blockchain.

  17. High-efficiency wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, L. A.; Myers, W. N.

    1980-01-01

    Vertical axis wind turbine incorporates several unique features to extract more energy from wind increasing efficiency 20% over conventional propeller driven units. System also features devices that utilize solar energy or chimney effluents during periods of no wind.

  18. The Uniqueness of -Matrix Graph Invariants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehmer, Matthias; Shi, Yongtang

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the uniqueness (discrimination power) of a newly proposed graph invariant based on the matrix defined by Randić et al. In order to do so, we use exhaustively generated graphs instead of special graph classes such as trees only. Using these graph classes allow us to generalize the findings towards complex networks as they usually do not possess any structural constraints. We obtain that the uniqueness of this newly proposed graph invariant is approximately as low as the uniqueness of the Balaban index on exhaustively generated (general) graphs. PMID:24392099

  19. Quantum mechanical stabilization of Minkowski signature wormholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, M.

    1989-05-19

    When one attempts to construct classical wormholes in Minkowski signature Lorentzian spacetimes violations of both the weak energy hypothesis and averaged weak energy hypothesis are encountered. Since the weak energy hypothesis is experimentally known to be violated quantum mechanically, this suggests that a quantum mechanical analysis of Minkowski signature wormholes is in order. In this note I perform a minisuperspace analysis of a simple class of Minkowski signature wormholes. By solving the Wheeler-de Witt equation for pure Einstein gravity on this minisuperspace the quantum mechanical wave function of the wormhole is obtained in closed form. The wormhole is shown to be quantum mechanically stabilized with an average radius of order the Planck length. 8 refs.

  20. Digital signature of electronic dental records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruo, Ivan Toshio; Maruo, Hiroshi

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the feasibility of digital signature technology to guarantee the legal validation of electronic dental records. The possible uses of digital signature technology, the actual use of digital signature technology to authenticate electronic dental records, the authentication of each part of the electronic dental record, the general legal principles involved, how to digitally sign electronic dental record files, and the limitations of this method are discussed. It is possible to obtain electronic dental records that carry the same legal certainty as conventional, nonelectronic records. For this purpose, each part of the electronic dental records should be digitally signed by the author of the document. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A Methodology for Calculating Radiation Signatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasky, Marc Louis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wilcox, Trevor [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bathke, Charles G. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); James, Michael R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-05-01

    A rigorous formalism is presented for calculating radiation signatures from both Special Nuclear Material (SNM) as well as radiological sources. The use of MCNP6 in conjunction with CINDER/ORIGEN is described to allow for the determination of both neutron and photon leakages from objects of interest. In addition, a description of the use of MCNP6 to properly model the background neutron and photon sources is also presented. Examinations of the physics issues encountered in the modeling are investigated so as to allow for guidance in the user discerning the relevant physics to incorporate into general radiation signature calculations. Furthermore, examples are provided to assist in delineating the pertinent physics that must be accounted for. Finally, examples of detector modeling utilizing MCNP are provided along with a discussion on the generation of Receiver Operating Curves, which are the suggested means by which to determine detectability radiation signatures emanating from objects.

  2. Cryptanalysis of the arbitrated quantum signature protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Fei; Qin Sujuan; Guo Fenzhuo; Wen Qiaoyan [State Key Laboratory of Networking and Switching Technology, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China)

    2011-08-15

    As a new model for signing quantum messages, arbitrated quantum signature (AQS) has recently received a lot of attention. In this paper we study the cryptanalysis of previous AQS protocols from the aspects of forgery and disavowal. We show that in these protocols the receiver, Bob, can realize existential forgery of the sender's signature under known message attack. Bob can even achieve universal forgery when the protocols are used to sign a classical message. Furthermore, the sender, Alice, can successfully disavow any of her signatures by simple attack. The attack strategies are described in detail and some discussions about the potential improvements of the protocols are given. Finally we also present several interesting topics on AQS protocols that can be studied in future.

  3. Low Scale Gravity Signatures in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Karagoz-Unel, M

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS detector may reveal in the LHC collisions signatures of extra dimensional models which predict quantum gravity at the TeV scale. One of the most dramatic consequences of such models is the copious production of micro blackholes. Micro blackholes can yield distinct signatures with large multiplicity and large energy release in the ATLAS detector. Extra dimensional models also predict the existence of Kaluza-Klein partners of SM gauge bosons, such as the excited graviton and gluon. These particles can be searched for in their two-body decays. The emerging final state particles are highly energetic, thus requiring novel reconstruction techniques, in particular in the heavy quark (t, b) channels. I will summarize the current status of the low scale gravity studies in ATLAS with example signatures.

  4. A possible signature of annihilating dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Man Ho

    2018-02-01

    In this article, we report a new signature of dark matter annihilation based on the radio continuum data of NGC 1569 galaxy detected in the past few decades. After eliminating the thermal contribution of the radio signal, an abrupt change in the spectral index is shown in the radio spectrum. Previously, this signature was interpreted as an evidence of convective outflow of cosmic ray. However, we show that the cosmic ray contribution is not enough to account for the observed radio flux. We then discover that if dark matter annihilates via the 4-e channel with the thermal relic cross-section, the electrons and positrons produced would emit a strong radio flux which can provide an excellent agreement with the observed signature. The best-fitting dark matter mass is 25 GeV.

  5. Search for New Physics through the Reconstruction of Challenging and Long-Lived Signatures with the ATLAS detector $\\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Pettersson, Nora Emilia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Many theories of beyond the Standard Model (BSM) physics predict unique signatures which are difficult to reconstruct and the background rates are also a challenge. Signatures from displaced vertices anywhere from the inner detector to the muon spectrometer as well as those of new particles with fractional or multiple value of the charge of the electron or high mass stable charged particles are experimentally demanding signatures. The results of searches using data collected by the ATLAS detector of √s = 13 TeV pp collision is presented.

  6. An Anonymous Access Authentication Scheme Based on Proxy Ring Signature for CPS-WMNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianhan Gao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Access security and privacy have become a bottleneck for the popularization of future Cyber-Physical System (CPS networks. Furthermore, users’ need for privacy-preserved access during movement procedure is more urgent. To address the anonymous access authentication issue for CPS Wireless Mesh Network (CPS-WMN, a novel anonymous access authentication scheme based on proxy ring signature is proposed. A hierarchical authentication architecture is presented first. The scheme is then achieved from the aspect of intergroup and intragroup anonymous mutual authentication through proxy ring signature mechanism and certificateless signature mechanism, respectively. We present a formal security proof of the proposed protocol with SVO logic. The simulation and performance analysis demonstrate that the proposed scheme owns higher efficiency and adaptability than the typical one.

  7. Peripheral blood signatures of lead exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather G LaBreche

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Current evidence indicates that even low-level lead (Pb exposure can have detrimental effects, especially in children. We tested the hypothesis that Pb exposure alters gene expression patterns in peripheral blood cells and that these changes reflect dose-specific alterations in the activity of particular pathways. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Using Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430 2.0 arrays, we examined gene expression changes in the peripheral blood of female Balb/c mice following exposure to per os lead acetate trihydrate or plain drinking water for two weeks and after a two-week recovery period. Data sets were RMA-normalized and dose-specific signatures were generated using established methods of supervised classification and binary regression. Pathway activity was analyzed using the ScoreSignatures module from GenePattern. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The low-level Pb signature was 93% sensitive and 100% specific in classifying samples a leave-one-out crossvalidation. The high-level Pb signature demonstrated 100% sensitivity and specificity in the leave-one-out crossvalidation. These two signatures exhibited dose-specificity in their ability to predict Pb exposure and had little overlap in terms of constituent genes. The signatures also seemed to reflect current levels of Pb exposure rather than past exposure. Finally, the two doses showed differential activation of cellular pathways. Low-level Pb exposure increased activity of the interferon-gamma pathway, whereas high-level Pb exposure increased activity of the E2F1 pathway.

  8. Unique Ethical Dilemmas in Counselor Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Kathy D.

    1989-01-01

    Proposes that when counselor candidates are allowed to participate as clients in counselor-training laboratories, an indirect dual relationship is established, which may create unique ethical conflicts. Recommends informed consent as a possible solution. (Author/TE)

  9. Heart Failure: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Heart Failure Unique to Older Adults This section provides information ... or maintain quality of life. Urinary Incontinence and Heart Failure If you have heart failure, you may experience ...

  10. Transient thermal camouflage and heat signature control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tian-Zhi; Su, Yishu; Xu, Weikai; Yang, Xiao-Dong

    2016-09-01

    Thermal metamaterials have been proposed to manipulate heat flux as a new way to cloak or camouflage objects in the infrared world. To date, however, thermal metamaterials only operate in the steady-state and exhibit detectable, transient heat signatures. In this letter, the theoretical basis for a thermal camouflaging technique with controlled transient diffusion is presented. This technique renders an object invisible in real time. More importantly, the thermal camouflaging device instantaneously generates a pre-designed heat signature and behaves as a perfect thermal illusion device. A metamaterial coating with homogeneous and isotropic thermal conductivity, density, and volumetric heat capacity was fabricated and very good camouflaging performance was achieved.

  11. Experimental quantum digital signature over 102 km

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hua-Lei; Fu, Yao; Liu, Hui; Tang, Qi-Jie; Wang, Jian; You, Li-Xing; Zhang, Wei-Jun; Chen, Si-Jing; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Teng-Yun; Chen, Zeng-Bing; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2017-03-01

    Quantum digital signature (QDS) is an approach to guarantee the nonrepudiation, unforgeability, and transferability of a signature with information-theoretical security. Previous experimental realizations of QDS relied on an unrealistic assumption of secure channels and the longest distance is several kilometers. Here, we have experimentally demonstrated a recently proposed QDS protocol without assuming any secure channel. Exploiting the decoy state modulation, we have successfully signed a one-bit message through an up to 102-km optical fiber. Furthermore, we continuously run the system to sign the longer message "USTC" with 32 bits at the distance of 51 km. Our results pave the way towards the practical application of QDS.

  12. State of the Art: Signature Biometrics Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nourddine Guersi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative analysis of the performance of three estimation algorithms: Expectation Maximization (EM, Greedy EM Algorithm (GEM and Figueiredo-Jain Algorithm (FJ - based on the Gaussian mixture models (GMMs for signature biometrics verification. The simulation results have shown significant performance achievements. The test performance of EER=5.49 % for "EM", EER=5.04 % for "GEM" and EER=5.00 % for "FJ", shows that the behavioral information scheme of signature biometrics is robust and has a discriminating power, which can be explored for identity authentication.

  13. Security problem on arbitrated quantum signature schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jeong Woon [Emerging Technology R and D Center, SK Telecom, Kyunggi 463-784 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Ku-Young; Hong, Dowon [Cryptography Research Team, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Many arbitrated quantum signature schemes implemented with the help of a trusted third party have been developed up to now. In order to guarantee unconditional security, most of them take advantage of the optimal quantum one-time encryption based on Pauli operators. However, in this paper we point out that the previous schemes provide security only against a total break attack and show in fact that there exists an existential forgery attack that can validly modify the transmitted pair of message and signature. In addition, we also provide a simple method to recover security against the proposed attack.

  14. Cryptanalysis of the Quantum Group Signature Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ke-Jia; Sun, Ying; Song, Ting-Ting; Zuo, Hui-Juan

    2013-11-01

    Recently, the researches of quantum group signature (QGS) have attracted a lot of attentions and some typical protocols have been designed for e-payment system, e-government, e-business, etc. In this paper, we analyze the security of the quantum group signature with the example of two novel protocols. It can be seen that both of them cannot be implemented securely since the arbitrator cannot solve the disputes fairly. In order to show that, some possible attack strategies, which can be used by the malicious participants, are proposed. Moreover, the further discussions of QGS are presented finally, including some insecurity factors and improved ideas.

  15. Adult spinal cord radial glia display a unique progenitor phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Petit

    Full Text Available Radial glia (RG are primarily embryonic neuroglial progenitors that express Brain Lipid Binding Protein (Blbp a.k.a. Fabp7 and Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (Gfap. We used these transcripts to demarcate the distribution of spinal cord radial glia (SCRG and screen for SCRG gene expression in the Allen Spinal Cord Atlas (ASCA. We reveal that neonatal and adult SCRG are anchored in a non-ventricular niche at the spinal cord (SC pial boundary, and express a "signature" subset of 122 genes, many of which are shared with "classic" neural stem cells (NSCs of the subventricular zone (SVZ and SC central canal (CC. A core expressed gene set shared between SCRG and progenitors of the SVZ and CC is particularly enriched in genes associated with human disease. Visualizing SCRG in a Fabp7-EGFP reporter mouse reveals an extensive population of SCRG that extend processes around the SC boundary and inwardly (through the SC white matter (WM, whose abundance increases in a gradient from cervical to lumbar SC. Confocal analysis of multiple NSC-enriched proteins reveals that postnatal SCRG are a discrete and heterogeneous potential progenitor population that become activated by multiple SC lesions, and that CC progenitors are also more heterogeneous than previously appreciated. Gene ontology analysis highlights potentially unique regulatory pathways that may be further manipulated in SCRG to enhance repair in the context of injury and SC disease.

  16. Modularity, comparative cognition and human uniqueness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shettleworth, Sara J.

    2012-01-01

    Darwin's claim ‘that the difference in mind between man and the higher animals … is certainly one of degree and not of kind’ is at the core of the comparative study of cognition. Recent research provides unprecedented support for Darwin's claim as well as new reasons to question it, stimulating new theories of human cognitive uniqueness. This article compares and evaluates approaches to such theories. Some prominent theories propose sweeping domain-general characterizations of the difference in cognitive capabilities and/or mechanisms between adult humans and other animals. Dual-process theories for some cognitive domains propose that adult human cognition shares simple basic processes with that of other animals while additionally including slower-developing and more explicit uniquely human processes. These theories are consistent with a modular account of cognition and the ‘core knowledge’ account of children's cognitive development. A complementary proposal is that human infants have unique social and/or cognitive adaptations for uniquely human learning. A view of human cognitive architecture as a mosaic of unique and species-general modular and domain-general processes together with a focus on uniquely human developmental mechanisms is consistent with modern evolutionary-developmental biology and suggests new questions for comparative research. PMID:22927578

  17. Pooling breast cancer datasets has a synergetic effect on classification performance and improves signature stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van de Vijver Marc J

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Michiels et al. (Lancet 2005; 365: 488–92 employed a resampling strategy to show that the genes identified as predictors of prognosis from resamplings of a single gene expression dataset are highly variable. The genes most frequently identified in the separate resamplings were put forward as a 'gold standard'. On a higher level, breast cancer datasets collected by different institutions can be considered as resamplings from the underlying breast cancer population. The limited overlap between published prognostic signatures confirms the trend of signature instability identified by the resampling strategy. Six breast cancer datasets, totaling 947 samples, all measured on the Affymetrix platform, are currently available. This provides a unique opportunity to employ a substantial dataset to investigate the effects of pooling datasets on classifier accuracy, signature stability and enrichment of functional categories. Results We show that the resampling strategy produces a suboptimal ranking of genes, which can not be considered to be a 'gold standard'. When pooling breast cancer datasets, we observed a synergetic effect on the classification performance in 73% of the cases. We also observe a significant positive correlation between the number of datasets that is pooled, the validation performance, the number of genes selected, and the enrichment of specific functional categories. In addition, we have evaluated the support for five explanations that have been postulated for the limited overlap of signatures. Conclusion The limited overlap of current signature genes can be attributed to small sample size. Pooling datasets results in more accurate classification and a convergence of signature genes. We therefore advocate the analysis of new data within the context of a compendium, rather than analysis in isolation.

  18. Multi-study integration of brain cancer transcriptomes reveals organ-level molecular signatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeyun Sung

    Full Text Available We utilized abundant transcriptomic data for the primary classes of brain cancers to study the feasibility of separating all of these diseases simultaneously based on molecular data alone. These signatures were based on a new method reported herein--Identification of Structured Signatures and Classifiers (ISSAC--that resulted in a brain cancer marker panel of 44 unique genes. Many of these genes have established relevance to the brain cancers examined herein, with others having known roles in cancer biology. Analyses on large-scale data from multiple sources must deal with significant challenges associated with heterogeneity between different published studies, for it was observed that the variation among individual studies often had a larger effect on the transcriptome than did phenotype differences, as is typical. For this reason, we restricted ourselves to studying only cases where we had at least two independent studies performed for each phenotype, and also reprocessed all the raw data from the studies using a unified pre-processing pipeline. We found that learning signatures across multiple datasets greatly enhanced reproducibility and accuracy in predictive performance on truly independent validation sets, even when keeping the size of the training set the same. This was most likely due to the meta-signature encompassing more of the heterogeneity across different sources and conditions, while amplifying signal from the repeated global characteristics of the phenotype. When molecular signatures of brain cancers were constructed from all currently available microarray data, 90% phenotype prediction accuracy, or the accuracy of identifying a particular brain cancer from the background of all phenotypes, was found. Looking forward, we discuss our approach in the context of the eventual development of organ-specific molecular signatures from peripheral fluids such as the blood.

  19. Design and Implementation of a Mobile Voting System Using a Novel Oblivious and Proxy Signature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Yan Chiou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic voting systems can make the voting process much more convenient. However, in such systems, if a server signs blank votes before users vote, it may cause undue multivoting. Furthermore, if users vote before the signing of the server, voting information will be leaked to the server and may be compromised. Blind signatures could be used to prevent leaking voting information from the server; however, malicious users could produce noncandidate signatures for illegal usage at that time or in the future. To overcome these problems, this paper proposes a novel oblivious signature scheme with a proxy signature function to satisfy security requirements such as information protection, personal privacy, and message verification and to ensure that no one can cheat other users (including the server. We propose an electronic voting system based on the proposed oblivious and proxy signature scheme and implement this scheme in a smartphone application to allow users to vote securely and conveniently. Security analyses and performance comparisons are provided to show the capability and efficiency of the proposed scheme.

  20. A hepatic stellate cell gene expression signature associated with outcomes in hepatitis C cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma after curative resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, David Y; Goossens, Nicolas; Guo, Jinsheng; Tsai, Ming-Chao; Chou, Hsin-I; Altunkaynak, Civan; Sangiovanni, Angelo; Iavarone, Massimo; Colombo, Massomo; Kobayashi, Masahiro; Kumada, Hiromitsu; Villanueva, Augusto; Llovet, Josep M; Hoshida, Yujin; Friedman, Scott L

    2016-10-01

    We used an informatics approach to identify and validate genes whose expression is unique to hepatic stellate cells and assessed the prognostic capability of their expression in cirrhosis. We defined a hepatic stellate cell gene signature by comparing stellate, immune and hepatic transcriptome profiles. We then created a prognostic index using a combination of hepatic stellate cell signature expression and clinical variables. This signature was derived in a retrospective-prospective cohort of hepatitis C-related early-stage cirrhosis (prognostic index derivation set) and validated in an independent retrospective cohort of patients with postresection hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We then examined the association between hepatic stellate cell signature expression and decompensation, HCC development, progression of Child-Pugh class and survival. The 122-gene hepatic stellate cell signature consists of genes encoding extracellular matrix proteins and developmental factors and correlates with the extent of fibrosis in human, mouse and rat datasets. Importantly, association of clinical prognostic variables with overall survival was improved by adding the signature; we used these results to define a prognostic index in the derivation set. In the validation set, the same prognostic index was associated with overall survival. The prognostic index was associated with decompensation, HCC and progression of Child-Pugh class in the derivation set, and HCC recurrence in the validation set. This work highlights the unique transcriptional niche of stellate cells, and identifies potential stellate cell targets for tracking, targeting and isolation. Hepatic stellate cell signature expression may identify patients with HCV cirrhosis or postresection HCC with poor prognosis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. A group signature scheme based on quantum teleportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xiaojun; Tian, Yuan; Ji, Liping; Niu, Xiamu

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, we present a group signature scheme using quantum teleportation. Different from classical group signature and current quantum signature schemes, which could only deliver either group signature or unconditional security, our scheme guarantees both by adopting quantum key preparation, quantum encryption algorithm and quantum teleportation. Security analysis proved that our scheme has the characteristics of group signature, non-counterfeit, non-disavowal, blindness and traceability. Our quantum group signature scheme has a foreseeable application in the e-payment system, e-government, e-business, etc.

  2. Human cancer cells express Slug-based epithelial-mesenchymal transition gene expression signature obtained in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastassiou Dimitris

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The biological mechanisms underlying cancer cell motility and invasiveness remain unclear, although it has been hypothesized that they involve some type of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT. Methods We used xenograft models of human cancer cells in immunocompromised mice, profiling the harvested tumors separately with species-specific probes and computationally analyzing the results. Results Here we show that human cancer cells express in vivo a precise multi-cancer invasion-associated gene expression signature that prominently includes many EMT markers, among them the transcription factor Slug, fibronectin, and α-SMA. We found that human, but not mouse, cells express the signature and Slug is the only upregulated EMT-inducing transcription factor. The signature is also present in samples from many publicly available cancer gene expression datasets, suggesting that it is produced by the cancer cells themselves in multiple cancer types, including nonepithelial cancers such as neuroblastoma. Furthermore, we found that the presence of the signature in human xenografted cells was associated with a downregulation of adipocyte markers in the mouse tissue adjacent to the invasive tumor, suggesting that the signature is triggered by contextual microenvironmental interactions when the cancer cells encounter adipocytes, as previously reported. Conclusions The known, precise and consistent gene composition of this cancer mesenchymal transition signature, particularly when combined with simultaneous analysis of the adjacent microenvironment, provides unique opportunities for shedding light on the underlying mechanisms of cancer invasiveness as well as identifying potential diagnostic markers and targets for metastasis-inhibiting therapeutics.

  3. Spatial and temporal diet segregation in northern fulmars Fulmarus glacialis breeding in Alaska: Insights from fatty acid signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S.W.; Iverson, S.J.; Springer, A.M.; Hatch, Shyla A.

    2009-01-01

    Northern fulmars Fulmarus glacialis in the North Pacific Ocean are opportunistic, generalist predators, yet their diets are poorly described; thus, relationships of fulmars to supporting food webs, their utility as indicators of variability in forage fish abundances, and their sensitivity to ecosystem change are not known. We employed fatty acid (FA) signature analysis of adipose tissue from adults (n = 235) and chicks (n = 33) to compare spatial, temporal, and age-related variation in diets of fulmars breeding at 3 colonies in Alaska. FA signatures of adult fulmars differed between colonies within years, and between seasons at individual colonies. Seasonal and spatial differences in signatures were greater than interannual differences at all colonies. Differences in FA signatures reflect differences in diets, probably because the breeding colonies are located in distinct ecoregions which create unique habitats for prey assemblages, and because interannual variation in the physical environment affects the availability of forage species. Differences between FA signatures of adults and chicks in 2003 and 2004 suggest that adults fed chicks different prey than they consumed themselves. Alternatively, if adults relied on the same prey as those fed to chicks, the differences in signatures could have resulted from partial digestion of prey items by adults before chicks were fed, or direct metabolism of FAs by chicks for tissue synthesis before FAs could be deposited into adipose tissue. ?? Inter-Research 2009.

  4. The acoustic signature for intelligibility test words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weismer, G; Kent, R D; Hodge, M; Martin, R

    1988-10-01

    As part of a research program that aims to develop an explicit acoustic basis for a single-word intelligibility test, an initial attempt to characterize the formant trajectories and segment durations of seven test words produced by 30 normal speakers is described. These characterizations are referred to as "acoustic signatures." The data indicate that: (1) formant trajectories show two sex effects, namely, that females are more variable as a group than males and tend to have greater slopes for the transitional segment of the second-formant trajectories and that these effects are consistent across words; (2) Bark transformations of the frequency data do not seem to eliminate the interspeaker differences in formant trajectories, nor do they eliminate either of the sex effects described above; and (3) segment durations have different variabilities depending on the syllabic structure of the word; no sex effect was noted here. The discussion focuses on the appropriate form for the acoustic signatures, as well as factors that should be considered in selecting words for signature development. To demonstrate the potential application of these data, formant trajectory and segment duration data from 18 speakers with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and varying degrees of dysarthria are compared to the acoustic signature for the word wax.

  5. Detection of proteolytic signatures for Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordal, Peter Lüttge; Dyrlund, Thomas F.; Winge, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To investigate if idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) is associated with distinct proteolytic signatures relative to non-neurodegenerative controls (NND) and patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA). Materials & methods: A subtiligase-based N-terminomics screening method was exploited...

