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Sample records for efficient sonogashira protocol

  1. A Rapid and Efficient Sonogashira Protocol and Improved Synthesis of Free Fatty Acid 1 (FFA1) Receptor Agonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Elisabeth; Due-Hansen, Maria E; Ulven, Trond

    2010-01-01

    A protocol for rapid and efficient Pd/Cu-catalyzed coupling of aryl bromides and iodides to terminal alkynes has been developed with use of 2-(di-tert-butylphosphino)-N-phenylindole (cataCXium PIntB) as ligand in TMEDA and water. The new protocol successfully couples substrates which failed...... with standard Sonogashira conditions, and enables an efficient general synthetic route to free fatty acid 1 (FFA1) receptor ligands from 3-(4-bromophenyl)propionic acid....

  2. Optimization of an Efficient and Sustainable Sonogashira Cross-Coupling Protocol

    KAUST Repository

    Walter, Philipp E.

    2012-12-01

    Cross coupling reactions are a well-established tool in modern organic synthesis and play a crucial role in the synthesis of a high number of organic compounds. Their importance is highlighted by the Nobel Prize in chemistry to Suzuki, Heck and Negishi in 2010. The increasing importance of sustainability requirements in chemical production has furthermore promoted the development of cross-coupling protocols that comply with the principles of “Green Chemistry”1. The Sonogashira reaction is today the most versatile and powerful way to generate aryl alkynes, a moiety recurring in many pharmaceutical and natural products. Despite many improvements to the original reaction, reports on generally applicable protocols that work under sustainable conditions are scarce. Our group recently reported an efficient protocol for a copperfree Sonogashira cross-coupling at low temperature, in aqueous medium and with no addition of organic solvents or additives2. The goal of this work was to further investigate the effects of different reaction parameters on the catalytic activity in order to optimize the protocol. Limitations of the protocol were tested in respect to reaction temperature, heating method, atmosphere, base type and amount, catalyst loading, reaction time and work up procedure. The reaction worked successfully under air and results were not affected by the presence of oxygen in the water phase. Among a variety of bases tested, triethylamine was confirmed to give the best results and its required excess could be reduced from nine to four equivalents. Catalyst loading could also be reduced by up to 90%: Good to near quantitative yields for a broad range of substrates were achieved using a catalyst concentration of 0.25mol% and 5 eq of Et3N at 50°C while more reactive substrates could be coupled with a catalyst concentration as low as 0.025mol%. Filtration experiments showed the possibility of a simplified work up procedure and a protocol completely free of organic

  3. An efficient protocol for copper-free palladium-catalyzed Sonogashira cross-coupling in aqueous media at low temperatures

    KAUST Repository

    Marziale, Alexander N.

    2011-11-01

    A thorough study on copper-free Sonogashira cross-couplings in water was carried out using the palla-dacycle, [{Pd(μ-Cl){K2-P,C-P(iPr) 2(OC6H3-2-Ph)}}2] as pre-catalyst with different bases and palladium concentrations. The highly active pre-catalyst imparts good to near quantitative yields using a concentration of 0.25 mol % at 40 °C. This broadly applicable protocol exhibits high tolerance of functional groups and substitution patterns. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Efficient Sonogashira and Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    graphene. They showed excel- lent catalytic activity towards Sonogashira and Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction. Benzenediazonium salts were used as alternative to aromatic halide. The developed protocol offers recyclability, easy workups.

  5. Efficient Sonogashira and Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pd/Nf-G catalyzed Sonogashira reaction of various aryl iodide and bromide with various phenyl acetylene.a. Entry. Aryl halides. Phenyl Acetylene. Products .... Table 4. Pd/Nf-G catalyzed Suzuki reactions of substituted arenediazonium salt with various boronic acids.a. Entry. Arenediazonium salt. Boronic acid. Product.

  6. A novel polymer containing phosphorus-nitrogen ligands for stabilization of palladium nanoparticles: an efficient and recyclable catalyst for Suzuki and Sonogashira reactions in neat water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholinejad, M; Hamed, F; Biji, P

    2015-08-28

    A new polymer containing phosphorus and nitrogen ligands was successfully synthesized, characterized and used for the stabilization of highly monodispersed palladium nanoparticles having an average diameter of 2-3 nm. The thermally stable heterogeneous catalyst was successfully applied in Suzuki-Miyaura and copper-free Sonogashira-Hagihara coupling reactions of aryl halides under low palladium loading conditions. Reactions were proceeded in neat water without using any organic co-solvents. The catalyst was successfully recycled for the sample Suzuki-Miyaura reaction nine consecutive times with small drop in catalytic activity.

  7. Efficient secure two-party protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Hazay, Carmit

    2010-01-01

    The authors present a comprehensive study of efficient protocols and techniques for secure two-party computation -- both general constructions that can be used to securely compute any functionality, and protocols for specific problems of interest. The book focuses on techniques for constructing efficient protocols and proving them secure. In addition, the authors study different definitional paradigms and compare the efficiency of protocols achieved under these different definitions.The book opens with a general introduction to secure computation and then presents definitions of security for a

  8. Coupling of 3,8-Dibromo-1,10-Phenanthroline With 3,5-Diethynylheptyloxybenzene: A Suzuki/Miyaura Versus a Sonogashira Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinhua; Oh, Woon Su; Elder, Ian A.; Leventis, Nicholas; Sotiriou-Leventis, Chariklia

    2003-01-01

    We report a new application of the Suzuki-Miyaura reaction whereas two bifunctional reactants, 3,8-dibromo-1,10-phenanthroline and 3,5-diethynylheptyloxylbenzene (9), yield 3,8-bis (3-ethynyl-5-heptyloxyphenylethynyl)-1,10-phenanthroline (2) efficiently (74% yield) without polymerization. This was achieved by reacting a stoichiometric amount of 9 and (Me3Si)2NLi to obtain quantitatively the monoacetylide anion of 9 (10). The latter was activated with B-methoxy-9-BBN and reacted in analogy to the alkynyl copper complex of a Sonogashira route. However, in the Sonogashira reaction, the alkynyl copper complex is present in small equilibrium concentrations and polymerization takes place even when reagents are mixed slowly. Actually the Sonogashira route gave no desired product 2, as the latter polymerizes easily via homo-coupling in the presence of air and Cu(I). Sonogashira coupling involves the palladium(0) catalyzed reaction of terminal alkynes.

  9. A More Efficient Contextuality Distillation Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Hui-xian; Cao, Huai-xin; Wang, Wen-hua; Fan, Ya-jing; Chen, Liang

    2017-12-01

    Based on the fact that both nonlocality and contextuality are resource theories, it is natural to ask how to amplify them more efficiently. In this paper, we present a contextuality distillation protocol which produces an n-cycle box B ∗ B ' from two given n-cycle boxes B and B '. It works efficiently for a class of contextual n-cycle (n ≥ 4) boxes which we termed as "the generalized correlated contextual n-cycle boxes". For any two generalized correlated contextual n-cycle boxes B and B ', B ∗ B ' is more contextual than both B and B '. Moreover, they can be distilled toward to the maximally contextual box C H n as the times of iteration goes to infinity. Among the known protocols, our protocol has the strongest approximate ability and is optimal in terms of its distillation rate. What is worth noting is that our protocol can witness a larger set of nonlocal boxes that make communication complexity trivial than the protocol in Brunner and Skrzypczyk (Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 160403 2009), this might be helpful for exploring the problem that why quantum nonlocality is limited.

  10. Efficient SCT Protocol for Post Disaster Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, T. K.; Giriraja, C. V.

    2017-08-01

    Natural and catastrophic disasters can cause damage to the communication system, the damage may be complete or it may be partial. In such areas communication and exchange of information plays a very important role and become difficult to happen in such situations. So, the rescue systems should be installed in those areas for the rescue operations and to take important decisions about how to make a connection from there to the outside world. Wireless communication network architecture should be setup in disaster areas for the communication to happen and to gather information. Wireless ad-hoc network architecture is proposed in this paper with access nodes. These access nodes acts as hotspot for certain area in which they are set up such that the Wi-Fi capable devices get connected to them for communication to happen. If the mobile battery is drained in such situations wireless charging using microwave is shown in this paper. Performance analysis of the communication transport layer protocols is shown and Efficient SCTP (ESTP) algorithm is developed which shows better results in terms of cumulative packet loss.

  11. Efficient multiparty protocols via log-depth threshold formulae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohen, Gil; Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Ishai, Yuval

    2013-01-01

    We put forward a new approach for the design of efficient multiparty protocols: Design a protocol π for a small number of parties (say, 3 or 4) which achieves security against a single corrupted party. Such protocols are typically easy to construct, as they may employ techniques that do not scale...

  12. Efficient Communication Protocols for Deciding Edit Distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jowhari, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present two communication protocols on computing edit distance. In our first result, we give a one-way protocol for the following Document Exchange problem. Namely given x ∈ Σn to Alice and y ∈ Σn to Bob and integer k to both, Alice sends a message to Bob so that he learns x...

  13. Development of an efficient plant regeneration protocol for sweet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An efficient and reproducible plant regeneration protocol for the South African sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Lam.) cultivar Blesbok was developed in this study. The effect of different hormone combinations and type of explant on shoot regeneration was evaluated in order to optimize the regeneration protocol. Explants in ...

  14. Cost-efficient vaccination protocols for network epidemiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petter Holme

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigate methods to vaccinate contact networks-i.e. removing nodes in such a way that disease spreading is hindered as much as possible-with respect to their cost-efficiency. Any real implementation of such protocols would come with costs related both to the vaccination itself, and gathering of information about the network. Disregarding this, we argue, would lead to erroneous evaluation of vaccination protocols. We use the susceptible-infected-recovered model-the generic model for diseases making patients immune upon recovery-as our disease-spreading scenario, and analyze outbreaks on both empirical and model networks. For different relative costs, different protocols dominate. For high vaccination costs and low costs of gathering information, the so-called acquaintance vaccination is the most cost efficient. For other parameter values, protocols designed for query-efficient identification of the network's largest degrees are most efficient.

  15. Cost-efficient vaccination protocols for network epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    We investigate methods to vaccinate contact networks—i.e. removing nodes in such a way that disease spreading is hindered as much as possible—with respect to their cost-efficiency. Any real implementation of such protocols would come with costs related both to the vaccination itself, and gathering of information about the network. Disregarding this, we argue, would lead to erroneous evaluation of vaccination protocols. We use the susceptible-infected-recovered model—the generic model for diseases making patients immune upon recovery—as our disease-spreading scenario, and analyze outbreaks on both empirical and model networks. For different relative costs, different protocols dominate. For high vaccination costs and low costs of gathering information, the so-called acquaintance vaccination is the most cost efficient. For other parameter values, protocols designed for query-efficient identification of the network’s largest degrees are most efficient. PMID:28892481

  16. Cost-efficient vaccination protocols for network epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Petter; Litvak, Nelly

    2017-09-01

    We investigate methods to vaccinate contact networks-i.e. removing nodes in such a way that disease spreading is hindered as much as possible-with respect to their cost-efficiency. Any real implementation of such protocols would come with costs related both to the vaccination itself, and gathering of information about the network. Disregarding this, we argue, would lead to erroneous evaluation of vaccination protocols. We use the susceptible-infected-recovered model-the generic model for diseases making patients immune upon recovery-as our disease-spreading scenario, and analyze outbreaks on both empirical and model networks. For different relative costs, different protocols dominate. For high vaccination costs and low costs of gathering information, the so-called acquaintance vaccination is the most cost efficient. For other parameter values, protocols designed for query-efficient identification of the network's largest degrees are most efficient.

  17. Efficient deterministic secure quantum communication protocols using multipartite entangled states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Dintomon; Surendran, Supin P.; Sabir, M.

    2017-06-01

    We propose two deterministic secure quantum communication protocols employing three-qubit GHZ-like states and five-qubit Brown states as quantum channels for secure transmission of information in units of two bits and three bits using multipartite teleportation schemes developed here. In these schemes, the sender's capability in selecting quantum channels and the measuring bases leads to improved qubit efficiency of the protocols.

  18. Cost-efficient vaccination protocols for network epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holme, Petter; Litvak, Nelly

    2017-01-01

    We investigate methods to vaccinate contact networks – i.e. removing nodes in such a way that disease spreading is hindered as much as possible - with respect to their cost-efficiency. Any real implementation of such protocols would come with costs related both to the vaccination itself, and

  19. Efficient in vitro regeneration protocol of Centella asiatica (L.) Urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present communication reports an efficient in vitro plantlet regeneration protocol for endemic umbellifer Centella asiatica (L.) urban via callus mediated organogenesis from leaf and stem explants. The plant is pharmacologically very important and its consumption as underutilized green leafy vegetable affluent in ...

  20. Silica gel-Supported Palladium Catalyst for the Acyl Sonogashira Reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, Shahin; Park, Jihoon; Park, Minkyu; Jin, Myungjong

    2013-01-01

    We have demonstrated an efficient and eco-friendly procedure for the synthesis of ynones using silica supported thiol-palladium complex as a recyclable catalyst under copper free mild reaction conditions. The material was synthesized by post grafting of 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane on amorphous silica and subsequently Pd(II) attached onto thiol groups. This synthetic method has notable advantages because it involves easily available, less costly and produces an easily recyclable catalyst in high yields of the products. The mild reaction conditions encouraged us to further extension for the development of novel multicomponent reactions. Thus we have explained the three component synthesis of pyrazoles in one-pot fashion with good yields. Specifically, this simple procedure for the ynone synthesis and this approach to synthesize N-containing heterocycles may be valuable tool in future. The acyl Sonogashira reaction between acyl chlorides and terminal alkynes is one of the most useful method for the preparation of ynones which are important intermediates to prepare versatile pharmaceutically and biologically active heterocyclic compounds such as pyrroles, pyrazoles, furans, furanones, isoxazoles, pyrimidines, quinolines, indolizidinones

  1. Accessibility in Public Buildings: Efficiency of Checklist Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Jonas E; Skehan, Terry

    2016-01-01

    In Sweden, governmental agencies and bodies are required to implement a higher level of accessibility in their buildings than that stipulated by the National Building and Planning Act (PBL). The Swedish Agency for Participation (MFD, Myndigheten för delaktighet) develops holistic guidelines in order to conceptualize this higher level of accessibility. In conjunction to these guidelines, various checklist protocols have been produced. The present study focuses on the efficiency of such checklist protocols. The study revolved around the use of a checklist protocol in assessments of two buildings in Stockholm: the new head office for the National Authority for Social Insurances (ASI) and the School of Architecture at the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH). The study included three groups: Group 1 and Group 2 consisted of 50 real estate managers employed by the ASI, while Group 3 consisted of three participants in a course at the KTH. The results were similar in all of the groups. The use of the checklist protocol generated queries, which related mainly to two factors: (1) the accompanying factsheet consisted of textual explanations with no drawings, photographs or illustrations and (2) the order of the questions in the checklist protocol was difficult to correlate with the two buildings' spatial logic of accessing, egressing and making use of the built space.

  2. Accessibility in Public Buildings: : Efficiency of Checklist Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Jonas E; Skehan, Terry

    2016-01-01

    In Sweden, governmental agencies and bodies are required to implement a higher level of accessibility in their buildings than that stipulated by the National Building and Planning Act (PBL). The Swedish Agency for Participation (MFD, Myndigheten för delaktighet) develops holistic guidelines in order to conceptualize this higher level of accessibility. In conjunction to these guidelines, various checklist protocols have been produced. The present study focuses on the efficiency of such checkli...

  3. An Energy Efficient Protocol For The Internet Of Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venčkauskas, Algimantas; Jusas, Nerijus; Kazanavičius, Egidijus; Štuikys, Vytautas

    2015-01-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is a technological revolution that represents the future of computing and communications. One of the most important challenges of IoT is security: protection of data and privacy. The SSL protocol is the de-facto standard for secure Internet communications. The extra energy cost of encrypting and authenticating of the application data with SSL is around 15%. For IoT devices, where energy resources are limited, the increase in the cost of energy is a very significant factor. In this paper we present the energy efficient SSL protocol which ensures the maximum bandwidth and the required level of security with minimum energy consumption. The proper selection of the security level and CPU multiplier, can save up to 85% of the energy required for data encryption.

  4. Cluster chain based energy efficient routing protocol for moblie WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WU Ziyu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With the ubiquitous smart devices acting as mobile sensor nodes in the wireless sensor networks(WSNs to sense and transmit physical information,routing protocols should be designed to accommodate the mobility issues,in addition to conventional considerations on energy efficiency.However,due to frequent topology change,traditional routing schemes cannot perform well.Moreover,existence of mobile nodes poses new challenges on energy dissipation and packet loss.In this paper,a novel routing scheme called cluster chain based routing protocol(CCBRP is proposed,which employs a combination of cluster and chain structure to accomplish data collection and transmission and thereafter selects qualified cluster heads as chain leaders to transmit data to the sink.Furthermore,node mobility is handled based on periodical membership update of mobile nodes.Simulation results demonstrate that CCBRP has a good performance in terms of network lifetime and packet delivery,also strikes a better balance between successful packet reception and energy consumption.

  5. An Efficient Route Maintenance Protocol for Dynamic Bluetooth Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabeen Tahir

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Bluetooth is a widespread technology for small wireless networks that permits Bluetooth devices to construct a multi-hop network called scatternet. Routing in multi-hop dynamic Bluetooth network, where a number of masters and bridges exist creates technical hitches. It is observed that frequent link disconnections and a new route construction consume extra system resources that degrade the whole network performance. Therefore, in this paper an Efficient Route Maintenance Protocol for Dynamic Bluetooth Networks (ERMP is proposed that repairs the weak routing paths based on the prediction of weak links and weak devices. The ERMP predicts the weak links through the signal strength and weak devices through low energy levels. During the main route construction, routing masters and bridges keep the information of the Fall Back Devices (FBDs for route maintenance. On the prediction of a weak link, the ERMP activates an alternate link, on the other hand, for a weak device it activates the FBD. The proposed ERMP is compared with some existing closely related protocols, and the simulation results show that the proposed ERMP successfully recovers the weak paths and improves the system performance.

  6. Enhancing Energy Efficiency of Wireless Sensor Network through the Design of Energy Efficient Routing Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Zaman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Network (WSN is known to be a highly resource constrained class of network where energy consumption is one of the prime concerns. In this research, a cross layer design methodology was adopted to design an energy efficient routing protocol entitled “Position Responsive Routing Protocol” (PRRP. PRRP is designed to minimize energy consumed in each node by (1 reducing the amount of time in which a sensor node is in an idle listening state and (2 reducing the average communication distance over the network. The performance of the proposed PRRP was critically evaluated in the context of network lifetime, throughput, and energy consumption of the network per individual basis and per data packet basis. The research results were analyzed and benchmarked against the well-known LEACH and CELRP protocols. The outcomes show a significant improvement in the WSN in terms of energy efficiency and the overall performance of WSN.

  7. Enhanced SWEET protocol for energy efficient wireless sensor networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dludla, AG

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available SWEET routing protocol is one of the many pro- tocols developed for cluster formation and routing in wireless sensor networks. The SWEET protocol is a decentralized clus- tering protocol, it uses timers and interim updated cluster head estimation...

  8. Global warming and environmental production efficiency ranking of the Kyoto Protocol nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feroz, Ehsan H; Raab, Raymond L; Ulleberg, Gerald T; Alsharif, Kamal

    2009-02-01

    This paper analyzes the United Nations Organization's Kyoto Protocol nations to address two questions. First, what are the environmental production efficiency rankings of these nations? Second, is there a relationship between a nation's ratification status and its environmental production efficiency ranking? Our findings suggest that the nations that have ratified the Kyoto Protocol are more likely to be environmentally production efficient as compared to the nations that have not ratified the Protocol.

  9. An efficient ultrasound promoted catalyst-free protocol for the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A convenient, catalyst-free protocol for the quantitative synthesis of fused chromeno[4,3-b]quinolin-6-ones has been developed by simple one-pot reaction of substituted anilines with 4-chloro-3-formylcoumarin using ultrasound irradiation. The protocol offers the advantages of mild reaction conditions, short reaction times ...

  10. Secure and Efficient Protocol for Vehicular Ad Hoc Network with Privacy Preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Hyoung-Kee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Security is a fundamental issue for promising applications in a VANET. Designing a secure protocol for a VANET that accommodates efficiency, privacy, and traceability is difficult because of the contradictions between these qualities. In this paper, we present a secure yet efficient protocol for a VANET that satisfies these security requirements. Although much research has attempted to address similar issues, we contend that our proposed protocol outperforms other proposals that have been advanced. This claim is based on observations that show that the proposed protocol has such strengths as light computational load, efficient storage management, and dependability.

  11. Power-Efficient Communication Protocol for Integrated WWAN and WLAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SuKyoung Lee

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most impending requirements to support a seamless communication environment in heterogeneous wireless networks comes from the limited power supply of small-size and low-cost mobile terminals as in stand-alone WLANs or cellular networks. Thus, it is a challenge to design new techniques so that mobile terminals are able to not only maintain their active connection as they move across different types of wireless networks, but also minimize their power consumption. There have been several efforts aimed at having mobile devices equipped with multiple interfaces connect optimally to the access network that minimizes their power consumption. However, a study of existing schemes for WLAN notes that in the idle state, a device with both a WLAN and a WWAN interface needs to keep both interfaces on in order to receive periodic beacon messages from the access point (AP: WLAN and downlink control information from the base station (WWAN, resulting in significant power consumption. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a power-efficient communication protocol (PCP that includes turning off the WLAN interface after it enters the idle state and using the paging channel of WWAN in order to wake up the WLAN interface when there is incoming long-lived multimedia data. This scheme is known to limit the power consumption, while at the same time, it makes use of the paging channel in cellular networks. Further, our proposed scheme is designed to avoid repeatedly turning on and off WLAN interfaces, that consumes a significant amount of power. We propose turning on the WLAN interface when the number of packets in the radio network controller (RNC's buffer reaches a certain threshold level. The tradeoffs between the power saving and the number of packets dropped at the buffer are investigated analytically through the study of an on/off traffic model. Simulation results for scenarios of interest are also provided.

  12. A Hierarchical Energy Efficient Reliable Transport Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhudutta Mohanty

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The two important requirements for many Wireless Senor Networks (WSNs are prolonged network lifetime and end-to-end reliability. The sensor nodes consume more energy during data transmission than the data sensing. In WSN, the redundant data increase the energy consumption, latency and reduce reliability during data transmission. Therefore, it is important to support energy efficient reliable data transport in WSNs. In this paper, we present a Hierarchical Energy Efficient Reliable Transport Protocol (HEERTP for the data transmission within the WSN. This protocol maximises the network lifetime by controlling the redundant data transmission with the co-ordination of Base Station (BS. The proposed protocol also achieves end-to-end reliability using a hop-by-hop acknowledgement scheme. We evaluate the performance of the proposed protocol through simulation. The simulation results reveal that our proposed protocol achieves better performance in terms of energy efficiency, latency and reliability than the existing protocols.

  13. Synthesis and Anti-HIV-1 Evaluation of New Sonogashira-Modified Emivirine (MKC-442) Analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danel, Krzystof; Jørgensen, Per Trolle; La Colla, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    The MKC-442 analogue 6-(3,5-dimethylbenzyl)-5-ethyluracil substituted with a (propargyloxo)methyl group at N(1) has previously been found highly active against HIV-1. The C C bond in the substituent at N(1) is here utilized in a series of chemical reactions in order to develop new agents...... with higher activity against HIV-1-resistant mutants. The syntheses involved Pd-catalyzed C,C-coupling reactions, addition of disulfides, and click chemistry on the terminal C C bond as well as addition of bromine to the so formed internal C C bonds. Sonogashira coupling were performed with silyl...

  14. Modular Three-Component Synthesis of 4-Aminoquinolines via an Imidoylative Sonogashira/Cyclization Cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Jurriën W; Ackermans, Kelly; Lambregts, Jeffrey; Maes, Bert U W; Orru, Romano V A; Ruijter, Eelco

    2018-01-19

    We developed a one-pot, two-stage synthetic route to substituted 4-aminoquinolines involving an imidoylative Sonogashira coupling followed by acid-mediated cyclization. This three-component reaction affords pharmaceutically valuable 4-aminoquinolines in a one-pot procedure from readily available starting materials. The reaction tolerates various substituents on the arene as well as the use of secondary and even primary isocyanides. Additionally, the wide tolerance for functionalized isocyanides allows for the one-pot synthesis of various substituted chloroquine analogues as well as other medicinally relevant products.

  15. An efficient protocol for in vitro organogenesis and antioxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total flavonoids and phenolic content in leaves of in vitro Melia dubia was 0.56 ± 0.8 mg quercitin equivalent (QE) and 2.97 ± 0.17 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) respectively. The antioxidant property was further assed through measurement of DPPH radical scavenging activity. The in-vitro regeneration protocol can be ...

  16. Leader Election Protocol for Energy Efficient Mobile Sensor Networks (EYES)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dulman, S.O.; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Hurink, Johann L.

    In this paper we develop and analyze a wireless wave leader election protocol (WWLE) for wireless mobile ad hoc networks, with emphasis on the resulting energy consumption. Within the operating system of the EYES architecture we apply a power model to schedule tasks in order to minimize energy

  17. Energy efficient routing protocols for wireless sensor networks: comparison and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loganathan Murukesan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor network consists of nodes with limited resources. Hence, it is important to design protocols or algorithms which increases energy efficiency in order to improve the network lifetime. In this paper, techniques used in the network layer (routing of the internet protocol stack to achieve energy efficiency are reviewed. Usually, the routing protocols are classified into four main schemes: (1 Network Structure, (2 Communication Model, (3 Topology Based, and (4 Reliable Routing. In this work, only network structure based routing protocols are reviewed due to the page constraint. Besides, this type of protocols are much popular among the researchers since they are fairly simple to implement and produce good results as presented in this paper. Also, the pros and cons of each protocols are presented. Finally, the paper concludes with possible further research directions.

  18. EE-MRP: Energy-Efficient Multistage Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kamran Khan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs have captivated substantial attention from both industrial and academic research in the last few years. The major factor behind the research efforts in that field is their vast range of applications which include surveillance systems, military operations, health care, environment event monitoring, and human safety. However, sensor nodes are low potential and energy constrained devices; therefore, energy-efficient routing protocol is the foremost concern. In this paper, an energy-efficient routing protocol for wireless sensor networks is proposed. Our protocol consists of a routing algorithm for the transmission of data, cluster head selection algorithm, and a scheme for the formation of clusters. On the basis of energy analysis of the existing routing protocols, a multistage data transmission mechanism is proposed. An efficient cluster head selection algorithm is adopted and unnecessary frequency of reclustering is exterminated. Static clustering is used for efficient selection of cluster heads. The performance and energy efficiency of our proposed routing protocol are assessed by the comparison of the existing routing protocols on a simulation platform. On the basis of simulation results, it is observed that our proposed routing protocol (EE-MRP has performed well in terms of overall network lifetime, throughput, and energy efficiency.

  19. An efficient and reliable multi-hop geographical broadcast protocol in vehicular ad-hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajendran, R.; Jongh, J. de

    2013-01-01

    In Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), disseminating warning messages in a timely and efficient way through wireless short-range communications can save many lives and reduce traffic congestion. A geographical broadcast protocol provides data delivery to specified geographical areas, using

  20. An Energy-Efficient Link Layer Protocol for Reliable Transmission over Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal Adnan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In multihop wireless networks, hop-by-hop reliability is generally achieved through positive acknowledgments at the MAC layer. However, positive acknowledgments introduce significant energy inefficiencies on battery-constrained devices. This inefficiency becomes particularly significant on high error rate channels. We propose to reduce the energy consumption during retransmissions using a novel protocol that localizes bit-errors at the MAC layer. The proposed protocol, referred to as Selective Retransmission using Virtual Fragmentation (SRVF, requires simple modifications to the positive-ACK-based reliability mechanism but provides substantial improvements in energy efficiency. The main premise of the protocol is to localize bit-errors by performing partial checksums on disjoint parts or virtual fragments of a packet. In case of error, only the corrupted virtual fragments are retransmitted. We develop stochastic models of the Simple Positive-ACK-based reliability, the previously-proposed Packet Length Optimization (PLO protocol, and the SRVF protocol operating over an arbitrary-order Markov wireless channel. Our analytical models show that SRVF provides significant theoretical improvements in energy efficiency over existing protocols. We then use bit-error traces collected over different real networks to empirically compare the proposed and existing protocols. These experimental results further substantiate that SRVF provides considerably better energy efficiency than Simple Positive-ACK and Packet Length Optimization protocols.

  1. Energy-efficient cooperative protocols for full-duplex relay channels

    KAUST Repository

    Khafagy, Mohammad Galal

    2013-12-01

    In this work, energy-efficient cooperative protocols are studied for full-duplex relaying (FDR) with loopback interference. In these protocols, relay assistance is only sought under certain conditions on the different link outages to ensure effective cooperation. Recently, an energy-efficient selective decode-And-forward protocol was proposed for FDR, and was shown to outperform existing schemes in terms of outage. Here, we propose an incremental selective decode-And-forward protocol that offers additional power savings, while keeping the same outage performance. We compare the performance of the two protocols in terms of the end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio cumulative distribution function via closed-form expressions. Finally, we corroborate our theoretical results with simulation, and show the relative relay power savings in comparison to non-selective cooperation in which the relay cooperates regardless of channel conditions. © 2013 IEEE.

  2. Sonogashira cross-coupling under non-basic conditions. Flow chemistry as a new paradigm in reaction control

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Voltrová, Svatava; Šrogl, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 9 (2014), s. 1067-1071 ISSN 2052-4129 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12013 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : Sonogashira * cross-coupling * flow chemistry Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  3. Functional Testing Protocols for Commercial Building Efficiency Baseline Modeling Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jump, David; Price, Phillip N.; Granderson, Jessica; Sohn, Michael

    2013-09-06

    This document describes procedures for testing and validating proprietary baseline energy modeling software accuracy in predicting energy use over the period of interest, such as a month or a year. The procedures are designed according to the methodology used for public domain baselining software in another LBNL report that was (like the present report) prepared for Pacific Gas and Electric Company: ?Commercial Building Energy Baseline Modeling Software: Performance Metrics and Method Testing with Open Source Models and Implications for Proprietary Software Testing Protocols? (referred to here as the ?Model Analysis Report?). The test procedure focuses on the quality of the software?s predictions rather than on the specific algorithms used to predict energy use. In this way the software vendor is not required to divulge or share proprietary information about how their software works, while enabling stakeholders to assess its performance.

  4. Efficient-phase-encoding protocols for continuous-variable quantum key distribution using coherent states and postselection

    OpenAIRE

    Namiki, Ryo; Hirano, Takuya

    2006-01-01

    We propose efficient-phase-encoding protocols for continuous-variable quantum key distribution using coherent states and postselection. By these phase encodings, the probability of basis mismatch is reduced and total efficiency is increased. We also propose mixed-state protocols by omitting a part of classical communication steps in the efficient-phase-encoding protocols. The omission implies a reduction of information to an eavesdropper and possibly enhances the security of the protocols. We...

  5. Polyethylene glycol in water: A simple, efficient and green protocol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 123; Issue 4. Polyethylene glycol in water: A simple, ... A variety of biologically important quinoxaline derivatives has been efficiently synthesized in excellent yields under extremely mild conditions using PEG-600 and water. This inexpensive, non-toxic, ecofriendly and ...

  6. An efficient three-party password-based key agreement protocol using extended chaotic maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu Jian

    2015-01-01

    Three-party password-based key agreement protocols allow two users to authenticate each other via a public channel and establish a session key with the aid of a trusted server. Recently, Farash et al. [Farash M S, Attari M A 2014 “An efficient and provably secure three-party password-based authenticated key exchange protocol based on Chebyshev chaotic maps”, Nonlinear Dynamics 77(7): 399–411] proposed a three-party key agreement protocol by using the extended chaotic maps. They claimed that their protocol could achieve strong security. In the present paper, we analyze Farash et al.’s protocol and point out that this protocol is vulnerable to off-line password guessing attack and suffers communication burden. To handle the issue, we propose an efficient three-party password-based key agreement protocol using extended chaotic maps, which uses neither symmetric cryptosystems nor the server’s public key. Compared with the relevant schemes, our protocol provides better performance in terms of computation and communication. Therefore, it is suitable for practical applications. (paper)

  7. Efficient Cooperative Protocols for Full-Duplex Relaying over Nakagami-m Fading Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Khafagy, Mohammad Galal

    2015-02-24

    In this work, efficient protocols are studied for full-duplex relaying (FDR) with loopback interference over Nakagami-m block fading channels. Recently, a selective decodeand- forward (DF) protocol was proposed for FDR, and was shown to outperform existing protocols in terms of outage over Rayleigh-fading channels. In this work, we propose an incremental selective DF protocol that offers additional power savings, yet yields the same outage performance. We evaluate their outage performance over independent non-identically distributed Nakagami-m fading links, and study their relative performance in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio cumulative distribution function via closed-form expressions. The offered diversity gain is also derived. In addition, we study their performance relative to their half-duplex counterparts, as well as known non-selective FDR protocols. We corroborate our theoretical results with simulation, and confirm that selective cooperation protocols outperform the known non-selective protocols in terms of outage. Finally, we show that depending on the loopback interference level, the proposed protocols can outperform their half-duplex counterparts when high spectral efficiencies are targeted.

  8. Relaying Strategies and Protocols for Efficient Wireless Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Zafar, Ammar

    2014-10-01

    Next generation wireless networks are expected to provide high data rate and satisfy the Quality-of-Service (QoS) constraints of the users. A significant component of achieving these goals is to increase the effi ciency of wireless networks by either optimizing current architectures or exploring new technologies which achieve that. The latter includes revisiting technologies which were previously proposed, but due to a multitude of reasons were ignored at that time. One such technology is relaying which was initially proposed in the latter half of the 1960s and then was revived in the early 2000s. In this dissertation, we study relaying in conjunction with resource allocation to increase the effi ciency of wireless networks. In this regard, we differentiate between conventional relaying and relaying with buffers. Conventional relaying is traditional relaying where the relay forwards the signal it received immediately. On the other hand, in relaying with buffers or buffer-aided relaying as it is called, the relay can store received data in its buffer and forward it later on. This gives the benefit of taking advantage of good channel conditions as the relay can only transmit when the channel conditions are good. The dissertation starts with conventional relaying and considers the problem of minimizing the total consumed power while maintaining system QoS. After upper bounding the system performance, more practical algorithms which require reduced feedback overhead are explored. Buffer-aided relaying is then considered and the joint user-and-hop scheduler is introduced which exploits multi-user diversity (MUD) and 5 multi-hop diversity (MHD) gains together in dual-hop broadcast channels. Next joint user-and-hop scheduling is extended to the shared relay channel where two source-destination pairs share a single relay. The benefits of buffer-aided relaying in the bidirectional relay channel utilizing network coding are then explored. Finally, a new transmission protocol

  9. Catalytic Studies Featuring Palladium(II Benzoylthiourea Derivative as Catalyst in Sonogashira Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan M. Khairul

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A benzoylthiourea derivative (LTU and its metal complexation of palladium(II chloride (MLTU has been successfully synthesized and characterized via typical spectroscopic and analytical techniques namely IR, 1H and 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, UV-Visible and Gas Chromatography Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID. The Infrared spectrum for LTU shows four significant bands of interest namely ν(N-H, ν(C=O, ν(C-N and ν(C=S and the values were observed within the range. The 1H NMR spectrum for the compound shows expected protons for N-H at δH 10.95 ppm and δH 11.15 ppm while the 13C NMR spectrum shows resonances of carbonyl (C=O carbon and thiones (C=S at δC 168.26 ppm and δC 180.56 ppm, respectively. From UV-Vis spectrum, it shows the presence of n-pi* and pi→pi*electronic transitions which are expected to be attributed from the phenyl ring, carbonyl (C=O and thiones (C=S chromophores. Complexation of LTU with palladium(II chloride was done to afford MLTU which in turn, was tested as homogeneous catalyst in Sonogashira cross-coupling reaction. The reaction was monitored by GC-FID at 6 hours reaction period. The percentage conversion of 4-bromoacetophenone to the coupled product was 75.73% indicated that MLTU can act as an ideal potential catalyst in the Sonogashira reaction. © 2014 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 14th May 2014; Revised: 30th August 2014; Accepted: 3rd September 2014 How to Cite: Khairul, W.M., Faisol, S.L.M., Jasman, S.M., Shamsuddin, M. (2014. Catalytic Studies Featuring Palladium(II Benzoylthiourea Derivative as Catalyst in Sonogashira Reaction. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 9 (3: 241-248 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.9.3.6880.241-248Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.9.3.6880.241-248

  10. FUZZY LOGIC BASED ENERGY EFFICIENT PROTOCOL IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Wei Siew

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs have been vastly developed due to the advances in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS using WSN to study and monitor the environments towards climates changes. In environmental monitoring, sensors are randomly deployed over the interest area to periodically sense the physical environments for a few months or even a year. Therefore, to prolong the network lifetime with limited battery capacity becomes a challenging issue. Low energy adaptive cluster hierarchical (LEACH is the common clustering protocol that aim to reduce the energy consumption by rotating the heavy workload cluster heads (CHs. The CHs election in LEACH is based on probability model which will lead to inefficient in energy consumption due to least desired CHs location in the network. In WSNs, the CHs location can directly influence the network energy consumption and further affect the network lifetime. In this paper, factors which will affect the network lifetime will be presented and the demonstration of fuzzy logic based CH selection conducted in base station (BS will also be carried out. To select suitable CHs that will prolong the network first node dies (FND round and consistent throughput to the BS, energy level and distance to the BS are selected as fuzzy inputs.

  11. An efficient multi-carrier position-based packet forwarding protocol for wireless sensor networks

    KAUST Repository

    Bader, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Beaconless position-based forwarding protocols have recently evolved as a promising solution for packet forwarding in wireless sensor networks. However, as the node density grows, the overhead incurred in the process of relay selection grows significantly. As such, end-to-end performance in terms of energy and latency is adversely impacted. With the motivation of developing a packet forwarding mechanism that is tolerant to variation in node density, an alternative position-based protocol is proposed in this paper. In contrast to existing beaconless protocols, the proposed protocol is designed such that it eliminates the need for potential relays to undergo a relay selection process. Rather, any eligible relay may decide to forward the packet ahead, thus significantly reducing the underlying overhead. The operation of the proposed protocol is empowered by exploiting favorable features of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) at the physical layer. The end-to-end performance of the proposed protocol is evaluated against existing beaconless position-based protocols analytically and as well by means of simulations. The proposed protocol is demonstrated in this paper to be more efficient. In particular, it is shown that for the same amount of energy the proposed protocol transports one bit from source to destination much quicker. © 2012 IEEE.

  12. Efficient MAC Protocol for Subcarrier-Wise Rate Adaptation over WLAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Won Kim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available While bit-loading algorithms over wireless systems have been extensively studied, the development of a protocol which implements bit-loading-based rate adaptation over wireless systems has not been highlighted. The design of such a protocol is not a trivial problem, due to the overhead associated with the feedback information. In this paper, a novel protocol is proposed to provide an efficient way to implement subcarrier-wise rate adaptation in OFDM-based wireless systems. When receiving a Ready-To-Send (RTS packet, the receiver determines the number of bits to be allocated on each subcarrier through channel estimation. This decision is delivered to the sender using an additional OFDM symbol in the Clear-To-Send (CTS packet. That is, bit-allocation over subcarriers is achieved using only one additional OFDM symbol. The protocol enhances the channel efficiency in spite of the overhead of one additional OFDM symbol.

  13. A Centralized Energy Efficient Distance Based Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit D. Gawade

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor network (WSN typically consists of a large number of low cost wireless sensor nodes which collect and send various messages to a base station (BS. WSN nodes are small battery powered devices having limited energy resources. Replacement of such energy resources is not easy for thousands of nodes as they are inaccessible to users after their deployment. This generates a requirement of energy efficient routing protocol for increasing network lifetime while minimizing energy consumption. Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH is a widely used classic clustering algorithm in WSNs. In this paper, we propose a Centralized Energy Efficient Distance (CEED based routing protocol to evenly distribute energy dissipation among all sensor nodes. We calculate optimum number of cluster heads based on LEACH’s energy dissipation model. We propose a distributed cluster head selection algorithm based on dissipated energy of a node and its distance to BS. Moreover, we extend our protocol by multihop routing scheme to reduce energy dissipated by nodes located far away from base station. The performance of CEED is compared with other protocols such as LEACH and LEACH with Distance Based Thresholds (LEACH-DT. Simulation results show that CEED is more energy efficient as compared to other protocols. Also it improves the network lifetime and stability period over the other protocols.

  14. Efficiency of two protocols for maxillary molar intrusion with mini-implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Volpato Curi Paccini

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of two protocols for maxillary molar intrusion with two or three mini-implants. Methods: Twenty five maxillary first molars extruded for loss of their antagonists in adult subjects were selected. The sample was divided into two groups, according to the intrusion protocol with two or three mini-implants. Group 1 consisted of 15 molars that were intruded by two mini-implants. Group 2 consisted of 10 molars intruded by three mini-implants. Changes with treatment were analyzed in lateral cephalograms at the beginning and at the end of intrusion of maxillary molars. Results: Results showed that there was no difference in efficiency for the two intrusion protocols. It was concluded that extruded maxillary molars can be intruded with two or three mini-implants with similar efficiency.

  15. Efficiency of two protocols for maxillary molar intrusion with mini-implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paccini, Juliana Volpato Curi; Cotrim-Ferreira, Flávio Augusto; Ferreira, Flávio Vellini; Freitas, Karina Maria Salvatore de; Cançado, Rodrigo Hermont; Valarelli, Fabrício Pinelli

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of two protocols for maxillary molar intrusion with two or three mini-implants. Twenty five maxillary first molars extruded for loss of their antagonists in adult subjects were selected. The sample was divided into two groups, according to the intrusion protocol with two or three mini-implants. Group 1 consisted of 15 molars that were intruded by two mini-implants. Group 2 consisted of 10 molars intruded by three mini-implants. Changes with treatment were analyzed in lateral cephalograms at the beginning and at the end of intrusion of maxillary molars. Results showed that there was no difference in efficiency for the two intrusion protocols. It was concluded that extruded maxillary molars can be intruded with two or three mini-implants with similar efficiency.

  16. An improved protocol for efficient transformation and regeneration of diverse indica rice cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahoo Khirod K

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rice genome sequencing projects have generated remarkable amount of information about genes and genome architecture having tremendous potential to be utilized in both basic and applied research. Success in transgenics is paving the way for preparing a road map of functional genomics which is expected to correlate action of a gene to a trait in cellular and organismal context. However, the lack of a simple and efficient method for transformation and regeneration is a major constraint for such studies in this important cereal crop. Results In the present study, we have developed an easy, rapid and highly efficient transformation and regeneration protocol using mature seeds as explants and found its successful applicability to a choice of elite indica rice genotypes. We have optimized various steps of transformation and standardized different components of the regeneration medium including growth hormones and the gelling agent. The modified regeneration medium triggers production of large number of shoots from smaller number of calli and promotes their faster growth, hence significantly advantageous over the existing protocols where the regeneration step requires maximum time. Using this protocol, significantly higher transformation efficiency (up to 46% and regeneration frequency (up to 92% for the untransformed calli and 59% for the transformed calli were achieved for the four tested cultivars. We have used this protocol to produce hundreds of independent transgenic lines of different indica rice genotypes. Upon maturity, these transgenic lines were fertile thereby indicating that faster regeneration during tissue culture did not affect their reproductive potential. Conclusions This speedy, yet less labor-intensive, protocol overcomes major limitations associated with genetic manipulation in rice. Moreover, our protocol uses mature seeds as the explant, which can easily be obtained in quantity throughout the year and kept

  17. A Distributed Snapshot Protocol for Efficient Artificial Intelligence Computation in Cloud Computing Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JongBeom Lim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Many artificial intelligence applications often require a huge amount of computing resources. As a result, cloud computing adoption rates are increasing in the artificial intelligence field. To support the demand for artificial intelligence applications and guarantee the service level agreement, cloud computing should provide not only computing resources but also fundamental mechanisms for efficient computing. In this regard, a snapshot protocol has been used to create a consistent snapshot of the global state in cloud computing environments. However, the existing snapshot protocols are not optimized in the context of artificial intelligence applications, where large-scale iterative computation is the norm. In this paper, we present a distributed snapshot protocol for efficient artificial intelligence computation in cloud computing environments. The proposed snapshot protocol is based on a distributed algorithm to run interconnected multiple nodes in a scalable fashion. Our snapshot protocol is able to deal with artificial intelligence applications, in which a large number of computing nodes are running. We reveal that our distributed snapshot protocol guarantees the correctness, safety, and liveness conditions.

  18. Energy-efficient and fast data gathering protocols for indoor wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tümer, Abdullah Erdal; Gündüz, Mesut

    2010-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks have become an important technology with numerous potential applications for the interaction of computers and the physical environment in civilian and military areas. In the routing protocols that are specifically designed for the applications used by sensor networks, the limited available power of the sensor nodes has been taken into consideration in order to extend the lifetime of the networks. In this paper, two protocols based on LEACH and called R-EERP and S-EERP with base and threshold values are presented. R-EERP and S-EERP are two efficient energy aware routing protocols that can be used for some critical applications such as detecting dangerous gases (methane, ammonium, carbon monoxide, etc.) in an indoor environment. In R-EERP, sensor nodes are deployed randomly in a field similar to LEACH. In S-EERP, nodes are deployed sequentially in the rooms of the flats of a multi-story building. In both protocols, nodes forming clusters do not change during a cluster change time, only the cluster heads change. Furthermore, an XOR operation is performed on the collected data in order to prevent the sending of the same data sensed by the nodes close to each other. Simulation results show that our proposed protocols are more energy-efficient than the conventional LEACH protocol.

  19. Emission Trading and the Kyoto protocol: Are they efficient economic instruments?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibanez Londono, Ana Maria

    1998-02-01

    The Kyoto Protocol establishes a tradeable permits market for green house gases -GHG- emissions to reduce the costs of meeting the Protocol obligations. Economic theory provides the arguments to support the creation of GHG tradeable permits. Several economic researches have shown that vis-a-vis command and control regulations, tradeable permits induce economic agents to achieve environmental goals at a minimum cost. However, the conditions to minimize costs through tradeable permits are stringent. Tradeable permits require well functioning markets, e.g. perfect competition and perfect information. The tradeable permits market created by the Kyoto Protocol hardly meet these necessary conditions. Some countries like Japan, Great Britain and the United Stated are large emitters and thus may exert market power. Price manipulation may have implications over the static and dynamic efficiency of the permits. This paper takes a first look to the consequences of imperfect markets on the tradeable permit system of the Kyoto Protocol

  20. An efficient and reliable geographic routing protocol based on partial network coding for underwater sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Kun; Jin, Zhigang; Shen, Haifeng; Wang, Ying

    2015-05-28

    Efficient routing protocols for data packet delivery are crucial to underwater sensor networks (UWSNs). However, communication in UWSNs is a challenging task because of the characteristics of the acoustic channel. Network coding is a promising technique for efficient data packet delivery thanks to the broadcast nature of acoustic channels and the relatively high computation capabilities of the sensor nodes. In this work, we present GPNC, a novel geographic routing protocol for UWSNs that incorporates partial network coding to encode data packets and uses sensor nodes' location information to greedily forward data packets to sink nodes. GPNC can effectively reduce network delays and retransmissions of redundant packets causing additional network energy consumption. Simulation results show that GPNC can significantly improve network throughput and packet delivery ratio, while reducing energy consumption and network latency when compared with other routing protocols.

  1. An Energy-Efficient and Robust Multipath Routing Protocol for Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kishor; Moh, Sangman

    2017-09-04

    Routing in cognitive radio ad hoc networks (CRAHNs) is a daunting task owing to dynamic topology, intermittent connectivity, spectrum heterogeneity, and energy constraints. Other prominent aspects such as channel stability, path reliability, and route discovery frequency should also be exploited. Several routing protocols have been proposed for CRAHNs in the literature. By stressing on one of the aspects more than any other, however, they do not satisfy all requirements of throughput, energy efficiency, and robustness. In this paper, we propose an energy-efficient and robust multipath routing (ERMR) protocol for CRAHNs by considering all prominent aspects including residual energy and channel stability in design. Even when the current routing path fails, the alternative routing path is immediately utilized. In establishing primary and alternative routing paths, both residual energy and channel stability are exploited simultaneously. Our simulation study shows that the proposed ERMR outperforms the conventional protocol in terms of network throughput, packet delivery ratio, energy consumption, and end-to-end delay.

  2. Pd-catalyzed coupling reaction on the organic monolayer: Sonogashira reaction on the silicon (1 1 1) surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu Mengnan; Zhang Yuan; He Jinmei; Cao Xiaoping; Zhang Junyan

    2008-01-01

    Iodophenyl-terminated organic monolayers were prepared by thermally induced hydrosilylation on hydrogen-terminated silicon (1 1 1) surfaces. The films were characterized by ellipsometry, contact-angle goniometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). To modify the surface chemistry and the structure of the monolayers, the Sonogashira coupling reaction was performed on the as-prepared monolayers. The iodophenyl groups on the film surfaces reacted with 1-ethynyl-4-fluorobenzene or the 1-chloro-4-ethynylbenzene under the standard Sonogashira reaction conditions for attaching conjugated molecules via the formation of C-C bonds. It is expected that this surface coupling reaction will present a new method to modify the surface chemistry and the structure of monolayers

  3. Efficient one-step tissue culture protocol for propagation of endemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficient one-step tissue culture protocol for propagation of endemic plant, Lilium martagon var. cattaniae Vis. M Skorić, S Živković, J Savić, B Šiler, A Sabovljević, S Todorović, D Grubišić ...

  4. A Study on Energy Efficient MAC Protocol of Wireless Sensor Network for Ubiquitous Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho-Chul; Lee, Ji-Woong; Hwang, Jeong-Hwan; Yoe, Hyun

    Various technologies are used in the agricultural sites now. Especially, the recent application of sensor network related technology is quite notable. Considering the efficiency of MAC protocol of WSN is being researched in various aspects, it is believed that a research on how to apply the MAC protocol to agriculture would be also required. This research is based on the sensor node developed by Sunchon University ITRC. Once the sensor nodes are effectively located in the farm, they operate for a long time and they are rarely relocated once installed. The concentration of multiple sensor nodes in a narrow area is another characteristic the sensor node. The purpose of this research is to select a sensor network MAC protocol, which would be most proper to agricultural site with good energy efficiency and excellent transmission delay performance. The applicable protocols such as S-MAC and X-MAC were set up for the installation environment. They were compared and a methodology to select the most optimum protocol to agricultural site is suggested.

  5. Synthesis of 1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives using 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition and Sonogashira reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Silva do Nascimento

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Naphthoquinones are known according to their important bio-activities, such as their antitumoral and topoisomerase inhibition properties. From 2-azido (3 or 2,3-diacetylene-1,4-naphthoquinone (4 it was possible to obtain triazole derivatives (naphthoquinonic. This work describes the synthesis of two novel molecules, with triazole groups linked to 1,4-naphthoquinone using the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition and Sonogashira reactions. The synthetic strategy followed two routes (Scheme 1. First, we synthesized the 2-bromo-1,4-naphthoquinone (2, yield 98% by using Br2 and CH3CO2H, and then used it to obtain 2-azido-1,4-naphthoquinone (3, yield 62% from compound 1, along with ethanolic solution (reflux and NaN3. Finally, we prepared 1,2,3-triazole compounds (4a, b by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition, involving compound (3 and terminal acetylenes (phenylacetylene, a and glycoside (b using Cu(OAc2 and ascorbate, under argon atmosphere. During the second step, 2,3-dibromo-1,4-naphthoquinone was prepared using Br2/CH2Cl2 at room temperature. From compound (5 it was possible to synthesize (6, catalyzed by Pd(PPh32Cl2/CuI/Et3N, under argon atmosphere, in 40% yield. The 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions involving 2-azido-1,4-naphthoquinone (3 and alkynes (a, yield 23% and b, yield 30% were conducted using the solvent system, (1:1 terc-BuOH/H2O/r.t/ 20 mol% of Cu(OAc2 and sodium ascorbate, under stirring during 24 hours. The reaction involving 2,3-dibromo-1,4-naphthoquinone (5, yield 65% and phenylacetylene was prepared using the solvent mixture (2:1 DMSO/CHCl3 and catalytic amount of CuI/Pd(PPh32Cl2. The final products were characterized by elemental analysis and spectrometric techniques (IR, NMR 1H and 13C. Two novel triazole compounds were synthesized from naphthoquinones by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition from suitable 1,4-naphthoquinones obtained by Sonogashira couplings.

