WorldWideScience

Sample records for efficient rapid one-electron

  1. A Simple, Rapid and Efficient One-pot Protocol for the Synthesis of 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    A rapid and efficient condensation reaction of 2-aminothiophenol with various fatty acids in solvent-free conditions with or without microwave irradiation was ... heterocyclic compounds that have widespread applications in pharmaceutical and ... catalyzed reaction of aryl halides with o-aminothiophenol in presence of carbon ...

  2. Efficient composite fabrication using electron-beam rapidly cured polymers engineered for several manufacturing processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, T.C.; Crivello, J.V.

    1995-01-01

    Low cost, efficiently processed ultra high specific strength and stiffness graphite fiber reinforced polymeric composite materials are of great interest to commercial transportation, construction and aerospace industries for use in various components with enhanced degrees of weight reduction, corrosion/erosion resistance and fatigue resistance. 10 MeV Electron Beam cure processing has been found to increase the cure rate by an order of magnitude over thermally cured systems yet provide less molded in stresses and high T g s. However, a limited range of resins are available which are easily processed with low shrinkage and with performance properties equal or exceeding those of state of the art toughened epoxies and BMI's. The technology, introduced by an academia-industry partnership sparked by Langley Research Center utilizes a cost effective, rapid curing polymeric composite processing technique which effectively reduces the need for expensive tooling and energy inefficient autoclave processing and can cure the laminate in seconds (compared to hours for thermal curing) in ambient or sub-ambient conditions. The process is based on electron beam (E-Beam) curing of a new series of (65 to 1,000,000 cPs.) specially formulated resins that have been shown to exhibit excellent mechanical and physical properties once cured. Fabrication processes utilizing these specially formulated and newly commercialized resins, (e.g. including Vacuum Assist Resin Transfer molding (VARTM), vacuum bag prepreg layup, pultrusion and filament winding grades) are engineered to cure with low shrinkage, provide excellent mechanical properties, be processed solventless (environmentally friendly) and are inherently non toxic

  3. [Efficient and rapid non-test tube cloning of Jatropha curcas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhao-Yu; Lin, Jing-Ming; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2007-08-01

    To develop a new technique for efficient and rapid non-test tube cloning of the medicinal and energy- producing plant Jatropha curcas. Using the mini-stem fragment (2-3 cm) of Jatropha curcas with merely one axillary bud as the explant, the effect of an auxin IBA concentration on the plantlet regeneration was studied. When treated with 1 mg/LIBA for 1h, the explants showed the most rapid propagation. The mini-stem fragments high root regeneration ratio (96.7%), short root regeneration period (18.2-/+2.0 d), large number of new roots per explant (6.3-/+1.8), and long total root length (6.8-/+3.5 cm), demonstrating that this technique can be a simple and efficient method for rapid non-test tube cloning of Jatropha curcas of potential industrial value.

  4. Economic efficiency analysis of electron accelerator for irradiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Huidong; Chen Ronghui

    2003-01-01

    The fixed assets, running cost and economic efficiency were discussed in this paper. For building electron accelerator of 10 MeV and 3 kW, the running cost is one time higher than building cobalt source at 2.22 x 10 15 Bq, but economic efficiency of building a electron accelerator is much higher than building a cobalt source

  5. Efficient electronic entanglement concentration assisted by single mobile electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng Yu-Bo; Zhou Lan

    2013-01-01

    We present an efficient entanglement concentration protocol (ECP) for mobile electrons with charge detection. This protocol is quite different from other ECPs for one can obtain a maximally entangled pair from a pair of less-entangled state and a single mobile electron with a certain probability. With the help of charge detection, it can be repeated to reach a higher success probability. It also does not need to know the coefficient of the original less-entangled states. All these advantages may make this protocol useful in current distributed quantum information processing

  6. Gadgets and Gigawatts - Policies for Energy Efficient Electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-05-13

    By 2010 there will be over 3.5 billion mobile phones subscribers, 2 billion TVs in use around the world and 1 billion personal computers. Electronic devices are a growing part of our lives and many of us can count between 20 and 30 separate items in our homes, from major items like televisions to a host of small gadgets. The communication and entertainment benefits these bring are not only going to people in wealthier nations - in Africa, for example, one in nine people now has a mobile phone. But as these electronic devices gain popularity, they account for a growing portion of household energy consumption. How 'smart' is this equipment from an energy efficiency perspective and should we be concerned about how much energy these gadgets use? What is the potential for energy savings? This new book, Gadgets and Gigawatts: Policies for Energy Efficient Electronics, includes a global assessment of the changing pattern in residential electricity consumption over the past decade and an in-depth analysis of the role played by electronic equipment. It reviews the influence that government policies have had on creating markets for more energy efficient appliances and identifies new opportunities for creating smarter, more energy efficient homes. This book is essential reading for policy makers and others interested in improving the energy efficiency of our homes.