  6. Molecular signatures of thyroid follicular neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, R.; Rossing, M.; Henao, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    The molecular pathways leading to thyroid follicular neoplasia are incompletely understood, and the diagnosis of follicular tumors is a clinical challenge. To provide leads to the pathogenesis and diagnosis of the tumors, we examined the global transcriptome signatures of follicular thyroid...

  7. Negative obstacle detection by thermal signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthies, Larry; Rankin, A.

    2003-01-01

    Detecting negative obstacles (ditches, potholes, and other depressions) is one of the most difficult problems in perception for autonomous, off-road navigation. Past work has largely relied on range imagery, because that is based on the geometry of the obstacle, is largely insensitive to illumination variables, and because there have not been other reliable alternatives. However, the visible aspect of negative obstacles shrinks rapidly with range, making them impossible to detect in time to avoid them at high speed. To relive this problem, we show that the interiors of negative obstacles generally remain warmer than the surrounding terrain throughout the night, making thermal signature a stable property for night-time negative obstacle detection. Experimental results to date have achieved detection distances 45% greater by using thermal signature than by using range data alone. Thermal signature is the first known observable with potential to reveal a deep negative obstacle without actually seeing far into it. Modeling solar illumination has potential to extend the usefulness of thermal signature through daylight hours.

  8. Exploring Signature Pedagogies in Undergraduate Leadership Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Daniel M.

    2012-01-01

    This research explores the instructional strategies most frequently used by leadership educators who teach academic credit-bearing undergraduate leadership studies courses through a national survey and identifies signature pedagogies within the leadership discipline. Findings from this study suggest that class discussion--whether in the form of…

  9. SUSY with ATLAS Leptonic Signatures, Coannihilation Region

    CERN Document Server

    Comune, G

    2004-01-01

    In this work we present an initial study on how leptonic signatures can be used at ATLAS to constrain SUSY particle masses combinations for the first time in the so called "coannihilation region''. The analysis is carried out in the framework of mSUGRA constrained SUSY model using fast detector simulation and reconstruction exploiting an invariant mass endpoint technique.

  10. Practical Certificateless Aggregate Signatures From Bilinear Maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gong, Zheng; Long, Yu; Hong, Xuan; Chen, Kefei

    2008-01-01

    In some restrictive environments, such as sensor networks, each sensor submits the newest information to the server, every message must be authenticated to immune forgery and replay attacks. But the regular signatures need to be saved and verified individually, which will heavily add the costs of

  11. Transcriptional Profiling of Whole Blood Identifies a Unique 5-Gene Signature for Myelofibrosis and Imminent Myelofibrosis Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Hans Carl; Skov, Vibe; Stauffer Larsen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    selectively and highly deregulated in myelofibrosis patients. Gene expression microarray studies have been performed on whole blood from 69 patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms. Amongst the top-20 of the most upregulated genes in PMF compared to controls, we identified 5 genes (DEFA4, ELA2, OLFM4, CTSG...

  12. Comparison of metagenomic samples using sequence signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Bai

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sequence signatures, as defined by the frequencies of k-tuples (or k-mers, k-grams, have been used extensively to compare genomic sequences of individual organisms, to identify cis-regulatory modules, and to study the evolution of regulatory sequences. Recently many next-generation sequencing (NGS read data sets of metagenomic samples from a variety of different environments have been generated. The assembly of these reads can be difficult and analysis methods based on mapping reads to genes or pathways are also restricted by the availability and completeness of existing databases. Sequence-signature-based methods, however, do not need the complete genomes or existing databases and thus, can potentially be very useful for the comparison of metagenomic samples using NGS read data. Still, the applications of sequence signature methods for the comparison of metagenomic samples have not been well studied. Results We studied several dissimilarity measures, including d2, d2* and d2S recently developed from our group, a measure (hereinafter noted as Hao used in CVTree developed from Hao’s group (Qi et al., 2004, measures based on relative di-, tri-, and tetra-nucleotide frequencies as in Willner et al. (2009, as well as standard lp measures between the frequency vectors, for the comparison of metagenomic samples using sequence signatures. We compared their performance using a series of extensive simulations and three real next-generation sequencing (NGS metagenomic datasets: 39 fecal samples from 33 mammalian host species, 56 marine samples across the world, and 13 fecal samples from human individuals. Results showed that the dissimilarity measure d2S can achieve superior performance when comparing metagenomic samples by clustering them into different groups as well as recovering environmental gradients affecting microbial samples. New insights into the environmental factors affecting microbial compositions in metagenomic samples

  13. A provably secure identity-based strong designated verifier proxy signature scheme from bilinear pairings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SK Hafizul Islam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The proxy signature, a variant of the ordinary digital signature, has been an active research topic in recent years; it has many useful applications, including distributed systems and grid computing. Although many identity-based proxy signature schemes have been proposed in the literature, only a few proposals for identity-based strong designated verifier proxy signature (ID-SDVPS schemes are available. However, it has been found that most of the ID-SDVPS schemes that have been proposed to date are not efficient in terms of computation and security, and a computationally efficient and secured ID-SDVPS scheme using elliptic curve bilinear pairing has been proposed in this paper. The security of the scheme is mainly based on the hardness assumption of CDH and GBDH problems in the random oracle model, which is existentially unforgeable against different types of adversaries. Furthermore, the security of our scheme is simulated in the AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications software, a widely used automated internet protocol validation tool, and the simulation results confirm strong security against both active and passive attacks. In addition, because of a high processing capability and supporting additional security features, the scheme is suitable for the environments in which less computational cost with strong security is required.

  14. Pairing-Free Certificateless Signature with Security Proof

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhao Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since certificateless public key cryptosystem can solve the complex certificate management problem in the traditional public key cryptosystem and the key escrow problem in identity-based cryptosystem and the pairing computation is slower than scalar multiplication over the elliptic curve, how to design certificateless signature (CLS scheme without bilinear pairings is a challenge. In this paper, we first propose a new pairing-free CLS scheme, and then the security proof is presented in the random oracle model (ROM under the discrete logarithm assumption. The proposed scheme is more efficient than the previous CLS schemes in terms of computation and communication costs and is more suitable for the applications of low-bandwidth environments.

  15. Equivalence of Quantum Heat Machines, and Quantum-Thermodynamic Signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raam Uzdin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Quantum heat engines (QHE are thermal machines where the working substance is a quantum object. In the extreme case, the working medium can be a single particle or a few-level quantum system. The study of QHE has shown a remarkable similarity with macroscopic thermodynamical results, thus raising the issue of what is quantum in quantum thermodynamics. Our main result is the thermodynamical equivalence of all engine types in the quantum regime of small action with respect to Planck’s constant. They have the same power, the same heat, and the same efficiency, and they even have the same relaxation rates and relaxation modes. Furthermore, it is shown that QHE have quantum-thermodynamic signature; i.e., thermodynamic measurements can confirm the presence of quantum effects in the device. We identify generic coherent and stochastic work extraction mechanisms and show that coherence enables power outputs that greatly exceed the power of stochastic (dephased engines.

  16. Geologic signatures of atmospheric effects on impact cratering on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Highlights of the research include geologic signatures of impact energy and atmospheric response to crater formation. Laboratory experiments were performed at the NASA Ames Vertical Gun Range (AVGR) to assess the interaction between disrupted impactor and atmosphere during entry, and to assess the energy coupling between impacts and the surrounding atmosphere. The Schlieren imaging at the AVGR was used in combination with Magellan imaging and theoretical studies to study the evolution of the impactor following impact. The Schlieren imaging documented the downrange blast front created by vaporization during oblique impacts. Laboratory experiments allowed assessing the effect of impact angle on coupling efficiency with an atmosphere. And the impact angle's effect on surface blasts and run-out flows allowed the distinction of crater clusters created by simultaneous impacts from those created by isolated regions of older age.

  17. Texture analysis of radiometric signatures of new sea ice forming in Arctic leads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppler, Duane T.; Farmer, L. Dennis

    1991-01-01

    Analysis of 33.6-GHz, high-resolution, passive microwave images suggests that new sea ice accumulating in open leads is characterized by a unique textural signature which can be used to discriminate new ice forming in this environment from adjacent surfaces of similar radiometric temperature. Ten training areas were selected from the data set, three of which consisted entirely of first-year ice, four entirely of multilayer ice, and three of new ice in open leads in the process of freezing. A simple gradient operator was used to characterize the radiometric texture in each training region in terms of the degree to which radiometric gradients are oriented. New ice in leads has a sufficiently high proportion of well-oriented features to distinguish it uniquely from first-year ice and multiyear ice. The predominance of well-oriented features probably reflects physical processes by which new ice accumulates in open leads. Banded structures, which are evident in aerial photographs of new ice, apparently give rise to the radiometric signature observed, in which the trend of brightness temperature gradients is aligned parallel to lead trends. First-year ice and multiyear ice, which have been subjected to a more random growth and process history, lack this banded structure and therefore are characterized by signatures in which well-aligned elements are less dominant.

  18. Forward secure digital signature for electronic medical records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yao-Chang; Huang, To-Yeh; Hou, Ting-Wei

    2012-04-01

    The Technology Safeguard in Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Title II has addressed a way to maintain the integrity and non-repudiation of Electronic Medical Record (EMR). One of the important cryptographic technologies is mentioned in the ACT is digital signature; however, the ordinary digital signature (e.g. DSA, RSA, GQ...) has an inherent weakness: if the key (certificate) is updated, than all signatures, even the ones generated before the update, are no longer trustworthy. Unfortunately, the current most frequently used digital signature schemes are categorized into the ordinary digital signature scheme; therefore, the objective of this paper is to analyze the shortcoming of using ordinary digital signatures in EMR and to propose a method to use forward secure digital signature to sign EMR to ensure that the past EMR signatures remain trustworthy while the key (certificate) is updated.

  19. The ICDAR 2009 Signature Verification Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankers, V.L.; Heuvel, C.E. van den; Franke, K.Y.; Vuurpijl, L.G.

    2009-01-01

    Recent results of forgery detection by implementing biometric signature verification methods are promising. At present, forensic signature verification in daily casework is performed through visual examination by trained forensic handwriting experts, without reliance on computerassisted methods.

  20. A blind digital signature scheme using elliptic curve digital signature algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    BÜTÜN, İsmail; DEMİRER, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we propose a blind digital signature (BDS) scheme based on the elliptic curve digital signature algorithm that increases the performance significantly. The security of our scheme is based on the difficulty of the elliptic curve discrete algorithm problem. Therefore, it offers much smaller key lengths for the desired security levels, along with much faster cryptographic processes, leading to fewer hardware and software requirements. According to our simulation results, ...

  1. The effects of extrinsic motivation on signature authorship opinions in forensic signature blind trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewhurst, Tahnee N; Found, Bryan; Ballantyne, Kaye N; Rogers, Doug

    2014-03-01

    Expertise studies in forensic handwriting examination involve comparisons of Forensic Handwriting Examiners' (FHEs) opinions with lay-persons on blind tests. All published studies of this type have reported real and demonstrable skill differences between the specialist and lay groups. However, critics have proposed that any difference shown may be indicative of a lack of motivation on the part of lay participants, rather than a real difference in skill. It has been suggested that qualified FHEs would be inherently more motivated to succeed in blinded validation trials, as their professional reputations could be at risk, should they perform poorly on the task provided. Furthermore, critics suggest that lay-persons would be unlikely to be highly motivated to succeed, as they would have no fear of negative consequences should they perform badly. In an effort to investigate this concern, a blind signature trial was designed and administered to forty lay-persons. Participants were required to compare known (exemplar) signatures of an individual to questioned signatures and asked to express an opinion regarding whether the writer of the known signatures wrote each of the questioned signatures. The questioned signatures comprised a mixture of genuine, disguised and simulated signatures. The forty participants were divided into two separate groupings. Group 'A' were requested to complete the trial as directed and were advised that for each correct answer they would be financially rewarded, for each incorrect answer they would be financially penalized, and for each inconclusive opinion they would receive neither penalty nor reward. Group 'B' was requested to complete the trial as directed, with no mention of financial recompense or penalty. The results of this study do not support the proposition that motivation rather than skill difference is the source of the statistical difference in opinions between individuals' results in blinded signature proficiency trials. Crown

  2. Sources of Variability in the Stable Carbon Isotopic Signatures of Fungal Methyl Chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, S. L.; Henn, M. R.; Chapela, I. H.; Conrad, M. S.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2004-12-01

    in the capability of the fungi to produce CH3Cl. The range of isotopic signatures measured in this study, while large, is not unique enough from other known CH3Cl sources to change the average global signature of sources to the atmosphere.

  3. Is there a unique nursing ethic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volker, Deborah Lowe

    2003-07-01

    There is no agreement in the nursing literature as to the meaning of the term, nursing ethics. Proposed definitions refer to nurses' moral decision-making and behaviors, ethical conflicts, and analysis of ethical issues that arise within nurses' practice. Presumably, a distinct nursing ethic should address unique theories, standards, and inquiry into what comprises nurses' ethical behavior and study of how nurses actually behave and reason about ethical issues. The purpose of this column is to synthesize the dialogue regarding the potential existence of a unique nursing ethic, and to propose that such an ethic has yet to emerge.

  4. Molecular subsets in the gene expression signatures of scleroderma skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ausra Milano

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Scleroderma is a clinically heterogeneous disease with a complex phenotype. The disease is characterized by vascular dysfunction, tissue fibrosis, internal organ dysfunction, and immune dysfunction resulting in autoantibody production. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: We analyzed the genome-wide patterns of gene expression with DNA microarrays in skin biopsies from distinct scleroderma subsets including 17 patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc with diffuse scleroderma (dSSc, 7 patients with SSc with limited scleroderma (lSSc, 3 patients with morphea, and 6 healthy controls. 61 skin biopsies were analyzed in a total of 75 microarray hybridizations. Analysis by hierarchical clustering demonstrates nearly identical patterns of gene expression in 17 out of 22 of the forearm and back skin pairs of SSc patients. Using this property of the gene expression, we selected a set of 'intrinsic' genes and analyzed the inherent data-driven groupings. Distinct patterns of gene expression separate patients with dSSc from those with lSSc and both are easily distinguished from normal controls. Our data show three distinct patient groups among the patients with dSSc and two groups among patients with lSSc. Each group can be distinguished by unique gene expression signatures indicative of proliferating cells, immune infiltrates and a fibrotic program. The intrinsic groups are statistically significant (p<0.001 and each has been mapped to clinical covariates of modified Rodnan skin score, interstitial lung disease, gastrointestinal involvement, digital ulcers, Raynaud's phenomenon and disease duration. We report a 177-gene signature that is associated with severity of skin disease in dSSc. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Genome-wide gene expression profiling of skin biopsies demonstrates that the heterogeneity in scleroderma can be measured quantitatively with DNA microarrays. The diversity in gene expression demonstrates multiple distinct gene expression programs

  5. A Signature Comparing Android Mobile Application Utilizing Feature Extracting Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Grafilon

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presented one of the application that can be done using smartphones camera. Nowadays forgery is one of the most undetected crimes. With the forensic technology used today it is still difficult for authorities to compare and define what a real signature is and what a forged signature is. A signature is a legal representation of a person. All transactions are based on a signature. Forgers may use a signature to sign illegal contracts and withdraw from bank accounts undetected. A signature can also be forged during election periods for repeated voting. Addressing the issues a signature should always be secure. Signature verification is a reduced problem that still poses a real challenge for researchers. The literature on signature verification is quite extensive and shows two main areas of research off-line and on-line systems. Off-line systems deal with a static image of the signature i.e. the result of the action of signing while on-line systems work on the dynamic process of generating the signature i.e. the action of signing itself. The researchers have found a way to resolve the concerns. A mobile application that integrates the camera to take a picture of a signature analyzes it and compares it to other signatures for verification. It will exist to help citizens to be more cautious and aware with issues regarding the signatures. This might also be relevant to help organizations and institutions such as banks and insurance companies in verifying signatures that may avoid unwanted transactions and identity theft. Furthermore this might help the authorities in the never ending battle against crime especially against forgers and thieves. The project aimed to design and develop a mobile application that integrates the smartphone camera for verifying and comparing signatures for security using the best algorithm possible. As the result of the development the said smartphone camera application is functional and reliable.

  6. Constructing Black Titania with Unique Nanocage Structure for Solar Desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guilian; Xu, Jijian; Zhao, Wenli; Huang, Fuqiang

    2016-11-23

    Solar desalination driven by solar radiation as heat source is freely available, however, hindered by low efficiency. Herein, we first design and synthesize black titania with a unique nanocage structure simultaneously with light trapping effect to enhance light harvesting, well-crystallized interconnected nanograins to accelerate the heat transfer from titania to water and with opening mesopores (4-10 nm) to facilitate the permeation of water vapor. Furthermore, the coated self-floating black titania nanocages film localizes the temperature increase at the water-air interface rather than uniformly heating the bulk of the water, which ultimately results in a solar-thermal conversion efficiency as high as 70.9% under a simulated solar light with an intensity of 1 kW m-2 (1 sun). This finding should inspire new black materials with rationally designed structure for superior solar desalination performance.

  7. Bacterial assemblages of the eastern Atlantic Ocean reveal both vertical and latitudinal biogeographic signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Friedline

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Microbial communities are recognized as major drivers of the biogeochemical processes in the oceans. However, the genetic diversity and composition of those communities is poorly understood. The aim of this study is to investigate the composition of bacterial assemblages in three different water layer habitats: surface (2–20 m, deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM; 28–90 m, and deep (100–4600 m at nine stations along the eastern Atlantic Ocean from 42.8° N to 23.7° S. The sampling of three discrete, predefined habitat types from different depths, Longhurstian provinces, and geographical locations allowed us to investigate whether marine bacterial assemblages show spatial variation and to determine if the observed spatial variation is influenced by current environmental conditions, historical/geographical contingencies, or both. The PCR amplicons of the V6 region of the 16S rRNA from 16 microbial assemblages were pyrosequenced, generating a total of 352 029 sequences; after quality filtering and processing, 257 260 sequences were clustered into 2871 normalized operational taxonomic units (OTU using a definition of 97% sequence identity. Community ecology statistical analyses demonstrate that the eastern Atlantic Ocean bacterial assemblages are vertically stratified and associated with water layers characterized by unique environmental signals (e.g., temperature, salinity, and nutrients. Genetic compositions of bacterial assemblages from the same water layer are more similar to each other than to assemblages from different water layers. The observed clustering of samples by water layer allows us to conclude that contemporary environments are influencing the observed biogeographic patterns. Moreover, the implementation of a novel Bayesian inference approach that allows a more efficient and explicit use of all the OTU abundance data shows a distance effect suggesting the influence of historical contingencies on the composition of bacterial

  8. Acoustic Signature Monitoring and Management of Naval Platforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basten, T.G.H.; Jong, C.A.F. de; Graafland, F.; Hof, J. van 't

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic signatures make naval platforms susceptible to detection by threat sensors. The variable operational conditions and lifespan of a platform cause variations in the acoustic signature. To deal with these variations, a real time signature monitoring capability is being developed, with advisory

  9. Radar micro-doppler signatures processing and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Victor C; Miceli, William J

    2014-01-01

    Radar Micro-Doppler Signatures: Processing and applications concentrates on the processing and application of radar micro-Doppler signatures in real world situations, providing readers with a good working knowledge on a variety of applications of radar micro-Doppler signatures.

  10. 36 CFR 1150.22 - Signature of documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Signature of documents. 1150... Documents for Proceedings on Citations § 1150.22 Signature of documents. The signature of a party, authorized officer, employee or attorney constitutes a certification that he/she has read the document, that...

  11. 21 CFR 11.200 - Electronic signature components and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic signature components and controls. 11.200 Section 11.200 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ELECTRONIC RECORDS; ELECTRONIC SIGNATURES Electronic Signatures § 11.200 Electronic...

  12. Unique Juxtaposition of Onchocerca Nodule and Tumoural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 45-year-old Igbo man presented with a subcutaneous nodule in the lateral aspect of his left thigh. Following its excision, the lesion turned out on microscopy to be due to the unique juxtaposition of onchocerca nodule and tumoural calcinosis. Such selectivity in disease localization is deemed to be worthy of documentation ...

  13. Esperanto: A Unique Model for General Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulichenko, Aleksandr D.

    1988-01-01

    Esperanto presents a unique model for linguistic research by allowing the study of language development from project to fully functioning language. Esperanto provides insight into the growth of polysemy and redundancy, as well as into language universals and the phenomenon of social control. (Author/CB)

  14. LCA – Unique and Controversial Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This session will focus on case studies and applications that have a unique or controversial aspect. Some of the most recent topics that seem to have significant interest include: LCA-based product declarations, LCA-based standards, LCA-based labels, alternative energy, agricul...

  15. Asima Chatterjee: A Unique Natural Products Chemist

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 1. Asima Chatterjee: A Unique Natural Products Chemist. Asish De. General Article Volume 20 Issue 1 January 2015 pp 6-22. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/020/01/0006-0022 ...

  16. The Unique School Environment of Rural Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodendorf, Diane M.

    Recorded observations, camera work, conversations with 19 children in grades K-4 in a Nebraska 2-room school house, and interviews with the teacher were techniques used to assess the advantages and disadvantages of the small rural school environment and its impact on children. Five attributes were found to be significant and unique small school…

  17. Unique characteristics of Geneva apple rootstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Geneva® apple rootstock breeding program has been operating since the early 1970’s. It is a unique program in that it had access to important germplasm resources that later became the USDA ARS apple collection in Geneva, NY. This genetic diversity allowed for the achievement of one of the proj...

  18. Unraveling the evolution of uniquely human cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Evan L

    2016-06-07

    A satisfactory account of human cognitive evolution will explain not only the psychological mechanisms that make our species unique, but also how, when, and why these traits evolved. To date, researchers have made substantial progress toward defining uniquely human aspects of cognition, but considerably less effort has been devoted to questions about the evolutionary processes through which these traits have arisen. In this article, I aim to link these complementary aims by synthesizing recent advances in our understanding of what makes human cognition unique, with theory and data regarding the processes of cognitive evolution. I review evidence that uniquely human cognition depends on synergism between both representational and motivational factors and is unlikely to be accounted for by changes to any singular cognitive system. I argue that, whereas no nonhuman animal possesses the full constellation of traits that define the human mind, homologies and analogies of critical aspects of human psychology can be found in diverse nonhuman taxa. I suggest that phylogenetic approaches to the study of animal cognition-which can address questions about the selective pressures and proximate mechanisms driving cognitive change-have the potential to yield important insights regarding the processes through which the human cognitive phenotype evolved.

  19. Weeping dragon, a unique ornamenal citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Weeping Dragon’ is a new ornamental citrus cultivar developed by intercrossing of two unusual and unique citrus types, Poncirus trifoliata cultivated variety (cv.) Flying Dragon, and Citrus sinensis cv. ‘Cipo’. This new hybrid cultivar combines strongly contorted and weeping growth traits in a smal...

  20. The symbolic uniqueness of wilderness participation | Greffrath ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Through restoration, physical self, primitiveness, humility, timelessness, solitude, privacy, freedom of choice, personal self and spiritual upliftment, this study aims at determining whether wilderness can be experienced as symbolically unique and whether this natural world can be considered a necessity for achieving ...

  1. Is There a Unique Black Personality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosby, Doris P.

    This article reviews research from the 1940's, 1950's and 1960's on the effects of discrimination on blacks. Data from these studies indicate that adverse cultural restrictions have fostered a unique and distinctive black personality. Among traits identified are: a negative or inferior self-image, pessimism about the future, attachment to the…

  2. In a unique position or squeezed out?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi; Christensen, Inge

    2009-01-01

    language, they experience that their patients disappear, they are seldom involved, and they lack knowledge. CONCLUSIONS: GPs have few experiences with YA cancer patients, but they have a potentially unique role in general primary cancer care if they develop their vocational vocabulary, relate more...

  3. Marketing the Uniqueness of Small Towns. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Douglas; Hogg, David H.

    The key to marketing a town is determining and promoting the town's "differential advantage" or uniqueness that would make people want to visit or live there. Exercises to help communities gain important insights into the town's competitive edge include a brainstorming session with knowledgeable community members, a visitor…

  4. THz absorption signature detection of genetic material of E. coli and B. subtilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykhovski, Alexei; Li, Xiaowei; Globus, Tatiana; Khromova, Tatyana; Gelmont, Boris; Woolard, Dwight; Samuels, Alan C.; Jensen, James O.