  6. A Decentralized Fuzzy C-Means-Based Energy-Efficient Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Moh’d Alia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy conservation in wireless sensor networks (WSNs is a vital consideration when designing wireless networking protocols. In this paper, we propose a Decentralized Fuzzy Clustering Protocol, named DCFP, which minimizes total network energy dissipation to promote maximum network lifetime. The process of constructing the infrastructure for a given WSN is performed only once at the beginning of the protocol at a base station, which remains unchanged throughout the network’s lifetime. In this initial construction step, a fuzzy C-means algorithm is adopted to allocate sensor nodes into their most appropriate clusters. Subsequently, the protocol runs its rounds where each round is divided into a CH-Election phase and a Data Transmission phase. In the CH-Election phase, the election of new cluster heads is done locally in each cluster where a new multicriteria objective function is proposed to enhance the quality of elected cluster heads. In the Data Transmission phase, the sensing and data transmission from each sensor node to their respective cluster head is performed and cluster heads in turn aggregate and send the sensed data to the base station. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed protocol improves network lifetime, data delivery, and energy consumption compared to other well-known energy-efficient protocols.

  7. A decentralized fuzzy C-means-based energy-efficient routing protocol for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alia, Osama Moh'd

    2014-01-01

    Energy conservation in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is a vital consideration when designing wireless networking protocols. In this paper, we propose a Decentralized Fuzzy Clustering Protocol, named DCFP, which minimizes total network energy dissipation to promote maximum network lifetime. The process of constructing the infrastructure for a given WSN is performed only once at the beginning of the protocol at a base station, which remains unchanged throughout the network's lifetime. In this initial construction step, a fuzzy C-means algorithm is adopted to allocate sensor nodes into their most appropriate clusters. Subsequently, the protocol runs its rounds where each round is divided into a CH-Election phase and a Data Transmission phase. In the CH-Election phase, the election of new cluster heads is done locally in each cluster where a new multicriteria objective function is proposed to enhance the quality of elected cluster heads. In the Data Transmission phase, the sensing and data transmission from each sensor node to their respective cluster head is performed and cluster heads in turn aggregate and send the sensed data to the base station. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed protocol improves network lifetime, data delivery, and energy consumption compared to other well-known energy-efficient protocols.

  8. Efficient MAC Protocol for Hybrid Wireless Network with Heterogeneous Sensor Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Nasre Alam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although several Directional Medium Access Control (DMAC protocols have been designed for use with homogeneous networks, it can take a substantial amount of time to change sensor nodes that are equipped with an omnidirectional antenna for sensor nodes with a directional antenna. Thus, we require a novel MAC protocol for use with an intermediate wireless network that consists of heterogeneous sensor nodes equipped with either an omnidirectional antenna or a directional antenna. The MAC protocols that have been designed for use in homogeneous networks are not suitable for use in a hybrid network due to deaf, hidden, and exposed nodes. Therefore, we propose a MAC protocol that exploits the characteristics of a directional antenna and can also work efficiently with omnidirectional nodes in a hybrid network. In order to address the deaf, hidden, and exposed node problems, we define RTS/CTS for the neighbor (RTSN/CTSN and Neighbor Information (NIP packets. The performance of the proposed MAC protocol is evaluated through a numerical analysis using a Markov model. In addition, the analytical results of the MAC protocol are verified through an OPNET simulation.

  9. An Efficient and QoS Supported Multichannel MAC Protocol for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Caixia; Tan, Guozhen; Yu, Chao

    2017-10-09

    Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) employ multichannel to provide a variety of safety and non-safety (transport efficiency and infotainment) applications, based on the IEEE 802.11p and IEEE 1609.4 protocols. Different types of applications require different levels Quality-of-Service (QoS) support. Recently, transport efficiency and infotainment applications (e.g., electronic map download and Internet access) have received more and more attention, and this kind of applications is expected to become a big market driver in a near future. In this paper, we propose an Efficient and QoS supported Multichannel Medium Access Control (EQM-MAC) protocol for VANETs in a highway environment. The EQM-MAC protocol utilizes the service channel resources for non-safety message transmissions during the whole synchronization interval, and it dynamically adjusts minimum contention window size for different non-safety services according to the traffic conditions. Theoretical model analysis and extensive simulation results show that the EQM-MAC protocol can support QoS services, while ensuring the high saturation throughput and low transmission delay for non-safety applications.

  10. An Efficient and QoS Supported Multichannel MAC Protocol for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caixia Song

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs employ multichannel to provide a variety of safety and non-safety (transport efficiency and infotainment applications, based on the IEEE 802.11p and IEEE 1609.4 protocols. Different types of applications require different levels Quality-of-Service (QoS support. Recently, transport efficiency and infotainment applications (e.g., electronic map download and Internet access have received more and more attention, and this kind of applications is expected to become a big market driver in a near future. In this paper, we propose an Efficient and QoS supported Multichannel Medium Access Control (EQM-MAC protocol for VANETs in a highway environment. The EQM-MAC protocol utilizes the service channel resources for non-safety message transmissions during the whole synchronization interval, and it dynamically adjusts minimum contention window size for different non-safety services according to the traffic conditions. Theoretical model analysis and extensive simulation results show that the EQM-MAC protocol can support QoS services, while ensuring the high saturation throughput and low transmission delay for non-safety applications.

  11. Energy Efficient and QoS sensitive Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanoli, Tariq Saeed; Khan, Muhammad Khalid

    2013-01-01

    Efficient routing is an important part of wireless ad hoc networks. Since in ad hoc networks we have limited resources, there are many limitations like bandwidth, battery consumption, and processing cycle etc. Reliability is also necessary since there is no allowance for invalid or incomplete information (and expired data is useless). There are various protocols that perform routing by considering one parameter but ignoring other parameters. In this paper we present a protocol that finds route on the basis of bandwidth, energy and mobility of the nodes participating in the communication

  12. An Efficient and Secure Arbitrary N-Party Quantum Key Agreement Protocol Using Bell States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-Jie; Xu, Yong; Yang, Ching-Nung; Gao, Pei-Pei; Yu, Wen-Bin

    2018-01-01

    Two quantum key agreement protocols using Bell states and Bell measurement were recently proposed by Shukla et al. (Quantum Inf. Process. 13(11), 2391-2405, 2014). However, Zhu et al. pointed out that there are some security flaws and proposed an improved version (Quantum Inf. Process. 14(11), 4245-4254, 2015). In this study, we will show Zhu et al.'s improvement still exists some security problems, and its efficiency is not high enough. For solving these problems, we utilize four Pauli operations { I, Z, X, Y} to encode two bits instead of the original two operations { I, X} to encode one bit, and then propose an efficient and secure arbitrary N-party quantum key agreement protocol. In the protocol, the channel checking with decoy single photons is introduced to avoid the eavesdropper's flip attack, and a post-measurement mechanism is used to prevent against the collusion attack. The security analysis shows the present protocol can guarantee the correctness, security, privacy and fairness of quantum key agreement.

  13. In vivo HAPLOID INDUCTION AND EFFICIENCY OF TWO CHROMOSOME DUPLICATION PROTOCOLS IN TROPICAL MAIZE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evellyn Giselly de Oliveira Couto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTArtificial chromosome duplication is one of the most important process in the attainment of doubled haploids in maize. This study aimed to evaluate the induction ability of the inducer line KEMS in a tropical climate and test the efficiency of the R1-Navajo marker by flow cytometry to evaluate two chromosome duplication protocols and analyze the development of the doubled haploids in the field. To accomplish this goal, four genotypes (F1 and F2 generations were crossed with the haploid inducer line KEMS. The seeds obtained were selected using the R1-Navajo marker and subject to two chromosome duplication protocols. Duplication was confirmed using flow cytometry. The percentages of self-fertilized plants after duplication as well as the quantities of doubled haploid seeds obtained after the self-fertilization processes were analyzed. It was observed that the germplasm influences haploid induction but not the duplication rates of the tested protocols. Protocol 2 was more efficient for the duplication of haploids, in the percentage of self-fertilized plants after duplication, and in the attainment of doubled haploid lines. Moreover, the haploid inducer line KEMS can produce haploids in a tropical climate. Other markers, in addition to the R1-Navajo system, should be used in the selection of haploid seeds.

  14. PROTOCOL TO EVALUATE THE MOISTURE DURABILITY OF ENERGY-EFFICIENT WALLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudreaux, Philip R [ORNL; Pallin, Simon B [ORNL; Hun, Diana E [ORNL; Kehrer, Manfred [ORNL; Jackson, Roderick K [ORNL; Desjarlais, Andre Omer [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Walls account for about 8% of the energy used in residential buildings. This energy penalty can be reduced with higher insulation levels and increased airtightness. However, these measures can compromise the moisture durability and long-term performance of wall assemblies because they can lead to lower moisture tolerance due to reduced drying potential. To avert these problems, a moisture durability protocol was developed to evaluate the probability that an energy-efficient wall design will experience mold growth. This protocol examines the effects of moisture sources in walls through a combination of simulations and lab experiments, uses the mold growth index as the moisture durability indicator, and is based on a probabilistic approach that utilizes stochastically varying input parameters. The simulation tools used include a new validated method for taking into account the effects of air leakage in wall assemblies This paper provides an overview of the developed protocol, discussion of the probabilistic simulation approach and describes results from the evaluation of two wall assemblies in Climate Zones 2, 4, and 6. The protocol will be used to supply builders with wall designs that are energy efficient, moisture durable and cost-effective.

  15. A robust and energy-efficient transport protocol for cognitive radio sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Shelly; Moh, Sangman

    2014-10-20

    A cognitive radio sensor network (CRSN) is a wireless sensor network in which sensor nodes are equipped with cognitive radio. CRSNs benefit from cognitive radio capabilities such as dynamic spectrum access and transmission parameters reconfigurability; but cognitive radio also brings additional challenges and leads to higher energy consumption. Motivated to improve the energy efficiency in CRSNs, we propose a robust and energy-efficient transport protocol (RETP). The novelties of RETP are two-fold: (I) it combines distributed channel sensing and channel decision with centralized schedule-based data transmission; and (II) it differentiates the types of data transmission on the basis of data content and adopts different acknowledgment methods for different transmission types. To the best of our knowledge, no transport layer protocols have yet been designed for CRSNs. Simulation results show that the proposed protocol achieves remarkably longer network lifetime and shorter event-detection delay compared to those achieved with a conventional transport protocol, while simultaneously preserving event-detection reliability.

  16. Cost-Effective Encryption-Based Autonomous Routing Protocol for Efficient and Secure Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Kashif; Derhab, Abdelouahid; Orgun, Mehmet A.; Al-Muhtadi, Jalal; Rodrigues, Joel J. P. C.; Khalil, Mohammed Sayim; Ali Ahmed, Adel

    2016-01-01

    The deployment of intelligent remote surveillance systems depends on wireless sensor networks (WSNs) composed of various miniature resource-constrained wireless sensor nodes. The development of routing protocols for WSNs is a major challenge because of their severe resource constraints, ad hoc topology and dynamic nature. Among those proposed routing protocols, the biology-inspired self-organized secure autonomous routing protocol (BIOSARP) involves an artificial immune system (AIS) that requires a certain amount of time to build up knowledge of neighboring nodes. The AIS algorithm uses this knowledge to distinguish between self and non-self neighboring nodes. The knowledge-building phase is a critical period in the WSN lifespan and requires active security measures. This paper proposes an enhanced BIOSARP (E-BIOSARP) that incorporates a random key encryption mechanism in a cost-effective manner to provide active security measures in WSNs. A detailed description of E-BIOSARP is presented, followed by an extensive security and performance analysis to demonstrate its efficiency. A scenario with E-BIOSARP is implemented in network simulator 2 (ns-2) and is populated with malicious nodes for analysis. Furthermore, E-BIOSARP is compared with state-of-the-art secure routing protocols in terms of processing time, delivery ratio, energy consumption, and packet overhead. The findings show that the proposed mechanism can efficiently protect WSNs from selective forwarding, brute-force or exhaustive key search, spoofing, eavesdropping, replaying or altering of routing information, cloning, acknowledgment spoofing, HELLO flood attacks, and Sybil attacks. PMID:27043572

  17. Cost-Effective Encryption-Based Autonomous Routing Protocol for Efficient and Secure Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Kashif; Derhab, Abdelouahid; Orgun, Mehmet A; Al-Muhtadi, Jalal; Rodrigues, Joel J P C; Khalil, Mohammed Sayim; Ali Ahmed, Adel

    2016-03-31

    The deployment of intelligent remote surveillance systems depends on wireless sensor networks (WSNs) composed of various miniature resource-constrained wireless sensor nodes. The development of routing protocols for WSNs is a major challenge because of their severe resource constraints, ad hoc topology and dynamic nature. Among those proposed routing protocols, the biology-inspired self-organized secure autonomous routing protocol (BIOSARP) involves an artificial immune system (AIS) that requires a certain amount of time to build up knowledge of neighboring nodes. The AIS algorithm uses this knowledge to distinguish between self and non-self neighboring nodes. The knowledge-building phase is a critical period in the WSN lifespan and requires active security measures. This paper proposes an enhanced BIOSARP (E-BIOSARP) that incorporates a random key encryption mechanism in a cost-effective manner to provide active security measures in WSNs. A detailed description of E-BIOSARP is presented, followed by an extensive security and performance analysis to demonstrate its efficiency. A scenario with E-BIOSARP is implemented in network simulator 2 (ns-2) and is populated with malicious nodes for analysis. Furthermore, E-BIOSARP is compared with state-of-the-art secure routing protocols in terms of processing time, delivery ratio, energy consumption, and packet overhead. The findings show that the proposed mechanism can efficiently protect WSNs from selective forwarding, brute-force or exhaustive key search, spoofing, eavesdropping, replaying or altering of routing information, cloning, acknowledgment spoofing, HELLO flood attacks, and Sybil attacks.

  18. A simple and highly efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol for Setaria viridis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyana Kelly Martins

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The production and use of sugarcane in Brazil is very important for bioenergy production and is recognized as one of the most efficient in the world. In our laboratory, Setaria viridis is being tested as a model plant for sugarcane. S. viridis has biological attributes (rapid life cycle, small genome, diploid, short stature and simple growth requirements that make it suitable for use as a model system. We report a highly efficient protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of S. viridis. The optimization of several steps in tissue culture allowed the rapid regeneration of plants and increased the rate of transformation up to 29%. This protocol could become a powerful tool for functional genomics in sugarcane.

  19. A highly efficient transformation protocol for Micro-Tom, a model cultivar for tomato functional genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hyeon-Jin; Uchii, Sayaka; Watanabe, Shin; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2006-03-01

    We report a highly efficient protocol for the Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of a miniature dwarf tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), Micro-Tom, a model cultivar for tomato functional genomics. Cotyledon explants of tomato inoculated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Rhizobium radiobacter) C58C1Rif(R) harboring the binary vector pIG121Hm generated a mass of chimeric non-transgenic and transgenic adventitious buds. Repeated shoot elongation from the mass of adventitious buds on selection media resulted in the production of multiple transgenic plants that originated from independent transformation events. The transformation efficiency exceeded 40% of the explants. This protocol could become a powerful tool for functional genomics in tomato.

  20. An Efficient Modeling and Simulation of Quantum Key Distribution Protocols Using OptiSystem™

    OpenAIRE

    Abudhahir Buhari,; Zuriati Ahmad Zukarnain; Shamla K. Subramaniam,; Hishamuddin Zainuddin; Suhairi Saharudin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a modeling and simulation framework for quantum key distribution protocols using commercial photonic simulator OptiSystem™. This simulation framework emphasize on experimental components of quantum key distribution. We simulate BB84 operation with several security attacks scenario and noise immune key distribution in this work. We also investigate the efficiency of simulator’s in-built photonic components in terms of experimental configuration. This simulation provid...

  1. An efficient protocol for the Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratheesh, P T; Vineetha, M; Kurup, G Muraleedhara

    2014-06-01

    Algal-based recombinant protein production has gained immense interest in recent years. The development of algal expression system was earlier hindered due to the lack of efficient and cost-effective transformation techniques capable of heterologous gene integration and expression. The recent development of Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation method is expected to be the ideal solution for these problems. We have developed an efficient protocol for the Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Pre-treatment of Agrobacterium in TAP induction medium (pH 5.2) containing 100 μM acetosyringone and 1 mM glycine betaine and infection of Chlamydomonas with the induced Agrobacterium greatly improved transformation frequency. This protocol was found to double the number of transgenic events on selection media compared to that of previous reports. PCR was used successfully to amplify fragments of the hpt and GUS genes from transformed cells, while Southern blot confirmed the integration of GUS gene into the genome of C. reinhardtii. RT-PCR, Northern blot and GUS histochemical analyses confirm GUS gene expression in the transgenic cell lines of Chlamydomonas. This protocol provides a quick, efficient, economical and high-frequency transformation method for microalgae.

  2. Efficient purification protocol for bioengineering allophycocyanin trimer with N-terminus Histag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Allophycocyanin plays a key role for the photon energy transfer from the phycobilisome to reaction center chlorophylls with high efficiency in cyanobacteria. Previously, the high soluble self-assembled bioengineering allophycocyanin trimer with N-terminus polyhistidine from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 had been successfully recombined and expressed in Escherichia coli strain. The standard protocol with immobilized metal-ion affinity chromatography with chelating transition metal ion (Ni2+ was used to purify the recombinant protein. Extensive optimization works were performed to obtain the desired protocol for high efficiency, low disassociation, simplicity and fitting for large-scale purification. In this study, a 33 full factorial response surface methodology was employed to optimize the varied factors such as pH of potassium phosphate (X1, NaCl concentration (X2, and imidazole concentration (X3. A maximum trimerization ratio (Y1 of approximate A650 nm/A620 nm at 1.024 was obtained at these optimum parameters. Further examinations, with absorbance spectra, fluorescence spectra and SDS-PAGE, confirmed the presence of bioengineering allophycocyanin trimer with highly trimeric form. All these results demonstrate that optimized protocol is efficient in purification of bioengineering allophycocyanin trimer with Histag.

  3. Nanopartículas de paladio soportadas en hidroxisales laminares: uso potencial en reacciones de Sonogashira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Camilo Giraldo Londoño

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se reporta la síntesis de nanopartículas de paladio soportadas en hidroxisales de acetato de zinc y modificadas con un surfactante (LHS-Zn-Ac/Pd0 y LHS-Zn-Suf/Pd0 respectivamente, mediante inserción de [PdCl4]2- y su posterior reducción con etanol en reflujo. Con la inserción de surfactante, la distancia interlaminar de la hidroxisal de partida (LHS-Zn-Ac se incrementó de 13,8 Å a 29,8 Å, mientras que los materiales finales, que contenían paladio metálico registraron distancias interlaminares de 22,4 Å y 29,4 Å para LHS-Zn-Ac/Pd0 y LHS-Zn-Suf/Pd0 respectivamente. Las hidroxisales de acetato de zinc y de surfactante con nanopartículas metálicas de paladio incorporadas fueron ensayadas como potenciales catalizadores en la reacción de Sonogashira partiendo de fenilacetileno y yoduros de arilo, particularmente yodobenceno o 2-yodofenol, dando lugar a difenilacetileno (32% de rendimiento de producto aislado y purificado o 2-fenilbenzofurano (18%. Todos los materiales inorgánicos fueron caracterizados mediante las siguientes técnicas: difracción de rayos X (XRD, microscopia electrónica de barrido (SEM y SEM-EDS, microscopia electrónica de transmisión (TEM y espectroscopía de Infrarrojo con Transformada de Fourier (FT-IR. Por su parte los compuestos orgánicos se caracterizaron por resonancia magnética nuclear (1H-NMR y 13C-NMR y cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas (GC-MS.

  4. An Energy-Efficient and Robust Multipath Routing Protocol for Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishor Singh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Routing in cognitive radio ad hoc networks (CRAHNs is a daunting task owing to dynamic topology, intermittent connectivity, spectrum heterogeneity, and energy constraints. Other prominent aspects such as channel stability, path reliability, and route discovery frequency should also be exploited. Several routing protocols have been proposed for CRAHNs in the literature. By stressing on one of the aspects more than any other, however, they do not satisfy all requirements of throughput, energy efficiency, and robustness. In this paper, we propose an energy-efficient and robust multipath routing (ERMR protocol for CRAHNs by considering all prominent aspects including residual energy and channel stability in design. Even when the current routing path fails, the alternative routing path is immediately utilized. In establishing primary and alternative routing paths, both residual energy and channel stability are exploited simultaneously. Our simulation study shows that the proposed ERMR outperforms the conventional protocol in terms of network throughput, packet delivery ratio, energy consumption, and end-to-end delay.

  5. An Efficient Data-Gathering Routing Protocol for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, Nadeem; Ilyas, Naveed; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Alrajeh, Nabil; Qasim, Umar; Khan, Zahoor Ali; Liaqat, Tayyaba; Khan, Majid Iqbal

    2015-11-17

    Most applications of underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) demand reliable data delivery over a longer period in an efficient and timely manner. However, the harsh and unpredictable underwater environment makes routing more challenging as compared to terrestrial WSNs. Most of the existing schemes deploy mobile sensors or a mobile sink (MS) to maximize data gathering. However, the relatively high deployment cost prevents their usage in most applications. Thus, this paper presents an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV)-aided efficient data-gathering (AEDG) routing protocol for reliable data delivery in UWSNs. To prolong the network lifetime, AEDG employs an AUV for data collection from gateways and uses a shortest path tree (SPT) algorithm while associating sensor nodes with the gateways. The AEDG protocol also limits the number of associated nodes with the gateway nodes to minimize the network energy consumption and to prevent the gateways from overloading. Moreover, gateways are rotated with the passage of time to balance the energy consumption of the network. To prevent data loss, AEDG allows dynamic data collection at the AUV depending on the limited number of member nodes that are associated with each gateway. We also develop a sub-optimal elliptical trajectory of AUV by using a connected dominating set (CDS) to further facilitate network throughput maximization. The performance of the AEDG is validated via simulations, which demonstrate the effectiveness of AEDG in comparison to two existing UWSN routing protocols in terms of the selected performance metrics.

  6. An Efficient Data-Gathering Routing Protocol for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Javaid

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Most applications of underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs demand reliable data delivery over a longer period in an efficient and timely manner. However, the harsh and unpredictable underwater environment makes routing more challenging as compared to terrestrial WSNs. Most of the existing schemes deploy mobile sensors or a mobile sink (MS to maximize data gathering. However, the relatively high deployment cost prevents their usage in most applications. Thus, this paper presents an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV-aided efficient data-gathering (AEDG routing protocol for reliable data delivery in UWSNs. To prolong the network lifetime, AEDG employs an AUV for data collection from gateways and uses a shortest path tree (SPT algorithm while associating sensor nodes with the gateways. The AEDG protocol also limits the number of associated nodes with the gateway nodes to minimize the network energy consumption and to prevent the gateways from overloading. Moreover, gateways are rotated with the passage of time to balance the energy consumption of the network. To prevent data loss, AEDG allows dynamic data collection at the AUV depending on the limited number of member nodes that are associated with each gateway. We also develop a sub-optimal elliptical trajectory of AUV by using a connected dominating set (CDS to further facilitate network throughput maximization. The performance of the AEDG is validated via simulations, which demonstrate the effectiveness of AEDG in comparison to two existing UWSN routing protocols in terms of the selected performance metrics.

  7. Energy-Efficient Boarder Node Medium Access Control Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Razaque

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the design, implementation, and performance analysis of the scalable and mobility-aware hybrid protocol named boarder node medium access control (BN-MAC for wireless sensor networks (WSNs, which leverages the characteristics of scheduled and contention-based MAC protocols. Like contention-based MAC protocols, BN-MAC achieves high channel utilization, network adaptability under heavy traffic and mobility, and low latency and overhead. Like schedule-based MAC protocols, BN-MAC reduces idle listening time, emissions, and collision handling at low cost at one-hop neighbor nodes and achieves high channel utilization under heavy network loads. BN-MAC is particularly designed for region-wise WSNs. Each region is controlled by a boarder node (BN, which is of paramount importance. The BN coordinates with the remaining nodes within and beyond the region. Unlike other hybrid MAC protocols, BN-MAC incorporates three promising models that further reduce the energy consumption, idle listening time, overhearing, and congestion to improve the throughput and reduce the latency. One of the models used with BN-MAC is automatic active and sleep (AAS, which reduces the ideal listening time. When nodes finish their monitoring process, AAS lets them automatically go into the sleep state to avoid the idle listening state. Another model used in BN-MAC is the intelligent decision-making (IDM model, which helps the nodes sense the nature of the environment. Based on the nature of the environment, the nodes decide whether to use the active or passive mode. This decision power of the nodes further reduces energy consumption because the nodes turn off the radio of the transceiver in the passive mode. The third model is the least-distance smart neighboring search (LDSNS, which determines the shortest efficient path to the one-hop neighbor and also provides cross-layering support to handle the mobility of the nodes. The BN-MAC also incorporates a semi

  8. Energy-efficient boarder node medium access control protocol for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razaque, Abdul; Elleithy, Khaled M

    2014-03-12

    This paper introduces the design, implementation, and performance analysis of the scalable and mobility-aware hybrid protocol named boarder node medium access control (BN-MAC) for wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which leverages the characteristics of scheduled and contention-based MAC protocols. Like contention-based MAC protocols, BN-MAC achieves high channel utilization, network adaptability under heavy traffic and mobility, and low latency and overhead. Like schedule-based MAC protocols, BN-MAC reduces idle listening time, emissions, and collision handling at low cost at one-hop neighbor nodes and achieves high channel utilization under heavy network loads. BN-MAC is particularly designed for region-wise WSNs. Each region is controlled by a boarder node (BN), which is of paramount importance. The BN coordinates with the remaining nodes within and beyond the region. Unlike other hybrid MAC protocols, BN-MAC incorporates three promising models that further reduce the energy consumption, idle listening time, overhearing, and congestion to improve the throughput and reduce the latency. One of the models used with BN-MAC is automatic active and sleep (AAS), which reduces the ideal listening time. When nodes finish their monitoring process, AAS lets them automatically go into the sleep state to avoid the idle listening state. Another model used in BN-MAC is the intelligent decision-making (IDM) model, which helps the nodes sense the nature of the environment. Based on the nature of the environment, the nodes decide whether to use the active or passive mode. This decision power of the nodes further reduces energy consumption because the nodes turn off the radio of the transceiver in the passive mode. The third model is the least-distance smart neighboring search (LDSNS), which determines the shortest efficient path to the one-hop neighbor and also provides cross-layering support to handle the mobility of the nodes. The BN-MAC also incorporates a semi

  9. An efficient protocol for the palladium-catalysed Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling

    KAUST Repository

    Marziale, Alexander N.

    2011-01-01

    The palladacyclic catalyst precursor received by ortho-palladation of ([1,1′-biphenyl]-2-yloxy)diisopropyl-phosphine represents a highly active system for Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reactions when used in neat water. An efficient, broadly applicable and sustainable aqueous protocol was developed using 2.5 eq. of Na2CO3 as base, allowing the reaction to be performed under air and at ambient temperature with Pd loadings of 0.04 mol%. Coupling products are obtained in high yields and excellent purity by simple filtration with no organic solvents needed throughout the whole reaction. A broad variety of functional groups are tolerated and a large number of substrates can be applied with this protocol. The crystal structure of the palladacyclic catalyst precursor is presented as well as investigations targeting the nature of catalyst activation and the active catalytic species. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  10. A pairing-free identity-based two-party authenticated key agreement protocol for secure and efficient communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SK Hafizul Islam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, many identity-based two-party authenticated key agreement (ID-2PAKA protocols using elliptic curve cryptography (ECC have been proposed, however, these protocols do not provide adequate security and their computation costs are also relatively high due to bilinear pairing and map-to-point function. Moreover, they require many communication rounds for establishing the session key, and thus results in increased communication latency, which makes them unsuitable for real applications. This paper thus aims to propose a pairing-free ID-2PAKA protocol based on ECC that removes the security flaws of previous protocols. The proposed protocol helps two users to establish a common session key between them through an open network. The formal security analysis using BAN logic and the comparisons with other protocols are given, which demonstrated that our protocol is formally secure and thus, suitable for secure and efficient peer-to-peer communications.

  11. Advertisement-Based Energy Efficient Medium Access Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Surjya Sarathi

    One of the main challenges that prevents the large-scale deployment of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is providing the applications with the required quality of service (QoS) given the sensor nodes' limited energy supplies. WSNs are an important tool in supporting applications ranging from environmental and industrial monitoring, to battlefield surveillance and traffic control, among others. Most of these applications require sensors to function for long periods of time without human intervention and without battery replacement. Therefore, energy conservation is one of the main goals for protocols for WSNs. Energy conservation can be performed in different layers of the protocol stack. In particular, as the medium access control (MAC) layer can access and control the radio directly, large energy savings is possible through intelligent MAC protocol design. To maximize the network lifetime, MAC protocols for WSNs aim to minimize idle listening of the sensor nodes, packet collisions, and overhearing. Several approaches such as duty cycling and low power listening have been proposed at the MAC layer to achieve energy efficiency. In this thesis, I explore the possibility of further energy savings through the advertisement of data packets in the MAC layer. In the first part of my research, I propose Advertisement-MAC or ADV-MAC, a new MAC protocol for WSNs that utilizes the concept of advertising for data contention. This technique lets nodes listen dynamically to any desired transmission and sleep during transmissions not of interest. This minimizes the energy lost in idle listening and overhearing while maintaining an adaptive duty cycle to handle variable loads. Additionally, ADV-MAC enables energy efficient MAC-level multicasting. An analytical model for the packet delivery ratio and the energy consumption of the protocol is also proposed. The analytical model is verified with simulations and is used to choose an optimal value of the advertisement period

  12. Efficiency of different protocols for enamel clean-up after bracket debonding: an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Carvalho Freitas Sigilião

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to assess the efficiency of six protocols for cleaning-up tooth enamel after bracket debonding.Methods:A total of 60 premolars were divided into six groups, according to the tools used for clean-up: 12-blade bur at low speed (G12L, 12-blade bur at high speed (G12H, 30-blade bur at low speed (G30L, DU10CO ORTHO polisher (GDU, Renew System (GR and Diagloss polisher (GD. Mean roughness (Ra and mean roughness depth (Rz of enamel surface were analyzed with a profilometer. Paired t-test was used to assess Ra and Rz before and after enamel clean-up. ANOVA/Tukey tests were used for intergroup comparison. The duration of removal procedures was recorded. The association between time and variation in enamel roughness (∆Ra, ∆Rz were evaluated by Pearson's correlation test. Enamel topography was assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM.Results:In Groups G12L and G12H, original enamel roughness did not change significantly. In Groups G30L, GDU, GR and GD, a smoother surface (p < 0.05 was found after clean-up. In Groups G30L and GD, the protocols used were more time-consuming than those used in the other groups. Negative and moderate correlation was observed between time and (∆Ra, ∆Rz; Ra and (∆Ra, ∆Rz; Rz (r = - 0.445, r = - 0.475, p < 0.01.Conclusion:All enamel clean-up protocols were efficient because they did not result in increased surface roughness. The longer the time spent performing the protocol, the lower the surface roughness.

  13. Cost-Effective Encryption-Based Autonomous Routing Protocol for Efficient and Secure Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashif Saleem

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The deployment of intelligent remote surveillance systems depends on wireless sensor networks (WSNs composed of various miniature resource-constrained wireless sensor nodes. The development of routing protocols for WSNs is a major challenge because of their severe resource constraints, ad hoc topology and dynamic nature. Among those proposed routing protocols, the biology-inspired self-organized secure autonomous routing protocol (BIOSARP involves an artificial immune system (AIS that requires a certain amount of time to build up knowledge of neighboring nodes. The AIS algorithm uses this knowledge to distinguish between self and non-self neighboring nodes. The knowledge-building phase is a critical period in the WSN lifespan and requires active security measures. This paper proposes an enhanced BIOSARP (E-BIOSARP that incorporates a random key encryption mechanism in a cost-effective manner to provide active security measures in WSNs. A detailed description of E-BIOSARP is presented, followed by an extensive security and performance analysis to demonstrate its efficiency. A scenario with E-BIOSARP is implemented in network simulator 2 (ns-2 and is populated with malicious nodes for analysis. Furthermore, E-BIOSARP is compared with state-of-the-art secure routing protocols in terms of processing time, delivery ratio, energy consumption, and packet overhead. The findings show that the proposed mechanism can efficiently protect WSNs from selective forwarding, brute-force or exhaustive key search, spoofing, eavesdropping, replaying or altering of routing information, cloning, acknowledgment spoofing, HELLO flood attacks, and Sybil attacks.

  14. Data-Based Energy Efficient Clustered Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensors Networks – Tabuk Flood Monitoring System Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Babiker

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency has been considered as the most important issue in wireless sensor networks. As in many applications, wireless sensors are scattered in a wide harsh area, where the battery replacement or charging will be quite difficult and it is the most important challenge. Therefore, the design of energy saving mechanism becomes mandatory in most recent research. In this paper, a new energy efficient clustered routing protocol is proposed: the proposed protocol is based on analyzing the data collected from the sensors in a base-station. Based on this analysis the cluster head will be selected as the one with the most useful data. Then, a variable time slot is specified to each sensor to minimize the transmission of repetitive and un-useful data. The proposed protocol Data-Based Energy Efficient Clustered Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensors Networks (DCRP was compared with the famous energy efficient LEACH protocol and also with one of the recent energy efficient routing protocols named Position Responsive Routing Protocol (PRRP. DCRP has been used in monitoring the floods in Tabuk area –Saudi Arabia. It shows comparatively better results.

  15. Improving the efficiency of single and multiple teleportation protocols based on the direct use of partially entangled states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortes, Raphael; Rigolin, Gustavo, E-mail: rigolin@ifi.unicamp.br

    2013-09-15

    We push the limits of the direct use of partially pure entangled states to perform quantum teleportation by presenting several protocols in many different scenarios that achieve the optimal efficiency possible. We review and put in a single formalism the three major strategies known to date that allow one to use partially entangled states for direct quantum teleportation (no distillation strategies permitted) and compare their efficiencies in real world implementations. We show how one can improve the efficiency of many direct teleportation protocols by combining these techniques. We then develop new teleportation protocols employing multipartite partially entangled states. The three techniques are also used here in order to achieve the highest efficiency possible. Finally, we prove the upper bound for the optimal success rate for protocols based on partially entangled Bell states and show that some of the protocols here developed achieve such a bound. -- Highlights: •Optimal direct teleportation protocols using directly partially entangled states. •We put in a single formalism all strategies of direct teleportation. •We extend these techniques for multipartite partially entangle states. •We give upper bounds for the optimal efficiency of these protocols.

  16. Suppressing traffic-driven epidemic spreading by use of the efficient routing protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Han-Xin; Wu, Zhi-Xi

    2014-01-01

    Despite extensive work on the interplay between traffic dynamics and epidemic spreading, the control of epidemic spreading by routing strategies has not received adequate attention. In this paper, we study the impact of an efficient routing protocol on epidemic spreading. In the case of infinite node-delivery capacity, where the traffic is free of congestion, we find that that there exist optimal values of routing parameter, leading to the maximal epidemic threshold. This means that epidemic spreading can be effectively controlled by fine tuning the routing scheme. Moreover, we find that an increase in the average network connectivity and the emergence of traffic congestion can suppress the epidemic outbreak. (paper)

  17. An efficient two-party quantum private comparison protocol with decoy photons and two-photon entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yuguang; Wen Qiaoyan

    2009-01-01

    Following some ideas of the quantum secret sharing (QSS) protocol (2008, Phys. Lett. A 372, 1957), we propose an efficient quantum private comparison (QPC) protocol for comparing information of equality with the help of a third party (TP). The protocol can ensure fairness, efficiency and security. The protocol is fair, which means that one party knows the sound result of the comparison if and only if the other one knows the result. The protocol is efficient with the help of the TP for calculating. However, the TP cannot learn any information about the players' respective private inputs and even about the comparison result and cannot collude with any player. The protocol is secure for the two players, that is, any information about their respective secret inputs will not leak except the final computation result. A precise proof of security of the protocol is presented. Applications of this protocol may include private bidding and auctions, secret ballot elections, commercial business, identification in a number of scenarios and so on

  18. Comparable efficiency of different extraction protocols for wheat and rye prolamins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Socha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification and quantification of cereal storage proteins is of interest of many researchers. Their structural or functional properties are usually affected by the way how they are extracted. The efficiency of extraction process depends on the cereal source and working conditions. Here, we described various commonly used extraction protocols differing in the extraction conditions (pre-extraction of albumins/globulins, sequential extraction of individual protein fractions or co-extraction of gluten proteins, heating or non-heating, reducing or non-reducing conditions. The total protein content of all fractions extracted from commercially available wheat and rye flours was measured by the Bradford method. Tris-Tricine SDS-PAGE was used to determine the molecular weights of wheat gliadins, rye secalins and high-molecular weight glutelins which are the main triggering factors causing celiac disease. Moreover, we were able to distinguish individual subunits (α/β-, γ-, ω-gliadins and 40k-γ-, 75k-γ-, ω-secalins of wheat/rye prolamins. Generally, modified extraction protocols against classical Osborne procedure were more effective and yields higher protein content in all protein fractions. Bradford measurement led into underestimation of results in three extraction procedures, while all protein fractions were clearly identified on SDS-PAGE gels. Co-extraction of gluten proteins resulted in appearance of both, low-molecular weight fractions (wheat gliadins and rye secalins as well as high-molecular weight glutelins which means that is not necessary to extract gluten proteins separately. The two of three extraction protocols showed high technical reproducibility with coefficient of variation less than 20%. Carefully optimized extraction protocol can be advantageous for further analyses of cereal prolamins.  Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE

  19. E-SAP: Efficient-Strong Authentication Protocol for Healthcare Applications Using Wireless Medical Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoon-Jae Lee

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A wireless medical sensor network (WMSN can sense humans’ physiological signs without sacrificing patient comfort and transmit patient vital signs to health professionals’ hand-held devices. The patient physiological data are highly sensitive and WMSNs are extremely vulnerable to many attacks. Therefore, it must be ensured that patients’ medical signs are not exposed to unauthorized users. Consequently, strong user authentication is the main concern for the success and large scale deployment of WMSNs. In this regard, this paper presents an efficient, strong authentication protocol, named E-SAP, for healthcare application using WMSNs. The proposed E-SAP includes: (1 a two-factor (i.e., password and smartcard professional authentication; (2 mutual authentication between the professional and the medical sensor; (3 symmetric encryption/decryption for providing message confidentiality; (4 establishment of a secure session key at the end of authentication; and (5 professionals can change their password. Further, the proposed protocol requires three message exchanges between the professional, medical sensor node and gateway node, and achieves efficiency (i.e., low computation and communication cost. Through the formal analysis, security analysis and performance analysis, we demonstrate that E-SAP is more secure against many practical attacks, and allows a tradeoff between the security and the performance cost for healthcare application using WMSNs.

  20. Fuzzy Extractor and Elliptic Curve Based Efficient User Authentication Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks and Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anup Kumar Maurya

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available To improve the quality of service and reduce the possibility of security attacks, a secure and efficient user authentication mechanism is required for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs and the Internet of Things (IoT. Session key establishment between the sensor node and the user is also required for secure communication. In this paper, we perform the security analysis of A.K.Das’s user authentication scheme (given in 2015, Choi et al.’s scheme (given in 2016, and Park et al.’s scheme (given in 2016. The security analysis shows that their schemes are vulnerable to various attacks like user impersonation attack, sensor node impersonation attack and attacks based on legitimate users. Based on the cryptanalysis of these existing protocols, we propose a secure and efficient authenticated session key establishment protocol which ensures various security features and overcomes the drawbacks of existing protocols. The formal and informal security analysis indicates that the proposed protocol withstands the various security vulnerabilities involved in WSNs. The automated validation using AVISPA and Scyther tool ensures the absence of security attacks in our scheme. The logical verification using the Burrows-Abadi-Needham (BAN logic confirms the correctness of the proposed protocol. Finally, the comparative analysis based on computational overhead and security features of other existing protocol indicate that the proposed user authentication system is secure and efficient. In future, we intend to implement the proposed protocol in real-world applications of WSNs and IoT.

  1. Yield and Efficiency of Mental Health Screening: A Comparison of Screening Protocols at Intake to Prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael S; Potter, Beth K; Crocker, Anne G; Wells, George A; Colman, Ian

    2016-01-01

    The value of screening for mental illness has increasingly been questioned in low prevalence settings due to high false positive rates. However, since false positive rates are related to prevalence, screening may be more effective in higher prevalence settings, including correctional institutions. We compared the yield (i.e. newly detected cases) and efficiency (i.e. false positives) of five screening protocols to detect mental illness in prisons against the use of mental health history taking (the prior approach to detecting mental illness). We estimated the accuracy of the six approaches to detect an Axis I disorder among a sample of 467 newly admitted male inmates (83.1% participation rate). Mental health history taking identified only 41.0% (95% CI 32.1, 50.6) of all inmates with mental illness. Screening protocols identified between 61.9 and 85.7% of all cases, but referred between 2 and 3 additional individuals who did not have a mental illness for every additional case detected compared to the mental health history taking approach. In low prevalence settings (i.e. 10% or less) the screening protocols would have had between 4.6 and 16.2 false positives per true positive. While screening may not be practical in low prevalence settings, it may be beneficial in jails and prisons where the prevalence of mental illness is higher. Further consideration of the context in which screening is being implemented, and of the impacts of policies and clinical practices on the benefits and harms of screening is needed to determine the effectiveness of screening in these settings.

  2. Yield and Efficiency of Mental Health Screening: A Comparison of Screening Protocols at Intake to Prison.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Martin

    Full Text Available The value of screening for mental illness has increasingly been questioned in low prevalence settings due to high false positive rates. However, since false positive rates are related to prevalence, screening may be more effective in higher prevalence settings, including correctional institutions. We compared the yield (i.e. newly detected cases and efficiency (i.e. false positives of five screening protocols to detect mental illness in prisons against the use of mental health history taking (the prior approach to detecting mental illness.We estimated the accuracy of the six approaches to detect an Axis I disorder among a sample of 467 newly admitted male inmates (83.1% participation rate. Mental health history taking identified only 41.0% (95% CI 32.1, 50.6 of all inmates with mental illness. Screening protocols identified between 61.9 and 85.7% of all cases, but referred between 2 and 3 additional individuals who did not have a mental illness for every additional case detected compared to the mental health history taking approach. In low prevalence settings (i.e. 10% or less the screening protocols would have had between 4.6 and 16.2 false positives per true positive.While screening may not be practical in low prevalence settings, it may be beneficial in jails and prisons where the prevalence of mental illness is higher. Further consideration of the context in which screening is being implemented, and of the impacts of policies and clinical practices on the benefits and harms of screening is needed to determine the effectiveness of screening in these settings.

  3. Energy efficient medium access protocol for wireless medical body area sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omeni, O; Wong, A; Burdett, A J; Toumazou, C

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents a novel energy-efficient MAC Protocol designed specifically for wireless body area sensor networks (WBASN) focused towards pervasive healthcare applications. Wireless body area networks consist of wireless sensor nodes attached to the human body to monitor vital signs such as body temperature, activity or heart-rate. The network adopts a master-slave architecture, where the body-worn slave node periodically sends sensor readings to a central master node. Unlike traditional peer-to-peer wireless sensor networks, the nodes in this biomedical WBASN are not deployed in an ad hoc fashion. Joining a network is centrally managed and all communications are single-hop. To reduce energy consumption, all the sensor nodes are in standby or sleep mode until the centrally assigned time slot. Once a node has joined a network, there is no possibility of collision within a cluster as all communication is initiated by the central node and is addressed uniquely to a slave node. To avoid collisions with nearby transmitters, a clear channel assessment algorithm based on standard listen-before-transmit (LBT) is used. To handle time slot overlaps, the novel concept of a wakeup fallback time is introduced. Using single-hop communication and centrally controlled sleep/wakeup times leads to significant energy reductions for this application compared to more ldquoflexiblerdquo network MAC protocols such as 802.11 or Zigbee. As duty cycle is reduced, the overall power consumption approaches the standby power. The protocol is implemented in hardware as part of the Sensiumtrade system-on-chip WBASN ASIC, in a 0.13- mum CMOS process.

  4. A time-efficient acquisition protocol for multipurpose diffusion-weighted microstructural imaging at 7 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehrband, Farshid; O'Brien, Kieran; Barth, Markus

    2017-12-01

    Several diffusion-weighted MRI techniques have been developed and validated during the past 2 decades. While offering various neuroanatomical inferences, these techniques differ in their proposed optimal acquisition design, preventing clinicians and researchers benefiting from all potential inference methods, particularly when limited time is available. This study reports an optimal design that enables for a time-efficient diffusion-weighted MRI acquisition scheme at 7 Tesla. The primary audience of this article is the typical end user, interested in diffusion-weighted microstructural imaging at 7 Tesla. We tested b-values in the range of 700 to 3000 s/mm 2 with different number of angular diffusion-encoding samples, against a data-driven "gold standard." The suggested design is a protocol with b-values of 1000 and 2500 s/mm 2 , with 25 and 50 samples, uniformly distributed over two shells. We also report a range of protocols in which the results of fitting microstructural models to the diffusion-weighted data had high correlation with the gold standard. We estimated minimum acquisition requirements that enable diffusion tensor imaging, higher angular resolution diffusion-weighted imaging, neurite orientation dispersion, and density imaging and white matter tract integrity across whole brain with isotropic resolution of 1.8 mm in less than 11 min. Magn Reson Med 78:2170-2184, 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  5. Validation of a Nylon-Flocked-Swab Protocol for Efficient Recovery of Bacterial Spores from Smooth and Rough Surfaces▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Alexander; Facius, Rainer; Wirth, Reinhard; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

    2010-01-01

    In order to meet planetary-protection requirements, culturable bacterial spore loads are measured representatively for the total microbial contamination of spacecraft. However, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) cotton swab protocols for spore load determination have not changed for decades. To determine whether a more efficient alternative was available, a novel swab was evaluated for recovery of different Bacillus atrophaeus spore concentrations on stainless steel and other surfaces. Two protocols for the nylon-flocked swab (NFS) were validated and compared to the present NASA standard protocol. The results indicate that the novel swab protocols recover 3- to 4-fold more (45.4% and 49.0% recovery efficiency) B. atrophaeus spores than the NASA standard method (13.2%). Moreover, the nylon-flocked-swab protocols were superior in recovery efficiency for spores of seven different Bacillus species, including Bacillus anthracis Sterne (recovery efficiency, 20%). The recovery efficiencies for B. atrophaeus spores from different surfaces showed a variation from 5.9 to 62.0%, depending on the roughness of the surface analyzed. Direct inoculation of the swab resulted in a recovery rate of about 80%, consistent with the results of scanning electron micrographs that allowed detailed comparisons of the two swab types. The results of this investigation will significantly contribute to the cleanliness control of future life detection missions and will provide significant improvement in detection of B. anthracis contamination for law enforcement and security efforts. PMID:20543054

  6. RFID Cryptographic Protocol Based on Cyclic Redundancy Check for High Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nian Liu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, RFID encryption protocol is proposed based on the security problems in wireless signal channel. In order to solve the privacy issues of electronic tags, the most commonly way is to improve algorithms based on Hash function. However, there are some problems that can only play roles in some specific domains. Due to the limitations in various kinds of algorithms, in this paper we put forward a new kind of agreement. When it is required to locate target labels accurately and rapidly in a movement environment, using this agreement can achieve high efficiency through combining the Hash function, the two division search algorithm and CRC check. The results show that this algorithm can accurately identify the tags with merits of low cost, execution rate and anti-attack ability etc.

  7. A Survey on an Energy-Efficient and Energy-Balanced Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogundile, Olayinka O.; Alfa, Attahiru S.

    2017-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) form an important part of industrial application. There has been growing interest in the potential use of WSNs in applications such as environment monitoring, disaster management, health care monitoring, intelligence surveillance and defence reconnaissance. In these applications, the sensor nodes (SNs) are envisaged to be deployed in sizeable numbers in an outlying area, and it is quite difficult to replace these SNs after complete deployment in many scenarios. Therefore, as SNs are predominantly battery powered devices, the energy consumption of the nodes must be properly managed in order to prolong the network lifetime and functionality to a rational time. Different energy-efficient and energy-balanced routing protocols have been proposed in literature over the years. The energy-efficient routing protocols strive to increase the network lifetime by minimizing the energy consumption in each SN. On the other hand, the energy-balanced routing protocols protract the network lifetime by uniformly balancing the energy consumption among the nodes in the network. There have been various survey papers put forward by researchers to review the performance and classify the different energy-efficient routing protocols for WSNs. However, there seems to be no clear survey emphasizing the importance, concepts, and principles of load-balanced energy routing protocols for WSNs. In this paper, we provide a clear picture of both the energy-efficient and energy-balanced routing protocols for WSNs. More importantly, this paper presents an extensive survey of the different state-of-the-art energy-efficient and energy-balanced routing protocols. A taxonomy is introduced in this paper to classify the surveyed energy-efficient and energy-balanced routing protocols based on their proposed mode of communication towards the base station (BS). In addition, we classified these routing protocols based on the solution types or algorithms, and the input decision

  8. A Survey on an Energy-Efficient and Energy-Balanced Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogundile, Olayinka O; Alfa, Attahiru S

    2017-05-10

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) form an important part of industrial application. There has been growing interest in the potential use of WSNs in applications such as environment monitoring, disaster management, health care monitoring, intelligence surveillance and defence reconnaissance. In these applications, the sensor nodes (SNs) are envisaged to be deployed in sizeable numbers in an outlying area, and it is quite difficult to replace these SNs after complete deployment in many scenarios. Therefore, as SNs are predominantly battery powered devices, the energy consumption of the nodes must be properly managed in order to prolong the network lifetime and functionality to a rational time. Different energy-efficient and energy-balanced routing protocols have been proposed in literature over the years. The energy-efficient routing protocols strive to increase the network lifetime by minimizing the energy consumption in each SN. On the other hand, the energy-balanced routing protocols protract the network lifetime by uniformly balancing the energy consumption among the nodes in the network. There have been various survey papers put forward by researchers to review the performance and classify the different energy-efficient routing protocols for WSNs. However, there seems to be no clear survey emphasizing the importance, concepts, and principles of load-balanced energy routing protocols for WSNs. In this paper, we provide a clear picture of both the energy-efficient and energy-balanced routing protocols for WSNs. More importantly, this paper presents an extensive survey of the different state-of-the-art energy-efficient and energy-balanced routing protocols. A taxonomy is introduced in this paper to classify the surveyed energy-efficient and energy-balanced routing protocols based on their proposed mode of communication towards the base station (BS). In addition, we classified these routing protocols based on the solution types or algorithms, and the input decision

  9. CENTERA: A Centralized Trust-Based Efficient Routing Protocol with Authentication for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Tajeddine

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present CENTERA, a CENtralized Trust-based Efficient Routing protocol with an appropriate authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks (WSN. CENTERA utilizes the more powerful base station (BS to gather minimal neighbor trust information from nodes and calculate the best routes after isolating different types of “bad” nodes. By periodically accumulating these simple local observations and approximating the nodes’ battery lives, the BS draws a global view of the network, calculates three quality metrics—maliciousness, cooperation, and compatibility—and evaluates the Data Trust and Forwarding Trust values of each node. Based on these metrics, the BS isolates “bad”, “misbehaving” or malicious nodes for a certain period, and put some nodes on probation. CENTERA increases the node’s bad/probation level with repeated “bad” behavior, and decreases it otherwise. Then it uses a very efficient method to distribute the routing information to “good” nodes. Based on its target environment, and if required, CENTERA uses an authentication scheme suitable for severely constrained nodes, ranging from the symmetric RC5 for safe environments under close administration, to pairing-based cryptography (PBC for hostile environments with a strong attacker model. We simulate CENTERA using TOSSIM and verify its correctness and show some energy calculations.

  10. Towards designing energy-efficient routing protocol for wireless mesh networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dludla, AG

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Different studies have proposed number of routing protocols to overcome data transmission challenges. Very few of these protocols consider node energy. In this study, the state of art work from various studies is reviewed and compared based...

  11. An efficient RFID authentication protocol to enhance patient medication safety using elliptic curve cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zezhong; Qi, Qingqing

    2014-05-01

    Medication errors are very dangerous even fatal since it could cause serious even fatal harm to patients. In order to reduce medication errors, automated patient medication systems using the Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology have been used in many hospitals. The data transmitted in those medication systems is very important and sensitive. In the past decade, many security protocols have been proposed to ensure its secure transition attracted wide attention. Due to providing mutual authentication between the medication server and the tag, the RFID authentication protocol is considered as the most important security protocols in those systems. In this paper, we propose a RFID authentication protocol to enhance patient medication safety using elliptic curve cryptography (ECC). The analysis shows the proposed protocol could overcome security weaknesses in previous protocols and has better performance. Therefore, the proposed protocol is very suitable for automated patient medication systems.