  7. Implementing electronic handover: interventions to improve efficiency, safety and sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhamid, Sharifah Munirah; Lee, Desmond Xue-Yuan; Wong, Hei Man; Chuah, Matthew Bingfeng; Wong, Yu Jun; Narasimhalu, Kaavya; Tan, Thuan Tong; Low, Su Ying

    2016-10-01

    Effective handovers are critical for patient care and safety. Electronic handover tools are increasingly used today to provide an effective and standardized platform for information exchange. The implementation of an electronic handover system in tertiary hospitals can be a major challenge. Previous efforts in implementing an electronic handover tool failed due to poor compliance and buy-in from end-users. A new electronic handover tool was developed and incorporated into the existing electronic medical records (EMRs) for medical patients in Singapore General Hospital (SGH). There was poor compliance by on-call doctors in acknowledging electronic handovers, and lack of adherence to safety rules, raising concerns about the safety and efficiency of the electronic handover tool. Urgent measures were needed to ensure its safe and sustained use. A quality improvement group comprising stakeholders, including end-users, developed multi-faceted interventions using rapid PDSA (P-Plan, D-Do, S-Study, A-Act ) cycles to address these issues. Innovative solutions using media and online software provided cost-efficient measures to improve compliance. The percentage of unacknowledged handovers per day was used as the main outcome measure throughout all PDSA cycles. Doctors were also assessed for improvement in their knowledge of safety rules and their perception of the electronic handover tool. An electronic handover tool complementing daily clinical practice can be successfully implemented using solutions devised through close collaboration with end-users supported by the senior leadership. A combined 'bottom-up' and 'top-down' approach with regular process evaluations is crucial for its long-term sustainability. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. The rapid secondary electron imaging system of the proton beam writer at CIBA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udalagama, C.N.B.; Bettiol, A.A.; Kan, J.A. van; Teo, E.J.; Watt, F.

    2007-01-01

    The recent years have witnessed a proliferation of research involving proton beam (p-beam) writing. This has prompted investigations into means of optimizing the process of p-beam writing so as to make it less time consuming and more efficient. One such avenue is the improvement of the pre-writing preparatory procedures that involves beam focusing and sample alignment which is centred on acquiring images of a resolution standard or sample. The conventional mode of imaging used up to now has utilized conventional nuclear microprobe signals that are of a pulsed nature and are inherently slow. In this work, we report the new imaging system that has been introduced, which uses proton induced secondary electrons. This in conjunction with software developed in-house that uses a National Instruments DAQ card with hardware triggering, facilitates large data transfer rates enabling rapid imaging. Frame rates as much as 10 frames/s have been achieved at an imaging resolution of 512 x 512 pixels

  9. Rapid pulse annealing of CdZnTe detectors for reducing electronic noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Lars; Conway, Adam; Nelson, Art; Nikolic, Rebecca J.; Payne, Stephen A.; Swanberg, Jr., Erik Lars

    2018-05-01

    A combination of doping, rapid pulsed optical and/or thermal annealing, and unique detector structure reduces or eliminates sources of electronic noise in a CdZnTe (CZT) detector. According to several embodiments, methods of forming a detector exhibiting minimal electronic noise include: pulse-annealing at least one surface of a detector comprising CZT for one or more pulses, each pulse having a duration of .about.0.1 seconds or less. The at least one surface may optionally be ion-implanted. In another embodiment, a CZT detector includes a detector surface with two or more electrodes operating at different electric potentials and coupled to the detector surface; and one or more ion-implanted CZT surfaces on or in the detector surface, each of the one or more ion-implanted CZT surfaces being independently connected to one of the two or more electrodes and the surface of the detector. At least two of the ion-implanted surfaces are in electrical contact.

  10. A theory of electron baths: One-electron system dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, H.K.

    1992-01-01

    The second-quantized, many-electron, atomic, and molecular Hamiltonian is partitioned both by the identity or labeling of the spin orbitals and by the dynamics of the spin orbitals into a system coupled to a bath. The electron bath is treated by a molecular time scale generalized Langevin equation approach designed to include one-electron dynamics in the system dynamics. The bath is formulated as an equivalent chain of spin orbitals through the introduction of equivalent-chain annihilation and creation operators. Both the dynamics and the quantum grand canonical statistical properties of the electron bath are examined. Two versions for the statistical properties of the bath are pursued. Using a weak bath assumption, a bath statistical average is defined which allows one to achieve a reduced dynamics description of the electron system which is coupled to the electron bath. In a strong bath assumption effective Hamiltonians are obtained which reproduce the dynamics of the bath and which lead to the same results as found in the weak bath assumption. The effective (but exact) Hamiltonian is found to be a one-electron Hamiltonian. A reduced dynamics equation of motion for the system population matrix is derived and found to agree with a previous version. This equation of motion is useful for studying electron transfer in the system when coupled to an electron bath