    2005-11-01

    The development of efficient biological agent detection techniques requires in-depth understanding of THz absorption spectral features of different cell components. Chromosomal DNA, RNAs, proteins, bacterial cell wall, proteinaceous coat might be essential for bacterial cells and spores THz signature. As a first step, the DNA's contribution into entire cell THz spectra was analyzed. The experimental study of cells and DNAs of E. coli and cells/spores and DNA of Bacillus subtilis was conducted. Samples were prepared in the form of water solutions (suspension) with the concentrations in the range 0.01-1 mg/ml. The measurable difference in the THz transmission spectra of E. coli and Bacillus subtilis DNAs was observed. The correlation between chromosomal DNA signature and a corresponding entire spore/cell signature was observed. This correlation was especially pronounced for spores of Bacillus subtilis and their DNA. These experimental results justify our approach to develop a model for THz signatures of biological simulants and agents. In parallel with the experimental study, for the first time, the computer modeling and simulation of chromosome DNAs of E. coli and Bacillus subtilis was performed and their THz signatures were calculated. The DNA structures were optimized using the Amber software package. Also, we developed the initial model of the DNA fragment poly(dAT)-poly(dTA) solvated in water to be used in the simulations of genetic material (DNA and RNA) of spores and cells. Molecular dynamical simulations were conducted using explicit solvent (3-point TIP3P water) and implicit solvent (generalized Born) models. The calculated THz signatures of E. coli and Bacillus subtilis DNAs and poly(dAT)-poly(dTA) reproduce many features of our measured spectra. The results of this study demonstrate that THz Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is a promising tool in generating spectral data for complex biological objects such as bacterial cells and spores.

  5. Invited Paper: CIGS-based thin film solar cells and modules: Unique material properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakada, Tokio

    2012-04-01

    Although CIGS solar cells consist of a polycrystalline thin film grown on a glass substrate, more than 20% conversion efficiency has been achieved. The efficiency has reached the same level as polycrystalline silicon solar cells. This high efficiency has not yet been observed in other thin film solar cells including thin film Si and CdTe. Therefore, it is important to understand the mechanisms that allow CIGS solar cells to exhibit high conversion efficiencies. This paper discusses the origin of the high efficiency and demonstrates that it is caused by the unique material properties of CIGS films.

  6. The seismic signatures of the solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stähler, Simon C.; Kedar, Sharon; van Driel, Martin; Vance, Steven D.; Panning, Mark P.

    2017-04-01

    Seismology is a powerful tool to image the interior of planetary bodies. At the same time, its results are often difficult to visualize. The spectral-element solver AxiSEM (Nissen-Meyer et al. 2014) enables calculations of the broadband seismic response of terrestrial bodies with solid crusts and mantles, as well as icy moons with solid ice crusts overlying liquid oceans. In its database mode, Instaseis (van Driel et al. 2015), AxiSEM can efficiently calculate the seismic response for earthquakes at arbitrary distances and depths. We use this method to present a set of global stacks of seismograms, similar to the iconic global stack that Astiz and Shearer (1996) created for IRIS from thousands of seismograms on Earth. We present these stacks for models of Europa, Enceladus, Ganymede, Mercury, Venus, Moon and - for comparison - Earth. The results are based on thermodynamical modeling for the icy moons and orbital observations for the terrestrial planets. The results visualize how each planet and moon has its own unique seismic wavefield and which observables exist to infer its detailed structure by future lander missions. Astiz, L., P. Earle and P. Shearer, Global stacking of broadband seismograms, Seis. Res. Lett., 67, 8-18, 1996. M. van Driel, L. Krischer, S.C. Stähler, K. Hosseini, and T. Nissen-Meyer (2015), "Instaseis: instant global seismograms based on a broadband waveform database," Solid Earth, 6, 701-717, doi:10.5194/se-6-701-2015. Nissen-Meyer, T., van Driel, M., Stähler, S. C., Hosseini, K., Hempel, S., Auer, L., … Fournier, A. (2014). AxiSEM: broadband 3-D seismic wavefields in axisymmetric media. Solid Earth, 5(1), 425-445. https://doi.org/10.5194/se-5-425-2014

  7. Gene signatures in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrisani, Ourania M; Studach, Leo; Merle, Philippe

    2011-02-01

    Primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a significant human cancer globally, with poor prognosis. New and efficacious therapy strategies are needed as well as new biomarkers for early detection of at-risk patients. In this review, we discuss select microarray studies of human HCCs, and propose a gene signature that has promise for clinical/translational application. This gene signature combines the proliferation cluster of genes and the hepatic cancer initiating/stem cell gene cluster for identification of HCCs with poor prognosis. Evidence from cell-based assays identifies the existence of a mechanistic link between these two gene clusters, involving the proliferation cluster gene polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1). We propose that PLK1 is a promising therapy target for HCC. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Stochastic monotony signature and biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demongeot, Jacques; Galli Carminati, Giuliana; Carminati, Federico; Rachdi, Mustapha

    2015-12-01

    We introduce a new concept, the stochastic monotony signature of a function, made of the sequence of the signs that indicate if the function is increasing or constant (sign +), or decreasing (sign -). If the function results from the averaging of successive observations with errors, the monotony sign is a random binary variable, whose density is studied under two hypotheses for the distribution of errors: uniform and Gaussian. Then, we describe a simple statistical test allowing the comparison between the monotony signatures of two functions (e.g., one observed and the other as reference) and we apply the test to four biomedical examples, coming from genetics, psychology, gerontology, and morphogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterizing the psychophysiological signature of boredom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrifield, Colleen; Danckert, James

    2014-02-01

    Research on the experience and expression of boredom is underdeveloped. The purpose of the present study was to explore the psychophysiological signature of the subjective experience of boredom. Healthy undergraduates (n = 72) viewed previously validated and standardized video clips to induce boredom, sadness, and a neutral affective state, while their heart rate (HR), skin conductance levels (SCL), and cortisol levels were measured. Boredom yielded dynamic psychophysiological responses that differed from the other emotional states. Of particular interest, the physiological signature of boredom relative to sadness was characterized by rising HR, decreased SCL, and increased cortisol levels. This pattern of results suggests that boredom may be associated with both increased arousal and difficulties with sustained attention. These findings may help to resolve divergent conceptualizations of boredom in the extant literature and, ultimately, to enhance our understanding and treatment of clinical syndromes in which self-reported boredom is a prominent symptom.

  10. Limits and signatures of relativistic spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurtsever, Ulvi; Wilkinson, Steven

    2018-01-01

    While special relativity imposes an absolute speed limit at the speed of light, our Universe is not empty Minkowski spacetime. The constituents that fill the interstellar/intergalactic vacuum, including the cosmic microwave background photons, impose a lower speed limit on any object travelling at relativistic velocities. Scattering of cosmic microwave photons from an ultra-relativistic object may create radiation with a characteristic signature allowing the detection of such objects at large distances.

  11. Constraining blazar physics with polarization signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haocheng; Boettcher, Markus; Li, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Blazars are active galactic nuclei whose jets are directed very close to our line of sight. They emit nonthermal-dominated emission from radio to gamma-rays, with the radio to optical emissions known to be polarized. Both radiation and polarization signatures can be strongly variable. Observations have shown that sometimes strong multiwavelength flares are accompanied by drastic polarization variations, indicating active participation of the magnetic field during flares. We have developed a 3D multi-zone time-dependent polarization-dependent radiation transfer code, which enables us to study the spectral and polarization signatures of blazar flares simultaneously. By combining this code with a Fokker-Planck nonthermal particle evolution scheme, we are able to derive simultaneous fits to time-dependent spectra, multiwavelength light curves, and time-dependent optical polarization signatures of a well-known multiwavelength flare with 180 degree polarization angle swing of the blazar 3C279. Our work shows that with detailed consideration of light travel time effects, the apparently symmetric time-dependent radiation and polarization signatures can be naturally explained by a straight, helically symmetric jet pervaded by a helical magnetic field, without the need of any asymmetric structures. Also our model suggests that the excess in the nonthermal particles during flares can originate from magnetic reconnection events, initiated by a shock propagating through the emission region. Additionally, the magnetic field should generally revert to its initial topology after the flare. We conclude that such shock-initiated magnetic reconnection event in an emission environment with relatively strong magnetic energy can be the driver of multiwavelength flares with polarization angle swings. Future statistics on such observations will constrain general features of such events, while magneto-hydrodynamic simulations will provide physical scenarios for the magnetic field evolution

  12. Selection signatures in Canchim beef cattle

    OpenAIRE

    URBINATI, I.; STAFUZZA, N. B.; OLIVEIRA, M. T.; CHUD, T. C. S.; HIGA, R. H.; L.C.A. Regitano; M.M. Alencar; Buzanskas, M. E. [UNESP; MUNARI, D. P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent technological advances in genomics have allowed the genotyping of cattle through single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panels. High-density SNP panels possess greater genome coverage and are useful for the identification of conserved regions of the genome due to selection, known as selection signatures (SS). The SS are detectable by different methods, such as the extended haplotype homozygosity (EHH); and the integrated haplotype score (iHS), which is derived from the EHH. Th...

  13. Identity-Based Verifiably Encrypted Signatures without Random Oracles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Wu, Qianhong; Qin, Bo

    Fair exchange protocol plays an important role in electronic commerce in the case of exchanging digital contracts. Verifiably encrypted signatures provide an optimistic solution to these scenarios with an off-line trusted third party. In this paper, we propose an identity-based verifiably encrypted signature scheme. The scheme is non-interactive to generate verifiably encrypted signatures and the resulting encrypted signature consists of only four group elements. Based on the computational Diffie-Hellman assumption, our scheme is proven secure without using random oracles. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first identity-based verifiably encrypted signature scheme provably secure in the standard model.

  14. A Digital Signature Scheme Based on MST3 Cryptosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Hong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As special types of factorization of finite groups, logarithmic signature and cover have been used as the main components of cryptographic keys for secret key cryptosystems such as PGM and public key cryptosystems like MST1, MST2, and MST3. Recently, Svaba et. al proposed a revised MST3 encryption scheme with greater security. Meanwhile, they put forward an idea of constructing signature schemes on the basis of logarithmic signatures and random covers. In this paper, we firstly design a secure digital signature scheme based on logarithmic signatures and random covers. In order to complete the task, we devise a new encryption scheme based on MST3 cryptosystems.

  15. Automatic mechanical fault assessment of small wind energy systems in microgrids using electric signature analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrimpas, Georgios Alexandros; Marhadi, Kun Saptohartyadi; Jensen, Bogi Bech

    2013-01-01

    of islanded operation. In this paper, the fault assessment is achieved efficiently and consistently via electric signature analysis (ESA). In ESA the fault related frequency components are manifested as sidebands of the existing current and voltage time harmonics. The energy content between the fundamental, 5...... element model where dynamic eccentricity and bearing outer race defect are simulated under varying fault severity and electric loading conditions....

  16. Measurement-device-independent quantum digital signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthoor, Ittoop Vergheese; Amiri, Ryan; Wallden, Petros; Curty, Marcos; Andersson, Erika

    2016-08-01

    Digital signatures play an important role in software distribution, modern communication, and financial transactions, where it is important to detect forgery and tampering. Signatures are a cryptographic technique for validating the authenticity and integrity of messages, software, or digital documents. The security of currently used classical schemes relies on computational assumptions. Quantum digital signatures (QDS), on the other hand, provide information-theoretic security based on the laws of quantum physics. Recent work on QDS Amiri et al., Phys. Rev. A 93, 032325 (2016);, 10.1103/PhysRevA.93.032325 Yin, Fu, and Zeng-Bing, Phys. Rev. A 93, 032316 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.93.032316 shows that such schemes do not require trusted quantum channels and are unconditionally secure against general coherent attacks. However, in practical QDS, just as in quantum key distribution (QKD), the detectors can be subjected to side-channel attacks, which can make the actual implementations insecure. Motivated by the idea of measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD), we present a measurement-device-independent QDS (MDI-QDS) scheme, which is secure against all detector side-channel attacks. Based on the rapid development of practical MDI-QKD, our MDI-QDS protocol could also be experimentally implemented, since it requires a similar experimental setup.

  17. Online Signature Verification Using Fourier Descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berrin Yanikoglu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel online signature verification system based on the Fast Fourier Transform. The advantage of using the Fourier domain is the ability to compactly represent an online signature using a fixed number of coefficients. The fixed-length representation leads to fast matching algorithms and is essential in certain applications. The challenge on the other hand is to find the right preprocessing steps and matching algorithm for this representation. We report on the effectiveness of the proposed method, along with the effects of individual preprocessing and normalization steps, based on comprehensive tests over two public signature databases. We also propose to use the pen-up duration information in identifying forgeries. The best results obtained on the SUSIG-Visual subcorpus and the MCYT-100 database are 6.2% and 12.1% error rate on skilled forgeries, respectively. The fusion of the proposed system with our state-of-the-art Dynamic Time Warping (DTW system lowers the error rate of the DTW system by up to about 25%. While the current error rates are higher than state-of-the-art results for these databases, as an approach using global features, the system possesses many advantages. Considering also the suggested improvements, the FFT system shows promise both as a stand-alone system and especially in combination with approaches that are based on local features.

  18. Signature stability in laser Doppler vibrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Thomas Z.; Watson, Edward A.

    2017-05-01

    Speckle can complicate signal acquisition in coherent laser systems such as Laser Doppler Vibrometry (LDV). Variations in the speckle pattern at the reliever due to fluctuations in the system such as beam pointing can lead to impulsive events in the signature. The beam size at the object has a direct influence on the size of the speckle at the receiving aperture. Increasing the beam spot size reduces the average speckle size, but also decreases the strength of the signal coupled with the local oscillator in the LDV. In this paper, we derive the relationship between scattering spot size at the object and average speckle size at the receiver. Theory is presented on how increasing the beam diameter at the object can reduce the fluctuations of the heterodyned signal coupled with the Local Oscillator (LO). The Antenna theorem is presented to show the tradeoff between angular field of view and capture area. We show experimental results on the effects of speckle size and decreasing signal strength have on the stability of an LDV signature. We use a kurtosis metric previously reported in the literature to assess the stability and quality of the return signature.

  19. On psychoanalytic supervision as signature pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, C Edward

    2014-04-01

    What is signature pedagogy in psychoanalytic education? This paper examines that question, considering why psychoanalytic supervision best deserves that designation. In focusing on supervision as signature pedagogy, I accentuate its role in building psychoanalytic habits of mind, habits of hand, and habits of heart, and transforming theory and self-knowledge into practical product. Other facets of supervision as signature pedagogy addressed in this paper include its features of engagement, uncertainty, formation, and pervasiveness, as well as levels of surface, deep, and implicit structure. Epistemological, ontological, and axiological in nature, psychoanalytic supervision engages trainees in learning to do, think, and value what psychoanalytic practitioners in the field do, think, and value: It is, most fundamentally, professional preparation for competent, "good work." In this paper, effort is made to shine a light on and celebrate the pivotal role of supervision in "making" or developing budding psychoanalysts and psychoanalytic psychotherapists. Now over a century old, psychoanalytic supervision remains unparalleled in (1) connecting and integrating conceptualization and practice, (2) transforming psychoanalytic theory and self-knowledge into an informed analyzing instrument, and (3) teaching, transmitting, and perpetuating the traditions, practice, and culture of psychoanalytic treatment.

  20. SIGNATURES OF LONG-LIVED SPIRAL PATTERNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Garcia, Eric E. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE), Aptdo. Postal 51 y 216, 72000 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Gonzalez-Lopezlira, Rosa A., E-mail: ericmartinez@inaoep.mx, E-mail: martinez@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: r.gonzalez@crya.unam.mx [Centro de Radioastronomia y Astrofisica, UNAM, Campus Morelia, Michoacan, C.P. 58089 (Mexico)

    2013-03-10

    Azimuthal age/color gradients across spiral arms are a signature of long-lived spirals. From a sample of 19 normal (or weakly barred) spirals where we have previously found azimuthal age/color gradient candidates, 13 objects were further selected if a two-armed grand-design pattern survived in a surface density stellar mass map. Mass maps were obtained from optical and near-infrared imaging, by comparison with a Monte Carlo library of stellar population synthesis models that allowed us to obtain the mass-to-light ratio in the J band, (M/L){sub J}, as a function of (g - i) versus (i - J) color. The selected spirals were analyzed with Fourier methods in search of other signatures of long-lived modes related to the gradients, such as the gradient divergence toward corotation, and the behavior of the phase angle of the two-armed spiral in different wavebands, as expected from theory. The results show additional signatures of long-lived spirals in at least 50% of the objects.

  1. The encoding of individual identity in dolphin signature whistles: how much information is needed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arik Kershenbaum

    Full Text Available Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus produce many vocalisations, including whistles that are unique to the individual producing them. Such "signature whistles" play a role in individual recognition and maintaining group integrity. Previous work has shown that humans can successfully group the spectrographic representations of signature whistles according to the individual dolphins that produced them. However, attempts at using mathematical algorithms to perform a similar task have been less successful. A greater understanding of the encoding of identity information in signature whistles is important for assessing similarity of whistles and thus social influences on the development of these learned calls. We re-examined 400 signature whistles from 20 individual dolphins used in a previous study, and tested the performance of new mathematical algorithms. We compared the measure used in the original study (correlation matrix of evenly sampled frequency measurements to one used in several previous studies (similarity matrix of time-warped whistles, and to a new algorithm based on the Parsons code, used in music retrieval databases. The Parsons code records the direction of frequency change at each time step, and is effective at capturing human perception of music. We analysed similarity matrices from each of these three techniques, as well as a random control, by unsupervised clustering using three separate techniques: k-means clustering, hierarchical clustering, and an adaptive resonance theory neural network. For each of the three clustering techniques, a seven-level Parsons algorithm provided better clustering than the correlation and dynamic time warping algorithms, and was closer to the near-perfect visual categorisations of human judges. Thus, the Parsons code captures much of the individual identity information present in signature whistles, and may prove useful in studies requiring quantification of whistle similarity.

  2. Genomic DNA Methylation Signatures Enable Concurrent Diagnosis and Clinical Genetic Variant Classification in Neurodevelopmental Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aref-Eshghi, Erfan; Rodenhiser, David I; Schenkel, Laila C; Lin, Hanxin; Skinner, Cindy; Ainsworth, Peter; Paré, Guillaume; Hood, Rebecca L; Bulman, Dennis E; Kernohan, Kristin D; Boycott, Kym M; Campeau, Philippe M; Schwartz, Charles; Sadikovic, Bekim

    2018-01-04

    Pediatric developmental syndromes present with systemic, complex, and often overlapping clinical features that are not infrequently a consequence of Mendelian inheritance of mutations in genes involved in DNA methylation, establishment of histone modifications, and chromatin remodeling (the "epigenetic machinery"). The mechanistic cross-talk between histone modification and DNA methylation suggests that these syndromes might be expected to display specific DNA methylation signatures that are a reflection of those primary errors associated with chromatin dysregulation. Given the interrelated functions of these chromatin regulatory proteins, we sought to identify DNA methylation epi-signatures that could provide syndrome-specific biomarkers to complement standard clinical diagnostics. In the present study, we examined peripheral blood samples from a large cohort of individuals encompassing 14 Mendelian disorders displaying mutations in the genes encoding proteins of the epigenetic machinery. We demonstrated that specific but partially overlapping DNA methylation signatures are associated with many of these conditions. The degree of overlap among these epi-signatures is minimal, further suggesting that, consistent with the initial event, the downstream changes are unique to every syndrome. In addition, by combining these epi-signatures, we have demonstrated that a machine learning tool can be built to concurrently screen for multiple syndromes with high sensitivity and specificity, and we highlight the utility of this tool in solving ambiguous case subjects presenting with variants of unknown significance, along with its ability to generate accurate predictions for subjects presenting with the overlapping clinical and molecular features associated with the disruption of the epigenetic machinery. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A Comprehensive Gene Expression Meta-analysis Identifies Novel Immune Signatures in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afroz, Sumbul; Giddaluru, Jeevan; Vishwakarma, Sandeep; Naz, Saima; Khan, Aleem Ahmed; Khan, Nooruddin

    2017-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a symmetric polyarticular arthritis, has long been feared as one of the most disabling forms of arthritis. Identification of gene signatures associated with RA onset and progression would lead toward development of novel diagnostics and therapeutic interventions. This study was undertaken to identify unique gene signatures of RA patients through large-scale meta-profiling of a diverse collection of gene expression data sets. We carried out a meta-analysis of 8 publicly available RA patients' (107 RA patients and 76 healthy controls) gene expression data sets and further validated a few meta-signatures in RA patients through quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). We identified a robust meta-profile comprising 33 differentially expressed genes, which were consistently and significantly expressed across all the data sets. Our meta-analysis unearthed upregulation of a few novel gene signatures including PLCG2, HLA-DOB, HLA-F, EIF4E2, and CYFIP2, which were validated in peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples of RA patients. Further, functional and pathway enrichment analysis reveals perturbation of several meta-genes involved in signaling pathways pertaining to inflammation, antigen presentation, hypoxia, and apoptosis during RA. Additionally, PLCG2 (phospholipase Cγ2) popped out as a novel meta-gene involved in most of the pathways relevant to RA including inflammasome activation, platelet aggregation, and activation, thereby suggesting PLCG2 as a potential therapeutic target for controlling excessive inflammation during RA. In conclusion, these findings highlight the utility of meta-analysis approach in identifying novel gene signatures that might provide mechanistic insights into disease onset, progression and possibly lead toward the development of better diagnostic and therapeutic interventions against RA.

  4. Unique mechanical properties of nanostructured metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Nobuhiro

    2007-11-01

    Recently, it becomes possible to fabricate bulk metals having ultrafine grained or nanocrystalline structures of which grain size is in nano-meter dimensions. One of the promising ways to realize bulk nanostructured metals is severe plastic deformation (SPD) above logarithmic equivalent strain of 4. We have developed an original SPD process, named Accumulative Roll Bonding (ARB) using rolling deformation in principle, and have succeeded in fabricating bulk nanostructured sheets of various kinds of metals and alloys. The ARB process and the nanostructured metals fabricated by the ARB are introduced in this paper. The nanostructured metals sometimes perform quite unique mechanical properties, that is rather surprising compared with conventionally coarse grained materials. The unique properties seem to be attributed to the characteristic structures of the nano-metals full of grain boundaries.

  5. Unique stoichiometric representation for computational thermochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishtik, Ilie

    2012-02-23

    Evaluation of the enthalpy of formation of species via quantum chemical methods, as well as the evaluation of their performance, is mainly based on single reaction schemes, i.e., reaction schemes that involve a minimal number of reference species where minimal means that, if a reference species is omitted, there is no way to write a balanced reaction scheme involving the remaining species. When the number of reference species exceeds the minimal number, the main problem of computational thermochemistry is inevitably becoming an optimization problem. In this communication we present an exact and unique solution of the optimization problem in computational thermochemistry along with a stoichiometric interpretation of the solution. Namely, we prove that the optimization problem may be identically solved by enumerating a finite and unique set of reactions referred to as group additivity (GA) response reactions (RERs). © 2012 American Chemical Society

  6. Modeling the lexical morphology of Western handwritten signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Cabrera, Moises; Ferrer, Miguel A; Morales, Aythami

    2015-01-01

    A handwritten signature is the final response to a complex cognitive and neuromuscular process which is the result of the learning process. Because of the many factors involved in signing, it is possible to study the signature from many points of view: graphologists, forensic experts, neurologists and computer vision experts have all examined them. Researchers study written signatures for psychiatric, penal, health and automatic verification purposes. As a potentially useful, multi-purpose study, this paper is focused on the lexical morphology of handwritten signatures. This we understand to mean the identification, analysis, and description of the signature structures of a given signer. In this work we analyze different public datasets involving 1533 signers from different Western geographical areas. Some relevant characteristics of signature lexical morphology have been selected, examined in terms of their probability distribution functions and modeled through a General Extreme Value distribution. This study suggests some useful models for multi-disciplinary sciences which depend on handwriting signatures.

  7. Cryptanalysis of a sessional blind signature based on quantum cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Qi; Li, Wen-Min

    2014-09-01

    A digital signature is a mathematical scheme for demonstrating the authenticity of a digital message or document. A blind signature is a form of digital signature in which the content of a message is disguised (blinded) before it is signed to protect the privacy of the message from the signatory. For signing quantum messages, some quantum blind signature protocols have been proposed. Recently, Khodambashi et al. (Quantum Inf Process 13:121, 2014) proposed a sessional blind signature based on quantum cryptography. It was claimed that these protocol could guarantee unconditional security. However, after our analysis, we find that the signature protocol will cause the key information leakage in the view of information theory. Taking advantage of loophole, the message sender can succeed in forging the signature without the knowledge of the whole exact key between the verifier and him. To conquer this shortcoming, we construct an improved protocol based on it and the new protocol can resist the key information leakage attacks.