  12. Chapter 22: Compressed Air Evaluation Protocol. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Benton, Nathanael [Nexant, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Burns, Patrick [Nexant, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2017-10-18

    Compressed-air systems are used widely throughout industry for many operations, including pneumatic tools, packaging and automation equipment, conveyors, and other industrial process operations. Compressed-air systems are defined as a group of subsystems composed of air compressors, air treatment equipment, controls, piping, pneumatic tools, pneumatically powered machinery, and process applications using compressed air. A compressed-air system has three primary functional subsystems: supply, distribution, and demand. Air compressors are the primary energy consumers in a compressed-air system and are the primary focus of this protocol. The two compressed-air energy efficiency measures specifically addressed in this protocol are: High-efficiency/variable speed drive (VSD) compressor replacing modulating, load/unload, or constant-speed compressor; and Compressed-air leak survey and repairs. This protocol provides direction on how to reliably verify savings from these two measures using a consistent approach for each.

  13. Evaluation of an automated protocol for efficient and reliable DNA extraction of dietary samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallinger, Corinna; Staudacher, Karin; Sint, Daniela; Thalinger, Bettina; Oehm, Johannes; Juen, Anita; Traugott, Michael

    2017-08-01

    Molecular techniques have become an important tool to empirically assess feeding interactions. The increased usage of next-generation sequencing approaches has stressed the need of fast DNA extraction that does not compromise DNA quality. Dietary samples here pose a particular challenge, as these demand high-quality DNA extraction procedures for obtaining the minute quantities of short-fragmented food DNA. Automatic high-throughput procedures significantly decrease time and costs and allow for standardization of extracting total DNA. However, these approaches have not yet been evaluated for dietary samples. We tested the efficiency of an automatic DNA extraction platform and a traditional CTAB protocol, employing a variety of dietary samples including invertebrate whole-body extracts as well as invertebrate and vertebrate gut content samples and feces. Extraction efficacy was quantified using the proportions of successful PCR amplifications of both total and prey DNA, and cost was estimated in terms of time and material expense. For extraction of total DNA, the automated platform performed better for both invertebrate and vertebrate samples. This was also true for prey detection in vertebrate samples. For the dietary analysis in invertebrates, there is still room for improvement when using the high-throughput system for optimal DNA yields. Overall, the automated DNA extraction system turned out as a promising alternative to labor-intensive, low-throughput manual extraction methods such as CTAB. It is opening up the opportunity for an extensive use of this cost-efficient and innovative methodology at low contamination risk also in trophic ecology.

  14. An efficient regeneration protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of melon (Cucumis melo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H J; Gao, P; Wang, X Z; Luan, F S

    2014-01-08

    An efficient selection and plant regeneration protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, using cotyledon node zone-stem connection region of melon, has been developed. The new Agrobacterium-mediated transformation methodology, independent of organ culture, used the entire germinated seed as explants. The transformation system was maximized to maintain the integrity of melon itself, thus avoiding the limitations of traditional tissue culture methods. The transformation was carried out under a non-sterile environment. The incorporation of a selectable marker (neomycin phosphotransferase II) into the genome of transgenic plants was confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analyses. The transformation frequency based on the PCR was 13%. Transgenic melon plants were usually detected by PCR in less than 1 month after Agrobacterium inoculation, and seeds could be harvested in 3 months. The growth characteristics and morphology of the transgenic plants were identical to the untransformed wild-type plants. This method would be beneficial for facilitating the characteristics of gene functions and for boosting the manipulation of melon transformation for commercial purposes.

  15. Development of Energy Efficient Clustering Protocol in Wireless Sensor Network Using Neuro-Fuzzy Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julie, E. Golden; Selvi, S. Tamil

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of sensor nodes with limited processing capability and limited nonrechargeable battery power. Energy consumption in WSN is a significant issue in networks for improving network lifetime. It is essential to develop an energy aware clustering protocol in WSN to reduce energy consumption for increasing network lifetime. In this paper, a neuro-fuzzy energy aware clustering scheme (NFEACS) is proposed to form optimum and energy aware clusters. NFEACS consists of two parts: fuzzy subsystem and neural network system that achieved energy efficiency in forming clusters and cluster heads in WSN. NFEACS used neural network that provides effective training set related to energy and received signal strength of all nodes to estimate the expected energy for tentative cluster heads. Sensor nodes with higher energy are trained with center location of base station to select energy aware cluster heads. Fuzzy rule is used in fuzzy logic part that inputs to form clusters. NFEACS is designed for WSN handling mobility of node. The proposed scheme NFEACS is compared with related clustering schemes, cluster-head election mechanism using fuzzy logic, and energy aware fuzzy unequal clustering. The experiment results show that NFEACS performs better than the other related schemes. PMID:26881269

  16. Highly efficient protocol for callogenesis, somagenesis and regeneration of Indica rice plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Parisa; Rafii, Mohd Y; Mahmood, Maziah; Hanafi, Mohamed M; Abdullah, Siti Nor Akmar; Abiri, Rambod; Sahebi, Mahbod

    2015-07-01

    In the present study, we have reported a simple, fast and efficient regeneration protocol using mature embryos as explants, and discovered its effective applicability to a range of Indica rice genotypes. We have considered the response of six varieties in the steps of the regeneration procedure. The results showed that calli were variably developed from the scutellar region of seeds and visible within 6-20 days. The highest and lowest calli induction frequency (70% and 51.66%) and number of induced calli from seeds (14 and 10.33) were observed in MR269 and MRQ74, respectively. The maximum and minimum number (7.66 and 4) and frequency of embryogenic calli (38.33% and 20%) were recorded in MR219 and MRQ74, respectively. However, the highest browning rate was observed in MR84 (87%) and the lowest rate in MRQ50 (46%). The majority of plants regenerated from embryogenic calli were obtained from MRQ50 (54%) and the minimum number of plants from MR84. In this study, the maximum numbers of plantlets were regenerated from the varieties with highest rate of embryogenic calli. Also, various varieties, including MRQ50, MR269, MR276 and MR219, were satisfactorily responding, while MRQ74 and MR84 weakly responded to the procedure. Such a simple, successful and generalized method possesses the potential to become an important tool for crop improvement and functional studies of genes in rice as a model monocot plant. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  17. Development of Energy Efficient Clustering Protocol in Wireless Sensor Network Using Neuro-Fuzzy Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julie, E Golden; Selvi, S Tamil

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of sensor nodes with limited processing capability and limited nonrechargeable battery power. Energy consumption in WSN is a significant issue in networks for improving network lifetime. It is essential to develop an energy aware clustering protocol in WSN to reduce energy consumption for increasing network lifetime. In this paper, a neuro-fuzzy energy aware clustering scheme (NFEACS) is proposed to form optimum and energy aware clusters. NFEACS consists of two parts: fuzzy subsystem and neural network system that achieved energy efficiency in forming clusters and cluster heads in WSN. NFEACS used neural network that provides effective training set related to energy and received signal strength of all nodes to estimate the expected energy for tentative cluster heads. Sensor nodes with higher energy are trained with center location of base station to select energy aware cluster heads. Fuzzy rule is used in fuzzy logic part that inputs to form clusters. NFEACS is designed for WSN handling mobility of node. The proposed scheme NFEACS is compared with related clustering schemes, cluster-head election mechanism using fuzzy logic, and energy aware fuzzy unequal clustering. The experiment results show that NFEACS performs better than the other related schemes.

  18. IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6) heterogeneous networking infrastructure for energy efficient building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Saad, Leila; Chauvenet, Cedric; Tourancheau, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    In the context of increasing developments of home, building and city automation, Power Line Communication (PLC) networking is called for unprecedented usage, especially for energy efficiency improvement. Our view of the future building networking infrastructure places PLC as the central point. We point that while Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is necessary in the sensor and actuator networking infrastructure, PLC is mandatory for the smart-grid metering and command infrastructure. PLC will also serve the sensor/actuator infrastructure when the energy requirement of the probing system itself cannot be fulfilled by autonomous battery and harvesting based nodes. PLC may also provide the numerous bridges necessary to sustain a long lifetime (years) with the battery based WSN part of the infrastructure. This new role of PLC networking will be possible only if the interoperability between all media and technology is made possible. Thanks to the converging design of Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) networking layers, we show that such a full inter-interoperability is already possible even in very tiny constrained networking devices. Moreover, the low power PLC technology used in our experiments will be able to provide this smart grid monitoring without impacting noticeably the overall energy balance of the monitored system.

  19. Development of Energy Efficient Clustering Protocol in Wireless Sensor Network Using Neuro-Fuzzy Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Golden Julie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs consist of sensor nodes with limited processing capability and limited nonrechargeable battery power. Energy consumption in WSN is a significant issue in networks for improving network lifetime. It is essential to develop an energy aware clustering protocol in WSN to reduce energy consumption for increasing network lifetime. In this paper, a neuro-fuzzy energy aware clustering scheme (NFEACS is proposed to form optimum and energy aware clusters. NFEACS consists of two parts: fuzzy subsystem and neural network system that achieved energy efficiency in forming clusters and cluster heads in WSN. NFEACS used neural network that provides effective training set related to energy and received signal strength of all nodes to estimate the expected energy for tentative cluster heads. Sensor nodes with higher energy are trained with center location of base station to select energy aware cluster heads. Fuzzy rule is used in fuzzy logic part that inputs to form clusters. NFEACS is designed for WSN handling mobility of node. The proposed scheme NFEACS is compared with related clustering schemes, cluster-head election mechanism using fuzzy logic, and energy aware fuzzy unequal clustering. The experiment results show that NFEACS performs better than the other related schemes.

  20. Reusable Polymer-Supported Terpyridine Palladium Complex for Suzuki-Miyaura, Mizoroki-Heck, Sonogashira, and Tsuji-Trost Reaction in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Nagamine

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel heterogeneous transition-metal catalyst comprising a polymer-supported terpyridine palladium(II complex was prepared and found to promote the Suzuki-Miyaura, Mizoroki-Heck, Sonogashira, and Tsuji-Trost, reactions in water under aerobic conditions with a high to excellent yield. The catalyst was recovered by simple filtration and directly reused several times without loss of catalytic activity.

  1. A Power-Efficient Access Point Operation for Infrastructure Basic Service Set in IEEE 802.11 MAC Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Ye Ming

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Infrastructure-based wireless LAN technology has been widely used in today's personal communication environment. Power efficiency and battery management have been the center of attention in the design of handheld devices with wireless LAN capability. In this paper, a hybrid protocol named improved PCF operation is proposed, which intelligently chooses the access point- (AP- assisted DCF (distributed coordinator function and enhanced PCF (point coordinator function transmission mechanism of IEEE 802.11 protocol in an infrastructure-based wireless LAN environment. Received signal strength indicator (RSSI is used to determine the tradeoff between direct mobile-to-mobile transmission and transmission routed by AP. Based on the estimation, mobile stations can efficiently communicate directly instead of being routed through AP if they are in the vicinity of each other. Furthermore, a smart AP protocol is proposed as extension to the improved PCF operation by utilizing the historical end-to-end delay information to decide the waking up time of mobile stations. Simulation results show that using the proposed protocol, energy consumption of mobile devices can be reduced at the cost of slightly longer end-to-end packet delay compared to traditional IEEE 802.11 PCF protocol. However, in a non-time-critical environment, this option can significantly prolong the operation time of mobile devices.

  2. Simple and efficient protocol for the synthesis of functionalized styrenes from 1,2-dibromoethane and arylboronic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lando, Vanusa R; Monteiro, Adriano L

    2003-08-07

    [reaction: see text] A simple and efficient protocol for the preparation of functionalized styrenes is disclosed that employs the palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of arylboronic acids with vinyl bromide, generated in situ from 1,2-dibromoethane. The reaction is carried out under mild reaction conditions. Compared with the cross-coupling reactions usually employed to obtain vinylarenes, this protocol is very simple, overcomes the inconvenience of using of ethylene under pressure, and uses air-stable and widely available arylboronic acids instead of vinyl organometallic reagents.

  3. An efficient synthetic protocol for amide derivatives of Boc-2-aminoisobutyrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Minmi; Won, Sun-Woo; Lee, Dong Guk; Jung, Jae-Kyung; Kim, Sunhong; Kwak, Young-Shin

    2018-03-01

    Aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) is an important building block widely incorporated by medicinal chemists in molecular design. Owing to the steric challenge, elaborating AIB's carboxylic acid using conventional amidation protocols is often problematic. We discovered that an amidation protocol utilizing methyl Boc-aminoisobutyrate and magnesium amidates of various reactivities produces the corresponding amide derivatives in good to excellent yields.

  4. An Efficient Causal Group Communication Protocol for Free Scale Peer-to-Peer Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigory Evropeytsev

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In peer-to-peer (P2P overlay networks, a group of n (≥2 peer processes have to cooperate with each other. Each peer sends messages to every peer and receives messages from every peer in a group. In group communications, each message sent by a peer is required to be causally delivered to every peer. Most of the protocols designed to ensure causal message order are designed for networks with a plain architecture. These protocols can be adapted to use in free scale and hierarchical topologies; however, the amount of control information is O(n, where n is the number of peers in the system. Some protocols are designed for a free scale or hierarchical networks, but in general they force the whole system to accomplish the same order viewed by a super peer. In this paper, we present a protocol that is specifically designed to work with a free scale peer-to-peer network. By using the information about the network’s architecture and by representing message dependencies on a bit level, the proposed protocol ensures causal message ordering without enforcing super peers order. The designed protocol is simulated and compared with the Immediate Dependency Relation and the Dependency Sequences protocols to show its lower overhead.

  5. Di (1-benzo [][1, 2, 3] triazol-1-yl) methane: An efficient ligand for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An efficient Pd-catalysed Sonogashira coupling reaction was achieved in the absence of copper and amine with inorganic base using phosphene-free, air stable di(1-benzo[][1,2,3]triazol-1-yl)methane as ligand. The cross coupling of electron-rich, electron-defficient and hindered aryl halides with terminal alkynes ...

  6. Detecting and Preventing Beacon Replay Attacks in Receiver-Initiated MAC Protocols for Energy Efficient WSNs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Mauro, Alessio; Fafoutis, Xenofon; Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander

    2013-01-01

    nodes, pretending to have a fake identity within the network. To prevent this attack we propose RAP, a challenge-response authentication protocol that is able to detect and prevent the beacon replay attack. The effectiveness of the protocol is formally verified using OFMC and ProVerif. Furthermore, we......In receiver-initiated MAC protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), communication is initiated by the receiver of the data through beacons containing the receiver's identity. In this paper, we consider the case of a network intruder that captures and replays such beacons towards legitimate...

  7. EFFICIENCY AND EFFECTIVENESS ANALYSIS OVER ECC-BASED DIRECT AND INDIRECT AUTHENTICATION PROTOCOLS: AN EXTENSIVE COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Thilagavathi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Elliptic curve cryptography finds enormous applications because of its security offering using the remarkable property of elliptic curve. The Elliptic curve cryptography finds enormous applications in almost all the emerging areas. However in mobile networks, the usage of elliptic curve cryptography is limited. Moreover, the operation of mobile networks in an un-trusted environment increases the significance of the usage of security protocols. To provide a secure environment, an improved authentication protocols are required as the menacing effects increasing. Hence, in the previous works, we have proposed two authentication protocols. One of the protocols performs direct authentication and the other one performs indirect authentication. However, the performance of both of them has to be analyzed. Hence in this paper, a comparative analysis is made between the two authentication protocols. The analysis is done empirically as well experimentally. For performance analysis, the efficiency measures such as computational overhead, communication overhead, storage overhead and total computational complexity and the effectiveness measures such as replay attack, guessing attack and Stolen-Verifier attack are considered.

  8. FODA: a novel efficient multiple access protocol for highly dynamic self-organizing networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hantao; Liu, Kai; Zhang, Jun

    2005-11-01

    Based on the concept of contention reservation for polling transmission and collision prevention strategy for collision resolution, a fair on-demand access (FODA) protocol for supporting node mobility and multihop architecture in highly dynamic self-organizing networks is proposed. In the protocol, a distributed clustering network architecture formed by self-organizing algorithm and a main idea of reserving channel resources to get polling service are adopted, so that the hidden terminal (HT) and exposed terminal (ET) problems existed in traffic transmission due to multihop architecture and wireless transmission can be eliminated completely. In addition, an improved collision prevention scheme based on binary countdown algorithm (BCA), called fair collision prevention (FCP) algorithm, is proposed to greatly eliminate unfair phenomena existed in contention access of newly active ordinary nodes and completely resolve access collisions. Finally, the performance comparison of the FODA protocol with carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) and polling protocols by OPNET simulation are presented. Simulation results show that the FODA protocol can overcome the disadvantages of CSMA/CA and polling protocols, and achieve higher throughput, lower average message delay and less average message dropping rate.

  9. Chapter 2: Commercial and Industrial Lighting Evaluation Protocol. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gowans, Dakers [Left Fork Energy, Harrison, NY (United States); Telarico, Chad [DNV GL, Mahwah, NJ (United States)

    2017-11-02

    The Commercial and Industrial Lighting Evaluation Protocol (the protocol) describes methods to account for gross energy savings resulting from the programmatic installation of efficient lighting equipment in large populations of commercial, industrial, and other nonresidential facilities. This protocol does not address savings resulting from changes in codes and standards, or from education and training activities. A separate Uniform Methods Project (UMP) protocol, Chapter 3: Commercial and Industrial Lighting Controls Evaluation Protocol, addresses methods for evaluating savings resulting from lighting control measures such as adding time clocks, tuning energy management system commands, and adding occupancy sensors.

  10. REACH: An Efficient MAC Protocol for RF Energy Harvesting in Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teasung Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a MAC protocol for Radio Frequency (RF energy harvesting in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN. In the conventional RF energy harvesting methods, an Energy Transmitter (ET operates in a passive manner. An ET transmits RF energy signals only when a sensor with depleted energy sends a Request-for-Energy (RFE message. Unlike the conventional methods, an ET in the proposed scheme can actively send RF energy signals without RFE messages. An ET determines the active energy signal transmission according to the consequence of the passive energy harvesting procedures. To transmit RF energy signals without request from sensors, the ET participates in a contention-based channel access procedure. Once the ET successfully acquires the channel, it sends RF energy signals on the acquired channel during Short Charging Time (SCT. The proposed scheme determines the length of SCT to minimize the interruption of data communication. We compare the performance of the proposed protocol with RF-MAC protocol by simulation. The simulation results show that the proposed protocol can increase the energy harvesting rate by 150% with 8% loss of network throughput compared to RF-MAC. In addition, the proposed protocol can increase the lifetime of WSN because of the active energy signal transmission method.

  11. An efficient protocol for regeneration and transformation of Symphyotrichum novi-belgii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Eline Kirk; Henriksen, Karin; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    A genetic transformation protocol for green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) hypocotyl explants was developed. Green ash hypocotyls were transformed using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 harboring binary vector pq35GR containing the neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) and β-glucuronidase (GUS...

  12. Energy Efficient Clustering Based Network Protocol Stack for 3D Airborne Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Joshi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Network consists of large number of nodes densely deployed in ad hoc manner. Usually, most of the application areas of WSNs require two-dimensional (2D topology. Various emerging application areas such as airborne networks and underwater wireless sensor networks are usually deployed using three-dimensional (3D network topology. In this paper, a static 3D cluster-based network topology has been proposed for airborne networks. A network protocol stack consisting of various protocols such as TDMA MAC and dynamic routing along with services such as time synchronization, Cluster Head rotation, and power level management has been proposed for this airborne network. The proposed protocol stack has been implemented on the hardware platform consisting of number of TelosB nodes. This 3D airborne network architecture can be used to measure Air Quality Index (AQI in an area. Various parameters of network such as energy consumption, Cluster Head rotation, time synchronization, and Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR have been analyzed. Detailed description of the implementation of the protocol stack along with results of implementation has been provided in this paper.

  13. A rapid and efficient protocol for in vitro multiplication of genetically uniform Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A; Jayanthi, M; Gantasala, Nagavara Prasad; Bhooshan, N; Rao, Uma

    2016-07-01

    Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni), commonly called candy leaf or sweet leaf, endemic to South America, is an important medicinal plant. As a source of low calorie natural sweetener 'stevoside', it is used in obesity, diabetes, treatment of heartburn and tooth decay, and also serves as a food supplement. Large scale commercial propagation of S. rebaudiana demands a suitable protocol. Here, we propose an improved protocol for in vitro multiplication of S. rebaudiana from nodal explants. In this protocol, the effect of laboratory grade urea on multiple shoot induction from nodal explants was studied. The nodal explants were initially cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal media for 2 weeks which facilitated the axillary bud break. Further, culturing of these explants on MS medium fortified with 6 benzyl amninopurine (BAP) (2 mg/L) and Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) (1 mg/L) with and .without urea (5 mg/L) for a period of 40 days revealed maximum shoot production of 44.56 from a single nodal explant in media supplemented with urea as compared to 22.44 without urea. The differences in the number of shoots produced were significant and these shoots readily rooted in MS media with NAA (4 mg/L). Primary and secondary hardening was successful in these plants. There were no visible morphological abnormalities observed in the micropropagated plantlets. Genetic analysis from random samples also revealed that these plants are genetically uniform. The advantage of the present protocol is that the complete process of multiple shoot induction, rooting and hardening could be completed within a period of 6 months as compared to the existing protocols.

  14. A 1-dodecanethiol-based phase transfer protocol for the highly efficient extraction of noble metal ions from aqueous phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Cui, Penglei; Cao, Hongbin; Yang, Jun

    2015-03-01

    A 1-dodecanethiol-based phase-transfer protocol is developed for the extraction of noble metal ions from aqueous solution to a hydrocarbon phase, which calls for first mixing the aqueous metal ion solution with an ethanolic solution of 1-dodecanethiol, and then extracting the coordination compounds formed between noble metal ions and 1-dodecanethiol into a non-polar organic solvent. A number of characterization techniques, including inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis demonstrate that this protocol could be applied to extract a wide variety of noble metal ions from water to dichloromethane with an efficiency of >96%, and has high selectivity for the separation of the noble metal ions from other transition metals. It is therefore an attractive alternative for the extraction of noble metals from water, soil, or waste printed circuit boards. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Efficient Threshold Zero-Knowledge with Applications to User-Centric Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Gert Læssøe; Keller, Marcel; Rupp, Andy

    2012-01-01

    -cash system and the bilinear anonymous credential scheme by Camenisch and Lysyanskaya. Distributing the user party in such protocols has several practical advantages: First, the security of a user can be increased by sharing secrets and computations over multiple devices owned by the user. In this way, losing...... control of a single device does not result in a security breach. Second, this approach also allows groups of users to jointly control an application (e.g., a joint e-cash account), not giving a single user full control. The distributed versions of the protocols we propose in this paper are relatively......, such as identification schemes, electronic cash (e-cash), and anonymous credentials. We present a security model for threshold proofs of knowledge and develop threshold versions of well-known primitives such as range proofs, zero-knowledge proofs for preimages of homomorphisms (which generalizes PoKs of discrete...

  16. An Efficient Data Collection Protocol Based on Multihop Routing and Single-Node Cooperation in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqiang Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the constrained resource and energy in wireless sensor networks, an efficient data collection protocol named ESCDD which adopts the multihop routing technology and the single-node selection cooperative communication is proposed to make the communication protocol more simple and easy to realize for the large-scale multihop wireless sensor networks. ESCDD uses the greedy strategy and the control information based on RTS/CTS to select forwarding nodes. Then, the hops in the multihop data transmission are reduced. Based on the power control in physical layer and the control frame called CoTS in MAC layer, ESCDD chooses a single cooperative node to perform cooperative transmission. The receiving node adopts maximal ratio combining (MRC to recover original data. The energy consumption per hop is reduced. Furthermore, the total energy consumption in data collection process is shared by more nodes and the network lifetime is extended. Compared with GeRaF, EERNFS, and REEFG protocol, the simulation results show that ESCDD can effectively reduce the average delay of multihop data transmission, improve the successful delivery rate of data packets, significantly save the energy consumption of network nodes, and make the energy consumption more balanced.

  17. Efficient and Secure Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks through Optimal Power Control and Optimal Handoff-Based Recovery Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ganesh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in wireless sensor network (WSN technology have provided the availability of small and low-cost sensor with capability of sensing various types of physical and environmental conditions, data processing, and wireless communication. In WSN, the sensor nodes have a limited transmission range, and their processing and storage capabilities as well as their energy resources are also limited. Modified triple umpiring system (MTUS has already proved its better performance in Wireless Sensor Networks. In this paper, we extended the MTUS by incorporating optimal signal to noise ratio (SNR-based power control mechanism and optimal handoff-based self-recovery features to form an efficient and secure routing for WSN. Extensive investigation studies using Glomosim-2.03 Simulator show that efficient and secure routing protocol (ESRP with optimal power control mechanism, and handoff-based self-recovery can significantly reduce the power usage.

  18. Strategies for merging microbial fuel cell technologies in water desalination processes: Start-up protocol and desalination efficiency assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borjas, Zulema; Esteve-Núñez, Abraham; Ortiz, Juan Manuel

    2017-07-01

    Microbial Desalination Cells constitute an innovative technology where microbial fuel cell and electrodialysis merge in the same device for obtaining fresh water from saline water with no energy-associated cost for the user. In this work, an anodic biofilm of the electroactive bacteria Geobacter sulfurreducens was able to efficiently convert the acetate present in synthetic waste water into electric current (j = 0.32 mA cm-2) able to desalinate water. .Moreover, we implemented an efficient start-up protocol where desalination up to 90% occurred in a desalination cycle (water production:0.308 L m-2 h-1, initial salinity: 9 mS cm-1, final salinity: optimized for time but also simplifies operational procedures making it a more feasible strategy for future scaling-up of MDCs either as a single process or as a pre-treatment method combined with other well established desalination technologies such as reverse osmosis (RO) or reverse electrodialysis.

  19. Efficiency of modified therapeutic protocol in the treatment of some varieties of canine cardiovascular dirofilariasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepanović

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents clinical diagnostic approaches and therapeutic effects of a specific protocol for the treatment of dogs with cardiovascular dirofilariasis in the Belgrade City (Serbia territory. The study involved 50 privately owned dogs of different breeds, gender, and age, all showing signs of cardio - respiratory disorders. In addition to a general physical examination, blood tests were done to detect microfilaria and adult forms, and X-ray, ECG, and echocardiography were performed as well. At the first examination, 34 out of 50 examined dogs were positive for microfilaria and adult forms. Because of a lack of drug used as „the golden standard“ in dirofilariasis treatment, it involved a combination of doxycycline (10 mg/kg and ivermectin (6 μg/kg supported with Advocate - Bayer spot-on. After six months, the first control was performed while continuing treatment with the aforesaid protocol, and the second control was performed after 12 months. Of the 34 treated dogs, all were negative for microfilaria, as early as after the first six months of the treatment (100%. One dog was positive for adult forms of the parasite after six and 12 months. In echocardiography and X-ray examination after 12 months, six dogs showed evident chronic changes. At controls conducted at sixth month and at one year, the implemented therapy was successful in 97.05% (33/34 of primarily infected dogs.

  20. An efficient protocol for the detection of chromosomal abnormalities in spontaneous miscarriages or foetal deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dória, Sofia; Carvalho, Filipa; Ramalho, Carla; Lima, Vera; Francisco, Tânia; Machado, Ana Paula; Brandão, Otília; Sousa, Mário; Matias, Alexandra; Barros, Alberto

    2009-12-01

    Characterization of chromosomal abnormalities in 232 spontaneous miscarriages or foetal deaths using both classical and molecular cytogenetics. Chromosomal abnormalities are responsible for 40-50% of all early pregnancy losses. Conventional cytogenetics is associated with 10-40% of culture failure. Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) is a DNA-based technique that screens chromosome imbalances in the whole genome and may overcome this problem, although additional methods are required to distinguish between different ploidies, mosaicisms and maternal cell contamination. For a full characterization of chromosomal aberrations in 232 spontaneous miscarriages or foetal deaths we applied a sequential protocol that uses conventional cytogenetics, plus CGH and touch fluorescence in situ hybridization (Touch FISH). Successful karyotyping was obtained in 173/232 (74.6%) of the cases, 66/173 (38.2%) of which had an abnormal chromosomal complement. CGH and Touch FISH analyses revealed another 19 abnormal cases in the 63 failures of culture. Overall there were 85/233 (36.6%) cases with an abnormal chromosomal complement, with examples from all three trimesters. Comparing cases, with or without chromosomal abnormalities, no statistical differences were found between women with one or recurrent miscarriages. On the contrary, significant differences were found comparing mean maternal ages or mean gestational ages, in cases with or without chromosomes abnormalities. Adopting this sequential protocol, chromosomal complement information was available even in cases with culture failure.

  1. Analyzing the Kyoto Protocol under the Marrakesh Accords. Economic efficiency and environmental effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Den Elzen, Michel G.J.; De Moor, Andre P.G.

    2002-01-01

    This article evaluates the environmental effectiveness and economic implications of the Kyoto Protocol (KP) after the Bonn agreement and the Marrakesh Accords. We will break it down into several components that correspond with major steps in the international process: pre-COP 6 version of the KP, with unrestricted international emissions trading but without sinks; withdrawal of the USA; and decisions on sinks in Bonn and Marrakesh. The Marrakesh Accords bring Annex-I emissions in 2010 without the USA at 0.5% under base-year levels; this corresponds to nearly 2% above the 1990-levels. The US withdrawal has by far the greatest impact in reducing the environmental effectiveness of the KP, whereas the impact of the decision on sinks is comparatively small. The US withdrawal also substantially reduces the permit demand and permit prices will drop dramatically. Hot air becomes increasingly dominant and may threaten the viability of the Kyoto Mechanisms (KM), especially in lower baseline (business-as-usual (BaU)) scenarios. Therefore, banking of hot air is of absolute importance to improve the environmental effectiveness of the protocol at moderately higher costs, while enhancing the development of a viable emission trading market. A strategy of curtailing and banking permit supply is also in the interest of the dominant seller, Russia

  2. Improvement of Network Efficiency on the Grounds of Change Communication Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Vychodil

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with both theoretical and practical application of Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol instead of different solution described detailed in the article. It uses periodically HTTP method POST to gain information about a state, which a client stands in. During this process a new connection is created and closed, what enormously makes network traffic mote intensive. Instead of this we used XMPP, this technology eliminates disadvantages of synchronous HTTP connection by its adapting for real time connection. It uses stable connection, what does not need to create it any time any information needs to be sent. It decreased amount of transported data through a network and a time, in which is a client informed about an event due to a fact, that the new solution works in real time.

  3. Rapid and efficient protocol for DNA extraction and molecular identification of the basidiomycete Crinipellis perniciosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, S C O; Pungartnik, C; Cascardo, J C M; Brendel, M

    2006-12-14

    DNA isolation from some fungal organisms is difficult because they have cell walls or capsules that are relatively unsusceptible to lysis. Beginning with a yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae genomic DNA isolation method, we developed a 30-min DNA isolation protocol for filamentous fungi by combining cell wall digestion with cell disruption by glass beads. High-quality DNA was isolated with good yield from the hyphae of Crinipellis perniciosa, which causes witches' broom disease in cacao, from three other filamentous fungi, Lentinus edodes, Agaricus blazei, Trichoderma stromaticum, and from the yeast S. cerevisiae. Genomic DNA was suitable for PCR of specific actin primers of C. perniciosa, allowing it to be differentiated from fungal contaminants, including its natural competitor, T. stromaticum.

  4. Energy-Efficient Link-Layer Jamming Attacks against Wireless Sensor Network MAC Protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Law, Y.W.; Palaniswami, M; van Hoesel, L.F.W.; Doumen, J.M.; Hartel, Pieter H.; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    A typical wireless sensor node has little protection against radio jamming. The situation becomes worse if energy-efficient jamming can be achieved by exploiting knowledge of the data link layer. Encrypting the packets may help to prevent the jammer from taking actions based on the content of the

  5. Energy-Efficient Link-Layer Jamming Attacks against Wireless Sensor Network MAC Protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Law, Y.W.; van Hoesel, L.F.W.; Doumen, J.M.; Hartel, Pieter H.; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Atluri, V.; Samarati, P.; Ning, P.; Du, W.

    2005-01-01

    A typical wireless sensor node has little protection against radio jamming. The situation becomes worse if energy efficient jamming can be achieved by exploiting knowledge of the data link layer. Encrypting the packets may help prevent the jammer from taking actions based on the content of the

  6. Energy-efficient link-layer jamming attacks against wireless sensor network MAC protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoesel, L.F.W.; Law, Y.W.; Doumen, J.M.; Hartel, Pieter H.; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    A typical wireless sensor node has little protection against radio jamming. The situation becomes worse if energy-efficient jamming can be achieved by exploiting knowledge of the data link layer. Encrypting the packets may help to prevent the jammer from taking actions based on the content of the

  7. Optimal conditions to use Pfu exo(-) DNA polymerase for highly efficient ligation-mediated polymerase chain reaction protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angers, M; Cloutier, J F; Castonguay, A; Drouin, R

    2001-08-15

    Ligation-Mediated Polymerase Chain Reaction (LMPCR) is the most sensitive sequencing technique available to map single-stranded DNA breaks at the nucleotide level of resolution using genomic DNA. LMPCR has been adapted to map DNA damage and reveal DNA-protein interactions inside living cells. However, the sequence context (GC content), the global break frequency and the current combination of DNA polymerases used in LMPCR affect the quality of the results. In this study, we developed and optimized an LMPCR protocol adapted for Pyrococcus furiosus exo(-) DNA polymerase (Pfu exo(-)). The relative efficiency of Pfu exo(-) was compared to T7-modified DNA polymerase (Sequenase 2.0) at the primer extension step and to Thermus aquaticus DNA polymerase (Taq) at the PCR amplification step of LMPCR. At all break frequencies tested, Pfu exo(-) proved to be more efficient than Sequenase 2.0. During both primer extension and PCR amplification steps, the ratio of DNA molecules per unit of DNA polymerase was the main determinant of the efficiency of Pfu exo(-), while the efficiency of Taq was less affected by this ratio. Substitution of NaCl for KCl in the PCR reaction buffer of Taq strikingly improved the efficiency of the DNA polymerase. Pfu exo(-) was clearly more efficient than Taq to specifically amplify extremely GC-rich genomic DNA sequences. Our results show that a combination of Pfu exo(-) at the primer extension step and Taq at the PCR amplification step is ideal for in vivo DNA analysis and DNA damage mapping using LMPCR.

  8. One-Pot Three-Step Synthesis of 1,2,3-Triazoles by Copper-Catalyzed Cycloaddition of Azides with Alkynes formed by a Sonogashira Cross-Coupling and Desilylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friscourt, Frédéric; Boons, Geert-Jan

    2010-01-01

    A microwave-assisted one-pot, three-step Sonogashira cross coupling-desilylation-cycloaddition sequence was developed for the convenient preparation of 1,4-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles starting from a range of halides, acyl chlorides, ethynyltrimethylsilane and azides. PMID:20942390

  9. Design and Development of Energy Efficient Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks using Fuzzy Logic

    OpenAIRE

    K. Nattar Kannan; B. Paramasivan

    2014-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is a emerging technology of real time embedded systems for a variety of applications. In general, WSNs has great challenges in the factor of limited computation, energy and memory resources. Clustering techniques play a vital role in WSNs to increase the network lifetime and also made energy efficiency. Existing clustering approaches like LEACH uses neighboring information of the nodes for selecting cluster heads and other nodes spent more energy for transmitti...

  10. ENERGY EFFICIENT ROUTING PROTOCOLS FOR WIRELESS AD HOC NETWORKS – A SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sankar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Reducing energy consumption, primarily with the goal of extending the lifetime of battery-powered devices, has emerged as a fundamental challenge in wireless communication. The performance of the medium access control (MAC scheme not only has a fairly significant end-result on the behaviour of the routing approach employed, but also on the energy consumption of the wireless network interface card (NIC. We investigate the inadequacies of the MAC schemes designed for ad hoc wireless networks in the context of power awareness herein. The topology changes due to uncontrollable factors such as node mobility, weather, interference, noise, as well as on controllable parameters such as transmission power and antenna direction results in significant amount of energy loss. Controlling rapid topology changes by minimizing the maximum transmission power used in ad hoc wireless networks, while still maintaining networks connectivity can prolong battery life and hence network lifetime considerably. In addition, we systematically explore the potential energy consumption pitfalls of non–power-based and power based routing schemes. We suggest a thorough energy-based performance survey of energy aware routing protocols for wireless mobile ad-hoc networks. We also present the statistical performance metrics measured by our simulations.

  11. An efficient protocol for the complete incorporation of methyl-protonated alanine in perdeuterated protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayala, Isabel; Sounier, Remy; Use, Nathalie; Gans, Pierre; Boisbouvier, Jerome

    2009-01-01

    A strategy for the introduction of ( 1 H, 13 C-methyl)-alanine into perdeuterated proteins is described. Specific protonation of alanine methyl groups to a level of 95% can be achieved by overexpressing proteins in M9/D 2 O based bacterial growth medium supplemented with 800 mg/l of 2-[ 2 H], 3-[ 13 C] l-alanine. However, though simple, this approach results in undesired, non-specific background labeling due to isotope scrambling via different amino acid metabolic pathways. Following a careful analysis of known metabolic pathways we found that co-addition of perdeuterated forms of α-ketoisovalerate-d 7 , succinate-d 4 and l-isoleucine-d 10 with labeled l-alanine, reduces undesired background labeling to <1%. When combined with recently developed methyl TROSY experiments, this methyl-specific labeling protocol permits the acquisition of excellent quality correlation spectra of alanine methyl groups in high molecular weight proteins. Our cost effective strategy offers a significant enhancement in the level of incorporation of methyl-labeled alanine in overexpressed proteins over previously reported methods

  12. Implementing voice over Internet protocol in mobile ad hoc network – analysing its features regarding efficiency, reliability and security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveed Ahmed Sheikh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Providing secure and efficient real-time voice communication in mobile ad hoc network (MANET environment is a challenging problem. Voice over Internet protocol (VoIP has originally been developed over the past two decades for infrastructure-based networks. There are strict timing constraints for acceptable quality VoIP services, in addition to registration and discovery issues in VoIP end-points. In MANETs, ad hoc nature of networks and multi-hop wireless environment with significant packet loss and delays present formidable challenges to the implementation. Providing a secure real-time VoIP service on MANET is the main design objective of this paper. The authors have successfully developed a prototype system that establishes reliable and efficient VoIP communication and provides an extremely flexible method for voice communication in MANETs. The authors’ cooperative mesh-based MANET implementation can be used for rapidly deployable VoIP communication with survivable and efficient dynamic networking using open source software.

  13. Establishment of an efficient plant regeneration culture protocol and achievement of successful genetic transformation in Jatropha curcas L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Liu, Guoxuan; Yang, Yali; Niu, Sufang; Yang, Fuguang; Yang, Shaoxia; Tang, Jianian; Chen, Jianping

    2017-12-01

    An efficient and reproducible protocol is described for shoot-bud regeneration and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation of J. curcas. Treating the explants with high concentrations (5-120 mg/L) of TDZ for short durations (5-80 min) before inoculation culture increased significantly the regeneration frequency and improved the quality of the regenerated buds. The highest shoot-buds induction rate (87.35%) was achieved when petiole explants were treated with 20 mg/L TDZ solution for 20 min and inoculated on hormone-free MS medium for 30 days. Regenerated shoots of 0.5 cm or a little longer were isolated and grafted to seedling stocks of the same species, and then the grafted plantlets were planted on half-strength MS medium containing 0.1 mg/L IBA and 2 mg/L sodium nitroprusside (SNP). This grafting strategy was found to be very effective, to obtain that healthy grafted plantlets ready for acclimatization within 20 days. By the above mentioned protocol and with general Agrobacterium - mediated genetic transformation methods only 65 days were needed to obtain intact transgenic plants.

  14. Efficient protocol for isolation and purification of different soyasaponins from soy hypocotyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dayun; Yan, Mingxia; Huang, Yuai; Sun, Xiangjun

    2012-12-01

    Soyasaponins are naturally occurring triterpenoid glycosides associated with many biological activities. The aim of the present study was to develop an effective method for isolation and purification of differently glycosylated, acetylated, and 2,3-dihydro-2,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one (DDMP)-conjugated soyasaponins from soy hypocotyls. Both gel filtration using Sephadex LH-20 chromatography (Amersham Pharmacia Biotech AB; elution phase: methanol, flow rate: 3.0 mL/min, sample loading: 60 mg) and high-speed countercurrent chromatography (stationary phase: n-butanol-acetic acid (5.0%, v/v), mobile phase: water flow rate: 3.0 mL/min, sample loading: 100 mg) could effectively fractionate isoflavones and soyasaponins from the crude extract with yield of soyasaponin complexes 20.5 mg and 22.3 mg, respectively. After fractionation, the soyasaponin complexes could be purified further using preparative HPLC to separate individuals. A total of nine soyasaponins, triacetyl soyasaponin Ab (yield 1.55%, HPLC purity >98%), Aa (2.68%, >99%), Ab (18.53%, >98%), Ae (0.85%, >98%), Ba (0.63%, >91%), Af (1.12%, >85%), Bb (3.45%, >98%) and Be (0.59%, >76.8%) were obtained. DDMP-conjugated groups, αg (2.06%, >85%), βg (7.59%, >85%), and γg (0.29%, >85%) that were very labile even in mild conditions, were also collected. The method described here can be used as an effective protocol to separate different soyasaponins occurring in the original sample. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Development of high efficiency micropropagation protocol for tamarix nilotica ehrenb with valued medicinal properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qurainy, F. A.; Nadeem, M.; Khan, S.; Tarroum, M.; Alansi, S.

    2015-01-01

    Tamarix nilotica is an important medicinal plant grows throughout the Kingdom, except in mountains on high altitude. Propagation of T. nilotica through cuttings and seeds are limited. To supplement harvesting of active ingredient from plants, alternative method for the purpose has been developed. Stem node cuttings were subjected to in vitro culture under the influence of various cytokinin to induce shoot proliferation. Maximum shoot stimulation was found on MS medium comprising 1.0 micro M TDZ followed by 2.5 micro M BA, Kn and 2ip. The number of shoots declined as the concentration of cytokinin increased. A lower shoots obtained on 5.0 and 10.0 micro M concentration of all the four cytokinins tested. After fair multiplication, individual shoots were subjected to different concentration of auxins IBA, NAA, 2,4-D and AA 2.5-10.0 micro M for root induction. Initial screening did not result desired rooting on MS medium. Therefore, pulse treatment of 100 micro M IBA was given to the isolated shoots for 5, 10 and 15 days time. Incubation for 10 days on MS medium supplied with 100.0 micro M resulted in maximum rooting when transferred on MS medium alone. Well rooted microshoots were exposed to four types of soil mixtures for acclimatization of plants. Among these soils, sand and FYM gave 100 percentage survival under controlled green house conditions. This protocol would be helpful in regeneration and conservation of this plant species; and provide an alternative source of biomass for pharmaceutical active ingredients. (author)

  16. Efficient DNP NMR of Membrane Proteins: Sample Preparation Protocols, Sensitivity, and Radical Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Shu Y.; Lee, Myungwoon; Wang, Tuo; Sergeyev, Ivan V.; Hong, Mei

    2016-01-01

    Although dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) has dramatically enhanced solid-state NMR spectral sensitivities of many synthetic materials and some biological macromolecules, recent studies of membrane-protein DNP using exogenously doped paramagnetic radicals as polarizing agents have reported varied and sometimes surprisingly limited enhancement factors. This motivated us to carry out a systematic evaluation of sample preparation protocols for optimizing the sensitivity of DNP NMR spectra of membrane-bound peptides and proteins at cryogenic temperatures of ~110 K. We show that mixing the radical with the membrane by direct titration instead of centrifugation gives a significant boost to DNP enhancement. We quantify the relative sensitivity enhancement between AMUPol and TOTAPOL, two commonly used radicals, and between deuterated and protonated lipid membranes. AMUPol shows ~4 fold higher sensitivity enhancement than TOTAPOL, while deuterated lipid membrane does not give net higher sensitivity for the membrane peptides than protonated membrane. Overall, a ~100 fold enhancement between the microwave-on and microwave-off spectra can be achieved on lipid-rich membranes containing conformationally disordered peptides, and absolute sensitivity gains of 105–160 can be obtained between low-temperature DNP spectra and high-temperature non-DNP spectra. We also measured the paramagnetic relaxation enhancement of lipid signals by TOTAPOL and AMUPol, to determine the depths of these two radicals in the lipid bilayer. Our data indicate a bimodal distribution of both radicals, a surface-bound fraction and a membrane-bound fraction where the nitroxides lie at ~10 Å from the membrane surface. TOTAPOL appears to have a higher membrane-embedded fraction than AMUPol. These results should be useful for membrane-protein solid-state NMR studies under DNP conditions and provide insights into how biradicals interact with phospholipid membranes. PMID:26873390

  17. An efficient diethyl ether-based soxhlet protocol to quantify faecal sterols from catchment waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Vikas Kumar G; Dunstan, Hugh; Taylor, Warren

    2006-03-03

    A study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency and reproducibility of a diethyl ether-based soxhlet extraction procedure for faecal sterols occurring from catchment waters. Water samples spiked with a mixture of faecal sterols were filtered and analytes were extracted using the diethyl ether-based soxhlet method and the Bligh and Dyer chloroform extraction process. For diethyl ether-based soxhlet extraction procedure, solvent extracts were saponified with 100 microL of 10% KOH in methanol (100 degrees C/120 min) and then acidified with 60 microL of 6M HCl. Lipid contents were extracted by ethanol (0.5 mL) from the saponification products. The lipid extracts were then reacted with 100 microL of bis(trimethyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) containing 1% trimethyl chlorosilane (100 degrees C/60 min) to form the trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives. The derivatised extracts were then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. For sterol concentrations ranging from 35 to 175 microg mL(-1), the soxhlet-based extraction process yielded the following recovery efficiencies for coprostanol (101%), epicoprostanol (97%), cholesterol (97%), dihydrocholesterol (97%) and 5alpha-cholestane (111%), whereas the Bligh and Dyer process yielded recoveries of 32, 41, 0, 36 and 51%, respectively. The results suggested that the diethyl ether-based soxhlet extraction method was more efficient and reproducible than the Bligh and Dyer chloroform extraction process for the analyses of trace levels of faecal sterols from water samples. Moreover, it was revealed that the diethyl ether-based soxhlet extraction method used less solvent and was logistically easier.

  18. Energy Efficiency in Ethernet Passive Optical Networks (EPONs): Protocol Design and Performance Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Ying; Dittmann, Lars

    2011-01-01

    a suitable wakeup time scheduler at the Optical Line Terminal (OLT). A generic EPON system is considered, which is composed of an OLT and several ONUs that are EMM enabled. An energy consumption optimization problem aimed at saving energy is proposed and two heuristic sleep mode scheduling policies...... Mechanism (EMM) for downlink EPON systems. The proposed mechanism is designed to enhance the standardized control scheme in EPON with the objective to increase energy efficiency while satisfying diverse QoS requirements. The main idea is to put an Optical Network Unit (ONU) into the sleep mode and determine...

  19. An Efficient and Provably Secure Cross-Realm Client-to-Client Password-Authenticated Key Agreement Protocol with Smart Cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Wenting; Xu, Jing

    Cross-realm client-to-client password-authenticated key agreement (C2C-PAKA) protocols provide an authenticated key exchange between two clients of different realms, who only share their passwords with their own servers. Recently, several such cross-realm C2C-PAKA protocols have been suggested in the private-key (symmetric) setting, but all of these protocols are found to be vulnerable to password-compromise impersonation attacks. In this paper, we propose our innovative C2C- PAKA-SC protocol in which smart cards are first utilized in the cross-realm setting so that it can resist all types of common attacks including password-compromise impersonation attacks and provide improved efficiency. Moveover, we modify the original formal security model to adapt our proposed protocol and present a corresponding security proof.

  20. Poly(4-VinylpyridiniumHydrogen Sulfate Catalyzed an Efficient and Ecofriendly Protocol for the One-Pot Multicomponent Synthesis of 1,8-Acridinediones in Aqueous Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janardhan Banothu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly efficient, ecofriendly, and improved protocol for the synthesis of 1,8-acridinediones has been developed via one-pot multicomponent condensation of 1,3-cyclohexanedione/dimedone, aromatic aldehydes, and ammonium acetate utilizing poly(4-vinylpyridiniumhydrogen sulfate as catalyst in aqueous medium. Excellent yields in shorter reaction time, simple work-up procedure, easy recovery, and reusability of the catalyst are attractive features of this green protocol.

  1. Evaluation of the effectiveness and efficiency of the triage emergency department nursing protocol for the management of pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butti L

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Loris Butti,1 Olga Bierti,1 Raffaela Lanfrit,1 Romina Bertolini,1 Sara Chittaro,1 Stefania Delli Compagni,1 Davide Del Russo,1 Rossella Letizia Mancusi,2 Franco Pertoldi1 1S.O.C. Emergency Medicine, AAS3 Ospedale Sant’Antonio di San Daniele del Friuli, 2C.R.E.A. Sanità, University of Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy Introduction: Pain is a common symptom presented in the emergency department (ED although it is often underestimated, poorly evaluated and treated. The application of a protocol for timely pain management ensured by the nurse can avoid the delays in the analgesic treatment and improve the patient’s quality of waiting.Aims: To check the effectiveness and efficiency of the protocol aimed at early pain management in triage, active in our ED. In particular, the response to analgesic treatment was evaluated 60 minutes after the administration and at discharge. Patient satisfaction was also evaluated using two anonymous questionnaires both at discharge and 48 hours later via telephone.Methods: A single-center, observational study was conducted on a prospective cohort of patients (aged ≥4 years with a pain symptom at admission in ED with no surgical picture.Results: In the observation period (June 2015–May 2016, 382 patients were enrolled, and of these, 312 (84.8% accepted pain therapy during triage stage in the ED. In 97.4% of the cases, orosoluble paracetamol 1000 mg was administered. In the re-evaluation done 60 minutes later, 65.9% of the patients showed a reduction of at least 2 points on Numeric Rating Scale (NRS, equal to a mean reduction of 2.24 points (95% CI: 2.03–2.45. The mean time of analgesia intake was equal to 5.9 minutes (95% CI: 3.8–8.1. In the re-evaluation done at discharge, 33.2% of the patients showed a reduction of NRS score >50%, leading to a mean reduction of 39% (95% CI: 35.3%−41.9%. The level of patient satisfaction was high with a mean value >9 points (maximum satisfaction =10.Conclusion: This protocol

  2. Developing Effective and Efficient care pathways in chronic Pain: DEEP study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Justin; Breckons, Matthew; Araujo-Soares, Vera; Exley, Catherine; Steele, Jimmy; Vale, Luke

    2014-01-21

    Pain affecting the face or mouth and lasting longer than three months ("chronic orofacial pain", COFP) is relatively common in the UK. This study aims to describe and model current care pathways for COFP patients, identify areas where current pathways could be modified, and model whether these changes would improve outcomes for patients and use resources more efficiently. The study takes a prospective operations research approach. A cohort of primary and secondary care COFP patients (n = 240) will be recruited at differing stages of their care in order to follow and analyse their journey through care. The cohort will be followed for two years with data collected at baseline 6, 12, 18, and 24 months on: 1) experiences of the care pathway and its impacts; 2) quality of life; 3) pain; 4) use of health services and costs incurred; 5) illness perceptions. Qualitative in-depth interviews will be used to collect data on patient experiences from a purposive sub-sample of the total cohort (n = 30) at baseline, 12 and 24 months. Four separate appraisal groups (public, patient, clincian, service manager/commissioning) will then be given data from the pathway analysis and asked to determine their priority areas for change. The proposals from appraisal groups will inform an economic modelling exercise. Findings from the economic modelling will be presented as incremental costs, Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs), and the incremental cost per QALY gained. At the end of the modelling a series of recommendations for service change will be available for implementation or further trial if necessary. The recent white paper on health and the report from the NHS Forum identified chronic conditions as priority areas and whilst technology can improve outcomes, so can simple, appropriate and well-defined clinical care pathways. Understanding the opportunity cost related to care pathways benefits the wider NHS. This research develops a method to help design efficient systems built

  3. FTR: Performance-Aware and Energy-Efficient Communication Protocol for Integrating Sensor Networks into the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinung Suakanto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Integrating sensor networks into the Internet brings many advantages. For example, users can monitor or control the state of the sensors remotely without visiting the field. Some researchers have proposed methods using a REST-based web service or HTTP to establish communication between sensors and server via the Internet. Unfortunately, as we know, HTTP is a best-effort service. In some cases this means that if the number of sensors increases the end-to-end Quality of Service will decrease. The end-to-end network delay increases, as well as the failure rate of data sending caused by HTTP timeouts. In this paper, we propose Finite Time Response (FTR HTTP as a communication protocol suitable for integrating sensor networks into the Internet. We have defined a cross-layer approach that coordinates between the application layer and the physical layer to control not only performance but also energy efficiency. The HTTP request-response delay measured at the application layer is used as the decision factor at the physical layer to control the active and sleep periods. We also propose a forced-sleep period as a control mechanism to guarantee average performance for all nodes. The experimental results have shown that FTR has the ability to maintain better performance, indicated by a lower average response time and a lower average timeout experience. Optimization is still needed to gain better performance and better energy efficiency while also considering the average value of the update time.