  11. High-efficiency free-electron laser results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, K.; Baru, C.A.; Newnam, B.E.; Stein, W.E.; Warren, R.W.; Winston, J.G.; Young, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    Results obtained with a tapered-wiggler free-electron laser demonstrate the concepts proposed by Morton for enhanced efficiency and show deceleration of electrons by as much as 7%, and extraction of more than 3% of the total electron-beam energy as laser energy when the laser is operated as an amplifier. The experiment is presently being reconfigured to examine its performance as a laser oscillator

  12. Electronics all-in-one for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Dickon

    2013-01-01

    Your one-stop UK shop for clear, concise explanations to all the important concepts in electronics and tons of direction for building simple, fun electronic projects. The 8 mini-books in this 1 volume include: Getting Started with ElectronicsWorking with Basic ComponentsWorking with Integrated CircuitsGetting into Alternating CurrentWorking with Radio and InfraredDoing Digital ElectronicsWorking with Basic Stamp ProcessorsBuilding Special Effects With nearly 900 pages of instruction, Electronics All-in-One For Dummies covers all the bases and provides a fascinating hands-on exploration of el

  13. One-electron theory of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skriver, H.L.

    1984-12-01

    The work described in the report and the 16 accompanying publications is based upon a one-electron theory obtained within the local approximation to density-functional theory, and deals with the ground state of metals as obtained from self-consistent electronic-structure calculations performed by means of the Linear Muffin-Tin Orbital (LMTO) method. It has been the goal of the work to establish how well this one-electron approach describes physical properties such as the crystal structures of the transition metals, the structural phase transitions in the alkali, alkaline earth, and rare earth metals, and the localization of 3d, 4f, and 5f electrons in the 3d metal monoxides, the light lanthanides, and the actinides, respectively, as well as the cohesive properties of metals in general. (orig.)

  14. Efficient spin transitions in inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente, Nicolás; Gauyacq, Jean-Pierre

    2009-10-23

    The excitation of the spin degrees of freedom of an adsorbed atom by tunneling electrons is computed using strong coupling theory. Recent measurements [Heinrich, Science 306, 466 (2004)] reveal that electron currents in a magnetic system efficiently excite its magnetic moments. Our theory shows that the incoming electron spin strongly couples with that of the adsorbate so that memory of the initial spin state is lost, leading to large excitation efficiencies. First-principles transmissions are evaluated in quantitative agreement with the experiment.

  15. Efficiency of the Fermilab Electron Cooler's Collector

    CERN Document Server

    Prost, L R

    2005-01-01

    The newly installed high-energy Recycler Electron Cooling system (REC) at Fermilab will work at an electron energy of 4.34 MeV and a DC beam current of 0.5 A in an energy recovery scheme. For reliable operation of the system, the relative beam current loss must be maintained to levels < 3.e-5. Experiments have shown that the loss is determined by the performance of the electron beam collector, which must retain secondary electrons generated by the primary beam hitting its walls. As a part of the Electron cooling project, the efficiency of the collector for the REC was optimized, both with dedicated test bench experiments and on two versions of the cooler prototype. We find that to achieve the required relative current loss, an axially-symmetric collector must be immersed in a transverse magnetic field with certain strength and gradient prescriptions. Collector efficiencies in various magnetic field configurations, including without a transverse field on the collector, are presented and discussed

  16. Coulomb blockade and transfer of electrons one by one

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pothier, Hugues

    1991-01-01

    Zero point fluctuations of the charge on the capacitance of a tunnel junction connected to a bias circuit are in almost all experimental situations larger than the electron charge. As a consequence, the effects of charge granularity are hidden, but in circuits with 'islands', which are electrodes connected to the rest of the circuit only through tunnel junctions and capacitors. The island charge being quantized, its fluctuations are blocked. If the island capacitance is sufficiently small, no electron can enter the island because of the increase of electrostatic energy that would occur. We have observed this effect, called 'Coulomb blockade', in the 'single electron box', where an island is formed between a tunnel junction and a capacitor. A bias voltage source coupled to the island through the capacitor allows to control the number of electrons. We have designed and operated two devices with nano-scale tunnel junctions based on this principle, the 'turnstile' and the 'pump', through which the current is controlled electron by electron. In our experiments, the precision of the transfer is of the order of one percent. It should be a million time better in versions of these devices with more junctions. One could then use them for a new measurement of the fine structure constant alpha. (author) [fr