  8. The electronic identification, signature and security of information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horovèák Pavel

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The contribution deals with the actual methods and technologies of information and communication systems security. It introduces the overview of electronic identification elements such as static password, dynamic password and single sign-on. Into this category belong also biometric and dynamic characteristics of verified person. Widespread is authentication based on identification elements ownership, such as various cards and authentication calculators. In the next part is specified a definition and characterization of electronic signature, its basic functions and certificate categories. Practical utilization of electronic signature consists of electronic signature acquirement, signature of outgoing email message, receiving of electronic signature and verification of electronic signature. The use of electronic signature is continuously growing and in connection with legislation development it exercises in all resorts.

  9. Unique removal of a kinked nasogastric tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Shwetanshu Narayan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nasogastric (NG tube insertion is a common clinical procedure used for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. As the importance of enteral nutrition is being increasingly recognized; the use of NG tube insertion has steadily increased. Here, we present an interesting case in which a kinked NG tube was removed in a unique manner with “push and pull” technique without untoward trauma.

  10. Modularity, comparative cognition and human uniqueness

    OpenAIRE

    Shettleworth, Sara J.

    2012-01-01

    Darwin's claim ‘that the difference in mind between man and the higher animals … is certainly one of degree and not of kind’ is at the core of the comparative study of cognition. Recent research provides unprecedented support for Darwin's claim as well as new reasons to question it, stimulating new theories of human cognitive uniqueness. This article compares and evaluates approaches to such theories. Some prominent theories propose sweeping domain-general characterizations of the difference ...

  11. Brain metastasis: Unique challenges and open opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Frank J; Yu, Dihua

    2017-01-01

    The metastasis of cancer to the central nervous system (CNS) remains a devastating clinical reality, carrying an estimated survival time of less than one year in spite of recent therapeutic breakthroughs for other disease contexts. Advances in brain metastasis research are hindered by a number of factors, including its complicated nature and the difficulty of modeling metastatic cancer growth in the unique brain microenvironment. In this review, we will discuss the clinical challenge, and compare the merits and limitations of the available models for brain metastasis research. Additionally, we will specifically address current knowledge on how brain metastases take advantage of the unique brain environment to benefit their own growth. Finally, we will explore the distinctive metabolic and chemical characteristics of the brain and how these paradoxically represent barriers to establishment of brain metastasis, but also provide ample supplies for metastatic cells' growth in the brain. We envision that multi-disciplinary innovative approaches will open opportunities for the field to make breakthroughs in tackling unique challenges of brain metastasis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Unique characteristics of informal hospice cancer caregiving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Karla T.; Pike, Kenneth C.; Demiris, George; Oliver, Debra Parker

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to describe the unique characteristics of informal hospice cancer caregiving. Methods Researchers conducted a secondary analysis of data drawn from a randomized clinical trial of an informal hospice caregiving intervention (N=348). Demographic characteristics and measures of the informal caregiving experience of hospice patients and their informal caregivers were compared based on the patient’s diagnosis using chi-square tests for association of categorical variables and t tests for continuous variables. Results Informal caregivers of cancer patients differed from their non-cancer counterparts in a number of respects including patient age, caregiver age, patient residence, relationship between patient and caregiver, amount and duration of care provided, likelihood to incur out-of-pocket expenses related to patient care, caregiver problem-solving style, and impact on caregiver daily schedule. There were no statistically significant differences between cancer and non-cancer caregivers in terms of gender, race, employment status, anxiety, and quality of life. Conclusions While cancer and non-cancer caregivers are similar in many respects, a number of unique features characterize the informal hospice cancer caregiving experience. Attention to these unique features will allow hospice providers to tailor supportive care interventions to better address cancer caregivers’ needs. PMID:25547480

  13. Gene expression signatures differentiate uterine endometrial stromal sarcoma from leiomyosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Ben; Abeler, Vera Maria; Hellesylt, Ellen; Holth, Arild; Shih, Ie-Ming; Skeie-Jensen, Tone; Chen, Li; Yang, Yanqin; Wang, Tian-Li

    2013-02-01

    Endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) and leiomyosarcoma (LMS) are the two most common uterine sarcomas, but both are rare tumors. The aim of the present study was to compare the global gene expression patterns of ESS and LMS. Gene expression profiles of 7 ESS and 13 LMS were analyzed using the HumanRef-8 BeadChip from Illumina. Differentially expressed candidate genes were validated using quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering using all 54,675 genes in the array separated ESS from LMS samples. We identified 549 unique probes that were significantly differentially expressed in the two malignancies by greater than 2-fold with 1% FDR cutoff using one-way ANOVA with Benjamini-Hochberg correction, of which 336 and 213 were overexpressed in ESS and LMS, respectively. Genes overexpressed in ESS included SLC7A10, EFNB3, CCND2, ECEL1, ITM2A, NPW, PLAG1 and GCGR. Genes overexpressed in LMS included CDKN2A, FABP3, TAGLN, JPH2, GEM, NAV2 and RAB23. The top 100 genes overexpressed in LMS included those coding for myosin light chain and caldesmon, but not the genes coding for desmin or actin. CD10 was not overexpressed in ESS. Results for selected genes were validated by quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. We present the first study in which gene expression profiling was shown to distinguish between ESS and LMS. The molecular signatures unique to each of these malignancies may aid in expanding the diagnostic battery for their differentiation, and may provide a molecular basis for prognostic studies and therapeutic target discovery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Gene expression signatures of primary and metastatic uterine leiomyosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Ben; Abeler, Vera Maria; Førsund, Mette; Holth, Arild; Yang, Yanqin; Kobayashi, Yusuke; Chen, Lily; Kristensen, Gunnar B; Shih, Ie-Ming; Wang, Tian-Li

    2014-04-01

    Leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is the most common uterine sarcoma. Although the disease is relatively rare, it is responsible for considerable mortality due to frequent metastasis and chemoresistance. The molecular events related to LMS metastasis are unknown to date. The present study compared the global gene expression patterns of primary uterine LMSs and LMS metastases. Gene expression profiles of 13 primary and 15 metastatic uterine LMSs were analyzed using the HumanRef-8 BeadChip from Illumina. Differentially expressed candidate genes were validated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry. To identify differently expressed genes between primary and metastatic tumors, we performed one-way analysis of variance with Benjamini-Hochberg correction. This led to identification of 203 unique probes that were significantly differentially expressed in the 2 tumor groups by greater than 1.58-fold with P < .01, of which 94 and 109 were overexpressed in primary and metastatic LMSs, respectively. Genes overexpressed in primary uterine LMSs included OSTN, NLGN4X, NLGN1, SLITRK4, MASP1, XRN2, ASS1, RORB, HRASLS, and TSPAN7. Genes overexpressed in LMS metastases included TNNT1, FOLR3, TDO2, CRYM, GJA1, TSPAN10, THBS1, SGK1, SHMT1, EGR2, and AGT. Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed significant anatomical site-related differences in FOLR3, OSTN, and NLGN4X levels; and immunohistochemistry showed significant differences in TDO2 expression. Gene expression profiling differentiates primary uterine LMSs from LMS metastases. The molecular signatures unique to primary and metastatic LMSs may aid in understanding tumor progression in this cancer and in providing a molecular basis for prognostic studies and therapeutic target discovery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Provably secure identity-based identification and signature schemes from code assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yiming

    2017-01-01

    Code-based cryptography is one of few alternatives supposed to be secure in a post-quantum world. Meanwhile, identity-based identification and signature (IBI/IBS) schemes are two of the most fundamental cryptographic primitives, so several code-based IBI/IBS schemes have been proposed. However, with increasingly profound researches on coding theory, the security reduction and efficiency of such schemes have been invalidated and challenged. In this paper, we construct provably secure IBI/IBS schemes from code assumptions against impersonation under active and concurrent attacks through a provably secure code-based signature technique proposed by Preetha, Vasant and Rangan (PVR signature), and a security enhancement Or-proof technique. We also present the parallel-PVR technique to decrease parameter values while maintaining the standard security level. Compared to other code-based IBI/IBS schemes, our schemes achieve not only preferable public parameter size, private key size, communication cost and signature length due to better parameter choices, but also provably secure. PMID:28809940

  16. Provably secure identity-based identification and signature schemes from code assumptions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Song

    Full Text Available Code-based cryptography is one of few alternatives supposed to be secure in a post-quantum world. Meanwhile, identity-based identification and signature (IBI/IBS schemes are two of the most fundamental cryptographic primitives, so several code-based IBI/IBS schemes have been proposed. However, with increasingly profound researches on coding theory, the security reduction and efficiency of such schemes have been invalidated and challenged. In this paper, we construct provably secure IBI/IBS schemes from code assumptions against impersonation under active and concurrent attacks through a provably secure code-based signature technique proposed by Preetha, Vasant and Rangan (PVR signature, and a security enhancement Or-proof technique. We also present the parallel-PVR technique to decrease parameter values while maintaining the standard security level. Compared to other code-based IBI/IBS schemes, our schemes achieve not only preferable public parameter size, private key size, communication cost and signature length due to better parameter choices, but also provably secure.

  17. Reactor coolant pump testing using motor current signatures analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burstein, N.; Bellamy, J.

    1996-12-01

    This paper describes reactor coolant pump motor testing carried out at Florida Power Corporation`s Crystal River plant using Framatome Technologies` new EMPATH (Electric Motor Performance Analysis and Trending Hardware) system. EMPATH{trademark} uses an improved form of Motor Current Signature Analysis (MCSA), technology, originally developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratories, for detecting deterioration in the rotors of AC induction motors. Motor Current Signature Analysis (MCSA) is a monitoring tool for motor driven equipment that provides a non-intrusive means for detecting the presence of mechanical and electrical abnormalities in the motor and the driven equipment. The base technology was developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory as a means for determining the affects of aging and service wear specifically on motor-operated valves used in nuclear power plant safety systems, but it is applicable to a broad range of electric machinery. MCSA is based on the recognition that an electric motor (ac or dc) driving a mechanical load acts as an efficient and permanently available transducer by sensing mechanical load variations, large and small, long-term and rapid, and converting them into variations in the induced current generated in the motor windings. The motor current variations, resulting from changes in load caused by gears, pulleys, friction, bearings, and other conditions that may change over the life of the motor, are carried by the electrical cables powering the motor and are extracted at any convenient location along the motor lead. These variations modulate the 60 Hz carrier frequency and appear as sidebands in the spectral plot.

  18. Epigenetic profiles as defined signatures of xenobiotic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, John P; Moggs, Jonathan G; Wolf, C Roland; Meehan, Richard R

    2014-04-01

    With the advent of high resolution sequencing technologies there has been increasing interest in the study of genome-wide epigenetic modification patterns that govern the underlying gene expression events of a particular cell or tissue type. There is now mounting evidence that perturbations to the epigenetic landscape occur during a host of cellular processes including normal proliferation/differentiation and aberrant outcomes such as carcinogenesis. Furthermore, epigenetic perturbations have been associated with exposure to a range of drugs and toxicants, including non-genotoxic carcinogens (NGCs). Although a variety of epigenetic modifications induced by NGCs have been studied previously, recent genome-wide integrated epigenomic and transcriptomic studies reveal for the first time the extent and dynamic nature of the epigenetic perturbations resulting from xenobiotic exposure. The interrogation and integration of one such epigenetic mark, the newly discovered 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) modification, reveals that drug treatment associated perturbations of the epigenome can result in unique epigenetic signatures. This review focuses on how recent advances in the field of epigenetics can enhance our mechanistic understanding of xenobiotic exposure and provide novel safety biomarkers. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A metabolic signature of long life in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viney Jonathan M

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many Caenorhabditis elegans mutations increase longevity and much evidence suggests that they do so at least partly via changes in metabolism. However, up until now there has been no systematic investigation of how the metabolic networks of long-lived mutants differ from those of normal worms. Metabolomic technologies, that permit the analysis of many untargeted metabolites in parallel, now make this possible. Here we use one of these, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, to investigate what makes long-lived worms metabolically distinctive. Results We examined three classes of long-lived worms: dauer larvae, adult Insulin/IGF-1 signalling (IIS-defective mutants, and a translation-defective mutant. Surprisingly, these ostensibly different long-lived worms share a common metabolic signature, dominated by shifts in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. In addition the dauer larvae, uniquely, had elevated levels of modified amino acids (hydroxyproline and phosphoserine. We interrogated existing gene expression data in order to integrate functional (metabolite-level changes with transcriptional changes at a pathway level. Conclusions The observed metabolic responses could be explained to a large degree by upregulation of gluconeogenesis and the glyoxylate shunt as well as changes in amino acid catabolism. These responses point to new possible mechanisms of longevity assurance in worms. The metabolic changes observed in dauer larvae can be explained by the existence of high levels of autophagy leading to recycling of cellular components. See associated minireview: http://jbiol.com/content/9/1/7

  20. A system identification technique based on the random decrement signatures. Part 1: Theory and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedewi, Nabih E.; Yang, Jackson C. S.

    1987-01-01

    Identification of the system parameters of a randomly excited structure may be treated using a variety of statistical techniques. Of all these techniques, the Random Decrement is unique in that it provides the homogeneous component of the system response. Using this quality, a system identification technique was developed based on a least-squares fit of the signatures to estimate the mass, damping, and stiffness matrices of a linear randomly excited system. The mathematics of the technique is presented in addition to the results of computer simulations conducted to demonstrate the prediction of the response of the system and the random forcing function initially introduced to excite the system.

  1. Integration of breast cancer gene signatures based on graph centrality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianxin; Chen, Gang; Li, Min; Pan, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Various gene-expression signatures for breast cancer are available for the prediction of clinical outcome. However due to small overlap between different signatures, it is challenging to integrate existing disjoint signatures to provide a unified insight on the association between gene expression and clinical outcome. In this paper, we propose a method to integrate different breast cancer gene signatures by using graph centrality in a context-constrained protein interaction network (PIN). The context-constrained PIN for breast cancer is built by integrating complete PIN and various gene signatures reported in literatures. Then, we use graph centralities to quantify the importance of genes to breast cancer. Finally, we get reliable gene signatures that are consisted by the genes with high graph centrality. The genes which are well-known breast cancer genes, such as TP53 and BRCA1, are ranked extremely high in our results. Compared with previous results by functional enrichment analysis, graph centralities, especially the eigenvector centrality and subgraph centrality, based gene signatures are more tightly related to breast cancer. We validate these signatures on genome-wide microarray dataset and found strong association between the expression of these signature genes and pathologic parameters. In summary, graph centralities provide a novel way to connect different cancer signatures and to understand the mechanism of relationship between gene expression and clinical outcome of breast cancer. Moreover, this method is not only can be used on breast cancer, but also can be used on other gene expression related diseases and drug studies.

  2. Age Gender and Education Dependent Alterations of Handwriting and Signature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevzat Alkan

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in handwriting is mostly seen in elder period. In this study, features of signature and handwriting are investigated in randomly sized groups composed of old and young subjects. For this reason, some parameters such as vertical lines, horizontal lines, left and right space, handwriting, writing speed, increase in space between letters, mistakes in copying, the similarity of the first and last signature and signature matchings are used. Decrease in writing speed, increase in the interspace of letters, increase of handwriting and signature length, decrease in readibleness are found in the group of old subjects. Evaluation of the group without education revealed the horizontal lines, punctuation constancy and the similarity of the first and last signature to be distorted. In the same manner, the signature length was found to be increased and signature uniformity was absent in this group. In practice of forensic medicine, the decrease in writing speed, increase in spaces between two letters are important for detection of copied writings and signatures. The age of subject is important for age dependent alterations of handwriting and signature. Keywords: Handwriting, Signature, Ageing, Forensic document examination, Graphology

  3. Unique properties of Drosophila spermatocyte primary cilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Giovanna Riparbelli

    2013-09-01

    The primary cilium is an essential organelle required for animal development and adult homeostasis that is found on most animal cells. The primary cilium contains a microtubule-based axoneme cytoskeleton that typically grows from the mother centriole in G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle as a membrane-bound compartment that protrudes from the cell surface. A unique system of bidirectional transport, intraflagellar transport (IFT, maintains the structure and function of cilia. While the axoneme is dynamic, growing and shrinking at its tip, at the same time it is very stable to the effects of microtubule-targeting drugs. The primary cilia found on Drosophila spermatocytes diverge from the general rules of primary cilium biology in several respects. Among these unique attributes, spermatocyte cilia assemble from all four centrioles in an IFT-independent manner in G2 phase, and persist continuously through two cell divisions. Here, we show that Drosophila spermatocyte primary cilia are extremely sensitive to microtubule-targeting drugs, unlike their mammalian counterparts. Spermatocyte cilia and their axonemes fail to assemble or be maintained upon nocodazole treatment, while centriole replication appears unperturbed. On the other hand, paclitaxel (Taxol, a microtubule-stabilizing drug, disrupted transition zone assembly and anchoring to the plasma membrane while causing spermatocyte primary cilia to grow extensively long during the assembly/elongation phase, but did not overtly affect the centrioles. However, once assembled to their mature length, spermatocyte cilia appeared unaffected by Taxol. The effects of these drugs on axoneme dynamics further demonstrate that spermatocyte primary cilia are endowed with unique assembly properties.

  4. Stationary Black Holes: Uniqueness and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr T. Chruściel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of known black-hole solutions to the stationary Einstein equations has been steadily increasing, sometimes in unexpected ways. In particular, it has turned out that not all black-hole-equilibrium configurations are characterized by their mass, angular momentum and global charges. Moreover, the high degree of symmetry displayed by vacuum and electro vacuum black-hole spacetimes ceases to exist in self-gravitating non-linear field theories. This text aims to review some developments in the subject and to discuss them in light of the uniqueness theorem for the Einstein-Maxwell system.

  5. Stationary Black Holes: Uniqueness and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heusler Markus

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of known black hole solutions to the stationary Einstein equations has increased in an unexpected way during the last decade. In particular, it has turned out that not all black hole equilibrium configurations are characterized by their mass, angular momentum and global charges. Moreover, the high degree of symmetry displayed by vacuum and electro-vacuum black hole space-times ceases to exist in self-gravitating non-linear field theories. This text aims to review some of the recent developments and to discuss them in the light of the uniqueness theorem for the Einstein-Maxwell system.

  6. Unique roles for lipids in Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, S T

    1991-02-01

    The dynamic interplay among lipids has been exploited by S. mansoni to evolve some unique processes that are vital for its long-term survival within the mammalian host. Lipids are required by the parasite not only to maintain its surface integrity and structural requirements but also for egg production and cell-cell signalling. However, S. mansoni is incapable of synthesizing essential lipids and must obtain these from its host. In this review, Stephen Furlong describes the roles and routes of acquisition o f lipids by this parasite.

  7. Unique double recurrence of cerebral arteriovenous malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagm, Alhusain; Horiuchi, Tetsuyoshi; Ichinose, Shunsuke; Hongo, Kazuhiro

    2015-09-01

    Surgically treated patients with arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are considered cured when the postoperative angiogram proves complete resection. However, despite no residual nidus or early draining vein on postoperative angiogram, rare instances of AVM recurrence have been reported in adults. In this paper, the authors present a case of a 24-year-old woman with asymptomatic double recurrence of her cerebral AVM after angiographically proven complete resection. To the authors' knowledge, this patient represents the first case with double de novo asymptomatic recurrence of Spetzler-Martin grade I AVM. Also, she represents the first case with unique AVM criteria in each recurrence.

  8. The end of the unique myocardial band

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacIver, David H; Partridge, John B; Agger, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Two of the leading concepts of mural ventricular architecture are the unique myocardial band and the myocardial mesh model. We have described, in an accompanying article published in this journal, how the anatomical, histological and high-resolution computed tomographic studies strongly favour...... the latter concept. We now extend the argument to describe the linkage between mural architecture and ventricular function in both health and disease. We show that clinical imaging by echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging, and electrophysiological studies, all support the myocardial mesh model. We...

  9. Metabolic signature of electrosurgical liver dissection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witigo von Schönfels

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: High frequency electrosurgery has a key role in the broadening application of liver surgery. Its molecular signature, i.e. the metabolites evolving from electrocauterization which may inhibit hepatic wound healing, have not been systematically studied. METHODS: Human liver samples were thus obtained during surgery before and after electrosurgical dissection and subjected to a two-stage metabolomic screening experiment (discovery sample: N = 18, replication sample: N = 20 using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. RESULTS: In a set of 208 chemically defined metabolites, electrosurgical dissection lead to a distinct metabolic signature resulting in a separation in the first two dimensions of a principal components analysis. Six metabolites including glycolic acid, azelaic acid, 2-n-pentylfuran, dihydroactinidiolide, 2-butenal and n-pentanal were consistently increased after electrosurgery meeting the discovery (p<2.0 × 10(-4 and the replication thresholds (p<3.5 × 10(-3. Azelaic acid, a lipid peroxidation product from the fragmentation of abundant sn-2 linoleoyl residues, was most abundant and increased 8.1-fold after electrosurgical liver dissection (preplication = 1.6 × 10(-4. The corresponding phospholipid hexadecyl azelaoyl glycerophosphocholine inhibited wound healing and tissue remodelling in scratch- and proliferation assays of hepatic stellate cells and cholangiocytes, and caused apoptosis dose-dependently in vitro, which may explain in part the tissue damage due to electrosurgery. CONCLUSION: Hepatic electrosurgery generates a metabolic signature with characteristic lipid peroxidation products. Among these, azelaic acid shows a dose-dependent toxicity in liver cells and inhibits wound healing. These observations potentially pave the way for pharmacological intervention prior liver surgery to modify the metabolic response and prevent postoperative complications.

  10. Characterizing Resident Space Object Earthshine Signature Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cor, Jared D.

    There are three major sources of illumination on objects in the near Earth space environment: Sunshine, Moonshine, and Earthshine. For objects in this environment (satellites, orbital debris, etc.) known as Resident Space Objects (RSOs), the sun and the moon have consistently small illuminating solid angles and can be treated as point sources; this makes their incident illumination easily modeled. The Earth on the other hand has a large illuminating solid angle, is heterogeneous, and is in a constant state of change. The objective of this thesis was to characterize the impact and variability of observed RSO Earthshine on apparent magnitude signatures in the visible optical spectral region. A key component of this research was creating Earth object models incorporating the reflectance properties of the Earth. Two Earth objects were created: a homogeneous diffuse Earth object and a time sensitive heterogeneous Earth object. The homogeneous diffuse Earth object has a reflectance equal to the average global albedo, a standard model used when modeling Earthshine. The time sensitive heterogeneous Earth object was created with two material maps representative of the dynamic reflectance of the surface of the earth, and a shell representative of the atmosphere. NASA's Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Earth observing satellite product libraries, MCD43C1 global surface BRDF map and MOD06 global fractional cloud map, were utilized to create the material maps, and a hybridized version of the Empirical Line Method (ELM) was used to create the atmosphere. This dynamic Earth object was validated by comparing simulated color imagery of the Earth to that taken by: NASAs Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) located on the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR), and by MODIS located on the Terra satellite. The time sensitive heterogeneous Earth object deviated from MODIS imagery by a spectral radiance root mean square error (RMSE) of +/-14.86 [watts/m. 2sr

  11. Strong signatures of right-handed compositeness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redi, Michele [INFN, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Sanz, Veronica [York Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Sussex Univ., Brighton (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Vries, Maikel de; Weiler, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    Right-handed light quarks could be significantly composite, yet compatible with experimental searches at the LHC and precision tests on Standard Model couplings. In these scenarios, that are motivated by flavor physics, one expects large cross sections for the production of new resonances coupled to light quarks. We study experimental strong signatures of right-handed compositeness at the LHC, and constrain the parameter space of these models with recent results by ATLAS and CMS. We show that the LHC sensitivity could be significantly improved if dedicated searches were performed, in particular in multi-jet signals.