  4. Efficient Privacy-Preserving Protocol for k-NN Search over Encrypted Data in Location-Based Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijuan Lian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of mobile communication technology, location-based services (LBS are booming prosperously. Meanwhile privacy protection has become the main obstacle for the further development of LBS. The k-nearest neighbor (k-NN search is one of the most common types of LBS. In this paper, we propose an efficient private circular query protocol (EPCQP with high accuracy rate and low computation and communication cost. We adopt the Moore curve to convert two-dimensional spatial data into one-dimensional sequence and encrypt the points of interest (POIs information with the Brakerski-Gentry-Vaikuntanathan homomorphic encryption scheme for privacy-preserving. The proposed scheme performs the secret circular shift of the encrypted POIs information to hide the location of the user without a trusted third party. To reduce the computation and communication cost, we dynamically divide the table of the POIs information according to the value of k. Experiments show that the proposed scheme provides high accuracy query results while maintaining low computation and communication cost.

  5. An Energy-efficient Rate Adaptive Media Access Protocol (RA-MAC for Long-lived Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Hu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We introduce an energy-efficient Rate Adaptive Media Access Control (RA-MAC algorithm for long-lived Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs. Previous research shows that the dynamic and lossy nature of wireless communications is one of the major challenges to reliable data delivery in WSNs. RA-MAC achieves high link reliability in such situations by dynamically trading off data rate for channel gain. The extra gain that can be achieved reduces the packet loss rate which contributes to reduced energy expenditure through a reduced numbers of retransmissions. We achieve this at the expense of raw bit rate which generally far exceeds the application’s link requirement. To minimize communication energy consumption, RA-MAC selects the optimal data rate based on the estimated link quality at each data rate and an analytical model of the energy consumption. Our model shows how the selected data rate depends on different channel conditions in order to minimize energy consumption. We have implemented RA-MAC in TinyOS for an off-the-shelf sensor platform (the TinyNode on top of a state-of-the-art WSN Media Access Control Protocol, SCP-MAC, and evaluated its performance by comparing our implementation with the original SCP-MAC using both simulation and experiment.

  6. Chapter 15: Commercial New Construction Evaluation Protocol. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keates, Steven [ADM Associates, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2017-10-09

    This protocol is intended to describe the recommended method when evaluating the whole-building performance of new construction projects in the commercial sector. The protocol focuses on energy conservation measures (ECMs) or packages of measures where evaluators can analyze impacts using building simulation. These ECMs typically require the use of calibrated building simulations under Option D of the International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol (IPMVP).

  7. An efficient protocol for in vitro direct shoot organogenesis ofSesamum indicumL. using cotyledon as explant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, A J; Gangopadhyay, G; Basu, D; Sikdar, S R

    2018-03-01

    Establishment of a suitable regeneration protocol is a pre-requisite to carry out transformation study in Sesamum indicum L. (sesame). In this paper, different parameters of regeneration were standardised to develop an efficient protocol for in vitro plant regeneration via direct adventitious shoot organogenesis using de-embryonated cotyledons of sesame as explants. Among the various treatments of MS medium supplemented with 6-benzylaminopurine, thidiazuron and indole-3-acetic acid, maximum regeneration frequency (25.93  ±  2.21%) was obtained in BTI 4 medium (MS supplemented with 33.33 µM BAP with 2.85 µM IAA) within 6 weeks of culture. Regeneration frequency increased further (50.37 ± 2.49%) by fortifying BTI 4 with 29.43 µM silver nitrate (AG 3 medium). Pre-culture of cotyledon explants in AB 3 medium (AG 3 supplemented with 3.78 µM abscisic acid) for 14 days followed by sub-culture in AG 3 medium further improved the regeneration frequency (68.15 ± 2.68%). The highest rate of shoot regeneration (94.82 ± 1.34%) was obtained by pre-culturing 4-day-old cotyledon in a vertical position in AB 3 medium for 14 days and sub-culturing in AG 3 medium for 4 weeks. Regenerated shoots proliferated in MS medium supplemented with 4.44 μM BAP and 1.44 μM gibberelic acid (GA 3 ). The highest frequency (65.33 ± 3.78%) of root induction was achieved by culturing the elongated shoots in MS medium supplemented with 2.69 μM α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) for 6 weeks. Rooted plants were acclimatised in soilrite and transferred to soil after 6-8 weeks. The rate of acclimatisation of plants was 76%.

  8. Chapter 6: Residential Lighting Evaluation Protocol. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dimetrosky, Scott [Apex Analytics, LLC, Boulder, CO (United States); Parkinson, Katie [Apex Analytics, LLC, Boulder, CO (United States); Lieb, Noah [Apex Analytics, LLC, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-10-19

    Given new regulations, increased complexity in the market, and the general shift from CFLs to LEDs, this evaluation protocol was updated in 2017 to shift the focus of the protocols toward LEDs and away from CFLs and to resolve evaluation uncertainties affecting residential lighting incentive programs.

  9. Development of an efficient in vitro propagation protocol for Satureja punctata - A rare aromatic and medicinal plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrias Teshome

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Satureja punctata is an important aromatic and medicinal plant in Lamiaceae family. This plant is threatened mainly due to overgrazing, deforestation, over harvesting of the whole plant for medicinal purpose. This study was aimed to develop an efficient in vitro propagation protocol for S. punctata using shoot tips. Shoots excised from in vitro germinated seedlings were used as mother plant for culture induction on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of 6-benzyl amino purine (BAP and Kinetin (KIN. Highest shoot induction frequency (100% with highest mean number (8.25±1.64 of shoot per explant was obtained at 0.5 mg/L BAP. In multiplication media, among different concentrations of BAP, KIN, BAP×KIN and KIN×NAA (α-Naphthalene acetic acid, BAP × NAA found to be an optimum concentration with (26.20±2.71 mean number of shoots. The best shoot height (2.48 ± 0.13 cm was achieved on growth regulators free medium, which was used as control. Half strength MS medium containing different concentrations of Indole-3- butyric acid (IBA, Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA and NAA were used for root induction. The highest rooting percentage (100%, root number (5.90±0.48 and root length (1.55±0.11 cm were attained in the presence of 1.0 mg/L IBA. Up on acclimatization, 97.5% survived plants were recorded. The results demonstrated that, this study was very important for mass propagation and ultimate conservation of this valuable plant.

  10. Development of an Efficient Real-Time Quantitative PCR Protocol for Detection of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni in Prunus Species ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacio-Bielsa, Ana; Cubero, Jaime; Cambra, Miguel A.; Collados, Raquel; Berruete, Isabel M.; López, María M.

    2011-01-01

    Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni, the causal agent of bacterial spot disease of stone fruit, is considered a quarantine organism by the European Union and the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO). The bacterium can undergo an epiphytic phase and/or be latent and can be transmitted by plant material, but currently, only visual inspections are used to certify plants as being X. arboricola pv. pruni free. A novel and highly sensitive real-time TaqMan PCR detection protocol was designed based on a sequence of a gene for a putative protein related to an ABC transporter ATP-binding system in X. arboricola pv. pruni. Pathogen detection can be completed within a few hours with a sensitivity of 102 CFU ml−1, thus surpassing the sensitivity of the existing conventional PCR. Specificity was assessed for X. arboricola pv. pruni strains from different origins as well as for closely related Xanthomonas species, non-Xanthomonas species, saprophytic bacteria, and healthy Prunus samples. The efficiency of the developed protocol was evaluated with field samples of 14 Prunus species and rootstocks. For symptomatic leaf samples, the protocol was very efficient even when washed tissues of the leaves were directly amplified without any previous DNA extraction. For samples of 117 asymptomatic leaves and 285 buds, the protocol was more efficient after a simple DNA extraction, and X. arboricola pv. pruni was detected in 9.4% and 9.1% of the 402 samples analyzed, respectively, demonstrating its frequent epiphytic or endophytic phase. This newly developed real-time PCR protocol can be used as a quantitative assay, offers a reliable and sensitive test for X. arboricola pv. pruni, and is suitable as a screening test for symptomatic as well as asymptomatic plant material. PMID:21037298

  11. An efficient protocol for the synthesis of highly sensitive indole imines utilizing green chemistry: optimization of reaction conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisar, Bushra; Rubab, Syeda Laila; Raza, Abdul Rauf; Tariq, Sobia; Sultan, Ayesha; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz

    2018-04-11

    Novel and highly sensitive indole-based imines have been synthesized. Their synthesis has been compared employing a variety of protocols. Ultimately, a convenient, economical and high yielding set of conditions employing green chemistry have been designed for their synthesis.

  12. Chapter 14: Chiller Evaluation Protocol. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tiessen, Alex [Posterity Group, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2017-10-06

    This protocol defines a chiller measure as a project that directly impacts equipment within the boundary of a chiller plant. A chiller plant encompasses a chiller - or multiple chillers - and associated auxiliary equipment. This protocol primarily covers electric-driven chillers and chiller plants. It does not include thermal energy storage and absorption chillers fired by natural gas or steam, although a similar methodology may be applicable to these chilled water system components.

  13. A Simple and efficient protocol for the synthesis of 1,4-dihydro pyridines (Hantzsch pyridines catalyzed by Germanium (IV iodide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandramouleswararao Jillepalli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A simple and efficient protocol has been developed for the synthesis of Hantzsch pyridines. In the reported synthesis, a variety of aldehydes undergo smooth condensation reaction with ethyl acetoacetate and ammonium acetate in presence of Germanium (IV iodide in acetonitrile. This method is applicable to a variety of substrates to afford the corresponding 1,4-dihydropyridines in one-pot reaction in excellent yields.

  14. Chapter 10: Peak Demand and Time-Differentiated Energy Savings Cross-Cutting Protocol. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stern, Frank [Navigant, Boulder, CO (United States); Spencer, Justin [Navigant, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-10-03

    Savings from electric energy efficiency measures and programs are often expressed in terms of annual energy and presented as kilowatt-hours per year (kWh/year). However, for a full assessment of the value of these savings, it is usually necessary to consider the measure or program's impact on peak demand as well as time-differentiated energy savings. This cross-cutting protocol describes methods for estimating the peak demand and time-differentiated energy impacts of measures implemented through energy efficiency programs.

  15. Chapter 5: Residential Furnaces and Boilers Evaluation Protocol. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jacobson, David [Jacobson Energy Research, Providence, RI (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The high-efficiency boiler and furnace measure produces gas heating savings resulting from installation of more energy-efficient heating equipment in a residence. Such equipment, which ranges in size from 60 kBtu/hr to 300 kBtu/hr, is installed primarily in single-family homes and multifamily buildings with individual heating systems for each dwelling unit. This protocol does not cover integrated heating and water heating units which can be used in lieu of space heating only equipment.

  16. A simple and efficient protocol for isolation of high quality functional RNA from different tissues of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepa, K; Sheeja, T E; Santhi, R; Sasikumar, B; Cyriac, Anu; Deepesh, P V; Prasath, D

    2014-04-01

    Many experiments in plant molecular biology require processing of a large number of RNA samples and in some cases large quantities are required for a single application. In turmeric, a major spice and medicinal plant, a protocol for RNA isolation is not available. The major difficulty encountered while using other popular protocols is the low yield and quality of RNA which hampers the downstream applications like qRT-PCR, cDNA synthesis and micro RNA isolation. Commercial kits though available are costly and were found to be unsuccessful in case of rhizomes and root tissues that are rich in polyphenols, polysaccharides and alkaloids. It was thus felt that a quick, handy and cheap protocol of total RNA isolation from different tissues of turmeric was required for day to day working in our lab. The new protocol utilizes SDS based extraction buffer including β-mercaptoethanol and PVP with sequential acid phenol:chloroform extraction to remove polyphenols and proteins, followed by the purification with sodium acetate to eliminate polysaccharides. The protocol is simple and can be completed in less than 3 h. The RNA yield from rhizome was higher by more than fivefold with both A260/280 and A260/230 ratio in the range of 1.8-2.0. The protocol worked well with leaf, rhizome, pseudostem and root tissues with RIN >7.0 and the isolated RNA could be successfully used for cDNA synthesis, RT-PCR, qRT-PCR and small RNA isolation including microRNA.

  17. Chapter 18: Variable Frequency Drive Evaluation Protocol. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romberger, Jeff [SBW Consulting, Inc., Bellevue, WA (United States)

    2017-06-21

    An adjustable-speed drive (ASD) includes all devices that vary the speed of a rotating load, including those that vary the motor speed and linkage devices that allow constant motor speed while varying the load speed. The Variable Frequency Drive Evaluation Protocol presented here addresses evaluation issues for variable-frequency drives (VFDs) installed on commercial and industrial motor-driven centrifugal fans and pumps for which torque varies with speed. Constant torque load applications, such as those for positive displacement pumps, are not covered by this protocol.

  18. A new energy-efficient MAC protocol with noise-based transmitted-reference modulation for wireless sensor network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morshed, S.; Heijenk, Geert; Meijerink, Arjan; Ye, D.; van der Zee, Ronan A.R.; Bentum, Marinus Jan

    2013-01-01

    Energy-constrained behavior of sensor nodes is one of the most important criteria for successful deployment of wireless sensor networks. The medium access control (MAC) protocol determines to a large extent the time a sensor node transceiver spends listening or transmitting, and hence the energy

  19. Highly efficient synthetic method onpyroacm resin using the boc SPPS protocol for C-terminal cysteine peptide synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juvekar, Vinayak; Kim, Kang Tae; Gong, Young Dae [Innovative Drug Library Research Center, Dept. of Chemistry, College of Science, Dongguk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    A very effective process on Pyroacm resin was developed for solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) of C-terminal cysteine and cysteine ester peptides. The process uses cysteine side chain anchoring to the Pyroacm resin and the Boc protocol for SPPS. The Pyroacm resin showed remarkable stability under standard trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (TFMSA) cleavage condition. TFMSA cleavage of protecting groups generates a peptide-linked resin, which can be subjected to peptide modification reactions. Finally, the peptide can be cleaved from the resin using methoxycarbonylsulfenyl chloride. The utility of this protocol was demonstrated by its applications to the synthesis of model peptides, key intermediates in the preparation of natural products riparin 1.2 and a-factor.

  20. Chapter 20: Data Center IT Efficiency Measures Evaluation Protocol. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Huang, Robert [The Cadmus Group, Portland, OR (United States); Masanet, Eric [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    2017-11-02

    This chapter focuses on IT measures in the data center and examines the techniques and analysis methods used to verify savings that result from improving the efficiency of two specific pieces of IT equipment: servers and data storage.

  1. Chapter 16: Retrocommissioning Evaluation Protocol. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tiessen, Alex [Posterity Group, Derwood, MD (United States)

    2017-10-09

    Retrocommissioning (RCx) is a systematic process for optimizing energy performance in existing buildings. It specifically focuses on improving the control of energy-using equipment (e.g., heating, ventilation, and air conditioning [HVAC] equipment and lighting) and typically does not involve equipment replacement. Field results have shown proper RCx can achieve energy savings ranging from 5 percent to 20 percent, with a typical payback of two years or less (Thorne 2003). The method presented in this protocol provides direction regarding: (1) how to account for each measure's specific characteristics and (2) how to choose the most appropriate savings verification approach.

  2. An Efficient Protocol for the Palladium-catalyzed Asymmetric Decarboxylative Allylic Alkylation Using Low Palladium Concentrations and a Palladium(II) Precatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marziale, Alexander N; Duquette, Douglas C; Craig, Robert A; Kim, Kelly E; Liniger, Marc; Numajiri, Yoshitaka; Stoltz, Brian M

    2015-07-06

    Enantioselective catalytic allylic alkylation for the synthesis of 2-alkyl-2-allylcycloalkanones and 3,3-disubstituted pyrrolidinones, piperidinones and piperazinones has been previously reported by our laboratory. The efficient construction of chiral all-carbon quaternary centers by allylic alkylation was previously achieved with a catalyst derived in situ from zero valent palladium sources and chiral phosphinooxazoline (PHOX) ligands. We now report an improved reaction protocol with broad applicability among different substrate classes in industry-compatible reaction media using loadings of palladium(II) acetate as low as 0.075 mol % and the readily available chiral PHOX ligands. The novel and highly efficient procedure enables facile scale-up of the reaction in an economical and sustainable fashion.

  3. An efficient protocol for incorporation of an unnatural amino acid in perdeuterated recombinant proteins using glucose-based media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venditti, Vincenzo; Fawzi, Nicolas L.; Clore, G. Marius, E-mail: mariusc@mail.nih.gov [National Institutes of Health, Laboratory of Chemical Physics, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (United States)

    2012-03-15

    The in vivo incorporation of unnatural amino acids into proteins is a well-established technique requiring an orthogonal tRNA/aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase pair specific for the unnatural amino acid that is incorporated at a position encoded by a TAG amber codon. Although this technology provides unique opportunities to engineer protein structures, poor protein yields are usually obtained in deuterated media, hampering its application in the protein NMR field. Here, we describe a novel protocol for incorporating unnatural amino acids into fully deuterated proteins using glucose-based media (which are relevant to the production, for example, of amino acid-specific methyl-labeled proteins used in the study of large molecular weight systems). The method consists of pre-induction of the pEVOL plasmid encoding the tRNA/aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase pair in a rich, H{sub 2}O-based medium prior to exchanging the culture into a D{sub 2}O-based medium. Our protocol results in high level of isotopic incorporation ({approx}95%) and retains the high expression level of the target protein observed in Luria-Bertani medium.

  4. A high efficient protocol for soybean root transformation by Agrobacterium rhizogenes and most stable reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuma, K M; Lopes-Caitar, V S; Romero, C C T; Silva, S M H; Kuwahara, M K; Carvalho, M C C G; Abdelnoor, R V; Dias, W P; Marcelino-Guimarães, F C

    2015-11-01

    A 55% transformation efficiency was obtained by our optimized protocol; and we showed that GmELF1 - β and GmELF1 - α are the most stable reference genes for expression analyses under this specific condition. Gene functional analyses are essential to the validation of results obtained from in silico and/or gene-prospecting studies. Genetic transformation methods that yield tissues of transient expression quickly have been of considerable interest to researchers. Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation methods, which are employed to generate plants with transformed roots, have proven useful for the study of stress caused by root phytopathogens via gene overexpression and/or silencing. While some protocols have been adapted to soybean plants, transformation efficiencies remain limited; thus, few viable plants are available for performing bioassays. Furthermore, mRNA analyses that employ reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reactions (RT-qPCR) require the use of reference genes with stable expression levels across different organs, development steps and treatments. In the present study, an A. rhizogenes-mediated soybean root transformation approach was optimized. The method delivers significantly higher transformation efficiency levels and rates of transformed plant recovery, thus enhancing studies of soybean abiotic conditions or interactions between phytopathogens, such as nematodes. A 55% transformation efficiency was obtained following the addition of an acclimation step that involves hydroponics and different selection processes. The present study also validated the reference genes GmELF1-β and GmELF1-α as the most stable to be used in RT-qPCR analysis in composite plants, mainly under nematode infection.

  5. EVALUATION OF PROTEIN EXTRACTION PROTOCOLS AND EFFICIENT SOLUBILISATION FOR ENHANCED PROTEOMIC ANALYSIS FROM PHENOLICS RICH NON-MODEL RECALCITRANT WILD CRUCIFER RORIPPA INDICA (L. HIERN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayantan Ghosh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Prior to 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE, proteins must be denatured, reduced and properly solubilised. Depending on the type of samples, the extraction and solubilisation of protein varies. The purpose of this research was to establish an efficient method of proteome extraction and solubilisation followed by analysis of the proteins from a non-model, recalcitrant, phenolics rich plant Rorippa indica. We developed this protocol suitable for 2-DGE and MALDI-TOF based MS analysis of the proteins. The widely used TCA-acetone precipitation, Tris-Cl based extraction and phenol based extraction of proteins have been comparatively evaluated. It was found that phenol based extraction was best suited for the purpose. The extraction was further complemented with efficient protein solubilisation. To increase solubility of precipitated proteins, use of thiourea, supplemented with CHAPS and ASB-14 were found to be very effective. A huge number of high quality unique protein spots in 2-D gel were obtained by this method. The MS analysis resulted in the successful identification of proteins further confirming the compatibility of this protocol for use as a guide method for protein extraction from non-model, recalcitrant tissue.

  6. Chapter 7: Refrigerator Recycling Evaluation Protocol. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy-Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keeling, Josh [Cadmus Portland, OR (United States); Bruchs, Doug [Cadeo, Portland, OR (United States)

    2017-10-04

    Refrigerator recycling programs are designed to save energy by removing operable, albeit less efficient, refrigerators from service. By offering free pickup, providing incentives, and disseminating information about the operating cost of less efficient refrigerators, these programs are designed to encourage consumers to: - Limit the use of secondary refrigerators -Relinquish refrigerators previously used as primary units when they are replaced (rather than keeping the existing refrigerator as a secondary unit) -Prevent the continued use of less efficient refrigerators in another household through a direct transfer (giving it away or selling it) or indirect transfer (resale on the used appliance market). Commonly implemented by third-party contractors (who collect and decommission participating appliances), these programs generate energy savings through the retirement of inefficient appliances. The decommissioning process captures environmentally harmful refrigerants and foam, and enables recycling of the plastic, metal, and wiring components.

  7. Sink-oriented Dynamic Location Service Protocol for Mobile Sinks with an Energy Efficient Grid-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunseung Choo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Sensor nodes transmit the sensed information to the sink through wireless sensor networks (WSNs. They have limited power, computational capacities and memory. Portable wireless devices are increasing in popularity. Mechanisms that allow information to be efficiently obtained through mobile WSNs are of significant interest. However, a mobile sink introduces many challenges to data dissemination in large WSNs. For example, it is important to efficiently identify the locations of mobile sinks and disseminate information from multi-source nodes to the multi-mobile sinks. In particular, a stationary dissemination path may no longer be effective in mobile sink applications, due to sink mobility. In this paper, we propose a Sink-oriented Dynamic Location Service (SDLS approach to handle sink mobility. In SDLS, we propose an Eight-Direction Anchor (EDA system that acts as a location service server. EDA prevents intensive energy consumption at the border sensor nodes and thus provides energy balancing to all the sensor nodes. Then we propose a Location-based Shortest Relay (LSR that efficiently forwards (or relays data from a source node to a sink with minimal delay path. Our results demonstrate that SDLS not only provides an efficient and scalable location service, but also reduces the average data communication overhead in scenarios with multiple and moving sinks and sources.

  8. Sink-oriented Dynamic Location Service Protocol for Mobile Sinks with an Energy Efficient Grid-Based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hyeonjae; Park, Kwangjin; Hwang, Dae-Joon; Choo, Hyunseung

    2009-01-01

    Sensor nodes transmit the sensed information to the sink through wireless sensor networks (WSNs). They have limited power, computational capacities and memory. Portable wireless devices are increasing in popularity. Mechanisms that allow information to be efficiently obtained through mobile WSNs are of significant interest. However, a mobile sink introduces many challenges to data dissemination in large WSNs. For example, it is important to efficiently identify the locations of mobile sinks and disseminate information from multi-source nodes to the multi-mobile sinks. In particular, a stationary dissemination path may no longer be effective in mobile sink applications, due to sink mobility. In this paper, we propose a Sink-oriented Dynamic Location Service (SDLS) approach to handle sink mobility. In SDLS, we propose an Eight-Direction Anchor (EDA) system that acts as a location service server. EDA prevents intensive energy consumption at the border sensor nodes and thus provides energy balancing to all the sensor nodes. Then we propose a Location-based Shortest Relay (LSR) that efficiently forwards (or relays) data from a source node to a sink with minimal delay path. Our results demonstrate that SDLS not only provides an efficient and scalable location service, but also reduces the average data communication overhead in scenarios with multiple and moving sinks and sources.

  9. Quantitation of next generation sequencing library preparation protocol efficiencies using droplet digital PCR assays - a systematic comparison of DNA library preparation kits for Illumina sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigrain, Louise; Gu, Yong; Quail, Michael A

    2016-06-13

    The emergence of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies in the past decade has allowed the democratization of DNA sequencing both in terms of price per sequenced bases and ease to produce DNA libraries. When it comes to preparing DNA sequencing libraries for Illumina, the current market leader, a plethora of kits are available and it can be difficult for the users to determine which kit is the most appropriate and efficient for their applications; the main concerns being not only cost but also minimal bias, yield and time efficiency. We compared 9 commercially available library preparation kits in a systematic manner using the same DNA sample by probing the amount of DNA remaining after each protocol steps using a new droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) assay. This method allows the precise quantification of fragments bearing either adaptors or P5/P7 sequences on both ends just after ligation or PCR enrichment. We also investigated the potential influence of DNA input and DNA fragment size on the final library preparation efficiency. The overall library preparations efficiencies of the libraries show important variations between the different kits with the ones combining several steps into a single one exhibiting some final yields 4 to 7 times higher than the other kits. Detailed ddPCR data also reveal that the adaptor ligation yield itself varies by more than a factor of 10 between kits, certain ligation efficiencies being so low that it could impair the original library complexity and impoverish the sequencing results. When a PCR enrichment step is necessary, lower adaptor-ligated DNA inputs leads to greater amplification yields, hiding the latent disparity between kits. We describe a ddPCR assay that allows us to probe the efficiency of the most critical step in the library preparation, ligation, and to draw conclusion on which kits is more likely to preserve the sample heterogeneity and reduce the need of amplification.

  10. Development of Energy-Efficient Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Optimal Gradient Routing with On Demand Neighborhood Information

    OpenAIRE

    Kannan, K. Nattar; Paramasivan, B.

    2014-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of a number of autonomous sensor nodes which have limited battery power and computation capabilities with sensing of various physical and environmental conditions. In recent days, WSNs adequately need effective mechanisms for data forwarding to enhance the energy efficiency in networks. In WSNs, the optimization of energy consumption is a crucial issue for real-time application. Network topology of WSNs also is changed dynamically by anonymous nodes. Ro...

  11. Testing the efficiency of rover science protocols for robotic sample selection: A GeoHeuristic Operational Strategies Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yingst, R. A.; Bartley, J. K.; Chidsey, T. C.; Cohen, B. A.; Gilleaudeau, G. J.; Hynek, B. M.; Kah, L. C.; Minitti, M. E.; Williams, R. M. E.; Black, S.; Gemperline, J.; Schaufler, R.; Thomas, R. J.

    2018-05-01

    The GHOST field tests are designed to isolate and test science-driven rover operations protocols, to determine best practices. During a recent field test at a potential Mars 2020 landing site analog, we tested two Mars Science Laboratory data-acquisition and decision-making methods to assess resulting science return and sample quality: a linear method, where sites of interest are studied in the order encountered, and a "walkabout-first" method, where sites of interest are examined remotely before down-selecting to a subset of sites that are interrogated with more resource-intensive instruments. The walkabout method cost less time and fewer resources, while increasing confidence in interpretations. Contextual data critical to evaluating site geology was acquired earlier than for the linear method, and given a higher priority, which resulted in development of more mature hypotheses earlier in the analysis process. Combined, this saved time and energy in the collection of data with more limited spatial coverage. Based on these results, we suggest that the walkabout method be used where doing so would provide early context and time for the science team to develop hypotheses-critical tests; and that in gathering context, coverage may be more important than higher resolution.

  12. Efficient RNA extraction protocol for the wood mangrove species Laguncularia racemosa suited for next-generation RNA sequencing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilwerth, M. W.; Rossetto, P.

    2016-01-01

    Mangrove flora and habitat have immeasurable importance in marine and coastal ecology as well as in the economy. Despite their importance, they are constantly threatened by oil spill accidents and environmental contamination; therefore, it is crucial to understand the changes in gene expression to better predict toxicity in these plants. Among the species of Atlantic coast mangrove (Americas and Africa), Laguncularia racemosa, or white mangrove, is a conspicuous species. The wide distribution of L. racemosa in areas where marine oil exploration is rapidly increasing make it a candidate mangrove species model to uncover the impact of oil spills at the molecular level with the use of massive transcriptome sequencing. However, for this purpose, the RNA extraction protocol should ensure low levels of contaminants and structure integrity. In this study, eight RNA extraction methods were tested and analysed using downstream applications. The InviTrap Spin Plant RNA Mini Kit performed best with regard to purity and integrity. Moreover, the obtained RNA was submitted to cDNA synthesis and RT-PCR, successfully generating amplification products of the expected size. These Results show the applicability of the RNA obtained here for downstream methodologies, such as the construction of cDNA libraries for the Illumina Hi-seq platform. (author)

  13. Protocols for quantum binary voting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapliyal, Kishore; Sharma, Rishi Dutt; Pathak, Anirban

    Two new protocols for quantum binary voting are proposed. One of the proposed protocols is designed using a standard scheme for controlled deterministic secure quantum communication (CDSQC), and the other one is designed using the idea of quantum cryptographic switch, which uses a technique known as permutation of particles. A few possible alternative approaches to accomplish the same task (quantum binary voting) have also been discussed. Security of the proposed protocols is analyzed. Further, the efficiencies of the proposed protocols are computed, and are compared with that of the existing protocols. The comparison has established that the proposed protocols are more efficient than the existing protocols.

  14. An Efficient Solvent-Free Protocol for the Synthesis of 1-Amidoalkyl-2-naphthols using Silica-Supported Molybdatophosphoric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolkarim Zare

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A highly efficient, green and simple solvent-free method for the synthesis of 1-amidoalkyl-2-naphthols via one-pot multi-components condensation of 2-naphthol, aromatic aldehydes and amides in the presence of catalytic amount of silica-supported molybdatophosphoric acid (H3PMo12O40.xH2O/SiO2, 3.17 mol% is described. The reactions proceed rapidly and the title compounds are produced in high to excellent yields.

  15. An improved protocol for efficient engraftment in NOD/LTSZ-SCIDIL-2Rγnull mice allows HIV replication and development of anti-HIV immune responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maneesh Singh

    Full Text Available Cord blood hematopoietic progenitor cells (CB-HPCs transplanted immunodeficient NOD/LtsZ-scidIL2Rγ(null (NSG and NOD/SCID/IL2Rγ(null (NOG mice need efficient human cell engraftment for long-term HIV-1 replication studies. Total body irradiation (TBI is a classical myeloablation regimen used to improve engraftment levels of human cells in these humanized mice. Some recent reports suggest the use of busulfan as a myeloablation regimen to transplant HPCs in neonatal and adult NSG mice. In the present study, we further ameliorated the busulfan myeloablation regimen with fresh CB-CD34+cell transplantation in 3-4 week old NSG mice. In this CB-CD34+transplanted NSG mice engraftment efficiency of human CD45+cell is over 90% in peripheral blood. Optimal engraftment promoted early and increased CD3+T cell levels, with better lymphoid tissue development and prolonged human cell chimerism over 300 days. These humanized NSG mice have shown long-lasting viremia after HIV-1JRCSF and HIV-1Bal inoculation through intravenous and rectal routes. We also saw a gradual decline of the CD4+T cell count, widespread immune activation, up-regulation of inflammation marker and microbial translocation after HIV-1 infection. Humanized NSG mice reconstituted according to our new protocol produced, moderate cellular and humoral immune responses to HIV-1 postinfection. We believe that NSG mice reconstituted according to our easy to use protocol will provide a better in vivo model for HIV-1 replication and anti-HIV-1 therapy trials.

  16. Efficient identity-based authenticated multiple key exchange protocol - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i4.16434

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yitao Chen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Authenticated multiple key exchange (AMKE protocols not only allow participants to warrant multiple session keys within one run of the protocol but also ensure the authenticity of the other party. Many AMKE protocols using bilinear pairings have been proposed. However, the relative computation cost of the pairing is approximately twenty times higher than that of the scalar multiplication over elliptic curve group. In order to improve the performance, an ID-based AMKE protocol without bilinear pairing is proposed. Since the running time is largely saved, suggested protocol is more practical than the previous related protocols for practical applications.   

  17. Chapter 17: Residential Behavior Evaluation Protocol. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stewart, James [Cadmus, Waltham, MA (United States); Todd, Annika [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Residential behavior-based (BB) programs use strategies grounded in the behavioral and social sciences to influence household energy use. These may include providing households with real-time or delayed feedback about their energy use; supplying energy efficiency education and tips; rewarding households for reducing their energy use; comparing households to their peers; and establishing games, tournaments, and competitions. BB programs often target multiple energy end uses and encourage energy savings, demand savings, or both. Savings from BB programs are usually a small percentage of energy use, typically less than 5 percent. Utilities will continue to implement residential BB programs as large-scale, randomized control trials (RCTs); however, some are now experimenting with alternative program designs that are smaller scale; involve new communication channels such as the web, social media, and text messaging; or that employ novel strategies for encouraging behavior change (for example, Facebook competitions). These programs will create new evaluation challenges and may require different evaluation methods than those currently employed to verify any savings they generate. Quasi-experimental methods, however, require stronger assumptions to yield valid savings estimates and may not measure savings with the same degree of validity and accuracy as randomized experiments.

  18. Two-Dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy of Benzene, Phenol, and Their Dimer: An Efficient First-Principles Simulation Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenov, Artur; Mukamel, Shaul; Garavelli, Marco; Rivalta, Ivan

    2015-08-11

    First-principles simulations of two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy in the ultraviolet region (2DUV) require computationally demanding multiconfigurational approaches that can resolve doubly excited and charge transfer states, the spectroscopic fingerprints of coupled UV-active chromophores. Here, we propose an efficient approach to reduce the computational cost of accurate simulations of 2DUV spectra of benzene, phenol, and their dimer (i.e., the minimal models for studying electronic coupling of UV-chromophores in proteins). We first establish the multiconfigurational recipe with the highest accuracy by comparison with experimental data, providing reference gas-phase transition energies and dipole moments that can be used to construct exciton Hamiltonians involving high-lying excited states. We show that by reducing the active spaces and the number of configuration state functions within restricted active space schemes, the computational cost can be significantly decreased without loss of accuracy in predicting 2DUV spectra. The proposed recipe has been successfully tested on a realistic model proteic system in water. Accounting for line broadening due to thermal and solvent-induced fluctuations allows for direct comparison with experiments.

  19. Sonogashira and "Click" reactions for the N-terminal and side-chain functionalization of peptides with [Mn(CO)3(tpm)]+-based CO releasing molecules (tpm = tris(pyrazolyl)methane).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Hendrik; Rojas, Alfonso; Niesel, Johanna; Schatzschneider, Ulrich

    2009-06-14

    A recently identified photoactivatable CO releasing molecule (CORM) based on [Mn(CO)(3)(tpm)](+) was conjugated to functionalized amino acids and model peptides using the Pd-catalyzed Sonogashira cross-coupling and the alkyne-azide 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition ("Click reaction"). Both were found to be fully compatible with all functional groups present. The CORM-peptide conjugates were isolated in reasonable yield and high purity, as indicated by IR spectroscopy, ESI mass spectrometry and RP-HPLC. The myoglobin assay was used to demonstrate that they have CO release properties identical those of the parent compound. This work thus opens the way for a targeted delivery of CORMs to cellular systems.

  20. Efficiency Improvement in a Busy Radiology Practice: Determination of Musculoskeletal Magnetic Resonance Imaging Protocol Using Deep-Learning Convolutional Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Han

    2018-04-04

    The purposes of this study are to evaluate the feasibility of protocol determination with a convolutional neural networks (CNN) classifier based on short-text classification and to evaluate the agreements by comparing protocols determined by CNN with those determined by musculoskeletal radiologists. Following institutional review board approval, the database of a hospital information system (HIS) was queried for lists of MRI examinations, referring department, patient age, and patient gender. These were exported to a local workstation for analyses: 5258 and 1018 consecutive musculoskeletal MRI examinations were used for the training and test datasets, respectively. The subjects for pre-processing were routine or tumor protocols and the contents were word combinations of the referring department, region, contrast media (or not), gender, and age. The CNN Embedded vector classifier was used with Word2Vec Google news vectors. The test set was tested with each classification model and results were output as routine or tumor protocols. The CNN determinations were evaluated using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The accuracies were evaluated by a radiologist-confirmed protocol as the reference protocols. The optimal cut-off values for protocol determination between routine protocols and tumor protocols was 0.5067 with a sensitivity of 92.10%, a specificity of 95.76%, and an area under curve (AUC) of 0.977. The overall accuracy was 94.2% for the ConvNet model. All MRI protocols were correct in the pelvic bone, upper arm, wrist, and lower leg MRIs. Deep-learning-based convolutional neural networks were clinically utilized to determine musculoskeletal MRI protocols. CNN-based text learning and applications could be extended to other radiologic tasks besides image interpretations, improving the work performance of the radiologist.

  1. Impact of clinical leadership in teams' course on quality, efficiency, responsiveness and trust in the emergency department: study protocol of a trailing research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husebø, Sissel Eikeland; Olsen, Øystein Evjen

    2016-08-10

    Clinical leadership has long been recognised as critical for optimising patient safety, quality of care and interprofessional teamwork in busy and stressful healthcare settings. There is a need to compensate for the absence of the conventional mentor-to-apprentice transfer of clinical leadership knowledge and skills. While young doctors and nurses are increasingly proficient in medical, surgical and technical skills, their training in, and knowledge of clinical leadership skills, is not adequate to meet the demands for these non-technical skills in the emergency department. Thus, the purpose of the paper is to present and discuss the study protocol of clinical leadership in a course for teams that aims to improve quality, efficiency, responsiveness of healthcare services and collegial trust in the emergency department. The study employs a trailing research design using multiple quantitative and qualitative methods in the summative (pretest and post-test) and formative evaluation. Quantitative data have been collected from a patient questionnaire, the emergency departments' database and by the observation of team performance. Qualitative data have been collected by shadowing healthcare professionals and through focus group interviews. To ensure trustworthiness in the data analysis, we will apply member checks and analyst triangulation, in addition to providing contextual and sample description to allow for evaluation of transferability of our results to other contexts and groups. The study is approved by the ethics committee of the western part of Norway and the hospital. The study is based on voluntary participation and informed written consent. Informants can withdraw at any point in time. The results will be disseminated at research conferences, peer review journals and through public presentations to people outside the scientific community. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go

  2. Chapter 3: Commercial and Industrial Lighting Controls Evaluation Protocol. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Carlson, Stephen [DNV GL, Madison, WI (United States)

    2017-10-04

    This Commercial and Industrial Lighting Controls Evaluation Protocol (the protocol) describes methods to account for energy savings resulting from programmatic installation of lighting control equipment in large populations of commercial, industrial, government, institutional, and other nonresidential facilities. This protocol does not address savings resulting from changes in codes and standards, or from education and training activities. When lighting controls are installed in conjunction with a lighting retrofit project, the lighting control savings must be calculated parametrically with the lighting retrofit project so savings are not double counted.

  3. Chapter 23: Combined Heat and Power Evaluation Protocol. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Simons, George [Itron, Davis, CA (United States); Barsun, Stephan [Itron, Davis, CA (United States)

    2017-11-06

    The main focus of most evaluations is to determine the energy-savings impacts of the installed measure. This protocol defines a combined heat and power (CHP) measure as a system that sequentially generates both electrical energy and useful thermal energy from one fuel source at a host customer's facility or residence. This protocol is aimed primarily at regulators and administrators of ratepayer-funded CHP programs; however, project developers may find the protocol useful to understand how CHP projects are evaluated.

  4. Chapter 4: Small Commercial and Residential Unitary and Split System HVAC Heating and Cooling Equipment-Efficiency Upgrade Evaluation Protocol. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jacobson, David [Jacobson Energy Research, Providence, RI (United States); Metoyer, Jarred [DNV GL, Madison, WI (United States)

    2017-11-02

    The specific measure described here involves improving the overall efficiency in air-conditioning systems as a whole (compressor, evaporator, condenser, and supply fan). The efficiency rating is expressed as the energy efficiency ratio (EER), seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER), and integrated energy efficiency ratio (IEER). The higher the EER, SEER or IEER, the more efficient the unit is.

  5. Bioremediation protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sheehan, David

    1997-01-01

    ..., .. . . . . .. ,. . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . .. . .. 3 2 Granular Nina Sludge Christiansen, Consortia lndra for Bioremediation, M. Mathrani, and Birgitte K. Ahring . 23 PART II PROTOCOLS...

  6. Optimization of an efficient semi-solid culture protocol for sterilization and plant regeneration of Centella asiatica (L.) as a medicinal herb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Sina Siavash; Jaafar, Hawa Binti; Aziz, Maheran Abdul; Ibrahim, Rusli; Rahmat, Asmah Bt; Philip, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigates the effects of different concentrations, as well as type of plant growth regulators (PGRs) and medium (MS, Duchefa) on the growth and development of Centella asiatica in semi-solid culture. In addition, a protocol for successful sterilization of C.asiatica explants prepared from field-grown plants highly exposed to fungal and bacterial contamination was determined. Results for sterilization treatments revealed that applying HgCl₂ and Plant Preservative Mixture (PPM) with cetrimide, bavistin and trimethoprim which were included after washing with tap water, followed by the addition of PPM in the medium, produced a very satisfactory result (clean culture 90 ± 1.33%) and TS5 (decon + cetrimide 1% + bavistin 150 mg/L + trimethoprim 50 mg/L + HgCl₂0.1% + PPM 2% soak and 2 mL/L in medium) was hence chosen as the best method of sterilization for C.asiatica. The synergistic combination of 6 benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) in concentrations of 2 mg/L and 0.1 mg/L, respectively, in Duchefa medium compared with MS induced the most optimal percentage of sprouted shoots (93 ± 0.667), number of shoots (5.2 ± 0.079) and nodes (4 ± 0.067) per explant, leaf per explant (14 ± 0.107) and shoot length (4.1 ± 0.67 cm). Furthermore, optimum rooting frequency (95.2 ± 0.81%), the number of roots/shoot (7.5 ± 0.107) and the mean root length (4.5 ± 0.133 cm) occurred for shoots that were cultured on full-strength MS medium containing 0.5 mg/L indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). In this study, the acclimatized plantlets were successfully established with almost 85% survival. The findings of this study have proven an efficient medium and PGR concentration for the mass propagation of C.asiatica. These findings would be useful in micropropagation and ex situ conservation of this plant.

  7. Optimization of an Efficient Semi-Solid Culture Protocol for Sterilization and Plant Regeneration of Centella asiatica (L. as a Medicinal Herb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheran Abdul Aziz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the effects of different concentrations, as well as type of plant growth regulators (PGRs and medium (MS, Duchefa on the growth and development of Centella asiatica in semi-solid culture. In addition, a protocol for successful sterilization of C.asiatica explants prepared from field-grown plants highly exposed to fungal and bacterial contamination was determined. Results for sterilization treatments revealed that applying HgCl2 and Plant Preservative Mixture (PPM with cetrimide, bavistin and trimethoprim which were included after washing with tap water, followed by the addition of PPM in the medium, produced a very satisfactory result (clean culture 90 ± 1.33% and TS5 (decon + cetrimide 1% + bavistin 150 mg/L + trimethoprim 50 mg/L + HgCl2 0.1% + PPM 2% soak and 2 mL/L in medium was hence chosen as the best method of sterilization for C.asiatica. The synergistic combination of 6 benzylaminopurine (BAP and 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA in concentrations of 2 mg/L and 0.1 mg/L, respectively, in Duchefa medium compared with MS induced the most optimal percentage of sprouted shoots (93 ± 0.667, number of shoots (5.2 ± 0.079 and nodes (4 ± 0.067 per explant, leaf per explant (14 ± 0.107 and shoot length (4.1 ± 0.67 cm. Furthermore, optimum rooting frequency (95.2 ± 0.81%, the number of roots/shoot (7.5 ± 0.107 and the mean root length (4.5 ± 0.133 cm occurred for shoots that were cultured on full-strength MS medium containing 0.5 mg/L indole-3-butyric acid (IBA. In this study, the acclimatized plantlets were successfully established with almost 85% survival. The findings of this study have proven an efficient medium and PGR concentration for the mass propagation of C.asiatica. These findings would be useful in micropropagation and ex situ conservation of this plant.

  8. Protocol for the building construction process with regard to the implementation trajectory protocols EWN and EUN. Manual for commissioners, contractors, building management offices and energy efficiency standard advisors; Handleiding opnameprotocollen EWN en EUN. Voor opdrachtgevers, aannemers, bouwmanagementbureaus en EPN-adviseurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neeleman, J. [DWA installatie- en energieadvies, Duitslandweg 4, Postbus 274, 2410 AG Bodegraven (Netherlands)

    2013-04-15

    In the year 2012 it was foreseen to base the energy label for new buildings on the Energy Efficiency Coefficient (EPC in Dutch). This is a protocol for residential and utility buildings, with the aim to check whether and to what extent buildings were constructed according the EPC and to determine the realized EPC. In order to gain experience with the new protocols and the voluntary ventilation test the Protocol for the Energy Label for New Houses (EWN in Dutch) and the Protocol for the Energy Label for New Utility Buildings (EUN in Dutch) were conducted in 12 newly built housing projects and 5 projects in the utility building sector. With this manual you can realize energy efficient houses and/or utility buildings that meet the standards [Dutch] In het jaar 2012 was voorzien om het nieuwbouwlabel te baseren op de EPC (Energie Prestatie Coefficient). Hiervoor is een opnameprotocol opgesteld voor de woningbouw en de utiliteitsbouw, met als doel te controleren of en in hoeverre conform de EPC is gebouwd en om de gerealiseerde EPC te bepalen. Om ervaring op te doen met de nieuwe opnameprotocollen en de vrijwillige ventilatietoets werden het Opnameprotocol Energielabel Woningen Nieuwbouw (EWN) en Opnameprotocol Energielabel Utiliteitsgebouwen Nieuwbouw (EUN) uitgevoerd bij 12 nieuwbouwprojecten in de woningbouw en 5 projecten in de utiliteitsbouw. Met deze handleiding realiseert u energiezuinige woningen en/of utiliteitsgebouwen die aan de verwachtingen voldoen.

  9. The Simplest Protocol for Oblivious Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chou, Tung; Orlandi, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Oblivious Transfer (OT) is the fundamental building block of cryptographic protocols. In this paper we describe the simplest and most efficient protocol for 1-out-of-n OT to date, which is obtained by tweaking the Diffie-Hellman key-exchange protocol. The protocol achieves UC-security against act...

  10. Chapter 19: HVAC Controls (DDC/EMS/BAS) Evaluation Protocol. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Romberger, Jeff [SBW Consulting, Inc., Bellevue, WA (United States)

    2017-10-09

    The HVAC Controls Evaluation Protocol is designed to address evaluation issues for direct digital controls/energy management systems/building automation systems (DDC/EMS/BAS) that are installed to control heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment in commercial and institutional buildings. (This chapter refers to the DDC/EMS/BAS measure as HVAC controls.) This protocol may also be applicable to industrial facilities such as clean rooms and labs, which have either significant HVAC equipment or spaces requiring special environmental conditions.

  11. An Efficient Protocol for the Oxidative Hydrolysis of Ketone SAMP Hydrazones Employing SeO2 and H2O2 under Buffered (pH 7) Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Amos B.; Liu, Zhuqing; Simov, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    An effective oxidative protocol for the liberation of ketones from SAMP hydrazones employing peroxyselenous acid under aqueous buffered conditions (pH 7) has been developed. The procedure proceeds without epimerization of adjacent stereocenters or dehydration, respectively, in representative SAMP alkylation and aldol reaction adducts. PMID:20657727

  12. Cryptographic Protocols:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler, Martin Joakim Bittel

    with a variant of the classic BGW protocol. The protocol is secure against a semi-honest adversary. In Chapter 4 we describe a new protocol for VIFF that is secure against malicious adversaries. The protocol guarantees termination if the adversary allows a preprocessing phase to terminate, in which...... systems hosted by an untrusted provider. It guarantees atomic read and write operations on the shared data when the service is correct and preserves fork-linearizability when the service is faulty. A prototype has been implemented on top of the Subversion revision control system; benchmarks show...

  13. Efficient Computational Research Protocol to Survey Free Energy Surface for Solution Chemical Reaction in the QM/MM Framework: The FEG-ER Methodology and Its Application to Isomerization Reaction of Glycine in Aqueous Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Norio; Kitamura, Yukichi; Nagaoka, Masataka

    2016-03-03

    In solution chemical reaction, we often need to consider a multidimensional free energy (FE) surface (FES) which is analogous to a Born-Oppenheimer potential energy surface. To survey the FES, an efficient computational research protocol is proposed within the QM/MM framework; (i) we first obtain some stable states (or transition states) involved by optimizing their structures on the FES, in a stepwise fashion, finally using the free energy gradient (FEG) method, and then (ii) we directly obtain the FE differences among any arbitrary states on the FES, efficiently by employing the QM/MM method with energy representation (ER), i.e., the QM/MM-ER method. To validate the calculation accuracy and efficiency, we applied the above FEG-ER methodology to a typical isomerization reaction of glycine in aqueous solution, and reproduced quite satisfactorily the experimental value of the reaction FE. Further, it was found that the structural relaxation of the solute in the QM/MM force field is not negligible to estimate correctly the FES. We believe that the present research protocol should become prevailing as one computational strategy and will play promising and important roles in solution chemistry toward solution reaction ergodography.

  14. A protected password change protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ren-Chiun; Yang, Chou-Chen; Mo, Kun-Ru

    2005-01-01

    Some protected password change protocols were proposed. However, the previous protocols were easily vulnerable to several attacks such as denial of service, password guessing, stolen-verifier and impersonation atacks etc. Recently, Chang et al. proposed a simple authenticated key agreement and protected password change protocol for enhancing the security and efficiency. In this paper, authors shall show that password guessing, denial of service and known-key attacks can work in their password...

  15. Brønsted acidic ionic liquid catalyzed an efficient and eco-friendly protocol for the synthesis of 2,4,5-trisubstituted-1H-imidazoles under solvent-free conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janardhan Banothu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A simple, highly efficient and eco-friendly protocol for the synthesis of 2,4,5-trisubstituted-1H-imidazoles via one-pot three component condensation of benzil/benzoin, aldehydes and ammonium acetate under solvent-free conditions has been achieved utilizing Brønsted acidic ionic liquid, (4-sulfobutyltris(4-sulfophenyl phosphonium hydrogen sulfate as catalyst. The remarkable features of this methodology are excellent yields in shorter reaction times, cleaner reaction profile, and environmentally benign nature, use of non-toxic, readily synthesizable, inexpensive and recyclable catalyst.

  16. Sonogashira diversification of unprotected halotryptophans, halotryptophan containing tripeptides; and generation of a new to nature bromo-natural product and its diversification in water† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental procedures; NMR characterisation; LC-MS characterisation. See DOI: 10.1039/c6sc04423a Click here for additional data file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corr, M. J.; Sharma, S. V.; Pubill-Ulldemolins, C.; Bown, R. T.; Poirot, P.; Smith, D. R. M.; Cartmell, C.; Abou Fayad, A.

    2017-01-01

    The blending together of synthetic chemistry with natural product biosynthesis represents a potentially powerful approach to synthesis; to enable this, further synthetic tools and methodologies are needed. To this end, we have explored the first Sonogashira cross-coupling to halotryptophans in water. Broad reaction scope is demonstrated and we have explored the limits of the scope of the reaction. We have demonstrated this methodology to work excellently in the modification of model tripeptides. Furthermore, through precursor directed biosynthesis, we have generated for the first time a new to nature brominated natural product bromo-cystargamide, and demonstrated the applicability of our reaction conditions to modify this novel metabolite. PMID:28451322

  17. Antibody engineering: methods and protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chames, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    "Antibody Engineering: Methods and Protocols, Second Edition was compiled to give complete and easy access to a variety of antibody engineering techniques, starting from the creation of antibody repertoires and efficient...

  18. Chapter 13: Assessing Persistence and Other Evaluation Issues Cross-Cutting Protocol. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Violette, Daniel M. [Navigant, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Addressing other evaluation issues that have been raised in the context of energy efficiency programs, this chapter focuses on methods used to address the persistence of energy savings, which is an important input to the benefit/cost analysis of energy efficiency programs and portfolios. In addition to discussing 'persistence' (which refers to the stream of benefits over time from an energy efficiency measure or program), this chapter provides a summary treatment of these issues -Synergies across programs -Rebound -Dual baselines -Errors in variables (the measurement and/or accuracy of input variables to the evaluation).