  12. Investigating Galaxy Merger Signatures with IGNITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagursky, Matthew J.; Lotz, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    I present the software package IGNITE, the Interacting Galaxy Non-Interactive Tail Extractor. Its purpose is to locate tidal tails and quantify their morphological and photometric properties. I demonstrate the effective use of IGNITE on the case galaxy of NGC 2623 and report the photometric and morphological signatures of tidal tails in this galaxy. The future of the IGNITE package is a merge with other successful software packages aimed at quantifying merging galaxies to further enhance the accuracy of the quantitative measurements of morphologies and photometry profiles of merging galaxy candidates

  13. Non-Gaussian signatures of tachyacoustic cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bessada, Dennis, E-mail: dennis.bessada@unifesp.br [UNIFESP — Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Laboratório de Física Teórica e Computação Científica, Rua São Nicolau, 210, 09913-030, Diadema, SP (Brazil)

    2012-09-01

    I investigate non-Gaussian signatures in the context of tachyacoustic cosmology, that is, a noninflationary model with superluminal speed of sound. I calculate the full non-Gaussian amplitude A, its size f{sub NL}, and corresponding shapes for a red-tilted spectrum of primordial scalar perturbations. Specifically, for cuscuton-like models I show that f{sub NL} ∼ O(1), and the shape of its non-Gaussian amplitude peaks for both equilateral and local configurations, the latter being dominant. These results, albeit similar, are quantitatively distinct from the corresponding ones obtained by Magueijo et al. in the context of superluminal bimetric models.

  14. Unexpected Diversity of Chlorite Dismutases: a Catalytically Efficient Dimeric Enzyme from Nitrobacter winogradskyi ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlynek, Georg; Sjöblom, Björn; Kostan, Julius; Füreder, Stephanie; Maixner, Frank; Gysel, Kira; Furtmüller, Paul Georg; Obinger, Christian; Wagner, Michael; Daims, Holger; Djinović-Carugo, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    Chlorite dismutase (Cld) is a unique heme enzyme catalyzing the conversion of ClO2− to Cl− and O2. Cld is usually found in perchlorate- or chlorate-reducing bacteria but was also recently identified in a nitrite-oxidizing bacterium of the genus Nitrospira. Here we characterized a novel Cld-like protein from the chemolithoautotrophic nitrite oxidizer Nitrobacter winogradskyi which is significantly smaller than all previously known chlorite dismutases. Its three-dimensional (3D) crystal structure revealed a dimer of two identical subunits, which sharply contrasts with the penta- or hexameric structures of other chlorite dismutases. Despite a truncated N-terminal domain in each subunit, this novel enzyme turned out to be a highly efficient chlorite dismutase (Km = 90 μM; kcat = 190 s−1; kcat/Km = 2.1 × 106 M−1 s−1), demonstrating a greater structural and phylogenetic diversity of these enzymes than was previously known. Based on comparative analyses of Cld sequences and 3D structures, signature amino acid residues that can be employed to assess whether uncharacterized Cld-like proteins may have a high chlorite-dismutating activity were identified. Interestingly, proteins that contain all these signatures and are phylogenetically closely related to the novel-type Cld of N. winogradskyi exist in a large number of other microbes, including other nitrite oxidizers. PMID:21441524

  15. Unexpected diversity of chlorite dismutases: a catalytically efficient dimeric enzyme from Nitrobacter winogradskyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlynek, Georg; Sjöblom, Björn; Kostan, Julius; Füreder, Stephanie; Maixner, Frank; Gysel, Kira; Furtmüller, Paul Georg; Obinger, Christian; Wagner, Michael; Daims, Holger; Djinović-Carugo, Kristina

    2011-05-01

    Chlorite dismutase (Cld) is a unique heme enzyme catalyzing the conversion of ClO(2)(-) to Cl(-) and O(2). Cld is usually found in perchlorate- or chlorate-reducing bacteria but was also recently identified in a nitrite-oxidizing bacterium of the genus Nitrospira. Here we characterized a novel Cld-like protein from the chemolithoautotrophic nitrite oxidizer Nitrobacter winogradskyi which is significantly smaller than all previously known chlorite dismutases. Its three-dimensional (3D) crystal structure revealed a dimer of two identical subunits, which sharply contrasts with the penta- or hexameric structures of other chlorite dismutases. Despite a truncated N-terminal domain in each subunit, this novel enzyme turned out to be a highly efficient chlorite dismutase (K(m) = 90 μM; k(cat) = 190 s(-1); k(cat)/K(m) = 2.1 × 10(6) M(-1) s(-1)), demonstrating a greater structural and phylogenetic diversity of these enzymes than was previously known. Based on comparative analyses of Cld sequences and 3D structures, signature amino acid residues that can be employed to assess whether uncharacterized Cld-like proteins may have a high chlorite-dismutating activity were identified. Interestingly, proteins that contain all these signatures and are phylogenetically closely related to the novel-type Cld of N. winogradskyi exist in a large number of other microbes, including other nitrite oxidizers.

  16. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles unique cost estimating requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, P.; Apgar, H.; Stukes, S.; Sterk, S.

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), also referred to as drones, are aerial platforms that fly without a human pilot onboard. UAVs are controlled autonomously by a computer in the vehicle or under the remote control of a pilot stationed at a fixed ground location. There are a wide variety of drone shapes, sizes, configurations, complexities, and characteristics. Use of these devices by the Department of Defense (DoD), NASA, civil and commercial organizations continues to grow. UAVs are commonly used for intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance (ISR). They are also use for combat operations, and civil applications, such as firefighting, non-military security work, surveillance of infrastructure (e.g. pipelines, power lines and country borders). UAVs are often preferred for missions that require sustained persistence (over 4 hours in duration), or are “ too dangerous, dull or dirty” for manned aircraft. Moreover, they can offer significant acquisition and operations cost savings over traditional manned aircraft. Because of these unique characteristics and missions, UAV estimates require some unique estimating methods. This paper describes a framework for estimating UAV systems total ownership cost including hardware components, software design, and operations. The challenge of collecting data, testing the sensitivities of cost drivers, and creating cost estimating relationships (CERs) for each key work breakdown structure (WBS) element is discussed. The autonomous operation of UAVs is especially challenging from a software perspective.

  17. ENDF Cross Sections are not Uniquely Defined

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cullen, D. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-06-11

    Most evaluated data that is coded into the ENDF format [1] does not uniquely define cross sections, because the evaluator defined total is not equal to the sum of evaluator defined partial cross sections, i.e., the total is not equal to elastic plus capture, etc. So we have always had the question: What is the correct total cross section? This is not a new problem; it has existed since the very beginning of ENDF over forty years ago. It is a problem that is periodically discussed and apparently handled, only to have it pop up again every ten years or so, as we have the next generation of ENDF format users who are not aware of the problem. See the Appendices for a summary of the differences that exist today for the ENDF/B-VII.0 (Appendix C), JEFF- 3.1(Appendix D), JENDL-3.3 (Appendix E), and CENDL-3.1 (Appendix F) data libraries. For use in our application we need consistent, unique data. To accomplish this for decades we [2, 3] have been ignoring the evaluator defined total, and re-defining it as equal to the sum of its evaluator defined parts. This has never been completely satisfactory to us, because we have been doing this without consulting evaluators, or obtaining their approval, so that the data we actually use in our applications may or may not be what the evaluators intended.

  18. Astronomy Outreach for Large and Unique Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowich, D.; Sparks, R. T.; Pompea, S. M.; Kendall, J. S.; Dugan, C.

    2013-04-01

    In this session, we discuss different approaches to reaching large audiences. In addition to star parties and astronomy events, the audiences for some of the events include music concerts or festivals, sick children and their families, minority communities, American Indian reservations, and tourist sites such as the National Mall. The goal is to bring science directly to the public—to people who attend astronomy events and to people who do not come to star parties, science museums, or science festivals. These programs allow the entire community to participate in astronomy activities to enhance the public appreciation of science. These programs attract large enthusiastic crowds often with young children participating in these family learning experiences. The public will become more informed, educated, and inspired about astronomy and will also be provided with information that will allow them to continue to learn after this outreach activity. Large and unique audiences often have common problems, and their solutions and the lessons learned will be presented. Interaction with the participants in this session will provide important community feedback used to improve astronomy outreach for large and unique audiences. New ways to expand astronomy outreach to new large audiences will be discussed.

  19. Beryllium - A Unique Material in Nuclear Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T., A. Tomberlin

    2004-11-01

    Beryllium, due to its unique combination of structural, chemical, atomic number, and neutron absorption cross section characteristics, has been used successfully as a neutron reflector for three generations of nuclear test reactors at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), the largest test reactor in the world, has utilized five successive beryllium neutron reflectors and is scheduled for continued operation with a sixth beryllium reflector. A high radiation environment in a test reactor produces radiation damage and other changes in beryllium. These changes necessitate safety analysis of the beryllium, methods to predict performance, and appropriate surveillances. Other nuclear applications also utilize beryllium. Beryllium, given its unique atomic, physical, and chemical characteristics, is widely used as a “window” for x-rays and gamma rays. Beryllium, intimately mixed with high-energy alpha radiation emitters has been successfully used to produce neutron sources. This paper addresses operational experience and methodologies associated with the use of beryllium in nuclear test reactors and in “windows” for x-rays and gamma rays. Other nuclear applications utilizing beryllium are also discussed.

  20. DRUMS: a human disease related unique gene mutation search engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zuofeng; Liu, Xingnan; Wen, Jingran; Xu, Ye; Zhao, Xin; Li, Xuan; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2011-10-01

    With the completion of the human genome project and the development of new methods for gene variant detection, the integration of mutation data and its phenotypic consequences has become more important than ever. Among all available resources, locus-specific databases (LSDBs) curate one or more specific genes' mutation data along with high-quality phenotypes. Although some genotype-phenotype data from LSDB have been integrated into central databases little effort has been made to integrate all these data by a search engine approach. In this work, we have developed disease related unique gene mutation search engine (DRUMS), a search engine for human disease related unique gene mutation as a convenient tool for biologists or physicians to retrieve gene variant and related phenotype information. Gene variant and phenotype information were stored in a gene-centred relational database. Moreover, the relationships between mutations and diseases were indexed by the uniform resource identifier from LSDB, or another central database. By querying DRUMS, users can access the most popular mutation databases under one interface. DRUMS could be treated as a domain specific search engine. By using web crawling, indexing, and searching technologies, it provides a competitively efficient interface for searching and retrieving mutation data and their relationships to diseases. The present system is freely accessible at http://www.scbit.org/glif/new/drums/index.html. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. A Real-Time Kinect Signature-Based Patient Home Monitoring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumrosen, Gaddi; Miron, Yael; Intrator, Nathan; Plotnik, Meir

    2016-11-23

    Assessment of body kinematics during performance of daily life activities at home plays a significant role in medical condition monitoring of elderly people and patients with neurological disorders. The affordable and non-wearable Microsoft Kinect ("Kinect") system has been recently used to estimate human subject kinematic features. However, the Kinect suffers from a limited range and angular coverage, distortion in skeleton joints' estimations, and erroneous multiplexing of different subjects' estimations to one. This study addresses these limitations by incorporating a set of features that create a unique "Kinect Signature". The Kinect Signature enables identification of different subjects in the scene, automatically assign the kinematics feature estimations only to the subject of interest, and provide information about the quality of the Kinect-based estimations. The methods were verified by a set of experiments, which utilize real-time scenarios commonly used to assess motor functions in elderly subjects and in subjects with neurological disorders. The experiment results indicate that the skeleton based Kinect Signature features can be used to identify different subjects in high accuracy. We demonstrate how these capabilities can be used to assign the Kinect estimations to the Subject of Interest, and exclude low quality tracking features. The results of this work can help in establishing reliable kinematic features, which can assist in future to obtain objective scores for medical analysis of patient condition at home while not restricted to perform daily life activities.

  2. Implications for health and disease in the genetic signature of the Ashkenazi Jewish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Saurav; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey A; Malhotra, Anil K; Lee, Annette T; Gregersen, Peter K; Kane, John M; Pe'er, Itsik; Darvasi, Ariel; Lencz, Todd

    2012-01-25

    Relatively small, reproductively isolated populations with reduced genetic diversity may have advantages for genomewide association mapping in disease genetics. The Ashkenazi Jewish population represents a unique population for study based on its recent (marriage within the community. We genotyped more than 1,300 Ashkenazi Jewish healthy volunteers from the Hebrew University Genetic Resource with the Illumina HumanOmni1-Quad platform. Comparison of the genotyping data with that of neighboring European and Asian populations enabled the Ashkenazi Jewish-specific component of the variance to be characterized with respect to disease-relevant alleles and pathways. Using clustering, principal components, and pairwise genetic distance as converging approaches, we identified an Ashkenazi Jewish-specific genetic signature that differentiated these subjects from both European and Middle Eastern samples. Most notably, gene ontology analysis of the Ashkenazi Jewish genetic signature revealed an enrichment of genes functioning in transepithelial chloride transport, such as CFTR, and in equilibrioception, potentially shedding light on cystic fibrosis, Usher syndrome and other diseases over-represented in the Ashkenazi Jewish population. Results also impact risk profiles for autoimmune and metabolic disorders in this population. Finally, residual intra-Ashkenazi population structure was minimal, primarily determined by class 1 MHC alleles, and not related to host country of origin. The Ashkenazi Jewish population is of potential utility in disease-mapping studies due to its relative homogeneity and distinct genomic signature. Results suggest that Ashkenazi-associated disease genes may be components of population-specific genomic differences in key functional pathways.

  3. Unique expansions and intersections of Cantor sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Simon; Kong, Derong

    2017-04-01

    To each α \\in (1/3,1/2) we associate the Cantor set Γα:={∑i=1∞ɛiαi:ɛi∈{0,1}, i⩾1}. In this paper we consider the intersection {{ Γ }α}{\\cap}≤ft({{ Γ }α}+t\\right) for any translation t\\in {R} . We pay special attention to those t with a unique {-1, 0, 1} α-expansion, and study the set Dα:={dimH(Γα∩(Γα+t)):t has a unique {-1,0,1} α-expansion}. We prove that there exists a transcendental number {αKL}≈ 0.394 33\\ldots such that: {{D}α} is finite for α \\in ≤ft({αKL},1/2\\right), {{D}{αKL}}} is infinitely countable, and {{D}α} contains an interval for α \\in ≤ft(1/3,{{αKL}\\right). We also prove that {{D}α} equals ≤ft[0,\\frac{log 2}{-log α}\\right] if and only if α \\in ≤ft(1/3,\\frac{3-\\sqrt{5}}{2}\\right] . As a consequence of our investigation we prove some results on the possible values of \\text{di}{{\\text{m}}H}≤ft({{ Γ }α}{\\cap}≤ft({{ Γ }α}+t\\right)\\right) when {{ Γ }α}{\\cap}≤ft({{ Γ }α}+t\\right) is a self-similar set. We also give examples of t with a continuum of {-1, 0, 1} α-expansions for which we can explicitly calculate \\text{di}{{\\text{m}}H}≤ft({{ Γ }α}{\\cap}≤ft({{ Γ }α}+t\\right)\\right), and for which {{ Γ }α}{\\cap}≤ft({{ Γ }α}+t\\right) is a self-similar set. We also construct α and t for which {{ Γ }α}{\\cap}≤ft({{ Γ }α}+t\\right) contains only transcendental numbers. Our approach makes use of digit frequency arguments and a lexicographic characterisation of those t with a unique {-1, 0, 1} α-expansion.

  4. Real-World Post-Quantum Digital Signatures

    OpenAIRE

    Butin, Denis; Gazdag, Stefan-Lukas; Buchmann, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Digital signatures are ubiquitous in modern security infrastructures. Their lack of diversity in industrial settings makes most contemporary systems susceptible to quantum computer-aided attacks. Alternatives exist, among which a family of well-understood schemes with minimal security requirements: hash-based signatures. In addition to being quantum-safe, hash-based signatures are modular, providing long-term security. They are not yet being used in practice. We discuss the reasons for this g...

  5. Modeling the Lexical Morphology of Western Handwritten Signatures

    OpenAIRE

    Moises Diaz-Cabrera; Ferrer, Miguel A.; Aythami Morales

    2015-01-01

    A handwritten signature is the final response to a complex cognitive and neuromuscular process which is the result of the learning process. Because of the many factors involved in signing, it is possible to study the signature from many points of view: graphologists, forensic experts, neurologists and computer vision experts have all examined them. Researchers study written signatures for psychiatric, penal, health and automatic verification purposes. As a potentially useful, multi-purpose st...

  6. From Malware Signatures to Anti-Virus Assisted Attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Wressnegger, Christian; Freeman, Kevin; Yamaguchi, Fabian; Rieck, Konrad

    2016-01-01

    Although anti-virus software has significantly evolved over the last decade, classic signature matching based on byte patterns is still a prevalent concept for identifying security threats. Anti-virus signatures are a simple and fast detection mechanism that can complement more sophisticated analysis strategies. However, if signatures are not designed with care, they can turn from a defensive mechanism into an instrument of attack. In this paper, we present a novel method for automatically de...

  7. A genome-wide scan for selection signatures in Nellore cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somavilla, A L; Sonstegard, T S; Higa, R H; Rosa, A N; Siqueira, F; Silva, L O C; Torres Júnior, R A A; Coutinho, L L; Mudadu, M A; Alencar, M M; Regitano, L C A

    2014-12-01

    Brazilian Nellore cattle (Bos indicus) have been selected for growth traits for over more than four decades. In recent years, reproductive and meat quality traits have become more important because of increasing consumption, exports and consumer demand. The identification of genome regions altered by artificial selection can potentially permit a better understanding of the biology of specific phenotypes that are useful for the development of tools designed to increase selection efficiency. Therefore, the aims of this study were to detect evidence of recent selection signatures in Nellore cattle using extended haplotype homozygosity methodology and BovineHD marker genotypes (>777,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms) as well as to identify corresponding genes underlying these signals. Thirty-one significant regions (P selection signatures were detected, and 19 of these overlapped quantitative trait loci related to reproductive traits, growth, feed efficiency, meat quality, fatty acid profiles and immunity. In addition, 545 genes were identified in regions harboring selection signatures. Within this group, 58 genes were associated with growth, muscle and adipose tissue metabolism, reproductive traits or the immune system. Using relative extended haplotype homozygosity to analyze high-density single nucleotide polymorphism marker data allowed for the identification of regions potentially under artificial selection pressure in the Nellore genome, which might be used to better understand autozygosity and the effects of selection on the Nellore genome. © 2014 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  8. Monotop signature from a fermionic top partner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Dorival; Kong, Kyoungchul; Sakurai, Kazuki; Takeuchi, Michihisa

    2018-01-01

    We investigate monotop signatures arising from phenomenological models of fermionic top partners, which are degenerate in mass and decay into a bosonic dark matter candidate, either spin 0 or spin 1. Such a model provides a monotop signature as a smoking gun, while conventional searches with t t ¯ + missing transverse momentum are limited. Two such scenarios, (i) a phenomenological third generation extradimensional model with excited top and electroweak sectors, and (ii) a model where only a top partner and a dark matter particle are added to the standard model, are studied in the degenerate mass regime. We find that in the case of extra dimension a number of different processes give rise to effectively the same monotop final state, and a great gain can be obtained in the sensitivity for this channel. We show that the monotop search can explore top-partner masses up to 630 and 300 GeV for the third generation extradimensional model and the minimal fermionic top-partner model, respectively, at the high luminosity LHC.

  9. Uniqueness and Tradition, according to Patek Philippe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costin Popescu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Products tend to become objects of psycho-affective investments, more than instruments with practical-functional duties. Watches form a product category where this evolution is manifest. The biggest watch manufacturers sell subjective time, meant to give (more spiritual consistency to those who buy and use them. The advertisements of a campaign carried out in the 1990s by Patek Philippe, producer of luxury watches, convey elitist values: uniqueness, tradition. The requirements for the integration of such values claim a high complexity of the advertisements; the headlines, for example, ask their addressees to redefine concepts (tradition; the body texts use argumentative layers; the images present characters whose hands form expressive configurations, etc. Such efforts to elaborate commercial messages prove the symbolic ambitions of advertising, one of the most prominent factors to mould meaning in the social life.

  10. Imaging concerns unique to twin pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalingam, Sowmya; Dighe, Manjiri

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of multiple gestations is increasing with rising maternal age and the utilization of artificial reproductive techniques. Twinning confers an increased risk to the pregnancy, with higher incidence of structural anomalies, preterm delivery, and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Certain conditions are unique to twin pregnancy, such as the twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome and the acardiac twin, secondary to vascular sharing between both the fetuses. Conjoined twinning is a phenomenon occurring because of late splitting of the zygote. Advances in imaging have increased our ability to manage multiple pregnancies with accurate prenatal diagnosis, better antenatal surveillance, and novel image-guided procedures. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the twinning process, including the pathophysiology, diagnostic pearls, and dilemmas and to briefly outline the outcomes and available treatment options to assist the radiologist in better management of multiple gestations. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Mushrooms—Biologically Distinct and Nutritionally Unique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Mary Jo; Miller, Amy Myrdal; Roupas, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Mushrooms are fungi, biologically distinct from plant- and animal-derived foods (fruits, vegetables, grains, dairy, protein [meat, fish, poultry, legumes, nuts, and seeds]) that comprise the US Department of Agriculture food patterns operationalized by consumer-focused MyPlate messages. Although mushrooms provide nutrients found in these food groups, they also have a unique nutrient profile. Classified into food grouping systems by their use as a vegetable, mushrooms’ increasing use in main entrées in plant-based diets is growing, supporting consumers’ efforts to follow dietary guidance recommendations. Mushrooms’ nutrient and culinary characteristics suggest it may be time to reevaluate food groupings and health benefits in the context of 3 separate food kingdoms: plants/botany, animals/zoology, and fungi/mycology. PMID:25435595

  12. Gene expression signatures for colorectal cancer microsatellite status and HNPCC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruhøffer, M; Jensen, J L; Laiho, P

    2005-01-01

    of 101 stage II and III colorectal cancers (34 MSI, 67 microsatellite stable (MSS)) using high-density oligonucleotide microarrays. From these data, we constructed a nine-gene signature capable of separating the mismatch repair proficient and deficient tumours. Subsequently, we demonstrated...... the robustness of the signature by transferring it to a real-time RT-PCR platform. Using this platform, the signature was validated on an independent test set consisting of 47 tumours (10 MSI, 37 MSS), of which 45 were correctly classified. In a second step, we constructed a signature capable of separating MMR...

  13. A weak blind signature scheme based on quantum cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xiaojun; Niu, Xiamu; Ji, Liping; Tian, Yuan

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, we present a weak blind signature scheme based on the correlation of EPR (Einstein-Padolsky-Rosen) pairs. Different from classical blind signature schemes and current quantum signature schemes, our quantum blind signature scheme could guarantee not only the unconditionally security but also the anonymity of the message owner. To achieve that, quantum key distribution and one-time pad are adopted in our scheme. Experimental analysis proved that our scheme have the characteristics of non-counterfeit, non-disavowal, blindness and traceability. It has a wide application to E-payment system, E-government, E-business, and etc.

  14. Unique Fock quantization of scalar cosmological perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Méndez, Mikel; Mena Marugán, Guillermo A.; Olmedo, Javier; Velhinho, José M.

    2012-05-01

    We investigate the ambiguities in the Fock quantization of the scalar perturbations of a Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker model with a massive scalar field as matter content. We consider the case of compact spatial sections (thus avoiding infrared divergences), with the topology of a three-sphere. After expanding the perturbations in series of eigenfunctions of the Laplace-Beltrami operator, the Hamiltonian of the system is written up to quadratic order in them. We fix the gauge of the local degrees of freedom in two different ways, reaching in both cases the same qualitative results. A canonical transformation, which includes the scaling of the matter-field perturbations by the scale factor of the geometry, is performed in order to arrive at a convenient formulation of the system. We then study the quantization of these perturbations in the classical background determined by the homogeneous variables. Based on previous work, we introduce a Fock representation for the perturbations in which: (a) the complex structure is invariant under the isometries of the spatial sections and (b) the field dynamics is implemented as a unitary operator. These two properties select not only a unique unitary equivalence class of representations, but also a preferred field description, picking up a canonical pair of field variables among all those that can be obtained by means of a time-dependent scaling of the matter field (completed into a linear canonical transformation). Finally, we present an equivalent quantization constructed in terms of gauge-invariant quantities. We prove that this quantization can be attained by a mode-by-mode time-dependent linear canonical transformation which admits a unitary implementation, so that it is also uniquely determined.