  19. VANET Routing Protocols: Pros and Cons

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Bijan; Ibrahim, Md.; Bikas, Md. Abu Naser

    2012-01-01

    VANET (Vehicular Ad-hoc Network) is a new technology which has taken enormous attention in the recent years. Due to rapid topology changing and frequent disconnection makes it difficult to design an efficient routing protocol for routing data among vehicles, called V2V or vehicle to vehicle communication and vehicle to road side infrastructure, called V2I. The existing routing protocols for VANET are not efficient to meet every traffic scenarios. Thus design of an efficient routing protocol h...

  20. Geneva protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimminich, O.

    1990-01-01

    The First Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 1949 and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts contains provisions prohibiting indiscriminate attacks. Nuclear warfare as such is not mentioned in the Protocol. It has been asserted that the Protocol does not apply to nuclear weapons for several reasons. However, close analysis shows that the rules governing the application of means and methods of warfare cannot exempt the nuclear weapons. If nuclear weapons are applied in a manner not consistent with article 51 of Protocol I, their use is forbidden by this article even in situations in which general international law might grant an exception from the ban on nuclear weapons, as in the case of reprisal. (orig./HSCH) [de

  1. Chapter 12: Survey Design and Implementation for Estimating Gross Savings Cross-Cutting Protocol. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Baumgartner, Robert [Tetra Tech, Madison, WI (United States)

    2017-10-05

    This chapter presents an overview of best practices for designing and executing survey research to estimate gross energy savings in energy efficiency evaluations. A detailed description of the specific techniques and strategies for designing questions, implementing a survey, and analyzing and reporting the survey procedures and results is beyond the scope of this chapter. So for each topic covered below, readers are encouraged to consult articles and books cited in References, as well as other sources that cover the specific topics in greater depth. This chapter focuses on the use of survey methods to collect data for estimating gross savings from energy efficiency programs.

  2. Chapter 11: Sample Design Cross-Cutting Protocol. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Khawaja, M. Sami [The Cadmus Group, Portland, OR (United States); Rushton, Josh [The Cadmus Group, Portland, OR (United States); Keeling, Josh [The Cadmus Group, Portland, OR (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Evaluating an energy efficiency program requires assessing the total energy and demand saved through all of the energy efficiency measures provided by the program. For large programs, the direct assessment of savings for each participant would be cost-prohibitive. Even if a program is small enough that a full census could be managed, such an undertaking would almost always be an inefficient use of evaluation resources. The bulk of this chapter describes methods for minimizing and quantifying sampling error. Measurement error and regression error are discussed in various contexts in other chapters.

  3. Energy Efficient TCP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donckers, L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Smit, L.T.

    This paper describes the design of an energy-efficient transport protocol for mobile wireless communication. First we describe the metrics used to measure the energy efficiency of transport protocols. We identify several problem areas that prevent TCP/IP from reaching high levels of energy

  4. Reactive broadcasting protocol for video on demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Jehan-Francois; Carter, Steven W.; Long, Darrell D. E.

    1999-12-01

    We propose a reactive broadcasting protocol that addresses the problem of distributing moderately popular videos in a more efficient fashion. Like all efficient broadcasting protocols, reactive broadcasting assumes that the customer set-top box has enough local storage to store at least one half of each video being watched. Unlike other broadcasting protocols, reactive broadcasting only broadcasts the later portions of each video. the initial segment of each video is distributed on demand using a stream tapping protocol. Our simulations show that reactive broadcasting outperforms both conventional broadcasting protocols and pure stream tapping for a wide range of video request rates.

  5. Efficient genetic transformation of Lotus corniculatus L. using a direct shoot regeneration protocol, stepwise hygromycin B selection, and a super-binary Agrobacterium tumefaciens vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Radomirka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cotyledons from 6-day-old Lotus corniculatus cv. Bokor seedlings, transversally cut into two halves, were capa­ble of regenerating buds without intervening callus formation. The explants were co-cultivated with the Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404/pTOK233 superbinary vector carrying the uidA-intron gene and the genes hpt and nptII. They were cultured for 14 days on a regeneration medium, then subjected to a stepwise hygromycin B selection procedure consisting of gradually increasing antibiotic concentrations (5-15 mg L-1 over 21 weeks. Transformed shoots were obtained within 5 months after co-cultivation. Out of 124 initially co-cultivated explants, 52 (42% plants survived hygromycin B selection. The presence of transgenes in regenerated plants was verified by β-glucuronidase histochemical assays and PCR analysis for the presence of uidA gene sequences. Hygromycin B-resistant and PCR-positive T0 plants were cultured in the greenhouse to produce flowers and seeds. The obtained data demonstrate that the reported transformation protocol could be useful for introducing agriculturally important genes into the new L. corniculatus cultivar Bokor.

  6. Efficient Protocol for Isolation of Rhaponticin and Rhapontigenin with Consecutive Sample Injection from Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) by HSCCC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yanfeng; Wang, Xiaoyan; Suo, Yourui; Ding, Chenxu; Wang, Honglun

    2016-03-01

    High efficiency and less solvent consumption are the essential requirements of high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC), especially for the large-scale preparation. In this study, an efficient HSCCC strategy with consecutive sample injection was successfully developed to rapidly separate and purify rhaponticin and rhapontigenin from the seeds of the Chinese medicinal herb fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.). The effective separation was achieved using n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (1:4:2:6, v/v/v/v) as the two-phase solvent system, in which the mobile phase was eluted at an optimized flow rate of 2.2 mL/min and a revolution speed of 850 rpm. After consecutively loading four identical fenugreek samples, each containing 120 mg, HSCCC separation yielded 146.4 mg of rhaponticin and 174.8 mg of rhapontigenin with purities of 98.6 and 99.1%, respectively, as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography at 320 nm. Their chemical structures were identified using UV spectroscopy, (1)H-NMR and (13)C-NMR. The HSCCC method with consecutive sample injection allowed faster separation and produced less solvent waste, suggesting that it is an efficient way to rapidly separate and purify natural products on a large scale. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Symmetric cryptographic protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Ramkumar, Mahalingam

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on protocols and constructions that make good use of symmetric pseudo random functions (PRF) like block ciphers and hash functions - the building blocks for symmetric cryptography. Readers will benefit from detailed discussion of several strategies for utilizing symmetric PRFs. Coverage includes various key distribution strategies for unicast, broadcast and multicast security, and strategies for constructing efficient digests of dynamic databases using binary hash trees.   •        Provides detailed coverage of symmetric key protocols •        Describes various applications of symmetric building blocks •        Includes strategies for constructing compact and efficient digests of dynamic databases

  8. Immunochemical protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pound, John D

    1998-01-01

    ... easy and important refinements often are not published. This much anticipated 2nd edition of Immunochemzcal Protocols therefore aims to provide a user-friendly up-to-date handbook of reliable techniques selected to suit the needs of molecular biologists. It covers the full breadth of the relevant established immunochemical methods, from protein blotting and immunoa...

  9. Pd/C-catalyzed aerobic oxidative esterification of alcohols and aldehydes: a highly efficient microwave-assisted green protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Caporaso

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We herein describe an environmentally friendly microwave-assisted oxidative esterification of alcohols and aldehydes in the presence of molecular oxygen and a heterogeneous catalysis (Pd/C, 5 mol %. This efficient and ligandless conversion procedure does not require the addition of an organic hydrogen acceptor. The reaction rate is strongly enhanced by mild dielectric heating. Furthermore, it is a versatile green procedure which generally enables the isolation of esters to be carried out by simple filtration in almost quantitative yields.

  10. Chapter 8: Whole-Building Retrofit with Consumption Data Analysis Evaluation Protocol. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Agnew, Ken [DNV GL, Madison, WI (United States); Goldberg, Mimi [DNV GL, Madison, WI (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Whole-building retrofits involve the installation of multiple measures. Whole-building retrofit programs take many forms. With a focus on overall building performance, these programs usually begin with an energy audit to identify cost-effective energy efficiency measures for the home. Measures are then installed, either at no cost to the homeowner or partially paid for by rebates and/or financing. The methods described here may also be applied to evaluation of single-measure retrofit programs. Related methods exist for replace-on-failure programs and for new construction, but are not the subject of this chapter.

  11. Energy Consumption in Location Sharing Protocols for Android Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Prihodko, Mihails

    2012-01-01

    This thesis studies the Message Queue Telemetry Transport protocol (MQTT) as an application layer protocol in geographical location sharing applications using third generation cellular communication (3G). The MQTT protocol is compared in terms of energy efficiency and amount of data generated with the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), which is currently used in typical location sharing applications. In order to compare the communication energy efficiency of both protocols a location sharing...

  12. Application modeling ipv6 (internet protocol version 6) on e-id card for identification number for effectiveness and efficiency of registration process identification of population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardede, A. M. H.; Maulita, Y.; Buaton, R.

    2018-03-01

    When someone wants to be registered in an institution such as Birth Certificate, School, Higher Education, e-ID card, Tax, BPJS, Bank, Driving License, Passport and others then have to register and do registration one by one and have registration number or account respectively agency. It may be said that everyone is bothered with the registration process, from the moment of birth must be registered to be registered as a resident, to enter the school must also registration, it is considered ineffective and efficient because one must continue to register one by one and there is repetition of ownership registration number which vary each agency. Seeing these problems need to find a solution or attempt how to keep the affairs of registration is not repetitive and quite once and the number applies to all agencies. The presence of the latest technology that IPv6 brings opportunities for the efficiency and effectiveness of the registration system. The method used in this research is the exploration and modeling of system development with NDLC (Network Development Life Cycle) to produce a model to build IPv6 implementation on e-ID card. The results of the study will show that the public has one registration number.

  13. Mechanistic evaluation of the pros and cons of digital RT-LAMP for HIV-1 viral load quantification on a microfluidic device and improved efficiency via a two-step digital protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bing; Shen, Feng; McCalla, Stephanie E; Kreutz, Jason E; Karymov, Mikhail A; Ismagilov, Rustem F

    2013-02-05

    Here we used a SlipChip microfluidic device to evaluate the performance of digital reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (dRT-LAMP) for quantification of HIV viral RNA. Tests are needed for monitoring HIV viral load to control the emergence of drug resistance and to diagnose acute HIV infections. In resource-limited settings, in vitro measurement of HIV viral load in a simple format is especially needed, and single-molecule counting using a digital format could provide a potential solution. We showed here that when one-step dRT-LAMP is used for quantification of HIV RNA, the digital count is lower than expected and is limited by the yield of desired cDNA. We were able to overcome the limitations by developing a microfluidic protocol to manipulate many single molecules in parallel through a two-step digital process. In the first step we compartmentalize the individual RNA molecules (based on Poisson statistics) and perform reverse transcription on each RNA molecule independently to produce DNA. In the second step, we perform the LAMP amplification on all individual DNA molecules in parallel. Using this new protocol, we increased the absolute efficiency (the ratio between the concentration calculated from the actual count and the expected concentration) of dRT-LAMP 10-fold, from ∼2% to ∼23%, by (i) using a more efficient reverse transcriptase, (ii) introducing RNase H to break up the DNA:RNA hybrid, and (iii) adding only the BIP primer during the RT step. We also used this two-step method to quantify HIV RNA purified from four patient samples and found that in some cases, the quantification results were highly sensitive to the sequence of the patient's HIV RNA. We learned the following three lessons from this work: (i) digital amplification technologies, including dLAMP and dPCR, may give adequate dilution curves and yet have low efficiency, thereby providing quantification values that underestimate the true concentration. Careful

  14. Chapter 24: Strategic Energy Management (SEM) Evaluation Protocol. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, James [The Cadmus Group, Portland, OR (United States)

    2017-05-18

    Strategic energy management (SEM) focuses on achieving energy-efficiency improvements through systematic and planned changes in facility operations, maintenance, and behaviors (OM&B) and capital equipment upgrades in large energy-using facilities, including industrial buildings, commercial buildings, and multi-facility organizations such as campuses or communities. Facilities can institute a spectrum of SEM actions, ranging from a simple process for regularly identifying energy-savings actions, to establishing a formal, third-party recognized or certified SEM framework for continuous improvement of energy performance. In general, SEM programs that would be considered part of a utility program will contain a set of energy-reducing goals, principles, and practices emphasizing continuous improvements in energy performance or savings through energy management and an energy management system (EnMS).

  15. A green and efficient protocol for the synthesis of quinoxaline, benzoxazole and benzimidazole derivatives using heteropolyanion-based ionic liquids: as a recyclable solid catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahdat, Seyed Mohammad; Baghery, Saeed

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we introduce two nonconventional ionic liquid compounds which are composed of propane sulfonate functionalized organic cations and heteropolyanions as green solid acid catalysts for the highly efficient and green synthesis of 2,3-disubstitutedquinoxaline derivatives. These ionic liquids are in the solid state at room temperature and the synthesis is carried out via the one-pot condensation reaction of various o-phenylenediamine with 1,2-diketone derivatives. Benzoxazole and benzimidazole derivatives were also synthesized by these novel catalysts via the one-pot condensation from reaction orthoester with o-aminophenol (synthesis of benzoxazole derivatives) and ophenylenediamine (synthesis of benzimidazole derivatives). All experiments successfully resulted in the desired products. The described novel synthesis method has several advantages of safety, mild condition, high yields, short reaction times, simplicity and easy workup compared to the traditional method of synthesis.

  16. Use of a standardized protocol to identify factors affecting the efficiency of artificial insemination services for cattle through progesterone measurement in fourteen countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, M.; Goodger, W.J.; Bennett, T.; Perera, B.M.A.O.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this co-ordinated research project (CRP) was to quantify the main factors limiting the efficiency of artificial insemination (AI) services in cattle under the prevailing conditions of developing countries, in order to recommend suitable strategies for improving conception rates (CR) and the level of usage of AI by cattle farmers. A standardized approach was used in 14 countries over a five-year period (1995-1999). The countries were: Bangladesh, China, Indonesia, Myanmar, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Vietnam in Asia; and Argentina, Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela in Latin America. A minimum of 500 cows undergoing first insemination after calving were expected to be monitored in each country. Data regarding farms, AI technicians, semen used, cow inseminated, characteristics of the heat expression and factors related to the insemination were recorded. Three milk samples (or blood samples for dairy heifers and beef cows) were collected for each service to measure progesterone by radioimmunoassay. These were collected on the day of service (day 0) and on days 10-12 and 22-24 after service. Field and laboratory data were recorded in the computer package AIDA (Artificial Insemination Database Application) which was developed for this CRP. The study established the current status of AI services at selected locations in participating countries and showed important differences between Asian and Latin American farming systems. The mean (±s.d.) of the interval from calving to first service for 7992 observations was 120.0 ± 82.1 days (median 95 days) with large differences between countries (P<0.05). The overall CR to first service was 40.9% (n=8196), the most efficient AI services being the ones in Vietnam (62.1%), Chile (61.9%) and Myanmar (58.9%). The interval between the first and second service was 44.6 ± 44.4 days (n=1959). Progesterone data in combination with clinical findings showed that 17.3% of the services were performed in non

  17. A Cross-Layer Wireless Sensor Network Energy-Efficient Communication Protocol for Real-Time Monitoring of the Long-Distance Electric Transmission Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of energy consumption in Wireless Sensor Network (WSN nodes has become a critical link that constrains the engineering application of the smart grid due to the fact that the smart grid is characterized by long-distance transmission in a special environment. The paper proposes a linear hierarchical network topological structure specific to WSN energy conservation in environmental monitoring of the long-distance electric transmission lines in the smart grid. Based on the topological structural characteristics and optimization of network layers, the paper also proposes a Topological Structure be Layered Configurations (TSLC routing algorithm to improve the quality of WSN data transmission performance. Coprocessing of the network layer and the media access control (MAC layer is achieved by using the cross-layer design method, accessing the status for the nodes in the network layer and obtaining the status of the network nodes of the MAC layer. It efficiently saves the energy of the whole network, improves the quality of the network service performance, and prolongs the life cycle of the network.

  18. Efficient recovery of whole blood RNA - a comparison of commercial RNA extraction protocols for high-throughput applications in wildlife species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwochow Doreen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the emergence of next generation sequencing platforms, unprecedented opportunities have arisen in the study of natural vertebrate populations. In particular, insights into the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms of adaptation can be revealed through study of the expression profiles of genes. However, as a pre-requisite to expression profiling, care must be taken in RNA preparation as factors like DNA contamination, RNA integrity or transcript abundance can affect downstream applications. Here, we evaluated five commonly used RNA extraction methods using whole blood sampled under varying conditions from 20 wild carnivores. Results Despite the use of minute starting volumes, all methods produced quantifiable RNA extracts (1.4 – 18.4 μg with varying integrity (RIN 4.6 - 7.7, the latter being significantly affected by the storage and extraction method used. We observed a significant overall effect of the extraction method on DNA contamination. One particular extraction method, the LeukoLOCK™ filter system, yielded high RNA integrity along with low DNA contamination and efficient depletion of hemoglobin transcripts highly abundant in whole blood. In a proof of concept sequencing experiment, we found globin RNA transcripts to occupy up to ¼ of all sequencing reads if libraries were not depleted of hemoglobin prior to sequencing. Conclusion By carefully choosing the appropriate RNA extraction method, whole blood can become a valuable source for high-throughput applications like expression arrays or transcriptome sequencing from natural populations. Additionally, candidate genes showing signs of selection could subsequently be genotyped in large population samples using whole blood as a source for RNA without harming individuals from rare or endangered species.

  19. Beyond protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanderhoeven, Sonia; Branquart, Etienne; Casaer, Jim

    2017-01-01

    Risk assessment tools for listing invasive alien species need to incorporate all available evidence and expertise. Beyond the wealth of protocols developed to date, we argue that the current way of performing risk analysis has several shortcomings. In particular, lack of data on ecological impacts...... process can be applied to better capture opinions of different experts, thereby maximizing the evidential basis. Elaborating on manageability of invasive species is further needed to fully answer all risk analysis requirements. Tackling the issue of invasive species urges better handling of the acquired...

  20. Model Additional Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockwood, Laura

    2001-01-01

    Since the end of the cold war a series of events has changed the circumstances and requirements of the safeguards system. The discovery of a clandestine nuclear weapons program in Iraq, the continuing difficulty in verifying the initial report of Democratic People's Republic of Korea upon entry into force of their safeguards agreement, and the decision of the South African Government to give up its nuclear weapons program and join the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons have all played a role in an ambitious effort by IAEA Member States and the Secretariat to strengthen the safeguards system. A major milestone in this effort was reached in May 1997 when the IAEA Board of Governors approved a Model Protocol Additional to Safeguards Agreements. The Model Additional Protocol was negotiated over a period of less than a year by an open-ended committee of the Board involving some 70 Member States and two regional inspectorates. The IAEA is now in the process of negotiating additional protocols, State by State, and implementing them. These additional protocols will provide the IAEA with rights of access to information about all activities related to the use of nuclear material in States with comprehensive safeguards agreements and greatly expanded physical access for IAEA inspectors to confirm or verify this information. In conjunction with this, the IAEA is working on the integration of these measures with those provided for in comprehensive safeguards agreements, with a view to maximizing the effectiveness and efficiency, within available resources, the implementation of safeguards. Details concerning the Model Additional Protocol are given. (author)

  1. Feasible quantum communication complexity protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvao, Ernesto F.

    2002-01-01

    I show that a simple multiparty communication task can be performed more efficiently with quantum communication than with classical communication, even with low detection efficiency η. The task is a communication complexity problem in which distant parties need to compute a function of the distributed inputs, while minimizing the amount of communication between them. A realistic quantum optical setup is suggested that can demonstrate a five-party quantum protocol with higher-than-classical performance, provided η>0.33

  2. Security Protocols: Specification, Verification, Implementation, and Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almousa, Omar

    An important aspect of Internet security is the security of cryptographic protocols that it deploys. We need to make sure that such protocols achieve their goals, whether in isolation or in composition, i.e., security protocols must not suffer from any aw that enables hostile intruders to break...... their security. Among others, tools like OFMC [MV09b] and Proverif [Bla01] are quite efficient for the automatic formal verification of a large class of protocols. These tools use different approaches such as symbolic model checking or static analysis. Either approach has its own pros and cons, and therefore, we...... called SPS (Security Protocol Specification) language, that enables users, without requiring deep expertise in formal models from them, to specify a wide range of real-world protocols in a simple and intuitive way. Thus, SPS allows users to verify their protocols using different tools, and generate...

  3. A new quantum private comparison protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ling; Wang, Jing; Ahmed, Hafeez; Zhao, Zhiwen

    2017-10-01

    For two participants to compare the equality of their private information without revealing them, a new quantum private protocol with the help of semi-honest third party TP is proposed. Different from previous protocols, the four particle |Wf⟩ state and the |χ+⟩ state are utilized in this protocol as the carriers of quantum information and form the entanglement swapping as basic principle. The simple measurement of quantum states and exclusive-or operation are only required to conduct in this protocol. What's more, this protocol can compare two bits of two participants' private information in every comparison time. Meanwhile, it needs no unitary operation to fulfill this protocol. This protocol is feasible and efficient to execute through these aspects. In the end, the security of this protocol is analyzed at great length from two kinds of attacks including the outside attack and the participant attack. And the analysis result shows that this protocol can withstand various kinds of attacks and be secure to perform efficiently.

  4. Multimode Communication Protocols Enabling Reconfigurable Radios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berlemann Lars

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the realization and application of a generic protocol stack for reconfigurable wireless communication systems. This focus extends the field of software-defined radios which usually concentrates on the physical layer. The generic protocol stack comprises common protocol functionality and behavior which are extended through specific parts of the targeted radio access technology. This paper considers parameterizable modules of basic protocol functions residing in the data link layer of the ISO/OSI model. System-specific functionality of the protocol software is realized through adequate parameterization and composition of the generic modules. The generic protocol stack allows an efficient realization of reconfigurable protocol software and enables a completely reconfigurable wireless communication system. It is a first step from side-by-side realized, preinstalled modes in a terminal towards a dynamic reconfigurable anymode terminal. The presented modules of the generic protocol stack can also be regarded as a toolbox for the accelerated and cost-efficient development of future communication protocols.

  5. In-memory interconnect protocol configuration registers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Kevin Y.; Roberts, David A.

    2017-09-19

    Systems, apparatuses, and methods for moving the interconnect protocol configuration registers into the main memory space of a node. The region of memory used for storing the interconnect protocol configuration registers may also be made cacheable to reduce the latency of accesses to the interconnect protocol configuration registers. Interconnect protocol configuration registers which are used during a startup routine may be prefetched into the host's cache to make the startup routine more efficient. The interconnect protocol configuration registers for various interconnect protocols may include one or more of device capability tables, memory-side statistics (e.g., to support two-level memory data mapping decisions), advanced memory and interconnect features such as repair resources and routing tables, prefetching hints, error correcting code (ECC) bits, lists of device capabilities, set and store base address, capability, device ID, status, configuration, capabilities, and other settings.

  6. In-memory interconnect protocol configuration registers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kevin Y.; Roberts, David A.

    2017-09-19

    Systems, apparatuses, and methods for moving the interconnect protocol configuration registers into the main memory space of a node. The region of memory used for storing the interconnect protocol configuration registers may also be made cacheable to reduce the latency of accesses to the interconnect protocol configuration registers. Interconnect protocol configuration registers which are used during a startup routine may be prefetched into the host's cache to make the startup routine more efficient. The interconnect protocol configuration registers for various interconnect protocols may include one or more of device capability tables, memory-side statistics (e.g., to support two-level memory data mapping decisions), advanced memory and interconnect features such as repair resources and routing tables, prefetching hints, error correcting code (ECC) bits, lists of device capabilities, set and store base address, capability, device ID, status, configuration, capabilities, and other settings.

  7. Feeling Is Believing: A Secure Template Exchange Protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buhan, I.R.; Doumen, J.M.; Hartel, Pieter H.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Lee, Seong-Whan; Li, Stan Z.

    We use grip pattern based biometrics as a secure side channel to achieve pre-authentication in a protocol that sets up a secure channel between two hand held devices. The protocol efficiently calculates a shared secret key from biometric data. The protocol is used in an application where grip

  8. Security and SCADA protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igure, V. M.; Williams, R. D.

    2006-01-01

    Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) networks have replaced discrete wiring for many industrial processes, and the efficiency of the network alternative suggests a trend toward more SCADA networks in the future. This paper broadly considers SCADA to include distributed control systems (DCS) and digital control systems. These networks offer many advantages, but they also introduce potential vulnerabilities that can be exploited by adversaries. Inter-connectivity exposes SCADA networks to many of the same threats that face the public internet and many of the established defenses therefore show promise if adapted to the SCADA differences. This paper provides an overview of security issues in SCADA networks and ongoing efforts to improve the security of these networks. Initially, a few samples from the range of threats to SCADA network security are offered. Next, attention is focused on security assessment of SCADA communication protocols. Three challenges must be addressed to strengthen SCADA networks. Access control mechanisms need to be introduced or strengthened, improvements are needed inside of the network to enhance security and network monitoring, and SCADA security management improvements and policies are needed. This paper discusses each of these challenges. This paper uses the Profibus protocol as an example to illustrate some of the vulnerabilities that arise within SCADA networks. The example Profibus security assessment establishes a network model and an attacker model before proceeding to a list of example attacks. (authors)

  9. Protocol Implementation Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho Quaresma, Jose Nuno; Probst, Christian W.

    2010-01-01

    necessary tools. In this paper, we present the Protocol Implementation Generator (PiG), a framework that can be used to add protocol generation to protocol negotiation, or to easily share and implement new protocols throughout a network. PiG enables the sharing, verification, and translation...... of communication protocols. With it, partners can suggest a new protocol by sending its specification. After formally verifying the specification, each partner generates an implementation, which can then be used for establishing communication. We also present a practical realisation of the Protocol Implementation...... Generator framework based on the LySatool and a translator from the LySa language into C or Java....

  10. Efficiency and effectiveness of the use of an acenocoumarol pharmacogenetic dosing algorithm versus usual care in patients with venous thromboembolic disease initiating oral anticoagulation: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carcas Antonio J

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemorrhagic events are frequent in patients on treatment with antivitamin-K oral anticoagulants due to their narrow therapeutic margin. Studies performed with acenocoumarol have shown the relationship between demographic, clinical and genotypic variants and the response to these drugs. Once the influence of these genetic and clinical factors on the dose of acenocoumarol needed to maintain a stable international normalized ratio (INR has been demonstrated, new strategies need to be developed to predict the appropriate doses of this drug. Several pharmacogenetic algorithms have been developed for warfarin, but only three have been developed for acenocoumarol. After the development of a pharmacogenetic algorithm, the obvious next step is to demonstrate its effectiveness and utility by means of a randomized controlled trial. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of an acenocoumarol dosing algorithm developed by our group which includes demographic, clinical and pharmacogenetic variables (VKORC1, CYP2C9, CYP4F2 and ApoE in patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE. Methods and design This is a multicenter, single blind, randomized controlled clinical trial. The protocol has been approved by La Paz University Hospital Research Ethics Committee and by the Spanish Drug Agency. Two hundred and forty patients with VTE in which oral anticoagulant therapy is indicated will be included. Randomization (case/control 1:1 will be stratified by center. Acenocoumarol dose in the control group will be scheduled and adjusted following common clinical practice; in the experimental arm dosing will be following an individualized algorithm developed and validated by our group. Patients will be followed for three months. The main endpoints are: 1 Percentage of patients with INR within the therapeutic range on day seven after initiation of oral anticoagulant therapy; 2 Time from the start of oral anticoagulant treatment

  11. Efficiency and effectiveness of the use of an acenocoumarol pharmacogenetic dosing algorithm versus usual care in patients with venous thromboembolic disease initiating oral anticoagulation: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcas, Antonio J; Borobia, Alberto M; Velasco, Marta; Abad-Santos, Francisco; Díaz, Manuel Quintana; Fernández-Capitán, Carmen; Ruiz-Giménez, Nuria; Madridano, Olga; Sillero, Pilar Llamas

    2012-12-13

    Hemorrhagic events are frequent in patients on treatment with antivitamin-K oral anticoagulants due to their narrow therapeutic margin. Studies performed with acenocoumarol have shown the relationship between demographic, clinical and genotypic variants and the response to these drugs. Once the influence of these genetic and clinical factors on the dose of acenocoumarol needed to maintain a stable international normalized ratio (INR) has been demonstrated, new strategies need to be developed to predict the appropriate doses of this drug. Several pharmacogenetic algorithms have been developed for warfarin, but only three have been developed for acenocoumarol. After the development of a pharmacogenetic algorithm, the obvious next step is to demonstrate its effectiveness and utility by means of a randomized controlled trial. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of an acenocoumarol dosing algorithm developed by our group which includes demographic, clinical and pharmacogenetic variables (VKORC1, CYP2C9, CYP4F2 and ApoE) in patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE). This is a multicenter, single blind, randomized controlled clinical trial. The protocol has been approved by La Paz University Hospital Research Ethics Committee and by the Spanish Drug Agency. Two hundred and forty patients with VTE in which oral anticoagulant therapy is indicated will be included. Randomization (case/control 1:1) will be stratified by center. Acenocoumarol dose in the control group will be scheduled and adjusted following common clinical practice; in the experimental arm dosing will be following an individualized algorithm developed and validated by our group. Patients will be followed for three months. The main endpoints are: 1) Percentage of patients with INR within the therapeutic range on day seven after initiation of oral anticoagulant therapy; 2) Time from the start of oral anticoagulant treatment to achievement of a stable INR within the therapeutic

  12. Neuro MR: protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulis, David J; Roberts, Timothy P L

    2007-10-01

    Clinical MRI depends on a symbiosis between MR physics and clinical requirements. The imaging solutions are based on a balance between the "palette" of available image contrasts derived from nuclear spin physics and tissue biophysics, and clinical determinants such as the anticipated pathology and efficient use of imaging time. Imaging is therefore optimized to maximize diagnostic sensitivity and specificity through the development of protocols organized along the lines of major disease categories. In the other part of this two-part review, the primary determinants of image contrast, including T1, T2, and T2*, were highlighted. The development of pulse sequences designed to optimize each of these image contrasts was discussed and the impact of technological innovation (parallel imaging and high-field systems) on the manner in which these sequences could be modified to improve clinical efficacy was further emphasized. The scope of that discussion was broadened to include the application of: 1) water diffusion imaging used primarily for detection of pathologies that restrict the free movement of water in the tissues and for defining fiber tracts in the brain; 2) the intravenous administration of exogenous contrast agents (gadolinium-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid [GdDTPA]) for assessment of blood-brain-barrier (BBB) defects and brain blood flow; and 3) MR spectroscopy (MRS) for assessment of brain metabolites. The goal of this part is to discuss how these acquisitions are combined into specific protocols that can effectively detect and characterize, or in keeping with our artistic analogy, "paint" each of the major diseases affecting the central nervous system (CNS). This work concludes with a discussion of image artifacts and pitfalls in image interpretation, which, in spite our best efforts to minimize or eliminate them, continue to occur. Much of the ensuing discussion is based on our own institutional experience. Protocols, therefore, do not necessarily

  13. Performance Evaluation of the WSN Routing Protocols Scalability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Alazzawi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Scalability is an important factor in designing an efficient routing protocol for wireless sensor networks (WSNs. A good routing protocol has to be scalable and adaptive to the changes in the network topology. Thus scalable protocol should perform well as the network grows larger or as the workload increases. In this paper, routing protocols for wireless sensor networks are simulated and their performances are evaluated to determine their capability for supporting network scalability.

  14. A Clustering Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinke Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic topology of a mobile ad hoc network poses a real challenge in the design of hierarchical routing protocol, which combines proactive with reactive routing protocols and takes advantages of both. And as an essential technique of hierarchical routing protocol, clustering of nodes provides an efficient method of establishing a hierarchical structure in mobile ad hoc networks. In this paper, we designed a novel clustering algorithm and a corresponding hierarchical routing protocol for large-scale mobile ad hoc networks. Each cluster is composed of a cluster head, several cluster gateway nodes, several cluster guest nodes, and other cluster members. The proposed routing protocol uses proactive protocol between nodes within individual clusters and reactive protocol between clusters. Simulation results show that the proposed clustering algorithm and hierarchical routing protocol provide superior performance with several advantages over existing clustering algorithm and routing protocol, respectively.

  15. Quantum Communication Attacks on Classical Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre

    , one can show that the protocol remains secure even under such an attack. However, there are also cases where the honest players are quantum as well, even if the protocol uses classical communication. For instance, this is the case when classical multiparty computation is used as a “subroutine......” in quantum multiparty computation. Furthermore, in the future, players in a protocol may employ quantum computing simply to improve efficiency of their local computation, even if the communication is supposed to be classical. In such cases, it no longer seems clear that a quantum adversary must be limited......In the literature on cryptographic protocols, it has been studied several times what happens if a classical protocol is attacked by a quantum adversary. Usually, this is taken to mean that the adversary runs a quantum algorithm, but communicates classically with the honest players. In several cases...

  16. Network Memory Protocol

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilcox, D

    1997-01-01

    This report presents initial research into the design of a new computer system local area network transport layer protocol, designated the network memory protocol, which provides clients with direct...

  17. Network-topology-adaptive quantum conference protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Sheng; Wang Jian; Tang Chao-Jing; Zhang Quan

    2011-01-01

    As an important application of the quantum network communication, quantum multiparty conference has made multiparty secret communication possible. Previous quantum multiparty conference schemes based on quantum data encryption are insensitive to network topology. However, the topology of the quantum network significantly affects the communication efficiency, e.g., parallel transmission in a channel with limited bandwidth. We have proposed two distinctive protocols, which work in two basic network topologies with efficiency higher than the existing ones. We first present a protocol which works in the reticulate network using Greeberger—Horne—Zeilinger states and entanglement swapping. Another protocol, based on quantum multicasting with quantum data compression, which can improve the efficiency of the network, works in the star-like network. The security of our protocols is guaranteed by quantum key distribution and one-time-pad encryption. In general, the two protocols can be applied to any quantum network where the topology can be equivalently transformed to one of the two structures we propose in our protocols. (general)

  18. Secure Multi-Player Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fehr, Serge

    While classically cryptography is concerned with the problem of private communication among two entities, say players, in modern cryptography multi-player protocols play an important role. And among these, it is probably fair to say that secret sharing, and its stronger version verifiable secret......, MPC can be based on arbitrary finite rings. This is in sharp contrast to the literature where essentially all MPC protocols require a much stronger mathematical structure, namely a field. Apart from its theoretical value, this can lead to efficiency improvements since it allows a greater freedom...... of all known schemes follows as corollaries whose proofs are pure linear algebra arguments, in contrast to some hybrid arguments used in the literature. (4) We construct a new unconditionally secure VSS scheme with minimized reconstruction complexity in the setting of a dishonest minority. This improves...

  19. Outdoor Irrigation Measurement and Verification Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stoughton, Kate M [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Figueroa, Jorge [Western Resource Advocates, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-12-05

    This measurement and verification (M&V) protocol provides procedures for energy service companies (ESCOs) and water efficiency service companies (WESCOs) to determine water savings resulting from water conservation measures (WCMs) in energy performance contracts associated with outdoor irrigation efficiency projects. The water savings are determined by comparing the baseline water use to the water use after the WCM has been implemented. This protocol outlines the basic structure of the M&V plan, and details the procedures to use to determine water savings.

  20. An Authentication Protocol for Future Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Muhammad; Kang, Shin-Gak

    2017-04-28

    Authentication is one of the essential security services in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) for ensuring secure data sessions. Sensor node authentication ensures the confidentiality and validity of data collected by the sensor node, whereas user authentication guarantees that only legitimate users can access the sensor data. In a mobile WSN, sensor and user nodes move across the network and exchange data with multiple nodes, thus experiencing the authentication process multiple times. The integration of WSNs with Internet of Things (IoT) brings forth a new kind of WSN architecture along with stricter security requirements; for instance, a sensor node or a user node may need to establish multiple concurrent secure data sessions. With concurrent data sessions, the frequency of the re-authentication process increases in proportion to the number of concurrent connections. Moreover, to establish multiple data sessions, it is essential that a protocol participant have the capability of running multiple instances of the protocol run, which makes the security issue even more challenging. The currently available authentication protocols were designed for the autonomous WSN and do not account for the above requirements. Hence, ensuring a lightweight and efficient authentication protocol has become more crucial. In this paper, we present a novel, lightweight and efficient key exchange and authentication protocol suite called the Secure Mobile Sensor Network (SMSN) Authentication Protocol. In the SMSN a mobile node goes through an initial authentication procedure and receives a re-authentication ticket from the base station. Later a mobile node can use this re-authentication ticket when establishing multiple data exchange sessions and/or when moving across the network. This scheme reduces the communication and computational complexity of the authentication process. We proved the strength of our protocol with rigorous security analysis (including formal analysis using the BAN

  1. ASSESSMENT OF RIP-V1 AND OSPF-V2 PROTOCOL WITH CONSIDERATION OF CONVERGENCE CRITERIA AND SENDING PROTOCOLS TRAFFIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Jelodar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Routing Protocols are underlying principles in networks like internet, transport and mobile. Routing Protocols include a series of rules and algorithms that consider routing metric and select the best way for sending healthy data packets from origin to destination. Dynamic routing protocol compatible to topology has a changeable state. RIP and OSPF are dynamic routing protocol that we consider criteria like convergence and sending protocols traffic assessment RIP first version and OSPF second version. By the test we have done on OPNET stimulation we understood that the OSPF protocol was more efficient than RIP protocol.

  2. Using Ovsynch protocol versus Cosynch protocol in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Valeriu Caraba

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available As a research on the reproductive physiology and endocrinology surrounding the estrous cycle in dairy cattle has been compiled, several estrous synchronization programs have been developed for use with dairy cows. These include several programs that facilitate the mass breeding of all animals at a predetermined time (timed-AI rather than the detection of estrus. We studied on 15 dary cows which were synchronized by Ovsynch and Cosynch programs. The estrus response for cows in Ovsynch protocol was of 63%. Pregnancy per insemination at 60 days was of 25%. Estrus response for cow in Cosynch protocol was of 57%. Pregnancy per insemination at 60 days was of 57%. Synchronization of ovulation using Ovsynch protocols can provide an effective way to manage reproduction in lactating dairy cows by eliminating the need for estrus detection. These are really efficient management programs for TAI of dairy cows that are able to reduce both the labour costs and the extra handling to daily estrus detection and AI.

  3. A comparative view of routing protocols for underwater wireless sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bayrakdar, Y.; Meratnia, Nirvana; Kantarci, Aylin

    2011-01-01

    Design of efficient routing protocols for underwater sensor networks is challenging because of the distinctive characteristics of the water medium. Currently, many routing protocols are available for terrestrial wireless sensor networks. However, specific properties of underwater medium such as

  4. An economic and feasible Quantum Sealed-bid Auction protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Shi, Run-hua; Qin, Jia-qi; Peng, Zhen-wan

    2018-02-01

    We present an economic and feasible Quantum Sealed-bid Auction protocol using quantum secure direct communication based on single photons in both the polarization and the spatial-mode degrees of freedom, where each single photon can carry two bits of classical information. Compared with previous protocols, our protocol has higher efficiency. In addition, we propose a secure post-confirmation mechanism without quantum entanglement to guarantee the security and the fairness of the auction.

  5. Network Authentication Protocol Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    This is called the “Decision Diffie-Hellman Problem” ( DDH ) [68]. For the protocols discussed in this paper, the cryptographic strength of the generated...group key is solely dependent upon the strength of the underlying two-party protocols. That said, we will not address the DDH problem further in this

  6. Recombinant gene expression protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tuan, Rocky S

    1997-01-01

    .... A fundamental requirement for successful recombinant gene expression is the design of the cloning vector and the choice of the host organism for expression. Recombinant Gene Expression Protocols grows out of the need for a laboratory manual that provides the reader the background and rationale, as well as the practical protocols for the preparation of...

  7. Linear Logical Voting Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DeYoung, Henry; Schürmann, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    . In response, we promote linear logic as a high-level language for both specifying and implementing voting protocols. Our linear logical specifications of the single-winner first-past-the-post (SW- FPTP) and single transferable vote (STV) protocols demonstrate that this approach leads to concise...

  8. SPP: A data base processor data communications protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishwick, P. A.

    1983-01-01

    The design and implementation of a data communications protocol for the Intel Data Base Processor (DBP) is defined. The protocol is termed SPP (Service Port Protocol) since it enables data transfer between the host computer and the DBP service port. The protocol implementation is extensible in that it is explicitly layered and the protocol functionality is hierarchically organized. Extensive trace and performance capabilities have been supplied with the protocol software to permit optional efficient monitoring of the data transfer between the host and the Intel data base processor. Machine independence was considered to be an important attribute during the design and implementation of SPP. The protocol source is fully commented and is included in Appendix A of this report.

  9. Power Saving MAC Protocols for WSNs and Optimization of S-MAC Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simarpreet Kaur

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Low power MAC protocols have received a lot of consideration in the last few years because of their influence on the lifetime of wireless sensor networks. Since, sensors typically operate on batteries, replacement of which is often difficult. A lot of work has been done to minimize the energy expenditure and prolong the sensor lifetime through energy efficient designs, across layers. Meanwhile, the sensor network should be able to maintain a certain throughput in order to fulfill the QoS requirements of the end user, and to ensure the constancy of the network. This paper introduces different types of MAC protocols used for WSNs and proposes S‐MAC, a Medium‐Access Control protocol designed for Wireless Sensor Networks. S‐MAC uses a few innovative techniques to reduce energy consumption and support selfconfiguration. A new protocol is suggested to improve the energy efficiency, latency and throughput of existing MAC protocol for WSNs. A modification of the protocol is then proposed to eliminate the need for some nodes to stay awake longer than the other nodes which improves the energy efficiency, latency and throughput and hence increases the life span of a wireless sensor network.

  10. Coded Splitting Tree Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to multiple access control called coded splitting tree protocol. The approach builds on the known tree splitting protocols, code structure and successive interference cancellation (SIC). Several instances of the tree splitting protocol are initiated, each...... instance is terminated prematurely and subsequently iterated. The combined set of leaves from all the tree instances can then be viewed as a graph code, which is decodable using belief propagation. The main design problem is determining the order of splitting, which enables successful decoding as early...... as possible. Evaluations show that the proposed protocol provides considerable gains over the standard tree splitting protocol applying SIC. The improvement comes at the expense of an increased feedback and receiver complexity....

  11. Constant round group key agreement protocols: A comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makri, E.; Konstantinou, Elisavet

    2011-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to review and evaluate all constant round Group Key Agreement (GKA) protocols proposed so far in the literature. We have gathered all GKA protocols that require 1,2,3,4 and 5 rounds and examined their efficiency. In particular, we calculated each protocol’s computation and

  12. Advanced flooding-based routing protocols for underwater sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isufi, E.; Dol, H.; Leus, G.J.T.

    2016-01-01

    Flooding-based protocols are a reliable solution to deliver packets in underwater sensor networks. However, these protocols potentially involve all the nodes in the forwarding process. Thus, the performance and energy efficiency are not optimal. In this work, we propose some advances of a

  13. Sulfonamide bearing oligonucleotides: Simple synthesis and efficient RNA recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, P.; Chandak, N.; Nielsen, P.

    2012-01-01

    Four pyrimidine nucleosides wherein a benzensulfonamide group is linked to the C-5 position of the uracil nucleobase through a triazolyl or an alkynyl linker were prepared by Cu(I)-assisted azide-alkyne cycloadditions (CuAAC) or Sonogashira reactions, respectively, and incorporated into oligonucl...

  14. A markerless protocol for genetic analysis of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-An Cheng

    2014-02-01

    Conclusion: The protocol described in this study is efficient and specific for genetic manipulation of A actinomycetemcomitans, and will be amenable for functional analysis of multiple genes in A actinomycetemcomitans.

  15. ATM and Internet protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Bentall, M; Turton, B

    1998-01-01

    Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is a protocol that allows data, sound and video being transferred between independent networks via ISDN links to be supplied to, and interpreted by, the various system protocols.ATM and Internet Protocol explains the working of the ATM and B-ISDN network for readers with a basic understanding of telecommunications. It provides a handy reference to everyone working with ATM who may not require the full standards in detail, but need a comprehensive guide to ATM. A substantial section is devoted to the problems of running IP over ATM and there is some discussion o

  16. Playing With Population Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Koegler

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Population protocols have been introduced as a model of sensor networks consisting of very limited mobile agents with no control over their own movement: A collection of anonymous agents, modeled by finite automata, interact in pairs according to some rules. Predicates on the initial configurations that can be computed by such protocols have been characterized under several hypotheses. We discuss here whether and when the rules of interactions between agents can be seen as a game from game theory. We do so by discussing several basic protocols.

  17. An optimized transformation protocol for Lipomyces starkeyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvey, Christopher H; Willis, Laura B; Jeffries, Thomas W

    2014-08-01

    We report the development of an efficient genetic transformation system for Lipomyces starkeyi based on a modified lithium acetate transformation protocol. L. starkeyi is a highly lipogenic yeast that grows on a wide range of substrates. The initial transformation rate for this species was extremely low, and required very high concentrations of DNA. A systematic approach for optimizing the protocol resulted in an increase in the transformation efficiency by four orders of magnitude. Important parameters included cell density, the duration of incubation and recovery periods, the heat shock temperature, and the concentration of lithium acetate and carrier DNA within the transformation mixture. We have achieved efficiencies in excess of 8,000 transformants/µg DNA, which now make it possible to screen libraries in the metabolic engineering of this yeast. Metabolic engineering based on this transformation system could improve lipogenesis and enable formation of higher value products.

  18. Mobile Internet Protocol Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brachfeld, Lawrence

    1999-01-01

    ...) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP). Mobile IP allows mobile computers to send and receive packets addressed with their home network IP address, regardless of the IP address of their current point of attachment on the Internet...

  19. Turf Conversion Measurement and Verification Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stoughton, Kate M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Figueroa, Jorge [Western Resource Advocates, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-12-05

    This measurement and verification (M and V) protocol provides procedures for energy service companies (ESCOs) and water efficiency service companies (WESCOs) to determine water savings as a result of water conservation measures (WCMs) in energy performance contracts associated with converting turfgrass or other water-intensive plantings to water-wise and sustainable landscapes. The water savings are determined by comparing the baseline water use to the water use after the WCM has been implemented. This protocol outlines the basic structure of the M and V plan, and details the procedures to use to determine water savings.

  20. USA-USSR protocol

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    On 30 November the USA Atomic Energy Commission and the USSR State Committee for the Utilization of Atomic Energy signed, in Washington, a protocol 'on carrying out of joint projects in the field of high energy physics at the accelerators of the National Accelerator Laboratory (Batavia) and the Institute for High Energy Physics (Serpukhov)'. The protocol will be in force for five years and can be extended by mutual agreement.

  1. Principles of Protocol Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Robin

    This is a new and updated edition of a book first published in 1994. The book introduces the reader to the principles used in the construction of a large range of modern data communication protocols, as used in distributed computer systems of all kinds. The approach taken is rather a formal one......, primarily based on descriptions of the protocols in the notation of CSP (Communicating Sequential Processes)....

  2. Routing protocol extension for resilient GMPLS multi-domain networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manolova, Anna Vasileva; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Romeral, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    This paper evaluates the performance of multi-domain networks under the Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching control framework in case of a single inter-domain link failure. We propose and evaluate a routing protocol extension for the Border Gateway Protocol, which allows domains to obtain...... as survivability mechanism in case of single link failure, and employing proper failure notification mechanisms for routing of future connection requests under routing protocol re-convergence. Via simulations we illustrate the benefits of utilizing the proposed routing protocol extension for networks employing...... two Autonomous System disjoint paths and use them efficiently under failure conditions. Three main applications for the protocol extension are illustrated: reducing traffic loss on existing connections by xploiting pre-selected backup paths derived with our proposal, applying multi-domain restoration...

  3. Automatic Generation of Network Protocol Gateways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bromberg, Yérom-David; Réveillère, Laurent; Lawall, Julia

    2009-01-01

    for describing protocol behaviors, message structures, and the gateway logic.  Z2z includes a compiler that checks essential correctness properties and produces efficient code. We have used z2z to develop a number of gateways, including SIP to RTSP, SLP to UPnP, and SMTP to SMTP via HTTP, involving a range......The emergence of networked devices in the home has made it possible to develop applications that control a variety of household functions. However, current devices communicate via a multitude of incompatible protocols, and thus gateways are needed to translate between them.  Gateway construction......, however, requires an intimate knowledge of the relevant protocols and a substantial understanding of low-level network programming, which can be a challenge for many application programmers. This paper presents a generative approach to gateway construction, z2z, based on a domain-specific language...

  4. A native Bayesian classifier based routing protocol for VANETS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Zhenshan; Zhou, Keqin; Zhang, Wenbo; Gong, Xiaolei

    2016-12-01

    Geographic routing protocols are one of the most hot research areas in VANET (Vehicular Ad-hoc Network). However, there are few routing protocols can take both the transmission efficient and the usage of ratio into account. As we have noticed, different messages in VANET may ask different quality of service. So we raised a Native Bayesian Classifier based routing protocol (Naive Bayesian Classifier-Greedy, NBC-Greedy), which can classify and transmit different messages by its emergency degree. As a result, we can balance the transmission efficient and the usage of ratio with this protocol. Based on Matlab simulation, we can draw a conclusion that NBC-Greedy is more efficient and stable than LR-Greedy and GPSR.

  5. In silico toxicology protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myatt, Glenn J; Ahlberg, Ernst; Akahori, Yumi; Allen, David; Amberg, Alexander; Anger, Lennart T; Aptula, Aynur; Auerbach, Scott; Beilke, Lisa; Bellion, Phillip; Benigni, Romualdo; Bercu, Joel; Booth, Ewan D; Bower, Dave; Brigo, Alessandro; Burden, Natalie; Cammerer, Zoryana; Cronin, Mark T D; Cross, Kevin P; Custer, Laura; Dettwiler, Magdalena; Dobo, Krista; Ford, Kevin A; Fortin, Marie C; Gad-McDonald, Samantha E; Gellatly, Nichola; Gervais, Véronique; Glover, Kyle P; Glowienke, Susanne; Van Gompel, Jacky; Gutsell, Steve; Hardy, Barry; Harvey, James S; Hillegass, Jedd; Honma, Masamitsu; Hsieh, Jui-Hua; Hsu, Chia-Wen; Hughes, Kathy; Johnson, Candice; Jolly, Robert; Jones, David; Kemper, Ray; Kenyon, Michelle O; Kim, Marlene T; Kruhlak, Naomi L; Kulkarni, Sunil A; Kümmerer, Klaus; Leavitt, Penny; Majer, Bernhard; Masten, Scott; Miller, Scott; Moser, Janet; Mumtaz, Moiz; Muster, Wolfgang; Neilson, Louise; Oprea, Tudor I; Patlewicz, Grace; Paulino, Alexandre; Lo Piparo, Elena; Powley, Mark; Quigley, Donald P; Reddy, M Vijayaraj; Richarz, Andrea-Nicole; Ruiz, Patricia; Schilter, Benoit; Serafimova, Rositsa; Simpson, Wendy; Stavitskaya, Lidiya; Stidl, Reinhard; Suarez-Rodriguez, Diana; Szabo, David T; Teasdale, Andrew; Trejo-Martin, Alejandra; Valentin, Jean-Pierre; Vuorinen, Anna; Wall, Brian A; Watts, Pete; White, Angela T; Wichard, Joerg; Witt, Kristine L; Woolley, Adam; Woolley, David; Zwickl, Craig; Hasselgren, Catrin

    2018-04-17

    The present publication surveys several applications of in silico (i.e., computational) toxicology approaches across different industries and institutions. It highlights the need to develop standardized protocols when conducting toxicity-related predictions. This contribution articulates the information needed for protocols to support in silico predictions for major toxicological endpoints of concern (e.g., genetic toxicity, carcinogenicity, acute toxicity, reproductive toxicity, developmental toxicity) across several industries and regulatory bodies. Such novel in silico toxicology (IST) protocols, when fully developed and implemented, will ensure in silico toxicological assessments are performed and evaluated in a consistent, reproducible, and well-documented manner across industries and regulatory bodies to support wider uptake and acceptance of the approaches. The development of IST protocols is an initiative developed through a collaboration among an international consortium to reflect the state-of-the-art in in silico toxicology for hazard identification and characterization. A general outline for describing the development of such protocols is included and it is based on in silico predictions and/or available experimental data for a defined series of relevant toxicological effects or mechanisms. The publication presents a novel approach for determining the reliability of in silico predictions alongside experimental data. In addition, we discuss how to determine the level of confidence in the assessment based on the relevance and reliability of the information. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Effects of ventriculoarterial coupling changes on renal function, echocardiographic indices and energy efficiency in patients with acute decompensated systolic heart failure under furosemide and dopamine treatment: a comparison of three therapeutic protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Christos-Konstantinos; Chrysohoou, Christina; Lerakis, Stamatios; Manolakou, Panagiota; Pitsavos, Christos; Tsioufis, Konstantinos; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Tousoulis, Dimitrios

    2015-11-15

    Ventriculoarterial coupling (VAC) status relates to tissue perfusion and its optimization may improve organ function and energy efficiency (EE) of the cardiovascular system. The effects of non-invasively calculated VAC improvement on echocardiographic parameters, renal function indices and EE improvement in patients with acute decompensated systolic heart failure were studied. Furthermore, effects of different treatment modalities on VAC, renal function and echocardiographic parameters were compared. Systolic heart failure patients with ejection fraction Renal function was evaluated using serum creatinine and creatinine clearance. VAC and EE were assessed noninvasively, by echocardiography. Significant correlations were noted between VAC improvement and improvements in EE and serum creatinine (rho=0.96, pacute decompensated systolic heart failure. Dopamine and furosemide combination seemed to improve VAC and diastolic function but only had a borderline effect on renal function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Energy Efficient Routing in Nomadic Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mads Darø; Bouvin, Niels Olof

    2007-01-01

    We present an evaluation of a novel energy-efficient routing protocol for mobile ad-hoc networks. We combine two techniques for optimizing energy levels with a well-known routing protocol. We examine the behavior of this combination in a nomadic network setting, where some nodes are stationary...... and have a steady power supply. Protocol optimizations for the nomadic scenario are presented and validated through simulations...

  8. Protocol Monitoring Passive Solar Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Ham, E.R.; Bosselaar, L.

    1998-01-01

    A method has been developed by means of which the contribution of passive solar energy to the Dutch energy balance can be quantified univocally. The contribution was 57 PJ in 1990 and also 57 PJ in 1995. The efficiency of passive solar energy systems increased from -31.5% to -28.1% in the period 1990-1995, mainly as a result of the use of extra insulating glazing. As a result of the reduction of energy consumption for heating in houses it is expected that the extra contribution of 2 PJ will not be realized in the year 2010. It is suggested that the method to determine the absolute contribution of passive solar energy to the energy demand of dwellings is to be included in the protocol monitoring renewable energy. For the method to be included in the energy statistics of Statistics Netherlands (CBS) it can be considered only to take into account the difference compared to 1990. 11 refs

  9. Business protocol in integrated Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Pavelová, Nina

    2009-01-01

    The first chapter devotes to definitions of basic terms such as protocol or business protocol, to differences between protocol and etiquette, and between social etiquette and business etiquette. The second chapter focuses on the factors influencing the European business protocol. The third chapter is devoted to the etiquette of business protocol in the European countries. It touches the topics such as punctuality and planning of business appointment, greeting, business cards, dress and appear...

  10. DNA repair protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergbæk, Lotte

    In its 3rd edition, this Methods in Molecular Biology(TM) book covers the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including advanced protocols and standard techniques in the field of DNA repair. Offers expert guidance for DNA repair, recombination, and replication. Current knowledge of the mechanisms...... that regulate DNA repair has grown significantly over the past years with technology advances such as RNA interference, advanced proteomics and microscopy as well as high throughput screens. The third edition of DNA Repair Protocols covers various aspects of the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including...... recent advanced protocols as well as standard techniques used in the field of DNA repair. Both mammalian and non-mammalian model organisms are covered in the book, and many of the techniques can be applied with only minor modifications to other systems than the one described. Written in the highly...

  11. Decellularization of placentas: establishing a protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C.P.C. Leonel

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Biological biomaterials for tissue engineering purposes can be produced through tissue and/or organ decellularization. The remaining extracellular matrix (ECM must be acellular and preserve its proteins and physical features. Placentas are organs of great interest because they are discarded after birth and present large amounts of ECM. Protocols for decellularization are tissue-specific and have not been established for canine placentas yet. This study aimed at analyzing a favorable method for decellularization of maternal and fetal portions of canine placentas. Canine placentas were subjected to ten preliminary tests to analyze the efficacy of parameters such as the type of detergents, freezing temperatures and perfusion. Two protocols were chosen for further analyses using histology, scanning electron microscopy, immunofluorescence and DNA quantification. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS was the most effective detergent for cell removal. Freezing placentas before decellularization required longer periods of incubation in different detergents. Both perfusion and immersion methods were capable of removing cells. Placentas decellularized using Protocol I (1% SDS, 5 mM EDTA, 50 mM TRIS, and 0.5% antibiotic preserved the ECM structure better, but Protocol I was less efficient to remove cells and DNA content from the ECM than Protocol II (1% SDS, 5 mM EDTA, 0.05% trypsin, and 0.5% antibiotic.

  12. Provably-secure (Chinese government) SM2 and simplified SM2 key exchange protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ang; Nam, Junghyun; Kim, Moonseong; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond

    2014-01-01

    We revisit the SM2 protocol, which is widely used in Chinese commercial applications and by Chinese government agencies. Although it is by now standard practice for protocol designers to provide security proofs in widely accepted security models in order to assure protocol implementers of their security properties, the SM2 protocol does not have a proof of security. In this paper, we prove the security of the SM2 protocol in the widely accepted indistinguishability-based Bellare-Rogaway model under the elliptic curve discrete logarithm problem (ECDLP) assumption. We also present a simplified and more efficient version of the SM2 protocol with an accompanying security proof.

  13. A secure RFID mutual authentication protocol for healthcare environments using elliptic curve cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chunhua; Xu, Chunxiang; Zhang, Xiaojun; Zhao, Jining

    2015-03-01

    Radio Frequency Identification(RFID) is an automatic identification technology, which can be widely used in healthcare environments to locate and track staff, equipment and patients. However, potential security and privacy problems in RFID system remain a challenge. In this paper, we design a mutual authentication protocol for RFID based on elliptic curve cryptography(ECC). We use pre-computing method within tag's communication, so that our protocol can get better efficiency. In terms of security, our protocol can achieve confidentiality, unforgeability, mutual authentication, tag's anonymity, availability and forward security. Our protocol also can overcome the weakness in the existing protocols. Therefore, our protocol is suitable for healthcare environments.

  14. Connectivity-Based Reliable Multicast MAC Protocol for IEEE 802.11 Wireless LANs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo-Yong Choi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose the efficient reliable multicast MAC protocol based on the connectivity information among the recipients. Enhancing the BMMM (Batch Mode Multicast MAC protocol, the reliable multicast MAC protocol significantly reduces the RAK (Request for ACK frame transmissions in a reasonable computational time and enhances the MAC performance. By the analytical performance analysis, the throughputs of the BMMM protocol and our proposed MAC protocol are derived. Numerical examples show that our proposed MAC protocol increases the reliable multicast MAC performance for IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs.

  15. Improved cell therapy protocols for Parkinson's disease based on differentiation efficiency and safety of hESC-, hiPSC-, and non-human primate iPSC-derived dopaminergic neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundberg, Maria; Bogetofte, Helle; Lawson, Tristan

    2013-01-01

    of safety and efficacy of stem cell-derived DA neurons. The aim of this study was to improve the safety of human- and non-human primate iPSC (PiPSC)-derived DA neurons. According to our results, NCAM(+) /CD29(low) sorting enriched VM DA neurons from pluripotent stem cell-derived neural cell populations....... NCAM(+) /CD29(low) DA neurons were positive for FOXA2/TH and EN1/TH and this cell population had increased expression levels of FOXA2, LMX1A, TH, GIRK2, PITX3, EN1, NURR1 mRNA compared to unsorted neural cell populations. PiPSC-derived NCAM(+) /CD29(low) DA neurons were able to restore motor function......The main motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease are due to the loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the ventral midbrain (VM). For the future treatment of Parkinson's disease with cell transplantation it is important to develop efficient differentiation methods for production of human iPSCs and h...

  16. An Energy-Aware Routing Protocol for Query-Based Applications in Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ehsan Ahvar; Shohreh Ahvar; Gyu Myoung Lee; Noel Crespi

    2014-01-01

    Wireless sensor network (WSN) typically has energy consumption restriction. Designing energy-aware routing protocol can significantly reduce energy consumption in WSNs. Energy-aware routing protocols can be classified into two categories, energy savers and energy balancers. Energy saving protocols are used to minimize the overall energy consumed by a WSN, while energy balancing protocols attempt to efficiently distribute the consumption of energy throughout the network. In general terms, ener...

  17. Efficient multiuser quantum cryptography network based on entanglement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Peng; Wang, Kunkun; Wang, Xiaoping

    2017-04-04

    We present an efficient quantum key distribution protocol with a certain entangled state to solve a special cryptographic task. Also, we provide a proof of security of this protocol by generalizing the proof of modified of Lo-Chau scheme. Based on this two-user scheme, a quantum cryptography network protocol is proposed without any quantum memory.

  18. A reproducible protocol for regeneration and transformation in canola

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the present study is to develop an efficient protocol for shoot and plant regeneration using five commercial canola cultivars grown under the Egyptian agricultural conditions. The regeneration efficiency from hypocotyl explants was examined. The data indicated that embryonic calli were formed within two ...

  19. Principles of Protocol Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Robin

    This is a new and updated edition of a book first published in 1994. The book introduces the reader to the principles used in the construction of a large range of modern data communication protocols, as used in distributed computer systems of all kinds. The approach taken is rather a formal one...

  20. Frameworks for Protocol Implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Barros Barbosa, Ciro; de barros Barbosa, C.; Ferreira Pires, Luis; Pires, L.F.; van Sinderen, Marten J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of a catalogue of frameworks for protocol implementation. Frameworks are software structures developed for a specific application domain, which can be re-used in the implementation of various different concrete systems in this domain. By using frameworks we aim

  1. Critical Response Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingson, Charlene; Roehrig, Gillian; Bakkum, Kris; Dubinsky, Janet M.

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces the Critical Response Protocol (CRP), an arts-based technique that engages students in equitable critical discourse and aligns with the "Next Generation Science Standards" vision for providing students opportunities for language learning while advancing science learning (NGSS Lead States 2013). CRP helps teachers…

  2. Updating protocols prodigy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Kate

    2005-04-01

    If you are updating protocols, why not try the Prodigy website, at www.prodigy.nhs.uk ? It is a source of clinical knowledge on a range oftopics that is based on best evidence and organised to support clinical decision making.

  3. Security analysis and enhancements of a three-party authenticated key agreement protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiheng Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Three-party authenticated key agreement (3PAKA protocol is an important cryptographic mechanism for secure communication, which allows two clients to generate a shared session key with the help of the server. Recently, Tan proposed a communication and computation-efficient 3PAKA protocol. Compared with related protocols, Tan’s protocol requires fewer rounds, lower communication cost and smaller computation cost. Tan claimed that his protocol was secure against various attacks. Unfortunately, we found that his protocol cannot withstand the key compromise impersonation attack. To improve security, we proposed a new 3PAKA protocol. Security analysis and performance analysis show our 3PAKA protocol could overcome weakness in Tan’s protocol at the cost of increasing the computational cost slightly.

  4. The Protocol of Choice for Treatment of Snake Bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Mohammad Alizadeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study is to compare three different methods of treatment of snake bite to determine the most efficient one. To unify the protocol of snake bite treatment in our center, we retrospectively reviewed files of the snake-bitten patients who had been referred to us between 2010 and 2014. They were contacted for follow-up using phone calls. Demographic and on-arrival characteristics, protocol used for treatment (WHO/Haddad/GF, and outcome/complications were evaluated. Patients were entered into one of the protocol groups and compared. Of a total of 63 patients, 56 (89% were males. Five, 19, and 28 patients were managed by Haddad, WHO, or GF protocols, respectively. Eleven patients had fallen into both GF and WHO protocols and were excluded. Serum sickness was significantly more common when WHO protocol was used while 100% of the compartment syndromes and 71% of deformities had been reported after GF protocol. The most important complications were considered to be deformity, compartment syndrome, and amputation and were more frequent after the use of WHO and GF protocols (23.1% versus 76.9%; none in Haddad; P = NS. Haddad protocol seems to be the best for treatment of snake-bitten patients in our region. However, this cannot be strictly concluded because of the limited sample size and nonsignificant P values.

  5. The case for a network protocol isolation layer

    KAUST Repository

    Il Choi, Jung

    2009-01-01

    Network protocols are typically designed and tested individually. In practice, however, applications use multiple protocols concurrently. This discrepancy can lead to failures from unanticipated interactions between protocols. In this paper, we argue that sensor network communication stacks should have an isolation layer, whose purpose is to make each protocol\\'s perception of the wireless channel independent of what other protocols are running. We identify two key mechanisms the isolation layer must provide: shared collision avoidance and fair channel allocation. We present an example design of an isolation layer that builds on the existing algorithms of grant-to-send and fair queueing. However, the complexities of wireless make these mechanisms insufficient by themselves. We therefore propose two new mechanisms that address these limitations: channel decay and fair cancellation. Incorporating these new mechanisms reduces the increase in end-to-end delivery cost associated with concurrently operating two protocols by more than 60%. The isolation layer improves median protocol fairness from 0.52 to 0.96 in Jain\\'s fairness index. Together, these results show that using an isolation layer makes protocols more efficient and robust. Copyright 2009 ACM.

  6. Phototherapy Modalities and Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayten Ferahbaş

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, the development of irradiation devices with new emission spectra has led to an expanded role for phototherapy in the treatment of skin diseases. This development is best illustrated by the increasing frequency with which 311 nm UVB phototherapy is used for the treatment of psoriasis and vitiligo, especially. Another example is UVA1 340-400 nm. UVA1 was first used to treat patients with atopic dermatitis, but it has been found to be efficacious in several other skin diseases. This is overview of the protocols for phototherapy with UV in the treatment of skin diseases as currently used according to recent literature review. There are, of course, other protocols in use that are effective.

  7. Diplomacy and Diplomatic Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lect. Ph.D Oana Iucu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to observe relationships and determining factors between diplomacyand diplomatic protocol as outlined by historical and contextual analyses. The approach is very dynamic,provided that concepts are able to show their richness, antiquity and polyvalence at the level of connotations,semantics, grammatical and social syntax. The fact that this information is up to date determines anattitude of appreciation and a state of positive contamination.

  8. Dysphonia risk screening protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemr, Katia; Simões-Zenari, Marcia; da Trindade Duarte, João Marcos; Lobrigate, Karen Elena; Bagatini, Flavia Alves

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To propose and test the applicability of a dysphonia risk screening protocol with score calculation in individuals with and without dysphonia. METHOD: This descriptive cross-sectional study included 365 individuals (41 children, 142 adult women, 91 adult men and 91 seniors) divided into a dysphonic group and a non-dysphonic group. The protocol consisted of 18 questions and a score was calculated using a 10-cm visual analog scale. The measured value on the visual analog scale was added to the overall score, along with other partial scores. Speech samples allowed for analysis/assessment of the overall degree of vocal deviation and initial definition of the respective groups and after six months, the separation of the groups was confirmed using an acoustic analysis. RESULTS: The mean total scores were different between the groups in all samples. Values ranged between 37.0 and 57.85 in the dysphonic group and between 12.95 and 19.28 in the non-dysphonic group, with overall means of 46.09 and 15.55, respectively. High sensitivity and specificity were demonstrated when discriminating between the groups with the following cut-off points: 22.50 (children), 29.25 (adult women), 22.75 (adult men), and 27.10 (seniors). CONCLUSION: The protocol demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating groups of individuals with and without dysphonia in different sample groups and is thus an effective instrument for use in voice clinics. PMID:27074171

  9. Dysphonia risk screening protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Nemr

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To propose and test the applicability of a dysphonia risk screening protocol with score calculation in individuals with and without dysphonia. METHOD: This descriptive cross-sectional study included 365 individuals (41 children, 142 adult women, 91 adult men and 91 seniors divided into a dysphonic group and a non-dysphonic group. The protocol consisted of 18 questions and a score was calculated using a 10-cm visual analog scale. The measured value on the visual analog scale was added to the overall score, along with other partial scores. Speech samples allowed for analysis/assessment of the overall degree of vocal deviation and initial definition of the respective groups and after six months, the separation of the groups was confirmed using an acoustic analysis. RESULTS: The mean total scores were different between the groups in all samples. Values ranged between 37.0 and 57.85 in the dysphonic group and between 12.95 and 19.28 in the non-dysphonic group, with overall means of 46.09 and 15.55, respectively. High sensitivity and specificity were demonstrated when discriminating between the groups with the following cut-off points: 22.50 (children, 29.25 (adult women, 22.75 (adult men, and 27.10 (seniors. CONCLUSION: The protocol demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating groups of individuals with and without dysphonia in different sample groups and is thus an effective instrument for use in voice clinics.

  10. IPV6 Mobile Network Protocol Weaknesses and a Cryptosystem Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balitanas, Maricel; Kim, Tai-Hoon

    This paper reviews some of the improvements associated with the new Internet protocol version 6, an emphasis on its security-related functionality particularly in its authentication and concludes with a hybrid cryptosystem for its authentication issue. Since new generation of Internet protocol is on its way to solve the growth of IP address depletion. It is in a process that may take several years to complete. Thus, as a step to effective solution and efficient implementation this review has been made.

  11. Automatic Validation of Protocol Narration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodei, Chiara; Buchholtz, Mikael; Degano, Pierpablo

    2003-01-01

    We perform a systematic expansion of protocol narrations into terms of a process algebra in order to make precise some of the detailed checks that need to be made in a protocol. We then apply static analysis technology to develop an automatic validation procedure for protocols. Finally, we...

  12. Power Conservation through Energy Efficient Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandris, Dionisis; Tsioumas, Panagiotis; Tzes, Anthony; Nikolakopoulos, George; Vergados, Dimitrios D

    2009-01-01

    The power awareness issue is the primary concern within the domain of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). Most power dissipation ocurrs during communication, thus routing protocols in WSNs mainly aim at power conservation. Moreover, a routing protocol should be scalable, so that its effectiveness does not degrade as the network size increases. In response to these issues, this work describes the development of an efficient routing protocol, named SHPER (Scaling Hierarchical Power Efficient Routing).

  13. Operating systems and network protocols for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Prabal; Dunkels, Adam

    2012-01-13

    Sensor network protocols exist to satisfy the communication needs of diverse applications, including data collection, event detection, target tracking and control. Network protocols to enable these services are constrained by the extreme resource scarcity of sensor nodes-including energy, computing, communications and storage-which must be carefully managed and multiplexed by the operating system. These challenges have led to new protocols and operating systems that are efficient in their energy consumption, careful in their computational needs and miserly in their memory footprints, all while discovering neighbours, forming networks, delivering data and correcting failures.

  14. RFID authentication protocol to enhance patient medication safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Sonam Devgan; Awasthi, Amit K

    2013-12-01

    Medication errors can cause substantial harm to patients. Automated patient medication system with RFID technology is purposely used to reduce the medication error, to improve the patient safety, to provide personalized patient medication and identification and also to provide counterfeit protection to the patients. In order to enhance medication safety for patients we propose a new dynamic ID based lightweight RFID authentication protocol. Due to low storage capacity and limited computational and communicational capacity of tags, only pseudo random number generator function, one way hash function and bitwise Xor operation are used in our authentication protocol. The proposed protocol is practical, secure and efficient for health care domain.

  15. Cryptanalysis and improvement of an improved two factor authentication protocol for telecare medical information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Shehzad Ashraf; Naqvi, Husnain; Shon, Taeshik; Sher, Muhammad; Farash, Mohammad Sabzinejad

    2015-06-01

    Telecare medical information systems (TMIS) provides rapid and convenient health care services remotely. Efficient authentication is a prerequisite to guarantee the security and privacy of patients in TMIS. Authentication is used to verify the legality of the patients and TMIS server during remote access. Very recently Islam et al. (J. Med. Syst. 38(10):135, 2014) proposed a two factor authentication protocol for TMIS using elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) to improve Xu et al.'s (J. Med. Syst. 38(1):9994, 2014) protocol. They claimed their improved protocol to be efficient and provides all security requirements. However our analysis reveals that Islam et al.'s protocol suffers from user impersonation and server impersonation attacks. Furthermore we proposed an enhanced protocol. The proposed protocol while delivering all the virtues of Islam et al.'s protocol resists all known attacks.

  16. Real-Time QoS Routing Protocols in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks: Study and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanazi, Adwan; Elleithy, Khaled

    2015-09-02

    Many routing protocols have been proposed for wireless sensor networks. These routing protocols are almost always based on energy efficiency. However, recent advances in complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) cameras and small microphones have led to the development of Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSN) as a class of wireless sensor networks which pose additional challenges. The transmission of imaging and video data needs routing protocols with both energy efficiency and Quality of Service (QoS) characteristics in order to guarantee the efficient use of the sensor nodes and effective access to the collected data. Also, with integration of real time applications in Wireless Senor Networks (WSNs), the use of QoS routing protocols is not only becoming a significant topic, but is also gaining the attention of researchers. In designing an efficient QoS routing protocol, the reliability and guarantee of end-to-end delay are critical events while conserving energy. Thus, considerable research has been focused on designing energy efficient and robust QoS routing protocols. In this paper, we present a state of the art research work based on real-time QoS routing protocols for WMSNs that have already been proposed. This paper categorizes the real-time QoS routing protocols into probabilistic and deterministic protocols. In addition, both categories are classified into soft and hard real time protocols by highlighting the QoS issues including the limitations and features of each protocol. Furthermore, we have compared the performance of mobility-aware query based real-time QoS routing protocols from each category using Network Simulator-2 (NS2). This paper also focuses on the design challenges and future research directions as well as highlights the characteristics of each QoS routing protocol.

  17. IAEA to implement Safeguards Additional Protocols in the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Full text: IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei welcomed the entry into force today of the Additional Protocols for 15 States of the European Union - France, the United Kingdom and the 13 non-nuclear weapon States of the EU - and the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM). The Protocols, which provide the Agency with better tools to verify compliance with nuclear non-proliferation commitments, entered into force when the European Commission informed the Agency that EURATOM's own requirements for entry into force had been met. The 15 States had provided similar notifications over the past years since signing the Protocols in 1998. The simultaneous entry into force of Additional Protocols for the 15 EU States is 'a very positive development and a milestone in our efforts to strengthen the verification regime', said Dr. ElBaradei. 'In my view, the Additional Protocol should become the standard for verification under the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT).' He added that the Agency had been preparing for the entry into force of the EU protocols and was confident that, in co-operation with the 15 States and EURATOM, it would be able to ensure effective and efficient implementation in the EU States. The Model Additional Protocol was developed following the discovery of Iraq's clandestine nuclear weapons programme to ensure that the IAEA is given the information and access it needs for timely discovery of any similar activities in States that have pledged not to use nuclear material and activities for weapons purposes. In the past year, Additional Protocols entered into force for 22 countries, and the Agency will now implement Additional Protocols in 58 States, which includes the 15 EU States. The 10 countries joining the EU on 1 May 2004 - seven of which already have brought into force Additional Protocols to their respective safeguards agreements - are expected to gradually accede to the Safeguards Agreement and Additional Protocol covering

  18. The UMTS-AKA Protocols for Intelligent Transportation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang Min-Shiang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The integration of communication protocols into transport systems is a much adored research area today. Much of seminal work has been reported on the topic of intelligent transportation systems (ITS in the recent years. Many advanced techniques have been garnered to improve online communication and to promote the security, comfort, and efficiency of ITS. Of primary importance to the effective application of ITS is the communication protocol used. A fascinating development is that the yesterday's Global System for Mobile Communication protocol is being replaced by the Universal Mobile Telecommunication System protocol, which is the third-generation mobile technology. This article attempts to identify a suitable communication system for ITS applications. It is impracticable to substantially modify the original UMTS-IMS-AKA protocol which is in practice because it can disturb the operation of the current system, and thus we explore other possibilities through this research. We investigate a novel protocol to make the original UMTS-IMS-AKA protocol compliant with ITS as well as adaptable into the current UMTS protocol.

  19. Energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    After a speech of the CEA's (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique) general administrator about energy efficiency as a first rank challenge for the planet and for France, this publications proposes several contributions: a discussion of the efficiency of nuclear energy, an economic analysis of R and D's value in the field of fourth generation fast reactors, discussions about biofuels and the relationship between energy efficiency and economic competitiveness, and a discussion about solar photovoltaic efficiency

  20. Improving an Anonymous and Provably Secure Authentication Protocol for a Mobile User

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongho Moon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently many authentication protocols using an extended chaotic map were suggested for a mobile user. Many researchers demonstrated that authentication protocol needs to provide key agreement, mutual authentication, and user anonymity between mobile user and server and resilience to many possible attacks. In this paper, we cautiously analyzed chaotic-map-based authentication scheme and proved that it is still insecure to off-line identity guessing, user and server impersonation, and on-line identity guessing attacks. To address these vulnerabilities, we proposed an improved protocol based on an extended chaotic map and a fuzzy extractor. We proved the security of the proposed protocol using a random oracle and AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications tool. Furthermore, we present an informal security analysis to make sure that the improved protocol is invulnerable to possible attacks. The proposed protocol is also computationally efficient when compared to other previous protocols.

  1. Efficient in vitro multiplication protocol for Vanilla planifolia using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vanilla planifolia Andr. is a tropical commercial spice crop known for its popular flavoring substance called vanillin. Vanillin is the second most expensive spice in the world market, next to saffron. Ethiopia has favorable environment for vanilla production and the crop has huge local and international market. There is a ...

  2. An efficient plant regeneration protocol from petiole explants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The highest percentage of shoot buds induction (64.0%) was observed on MS medium supplemented with 0.52 mgL-1 TDZ with organic additives; adenine sulphate (50 mgL-1) + glutamine (100 mgL-1) + L-arginine (25 mgL-1) + citric acid (0.0025%) + ascorbic acid (0.005%). A maximum of six shoots per explant were ...

  3. Highly efficient transformation protocol for plum (Prunus domestica L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A high-throughput transformation system for plum has been developed using hypocotyl slices excised from zygotic embryos as the source of explants. The hypocotyl slices are infected in an Agrobacterium tumefaciens suspension and then co-cultivated for 3 days in shoot regeneration three-quarter MS ba...

  4. An Efficient and Convenient Protocol for the Synthesis of Optically ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    substituted 4-amino-(4H)-1,2,4-triazole-3- thioles with carboxylic acids.2–5. The replacement of acid and ester groups in medicinal chemistry is a known approach in the search for compounds with improved pharmacokinetic characterization.

  5. Establishment of an efficient protocol for micropropagation of stem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-18

    . pp. 333-336. Bhojwani SS (1980). In vitro propagation of garlic by shoot proliferation. Sci. Hort., 13: 47-52. Bhojwani SS, Razdan MK (1982). Plant Tissue Culture: Theory and. Practice. Elsevier Sci. Publ. Amsterdam, 1-520.

  6. Functional Testing Protocols for Commercial Building Efficiency Baseline Modeling Software

    OpenAIRE

    Jump, David

    2014-01-01

    This document describes procedures for testing and validating proprietary baseline energy modeling software accuracy in predicting energy use over the period of interest, such as a month or a year. The procedures are designed according to the methodology used for public domain baselining software in another LBNL report that was (like the present report) prepared for Pacific Gas and Electric Company: ?Commercial Building Energy Baseline Modeling Software: Performance Metrics and Method Testing...

  7. Polyethylene glycol in water: A simple, efficient and green protocol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    hydroxy ketones with. 1,2–diamines,15 cyclisation-oxidation of phenacyl bro- mides with 1,2-diamines by HClO4-SiO2,16 cyclisation of o-phenylenediamine with propiophenone by using. KOH,17 and oxidative coupling of epoxides with ene-.

  8. Functionalization of AB-ring systems: An efficient protocol towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is an increasing effort towards the synthesis of tricyclic lactones due to their inherent biological activity. As part of a program aimed at the synthesis of tricyclic iriodolactones, we reported herein a preliminary and successful funtionalization of Bicyclic adducts derived from cycloaddition of vinyl ketene and later ...

  9. An Efficient Protocol For Medium - Term Conservation of the Aerial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subculturing of the explants in full strength MS containing low levels of benzyl adenine (2.0-5.0 mg l-1) and reduced sucrose concentration [2.0 per cent ] resulted in vigorous shoot growth after 6 weeks in culture, whereas incorporating ABA (0.2-0.5mg l-1) in the second passage culture medium resulted in the depression of ...

  10. Establishment of efficient in vitro culture protocol for wheat land ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Immature embryos were cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 2, 4, 6 and 8 mg/L of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) for callogenesis and MS + zeatin riboside (1.0 mg/L) medium for regeneration of these calli. All three land races produced callus on all 2,4-D concentrations; higher doses (8 ...

  11. Secure energy efficient routing protocol for wireless sensor network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Ayan Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The ease of deployment of economic sensor networks has always been a boon to disaster management applications. However, their vulnerability to a number of security threats makes communication a challenging task. This paper proposes a new routing technique to prevent from both external threats and internal threats like hello flooding, eavesdropping and wormhole attack. In this approach one way hash chain is used to reduce the energy drainage. Level based event driven clustering also helps to save energy. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme extends network lifetime even when the cluster based wireless sensor network is under attack.

  12. An efficient ultrasound promoted catalyst-free protocol for the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1HNMR spectra were recorded at 400MHz with a. Varian Gemini FT-NMR spectrometer. The chemical shifts are reported in δppm relative to tetramethylsi- lane (TMS). The Fourier transform FT–IR spectra were ..... T J and Phillip L J 1989 Endeavour 13 123; (d) Soheila. S, Jean-Marc L and Micheline D 2010 Chem. Natu-.

  13. Establishment of efficient in vitro culture protocol for wheat land ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADNAN

    2012-02-07

    Feb 7, 2012 ... Wheat landraces are intermediaries between the wild populations .... to avoid loss of water due to evapotranspiration. The propagator ... Effect of 2,4-D on callus induction response of different wheat landraces. MS + 2,4-D (mg). Callus induction percentage. LLR-16. LLR-15. LLR-13. Control. 0.00d. 0.00e.

  14. An Efficient and Convenient Protocol for the Synthesis of Optically ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A series of novel bis triazolothiadiazole, 1,3,4-oxadiazole and 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives attached to L-amino acid moieties were synthesized in good yields using a simple and practical method. The structure of all synthesized compounds was confirmed by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis.

  15. An efficient ultrasound promoted catalyst-free protocol for the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    rial,8 antiinflammatory,9 antitumor10 and anti-HIV11 activities. They are also used as perfumes,12 dyes13 and fluorescent indicators.14 Chromeno-quinolines are fused poly heterocyclic systems comprising both coumarin and quinoline motifs which are known to pos- sess interesting biological properties like bacteriostatic.

  16. Polyethylene glycol in water: A simple, efficient and green protocol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    phenazine (tpphz) 6 (73% yield) by condensing [1,10]phenanthroline-5,6-dione 4 with [1,10]phenanthroline-5,6-diamine 5 in PEG-600–. H2O (scheme 2). This new molecule may have biolog- ical potential, synthetic and technological importance.

  17. Efficiency of the SASS4 rapid bioassessment protocol in determining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was found that qualitative family-level data provided an adequate classification of sites for use in routine biomonitoring. Ambiguous results were obtained with respect to the importance of measuring abundance during routine biomonitoring. No definite conclusion with respect to the ability of the SASS4 to reflect ...

  18. Establishment of an efficient protocol for micropropagation of stem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microshoots thus formed, were cultured on indole 3-butyric acid (IBA) and half strength basal MS media for induction of roots. Regenerated plantlets with healthy shoots and roots were acclimatized in moist cotton followed by their hardening in soil : vermicompost potting mixture with 90% survival rate. Key words: Tylophora ...

  19. FRENCH PROTOCOL CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division du Personnel

    1999-01-01

    Senior officials, holders of FRENCH PROTOCOL cards (blue cards) due to expire on 31.12.1999, are requested to return these cards and those of family members, for extension to:Bureau des cartes, bâtiment 33.1-025Should the 3 spaces for authentication on the back of the card be full, please enclose 2 passport photographs for a new card.In the case of children aged 14 and over, an attestation of dependency and a school certificate should be returned with the card.Personnel DivisionTel. 79494/74683

  20. FRENCH PROTOCOL CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des Ressources Humaines; Human Resources Division; Tel. 74683-79494

    2000-01-01

    Senior officials, holders of FRENCH PROTOCOL cards (blue cards) due to expire on 31.12.2000, are requested to return these cards and those of family members, for extension to: Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-015 Should the three spaces for authentication on the back of the card be full, please enclose two passport photographs for a new card. In the case of children aged 14 and over, an attestation of dependency and a school certificate should be returned with the card.

  1. Cooling Tower (Evaporative Cooling System) Measurement and Verification Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Boyd, Brian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stoughton, Kate M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lewis, Taylor [Colorado Energy Office, Denver, CO (United States)

    2017-12-05

    This measurement and verification (M and V) protocol provides procedures for energy service companies (ESCOs) and water efficiency service companies (WESCOs) to determine water savings resulting from water conservation measures (WCMs) in energy performance contracts associated with cooling tower efficiency projects. The water savings are determined by comparing the baseline water use to the water use after the WCM has been implemented. This protocol outlines the basic structure of the M and V plan, and details the procedures to use to determine water savings.

  2. Bayesian adaptive survey protocols for resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, Brian J.; Wylie, Glenn D.; Coates, Peter S.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    Transparency in resource management decisions requires a proper accounting of uncertainty at multiple stages of the decision-making process. As information becomes available, periodic review and updating of resource management protocols reduces uncertainty and improves management decisions. One of the most basic steps to mitigating anthropogenic effects on populations is determining if a population of a species occurs in an area that will be affected by human activity. Species are rarely detected with certainty, however, and falsely declaring a species absent can cause improper conservation decisions or even extirpation of populations. We propose a method to design survey protocols for imperfectly detected species that accounts for multiple sources of uncertainty in the detection process, is capable of quantitatively incorporating expert opinion into the decision-making process, allows periodic updates to the protocol, and permits resource managers to weigh the severity of consequences if the species is falsely declared absent. We developed our method using the giant gartersnake (Thamnophis gigas), a threatened species precinctive to the Central Valley of California, as a case study. Survey date was negatively related to the probability of detecting the giant gartersnake, and water temperature was positively related to the probability of detecting the giant gartersnake at a sampled location. Reporting sampling effort, timing and duration of surveys, and water temperatures would allow resource managers to evaluate the probability that the giant gartersnake occurs at sampled sites where it is not detected. This information would also allow periodic updates and quantitative evaluation of changes to the giant gartersnake survey protocol. Because it naturally allows multiple sources of information and is predicated upon the idea of updating information, Bayesian analysis is well-suited to solving the problem of developing efficient sampling protocols for species of

  3. Risk Assessment of Energy-Efficient Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pallin, Simon B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hun, Diana E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jackson, Roderick K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kehrer, Manfred [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This multi-year project aims to provide the residential construction industry with energy-efficient wall designs that are moisture durable. The present work focused on the initial step of this project, which is to develop a moisture durability protocol that identifies energy efficient wall designs that have a low probability of experiencing moisture problems.

  4. Intelligent Broadcasting in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: Three Classes of Adaptive Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Colagrosso

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Because adaptability greatly improves the performance of a broadcast protocol, we identify three ways in which machine learning can be applied to broadcasting in a mobile ad hoc network (MANET. We chose broadcasting because it functions as a foundation of MANET communication. Unicast, multicast, and geocast protocols utilize broadcasting as a building block, providing important control and route establishment functionality. Therefore, any improvements to the process of broadcasting can be immediately realized by higher-level MANET functionality and applications. While efficient broadcast protocols have been proposed, no single broadcasting protocol works well in all possible MANET conditions. Furthermore, protocols tend to fail catastrophically in severe network environments. Our three classes of adaptive protocols are pure machine learning, intra-protocol learning, and inter-protocol learning. In the pure machine learning approach, we exhibit a new approach to the design of a broadcast protocol: the decision of whether to rebroadcast a packet is cast as a classification problem. Each mobile node (MN builds a classifier and trains it on data collected from the network environment. Using intra-protocol learning, each MN consults a simple machine model for the optimal value of one of its free parameters. Lastly, in inter-protocol learning, MNs learn to switch between different broadcasting protocols based on network conditions. For each class of learning method, we create a prototypical protocol and examine its performance in simulation.

  5. Intelligent Broadcasting in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: Three Classes of Adaptive Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colagrosso Michael D

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Because adaptability greatly improves the performance of a broadcast protocol, we identify three ways in which machine learning can be applied to broadcasting in a mobile ad hoc network (MANET. We chose broadcasting because it functions as a foundation of MANET communication. Unicast, multicast, and geocast protocols utilize broadcasting as a building block, providing important control and route establishment functionality. Therefore, any improvements to the process of broadcasting can be immediately realized by higher-level MANET functionality and applications. While efficient broadcast protocols have been proposed, no single broadcasting protocol works well in all possible MANET conditions. Furthermore, protocols tend to fail catastrophically in severe network environments. Our three classes of adaptive protocols are pure machine learning, intra-protocol learning, and inter-protocol learning. In the pure machine learning approach, we exhibit a new approach to the design of a broadcast protocol: the decision of whether to rebroadcast a packet is cast as a classification problem. Each mobile node (MN builds a classifier and trains it on data collected from the network environment. Using intra-protocol learning, each MN consults a simple machine model for the optimal value of one of its free parameters. Lastly, in inter-protocol learning, MNs learn to switch between different broadcasting protocols based on network conditions. For each class of learning method, we create a prototypical protocol and examine its performance in simulation.

  6. A Passive Testing Approach for Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Che

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Smart systems are today increasingly developed with the number of wireless sensor devices drastically increasing. They are implemented within several contexts throughout our environment. Thus, sensed data transported in ubiquitous systems are important, and the way to carry them must be efficient and reliable. For that purpose, several routing protocols have been proposed for wireless sensor networks (WSN. However, one stage that is often neglected before their deployment is the conformance testing process, a crucial and challenging step. Compared to active testing techniques commonly used in wired networks, passive approaches are more suitable to the WSN environment. While some works propose to specify the protocol with state models or to analyze them with simulators and emulators, we here propose a logic-based approach for formally specifying some functional requirements of a novel WSN routing protocol. We provide an algorithm to evaluate these properties on collected protocol execution traces. Further, we demonstrate the efficiency and suitability of our approach by its application into common WSN functional properties, as well as specific ones designed from our own routing protocol. We provide relevant testing verdicts through a real indoor testbed and the implementation of our protocol. Furthermore, the flexibility, genericity and practicability of our approach have been proven by the experimental results.

  7. A Passive Testing Approach for Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Xiaoping; Maag, Stephane; Tan, Hwee-Xian; Tan, Hwee-Pink; Zhou, Zhangbing

    2015-01-01

    Smart systems are today increasingly developed with the number of wireless sensor devices drastically increasing. They are implemented within several contexts throughout our environment. Thus, sensed data transported in ubiquitous systems are important, and the way to carry them must be efficient and reliable. For that purpose, several routing protocols have been proposed for wireless sensor networks (WSN). However, one stage that is often neglected before their deployment is the conformance testing process, a crucial and challenging step. Compared to active testing techniques commonly used in wired networks, passive approaches are more suitable to the WSN environment. While some works propose to specify the protocol with state models or to analyze them with simulators and emulators, we here propose a logic-based approach for formally specifying some functional requirements of a novel WSN routing protocol. We provide an algorithm to evaluate these properties on collected protocol execution traces. Further, we demonstrate the efficiency and suitability of our approach by its application into common WSN functional properties, as well as specific ones designed from our own routing protocol. We provide relevant testing verdicts through a real indoor testbed and the implementation of our protocol. Furthermore, the flexibility, genericity and practicability of our approach have been proven by the experimental results. PMID:26610495

  8. The Evolution of Web Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, B

    1999-01-01

    This paper outlines the evolution of World Wide Web protocols. The paper reviews the original protocols developed for the web, in addressing, transport and data formats. A review of developments of the protocols is given, including developments of web data formats (HTML 4.0, cascading stylesheets and XML), transport (HTTP/1.1 and HTTP/NG) and addressing (URLs). The paper describes how the web initially lacked a metadata architecture and outlines the emergence of a metadata architecture for th...

  9. Static Validation of Security Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodei, Chiara; Buchholtz, Mikael; Degano, P.

    2005-01-01

    We methodically expand protocol narrations into terms of a process algebra in order to specify some of the checks that need to be made in a protocol. We then apply static analysis technology to develop an automatic validation procedure for protocols. Finally, we demonstrate that these techniques ...... suffice to identify several authentication flaws in symmetric and asymmetric key protocols such as Needham-Schroeder symmetric key, Otway-Rees, Yahalom, Andrew secure RPC, Needham-Schroeder asymmetric key, and Beller-Chang-Yacobi MSR...

  10. Host Identity Protocol Proxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmela, Patrik; Melén, Jan

    The Host Identity Protocol (HIP) is one of the more recent designs that challenge the current Internet architecture. The main features of HIP are security and the identifier-locator split, which solves the problem of overloading the IP address with two separate tasks. This paper studies the possibility of providing HIP services to legacy hosts via a HIP proxy. Making a host HIP enabled requires that the IP-stack of the host is updated to support HIP. From a network administrator's perspective this can be a large obstacle. However, by providing HIP from a centralized point, a HIP proxy, the transition to begin using HIP can be made smoother. This and other arguments for a HIP proxy will be presented in this paper along with an analysis of a prototype HIP proxy and its performance.

  11. Unconditionally Secure Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meldgaard, Sigurd Torkel

    This thesis contains research on the theory of secure multi-party computation (MPC). Especially information theoretically (as opposed to computationally) secure protocols. It contains results from two main lines of work. One line on Information Theoretically Secure Oblivious RAMS, and how....... We construct an oblivious RAM that hides the client's access pattern with information theoretic security with an amortized $\\log^3 N$ query overhead. And how to employ a second server that is guaranteed not to conspire with the first to improve the overhead to $\\log^2 N$, while also avoiding...... they are used to speed up secure computation. An Oblivious RAM is a construction for a client with a small $O(1)$ internal memory to store $N$ pieces of data on a server while revealing nothing more than the size of the memory $N$, and the number of accesses. This specifically includes hiding the access pattern...

  12. Protocols for Scholarly Communication

    CERN Document Server

    Pepe, Alberto; Pepe, Alberto; Yeomans, Joanne

    2007-01-01

    CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, has operated an institutional preprint repository for more than 10 years. The repository contains over 850,000 records of which more than 450,000 are full-text OA preprints, mostly in the field of particle physics, and it is integrated with the library's holdings of books, conference proceedings, journals and other grey literature. In order to encourage effective propagation and open access to scholarly material, CERN is implementing a range of innovative library services into its document repository: automatic keywording, reference extraction, collaborative management tools and bibliometric tools. Some of these services, such as user reviewing and automatic metadata extraction, could make up an interesting testbed for future publishing solutions and certainly provide an exciting environment for e-science possibilities. The future protocol for scientific communication should naturally guide authors towards OA publication and CERN wants to help reach a full...

  13. Wireless Power Transfer Protocols in Sensor Networks: Experiments and Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotiris Nikoletseas

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid technological advances in the domain of Wireless Power Transfer pave the way for novel methods for power management in systems of wireless devices, and recent research works have already started considering algorithmic solutions for tackling emerging problems. In this paper, we investigate the problem of efficient and balanced Wireless Power Transfer in Wireless Sensor Networks. We employ wireless chargers that replenish the energy of network nodes. We propose two protocols that configure the activity of the chargers. One protocol performs wireless charging focused on the charging efficiency, while the other aims at proper balance of the chargers’ residual energy. We conduct detailed experiments using real devices and we validate the experimental results via larger scale simulations. We observe that, in both the experimental evaluation and the evaluation through detailed simulations, both protocols achieve their main goals. The Charging Oriented protocol achieves good charging efficiency throughout the experiment, while the Energy Balancing protocol achieves a uniform distribution of energy within the chargers.

  14. Security Property Validation of the Sensor Network Encryption Protocol (SNEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salekul Islam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Since wireless sensor networks (WSNs have been designed to be deployed in an unsecured, public environment, secured communication is really vital for their wide-spread use. Among all of the communication protocols developed for WSN, the Security Protocols for Sensor Networks (SPINS is exceptional, as it has been designed with security as a goal. SPINS is composed of two building blocks: Secure Network Encryption Protocol (SNEP and the “micro” version of the Timed Efficient Streaming Loss-tolerant Authentication (TESLA, named μTESLA. From the inception of SPINS, a number of efforts have been made to validate its security properties. In this paper, we have validated the security properties of SNEP by using an automated security protocol validation tool, named AVISPA. Using the protocol specification language, HLPSL, we model two combined scenarios—node to node key agreement and counter exchange protocols—followed by data transmission. Next, we validate the security properties of these combined protocols, using different AVISPA back-ends. AVISPA reports the models we have developed free from attacks. However, by analyzing the key distribution sub-protocol, we find one threat of a potential DoS attack that we have demonstrated by modeling in AVISPA. Finally, we propose a modification, and AVISPA reports this modified version free from the potential DoS attack.

  15. Performance analysis of routing protocols for IoT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manda, Sridhar; Nalini, N.

    2018-04-01

    Internet of Things (IoT) is an arrangement of advancements that are between disciplinary. It is utilized to have compelling combination of both physical and computerized things. With IoT physical things can have personal virtual identities and participate in distributed computing. Realization of IoT needs the usage of sensors based on the sector for which IoT is integrated. For instance, in healthcare domain, IoT needs to have integration with wearable sensors used by patients. As sensor devices produce huge amount of data, often called big data, there should be efficient routing protocols in place. To the extent remote systems is worried there are some current protocols, for example, OLSR, DSR and AODV. It additionally tosses light into Trust based routing protocol for low-power and lossy systems (TRPL) for IoT. These are broadly utilized remote directing protocols. As IoT is developing round the corner, it is basic to investigate routing protocols that and evaluate their execution regarding throughput, end to end delay, and directing overhead. The execution experiences can help in settling on very much educated choices while incorporating remote systems with IoT. In this paper, we analyzed different routing protocols and their performance is compared. It is found that AODV showed better performance than other routing protocols aforementioned.

  16. COSR: A Reputation-Based Secure Route Protocol in MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang LaurenceT

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Now, the route protocols defined in the Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET are constructed in a common assumption which all nodes contained in such networks are trustworthy and cooperative. Once malicious or selfish nodes exist, all route paths built by these protocols must be broken immediately. According to the secure problems within MANET, this paper proposes Cooperative On-demand Secure Route (COSR, a novel secure source route protocol, against malicious and selfish behaviors. COSR measures node reputation (NR and route reputation (RR by contribution, Capability of Forwarding (CoF and recommendation upon Dynamic Source Route (DSR and uses RR to balance load to avoid hotpoint. Furthermore, COSR defines path collection algorithm by NR to enhance efficiency of protocol. At last, we verify COSR through GloMoSim. Results show that COSR is secure and stable.

  17. Efficient entanglement distillation without quantum memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkhalek, Daniela; Syllwasschy, Mareike; Cerf, Nicolas J; Fiurášek, Jaromír; Schnabel, Roman

    2016-05-31

    Entanglement distribution between distant parties is an essential component to most quantum communication protocols. Unfortunately, decoherence effects such as phase noise in optical fibres are known to demolish entanglement. Iterative (multistep) entanglement distillation protocols have long been proposed to overcome decoherence, but their probabilistic nature makes them inefficient since the success probability decays exponentially with the number of steps. Quantum memories have been contemplated to make entanglement distillation practical, but suitable quantum memories are not realised to date. Here, we present the theory for an efficient iterative entanglement distillation protocol without quantum memories and provide a proof-of-principle experimental demonstration. The scheme is applied to phase-diffused two-mode-squeezed states and proven to distil entanglement for up to three iteration steps. The data are indistinguishable from those that an efficient scheme using quantum memories would produce. Since our protocol includes the final measurement it is particularly promising for enhancing continuous-variable quantum key distribution.

  18. Context-Aware Multicast Protocol for Emergency Message Dissemination in Vehicular Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvin Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    emergency messages may be sent to a large number of vehicles in the area and can be propagated to only one direction. This paper presents a more efficient context-aware multicast protocol that disseminates messages only to endangered vehicles that may be affected by the emergency event. The endangered vehicles can be identified by calculating the interaction among vehicles based on their motion properties. To ensure fast delivery, the dissemination follows a routing path obtained by computing a minimum delay tree. The multicast protocol uses a generalized approach that can support any arbitrary road topology. The performance of the multicast protocol is compared with existing broadcast protocols by simulating chain collision accidents on a typical highway. Simulation results show that the multicast protocol outperforms the other protocols in terms of reliability, efficiency, and latency.

  19. Resource Usage Protocols for Iterators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Marieke; Haack, C.; Müller, P.; Hurlin, C.

    We discuss usage protocols for iterator objects that prevent concurrent modifications of the underlying collection while iterators are in progress. We formalize these protocols in Java-like object interfaces, enriched with separation logic contracts. We present examples of iterator clients and

  20. Gene probes: principles and protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aquino de Muro, Marilena; Rapley, Ralph

    2002-01-01

    ... of labeled DNA has allowed genes to be mapped to single chromosomes and in many cases to a single chromosome band, promoting significant advance in human genome mapping. Gene Probes: Principles and Protocols presents the principles for gene probe design, labeling, detection, target format, and hybridization conditions together with detailed protocols, accom...

  1. Developing frameworks for protocol implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Barros Barbosa, C.; de barros Barbosa, C.; Ferreira Pires, Luis

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a method to develop frameworks for protocol implementation. Frameworks are software structures developed for a specific application domain, which can be reused in the implementation of various different concrete systems in this domain. The use of frameworks support a protocol

  2. A software defined RTU multi-protocol automatic adaptation data transmission method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Huiying; Xu, Xingwu; Wang, Zhanfeng; Ma, Weijun; Li, Sheng; Su, Yong; Pan, Yunpeng

    2018-02-01

    Remote terminal unit (RTU) is the core device of the monitor system in hydrology and water resources. Different devices often have different communication protocols in the application layer, which results in the difficulty in information analysis and communication networking. Therefore, we introduced the idea of software defined hardware, and abstracted the common feature of mainstream communication protocols of RTU application layer, and proposed a uniformed common protocol model. Then, various communication protocol algorithms of application layer are modularized according to the model. The executable codes of these algorithms are labeled by the virtual functions and stored in the flash chips of embedded CPU to form the protocol stack. According to the configuration commands to initialize the RTU communication systems, it is able to achieve dynamic assembling and loading of various application layer communication protocols of RTU and complete the efficient transport of sensor data from RTU to central station when the data acquisition protocol of sensors and various external communication terminals remain unchanged.

  3. An energy-aware routing protocol for query-based applications in wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahvar, Ehsan; Ahvar, Shohreh; Lee, Gyu Myoung; Crespi, Noel

    2014-01-01

    Wireless sensor network (WSN) typically has energy consumption restriction. Designing energy-aware routing protocol can significantly reduce energy consumption in WSNs. Energy-aware routing protocols can be classified into two categories, energy savers and energy balancers. Energy saving protocols are used to minimize the overall energy consumed by a WSN, while energy balancing protocols attempt to efficiently distribute the consumption of energy throughout the network. In general terms, energy saving protocols are not necessarily good at balancing energy consumption and energy balancing protocols are not always good at reducing energy consumption. In this paper, we propose an energy-aware routing protocol (ERP) for query-based applications in WSNs, which offers a good trade-off between traditional energy balancing and energy saving objectives and supports a soft real time packet delivery. This is achieved by means of fuzzy sets and learning automata techniques along with zonal broadcasting to decrease total energy consumption.

  4. The effects of different irrigation protocols on removing calcium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiencies of different irrigation protocols and solutions in the removal of calcium hydroxide (Ca[OH]2). Materials and Methods: Sixty-eight maxillary incisors were used. Root canals were prepared and filled with Ca(OH)2. Two control (n = 4) and six experimental groups (n ...

  5. Exploring storage protocols for yam ( Dioscorea spp.) pollen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Implementation of pollen genebanks allows the conservation of plant genetic resources at the haploid level, pollen genetic manipulations, scheduling of hybrid seed production and improvement of breeding efficiency. To establish pollen storage protocols for various genotypes of West African yams, laboratory experiments ...

  6. Exploring storage protocols for yam (Dioscorea spp.) pollen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-08

    Aug 8, 2011 ... Implementation of pollen genebanks allows the conservation of plant genetic resources at the haploid level, pollen genetic manipulations, scheduling of hybrid seed production and improvement of breeding efficiency. To establish pollen storage protocols for various genotypes of West African yams, ...

  7. Direct regeneration protocols of five Capsicum annuum L. varieties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bud induction obtained is a simple and efficient protocol developed for in vitro propagation of five varieties of cultivars. Seeds of Capsicum annuum L. of five varieties red, yellow, green, purple and white were decontaminated and placed in a culture bottle containing a Murashige and Skoog medium, supplemented with ...