  15. Integrating iris and signature traits for personal authentication using user-specific weighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viriri, Serestina; Tapamo, Jules R

    2012-01-01

    Biometric systems based on uni-modal traits are characterized by noisy sensor data, restricted degrees of freedom, non-universality and are susceptible to spoof attacks. Multi-modal biometric systems seek to alleviate some of these drawbacks by providing multiple evidences of the same identity. In this paper, a user-score-based weighting technique for integrating the iris and signature traits is presented. This user-specific weighting technique has proved to be an efficient and effective fusion scheme which increases the authentication accuracy rate of multi-modal biometric systems. The weights are used to indicate the importance of matching scores output by each biometrics trait. The experimental results show that our biometric system based on the integration of iris and signature traits achieve a false rejection rate (FRR) of 0.08% and a false acceptance rate (FAR) of 0.01%.

  16. Integrating Iris and Signature Traits for Personal Authentication Using User-SpecificWeighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serestina Viriri

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Biometric systems based on uni-modal traits are characterized by noisy sensor data, restricted degrees of freedom, non-universality and are susceptible to spoof attacks. Multi-modal biometric systems seek to alleviate some of these drawbacks by providing multiple evidences of the same identity. In this paper, a user-score-based weighting technique for integrating the iris and signature traits is presented. This user-specific weighting technique has proved to be an efficient and effective fusion scheme which increases the authentication accuracy rate of multi-modal biometric systems. The weights are used to indicate the importance of matching scores output by each biometrics trait. The experimental results show that our biometric system based on the integration of iris and signature traits achieve a false rejection rate (FRR of 0.08% and a false acceptance rate (FAR of 0.01%.

  17. A comparative neuropsychological test battery differentiates cognitive signatures of Fragile X and Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, C S; Boutet, I; Cornish, K; Graham, G E; Berry-Kravis, E; Drouin, A; Milgram, N W

    2009-02-01

    Standardised neuropsychological and cognitive measures present some limitations in their applicability and generalisability to individuals with intellectual disability (ID). Alternative approaches to defining the cognitive signatures of various forms of ID are needed to advance our understanding of the profiles of strengths and weaknesses as well as the affected brain areas. To evaluate the utility and feasibility of six non-verbal comparative neuropsychological (CN) tasks administered in a modified version of the Wisconsin General Test Apparatus (WGTA) to confirm and extend our knowledge of unique cognitive signatures of Fragile X syndrome (FXS) and Down syndrome (DS). A test battery of CN tasks adapted from the animal literature was administered in a modified WGTA. Tasks were selected that have established or emerging brain-behaviour relationships in the domains of visual-perceptual, visual-spatial, working memory and inhibition. Despite the fact that these tasks revealed cognitive signatures for the two ID groups, only some hypotheses were supported. Results suggest that whereas individuals with DS were relatively impaired on visual-perceptual and visual-spatial reversal learning tasks they showed strengths in egocentric spatial learning and object discrimination tasks. Individuals with FXS were relatively impaired on object discrimination learning and reversal tasks, which was attributable to side preferences. In contrast, these same individuals exhibited strengths in egocentric spatial learning and reversal tasks as well as on an object recognition memory task. Both ID groups demonstrated relatively poor performance for a visual-spatial working memory task. Performance on the modified WGTA tasks differentiated cognitive signatures between two of the most common forms of ID. Results are discussed in the context of the literature on the cognitive and neurobiological features of FXS and DS.

  18. Modeling, materials, and metrics: the three-m approach to FCS signature solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda, Teresa G.; Thomas, David J.; Namburu, Raju; Edwards, Timothy

    2002-08-01

    There is a push in the Army to develop lighter vehicles that can get to remote parts of the world quickly. This objective force is not some new vehicle, but a whole new way of fighting wars. The Future Combat System (FCS), as it is called, has an extremely aggressive timeline and must rely on modeling and simulation to aid in defining the goals, optimizing the design and materials, and testing the performance of the various FCS systems concepts. While virtual prototyping for vehicles (both military and commercial) has been around as a concept for well over a decade and its use is promoted heavily in tours and in boardrooms, the actual application of virtual protoyping is often limited and when successful has been confined to specific physical engineering areas such as weight, space, stress, mobility, and ergonomics. If FCS is to succeed in its acquisition schedule, virtual prototyping will have to be relied on heavily and its application expanded. Signature management is an example of an area that would benefit greatly from virtual prototyping tools. However, there are several obstacles to achieving this goal. To rigorously analyze a vehicle's IR and visual signatures extensively in several different environments over different weather and seasonal conditions could result millions of potentially unique signatures to evaluate. In addition, there is no real agreement on what evaluate means or even what value is used to represent signature; Delta T( degree(s)C), Probability of Detection? What the user really wants to know is: how do I make my system survivable? This paper attempts to describe and then bound the problem and describe how the Army is attempting to deal with some of these issues in a holistic manner using SMART (Simulation and Modeling for Acquisition, Requirements, and Training) principles.

  19. Crystal structure analysis of a bacterial aryl acylamidase belonging to the amidase signature enzyme family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Saeyoung; Park, Eun-Hye; Ko, Hyeok-Jin; Bang, Won Gi [Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Anam-Dong, Seoungbuk-Gu, Seoul, 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hye-Yeon [Protein Structure Research Team, Korea Basic Science Institute, Ochang, Chungbuk, 363-883 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyoung Heon [Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Anam-Dong, Seoungbuk-Gu, Seoul, 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, In-Geol, E-mail: igchoi@korea.ac.kr [Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Anam-Dong, Seoungbuk-Gu, Seoul, 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-13

    The atomic structure of a bacterial aryl acylamidase (EC 3.5.1.13; AAA) is reported and structural features are investigated to better understand the catalytic profile of this enzyme. Structures of AAA were determined in its native form and in complex with the analgesic acetanilide, p-acetaminophenol, at 1.70 Å and 1.73 Å resolutions, respectively. The overall structural fold of AAA was identified as an α/β fold class, exhibiting an open twisted β-sheet core surrounded by α-helices. The asymmetric unit contains one AAA molecule and the monomeric form is functionally active. The core structure enclosing the signature sequence region, including the canonical Ser-cisSer-Lys catalytic triad, is conserved in all members of the Amidase Signature enzyme family. The structure of AAA in a complex with its ligand reveals a unique organization in the substrate-binding pocket. The binding pocket consists of two loops (loop1 and loop2) in the amidase signature sequence and one helix (α10) in the non-amidase signature sequence. We identified two residues (Tyr{sup 136} and Thr{sup 330}) that interact with the ligand via water molecules, and a hydrogen-bonding network that explains the catalytic affinity over various aryl acyl compounds. The optimum activity of AAA at pH > 10 suggests that the reaction mechanism employs Lys{sup 84} as the catalytic base to polarize the Ser{sup 187} nucleophile in the catalytic triad. - Highlights: • We determined the first structure of a bacterial aryl acylamidase (EC 3.5.1.13). • Structure revealed spatially distinct architecture of the substrate-binding pocket. • Hydrogen-bonding with Tyr{sup 136} and Thr{sup 330} mediates ligand-binding and substrate.

  20. Enhanced anti-counterfeiting measures for additive manufacturing: coupling lanthanide nanomaterial chemical signatures with blockchain technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, Zachary C.; Stephenson, David E.; Christ, Josef F.; Pope, Timothy R.; Arey, Bruce W.; Barrett, Christopher A.; Warner, Marvin G.

    2017-08-18

    The significant rise of additive manufacturing (AM) in recent years is in part due to the open sourced nature of the printing processes and reduced cost and capital barriers relative to traditional manufacturing. However, this democratization of manufacturing spurs an increased demand for producers and end-users to verify the authenticity and quality of individual parts. To this end, we introduce an anti-counterfeiting method composed of first embedding engineered nanomaterials into features of a 3D-printed part followed by non-destructive interrogation of these features to quantify a chemical signature profile. The part specific chemical signature data is then linked to a securitized, distributed, and time-stamped blockchain ledger entry. To demonstrate the utility of this approach, lanthanide-aspartic acid nanoscale coordination polymers (Ln3+- Asp NCs) / poly(lactic) acid (PLA) composites were formulated and transformed into a filament feedstock for fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printing. In the present case, a quick-response (QR) code containing the doped Ln3+-Asp NCs was printed using a dual-extruder FDM printer into pure PLA parts. The QR code provides a searchable reference to an Ethereum-based blockchain entry. The QR code physical features also serve as defined areas to probe the signatures arising from the embedded Ln3+-Asp NCs. Visible fluorescence emission with UV-excitation was quantified in terms of color using a smartphone camera and incorporated into blockchain entries. Ultimately, linking unique chemical signature data to blockchain databases is anticipated to make the costs of counterfeiting AM materials significantly more prohibitive and transactions between those in the supply chain more trustworthy.

  1. Microbial signatures of oral dysbiosis, periodontitis and edentulism revealed by Gene Meter methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, M Colby; Pozhitkov, Alex E; Noble, Peter A

    2016-12-01

    Conceptual models suggest that certain microorganisms (e.g., the "red" complex) are indicative of a specific disease state (e.g., periodontitis); however, recent studies have questioned the validity of these models. Here, the abundances of 500+ microbial species were determined in 16 patients with clinical signs of one of the following oral conditions: periodontitis, established caries, edentulism, and oral health. Our goal was to determine if the abundances of certain microorganisms reflect dysbiosis or a specific clinical condition that could be used as a 'signature' for dental research. Microbial abundances were determined by the analysis of 138,718 calibrated probes using Gene Meter methodology. Each 16S rRNA gene was targeted by an average of 194 unique probes (n=25nt). The calibration involved diluting pooled gene target samples, hybridizing each dilution to a DNA microarray, and fitting the probe intensities to adsorption models. The fit of the model to the experimental data was used to assess individual and aggregate probe behavior; good fits (R2>0.90) were retained for back-calculating microbial abundances from patient samples. The abundance of a gene was determined from the median of all calibrated individual probes or from the calibrated abundance of all aggregated probes. With the exception of genes with low abundances (dysbiosis' because they had significantly higher abundances in patients with periodontitis and edentulism when contrasted with health. Similarly, 13 genera were classified as 'signatures of periodontitis', and 14 genera were classified as 'signatures of edentulism'. The signatures could be used, individually or in combination, to assess the clinical status of a patient (e.g., evaluating treatments such as antibiotic therapies). Comparisons of the same patient samples revealed high false negatives (45%) for next-generation-sequencing results and low false positives (7%) for Gene Meter results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  2. GENOMEMASKER package for designing unique genomic PCR primers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaplinski Lauris

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The design of oligonucleotides and PCR primers for studying large genomes is complicated by the redundancy of sequences. The eukaryotic genomes are particularly difficult to study due to abundant repeats. The speed of most existing primer evaluation programs is not sufficient for large-scale experiments. Results In order to improve the efficiency and success rate of automatic primer/oligo design, we created a novel method which allows rapid masking of repeats in large sequence files, for example in eukaryotic genomes. It also allows the detection of all alternative binding sites of PCR primers and the prediction of PCR products. The new method was implemented in a collection of efficient programs, the GENOMEMASKER package. The performance of the programs was compared to other similar programs. We also modified the PRIMER3 program, to be able to design primers from lowercase-masked sequences. Conclusion The GENOMEMASKER package is able to mask the entire human genome for non-unique primers within 6 hours and find locations of all binding sites for 10 000 designed primer pairs within 10 minutes. Additionally, it predicts all alternative PCR products from large genomes for given primer pairs.

  3. Examination of genome homogeneity in prokaryotes using genomic signatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Bohlin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: DNA word frequencies, normalized for genomic AT content, are remarkably stable within prokaryotic genomes and are therefore said to reflect a "genomic signature." The genomic signatures can be used to phylogenetically classify organisms from arbitrary sampled DNA. Genomic signatures can also be used to search for horizontally transferred DNA or DNA regions subjected to special selection forces. Thus, the stability of the genomic signature can be used as a measure of genomic homogeneity. The factors associated with the stability of the genomic signatures are not known, and this motivated us to investigate further. We analyzed the intra-genomic variance of genomic signatures based on AT content normalization (0(th order Markov model as well as genomic signatures normalized by smaller DNA words (1(st and 2(nd order Markov models for 636 sequenced prokaryotic genomes. Regression models were fitted, with intra-genomic signature variance as the response variable, to a set of factors representing genomic properties such as genomic AT content, genome size, habitat, phylum, oxygen requirement, optimal growth temperature and oligonucleotide usage variance (OUV, a measure of oligonucleotide usage bias, measured as the variance between genomic tetranucleotide frequencies and Markov chain approximated tetranucleotide frequencies, as predictors. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Regression analysis revealed that OUV was the most important factor (p<0.001 determining intra-genomic homogeneity as measured using genomic signatures. This means that the less random the oligonucleotide usage is in the sense of higher OUV, the more homogeneous the genome is in terms of the genomic signature. The other factors influencing variance in the genomic signature (p<0.001 were genomic AT content, phylum and oxygen requirement. CONCLUSIONS: Genomic homogeneity in prokaryotes is intimately linked to genomic GC content, oligonucleotide usage bias (OUV and aerobiosis, while

  4. Defining the genomic signature of totipotency and pluripotency during early human development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amparo Galan

    Full Text Available The genetic mechanisms governing human pre-implantation embryo development and the in vitro counterparts, human embryonic stem cells (hESCs, still remain incomplete. Previous global genome studies demonstrated that totipotent blastomeres from day-3 human embryos and pluripotent inner cell masses (ICMs from blastocysts, display unique and differing transcriptomes. Nevertheless, comparative gene expression analysis has revealed that no significant differences exist between hESCs derived from blastomeres versus those obtained from ICMs, suggesting that pluripotent hESCs involve a new developmental progression. To understand early human stages evolution, we developed an undifferentiation network signature (UNS and applied it to a differential gene expression profile between single blastomeres from day-3 embryos, ICMs and hESCs. This allowed us to establish a unique signature composed of highly interconnected genes characteristic of totipotency (61 genes, in vivo pluripotency (20 genes, and in vitro pluripotency (107 genes, and which are also proprietary according to functional analysis. This systems biology approach has led to an improved understanding of the molecular and signaling processes governing human pre-implantation embryo development, as well as enabling us to comprehend how hESCs might adapt to in vitro culture conditions.

  5. Identification of epigenetic signature associated with alpha thalassemia/mental retardation X-linked syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenkel, Laila C; Kernohan, Kristin D; McBride, Arran; Reina, Ditta; Hodge, Amanda; Ainsworth, Peter J; Rodenhiser, David I; Pare, Guillaume; Bérubé, Nathalie G; Skinner, Cindy; Boycott, Kym M; Schwartz, Charles; Sadikovic, Bekim

    2017-01-01

    Alpha thalassemia/mental retardation X-linked syndrome (ATR-X) is caused by a mutation at the chromatin regulator gene ATRX. The mechanisms involved in the ATR-X pathology are not completely understood, but may involve epigenetic modifications. ATRX has been linked to the regulation of histone H3 and DNA methylation, while mutations in the ATRX gene may lead to the downstream epigenetic and transcriptional effects. Elucidating the underlying epigenetic mechanisms altered in ATR-X will provide a better understanding about the pathobiology of this disease, as well as provide novel diagnostic biomarkers. We performed genome-wide DNA methylation assessment of the peripheral blood samples from 18 patients with ATR-X and compared it to 210 controls. We demonstrated the evidence of a unique and highly specific DNA methylation "epi-signature" in the peripheral blood of ATRX patients, which was corroborated by targeted bisulfite sequencing experiments. Although genomically represented, differentially methylated regions showed evidence of preferential clustering in pericentromeric and telometric chromosomal regions, areas where ATRX has multiple functions related to maintenance of heterochromatin and genomic integrity. Most significant methylation changes in the 14 genomic loci provide a unique epigenetic signature for this syndrome that may be used as a highly sensitive and specific diagnostic biomarker to support the diagnosis of ATR-X, particularly in patients with phenotypic complexity and in patients with ATRX gene sequence variants of unknown significance.

  6. Deep sequencing reveals unique small RNA repertoire that is regulated during head regeneration in Hydra magnipapillata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Srikar; Nair, Aparna; Cheedipudi, Sirisha; Poduval, Deepak; Dhawan, Jyotsna; Palakodeti, Dasaradhi; Ghanekar, Yashoda

    2013-01-07

    Small non-coding RNAs such as miRNAs, piRNAs and endo-siRNAs fine-tune gene expression through post-transcriptional regulation, modulating important processes in development, differentiation, homeostasis and regeneration. Using deep sequencing, we have profiled small non-coding RNAs in Hydra magnipapillata and investigated changes in small RNA expression pattern during head regeneration. Our results reveal a unique repertoire of small RNAs in hydra. We have identified 126 miRNA loci; 123 of these miRNAs are unique to hydra. Less than 50% are conserved across two different strains of Hydra vulgaris tested in this study, indicating a highly diverse nature of hydra miRNAs in contrast to bilaterian miRNAs. We also identified siRNAs derived from precursors with perfect stem-loop structure and that arise from inverted repeats. piRNAs were the most abundant small RNAs in hydra, mapping to transposable elements, the annotated transcriptome and unique non-coding regions on the genome. piRNAs that map to transposable elements and the annotated transcriptome display a ping-pong signature. Further, we have identified several miRNAs and piRNAs whose expression is regulated during hydra head regeneration. Our study defines different classes of small RNAs in this cnidarian model system, which may play a role in orchestrating gene expression essential for hydra regeneration.

  7. Field signature for apparently superluminal particle motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Martin

    2015-05-01

    In the context of Stueckelberg's covariant symplectic mechanics, Horwitz and Aharonovich [1] have proposed a simple mechanism by which a particle traveling below light speed almost everywhere may exhibit a transit time that suggests superluminal motion. This mechanism, which requires precise measurement of the particle velocity, involves a subtle perturbation affecting the particle's recorded time coordinate caused by virtual pair processes. The Stueckelberg framework is particularly well suited to such problems, because it permits pair creation/annihilation at the classical level. In this paper, we study a trajectory of the type proposed by Horwitz and Aharonovich, and derive the Maxwell 4-vector potential associated with the motion. We show that the resulting fields carry a signature associated with the apparent superluminal motion, providing an independent test for the mechanism that does not require direct observation of the trajectory, except at the detector.

  8. Thermal Signature Identification System (TheSIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Scott; Bean, Brian

    2015-01-01

    We characterize both nonlinear and high order linear responses of fiber-optic and optoelectronic components using spread spectrum temperature cycling methods. This Thermal Signature Identification System (TheSIS) provides much more detail than conventional narrowband or quasi-static temperature profiling methods. This detail allows us to match components more thoroughly, detect subtle reversible shifts in performance, and investigate the cause of instabilities or irreversible changes. In particular, we create parameterized models of athermal fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs), delay line interferometers (DLIs), and distributed feedback (DFB) lasers, then subject the alternative models to selection via the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). Detailed pairing of components, e.g. FBGs, is accomplished by means of weighted distance metrics or norms, rather than on the basis of a single parameter, such as center wavelength.

  9. Salient signature of van der Waals interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Via-Nadal, Mireia; Rodríguez-Mayorga, Mauricio; Matito, Eduard

    2017-11-01

    van der Waals interactions govern the physics of a plethora of molecular structures. It is well known that the leading term in the distance-based London expansion of the van der Waals energy for atomic and molecular dimers decays as 1 /R6 , where R is the dimer distance. Using perturbation theory, we find the leading term in the distance-based expansion of the intracule pair density at the interatomic distance. Our results unveil a universal 1 /R3 decay, which is less prone to numerical errors than the 1 /R6 dependency, and it is confirmed numerically in H2 and He2 molecules. This signature of van der Waals interactions can be directly used in the construction of approximate pair density and energy functionals including vdW corrections.

  10. Transport Signatures of the Hall Viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delacrétaz, Luca V; Gromov, Andrey

    2017-12-01

    Hall viscosity is a nondissipative response function describing momentum transport in two-dimensional systems with broken parity. It is quantized in the quantum Hall regime, and contains information about the topological order of the quantum Hall state. Hall viscosity can distinguish different quantum Hall states with identical Hall conductances, but different topological order. To date, an experimentally accessible signature of Hall viscosity is lacking. We exploit the fact that Hall viscosity contributes to charge transport at finite wavelengths, and can therefore be extracted from nonlocal resistance measurements in inhomogeneous charge flows. We explain how to determine the Hall viscosity from such a transport experiment. In particular, we show that the profile of the electrochemical potential close to contacts where current is injected is sensitive to the value of the Hall viscosity.

  11. ALPs effective field theory and collider signatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brivio, I. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Departamento de Fisica Teorica y Instituto de Fisica Teorica, IFT-UAM/CSIC, Madrid (Spain); University of Copenhagen, Niels Bohr International Academy, Copenhagen (Denmark); Gavela, M.B.; Merlo, L.; Rey, R. del [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Departamento de Fisica Teorica y Instituto de Fisica Teorica, IFT-UAM/CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Mimasu, K. [University of Sussex, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Brighton (United Kingdom); Universite Catholique de Louvain, Centre for Cosmology, Particle Physics and Phenomenology (CP3), Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); No, J.M. [University of Sussex, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Brighton (United Kingdom); King' s College London, Department of Physics, London (United Kingdom); Sanz, V. [University of Sussex, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Brighton (United Kingdom)

    2017-08-15

    We study the leading effective interactions between the Standard Model fields and a generic singlet CP-odd (pseudo-) Goldstone boson. Two possible frameworks for electroweak symmetry breaking are considered: linear and non-linear. For the latter case, the basis of leading effective operators is determined and compared with that for the linear expansion. Associated phenomenological signals at colliders are explored for both scenarios, deriving new bounds and analyzing future prospects, including LHC and High Luminosity LHC sensitivities. Mono-Z, mono-W, W-photon plus missing energy and on-shell top final states are most promising signals expected in both frameworks. In addition, non-standard Higgs decays and mono-Higgs signatures are especially prominent and expected to be dominant in non-linear realisations. (orig.)

  12. Statistical Signatures of Panspermia in Exoplanet Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Henry W.; Loeb, Abraham

    2015-09-01

    A fundamental astrobiological question is whether life can be transported between extrasolar systems. We propose a new strategy to answer this question based on the principle that life which arose via spreading will exhibit more clustering than life which arose spontaneously. We develop simple statistical models of panspermia to illustrate observable consequences of these excess correlations. Future searches for biosignatures in the atmospheres of exoplanets could test these predictions: a smoking gun signature of panspermia would be the detection of large regions in the Milky Way where life saturates its environment interspersed with voids where life is very uncommon. In a favorable scenario, detection of as few as ∼25 biologically active exoplanets could yield a 5σ detection of panspermia. Detectability of position-space correlations is possible unless the timescale for life to become observable once seeded is longer than the timescale for stars to redistribute in the Milky Way.

  13. Signature of Microbial Dysbiosis in Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuric, Vincent; Le Gall-David, Sandrine; Boyer, Emile; Acuña-Amador, Luis; Martin, Bénédicte; Fong, Shao Bing; Barloy-Hubler, Frederique; Bonnaure-Mallet, Martine

    2017-07-15

    Periodontitis is driven by disproportionate host inflammatory immune responses induced by an imbalance in the composition of oral bacteria; this instigates microbial dysbiosis, along with failed resolution of the chronic destructive inflammation. The objectives of this study were to identify microbial signatures for health and chronic periodontitis at the genus level and to propose a model of dysbiosis, including the calculation of bacterial ratios. Published sequencing data obtained from several different studies (196 subgingival samples from patients with chronic periodontitis and 422 subgingival samples from healthy subjects) were pooled and subjected to a new microbiota analysis using the same Visualization and Analysis of Microbial Population Structures (VAMPS) pipeline, to identify microbiota specific to health and disease. Microbiota were visualized using CoNet and Cytoscape. Dysbiosis ratios, defined as the percentage of genera associated with disease relative to the percentage of genera associated with health, were calculated to distinguish disease from health. Correlations between the proposed dysbiosis ratio and the periodontal pocket depth were tested with a different set of data obtained from a recent study, to confirm the relevance of the ratio as a potential indicator of dysbiosis. Beta diversity showed significant clustering of periodontitis-associated microbiota, at the genus level, according to the clinical status and independent of the methods used. Specific genera ( Veillonella , Neisseria , Rothia , Corynebacterium , and Actinomyces ) were highly prevalent (>95%) in health, while other genera ( Eubacterium , Campylobacter , Treponema , and Tannerella ) were associated with chronic periodontitis. The calculation of dysbiosis ratios based on the relative abundance of the genera found in health versus periodontitis was tested. Nonperiodontitis samples were significantly identifiable by low ratios, compared to chronic periodontitis samples. When

  14. Magnetogenesis, spectator fields and CMB signatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovannini, Massimo [Centro ' Enrico Fermi' , Compendio del Viminale, Via Panisperna 89/A, 00184 Rome (Italy); Department of Physics, Theory Division, CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)], E-mail: massimo.giovannini@cern.ch

    2008-01-24

    A viable class of magnetogenesis models can be constructed by coupling the kinetic term of the hypercharge to a spectator field whose dynamics does not affect the inflationary evolution. The magnetic power spectrum is explicitly related to the power spectrum of (adiabatic) curvature inhomogeneities when the quasi-de Sitter stage of expansion is driven by a single scalar degree of freedom. Depending upon the value of the slow-roll parameters, the amplitude of smoothed magnetic fields over a (comoving) Mpc scale can be as large as 0.01-0.1 nG at the epoch of the gravitational collapse of the protogalaxy. The contributions of the magnetic fields to the Sachs-Wolfe plateau and to the temperature autocorrelations in the Doppler region compare favourably with the constraints imposed by galactic magnetogenesis. Stimulating lessons are drawn on the interplay between magnetogenesis models and their possible CMB signatures.