  8. Adhesive Micropatterns for Cells: A Microcontact Printing Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Authors: Manuel Théry and Matthieu Piel Corresponding authors ([](); []()) ### INTRODUCTION This protocol describes a simple, fast, and efficient method for making adhesive micropatterns that can be used to control individual cell shape and adhesion patterns. It is based on the use of an elastomeric stamp containing microfeatures to print proteins on the substrate of choice. The process can be subdiv...

  9. A Lightweight RFID Grouping-Proof Protocol Based on Parallel Mode and DHCP Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhicai Shi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A Radio Frequency Identification (RFID grouping-proof protocol is to generate an evidence of the simultaneous existence of a group of tags and it has been applied to many different fields. For current grouping-proof protocols, there still exist some flaws such as low grouping-proof efficiency, being vulnerable to trace attack and information leakage. To improve the secure performance and efficiency, we propose a lightweight RFID grouping-proof protocol based on parallel mode and DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol mechanism. Our protocol involves multiple readers and multiple tag groups. During the grouping-proof period, one reader and one tag group are chosen by the verifier by means of DHCP mechanism. When only a part of the tags of the chosen group exist, the protocol can also give the evidence of their co-existence. Our protocol utilizes parallel communication mode between reader and tags so as to ensure its grouping-proof efficiency. It only uses Hash function to complete the mutual authentication among verifier, readers and tags. It can preserve the privacy of the RFID system and resist the attacks such as eavesdropping, replay, trace and impersonation. Therefore the protocol is secure, flexible and efficient. It only uses some lightweight operations such as Hash function and a pseudorandom number generator. Therefore it is very suitable to some low-cost RFID systems.

  10. A Secure RFID Tag Authentication Protocol with Privacy Preserving in Telecare Medicine Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Ta; Weng, Chi-Yao; Lee, Cheng-Chi

    2015-08-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) based solutions are widely used for providing many healthcare applications include patient monitoring, object traceability, drug administration system and telecare medicine information system (TMIS) etc. In order to reduce malpractices and ensure patient privacy, in 2015, Srivastava et al. proposed a hash based RFID tag authentication protocol in TMIS. Their protocol uses lightweight hash operation and synchronized secret value shared between back-end server and tag, which is more secure and efficient than other related RFID authentication protocols. Unfortunately, in this paper, we demonstrate that Srivastava et al.'s tag authentication protocol has a serious security problem in that an adversary may use the stolen/lost reader to connect to the medical back-end server that store information associated with tagged objects and this privacy damage causing the adversary could reveal medical data obtained from stolen/lost readers in a malicious way. Therefore, we propose a secure and efficient RFID tag authentication protocol to overcome security flaws and improve the system efficiency. Compared with Srivastava et al.'s protocol, the proposed protocol not only inherits the advantages of Srivastava et al.'s authentication protocol for TMIS but also provides better security with high system efficiency.

  11. Protocols.io: Virtual Communities for Protocol Development and Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teytelman, Leonid; Stoliartchouk, Alexei; Kindler, Lori; Hurwitz, Bonnie L

    2016-08-01

    The detailed know-how to implement research protocols frequently remains restricted to the research group that developed the method or technology. This knowledge often exists at a level that is too detailed for inclusion in the methods section of scientific articles. Consequently, methods are not easily reproduced, leading to a loss of time and effort by other researchers. The challenge is to develop a method-centered collaborative platform to connect with fellow researchers and discover state-of-the-art knowledge. Protocols.io is an open-access platform for detailing, sharing, and discussing molecular and computational protocols that can be useful before, during, and after publication of research results.

  12. The impact of RNA sequence library construction protocols on transcriptomic profiling of leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashwini; Kankainen, Matti; Parsons, Alun; Kallioniemi, Olli; Mattila, Pirkko; Heckman, Caroline A

    2017-08-17

    RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has become an indispensable tool to identify disease associated transcriptional profiles and determine the molecular underpinnings of diseases. However, the broad adaptation of the methodology into the clinic is still hampered by inconsistent results from different RNA-seq protocols and involves further evaluation of its analytical reliability using patient samples. Here, we applied two commonly used RNA-seq library preparation protocols to samples from acute leukemia patients to understand how poly-A-tailed mRNA selection (PA) and ribo-depletion (RD) based RNA-seq library preparation protocols affect gene fusion detection, variant calling, and gene expression profiling. Overall, the protocols produced similar results with consistent outcomes. Nevertheless, the PA protocol was more efficient in quantifying expression of leukemia marker genes and showed better performance in the expression-based classification of leukemia. Independent qRT-PCR experiments verified that the PA protocol better represented total RNA compared to the RD protocol. In contrast, the RD protocol detected a higher number of non-coding RNA features and had better alignment efficiency. The RD protocol also recovered more known fusion-gene events, although variability was seen in fusion gene predictions. The overall findings provide a framework for the use of RNA-seq in a precision medicine setting with limited number of samples and suggest that selection of the library preparation protocol should be based on the objectives of the analysis.

  13. Evaluation of SVR: A Wireless Sensor Network Routing Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed Ali Baloch

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The advancement in technology has made it possible to create small in size, low cost sensor nodes. However, the small size and low cost of such nodes comesat at price that is, reduced processing power, low memory and significantly small battery energy storage. WSNs (Wireless Sensor Networks are inherently ad hoc in nature and are assumed to work in the toughest terrain. The network lifetime plays a pivotal role in a wireless sensor network. A long network lifetime, could be achieved by either making significant changes in these low cost devices, which is not a feasible solution or by improving the means of communication throughout the network. The communication in such networks could be improved by employing energy efficient routing protocols, to route the data throughout the network. In this paper the SVR (Spatial Vector Routing protocol is compared against the most common WSN routing protocols, and from the results it could be inferred that the SVR protocol out performs its counterparts. The protocol provides an energy efficient means of communication in the network

  14. Evaluation of svr: a wireless sensor network routing protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, J.; Khanzada, T.J.S.

    2014-01-01

    The advancement in technology has made it possible to create small in size, low cost sensor nodes. However, the small size and low cost of such nodes comesat at price that is, reduced processing power, low memory and significantly small battery energy storage. WSNs (Wireless Sensor Networks) are inherently ad hoc in nature and are assumed to work in the toughest terrain. The network lifetime plays a pivotal role in a wireless sensor network. A long network lifetime, could be achieved by either making significant changes in these low cost devices, which is not a feasible solution or by improving the means of communication throughout the network. The communication in such networks could be improved by employing energy efficient routing protocols, to route the data throughout the network. In this paper the SVR (Spatial Vector Routing) protocol is compared against the most common WSN routing protocols, and from the results it could be inferred that the SVR protocol out performs its counterparts. The protocol provides an energy efficient means of communication in the network. (author)

  15. SIP protocol model for OMNET++

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kucerak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes our new SIP protocol implementation for the OMNeT++ simulation framework. OMNeT++ simulation framework provides an extensive support of IP related protocols, nevertheless a working SIP protocol implementation is missing. Real measurements were also done using a SIPp traffic generator and the results are compared to those obtained by our new SIP model. Since this work is a part of bigger project concerned strictly on measuring "first response times" over networks with a faulty transmission links, the actually collected statistics are focused only this way.

  16. Energy-Efficient Routing in GMPLS Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jiayuan; Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Ruepp, Sarah Renée

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a GMPLS controlled core network model that takes energy efficiency into account is built using OPNET MODELER. By extending the standard GMPLS routing protocol -- OSPF-TE, we are able to spread desired energy related information over the local area, and subsequently use RSVP......-TE for connection setup. The OSPF designing process of the simulation model is given in details, including necessary simplifications to enable a fast implementation while keeping the key characteristics of the GMPLS protocol behaviors. The efficiency of the proposed extensions are analyzed, and improved energy...

  17. Identification of a research protocol to study orthodontic tooth movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Dichicco

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The orthodontic movement is associated with a process of tissue remodeling together with the release of several chemical mediators in periodontal tissues. Each mediator is a potential marker of tooth movement and expresses biological processes as: tissue inflammation and bone remodeling. Different amounts of every mediator are present in several tissues and fluids of the oral cavity. Therefore, there are different methods that allow sampling with several degrees of invasiveness. Chemical mediators are also substances of different molecular nature, and multiple kind of analysis methods allow detection. The purpose of this study was to draft the best research protocol for an optimal study on orthodontic movement efficiency. Methods: An analysis of the international literature have been made, to identify the gold standard of each aspect of the protocol: type of mediator, source and method of sampling and analysis method. Results: From the analysis of the international literature was created an original research protocol for the study and the assessment of the orthodontic movement, by using the biomarkers of the tooth movement. Conclusions: The protocol created is based on the choice of the gold standard of every aspect already analyzed in the literature and in existing protocols for the monitoring of orthodontic tooth movement through the markers of tooth movement. Clinical trials re required for the evaluation and validation of the protocol created.

  18. A PROPOSED MAPPING ARCHITECTURE BETWEEN IAX AND JINGLE PROTOCOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadeel Saleh Haj Aliwi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, multimedia communication has improved rapidly to allow people to communicate via the Internet. However, Internet users cannot communicate with each other unless they use the same chatting applications since each chatting application uses a certain signaling protocol to make the media call. The mapping architecture is a very critical issue since it solves the communication problems between any two protocols, as well as it enables people around the world to make a voice/video call even if they use different chatting applications. Providing the interoperability between different signaling protocols and multimedia applications takes the advantages of more than one protocol. Many mapping architectures have been proposed to ease exchanging the media between at least two users without facing any difficulties such as SIP-Jingle, IAX-RSW, H.323-MGCP, etc. However, the design of any of the existing mapping architectures has some weaknesses related to larger delay, time consuming, and security matters. The only way to overcome these problems is to propose an efficient mapping architecture. This paper proposed a new mapping architecture between Inter-Asterisk eXchange Protocol and Jingle Protocol. The proposed mapping architecture consists of IAX domain (IAX client, IAX server, IAX-to-Jingle gateway, and Jingle domain (Jingle client, Jingle server, Jingle-to-IAX gateway. The tasks of the translation gateways are represented by the URI conversion, media capability exchange, translator of call setup and teardown signals, and real time media transmission.

  19. A protocol for amide bond formation with electron deficient amines and sterically hindered substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due-Hansen, Maria E; Pandey, Sunil K; Christiansen, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    A protocol for amide coupling by in situ formation of acyl fluorides and reaction with amines at elevated temperature has been developed and found to be efficient for coupling of sterically hindered substrates and electron deficient amines where standard methods failed.......A protocol for amide coupling by in situ formation of acyl fluorides and reaction with amines at elevated temperature has been developed and found to be efficient for coupling of sterically hindered substrates and electron deficient amines where standard methods failed....

  20. Medium Access Control Protocols for Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks: A Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zareei, Mahdi; Islam, A K M Muzahidul; Baharun, Sabariah; Vargas-Rosales, Cesar; Azpilicueta, Leyre; Mansoor, Nafees

    2017-09-16

    New wireless network paradigms will demand higher spectrum use and availability to cope with emerging data-hungry devices. Traditional static spectrum allocation policies cause spectrum scarcity, and new paradigms such as Cognitive Radio (CR) and new protocols and techniques need to be developed in order to have efficient spectrum usage. Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols are accountable for recognizing free spectrum, scheduling available resources and coordinating the coexistence of heterogeneous systems and users. This paper provides an ample review of the state-of-the-art MAC protocols, which mainly focuses on Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks (CRAHN). First, a description of the cognitive radio fundamental functions is presented. Next, MAC protocols are divided into three groups, which are based on their channel access mechanism, namely time-slotted protocol, random access protocol and hybrid protocol. In each group, a detailed and comprehensive explanation of the latest MAC protocols is presented, as well as the pros and cons of each protocol. A discussion on future challenges for CRAHN MAC protocols is included with a comparison of the protocols from a functional perspective.

  1. Batch efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwickerath, Ulrich; Silva, Ricardo; Uria, Christian

    2010-01-01

    A frequent source of concern for resource providers is the efficient use of computing resources in their centers. This has a direct impact on requests for new resources. There are two different but strongly correlated aspects to be considered: while users are mostly interested in a good turn-around time for their jobs, resource providers are mostly interested in a high and efficient usage of their available resources. Both things, the box usage and the efficiency of individual user jobs, need to be closely monitored so that the sources of the inefficiencies can be identified. At CERN, the Lemon monitoring system is used for both purposes. Examples of such sources are poorly written user code, inefficient access to mass storage systems, and dedication of resources to specific user groups. As a first step for improvements CERN has launched a project to develop a scheduler add-on that allows careful overloading of worker nodes that run idle jobs.

  2. A Comprehensive Survey on Hierarchical-Based Routing Protocols for Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks: Review, Taxonomy, and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil Sabor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducing mobility to Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs puts new challenges particularly in designing of routing protocols. Mobility can be applied to the sensor nodes and/or the sink node in the network. Many routing protocols have been developed to support the mobility of WSNs. These protocols are divided depending on the routing structure into hierarchical-based, flat-based, and location-based routing protocols. However, the hierarchical-based routing protocols outperform the other routing types in saving energy, scalability, and extending lifetime of Mobile WSNs (MWSNs. Selecting an appropriate hierarchical routing protocol for specific applications is an important and difficult task. Therefore, this paper focuses on reviewing some of the recently hierarchical-based routing protocols that are developed in the last five years for MWSNs. This survey divides the hierarchical-based routing protocols into two broad groups, namely, classical-based and optimized-based routing protocols. Also, we present a detailed classification of the reviewed protocols according to the routing approach, control manner, mobile element, mobility pattern, network architecture, clustering attributes, protocol operation, path establishment, communication paradigm, energy model, protocol objectives, and applications. Moreover, a comparison between the reviewed protocols is investigated in this survey depending on delay, network size, energy-efficiency, and scalability while mentioning the advantages and drawbacks of each protocol. Finally, we summarize and conclude the paper with future directions.

  3. Characterizing and Implementing Efficient Primitives for Privacy-Preserving Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    4 Efficient Mobile Oblivious Computation ( EMOC ) .................................................................... 4 Memory...Assumptions and Procedures  Efficient Mobile Oblivious Computation ( EMOC )  Mobile applications increasingly require users to surrender private...In this effort, we developed Efficient Mobile Oblivious Computation ( EMOC ), a set of SFE protocols customized for the mobile platform. Using

  4. Recommended protocols for sampling macrofungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory M. Mueller; John Paul Schmit; Sabine M. Hubndorf Leif Ryvarden; Thomas E. O' Dell; D. Jean Lodge; Patrick R. Leacock; Milagro Mata; Loengrin Umania; Qiuxin (Florence) Wu; Daniel L. Czederpiltz

    2004-01-01

    This chapter discusses several issues regarding reommended protocols for sampling macrofungi: Opportunistic sampling of macrofungi, sampling conspicuous macrofungi using fixed-size, sampling small Ascomycetes using microplots, and sampling a fixed number of downed logs.

  5. Automata-theoretic protocol programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongmans, Sung-Shik Theodorus Quirinus

    2016-01-01

    Parallel programming has become essential for writing scalable programs on general hardware. Conceptually, every parallel program consists of workers, which implement primary units of sequential computation, and protocols, which implement the rules of interaction that workers must abide by. As

  6. A Mac Protocol Implementation for Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamila Bhar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available IEEE 802.15.4 is an important standard for Low Rate Wireless Personal Area Network (LRWPAN. The IEEE 802.15.4 presents a flexible MAC protocol that provides good efficiency for data transmission by adapting its parameters according to characteristics of different applications. In this research work, some restrictions of this standard are explained and an improvement of traffic efficiency by optimizing MAC layer is proposed. Implementation details for several blocks of communication system are carefully modeled. The protocol implementation is done using VHDL language. The analysis gives a full understanding of the behavior of the MAC protocol with regard to backoff delay, data loss probability, congestion probability, slot effectiveness, and traffic distribution for terminals. Two ideas are proposed and tested to improve efficiency of CSMA/CA mechanism for IEEE 802.15.4 MAC Layer. Primarily, we dynamically adjust the backoff exponent (BE according to queue level of each node. Secondly, we vary the number of consecutive clear channel assessment (CCA for packet transmission. We demonstrate also that slot compensation provided by the enhanced MAC protocol can greatly avoid unused slots. The results show the significant improvements expected by our approach among the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC standards. Synthesis results show also hardware performances of our proposed architecture.

  7. Performance evaluation of spatial vector routing protocol for wireless sensor networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, J.; Jokhio, I.

    2012-01-01

    WSNs (Wireless Sensor Networks) is an emerging area of research. Researchers worldwide are working on the issues faced by sensor nodes. Communication has been a major issue in wireless networks and the problem is manifolds in WSN s because of the limited resources. The routing protocol in such networks plays a pivotal role, as an effective routing protocol could significantly reduce the energy consumed in transmitting and receiving data packets throughout a network. In this paper the performance of SVR (Spatial Vector Routing) an energy efficient, location aware routing protocol is compared with the existing location aware protocols. The results from the simulation trials show the performance of SVR. (author)

  8. An Optimized Gateway-Oriented Password-Based Authenticated Key Exchange Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Eun-Jun; Yoo, Kee-Young

    This research paper points out that the gateway-oriented password-based authenticated key exchange protocol recently developed by Shim (S-GPAKE) was inefficiently and incorrectly designed to overcome an undetectable on-line password guessing attack. To resolve the computation efficiency and security problems, an optimized GPAKE protocol (O-GPAKE), which was not only secure against various security attacks, but also had considerably lower computational cost and provided mutual authentication unlike previous related protocols including the S-GPAKE protocol was proposed.

  9. Performance Evaluation of Spatial Vector Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed Ali Baloch

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available WSNs (Wireless Sensor Networks is an emerging area of research. Researchers worldwide are working on the issues faced by sensor nodes. Communication has been a major issue in wireless networks and the problem is manifolds in WSNs because of the limited resources. The routing protocol in such networks plays a pivotal role, as an effective routing protocol could significantly reduce the energy consumed in transmitting and receiving data packets throughout a network. In this paper the performance of SVR (Spatial Vector Routing an energy efficient, location aware routing protocol is compared with the existing location aware protocols. The results from the simulation trials show the performance of SVR.

  10. Cooperative Energy Harvesting-Adaptive MAC Protocol for WBANs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Esteves

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce a cooperative medium access control (MAC protocol, named cooperative energy harvesting (CEH-MAC, that adapts its operation to the energy harvesting (EH conditions in wireless body area networks (WBANs. In particular, the proposed protocol exploits the EH information in order to set an idle time that allows the relay nodes to charge their batteries and complete the cooperation phase successfully. Extensive simulations have shown that CEH-MAC significantly improves the network performance in terms of throughput, delay and energy efficiency compared to the cooperative operation of the baseline IEEE 802.15.6 standard.

  11. Z-Chord:Zipf-law Used in Chord Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-zhong Xiao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Chord protocol is one of the most classical protocols in structured P2P system, with the good effect, reliability, high query efficiency, and many other advantages. However, Chord agreement remain two main shortcomings, this paper in view of these shortcomings, combination with modification, then put forward the new Chord structure that super nodes and common nodes coexist, super nodes management general nodes. The new structure using Zipf-law determines the proportion of super nodes and ordinary nodes, the simulation results proved that the new structure has good performance.

  12. An Enhanced Biometric Based Authentication with Key-Agreement Protocol for Multi-Server Architecture Based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Alavalapati Goutham; Das, Ashok Kumar; Odelu, Vanga; Yoo, Kee-Young

    2016-01-01

    Biometric based authentication protocols for multi-server architectures have gained momentum in recent times due to advancements in wireless technologies and associated constraints. Lu et al. recently proposed a robust biometric based authentication with key agreement protocol for a multi-server environment using smart cards. They claimed that their protocol is efficient and resistant to prominent security attacks. The careful investigation of this paper proves that Lu et al.’s protocol does not provide user anonymity, perfect forward secrecy and is susceptible to server and user impersonation attacks, man-in-middle attacks and clock synchronization problems. In addition, this paper proposes an enhanced biometric based authentication with key-agreement protocol for multi-server architecture based on elliptic curve cryptography using smartcards. We proved that the proposed protocol achieves mutual authentication using Burrows-Abadi-Needham (BAN) logic. The formal security of the proposed protocol is verified using the AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications) tool to show that our protocol can withstand active and passive attacks. The formal and informal security analyses and performance analysis demonstrates that the proposed protocol is robust and efficient compared to Lu et al.’s protocol and existing similar protocols. PMID:27163786

  13. An Enhanced Biometric Based Authentication with Key-Agreement Protocol for Multi-Server Architecture Based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Alavalapati Goutham; Das, Ashok Kumar; Odelu, Vanga; Yoo, Kee-Young

    2016-01-01

    Biometric based authentication protocols for multi-server architectures have gained momentum in recent times due to advancements in wireless technologies and associated constraints. Lu et al. recently proposed a robust biometric based authentication with key agreement protocol for a multi-server environment using smart cards. They claimed that their protocol is efficient and resistant to prominent security attacks. The careful investigation of this paper proves that Lu et al.'s protocol does not provide user anonymity, perfect forward secrecy and is susceptible to server and user impersonation attacks, man-in-middle attacks and clock synchronization problems. In addition, this paper proposes an enhanced biometric based authentication with key-agreement protocol for multi-server architecture based on elliptic curve cryptography using smartcards. We proved that the proposed protocol achieves mutual authentication using Burrows-Abadi-Needham (BAN) logic. The formal security of the proposed protocol is verified using the AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications) tool to show that our protocol can withstand active and passive attacks. The formal and informal security analyses and performance analysis demonstrates that the proposed protocol is robust and efficient compared to Lu et al.'s protocol and existing similar protocols.

  14. An Enhanced Biometric Based Authentication with Key-Agreement Protocol for Multi-Server Architecture Based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alavalapati Goutham Reddy

    Full Text Available Biometric based authentication protocols for multi-server architectures have gained momentum in recent times due to advancements in wireless technologies and associated constraints. Lu et al. recently proposed a robust biometric based authentication with key agreement protocol for a multi-server environment using smart cards. They claimed that their protocol is efficient and resistant to prominent security attacks. The careful investigation of this paper proves that Lu et al.'s protocol does not provide user anonymity, perfect forward secrecy and is susceptible to server and user impersonation attacks, man-in-middle attacks and clock synchronization problems. In addition, this paper proposes an enhanced biometric based authentication with key-agreement protocol for multi-server architecture based on elliptic curve cryptography using smartcards. We proved that the proposed protocol achieves mutual authentication using Burrows-Abadi-Needham (BAN logic. The formal security of the proposed protocol is verified using the AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications tool to show that our protocol can withstand active and passive attacks. The formal and informal security analyses and performance analysis demonstrates that the proposed protocol is robust and efficient compared to Lu et al.'s protocol and existing similar protocols.

  15. Efficient production of transgenic Alstroemeria plants by using Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, J.B.; Raemakers, C.J.J.M.; Jacobsen, E.; Visser, R.G.F.

    2007-01-01

    A highly efficient and reproducible protocol was developed to obtain transgenic Alstroemeria plants by combining Agrobacterium tumefaciens with friable embryogenic callus (FEC). To develop this transformation method, factors such as infection time, cocultivation period, effect of acetosyringone

  16. An enhanced password authentication scheme for session initiation protocol with perfect forward secrecy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is an extensive and esteemed communication protocol employed to regulate signaling as well as for controlling multimedia communication sessions. Recently, Kumari et al. proposed an improved smart card based authentication scheme for SIP based on Farash’s scheme. Farash claimed that his protocol is resistant against various known attacks. But, we observe some accountable flaws in Farash’s protocol. We point out that Farash’s protocol is prone to key-compromise impersonation attack and is unable to provide pre-verification in the smart card, efficient password change and perfect forward secrecy. To overcome these limitations, in this paper we present an enhanced authentication mechanism based on Kumari et al.’s scheme. We prove that the proposed protocol not only overcomes the issues in Farash’s scheme, but it can also resist against all known attacks. We also provide the security analysis of the proposed scheme with the help of widespread AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications) software. At last, comparing with the earlier proposals in terms of security and efficiency, we conclude that the proposed protocol is efficient and more secure. PMID:29547619

  17. An enhanced password authentication scheme for session initiation protocol with perfect forward secrecy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Shuming; Xu, Guoai; Ahmad, Haseeb; Guo, Yanhui

    2018-01-01

    The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is an extensive and esteemed communication protocol employed to regulate signaling as well as for controlling multimedia communication sessions. Recently, Kumari et al. proposed an improved smart card based authentication scheme for SIP based on Farash's scheme. Farash claimed that his protocol is resistant against various known attacks. But, we observe some accountable flaws in Farash's protocol. We point out that Farash's protocol is prone to key-compromise impersonation attack and is unable to provide pre-verification in the smart card, efficient password change and perfect forward secrecy. To overcome these limitations, in this paper we present an enhanced authentication mechanism based on Kumari et al.'s scheme. We prove that the proposed protocol not only overcomes the issues in Farash's scheme, but it can also resist against all known attacks. We also provide the security analysis of the proposed scheme with the help of widespread AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications) software. At last, comparing with the earlier proposals in terms of security and efficiency, we conclude that the proposed protocol is efficient and more secure.

  18. A Novel Re-keying Function Protocol (NRFP) For Wireless Sensor Network Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Maan Younis; Hua, Gui Wei; Alsharabi, Naif

    2008-12-04

    This paper describes a novel re-keying function protocol (NRFP) for wireless sensor network security. A re-keying process management system for sensor networks is designed to support in-network processing. The design of the protocol is motivated by decentralization key management for wireless sensor networks (WSNs), covering key deployment, key refreshment, and key establishment. NRFP supports the establishment of novel administrative functions for sensor nodes that derive/re-derive a session key for each communication session. The protocol proposes direct connection, in-direct connection and hybrid connection. NRFP also includes an efficient protocol for local broadcast authentication based on the use of one-way key chains. A salient feature of the authentication protocol is that it supports source authentication without precluding in-network processing. Security and performance analysis shows that it is very efficient in computation, communication and storage and, that NRFP is also effective in defending against many sophisticated attacks.

  19. A Novel Re-keying Function Protocol (NRFP For Wireless Sensor Network Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naif Alsharabi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a novel re-keying function protocol (NRFP for wireless sensor network security. A re-keying process management system for sensor networks is designed to support in-network processing. The design of the protocol is motivated by decentralization key management for wireless sensor networks (WSNs, covering key deployment, key refreshment, and key establishment. NRFP supports the establishment of novel administrative functions for sensor nodes that derive/re-derive a session key for each communication session. The protocol proposes direct connection, in-direct connection and hybrid connection. NRFP also includes an efficient protocol for local broadcast authentication based on the use of one-way key chains. A salient feature of the authentication protocol is that it supports source authentication without precluding in-network processing. Security and performance analysis shows that it is very efficient in computation, communication and storage and, that NRFP is also effective in defending against many sophisticated attacks.

  20. Monoclonal antibodies technology. Protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acevado Castro, B.E.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Immunization. The first step in preparing useful monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) is to immunize an animal (Balb/c for example) with an appropriate antigen. Methods (only for soluble antigen): Solubilize selected antigen in Phosphate buffer solution (PBS) at pH 7.2-7.4, ideally at a final concentration per animal between 10 to 50 μg/ml. It is recommended that the antigen under consideration be incorporated into the emulsion adjuvants in 1:1 volumetric relation. We commonly use Frend's adjuvant (FA) to prepared immunized solution. The first immunization should be prepared with complete FA, and the another could be prepared with incomplete FA. It is recommended to inject mice with 0.2 ml intraperitoneal (ip) or subcutaneous (sc). Our experience suggests the sc route is the preferred route. A minimum protocol for immunizing mice to generate cells for preparing hybridomas is s follows: immunize sc on day 0, boost sc on day 21, take a trial bleeding on day 26; if antibody titters are satisfactory, boost ip on day 35 with antigen only, and remove the spleen to obtain cells for fusion on day 38. Fusion protocol. The myeloma cell line we are using is X63 Ag8.653. At the moment of fusion myeloma cells need a good viability (at least a 95%). 1. Remove the spleen cells from immunized mice using sterile conditions. An immune spleen should yield between 7 a 10x10 7 nucleated cells. 2. Place the spleen in 20 ml of serum-free RPMI 1640 in a Petri dish. Using a needle and syringe, inject the spleen with medium to distend and disrupt the spleen stroma and free the nucleated cells. 3. Flush the cell suspension with a Pasteur pipet to disperse clumps of cells. 4. Centrifuge the spleen cell suspension at 250g for 10 min. Resuspend the pellet in serum-free RPMI 1640. Determine cell concentration using Neuhabuer chamber. 5. Mix the myeloma cells and spleen cells in a conical 50-ml tube in serum-free RPMI 1640, 1 x10 7 spleen cells to 1x10 6 myeloma cells (ratio 10:1). Centrifuge

  1. An Novel Protocol for the Quantum Secure Multi-Party Summation Based on Two-Particle Bell States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen; Wang, Yong-Bin; Fan, Wen-Qin

    2017-09-01

    A protocol for the quantum secure multi-party summation based on two-particle Bell states is proposed. In this protocol, two-particle Bell states are used as private information carriers. Without using the entangled character of Bell states, we also use Pauli matrices operations to encode information and Hadamard matrix to extract information. The proposed protocol can also resist various attacks and overcomes the problem of information leakage with acceptable efficiency. In theory, our protocol can be used to build complex secure protocols for other multiparty computations and also lots of other important applications in distributed networks.

  2. Protocol vulnerability detection based on network traffic analysis and binary reverse engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Shameng; Meng, Qingkun; Feng, Chao; Tang, Chaojing

    2017-01-01

    Network protocol vulnerability detection plays an important role in many domains, including protocol security analysis, application security, and network intrusion detection. In this study, by analyzing the general fuzzing method of network protocols, we propose a novel approach that combines network traffic analysis with the binary reverse engineering method. For network traffic analysis, the block-based protocol description language is introduced to construct test scripts, while the binary reverse engineering method employs the genetic algorithm with a fitness function designed to focus on code coverage. This combination leads to a substantial improvement in fuzz testing for network protocols. We build a prototype system and use it to test several real-world network protocol implementations. The experimental results show that the proposed approach detects vulnerabilities more efficiently and effectively than general fuzzing methods such as SPIKE.

  3. Protocol vulnerability detection based on network traffic analysis and binary reverse engineering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shameng Wen

    Full Text Available Network protocol vulnerability detection plays an important role in many domains, including protocol security analysis, application security, and network intrusion detection. In this study, by analyzing the general fuzzing method of network protocols, we propose a novel approach that combines network traffic analysis with the binary reverse engineering method. For network traffic analysis, the block-based protocol description language is introduced to construct test scripts, while the binary reverse engineering method employs the genetic algorithm with a fitness function designed to focus on code coverage. This combination leads to a substantial improvement in fuzz testing for network protocols. We build a prototype system and use it to test several real-world network protocol implementations. The experimental results show that the proposed approach detects vulnerabilities more efficiently and effectively than general fuzzing methods such as SPIKE.

  4. Efficient ICT for efficient smart grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2012-01-01

    In this extended abstract the need for efficient and reliable ICT is discussed. Efficiency of ICT not only deals with energy-efficient ICT hardware, but also deals with efficient algorithms, efficient design methods, efficient networking infrastructures, etc. Efficient and reliable ICT is a

  5. Advanced information processing system: Authentication protocols for network communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Richard E.; Adams, Stuart J.; Babikyan, Carol A.; Butler, Bryan P.; Clark, Anne L.; Lala, Jaynarayan H.

    1994-01-01

    In safety critical I/O and intercomputer communication networks, reliable message transmission is an important concern. Difficulties of communication and fault identification in networks arise primarily because the sender of a transmission cannot be identified with certainty, an intermediate node can corrupt a message without certainty of detection, and a babbling node cannot be identified and silenced without lengthy diagnosis and reconfiguration . Authentication protocols use digital signature techniques to verify the authenticity of messages with high probability. Such protocols appear to provide an efficient solution to many of these problems. The objective of this program is to develop, demonstrate, and evaluate intercomputer communication architectures which employ authentication. As a context for the evaluation, the authentication protocol-based communication concept was demonstrated under this program by hosting a real-time flight critical guidance, navigation and control algorithm on a distributed, heterogeneous, mixed redundancy system of workstations and embedded fault-tolerant computers.

  6. Hardware Abstraction and Protocol Optimization for Coded Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nistor, Maricica; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Barros, João

    2015-01-01

    The design of the communication protocols in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) often neglects several key characteristics of the sensor's hardware, while assuming that the number of transmitted bits is the dominating factor behind the system's energy consumption. A closer look at the hardware...... specifications of common sensors reveals, however, that other equally important culprits exist, such as the reception and processing energy. Hence, there is a need for a more complete hardware abstraction of a sensor node to reduce effectively the total energy consumption of the network by designing energy......-efficient protocols that use such an abstraction, as well as mechanisms to optimize a communication protocol in terms of energy consumption. The problem is modeled for different feedback-based techniques, where sensors are connected to a base station, either directly or through relays. We show that for four example...

  7. ECS: Efficient Communication Scheduling for Underwater Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Hong

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available TDMA protocols have attracted a lot of attention for underwater acoustic sensor networks (UWSNs, because of the unique characteristics of acoustic signal propagation such as great energy consumption in transmission, long propagation delay and long communication range. Previous TDMA protocols all allocated transmission time to nodes based on discrete time slots. This paper proposes an efficient continuous time scheduling TDMA protocol (ECS for UWSNs, including the continuous time based and sender oriented conflict analysis model, the transmission moment allocation algorithm and the distributed topology maintenance algorithm. Simulation results confirm that ECS improves network throughput by 20% on average, compared to existing MAC protocols.

  8. A Survey of Automatic Protocol Reverse Engineering Approaches, Methods, and Tools on the Inputs and Outputs View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baraka D. Sija

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A network protocol defines rules that control communications between two or more machines on the Internet, whereas Automatic Protocol Reverse Engineering (APRE defines the way of extracting the structure of a network protocol without accessing its specifications. Enough knowledge on undocumented protocols is essential for security purposes, network policy implementation, and management of network resources. This paper reviews and analyzes a total of 39 approaches, methods, and tools towards Protocol Reverse Engineering (PRE and classifies them into four divisions, approaches that reverse engineer protocol finite state machines, protocol formats, and both protocol finite state machines and protocol formats to approaches that focus directly on neither reverse engineering protocol formats nor protocol finite state machines. The efficiency of all approaches’ outputs based on their selected inputs is analyzed in general along with appropriate reverse engineering inputs format. Additionally, we present discussion and extended classification in terms of automated to manual approaches, known and novel categories of reverse engineered protocols, and a literature of reverse engineered protocols in relation to the seven layers’ OSI (Open Systems Interconnection model.

  9. Efficient Cluster Head Selection Algorithm for MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Hussain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In mobile ad hoc network (MANET cluster head selection is considered a gigantic challenge. In wireless sensor network LEACH protocol can be used to select cluster head on the bases of energy, but it is still a dispute in mobil ad hoc networks and especially when nodes are itinerant. In this paper we proposed an efficient cluster head selection algorithm (ECHSA, for selection of the cluster head efficiently in Mobile ad hoc networks. We evaluate our proposed algorithm through simulation in OMNet++ as well as on test bed; we experience the result according to our assumption. For further evaluation we also compare our proposed protocol with several other protocols like LEACH-C and consequences show perfection.

  10. The mesh network protocol evaluation and development

    OpenAIRE

    Pei, Ping; Petrenko, Y. N.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a Mesh network protocol evaluation and development. It has a special protocol. We could easily to understand that how different protocols are used in mesh network. In addition to our comprehension, Multi – hop routing protocol could provide robustness and load balancing to communication in wireless mesh networks.

  11. Dynamic Channel Slot Allocation Scheme and Performance Analysis of Cyclic Quorum Multichannel MAC Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In high diversity node situation, multichannel MAC protocol can improve the frequency efficiency, owing to fewer collisions compared with single-channel MAC protocol. And the performance of cyclic quorum-based multichannel (CQM MAC protocol is outstanding. Based on cyclic quorum system and channel slot allocation, it can avoid the bottleneck that others suffered from and can be easily realized with only one transceiver. To obtain the accurate performance of CQM MAC protocol, a Markov chain model, which combines the channel-hopping strategy of CQM protocol and IEEE 802.11 distributed coordination function (DCF, is proposed. The results of numerical analysis show that the optimal performance of CQM protocol can be obtained in saturation bound situation. And then we obtain the saturation bound of CQM system by bird swarm algorithm. In addition, to improve the performance of CQM protocol in unsaturation situation, a dynamic channel slot allocation of CQM (DCQM protocol is proposed, based on wavelet neural network. Finally, the performance of CQM protocol and DCQM protocol is simulated by Qualnet platform. And the simulation results show that the analytic and simulation results match very well; the DCQM performs better in unsaturation situation.

  12. Intelligent routing protocol for ad hoc wireless network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chaorong; Chen, Chang Wen

    2006-05-01

    A novel routing scheme for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), which combines hybrid and multi-inter-routing path properties with a distributed topology discovery route mechanism using control agents is proposed in this paper. In recent years, a variety of hybrid routing protocols for Mobile Ad hoc wireless networks (MANETs) have been developed. Which is proactively maintains routing information for a local neighborhood, while reactively acquiring routes to destinations beyond the global. The hybrid protocol reduces routing discovery latency and the end-to-end delay by providing high connectivity without requiring much of the scarce network capacity. On the other side the hybrid routing protocols in MANETs likes Zone Routing Protocol still need route "re-discover" time when a route between zones link break. Sine the topology update information needs to be broadcast routing request on local zone. Due to this delay, the routing protocol may not be applicable for real-time data and multimedia communication. We utilize the advantages of a clustering organization and multi-routing path in routing protocol to achieve several goals at the same time. Firstly, IRP efficiently saves network bandwidth and reduces route reconstruction time when a routing path fails. The IRP protocol does not require global periodic routing advertisements, local control agents will automatically monitor and repair broke links. Secondly, it efficiently reduces congestion and traffic "bottlenecks" for ClusterHeads in clustering network. Thirdly, it reduces significant overheads associated with maintaining clusters. Fourthly, it improves clusters stability due to dynamic topology changing frequently. In this paper, we present the Intelligent Routing Protocol. First, we discuss the problem of routing in ad hoc networks and the motivation of IRP. We describe the hierarchical architecture of IRP. We describe the routing process and illustrate it with an example. Further, we describe the control manage

  13. Hardening Stratum, the Bitcoin Pool Mining Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recabarren Ruben

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Stratum, the de-facto mining communication protocol used by blockchain based cryptocurrency systems, enables miners to reliably and efficiently fetch jobs from mining pool servers. In this paper we exploit Stratum’s lack of encryption to develop passive and active attacks on Bitcoin’s mining protocol, with important implications on the privacy, security and even safety of mining equipment owners. We introduce StraTap and ISP Log attacks, that infer miner earnings if given access to miner communications, or even their logs. We develop BiteCoin, an active attack that hijacks shares submitted by miners, and their associated payouts. We build BiteCoin on WireGhost, a tool we developed to hijack and surreptitiously maintain Stratum connections. Our attacks reveal that securing Stratum through pervasive encryption is not only undesirable (due to large overheads, but also ineffective: an adversary can predict miner earnings even when given access to only packet timestamps. Instead, we devise Bedrock, a minimalistic Stratum extension that protects the privacy and security of mining participants. We introduce and leverage the mining cookie concept, a secret that each miner shares with the pool and includes in its puzzle computations, and that prevents attackers from reconstructing or hijacking the puzzles.

  14. Efficient universal blind quantum computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannetti, Vittorio; Maccone, Lorenzo; Morimae, Tomoyuki; Rudolph, Terry G

    2013-12-06

    We give a cheat sensitive protocol for blind universal quantum computation that is efficient in terms of computational and communication resources: it allows one party to perform an arbitrary computation on a second party's quantum computer without revealing either which computation is performed, or its input and output. The first party's computational capabilities can be extremely limited: she must only be able to create and measure single-qubit superposition states. The second party is not required to use measurement-based quantum computation. The protocol requires the (optimal) exchange of O(Jlog2(N)) single-qubit states, where J is the computational depth and N is the number of qubits needed for the computation.

  15. Efficient Multi-Party Computation over Rings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer, Ronald; Fehr, Serge; Ishai, Yuval

    2003-01-01

    by (boolean or arithmetic) circuits over finite fields. We are motivated by two limitations of these techniques: – Generality. Existing protocols do not apply to computation over more general algebraic structures (except via a brute-force simulation of computation in these structures). – Efficiency. The best...

  16. On Protocol Security in the Cryptographic Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Buus

    the channels by which they communicate. A general solution to the secure multiparty computation problem is a compiler which given any feasible function describes an efficient protocol which allows the parties to compute the function securely on their local inputs over an open network. Over the past twenty...... previous approaches to the problem. Starting from an open point-to-point network there is a long way to general secure multiparty computation. The dissertation contains contributions at several points along the way. In particular we investigate how to realize secure channels. We also show how threshold...... you as possible. This is the general problem of secure multiparty computation. The usual way of formalizing the problem is to say that a number of parties who do not trust each other wish to compute some function of their local inputs, while keeping their inputs as secret as possible and guaranteeing...

  17. Energy Efficient Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks Through Balanced Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Douligeris

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The wide utilization of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs is obstructed by the severely limited energy constraints of the individual sensor nodes. This is the reason why a large part of the research in WSNs focuses on the development of energy efficient routing protocols. In this paper, a new protocol called Equalized Cluster Head Election Routing Protocol (ECHERP, which pursues energy conservation through balanced clustering, is proposed. ECHERP models the network as a linear system and, using the Gaussian elimination algorithm, calculates the combinations of nodes that can be chosen as cluster heads in order to extend the network lifetime. The performance evaluation of ECHERP is carried out through simulation tests, which evince the effectiveness of this protocol in terms of network energy efficiency when compared against other well-known protocols.

  18. Secret Public Key Protocols Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hoon Wei; Paterson, Kenneth G.

    Password-based protocols are important and popular means of providing human-to-machine authentication. The concept of secret public keys was proposed more than a decade ago as a means of securing password-based authentication protocols against off-line password guessing attacks, but was later found vulnerable to various attacks. In this paper, we revisit the concept and introduce the notion of identity-based secret public keys. Our new identity-based approach allows secret public keys to be constructed in a very natural way using arbitrary random strings, eliminating the structure found in, for example, RSA or ElGamal keys. We examine identity-based secret public key protocols and give informal security analyses, indicating that they are secure against off-line password guessing and other attacks.

  19. Autonomous Power Control MAC Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Battery energy limitation has become a performance bottleneck for mobile ad hoc networks. IEEE 802.11 has been adopted as the current standard MAC protocol for ad hoc networks. However, it was developed without considering energy efficiency. To solve this problem, many modifications on IEEE 802.11 to incorporate power control have been proposed in the literature. The main idea of these power control schemes is to use a maximum possible power level for transmitting RTS/CTS and the lowest acceptable power for sending DATA/ACK. However, these schemes may degrade network throughput and reduce the overall energy efficiency of the network. This paper proposes autonomous power control MAC protocol (APCMP, which allows mobile nodes dynamically adjusting power level for transmitting DATA/ACK according to the distances between the transmitter and its neighbors. In addition, the power level for transmitting RTS/CTS is also adjustable according to the power level for DATA/ACK packets. In this paper, the performance of APCMP protocol is evaluated by simulation and is compared with that of other protocols.

  20. Zebrafish embryology and cartilage staining protocols for high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emran, Farida; Brooks, Jacqueline M; Zimmerman, Steven R; Johnson, Susan L; Lue, Robert A

    2009-06-01

    The Life Sciences-Howard Hughes Medical Institute Outreach Program at Harvard University supports high school science education by offering an on-campus program for students and their teachers to participate in investigative, hands-on laboratory sessions. The outreach program has recently designed and launched a successful zebrafish embryology protocol that we present here. The main objectives of this protocol are to introduce students to zebrafish as a model research organism and to provide students with direct experience with current techniques used in embryological research. The content of the lab is designed to generate discussions on embryology, genetics, fertilization, natural selection, and animal adaptation. The protocol produces reliable results in a time-efficient manner using a minimum of reagents. The protocol presented here consists of three sections: observations of live zebrafish larvae at different developmental stages, cartilage staining of zebrafish larvae, and a mutant hunt involving identification of two zebrafish mutants (nacre and chokh). Here, we describe the protocol, show the results obtained for each section, and suggest possible alternatives for different lab settings.

  1. The Kyoto protocol development; La viabilite du protocole de Kyoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, R. [Harvard Univ., Barrow, AK (United States); Guesneris, R. [College de France, 75 - Paris (France)

    2002-04-01

    From the author R. Cooper point of view the Kyoto Protocol is a flawed concept. The reasons for dropping Kyoto are presented in this paper insisting that rejecting Kyoto not means to imply that global climate change is not a serious problem. After a presentation of the US policy facing the Climatic Change, some concluding propositions are proposed. (A.L.B.)

  2. Offsetting efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, M.

    1995-01-01

    Whichever way the local distribution company (LDC) tries to convert residential customers to gas or expand their use of it, the process itself has become essential for the natural gas industry. The amount of gas used by each residential customer has been decreasing for 25 years -- since the energy crisis of the early 1970s. It's a direct result of better-insulated homes and more-efficient gas appliances, and that trend is continuing. So, LDCs have a choice of either finding new users and uses for gas, or recognizing that their throughput per customer is going to continue declining. The paper discusses strategies that several gas utilities are using to increase the number of gas appliances in the customer's homes. These and other strategies keep the gas industry optimistic about the future of the residential market: A.G.A. has projected that by 2010 demand will expand, from 1994's 5.1 quadrillion Btu (quads) to 5.7 quads, even with continued improvements in appliance efficiency. That estimate, however, will depend on the industry-s utilities and whether they keep converting, proselytizing, persuading and influencing customers to use more natural gas

  3. A Secure Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks Considering Secure Data Aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu, Triana Mugia; Lee, Sang-Gon; Lee, Hoon-Jae

    2015-06-26

    The commonly unattended and hostile deployments of WSNs and their resource-constrained sensor devices have led to an increasing demand for secure energy-efficient protocols. Routing and data aggregation receive the most attention since they are among the daily network routines. With the awareness of such demand, we found that so far there has been no work that lays out a secure routing protocol as the foundation for a secure data aggregation protocol. We argue that the secure routing role would be rendered useless if the data aggregation scheme built on it is not secure. Conversely, the secure data aggregation protocol needs a secure underlying routing protocol as its foundation in order to be effectively optimal. As an attempt for the solution, we devise an energy-aware protocol based on LEACH and ESPDA that combines secure routing protocol and secure data aggregation protocol. We then evaluate its security effectiveness and its energy-efficiency aspects, knowing that there are always trade-off between both.

  4. A Secure Three-Factor User Authentication and Key Agreement Protocol for TMIS With User Anonymity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Ruhul; Biswas, G P

    2015-08-01

    Telecare medical information system (TMIS) makes an efficient and convenient connection between patient(s)/user(s) and doctor(s) over the insecure internet. Therefore, data security, privacy and user authentication are enormously important for accessing important medical data over insecure communication. Recently, many user authentication protocols for TMIS have been proposed in the literature and it has been observed that most of the protocols cannot achieve complete security requirements. In this paper, we have scrutinized two (Mishra et al., Xu et al.) remote user authentication protocols using smart card and explained that both the protocols are suffering against several security weaknesses. We have then presented three-factor user authentication and key agreement protocol usable for TMIS, which fix the security pitfalls of the above mentioned schemes. The informal cryptanalysis makes certain that the proposed protocol provides well security protection on the relevant security attacks. Furthermore, the simulator AVISPA tool confirms that the protocol is secure against active and passive attacks including replay and man-in-the-middle attacks. The security functionalities and performance comparison analysis confirm that our protocol not only provide strong protection on security attacks, but it also achieves better complexities along with efficient login and password change phase as well as session key verification property.

  5. A Secure Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks Considering Secure Data Aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triana Mugia Rahayu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The commonly unattended and hostile deployments of WSNs and their resource-constrained sensor devices have led to an increasing demand for secure energy-efficient protocols. Routing and data aggregation receive the most attention since they are among the daily network routines. With the awareness of such demand, we found that so far there has been no work that lays out a secure routing protocol as the foundation for a secure data aggregation protocol. We argue that the secure routing role would be rendered useless if the data aggregation scheme built on it is not secure. Conversely, the secure data aggregation protocol needs a secure underlying routing protocol as its foundation in order to be effectively optimal. As an attempt for the solution, we devise an energy-aware protocol based on LEACH and ESPDA that combines secure routing protocol and secure data aggregation protocol. We then evaluate its security effectiveness and its energy-efficiency aspects, knowing that there are always trade-off between both.

  6. Impact of heat shock step on bacterial transformation efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimzadeh, Maral; Sadeghizadeh, Majid; Najafi, Farhood; Arab, Seyed; Mobasheri, Hamid

    2016-12-01

    CaCl 2 treatment followed by heat shock is the most common method for artificial transformation. Here, the cells were transformed using CaCl 2 treatment either with heat shock (standard protocol) or without heat shock (lab protocol) to comprehend the difference in transformation efficiency. The BL21 strain of Escherichia coli ( E. coli ) was being susceptible using CaCl 2 treatment. Some Cells were kept at -80 o C while the others were kept at 4 ˚C. Afterwards the susceptible cells were transformed using either standard or lab protocol. The transformation efficiency between cells experienced heat shock and those were not influenced by heat shock was almost the same. Moreover, regardless of transformation protocol, the cells kept at 4 ˚C were transformed more efficiently in compared to those were kept at -80 o C.

  7. Industrial wireless sensor networks applications, protocols, and standards

    CERN Document Server

    Güngör, V Çagri

    2013-01-01

    The collaborative nature of industrial wireless sensor networks (IWSNs) brings several advantages over traditional wired industrial monitoring and control systems, including self-organization, rapid deployment, flexibility, and inherent intelligent processing. In this regard, IWSNs play a vital role in creating more reliable, efficient, and productive industrial systems, thus improving companies' competitiveness in the marketplace. Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks: Applications, Protocols, and Standards examines the current state of the art in industrial wireless sensor networks and outline

  8. Bundle Security Protocol for ION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, Scott C.; Birrane, Edward J.; Krupiarz, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This software implements bundle authentication, conforming to the Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) Internet Draft on Bundle Security Protocol (BSP), for the Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) implementation of DTN. This is the only implementation of BSP that is integrated with ION.

  9. Superposition Attacks on Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Funder, Jakob Løvstad; Nielsen, Jesper Buus

    2011-01-01

    string model. While our protocol is classical, it is sound against a cheating unbounded quantum prover and computational zero-knowledge even if the verifier is allowed a superposition attack. Finally, we consider multiparty computation and show that for the most general type of attack, simulation based...

  10. Recursive Ping-Pong Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huttel, Hans; Srba, Jiri

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces a process calculus with recursion which allows us to express an unbounded number of runs of the ping-pong protocols introduced by Dolev and Yao. We study the decidability issues associated with two common approaches to checking security properties, namely reachability analysis...

  11. Affinity biosensors: techniques and protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rogers, Kim R; Mulchandani, Ashok

    1998-01-01

    ..., and government to begin or expand their biosensors research. This volume, Methods in Biotechnology vol. 7: Affinity Biosensors: Techniques and Protocols, describes a variety of classical and emerging transduction technologies that have been interfaced to bioaffinity elements (e.g., antibodies and receptors). Some of the reas...

  12. Implementation of postoperative handoff protocol

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite its importance, the practice of a structured postoperative ... the handoff protocol; limited nurse checklist to six items; added ... anticipatory guidance for the ICU team. Once the ICU team clarified any questions from the anaesthesiologist, the surgeon. (and then the theatre nursing staff) proceeded to report on the.

  13. Art. 1 Eerste Protocol EVRM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelmann, E.

    2014-01-01

    Het recht op bezit is niet in het Europees Verdrag ter bescherming van de rechten van de mens en de fundamentele vrijheden (hierna: EVRM) neergelegd, maar in het Eerste Protocol daarbij (hierna: EP), dat in 1954 in werking is getreden. Het is van belang voor ogen te houden dat de Tweede Wereldoorlog

  14. Performance Evaluation of Security Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodei, Chiara; Buchholtz, Mikael; Curti, Michele

    2005-01-01

    We use a special operational semantics which drives us in inferring quantitative measures on systems describing cryptographis cryptographic protocols. We assign rates to transitions by only looking at these labels. The rates reflect the distributed architecture running applications and the use of...

  15. Cloud-assisted mutual authentication and privacy preservation protocol for telecare medical information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Ta; Shih, Dong-Her; Wang, Chun-Cheng

    2018-04-01

     With the rapid development of wireless communication technologies and the growing prevalence of smart devices, telecare medical information system (TMIS) allows patients to receive medical treatments from the doctors via Internet technology without visiting hospitals in person. By adopting mobile device, cloud-assisted platform and wireless body area network, the patients can collect their physiological conditions and upload them to medical cloud via their mobile devices, enabling caregivers or doctors to provide patients with appropriate treatments at anytime and anywhere. In order to protect the medical privacy of the patient and guarantee reliability of the system, before accessing the TMIS, all system participants must be authenticated.  Mohit et al. recently suggested a lightweight authentication protocol for cloud-based health care system. They claimed their protocol ensures resilience of all well-known security attacks and has several important features such as mutual authentication and patient anonymity. In this paper, we demonstrate that Mohit et al.'s authentication protocol has various security flaws and we further introduce an enhanced version of their protocol for cloud-assisted TMIS, which can ensure patient anonymity and patient unlinkability and prevent the security threats of report revelation and report forgery attacks.  The security analysis proves that our enhanced protocol is secure against various known attacks as well as found in Mohit et al.'s protocol. Compared with existing related protocols, our enhanced protocol keeps the merits of all desirable security requirements and also maintains the efficiency in terms of computation costs for cloud-assisted TMIS.  We propose a more secure mutual authentication and privacy preservation protocol for cloud-assisted TMIS, which fixes the mentioned security weaknesses found in Mohit et al.'s protocol. According to our analysis, our authentication protocol satisfies most functionality features

  16. Privacy-Preserving Meter Report Protocol of Isolated Smart Grid Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Smart grid aims to improve the reliability, efficiency, and security of the traditional grid, which allows two-way transmission and efficiency-driven response. However, a main concern of this new technique is that the fine-grained metering data may leak the personal privacy information of the customers. Thus, the data aggregation mechanism for privacy protection is required for the meter report protocol in smart grid. In this paper, we propose an efficient privacy-preserving meter report protocol for the isolated smart grid devices. Our protocol consists of an encryption scheme with additively homomorphic property and a linearly homomorphic signature scheme, where the linearly homomorphic signature scheme is suitable for privacy-preserving data aggregation. We also provide security analysis of our protocol in the context of some typical attacks in smart grid. The implementation of our protocol on the Intel Edison platform shows that our protocol is efficient enough for the physical constrained devices, like smart meters.

  17. Mutagenesis in Newts: Protocol for Iberian Ribbed Newts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Toshinori; Takeuchi, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Newts have the remarkable capability of organ/tissue regeneration, and have been used as a unique experimental model for regenerative biology. The Iberian ribbed newt (Pleurodeles waltl) is suitable as a model animal. We have established methods for artificial insemination and efficient transgenesis using P. waltl newts. In addition to the transgenic technique, development of TALENs enables targeting mutagenesis in the newts. We have reported that TALENs efficiently disrupted targeted genes in newt embryos. In this chapter, we introduce a protocol for TALEN-mediated gene targeting in Iberian ribbed newts.

  18. Group covariant protocols for quantum string commitment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsurumaru, Toyohiro

    2006-01-01

    We study the security of quantum string commitment (QSC) protocols with group covariant encoding scheme. First we consider a class of QSC protocol, which is general enough to incorporate all the QSC protocols given in the preceding literatures. Then among those protocols, we consider group covariant protocols and show that the exact upperbound on the binding condition can be calculated. Next using this result, we prove that for every irreducible representation of a finite group, there always exists a corresponding nontrivial QSC protocol which reaches a level of security impossible to achieve classically

  19. Novel Multi-Party Quantum Key Agreement Protocol with G-Like States and Bell States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Shi-Qi; Chen, Hua-Ying; Gong, Li-Hua

    2018-03-01

    A significant aspect of quantum cryptography is quantum key agreement (QKA), which ensures the security of key agreement protocols by quantum information theory. The fairness of an absolute security multi-party quantum key agreement (MQKA) protocol demands that all participants can affect the protocol result equally so as to establish a shared key and that nobody can determine the shared key by himself/herself. We found that it is difficult for the existing multi-party quantum key agreement protocol to withstand the collusion attacks. Put differently, it is possible for several cooperated and untruthful participants to determine the final key without being detected. To address this issue, based on the entanglement swapping between G-like state and Bell states, a new multi-party quantum key agreement protocol is put forward. The proposed protocol makes full use of EPR pairs as quantum resources, and adopts Bell measurement and unitary operation to share a secret key. Besides, the proposed protocol is fair, secure and efficient without involving a third party quantum center. It demonstrates that the protocol is capable of protecting users' privacy and meeting the requirement of fairness. Moreover, it is feasible to carry out the protocol with existing technologies.

  20. Improvement In MAODV Protocol Using Location Based Routing Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur Sharnjeet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy saving is difficult in wireless sensor network (WSN due to limited resources. Each node in WSN is constrained by their limited battery power for their energy. The energy is reduced as the time goes off due to the packet transmission and reception. Energy management techniques are necessary to minimize the total power consumption of all the nodes in the network in order to maximize its life span. Our proposed protocol Location based routing (LBR aimed to find a path which utilizes the minimum energy to transmit the packets between the source and the destination. The required energy for the transmission and reception of data is evaluated in MATLAB. LBR is implemented on Multicast Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector Routing Protocol (MAODV to manage the energy consumption in the transmission and reception of data. Simulation results of LBR show the energy consumption has been reduced.

  1. Efficient STFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aamir, K.M.; Maud, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    Small perturbations in signals (or any time series), at some particular instant, affect the whole frequency spectrum due to the global function e/sup j omega t/ in Fourier Transform formulation. However, the Fourier spectrum does not convey the time instant at which the perturbation occurred. Consequently the information on the particular time instance of occurrence of that perturbation is lost when spectrum is observed. Apparently Fourier analysis seems to be inadequate in such situations. This inadequacy is overcome by the use of Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT), which keeps track of time as well as frequency information. In STFT analysis, a fixed length window, say of length N, is moved sample by sample as the data arrives. The Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) of this fixed window of length N is calculated using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm. If the total number of points is M > N, the computational complexity of this scheme works out to be at least ((M-N) N log/sub 2/N). On the other hand, STFT is shown to be of computational complexity 6NM and 8NM in the literature. In this paper, two algorithms are presented which compute the same STFT more efficiently. The computational complexity of the proposed algorithms works out to be MN of one algorithm and even lesser in the other algorithm. This reduction in complexity becomes significant for large data sets. This algorithm also remains valid if a stationary part of signal is skipped. (author)

  2. A Lightweight Medium Access Protocol (LMAC) for Wireless Sensor Networks: Reducing Preamble Transmissions and Transceiver State Switches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoesel, L.F.W.; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we present an energy-efficient medium access protocol designed for wireless sensor networks. Although the protocol uses TDMA to give nodes in the WSN the opportunity to communicate collision-free, the network is self-organizing in terms of time slot assignment and synchronization. The

  3. Protocols development for security and privacy of radio frequency identification systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbagha, Fatin

    There are benefits to adopting radio frequency identification (RFID) technology, although there are methods of attack that can compromise the system. This research determined how that may happen and what possible solutions can keep that from happening. Protocols were developed to implement better security. In addition, new topologies were developed to handle the problems of the key management. Previously proposed protocols focused on providing mutual authentication and privacy between readers and tags. However, those protocols are still vulnerable to be attacked. These protocols were analyzed and the disadvantages shown for each one. Previous works assumed that the channels between readers and the servers were secure. In the proposed protocols, a compromised reader is considered along with how to prevent tags from being read by that reader. The new protocols provide mutual authentication between readers and tags and, at the same time, remove the compromised reader from the system. Three protocols are proposed. In the first protocol, a mutual authentication is achieved and a compromised reader is not allowed in the network. In the second protocol, the number of times a reader contacts the server is reduced. The third protocol provides authentication and privacy between tags and readers using a trusted third party. The developed topology is implemented using python language and simulates work to check the efficiency regarding the processing time. The three protocols are implemented by writing codes in C language and then compiling them in MSP430. IAR Embedded workbench is used, which is an integrated development environment with the C/C++ compiler to generate a faster code and to debug the microcontroller. In summary, the goal of this research is to find solutions for the problems on previously proposed protocols, handle a compromised reader, and solve key management problems.

  4. Efficient multiparty quantum key agreement with collective detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Su, Qi; Liu, Bin; He, Yuan-Hang; Fan, Fan; Xu, Bing-Jie

    2017-11-10

    As a burgeoning branch of quantum cryptography, quantum key agreement is a kind of key establishing processes where the security and fairness of the established common key should be guaranteed simultaneously. However, the difficulty on designing a qualified quantum key agreement protocol increases significantly with the increase of the number of the involved participants. Thus far, only few of the existing multiparty quantum key agreement (MQKA) protocols can really achieve security and fairness. Nevertheless, these qualified MQKA protocols are either too inefficient or too impractical. In this paper, an MQKA protocol is proposed with single photons in travelling mode. Since only one eavesdropping detection is needed in the proposed protocol, the qubit efficiency and measurement efficiency of it are higher than those of the existing ones in theory. Compared with the protocols which make use of the entangled states or multi-particle measurements, the proposed protocol is more feasible with the current technologies. Security and fairness analysis shows that the proposed protocol is not only immune to the attacks from external eavesdroppers, but also free from the attacks from internal betrayers.

  5. Provable Fair Document Exchange Protocol with Transaction Privacy for E-Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren-Junn Hwang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Transaction privacy has attracted a lot of attention in the e-commerce. This study proposes an efficient and provable fair document exchange protocol with transaction privacy. Using the proposed protocol, any untrusted parties can fairly exchange documents without the assistance of online, trusted third parties. Moreover, a notary only notarizes each document once. The authorized document owner can exchange a notarized document with different parties repeatedly without disclosing the origin of the document or the identities of transaction participants. Security and performance analyses indicate that the proposed protocol not only provides strong fairness, non-repudiation of origin, non-repudiation of receipt, and message confidentiality, but also enhances forward secrecy, transaction privacy, and authorized exchange. The proposed protocol is more efficient than other works.

  6. Analysis of transmission speed of AX.25 Protocol implemented in satellital earth station UPTC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Fernando Vera Cely

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the important parameters for the proper functioning of satellital ground station projected on Pedagogical and Technological University of Colombia (UPTC is the efficiency in transmission speed on communications protocol. This paper shows the results of analysis of the transmission speed of the AX.25 protocol implemented in the communication system of the satellital ground station UPTC. It begins with a brief description of the implemented hardware; the behavior of the transmission rate is evaluated using a theoretical analysis based on equations to estimate this parameter in the operation of the protocol, then tests are performed using the hardware that the satellital ground station UPTC has and finally, the conclusions are presented. Based on comparison of the theoretical analysis results obtained experimentally, it became apparent that AX.25 protocol efficiency is higher when increasing the number of frames.

  7. Model-Checking Driven Design of QoS-Based Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and reliable routing protocols with Quality of Service (QoS support determine the mission-critical application efficiency in WSNs. This paper proposes a model-checking design driven framework for designing the QoS-based routing protocols of WSNs, which involves the light-weight design process, the timed automata model, and the alternative QoS verification properties. The accurate feedback of continually model checking in the iterative design process effectively stimulates the parameter tuning of the protocols. We demonstrate the straightforward and modular characteristics of the proposed framework in designing a prototype QoS-based routing protocol. The prototype study shows that the model-checking design framework may complement other design methods and ensure the QoS implementation of the QoS-based routing protocol design for WSNs.

  8. QoS-aware self-adaptation of communication protocols in a pervasive service middleware

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Weishan; Hansen, Klaus Marius; Fernandes, João

    2010-01-01

    to achieve self-adaption of web service transport protocols (TCP, UDP and Bluetooth), taking into consideration QoS requirements. Our tests show that protocol switching involves little performance overhead and runs efficiently. Our evaluations also show that the proposed approach for achieving self-adaptation......Pervasive computing is characterized by heterogeneous devices that usually have scarce resources requiring optimized usage. These devices may use different communication protocols which can be switched at runtime. As different communication protocols have different quality of service (Qo......S) properties, this motivates optimized self-adaption of protocols for devices, e.g., considering power consumption and other QoS requirements, e.g. round trip time (RTT) for service invocations, throughput, and reliability. In this paper, we present an extensible approach for self-adaptation of communication...

  9. From protocol to published report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berendt, Louise; Callréus, Torbjörn; Petersen, Lene Grejs

    2016-01-01

    ), primary objective, primary endpoint, and--for confirmatory trials only--hypothesis and sample size calculation. We used logistic regression, χ(2), and Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: A total of 282 applications of academic clinical drug trials were submitted to the Danish Health and Medicines Authority......BACKGROUND: Unacknowledged inconsistencies in the reporting of clinical trials undermine the validity of the results of the trials. Little is known about inconsistency in the reporting of academic clinical drug trials. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence of consistency between protocols...... and published reports of academic clinical drug trials. METHODS: A comparison was made between study protocols and their corresponding published reports. We assessed the overall consistency, which was defined as the absence of discrepancy regarding study type (categorized as either exploratory or confirmatory...

  10. Enterprise Considerations for Ports and Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-21

    Internet and similar networks . The Internet model is commonly known as TCP/IP, because of its most important protocols, the Transmission Control...according to the scope of the networking involved. IETF documents RFC 1122 [25] and RFC 1123 [26] describe the Internet Protocol suite and model ...An alternative model , the Open Systems Interconnection ( OSI ) model [27], is often used to describe protocols. The OSI model defines protocols in

  11. Data Integrity Protocol for Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Durresi, Arjan; Paruchuri, Vamsi; Kannan, Rajgopal; Iyengar, S. S.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel lightweight protocol for data integrity in wireless sensor networks. Our protocol is based on a leapfrog strategy in which each cluster head verifies if its previous node has preserved the integrity of the packet using the secret key it shares with two hop uptree nodes. The proposed protocol is simple. The analysis and simulation results show that the protocol needs very few header bits, as low as three bits, thus resulting in negligible bandwidth overhead; t...

  12. Bioinspired Security Analysis of Wireless Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrocchi, Marinella; Spognardi, Angelo; Santi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    work, this paper investigates feasibility of adopting fraglets as model for specifying security protocols and analysing their properties. In particular, we give concrete sample analyses over a secure RFID protocol, showing evolution of the protocol run as chemical dynamics and simulating an adversary...... trying to circumvent the intended steps. The results of our analysis confirm the effectiveness of the cryptofraglets framework for the model and analysis of security properties and eventually show its potential to identify and uncover protocol flaws....

  13. Approaches to Formal Verification of Security Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Lal, Suvansh; Jain, Mohit; Chaplot, Vikrant

    2011-01-01

    In recent times, many protocols have been proposed to provide security for various information and communication systems. Such protocols must be tested for their functional correctness before they are used in practice. Application of formal methods for verification of security protocols would enhance their reliability thereby, increasing the usability of systems that employ them. Thus, formal verification of security protocols has become a key issue in computer and communications security. In...

  14. Quantum bit commitment protocol without quantum memory

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Rubens Viana; Mendonca, Fabio Alencar

    2008-01-01

    Quantum protocols for bit commitment have been proposed and it is largely accepted that unconditionally secure quantum bit commitment is not possible; however, it can be more secure than classical bit commitment. In despite of its usefulness, quantum bit commitment protocols have not been experimentally implemented. The main reason is the fact that all proposed quantum bit commitment protocols require quantum memory. In this work, we show a quantum bit commitment protocol that does not requir...

  15. Building America House Simulation Protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Engebrecht, Cheryn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-09-01

    The House Simulation Protocol document was developed to track and manage progress toward Building America's multi-year, average whole-building energy reduction research goals for new construction and existing homes, using a consistent analytical reference point. This report summarizes the guidelines for developing and reporting these analytical results in a consistent and meaningful manner for all home energy uses using standard operating conditions.

  16. Petri Nets in Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crazzolara, Federico; Winskel, Glynn

    2001-01-01

    A process language for security protocols is presented together with a semantics in terms of sets of events. The denotation of process is a set of events, and as each event specifies a set of pre and postconditions, this denotation can be viewed as a Petri net. By means of an example we illustrate...... how the Petri-net semantics can be used to prove security properties....

  17. Universal Energy Supply Protocol (UESP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holz, F.; Meyer, T.; Roth, W.; Benz, J. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Mueller, M. [Steca GmbH, Solar Electronics, Memmingen (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The idea behind the Universal Energy Supply Protocol (UESP) is to equip all components (all kinds of generators, batteries and loads) with an identical and well-defined electrical DC connection as well as with intelligence and a communication interface, speaking a defined protocol (UESP). Power flow and information flow are separated, leading to more flexibility in system sizing and standardisation. A centralised control and energy management system administers the system as a whole. Its software is able to manage the energy generation and consumption and ensures the required level of reliability while reducing the operational cost to a minimum. In contrast to existing management concepts, the central idea behind UESP is to outsource the intelligence and the knowledge on the operational behaviour of the components out of the central management system into the components themselves. The components provide information about their current status of operation, current and future operation cost and constraints to the central management system. Here, using 'virtual stock exchange' algorithms, an optimised schedule for all components is determined and fed back to the components for implementation. The central management is thus very generic and can handle any component using the UESP protocol. It automatically adapts to new or changed system configurations, as these changes impact the optimisation only by additional 'players' on the virtual stock market. Eight German companies have teamed up with Fraunhofer ISE in a challenging project (funded by the German Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, BMU) to define the previously described protocol and interfaces and to elaborate the various implementations. The applications range form village power supply systems to telecommunication stations and signalling systems. It is foreseen to establish UESP as standardised interface in the future. (orig.)

  18. Heuristic Methods for Security Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qurat ul Ain Nizamani

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Model checking is an automatic verification technique to verify hardware and software systems. However it suffers from state-space explosion problem. In this paper we address this problem in the context of cryptographic protocols by proposing a security property-dependent heuristic. The heuristic weights the state space by exploiting the security formulae; the weights may then be used to explore the state space when searching for attacks.

  19. Cost estimation of Kyoto Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giulio, Enzo

    2005-01-01

    This article proposes a reflection on important aspects in the costs determination performance of Kyoto Protocol. The evaluation of the main models evidence possible impacts on the economies. A key role in the determination of the cost is represented by the relative hypothesis to emission trading and the projects CDM-JI and from the political capacity at the cost negative or equal to zero [it

  20. Behavior Protocols for Software Components

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plášil, František; Višňovský, Stanislav

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 11 (2002), s. 1056-1076 ISSN 0098-5589 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2030902; GA ČR GA201/99/0244 Grant - others:Eureka(XE) Pepita project no.2033 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : behavior protocols * component-based programming * software architecture Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software Impact factor: 1.170, year: 2002

  1. Desensitization protocols and their outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfo, Kwaku; Lu, Amy; Ling, Min; Akalin, Enver

    2011-04-01

    In the last decade, transplantation across previously incompatible barriers has increasingly become popular because of organ donor shortage, availability of better methods of detecting and characterizing anti-HLA antibodies, ease of diagnosis, better understanding of antibody-mediated rejection, and the availability of effective regimens. This review summarizes all manuscripts published since the first publication in 2000 on desensitized patients and discusses clinical outcomes including acute and chronic antibody-mediated rejection rate, the new agents available, kidney paired exchange programs, and the future directions in sensitized patients. There were 21 studies published between 2000 and 2010, involving 725 patients with donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies (DSAs) who underwent kidney transplantation with different desensitization protocols. All studies were single center and retrospective. The patient and graft survival were 95% and 86%, respectively, at a 2-year median follow-up. Despite acceptable short-term patient and graft survivals, acute rejection rate was 36% and acute antibody-mediated rejection rate was 28%, which is significantly higher than in nonsensitized patients. Recent studies with longer follow-up of those patients raised concerns about long-term success of desensitization protocols. The studies utilizing protocol biopsies in desensitized patients also reported higher subclinical and chronic antibody-mediated rejection. An association between the strength of DSAs determined by median fluorescence intensity values of Luminex single-antigen beads and risk of rejection was observed. Two new agents, bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor, and eculizumab, an anti-complement C5 antibody, were recently introduced to desensitization protocols. An alternative intervention is kidney paired exchange, which should be considered first for sensitized patients. © 2011 by the American Society of Nephrology

  2. Empirical evaluation of bone extraction protocols.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy P Cleland

    Full Text Available The application of high-resolution analytical techniques to characterize ancient bone proteins requires clean, efficient extraction to obtain high quality data. Here, we evaluated many different protocols from the literature on ostrich cortical bone and moa cortical bone to evaluate their yield and relative purity using the identification of antibody-antigen complexes on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and gel electrophoresis. Moa bone provided an ancient comparison for the effectiveness of bone extraction protocols tested on ostrich bone. For the immunological part of this study, we focused on collagen I, osteocalcin, and hemoglobin because collagen and osteocalcin are the most abundant proteins in the mineralized extracellular matrix and hemoglobin is common in the vasculature. Most of these procedures demineralize the bone first, and then the remaining organics are chemically extracted. We found that the use of hydrochloric acid, rather than ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, for demineralization resulted in the cleanest extractions because the acid was easily removed. In contrast, the use of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid resulted in smearing upon electrophoretic separation, possibly indicating these samples were not as pure. The denaturing agents sodium dodecyl sulfate, urea, and guanidine HCl have been used extensively for the solubilization of proteins in non-biomineralized tissue, but only the latter has been used on bone. We show that all three denaturing agents are effective for extracting bone proteins. One additional method tested uses ammonium bicarbonate as a solubilizing buffer that is more appropriate for post-extraction analyses (e.g., proteomics by removing the need for desalting. We found that both guanidine HCl and ammonium bicarbonate were effective for extracting many bone proteins, resulting in similar electrophoretic patterns. With the increasing use of proteomics, a new generation of scientists are now interested in the

  3. Advanced dementia pain management protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro-Lorite, Mercedes; Canalias-Reverter, Montserrat

    2017-08-04

    Pain management in advanced dementia is complex because of neurological deficits present in these patients, and nurses are directly responsible for providing interventions for the evaluation, management and relief of pain for people suffering from this health problem. In order to facilitate and help decision-makers, pain experts recommend the use of standardized protocols to guide pain management, but in Spain, comprehensive pain management protocols have not yet been developed for advanced dementia. This article reflects the need for an integrated management of pain in advanced dementia. From the review and analysis of the most current and relevant studies in the literature, we performed an approximation of the scales for the determination of pain in these patients, with the observational scale PAINAD being the most recommended for the hospital setting. In addition, we provide an overview for comprehensive management of pain in advanced dementia through the conceptual framework «a hierarchy of pain assessment techniques by McCaffery and Pasero» for the development and implementation of standardized protocols, including a four-phase cyclical process (evaluation, planning/performance, revaluation and recording), which can facilitate the correct management of pain in these patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis and Verification of a Key Agreement Protocol over Cloud Computing Using Scyther Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Hazem A Elbaz

    2015-01-01

    The mostly cloud computing authentication mechanisms use public key infrastructure (PKI). Hierarchical Identity Based Cryptography (HIBC) has several advantages that sound well align with the demands of cloud computing. The main objectives of cloud computing authentication protocols are security and efficiency. In this paper, we clarify Hierarchical Identity Based Authentication Key Agreement (HIB-AKA) protocol, providing lightweight key management approach for cloud computing users. Then, we...

  5. A new DNA extraction protocol for screwworm fly Cochliomyia species (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Echeverría-Fonseca, Gustavo; Mera-Ruiz, Patricia A.; Carrillo-Toro, Jenny; Rodriguez-Hidalgo, Richar

    2015-01-01

    Modifications to the DNA isolation protocol from Cochliomyia spp., are suggested based on the Chelex® 100 reactive. To apply the sterile insect technique (SIT) program it is necessary to study the molecular variations of endemic populations with efficient, fast and low costs techniques. The test samples were collected in the Pichincha province of Ecuador. The isolation protocol had 3 steps: (a) pretreatment (optional), (b) mechanic and chemical lysis, (c) two incubations; then the supernatant...

  6. A new DNA extraction protocol for screwworm fly Cochliomyia species. (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo eEcheverría-Fonseca; Patricia Alison Mera-Ruiz; Jenny eCarrillo-Toro; Richar eRodriguez-Hidalgo; Richar eRodriguez-Hidalgo

    2015-01-01

    Modifications to the DNA isolation protocol from Cochliomyia spp., are suggested based on the Chelex® 100 reactive. To apply the sterile insect technique (SIT) program it is necessary to study the molecular variations of endemic populations with efficient, fast and low costs techniques. The test samples were collected in the Pichincha province of Ecuador. The isolation protocol had 3 steps: a) pretreatment (optional), b) mechanic and chemical lysis, c) two incubations; then the supernatant we...

  7. Static Validation of a Voting Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christoffer Rosenkilde; Andersen, Esben Heltoft; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2005-01-01

    The desired security properties of electronic voting protocols include verifiability, accuracy, democracy and fairness. In this paper we use a static program analysis tool to validate these properties for one of the classical voting protocols under appropriate assumptions. The protocol is formali...

  8. PCR protocols: current methods and applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    White, Bruce Alan

    1993-01-01

    ..." between "small" and "big" labs, since its use makes certain projects, especially those related to molecular cloning, now far more feasible for the small lab with a modest budget. This new volume on PCR Protocols does not attempt the impossible task of representing all PCR-based protocols. Rather, it presents a range of protocols, both analytical ...

  9. IPv6: The Next Generation Internet Protocol

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    internet. 2. New Features in IPv6. Harsha Srinath. IPv4, the workhorse protocol of the currently popular TePI. IP protocol suite, is fast becoming obsolete. The exponen- ... designers of this Internet Protocol (lPv4) never envisioned the scale of the ..... using multiple access providers across the same interface to have separate ...

  10. Timed Model Checking of Security Protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corin, R.J.; Etalle, Sandro; Hartel, Pieter H.; Mader, Angelika H.

    We propose a method for engineering security protocols that are aware of timing aspects. We study a simplified version of the well-known Needham Schroeder protocol and the complete Yahalom protocol. Timing information allows the study of different attack scenarios. We illustrate the attacks by model

  11. 21 CFR 1301.18 - Research protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Research protocols. 1301.18 Section 1301.18 Food..., DISTRIBUTORS, AND DISPENSERS OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Registration § 1301.18 Research protocols. (a) A protocol... have such submission approved by, the Food and Drug Administration as required in 21 U.S.C. 355(i) and...

  12. Crypto-Verifying Protocol Implementations in ML

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhargavan, K.; Corin, R.J.; Fournet, C.

    2007-01-01

    We intend to narrow the gap between concrete implementations and verified models of cryptographic protocols. We consider protocols implemented in F#, a variant of ML, and verified using CryptoVerif, Blanchet's protocol verifier for computational cryptography. We experiment with compilers from F#

  13. Formal Analysis of a Fair Payment Protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cederquist, J.G.; Dashti, Muhammad Torabi; Dimitrakos, Theo; Martinelli, Fabio

    We formally specify a payment protocol described by Vogt et al. This protocol is intended for fair exchange of time-sensitive data. Here the mCRL language is used to formalize the protocol. Fair exchange properties are expressed in the regular alternation-free mu-calculus. These properties are then

  14. A Secure and Effective Anonymous Integrity Checking Protocol for Data Storage in Multicloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingwei Song

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available How to verify the integrity of outsourced data is an important problem in cloud storage. Most of previous work focuses on three aspects, which are providing data dynamics, public verifiability, and privacy against verifiers with the help of a third party auditor. In this paper, we propose an identity-based data storage and integrity verification protocol on untrusted cloud. And the proposed protocol can guarantee fair results without any third verifying auditor. The theoretical analysis and simulation results show that our protocols are secure and efficient.

  15. Design and Simulation of a High Performance Emergency Data Delivery Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swartz, Kevin; Wang, Di

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to design a high performance data delivery protocol, capable of delivering data as quickly as possible to a base station or target node. This protocol was designed particularly for wireless network topologies, but could also be applied towards a wired system....... An emergency is defined as any event with high priority that needs to be handled immediately. It is assumed that this emergency event is important enough that energy efficiency is not a factor in our protocol. The desired effect is for fast as possible delivery to the base station for rapid event handling....

  16. Reactive GTS Allocation Protocol for Sporadic Events Using the IEEE 802.15.4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhtar Azeem

    2014-01-01

    by the IEEE 802.15.4 standard. The proposed control protocol ensures that a given offline sporadic schedule can be adapted online in a timely manner such that the static periodic schedule has not been disturbed and the IEEE 802.15.4 standard compliance remains intact. The proposed protocol is simulated in OPNET. The simulation results are analyzed and presented in this paper to prove the correctness of the proposed protocol regarding the efficient real-time sporadic event delivery along with the periodic event propagation.

  17. An Energy-Aware Routing Protocol for Query-Based Applications in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Ahvar

    2014-01-01

    attempt to efficiently distribute the consumption of energy throughout the network. In general terms, energy saving protocols are not necessarily good at balancing energy consumption and energy balancing protocols are not always good at reducing energy consumption. In this paper, we propose an energy-aware routing protocol (ERP for query-based applications in WSNs, which offers a good trade-off between traditional energy balancing and energy saving objectives and supports a soft real time packet delivery. This is achieved by means of fuzzy sets and learning automata techniques along with zonal broadcasting to decrease total energy consumption.

  18. IMHRP: Improved Multi-Hop Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianhua; Ruan, Danwei; Hong, Yadong; Zhao, Ziming; Zheng, Hong

    2017-10-01

    Wireless sensor network (WSN) is a self-organizing system formed by a large number of low-cost sensor nodes through wireless communication. Sensor nodes collect environmental information and transmit it to the base station (BS). Sensor nodes usually have very limited battery energy. The batteries cannot be charged or replaced. Therefore, it is necessary to design an energy efficient routing protocol to maximize the network lifetime. This paper presents an improved multi-hop routing protocol (IMHRP) for homogeneous networks. In the IMHRP protocol, based on the distances to the BS, the CH nodes are divided into internal CH nodes and external CH nodes. The set-up phase of the protocol is based on the LEACH protocol and the minimum distance between CH nodes are limited to a special constant distance, so a more uniform distribution of CH nodes is achieved. In the steady-state phase, the routes of different CH nodes are created on the basis of the distances between the CH nodes. The energy efficiency of communication can be maximized. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can more effectively reduce the energy consumption of each round and prolong the network lifetime compared with LEACH protocol and MHT protocol.

  19. An improved three party authenticated key exchange protocol using hash function and elliptic curve cryptography for mobile-commerce environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Hafizul Islam

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the literature, many three-party authenticated key exchange (3PAKE protocols are put forwarded to established a secure session key between two users with the help of trusted server. The computed session key will ensure secure message exchange between the users over any insecure communication networks. In this paper, we identified some deficiencies in Tan’s 3PAKE protocol and then devised an improved 3PAKE protocol without symmetric key en/decryption technique for mobile-commerce environments. The proposed protocol is based on the elliptic curve cryptography and one-way cryptographic hash function. In order to prove security validation of the proposed 3PAKE protocol we have used widely accepted AVISPA software whose results confirm that the proposed protocol is secure against active and passive attacks including replay and man-in-the-middle attacks. The proposed protocol is not only secure in the AVISPA software, but it also secure against relevant numerous security attacks such as man-in-the-middle attack, impersonation attack, parallel attack, key-compromise impersonation attack, etc. In addition, our protocol is designed with lower computation cost than other relevant protocols. Therefore, the proposed protocol is more efficient and suitable for practical use than other protocols in mobile-commerce environments.

  20. Web-based resources for clinical protocol management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookman, M A; McLaughlin, L; Burgess, S; Wolfenden, A S

    1998-11-01

    The data monitoring regulatory procedures, and administrative tasks associated with protocol management have become increasingly complex. Relational database technology and Internet-based connectivity offer resources to improve the quality and efficiency of protocol operations. At Fox Chase Cancer Center, we have developed a suite of database applications for protocol management and tracking of patient accrual. All data transactions and reporting occur through a graphical web browser interface using standard Internet technology. Security and confidentiality have been addressed through encryption, user authentication, address restriction, and database authority. Database management has been tightly integrated with protocol operations to avoid duplication of resources and effort. Data query functions also extend to other institutional resources, such as tumor registry and the hospital clinical laboratory, to further reduce the need for redundant data storage. Newer components, such as chemotherapy orders and toxicity reporting, have been incorporated in a modular fashion. Although custom software development can be expensive and time-consuming, it offers the best opportunity for successful integration with existing resources, staff, and procedures, as well as collaboration with other institutions.

  1. Energy Efficient MANET Routing Using a Combination of Span and BECA/AFECA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mads Darø; Bouvin, Niels Olof

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents some novel approaches for energy efficient routing in mobile ad-hoc networks. Two known energy preserving techniques, Span and BECA/AFECA, are combined with a well-known re-active routing protocol, AODV, to create a new energy efficient routing protocol. Furthermore......, the protocol is tuned towards usage in a nomadic network setting, i.e., a setting where some nodes are stationary and have a steady power source. The protocols are simulated extensively to examine their energy preserving capabilities, and the results of these simulations are presented and discussed....

  2. Elaboration of an electroporation protocol for Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgeon, Nathalie; Laflamme, Christian; Ho, Jim; Duchaine, Caroline

    2006-12-01

    An electro-transformation procedure was established for Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579. Using early growth-stage culture and high electric field, the ectroporation efficiency was up to 2 x 10(9) cfu microg(-1) ml(-1) with pC194 plasmid DNA. The procedure was tested with three other plasmids, of various sizes, replication mechanisms and selection markers, and the transformation efficiencies ranged between 2 x 10(6) and 1 x 10(8) cfu microg(-1) ml(-)(1). The effects of two wall-weakening agents on electroporation rates were also evaluated. The transformation rate that was reached with our procedure is 10(3) times higher than that previously obtained with members of the Bacillus genus with similar plasmids, and 10(6) times superior than that achieved with available protocols for B. cereus. The proposed method is quick, simple, efficient with small rolling circle plasmids and large theta replicating plasmids with low copy number per cell, and suitable for many genetic manipulations that are not possible without high-efficiency transformation protocols.

  3. Ocean fertilization, carbon credits and the Kyoto Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westley, M. B.; Gnanadesikan, A.

    2008-12-01

    Commercial interest in ocean fertilization as a carbon sequestration tool was excited by the December 1997 agreement of the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Convention on Climate Change. The Protocol commits industrialized countries to caps on net greenhouse gas emissions and allows for various flexible mechanisms to achieve these caps in the most economically efficient manner possible, including trade in carbon credits from projects that reduce emissions or enhance sinks. The carbon market was valued at 64 billion in 2007, with the bulk of the trading (50 billion) taking place in the highly regulated European Union Emission Trading Scheme, which deals primarily in emission allowances in the energy sector. A much smaller amount, worth $265 million, was traded in the largely unregulated "voluntary" market (Capoor and Ambrosi 2008). As the voluntary market grows, so do calls for its regulation, with several efforts underway to set rules and standards for the sale of voluntary carbon credits using the Kyoto Protocol as a starting point. Four US-based companies and an Australian company currently seek to develop ocean fertilization technologies for the generation of carbon credits. We review these plans through the lens of the Kyoto Protocol and its flexible mechanisms, and examine whether and how ocean fertilization could generate tradable carbon credits. We note that at present, ocean sinks are not included in the Kyoto Protocol, and that furthermore, the Kyoto Protocol only addresses sources and sinks of greenhouse gases within national boundaries, making open-ocean fertilization projects a jurisdictional challenge. We discuss the negotiating history behind the limited inclusion of land use, land use change and forestry in the Kyoto Protocol and the controversy and eventual compromise concerning methodologies for terrestrial carbon accounting. We conclude that current technologies for measuring and monitoring carbon sequestration following ocean fertilization

  4. A Secure Cluster-Based Multipath Routing Protocol for WMSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal N. Al-Karaki

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The new characteristics of Wireless Multimedia Sensor Network (WMSN and its design issues brought by handling different traffic classes of multimedia content (video streams, audio, and still images as well as scalar data over the network, make the proposed routing protocols for typical WSNs not directly applicable for WMSNs. Handling real-time multimedia data requires both energy efficiency and QoS assurance in order to ensure efficient utility of different capabilities of sensor resources and correct delivery of collected information. In this paper, we propose a Secure Cluster-based Multipath Routing protocol for WMSNs, SCMR, to satisfy the requirements of delivering different data types and support high data rate multimedia traffic. SCMR exploits the hierarchical structure of powerful cluster heads and the optimized multiple paths to support timeliness and reliable high data rate multimedia communication with minimum energy dissipation. Also, we present a light-weight distributed security mechanism of key management in order to secure the communication between sensor nodes and protect the network against different types of attacks. Performance evaluation from simulation results demonstrates a significant performance improvement comparing with existing protocols (which do not even provide any kind of security feature in terms of average end-to-end delay, network throughput, packet delivery ratio, and energy consumption.

  5. Improving the Authentication Scheme and Access Control Protocol for VANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chen Wu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Privacy and security are very important in vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs. VANETs are negatively affected by any malicious user’s behaviors, such as bogus information and replay attacks on the disseminated messages. Among various security threats, privacy preservation is one of the new challenges of protecting users’ private information. Existing authentication protocols to secure VANETs raise challenges, such as certificate distribution and reduction of the strong reliance on tamper-proof devices. In 2011, Yeh et al. proposed a PAACP: a portable privacy-preserving authentication and access control protocol in vehicular ad hoc networks. However, PAACP in the authorization phase is breakable and cannot maintain privacy in VANETs. In this paper, we present a cryptanalysis of an attachable blind signature and demonstrate that the PAACP’s authorized credential (AC is not secure and private, even if the AC is secretly stored in a tamper-proof device. An eavesdropper can construct an AC from an intercepted blind document. Any eavesdropper can determine who has which access privileges to access which service. For this reason, this paper copes with these challenges and proposes an efficient scheme. We conclude that an improving authentication scheme and access control protocol for VANETs not only resolves the problems that have appeared, but also is more secure and efficient.

  6. A secure cluster-based multipath routing protocol for WMSNs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almalkawi, Islam T; Zapata, Manel Guerrero; Al-Karaki, Jamal N

    2011-01-01

    The new characteristics of Wireless Multimedia Sensor Network (WMSN) and its design issues brought by handling different traffic classes of multimedia content (video streams, audio, and still images) as well as scalar data over the network, make the proposed routing protocols for typical WSNs not directly applicable for WMSNs. Handling real-time multimedia data requires both energy efficiency and QoS assurance in order to ensure efficient utility of different capabilities of sensor resources and correct delivery of collected information. In this paper, we propose a Secure Cluster-based Multipath Routing protocol for WMSNs, SCMR, to satisfy the requirements of delivering different data types and support high data rate multimedia traffic. SCMR exploits the hierarchical structure of powerful cluster heads and the optimized multiple paths to support timeliness and reliable high data rate multimedia communication with minimum energy dissipation. Also, we present a light-weight distributed security mechanism of key management in order to secure the communication between sensor nodes and protect the network against different types of attacks. Performance evaluation from simulation results demonstrates a significant performance improvement comparing with existing protocols (which do not even provide any kind of security feature) in terms of average end-to-end delay, network throughput, packet delivery ratio, and energy consumption.

  7. Comparison of Gluten Extraction Protocols Assessed by LC-MS/MS Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahbaghery, Azadeh; Zou, Wei; Byrne, Keren; Howitt, Crispin A; Colgrave, Michelle L

    2017-04-05

    The efficiency of gluten extraction is of critical importance to the results derived from any analytical method for gluten detection and quantitation, whether it employs reagent-based technology (antibodies) or analytical instrumentation (mass spectrometry). If the target proteins are not efficiently extracted, the end result will be an under-estimation in the gluten content posing a health risk to people affected by conditions such as celiac disease (CD) and nonceliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS). Five different extraction protocols were investigated using LC-MRM-MS for their ability to efficiently and reproducibly extract gluten. The rapid and simple "IPA/DTT" protocol and related "two-step" protocol were enriched for gluten proteins, 55/86% (trypsin/chymotrypsin) and 41/68% of all protein identifications, respectively, with both methods showing high reproducibility (CV gluten class behaving the same.

  8. Optimized universal protocol for electroporation of both coagulase-positive and -negative Staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato'o, Yusuke; Aiba, Yoshifumi; Kiga, Kotaro; Watanabe, Shinya; Sasahara, Teppei; Hayakawa, Yasuhiko; Cui, Longzhu

    2018-03-01

    Electroporation is a common technique necessary for genomic manipulation of Staphylococci. However, because this technique has too low efficiency to be applied to some Staphylococcal species and strains, especially to coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS) isolates, basic researches on these clinically important Staphylococci are limited. Here we report on the optimization of electroporation parameters and conditions as well as on the generation of a universal protocol that can be efficiently applicable to both CNS and Coagulase-positive Staphylococci (CPS). This protocol could generate transformants of clinical Staphylococcus epidermidis isolate, with an efficiency of up to 1400 CFU/μg of plasmid DNA. Transformants of 12 other clinically important Staphylococcal species, including CNS and CPS, were also generated with this protocol. To our knowledge, this is the first report on successful electroporation in nine these Staphylococcal species. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A survey on routing protocols for large-scale wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changle; Zhang, Hanxiao; Hao, Binbin; Li, Jiandong

    2011-01-01

    With the advances in micro-electronics, wireless sensor devices have been made much smaller and more integrated, and large-scale wireless sensor networks (WSNs) based the cooperation among the significant amount of nodes have become a hot topic. "Large-scale" means mainly large area or high density of a network. Accordingly the routing protocols must scale well to the network scope extension and node density increases. A sensor node is normally energy-limited and cannot be recharged, and thus its energy consumption has a quite significant effect on the scalability of the protocol. To the best of our knowledge, currently the mainstream methods to solve the energy problem in large-scale WSNs are the hierarchical routing protocols. In a hierarchical routing protocol, all the nodes are divided into several groups with different assignment levels. The nodes within the high level are responsible for data aggregation and management work, and the low level nodes for sensing their surroundings and collecting information. The hierarchical routing protocols are proved to be more energy-efficient than flat ones in which all the nodes play the same role, especially in terms of the data aggregation and the flooding of the control packets. With focus on the hierarchical structure, in this paper we provide an insight into routing protocols designed specifically for large-scale WSNs. According to the different objectives, the protocols are generally classified based on different criteria such as control overhead reduction, energy consumption mitigation and energy balance. In order to gain a comprehensive understanding of each protocol, we highlight their innovative ideas, describe the underlying principles in detail and analyze their advantages and disadvantages. Moreover a comparison of each routing protocol is conducted to demonstrate the differences between the protocols in terms of message complexity, memory requirements, localization, data aggregation, clustering manner and

  10. Two-round contributory group key exchange protocol for wireless network environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Tsu-Yang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With the popularity of group-oriented applications, secure group communication has recently received much attention from cryptographic researchers. A group key exchange (GKE protocol allows that participants cooperatively establish a group key that is used to encrypt and decrypt transmitted messages. Hence, GKE protocols can be used to provide secure group communication over a public network channel. However, most of the previously proposed GKE protocols deployed in wired networks are not fully suitable for wireless network environments with low-power computing devices. Subsequently, several GKE protocols suitable for mobile or wireless networks have been proposed. In this article, we will propose a more efficient group key exchange protocol with dynamic joining and leaving. Under the decision Diffie-Hellman (DDH, the computation Diffie-Hellman (CDH, and the hash function assumptions, we demonstrate that the proposed protocol is secure against passive attack and provides forward/backward secrecy for dynamic member joining/leaving. As compared with the recently proposed GKE protocols, our protocol provides better performance in terms of computational cost, round number, and communication cost.

  11. A Secured Authentication Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks Using Elliptic Curves Cryptography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Wen Wei

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available User authentication is a crucial service in wireless sensor networks (WSNs that is becoming increasingly common in WSNs because wireless sensor nodes are typically deployed in an unattended environment, leaving them open to possible hostile network attack. Because wireless sensor nodes are limited in computing power, data storage and communication capabilities, any user authentication protocol must be designed to operate efficiently in a resource constrained environment. In this paper, we review several proposed WSN user authentication protocols, with a detailed review of the M.L Das protocol and a cryptanalysis of Das’ protocol that shows several security weaknesses. Furthermore, this paper proposes an ECC-based user authentication protocol that resolves these weaknesses. According to our analysis of security of the ECC-based protocol, it is suitable for applications with higher security requirements. Finally, we present a comparison of security, computation, and communication costs and performances for the proposed protocols. The ECC-based protocol is shown to be suitable for higher security WSNs.

  12. Performance Analysis of On-Demand Routing Protocols in Wireless Mesh Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arafatur RAHMAN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs have recently gained a lot of popularity due to their rapid deployment and instant communication capabilities. WMNs are dynamically self-organizing, self-configuring and self-healing with the nodes in the network automatically establishing an adiej hoc network and preserving the mesh connectivity. Designing a routing protocol for WMNs requires several aspects to consider, such as wireless networks, fixed applications, mobile applications, scalability, better performance metrics, efficient routing within infrastructure, load balancing, throughput enhancement, interference, robustness etc. To support communication, various routing protocols are designed for various networks (e.g. ad hoc, sensor, wired etc.. However, all these protocols are not suitable for WMNs, because of the architectural differences among the networks. In this paper, a detailed simulation based performance study and analysis is performed on the reactive routing protocols to verify the suitability of these protocols over such kind of networks. Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV, Dynamic Source Routing (DSR and Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO routing protocol are considered as the representative of reactive routing protocols. The performance differentials are investigated using varying traffic load and number of source. Based on the simulation results, how the performance of each protocol can be improved is also recommended.

  13. A secured authentication protocol for wireless sensor networks using elliptic curves cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hsiu-Lien; Chen, Tien-Ho; Liu, Pin-Chuan; Kim, Tai-Hoo; Wei, Hsin-Wen

    2011-01-01

    User authentication is a crucial service in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) that is becoming increasingly common in WSNs because wireless sensor nodes are typically deployed in an unattended environment, leaving them open to possible hostile network attack. Because wireless sensor nodes are limited in computing power, data storage and communication capabilities, any user authentication protocol must be designed to operate efficiently in a resource constrained environment. In this paper, we review several proposed WSN user authentication protocols, with a detailed review of the M.L Das protocol and a cryptanalysis of Das' protocol that shows several security weaknesses. Furthermore, this paper proposes an ECC-based user authentication protocol that resolves these weaknesses. According to our analysis of security of the ECC-based protocol, it is suitable for applications with higher security requirements. Finally, we present a comparison of security, computation, and communication costs and performances for the proposed protocols. The ECC-based protocol is shown to be suitable for higher security WSNs.

  14. Validation of IT-based Data Communication Protocol for Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, K. I.; Kim, D. H.; Lee, J. C.

    2009-12-01

    The communication network designed to transmit control and processing signals in digital Instrument and Control (I and C) systems in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), should provide a high level of safety and reliability. There are different features between the communication networks of NPPs and other commercial communication networks. Safety and reliability are the most important factors in the communication networks of an NPP rather than efficiency which are important factors of a commercial communication network design. To develop Data Communication Protocol for Nuclear Power Plant, We analyze the design criteria and performance requirements of existing commercial communication protocols based on Information Technology(IT). And also, we examine the adaptability to the communication protocol of an NPP. Based on these results, we developed our own protocol(Nuclear power plant Safety Communication Protocol : NSCP) for NPP I and C, which meet the required specifications through design overall protocol architecture and data frame format, definition of functional requirements and specifications. NSCP is the communication protocol designed for a safety-grade control network in the nuclear power plant. In this report, we had specified NSCP protocol by FDT(Formal Description Technique) and established validation procedures based on the validation methodology. It was confirmed specification error, major function's validity and reachability of NSCP by performing simulation and the validation process using Telelogic Tau tool

  15. Language, Semantics, and Methods for Security Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crazzolara, Federico

    Security protocols help in establishing secure channels between communicating systems. Great care needs therefore to be taken in developing and implementing robust protocols. The complexity of security-protocol interactions can hide, however, security weaknesses that only a formal analysis can...... to a transition semantics which can easily be implemented. (An existing SPL implementation bridges the gap that often exists between abstract protocol models on which verification of security properties is carried out and the implemented protocol.) SPL-nets are a particular kind of contextual Petri...... reveal. The last few years have seen the emergence of successful intensional, event-based, formal approaches to reasoning about security protocols. The methods are concerned with reasoning about the events that a security protocol can perform, and make use of a causal dependency that exists between...

  16. Effective Protocols for Mobile Communications and Networking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinoza, J.; Sholander, P.; Van Leeuwen, B,

    1998-12-01

    This report examines methods of mobile communications with an emphasis on mobile computing and wireless communications. Many of the advances in communications involve the use of Internet Protocol (IP), Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), and ad hoc network protocols. However, many of the advances in these protocols have been focused on wired communications. Recently much focus has been directed at advancing communication technology in the area of mobile wireless networks. This report discusses various protocols used in mobile communications and proposes a number of extensions to existing protocols. A detailed discussion is also included on desirable protocol characteristics and evaluation criteria. In addition, the report includes a discussion on several network simulation tools that maybe used to evaluate network protocols.

  17. Generalized routing protocols for multihop relay networks

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Fahd Ahmed

    2011-07-01

    Performance of multihop cooperative networks depends on the routing protocols employed. In this paper we propose the last-n-hop selection protocol, the dual path protocol, the forward-backward last-n-hop selection protocol and the forward-backward dual path protocol for the routing of data through multihop relay networks. The average symbol error probability performance of the schemes is analysed by simulations. It is shown that close to optimal performance can be achieved by using the last-n-hop selection protocol and its forward-backward variant. Furthermore we also compute the complexity of the protocols in terms of number of channel state information required and the number of comparisons required for routing the signal through the network. © 2011 IEEE.

  18. Developing security protocols in χ-Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crazzolara, Federico; Milicia, Giuseppe

    2002-01-01

    It is of paramount importance that a security protocol effectively enforces the desired security requirements. The apparent simplicity of informal protocol descriptions hides the inherent complexity of their interactions which, often, invalidate informal correctness arguments and justify the effort...... of formal protocol verification. Verification, however, is usually carried out on an abstract model not at all related with a protocol’s implementation. Experience shows that security breaches introduced in implementations of successfully verified models are rather common. The χ-Spaces framework...... is an implementation of SPL (Security Protocol Language), a formal model for studying security protocols. In this paper we discuss the use of χ-Spaces as a tool for developing robust security protocol implementations. To make the case, we take a family of key-translation protocols due to Woo and Lam and show how χ...

  19. Efficient Server-Aided 2PC for Mobile Phones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohassel Payman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Secure Two-Party Computation (2PC protocols allow two parties to compute a function of their private inputs without revealing any information besides the output of the computation. There exist low cost general-purpose protocols for semi-honest parties that can be efficiently executed even on smartphones. However, for the case of malicious parties, current 2PC protocols are significantly less efficient, limiting their use to more resourceful devices. In this work we present an efficient 2PC protocol that is secure against malicious parties and is light enough to be used on mobile phones. The protocol is an adaptation of the protocol of Nielsen et al. (Crypto, 2012 to the Server-Aided setting, a natural relaxation of the plain model for secure computation that allows the parties to interact with a server (e.g., a cloud who is assumed not to collude with any of the parties. Our protocol has two stages: In an offline stage - where no party knows which function is to be computed, nor who else is participating - each party interacts with the server and downloads a file. Later, in the online stage, when two parties decide to execute a 2PC together, they can use the files they have downloaded earlier to execute the computation with cost that is lower than the currently best semi-honest 2PC protocols. We show an implementation of our protocol for Android mobile phones, discuss several optimizations and report on its evaluation for various circuits. For example, the online stage for evaluating a single AES circuit requires only 2.5 seconds and can be further reduced to 1 second (amortized time with multiple executions.

  20. Analyzing the effect of routing protocols on media access control protocols in radio networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, C. L. (Christopher L.); Drozda, M. (Martin); Marathe, A. (Achla); Marathe, M. V. (Madhav V.)

    2002-01-01

    We study the effect of routing protocols on the performance of media access control (MAC) protocols in wireless radio networks. Three well known MAC protocols: 802.11, CSMA, and MACA are considered. Similarly three recently proposed routing protocols: AODV, DSR and LAR scheme 1 are considered. The experimental analysis was carried out using GloMoSim: a tool for simulating wireless networks. The main focus of our experiments was to study how the routing protocols affect the performance of the MAC protocols when the underlying network and traffic parameters are varied. The performance of the protocols was measured w.r.t. five important parameters: (i) number of received packets, (ii) average latency of each packet, (iii) throughput (iv) long term fairness and (v) number of control packets at the MAC layer level. Our results show that combinations of routing and MAC protocols yield varying performance under varying network topology and traffic situations. The result has an important implication; no combination of routing protocol and MAC protocol is the best over all situations. Also, the performance analysis of protocols at a given level in the protocol stack needs to be studied not locally in isolation but as a part of the complete protocol stack. A novel aspect of our work is the use of statistical technique, ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) to characterize the effect of routing protocols on MAC protocols. This technique is of independent interest and can be utilized in several other simulation and empirical studies.