  15. Continuous-variable quantum homomorphic signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Shang, Tao; Liu, Jian-wei

    2017-10-01

    Quantum cryptography is believed to be unconditionally secure because its security is ensured by physical laws rather than computational complexity. According to spectrum characteristic, quantum information can be classified into two categories, namely discrete variables and continuous variables. Continuous-variable quantum protocols have gained much attention for their ability to transmit more information with lower cost. To verify the identities of different data sources in a quantum network, we propose a continuous-variable quantum homomorphic signature scheme. It is based on continuous-variable entanglement swapping and provides additive and subtractive homomorphism. Security analysis shows the proposed scheme is secure against replay, forgery and repudiation. Even under nonideal conditions, it supports effective verification within a certain verification threshold.

  16. Unique type of isolated cardiac valvular amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reehana Salma

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amyloid deposition in heart is a common occurrence in systemic amyloidosis. But localised valvular amyloid deposits are very uncommon. It was only in 1922 that the cases of valvular amyloidosis were reported. Then in 1980, Goffin et al reported another type of valvular amyloidosis, which he called the dystrophic valvular amyloidosis. We report a case of aortic valve amyloidosis which is different from the yet described valvular amyloidosis. Case presentation A 72 years old gentleman underwent urgent aortic valve replacement. Intraoperatively, a lesion was found attached to the inferior surface of his bicuspid aortic valve. Histopathology examination of the valve revealed that the lesion contained amyloid deposits, identified as AL amyloidosis. The serum amyloid A protein (SAP scan was normal and showed no evidence of systemic amyloidosis. The ECG and echocardiogram were not consistent with cardiac amyloidosis. Conclusion Two major types of cardiac amyloidosis have been described in literature: primary-myelomatous type (occurs with systemic amyolidosis, and senile type(s. Recently, a localised cardiac dystrophic valvular amyloidosis has been described. In all previously reported cases, there was a strong association of localised valvular amyloidosis with calcific deposits. Ours is a unique case which differs from the previously reported cases of localised valvular amyloidosis. In this case, the lesion was not associated with any scar tissue. Also there was no calcific deposit found. This may well be a yet unknown type of isolated valvular amyloidosis.

  17. Unique Ganglioside Recognition Strategies for Clostridial Neurotoxins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, Marc A.; Fu, Zhuji; Kim, Jung-Ja P.; Baldwin, Michael R. (MCW); (UMC)

    2012-03-15

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) and tetanus neurotoxin are the causative agents of the paralytic diseases botulism and tetanus, respectively. The potency of the clostridial neurotoxins (CNTs) relies primarily on their highly specific binding to nerve terminals and cleavage of SNARE proteins. Although individual CNTs utilize distinct proteins for entry, they share common ganglioside co-receptors. Here, we report the crystal structure of the BoNT/F receptor-binding domain in complex with the sugar moiety of ganglioside GD1a. GD1a binds in a shallow groove formed by the conserved peptide motif E ... H ... SXWY ... G, with additional stabilizing interactions provided by two arginine residues. Comparative analysis of BoNT/F with other CNTs revealed several differences in the interactions of each toxin with ganglioside. Notably, exchange of BoNT/F His-1241 with the corresponding lysine residue of BoNT/E resulted in increased affinity for GD1a and conferred the ability to bind ganglioside GM1a. Conversely, BoNT/E was not able to bind GM1a, demonstrating a discrete mechanism of ganglioside recognition. These findings provide a structural basis for ganglioside binding among the CNTs and show that individual toxins utilize unique ganglioside recognition strategies.

  18. Arachnoiditis ossificans and syringomyelia: A unique presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opalak, Charles F.; Opalak, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Arachnoiditis ossificans (AO) is a rare disorder that was differentiated from leptomeningeal calcification by Kaufman and Dunsmore in 1971. It generally presents with progressive lower extremity myelopathy. Though the underlying etiology has yet to be fully described, it has been associated with various predisposing factors including vascular malformations, previous intradural surgery, myelograms, and adhesive arachnoiditis. Associated conditions include syringomyelia and arachnoid cyst. The preferred diagnostic method is noncontrast computed tomography (CT). Surgical intervention is still controversial and can include decompression and duroplasty or durotomy. Case Description: The authors report the case of a 62-year-old male with a history of paraplegia who presented with a urinary tract infection and dysautonomia. His past surgical history was notable for a C4–C6 anterior fusion and an intrathecal phenol injection for spasticity. A magnetic resonance image (MR) also demonstrated a T6-conus syringx. At surgery, there was significant ossification of the arachnoid/dura, which was removed. After a drain was placed in the syrinx, there was a significant neurologic improvement. Conclusion: This case demonstrates a unique presentation of AO and highlights the need for CT imaging when a noncommunicating syringx is identified. In addition, surgical decompression can achieve good results when AO is associated with concurrent compressive lesions. PMID:26693389

  19. Detecting Beer Intake by Unique Metabolite Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürdeniz, Gözde; Jensen, Morten Georg; Meier, Sebastian; Bech, Lene; Lund, Erik; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2016-12-02

    Evaluation of the health related effects of beer intake is hampered by the lack of accurate tools for assessing intakes (biomarkers). Therefore, we identified plasma and urine metabolites associated with recent beer intake by untargeted metabolomics and established a characteristic metabolite pattern representing raw materials and beer production as a qualitative biomarker of beer intake. In a randomized, crossover, single-blinded meal study (MSt1), 18 participants were given, one at a time, four different test beverages: strong, regular, and nonalcoholic beers and a soft drink. Four participants were assigned to have two additional beers (MSt2). In addition to plasma and urine samples, test beverages, wort, and hops extract were analyzed by UPLC-QTOF. A unique metabolite pattern reflecting beer metabolome, including metabolites derived from beer raw material (i.e., N-methyl tyramine sulfate and the sum of iso-α-acids and tricyclohumols) and the production process (i.e., pyro-glutamyl proline and 2-ethyl malate), was selected to establish a compliance biomarker model for detection of beer intake based on MSt1. The model predicted the MSt2 samples collected before and up to 12 h after beer intake correctly (AUC = 1). A biomarker model including four metabolites representing both beer raw materials and production steps provided a specific and accurate tool for measurement of beer consumption.

  20. A Unique Civil Engineering Capstone Design Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Padmanabhan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The North Dakota State University, USA, capstone course was developed as a unique model in response to the effort of the Accreditation Board of Engineering and Technology, USA, to streamline and improve design instruction in the curriculum and has steadily evolved to keep pace with the ever-changing technology and the expectations of the profession and the society we serve. A capstone design course by definition should be a design experience for students in the final year before graduation integrating all major design concepts they have learned up until then in the program. Carefully chosen real world projects with design content in all sub-disciplines of civil engineering are assigned in this team-taught course. Faculty and practicing professionals make presentations on design process; project management; leadership in an engineering environment; and public policy; global perspectives in engineering; and professional career and licensure. Practicing professionals also critique the final student presentations. Students work in teams with number of faculty serving as technical consultants, and a faculty mentor for each team to provide non-technical guidance and direction. The course requires students to demonstrate mastery of the curriculum and to work with others in a team environment. Course assessment includes evaluation of the final design, presentations, written technical reports, project design schedule, a project design journal, and reaction papers.

  1. Phase Transition and Uniqueness of Levelset Percolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broman, Erik; Meester, Ronald

    2017-06-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to introduce and establish basic results of a natural extension of the classical Boolean percolation model (also known as the Gilbert disc model). We replace the balls of that model by a positive non-increasing attenuation function l:(0,\\infty ) → [0,\\infty ) to create the random field Ψ (y)=\\sum _{x\\in η }l(|x-y|), where η is a homogeneous Poisson process in {\\mathbb {R}}^d. The field Ψ is then a random potential field with infinite range dependencies whenever the support of the function l is unbounded. In particular, we study the level sets Ψ _{\\ge h}(y) containing the points y\\in {\\mathbb {R}}^d such that Ψ (y)\\ge h. In the case where l has unbounded support, we give, for any d\\ge 2, a necessary and sufficient condition on l for Ψ _{\\ge h}(y) to have a percolative phase transition as a function of h. We also prove that when l is continuous then so is Ψ almost surely. Moreover, in this case and for d=2, we prove uniqueness of the infinite component of Ψ _{\\ge h} when such exists, and we also show that the so-called percolation function is continuous below the critical value h_c.

  2. Unique biosynthesis of sesquarterpenes (C35 terpenes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    To the best of my knowledge, only 19 cyclic and 8 linear C35 terpenes have been identified to date, and no family name was assigned to this terpene class until recently. In 2011, it was proposed that these C35 terpenes should be called sesquarterpenes. This review highlights the biosynthesis of two kinds of sesquarterpenes (C35 terpenes) that are produced via cyclization of a linear C35 isoprenoid in Bacillus and Mycobacterium species. In Bacillus species, a new type of terpene cyclase that has no sequence homology with any known terpene synthases, as well as a bifunctional terpene cyclase that biosynthesizes two classes of cyclic terpenes with different numbers of carbons as natural products, have been identified. On the other hand, in Mycobacterium species, the first bifunctional Z-prenyltransferase has been found, but a novel terpene cyclase and a unique polyprenyl reductase remain unidentified. The identification of novel enzyme types should lead to the discovery of many homologous enzymes and their products including novel natural compounds. On the other hand, many enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of natural products have low substrate specificities in vitro. Therefore, to find novel natural products present in organisms, the multifunctionality of enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway of natural products should be analyzed.

  3. The AD: The unique anti-accelerator

    CERN Multimedia

    Slide show by Maximilien Brice. Voice (French only): Jacques Fichet. Content: Paola Catapano, Django Manglunki, CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    Unlike other machines whose performance is measured in terms of energy records, AD's uniqueness resides in the fact that it can very effectively decelerate beams. At the hearth of antimatter production at CERN, the AD is making headlines in the world's press. This provides an excellent opportunity for us to retrace its history in images.   var flash_video_player=get_video_player_path(); insert_player_for_external('Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-083/CERN-MOVIE-2011-083-0753-kbps-480x360-25-fps-audio-64-kbps-44-kHz-stereo', 'mms://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-083/CERN-MOVIE-2011-083-0480-kbps-384x288-25-fps-audio-128-kbps-48-kHz-stereo.wmv', 'false', 480, 360, 'http://mediaarchive.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-083/CERN-MOVIE-2011-083-posterframe-480x360-at-5-percent.jpg', '1357551', true, '');  

  4. Predicting cellular growth from gene expression signatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoardo M Airoldi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining balanced growth in a changing environment is a fundamental systems-level challenge for cellular physiology, particularly in microorganisms. While the complete set of regulatory and functional pathways supporting growth and cellular proliferation are not yet known, portions of them are well understood. In particular, cellular proliferation is governed by mechanisms that are highly conserved from unicellular to multicellular organisms, and the disruption of these processes in metazoans is a major factor in the development of cancer. In this paper, we develop statistical methodology to identify quantitative aspects of the regulatory mechanisms underlying cellular proliferation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We find that the expression levels of a small set of genes can be exploited to predict the instantaneous growth rate of any cellular culture with high accuracy. The predictions obtained in this fashion are robust to changing biological conditions, experimental methods, and technological platforms. The proposed model is also effective in predicting growth rates for the related yeast Saccharomyces bayanus and the highly diverged yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, suggesting that the underlying regulatory signature is conserved across a wide range of unicellular evolution. We investigate the biological significance of the gene expression signature that the predictions are based upon from multiple perspectives: by perturbing the regulatory network through the Ras/PKA pathway, observing strong upregulation of growth rate even in the absence of appropriate nutrients, and discovering putative transcription factor binding sites, observing enrichment in growth-correlated genes. More broadly, the proposed methodology enables biological insights about growth at an instantaneous time scale, inaccessible by direct experimental methods. Data and tools enabling others to apply our methods are available at http://function.princeton.edu/growthrate.

  5. Thermal-Signature-Based Sleep Analysis Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Seba

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the development of a new technique in the sleep analysis domain. Sleep is defined as a periodic physiological state during which vigilance is suspended and reactivity to external stimulations diminished. We sleep on average between six and nine hours per night and our sleep is composed of four to six cycles of about 90 min each. Each of these cycles is composed of a succession of several stages of sleep that vary in depth. Analysis of sleep is usually done via polysomnography. This examination consists of recording, among other things, electrical cerebral activity by electroencephalography (EEG, ocular movements by electrooculography (EOG, and chin muscle tone by electromyography (EMG. Recordings are made mostly in a hospital, more specifically in a service for monitoring the pathologies related to sleep. The readings are then interpreted manually by an expert to generate a hypnogram, a curve showing the succession of sleep stages during the night in 30s epochs. The proposed method is based on the follow-up of the thermal signature that makes it possible to classify the activity into three classes: “awakening,” “calm sleep,” and “restless sleep”. The contribution of this non-invasive method is part of the screening of sleep disorders, to be validated by a more complete analysis of the sleep. The measure provided by this new system, based on temperature monitoring (patient and ambient, aims to be integrated into the tele-medicine platform developed within the framework of the Smart-EEG project by the SYEL–SYstèmes ELectroniques team. Analysis of the data collected during the first surveys carried out with this method showed a correlation between thermal signature and activity during sleep. The advantage of this method lies in its simplicity and the possibility of carrying out measurements of activity during sleep and without direct contact with the patient at home or hospitals.

  6. Cortical Spreading Depression Causes Unique Dysregulation of Inflammatory Pathways in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eising, Else; Shyti, Reinald; 't Hoen, Peter A C; Vijfhuizen, Lisanne S; Huisman, Sjoerd M H; Broos, Ludo A M; Mahfouz, Ahmed; Reinders, Marcel J T; Ferrari, Michel D; Tolner, Else A; de Vries, Boukje; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M J M

    2017-05-01

    Familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 (FHM1) is a rare monogenic subtype of migraine with aura caused by mutations in CACNA1A that encodes the α1A subunit of voltage-gated CaV2.1 calcium channels. Transgenic knock-in mice that carry the human FHM1 R192Q missense mutation ('FHM1 R192Q mice') exhibit an increased susceptibility to cortical spreading depression (CSD), the mechanism underlying migraine aura. Here, we analysed gene expression profiles from isolated cortical tissue of FHM1 R192Q mice 24 h after experimentally induced CSD in order to identify molecular pathways affected by CSD. Gene expression profiles were generated using deep serial analysis of gene expression sequencing. Our data reveal a signature of inflammatory signalling upon CSD in the cortex of both mutant and wild-type mice. However, only in the brains of FHM1 R192Q mice specific genes are up-regulated in response to CSD that are implicated in interferon-related inflammatory signalling. Our findings show that CSD modulates inflammatory processes in both wild-type and mutant brains, but that an additional unique inflammatory signature becomes expressed after CSD in a relevant mouse model of migraine.

  7. Identifying Cell Populations in Flow Cytometry Data Using Phenotypic Signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouyan, Maziyar Baran; Nourani, Mehrdad

    2017-01-01

    Single-cell flow cytometry is a technology that measures the expression of several cellular markers simultaneously for a large number of cells. Identification of homogeneous cell populations, currently done by manual biaxial gating, is highly subjective and time consuming. To overcome the shortcomings of manual gating, automatic algorithms have been proposed. However, the performance of these methods highly depends on the shape of populations and the dimension of the data. In this paper, we have developed a time-efficient method that accurately identifies cellular populations. This is done based on a novel technique that estimates the initial number of clusters in high dimension and identifies the final clusters by merging clusters using their phenotypic signatures in low dimension. The proposed method is called SigClust. We have applied SigClust to four public datasets and compared it with five well known methods in the field. The results are promising and indicate higher performance and accuracy compared to similar approaches reported in literature.

  8. Calibration of an Automatic System Using a Laser Signature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward F. Plinski

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The specific phenomenon, which appears in tuned CO2 lasers, called a laser signature, is used as a standard for calibration of the servomechanism. The proposed servomechanism can be used for continuous investigations of the laser signatures of different laser media.

  9. Restrictive partially blind signature for resource-constrained information systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, Weidong; Gong, Zheng; Liu, Bozhong; Long, Yu; Chen, Kefei

    2010-01-01

    Restrictive partially blind signature, which is designed for privacy oriented information systems, allows a user to obtain a blind signature from a signer whilst the blind message must obey some certain rules. In order to reduce storage and communication costs, several public-key cryptosystems are

  10. Analysis of dinucleotide signatures in HIV-1 subtype B genomes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. genome signature; DRAP; HIV-1; chaos game representation. Abstract. Dinucleotide usage is known to vary in the genomes of organisms. The dinucleotide usage profiles or genome signatures are similar for sequence samples taken from the same genome, but are different for taxonomically distant species.

  11. Analysis of dinucleotide signatures in HIV-1 subtype B genomes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Dinucleotide usage is known to vary in the genomes of organisms. The dinucleotide usage profiles or genome signatures are similar for sequence samples taken from the same genome, but are different for taxonomically distant species. This concept of genome signatures has been used to study several organisms ...

  12. Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act. Public Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    This document presents the text of Public Law 106-229, the "Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act." The act states that, with respect to any transaction in or affecting interstate or foreign commerce: a signature, contract, or other record relating to such transaction may not be denied legal effect, validity, or…

  13. Examination of genome homogeneity in prokaryotes using genomic signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlin, Jon; Skjerve, Eystein

    2009-12-02

    DNA word frequencies, normalized for genomic AT content, are remarkably stable within prokaryotic genomes and are therefore said to reflect a "genomic signature." The genomic signatures can be used to phylogenetically classify organisms from arbitrary sampled DNA. Genomic signatures can also be used to search for horizontally transferred DNA or DNA regions subjected to special selection forces. Thus, the stability of the genomic signature can be used as a measure of genomic homogeneity. The factors associated with the stability of the genomic signatures are not known, and this motivated us to investigate further. We analyzed the intra-genomic variance of genomic signatures based on AT content normalization (0(th) order Markov model) as well as genomic signatures normalized by smaller DNA words (1(st) and 2(nd) order Markov models) for 636 sequenced prokaryotic genomes. Regression models were fitted, with intra-genomic signature variance as the response variable, to a set of factors representing genomic properties such as genomic AT content, genome size, habitat, phylum, oxygen requirement, optimal growth temperature and oligonucleotide usage variance (OUV, a measure of oligonucleotide usage bias), measured as the variance between genomic tetranucleotide frequencies and Markov chain approximated tetranucleotide frequencies, as predictors. Regression analysis revealed that OUV was the most important factor (pcontent, phylum and oxygen requirement. Genomic homogeneity in prokaryotes is intimately linked to genomic GC content, oligonucleotide usage bias (OUV) and aerobiosis, while oligonucleotide usage bias (OUV) is associated with genomic GC content, aerobiosis and habitat.

  14. Educational Technologies and Mathematics: Signature Pedagogies and Learner Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passey, Don

    2012-01-01

    In this article the author focuses on signature pedagogies that are associated with different forms of educational technologies. The author categorizes forms of technologies that support the teaching and learning of mathematics in different ways, and identifies signature pedagogies associated with each category. Outcomes and impacts of different…

  15. 37 CFR 2.193 - Trademark correspondence and signature requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES General Information and Correspondence in Trademark Cases § 2.193 Trademark correspondence and signature requirements. (a) Signature... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trademark correspondence and...

  16. Cascade de photons dans les boîtes quantiques uniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, I.; Moreau, E.; Gérard, J. M.; Abram, I.

    2002-06-01

    Nous présentons l'observation expérimentale de l'émission squentielle de photons par une boîte quantique unique sous pompage optique continu ou pulsé. Cette cascade radiative produit des paires de photons corrélés qui sont émis suivant un ordre bien défini. En effet, la fonction de corrélation croisée entre les deux photons formant la paire présente une allure asymétrique, de type groupement ou dégroupement de photons, suivant l'ordre temporel de détection des deux photons. Prédit théoriquement en physique atomique, ce comportement asymétrique de la fonction de corrélation de second ordre est la signature de l'émission successive de photons.

  17. Differential expression of genes encoding CD30L and P-selectin in cattle with Johne's disease: Progress toward a diagnostic gene expression signature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Kerstin; Grell, S. N.; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2006-01-01

    a unique gene expression signature for paraTB infection. In the present study, non-stimulated leukocytes isolated from 10 sub-clinical paraTB infected cows were examined for genes being expressed at significantly different levels than in similar cells from control cows with the same herd background. We...... of the seven genes selected for qRT-PCR, CD30 ligand (CD30L) and P-selectin were consistently differentially expressed in freshly isolated leukocytes from paraTB infected and control animals of both breeds of cattle. Although further work is clearly needed to develop a more complete gene expression signature...

  18. CD30 expression defines a novel subgroup of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with favorable prognosis and distinct gene expression signature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Shimin; Xu-Monette, Zijun Y; Balasubramanyam, Aarthi

    2013-01-01

    ) and progression-free survival (P = .003). The favorable outcome of CD30 expression was maintained in both the germinal center B-cell and activated B-cell subtypes. Gene expression profiling revealed the upregulation of genes encoding negative regulators of nuclear factor κB activation and lymphocyte survival......, and downregulation of genes encoding B-cell receptor signaling and proliferation, as well as prominent cytokine and stromal signatures in CD30(+) DLBCL patients, suggesting a distinct molecular basis for its favorable outcome. Given the superior prognostic value, unique gene expression signature, and significant...

  19. Cytoplasmic flows as signatures for the mechanics of mitotic positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazockdast, Ehssan; Rahimian, Abtin; Needleman, Daniel; Shelley, Michael

    2017-11-07

    The proper positioning of mitotic spindle in the single-cell Caenorhabditis elegans embryo is achieved initially by the migration and rotation of the pronuclear complex (PNC) and its two associated astral microtubules (MTs). Pronuclear migration produces global cytoplasmic flows that couple the mechanics of all MTs, the PNC, and the cell periphery with each other through their hydrodynamic interactions (HIs). We present the first computational study that explicitly accounts for detailed HIs between the cytoskeletal components and demonstrate the key consequences of HIs for the mechanics of pronuclear migration. First, we show that, because of HIs between the MTs, the cytoplasm-filled astral MTs behave like a porous medium, with its permeability decreasing with increasing the number of MTs. We then directly study the dynamics of PNC migration under various force-transduction models, including the pushing or pulling of MTs at the cortex and the pulling of MTs by cytoplasmically bound force generators. Although achieving proper position and orientation on reasonable time scales does not uniquely choose a model, we find that each model produces a different signature in its induced cytoplasmic flow. We suggest that cytoplasmic flows can be used to differentiate between mechanisms. © 2017 Nazockdast et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  20. Altered metabolic signature in pre-diabetic NOD mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmus Madsen

    Full Text Available Altered metabolism proceeding seroconversion in children progressing to Type 1 diabetes has previously been demonstrated. We tested the hypothesis that non-obese diabetic (NOD mice show a similarly altered metabolic profile compared to C57BL/6 mice. Blood samples from NOD and C57BL/6 female mice was collected at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 11, 13 and 15 weeks and the metabolite content was analyzed using GC-MS. Based on the data of 89 identified metabolites OPLS-DA analysis was employed to determine the most discriminative metabolites. In silico analysis of potential involved metabolic enzymes was performed using the dbSNP data base. Already at 0 weeks NOD mice displayed a unique metabolic signature compared to C57BL/6. A shift in the metabolism was observed for both strains the first weeks of life, a pattern that stabilized after 5 weeks of age. Multivariate analysis revealed the most discriminative metabolites, which included inosine and glutamic acid. In silico analysis of the genes in the involved metabolic pathways revealed several SNPs in either regulatory or coding regions, some in previously defined insulin dependent diabetes (Idd regions. Our result shows that NOD mice display an altered metabolic profile that is partly resembling the previously observation made in children progressing to Type 1 diabetes. The level of glutamic acid was one of the most discriminative metabolites in addition to several metabolites in the TCA cycle and nucleic acid components. The in silico analysis indicated that the genes responsible for this reside within previously defined Idd regions.

  1. Evolution of a Unique Systems Engineering Capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert M. Caliva; James A. Murphy; Kyle B. Oswald

    2011-06-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is a science-based, applied engineering laboratory dedicated to supporting U.S. Department of Energy missions in nuclear and energy research, science, and national security. The INL’s Systems Engineering organization supports all of the various programs under this wide array of missions. As with any multifaceted organization, strategic planning is essential to establishing a consistent culture and a value discipline throughout all levels of the enterprise. While an organization can pursue operational excellence, product leadership or customer intimacy, it is extremely difficult to excel or achieve best-in-class at all three. In fact, trying to do so has resulted in the demise of a number of organizations given the very intricate balancing act that is necessary. The INL’s Systems Engineering Department has chosen to focus on customer intimacy where the customer’s needs are first and foremost and a more total solution is the goal. Frequently a total solution requires the employment of specialized tools to manage system complexity. However, it is only after understanding customer needs that tool selection and use would be pursued. This results in using both commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) tools and, in some cases, requires internal development of specialized tools. This paper describes how a unique systems engineering capability, through the development of customized tools, evolved as a result of this customer-focused culture. It also addresses the need for a common information model or analysis framework and presents an overview of the tools developed to manage and display relationships between entities, support trade studies through the application of utility theory, and facilitate the development of a technology roadmap to manage system risk and uncertainty.

  2. Unique aspects of the perinatal immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhivaki, Dania; Lo-Man, Richard

    2017-08-01

    The early stages of life are associated with increased susceptibility to infection, which is in part due to an ineffective immune system. In the context of infection, the immune system must be stimulated to provide efficient protection while avoiding insufficient or excessive activation. Yet, in early life, age-dependent immune regulation at molecular and cellular levels contributes to a reduced immunological fitness in terms of pathogen clearance and response to vaccines. To enable microbial colonization to be tolerated at birth, epigenetic immune cell programming and early life-specific immune regulatory and effector mechanisms ensure that vital functions and organ development are supported and that tissue damage is avoided. Advancement in our understanding of age-related remodelling of immune networks and the consequent tuning of immune responsiveness will open up new possibilities for immune intervention and vaccine strategies that are designed specifically for early life.

  3. Study of Wind Effects on Unique Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olenkov, V.; Puzyrev, P.

    2017-11-01

    The article deals with a numerical simulation of wind effects on the building of the Church of the Intercession of the Holy Virgin in the village Bulzi of the Chelyabinsk region. We presented a calculation algorithm and obtained pressure fields, velocity fields and the fields of kinetic energy of a wind stream, as well as streamlines. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) evolved three decades ago at the interfaces of calculus mathematics and theoretical hydromechanics and has become a separate branch of science the subject of which is a numerical simulation of different fluid and gas flows as well as the solution of arising problems with the help of methods that involve computer systems. This scientific field which is of a great practical value is intensively developing. The increase in CFD-calculations is caused by the improvement of computer technologies, creation of multipurpose easy-to-use CFD-packagers that are available to a wide group of researchers and cope with various tasks. Such programs are not only competitive in comparison with physical experiments but sometimes they provide the only opportunity to answer the research questions. The following advantages of computer simulation can be pointed out: a) Reduction in time spent on design and development of a model in comparison with a real experiment (variation of boundary conditions). b) Numerical experiment allows for the simulation of conditions that are not reproducible with environmental tests (use of ideal gas as environment). c) Use of computational gas dynamics methods provides a researcher with a complete and ample information that is necessary to fully describe different processes of the experiment. d) Economic efficiency of computer calculations is more attractive than an experiment. e) Possibility to modify a computational model which ensures efficient timing (change of the sizes of wall layer cells in accordance with the chosen turbulence model).

  4. Novel algorithm to identify and differentiate specific digital signature of breath sound in patients with diffuse parenchymal lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Parthasarathi; Mondal, Ashok; Dey, Rana; Saha, Dipanjan; Saha, Goutam

    2015-05-01

    Auscultation is an important part of the clinical examination of different lung diseases. Objective analysis of lung sounds based on underlying characteristics and its subsequent automatic interpretations may help a clinical practice. We collected the breath sounds from 8 normal subjects and 20 diffuse parenchymal lung disease (DPLD) patients using a newly developed instrument and then filtered off the heart sounds using a novel technology. The collected sounds were thereafter analysed digitally on several characteristics as dynamical complexity, texture information and regularity index to find and define their unique digital signatures for differentiating normality and abnormality. For convenience of testing, these characteristic signatures of normal and DPLD lung sounds were transformed into coloured visual representations. The predictive power of these images has been validated by six independent observers that include three physicians. The proposed method gives a classification accuracy of 100% for composite features for both the normal as well as lung sound signals from DPLD patients. When tested by independent observers on the visually transformed images, the positive predictive value to diagnose the normality and DPLD remained 100%. The lung sounds from the normal and DPLD subjects could be differentiated and expressed according to their digital signatures. On visual transformation to coloured images, they retain 100% predictive power. This technique may assist physicians to diagnose DPLD from visual images bearing the digital signature of the condition. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  5. Novel methodology for accurate resolution of fluid signatures from multi-dimensional NMR well-logging measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Vivek

    2017-03-01

    A novel methodology for accurate fluid characterization from multi-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) well-logging measurements is introduced. This methodology overcomes a fundamental challenge of poor resolution of features in multi-dimensional NMR distributions due to low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of well-logging measurements. Based on an unsupervised machine-learning concept of blind source separation, the methodology resolves fluid responses from simultaneous analysis of large quantities of well-logging data. The multi-dimensional NMR distributions from a well log are arranged in a database matrix that is expressed as the product of two non-negative matrices. The first matrix contains the unique fluid signatures, and the second matrix contains the relative contributions of the signatures for each measurement sample. No a priori information or subjective assumptions about the underlying features in the data are required. Furthermore, the dimensionality of the data is reduced by several orders of magnitude, which greatly simplifies the visualization and interpretation of the fluid signatures. Compared to traditional methods of NMR fluid characterization which only use the information content of a single measurement, the new methodology uses the orders-of-magnitude higher information content of the entire well log. Simulations show that the methodology can resolve accurate fluid responses in challenging SNR conditions. The application of the methodology to well-logging data from a heavy oil reservoir shows that individual fluid signatures of heavy oil, water associated with clays and water in interstitial pores can be accurately obtained.

  6. Classification of micro-Doppler signatures of human aquatic activity through simulation and measurement using transferred learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngwook; Park, Jinhee; Moon, Taesup

    2017-05-01

    Remote detection of human aquatic activity can be applied not only to ocean surveillance but also to rescue operations. When a human is illuminated by electromagnetic waves, a Doppler signal is generated from his or her moving parts. Indeed, bodily movements are what make humans' micro-Doppler signatures unique, offering a chance to classify human motions. Certain studies have analyzed and attempted to recognize human aquatic activity, but the topic has yet to be extensively studied. In the present research, we simulate the micro-Doppler signatures of a swimming person in an attempt to investigate those signatures' characteristics. We model human arms as point scatterers while assuming a simple arm motion. By means of such a simulation, we can obtain spectrograms from a swimming person, then extend our measurement to multiple participants. Measurements are taken from five aquatic activities featuring five participants, comprising freestyle, backstroke, and breaststroke, pulling a boat, and rowing. As suggested by the simulation study, the spectrograms for the five activities show different micro-Doppler signatures; hence, we propose to classify them using a deep convolutional neural network (DCNN). In particular, we suggest the use of a transfer-learned DCNN, which is based on a DCNN pretrained by a large-scale RGB image dataset that is, ImageNet. The classification accuracy is calculated using fivefold cross-validation on our dataset. We find that a DCNN trained through transfer learning achieves the highest accuracy while also providing a significant performance boost over the conventional classification method.

  7. Electromagnetic Signature Technique as a Promising Tool to Verify Nuclear Weapons Storage and Dismantlement under a Nuclear Arms Control Regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunch, Kyle J.; Williams, Laura S.; Jones, Anthony M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep

    2012-08-01

    The 2010 ratification of the New START Treaty has been widely regarded as a noteworthy national security achievement for both the Obama administration and the Medvedev-Putin regime, but deeper cuts are envisioned under future arms control regimes. Future verification needs will include monitoring the storage of warhead components and fissile materials and verifying dismantlement of warheads, pits, secondaries, and other materials. From both the diplomatic and technical perspectives, verification under future arms control regimes will pose new challenges. Since acceptable verification technology must protect sensitive design information and attributes, non-nuclear non-sensitive signatures may provide a significant verification tool without the use of additional information barriers. The use of electromagnetic signatures to monitor nuclear material storage containers is a promising technology with the potential to fulfill these challenging requirements. Research performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has demonstrated that low frequency electromagnetic signatures of sealed metallic containers can be used to confirm the presence of specific components on a “yes/no” basis without revealing classified information. Arms control inspectors might use this technique to verify the presence or absence of monitored items, including both nuclear and non-nuclear materials. Although additional research is needed to study signature aspects such as uniqueness and investigate container-specific scenarios, the technique potentially offers a rapid and cost-effective tool to verify reduction and dismantlement of U.S. and Russian nuclear weapons.

  8. Integration of breast cancer gene signatures based on graph centrality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jianxin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various gene-expression signatures for breast cancer are available for the prediction of clinical outcome. However due to small overlap between different signatures, it is challenging to integrate existing disjoint signatures to provide a unified insight on the association between gene expression and clinical outcome. Results In this paper, we propose a method to integrate different breast cancer gene signatures by using graph centrality in a context-constrained protein interaction network (PIN. The context-constrained PIN for breast cancer is built by integrating complete PIN and various gene signatures reported in literatures. Then, we use graph centralities to quantify the importance of genes to breast cancer. Finally, we get reliable gene signatures that are consisted by the genes with high graph centrality. The genes which are well-known breast cancer genes, such as TP53 and BRCA1, are ranked extremely high in our results. Compared with previous results by functional enrichment analysis, graph centralities, especially the eigenvector centrality and subgraph centrality, based gene signatures are more tightly related to breast cancer. We validate these signatures on genome-wide microarray dataset and found strong association between the expression of these signature genes and pathologic parameters. Conclusions In summary, graph centralities provide a novel way to connect different cancer signatures and to understand the mechanism of relationship between gene expression and clinical outcome of breast cancer. Moreover, this method is not only can be used on breast cancer, but also can be used on other gene expression related diseases and drug studies.

  9. Detect and exploit hidden structure in fatty acid signature data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budge, Suzanne; Bromaghin, Jeffrey; Thiemann, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    Estimates of predator diet composition are essential to our understanding of their ecology. Although several methods of estimating diet are practiced, methods based on biomarkers have become increasingly common. Quantitative fatty acid signature analysis (QFASA) is a popular method that continues to be refined and extended. Quantitative fatty acid signature analysis is based on differences in the signatures of prey types, often species, which are recognized and designated by investigators. Similarly, predator signatures may be structured by known factors such as sex or age class, and the season or region of sample collection. The recognized structure in signature data inherently influences QFASA results in important and typically beneficial ways. However, predator and prey signatures may contain additional, hidden structure that investigators either choose not to incorporate into an analysis or of which they are unaware, being caused by unknown ecological mechanisms. Hidden structure also influences QFASA results, most often negatively. We developed a new method to explore signature data for hidden structure, called divisive magnetic clustering (DIMAC). Our DIMAC approach is based on the same distance measure used in diet estimation, closely linking methods of data exploration and parameter estimation, and it does not require data transformation or distributional assumptions, as do many multivariate ordination methods in common use. We investigated the potential benefits of the DIMAC method to detect and subsequently exploit hidden structure in signature data using two prey signature libraries with quite different characteristics. We found that the existence of hidden structure in prey signatures can increase the confusion between prey types and thereby reduce the accuracy and precision of QFASA diet estimates. Conversely, the detection and exploitation of hidden structure represent a potential opportunity to improve predator diet estimates and may lead to new

  10. An Efficient Energy Management Strategy, Unique Power Split & Energy Distribution, Based on Calculated Vehicle Road Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    regenerative braking or simulated engine braking . AVL Hybrid Control System (HCU) coordinates and controls all system components as laid out in Figure... regenerative and friction brakes with a 34% dead-band on the brake pedal. Table 2 gives a summary and comparison of simulation results in terms of kg of...2012 NDIA GROUND VEHICLE SYSTEMS ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY SYMPOSIUM POWER AND MOBILITY (P&M) MINI-SYMPOSIUM AUGUST 14-16, MICHIGAN AN

  11. Evaluation of a unique mechanical client lift: efficiency and perspectives of nursing staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, P T; Ciecka, J; Wood, E C; Taylor, R

    1993-05-01

    This study evaluated the acceptability of a mechanical client lift based on the design employed for helicopter rescue lifts. Twenty-three nursing personnel completed questionnaires which explored their preferences, intentions to use the lift, perceptions of helpfulness, and exertion. Sixteen clients in a long term care setting consented to participate. One hundred manual lifts and 100 belt lifts were observed for comparative time and staff measures. The findings suggest that: 1) nursing staff will prefer the belt lift device for changing incontinent briefs; 2) nursing staff will prefer the belt lift device for toileting; 3) nursing staff will prefer the belt lift device to the currently used lift (in cases where either lift is appropriate) for bed/chair transfer; and, 5) the time required to utilize the belt lift as compared to manual lifting methods will not increase significantly.

  12. A unique 3D ultramicroporous triptycene-based polyimide framework for efficient gas sorption applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ghanem, Bader

    2016-10-03

    A novel 3D ultramicroporous triptycene-based polyimide framework with high surface area (1050 m2 g−1) and thermal stability was synthesized. It exhibits relatively high CO2 (3.4 mmol g−1 at 273 K and 1 bar), H2 (7 mmol g−1 at 77 K and 1 bar), and olefin sorption capacity, good CO2/N2 (45) and CO2/CH4 (9.6) selectivity at 273 K and 1 bar, as well as promising C2H4/CH4 and C3H6/CH4 selectivities at 298 K, making it a potential candidate for CO2 capture, H2 storage, and hydrocarbon gas separation applications.

  13. Juggling Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke Sand; Vedsted, Peter

    2015-01-01

    on institutional logics, we illustrate how a logic of efficiency organise and give shape to healthcare seeking practices as they manifest in local clinical settings. Overall, patient concerns are reconfigured to fit the local clinical setting and healthcare professionals and patients are required to juggle...... efficiency in order to deal with uncertainties and meet more complex or unpredictable needs. Lastly, building on the empirical case of cancer diagnostics, we discuss the implications of the pervasiveness of the logic of efficiency in the clinical setting and argue that provision of medical care in today......'s primary care settings requires careful balancing of increasing demands of efficiency, greater complexity of biomedical knowledge and consideration for individual patient needs....

  14. Thiol dioxygenases: unique families of cupin proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipanuk, Martha H; Simmons, Chad R; Karplus, P Andrew; Dominy, John E

    2011-06-01

    motif for ADOs, or DUF1637 family members, is proposed. In ADOs, the conserved glutamate residue in cupin motif 1 is replaced by either glycine or valine. Both ADOs and CDOs appear to represent unique clades within the cupin superfamily.

  15. Unitary Evolution as a Uniqueness Criterion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, J.; Mena Marugán, G. A.; Olmedo, J.; Velhinho, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that the process of quantizing field theories is plagued with ambiguities. First, there is ambiguity in the choice of basic variables describing the system. Second, once a choice of field variables has been made, there is ambiguity concerning the selection of a quantum representation of the corresponding canonical commutation relations. The natural strategy to remove these ambiguities is to demand positivity of energy and to invoke symmetries, namely by requiring that classical symmetries become unitarily implemented in the quantum realm. The success of this strategy depends, however, on the existence of a sufficiently large group of symmetries, usually including time-translation invariance. These criteria are therefore generally insufficient in non-stationary situations, as is typical for free fields in curved spacetimes. Recently, the criterion of unitary implementation of the dynamics has been proposed in order to select a unique quantization in the context of manifestly non-stationary systems. Specifically, the unitarity criterion, together with the requirement of invariance under spatial symmetries, has been successfully employed to remove the ambiguities in the quantization of linearly polarized Gowdy models as well as in the quantization of a scalar field with time varying mass, propagating in a static background whose spatial topology is either of a d-sphere (with d = 1, 2, 3) or a three torus. Following Ref. 3, we will see here that the symmetry and unitarity criteria allows for a complete removal of the ambiguities in the quantization of scalar fields propagating in static spacetimes with compact spatial sections, obeying field equations with an explicitly time-dependent mass, of the form ddot φ - Δ φ + s(t)φ = 0 . These results apply in particular to free fields in spacetimes which, like e.g. in the closed FRW models, are conformal to a static spacetime, by means of an exclusively time-dependent conformal factor. In fact, in such

  16. Do pediatric hospitalizations have a unique geography?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jablonski Kathleen A

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the U.S. small-area health services research studies are often based on the hospital service areas (HSAs defined by the Dartmouth Atlas of Healthcare project. These areas are based on the geographic origins of Medicare Part A hospital patients, the great majority of whom are seniors. It is reasonable to question whether the geographic system so defined is appropriate for health services research for all ages, particularly for children, who have a very different system of healthcare financing and provision in the U.S. Methods This article assesses the need for a unique system of HSAs to support pediatric small-area analyses. It is a cross-sectional analysis of California hospital discharges for two age groups – non-newborns 0–17 years old, and seniors. The measure of interest was index of localization, which is the percentage of HSA residents hospitalized in their home HSA. Indices were computed separately for each age group, and index agreement was assessed for 219 of the state's HSAs. We examined the effect of local pediatric inpatient volume and pediatric inpatient resources on the divergence of the age group indices. We also created a new system of HSAs based solely on pediatric patient origins, and visually compared maps of the traditional and the new system. Results The mean localization index for pediatric discharges was 20 percentage points lower than for Medicare cases, indicating a poorer fit of the traditional geographic system for children. The volume of pediatric cases did not appear to be associated with the magnitude of index divergence between the two age groups. Pediatric medical and surgical case subgroups gave very similar results, and both groups differed substantially from seniors. Location of children's hospitals and local pediatric bed supply were associated with Medicare-pediatric divergence. There was little visual correspondence between the maps of traditional and pediatric-specific HSAs

  17. Onions: a source of unique dietary flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slimestad, Rune; Fossen, Torgils; Vågen, Ingunn Molund

    2007-12-12

    Onion bulbs (Allium cepa L.) are among the richest sources of dietary flavonoids and contribute to a large extent to the overall intake of flavonoids. This review includes a compilation of the existing qualitative and quantitative information about flavonoids reported to occur in onion bulbs, including NMR spectroscopic evidence used for structural characterization. In addition, a summary is given to index onion cultivars according to their content of flavonoids measured as quercetin. Only compounds belonging to the flavonols, the anthocyanins, and the dihydroflavonols have been reported to occur in onion bulbs. Yellow onions contain 270-1187 mg of flavonols per kilogram of fresh weight (FW), whereas red onions contain 415-1917 mg of flavonols per kilogram of FW. Flavonols are the predominant pigments of onions. At least 25 different flavonols have been characterized, and quercetin derivatives are the most important ones in all onion cultivars. Their glycosyl moieties are almost exclusively glucose, which is mainly attached to the 4', 3, and/or 7-positions of the aglycones. Quercetin 4'-glucoside and quercetin 3,4'-diglucoside are in most cases reported as the main flavonols in recent literature. Analogous derivatives of kaempferol and isorhamnetin have been identified as minor pigments. Recent reports indicate that the outer dry layers of onion bulbs contain oligomeric structures of quercetin in addition to condensation products of quercetin and protocatechuic acid. The anthocyanins of red onions are mainly cyanidin glucosides acylated with malonic acid or nonacylated. Some of these pigments facilitate unique structural features like 4'-glycosylation and unusual substitution patterns of sugar moieties. Altogether at least 25 different anthocyanins have been reported from red onions, including two novel 5-carboxypyranocyanidin-derivatives. The quantitative content of anthocyanins in some red onion cultivars has been reported to be approximately 10% of the total

  18. Supernovae Discovery Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Colin

    2018-01-01

    Abstract:We present supernovae (SN) search efficiency measurements for recent Hubble Space Telescope (HST) surveys. Efficiency is a key component to any search, and is important parameter as a correction factor for SN rates. To achieve an accurate value for efficiency, many supernovae need to be discoverable in surveys. This cannot be achieved from real SN only, due to their scarcity, so fake SN are planted. These fake supernovae—with a goal of realism in mind—yield an understanding of efficiency based on position related to other celestial objects, and brightness. To improve realism, we built a more accurate model of supernovae using a point-spread function. The next improvement to realism is planting these objects close to galaxies and of various parameters of brightness, magnitude, local galactic brightness and redshift. Once these are planted, a very accurate SN is visible and discoverable by the searcher. It is very important to find factors that affect this discovery efficiency. Exploring the factors that effect detection yields a more accurate correction factor. Further inquires into efficiency give us a better understanding of image processing, searching techniques and survey strategies, and result in an overall higher likelihood to find these events in future surveys with Hubble, James Webb, and WFIRST telescopes. After efficiency is discovered and refined with many unique surveys, it factors into measurements of SN rates versus redshift. By comparing SN rates vs redshift against the star formation rate we can test models to determine how long star systems take from the point of inception to explosion (delay time distribution). This delay time distribution is compared to SN progenitors models to get an accurate idea of what these stars were like before their deaths.

  19. Feasibility of N-Gram Data-Structures for Next-Generation Pathogen Signature Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, S N

    2009-01-26

    We determined the most appropriate data structure for handling n-gram (also known as k-mer) string comparisons and storage for genomic sequence data that will scale in terms of memory and speed. This is critical to maintain LLNL as the leader in pathogen detection, as it will guide the design of the 'Next Generation' system for computational signature prediction. There are two parts to k-mer analysis for signature prediction that we investigated. First is the enumeration and frequency counting of all observed k-mers in a sequence database (k-mer is a biological term equivalent to the CS term n-gram). Second is the down-selection and pairing of k-mers to generate a signature. We determined that for the first part, suffix arrays are the preferred method to enumerate k-mers, being memory efficient and relatively easy and fast to compute. For the second part, a subset of the k-mers can be stored and manipulated in a hash, that subset determination based on desired frequency characteristics such as most/least frequent from a set, shared among sequence sets, or discriminating across sequence sets.

  20. The Acoustic Signature of Glaciated Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, A. M. W.; Huuse, M.

    2016-12-01

    As climate warms it has become increasingly clear that, in order to fully understand how it might evolve in the future, we need to look for examples of how climate has changed in the past. The Late Cenozoic history of the Arctic Ocean and its surrounding seas has been dominated by glacial-interglacials cycles. This has resulted in major environmental changes in relative sea levels, ice volumes, sea ice conditions, and ocean circulation as marine and terrestrially-based ice sheets waxed and waned. In this work, the acoustic signatures of several glaciated margins in the Northern Hemisphere are investigated and compared. This includes: NW Greenland, West Greenland, East Greenland, mid-Norway, Northern Norway, and the North Sea. These shelf successions preserve a geomorphological record of multiple glaciations and are imaged using seismic reflection data. To date, the majority of work in these areas has tended to focus on the most recent glaciations, which are well known. Here, the focus of the work is to look at the overall stratigraphic setting and how it influences (and is influenced by) the evolution of ice sheets throughout the glacial succession. Landform records are imaged using seismic data to provide a long-term insight into the styles of glaciation on each margin and what relation this may have had on climate, whilst the stratigraphic architectures across each site demonstrate how the inherited geology and tectonic setting can provide a fundamental control on the ice sheet and depositional styles. For example, Scoresby Sund is characterised by significant aggradation that is likely related to subsidence induced by lithospheric cooling rather than rapid glacial deposition, whilst the subsidence of the mid-Norwegian margin can be related to rapid glacial deposition and trapping of sediments behind inversion structures such as the Helland-Hansen Arch. The insights from this multi-margin study allow for regional, basin-wide, glaciological records to be developed