  17. One-electron oxidation of DNA: mechanism and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Gary B

    2009-01-01

    All living organisms store the information necessary to maintain life in their DNA. Any process that damages DNA and causes loss or corruption of that information threatens the viability of the organism. One-electron oxidation is such a process. Loss of an electron from DNA generates a radical cation that is located primarily on its nucleobases. The radical cation migrates reversibly through duplex DNA by hopping until it is eventually trapped in an irreversible chemical reaction. The particular sequence of nucleobases in a DNA oligomer determines both the efficiency of hopping and the specific location and nature of the damaging chemical reaction. In its normal aqueous solutions, DNA is a polyanion because of the negative charge carried by its phosphate groups. Counter ions (typically Na(+)) to the phosphate groups play an important role in facilitating both the migration of the radical cation and in its eventual reaction with H(2)O. Irreversible reaction of a radical cation with H(2)O in duplex DNA occurs preferentially at the most reactive site. In normal DNA that is comprised of the four common DNA nucleobases, reaction occurs most commonly at a guanine and results in its conversion primarily to 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-OxoG). Both electronic and steric effects control the outcome of this process. If the DNA oligomer does not contain a suitable guanine, then reaction of the radical cation occurs at the thymine of a TT step primarily by a tandem process. The general outcomes revealed in the one-electron oxidation of DNA oligomers in solution appear to be generally valid also for more complex DNA structures and for the cellular DNA of living organisms.

  18. An Efficient Electronic English Auction System with a Secure On-Shelf Mechanism and Privacy Preserving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of the Internet, electronic commerce has become more and more popular. As an important element of e-commerce, many Internet companies such as Yahoo! and eBay have launched electronic auction systems. However, like most electronic commerce products, safety is an important issue that should be addressed. Many researchers have proposed secure electronic auction mechanisms, but we found that some of them do not exhibit the property of unlinkability, which leads to the leakage of users’ privacy. Considering the importance of privacy preservation, we have designed a new auction mechanism. Through symmetrical key establishment in the registration phase, all messages transmitted over the Internet would be protected and, meanwhile, achieve the property of unlinkability. The security analysis and performance analysis show that our protocol fulfills more security properties and is more efficient for implementation compared with recent works.

  19. Elucidation of the structure-property relationship of p-type organic semiconductors through rapid library construction via a one-pot, Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuse, Shinichiro; Matsumura, Keisuke; Wakamiya, Atsushi; Masui, Hisashi; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Yoshikawa, Susumu; Takahashi, Takashi

    2014-09-08

    The elucidation of the structure-property relationship is an important issue in the development of organic electronics. Combinatorial synthesis and the evaluation of systematically modified compounds is a powerful tool in the work of elucidating structure-property relationships. In this manuscript, D-π-A structure, 32 p-type organic semiconductors were rapidly synthesized via a one-pot, Suzuki-Miyaura coupling with subsequent Knoevenagel condensation. Evaluation of the solubility and photovoltaic properties of the prepared compounds revealed that the measured solubility was strongly correlated with the solubility parameter (SP), as reported by Fedors. In addition, the SPs were correlated with the Jsc of thin-film organic solar cells prepared using synthesized compounds. Among the evaluated photovoltaic properties of the solar cells, Jsc and Voc had strong correlations with the photoconversion efficiency (PCE).

  20. One-Dimensional Electron Transport Layers for Perovskite Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ujwal K. Thakur

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The electron diffusion length (Ln is smaller than the hole diffusion length (Lp in many halide perovskite semiconductors meaning that the use of ordered one-dimensional (1D structures such as nanowires (NWs and nanotubes (NTs as electron transport layers (ETLs is a promising method of achieving high performance halide perovskite solar cells (HPSCs. ETLs consisting of oriented and aligned NWs and NTs offer the potential not merely for improved directional charge transport but also for the enhanced absorption of incoming light and thermodynamically efficient management of photogenerated carrier populations. The ordered architecture of NW/NT arrays affords superior infiltration of a deposited material making them ideal for use in HPSCs. Photoconversion efficiencies (PCEs as high as 18% have been demonstrated for HPSCs using 1D ETLs. Despite the advantages of 1D ETLs, there are still challenges that need to be overcome to achieve even higher PCEs, such as better methods to eliminate or passivate surface traps, improved understanding of the hetero-interface and optimization of the morphology (i.e., length, diameter, and spacing of NWs/NTs. This review introduces the general considerations of ETLs for HPSCs, deposition techniques used, and the current research and challenges in the field of 1D ETLs for perovskite solar cells.

  1. One-Dimensional Electron Transport Layers for Perovskite Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Ujwal K.; Kisslinger, Ryan; Shankar, Karthik

    2017-01-01

    The electron diffusion length (Ln) is smaller than the hole diffusion length (Lp) in many halide perovskite semiconductors meaning that the use of ordered one-dimensional (1D) structures such as nanowires (NWs) and nanotubes (NTs) as electron transport layers (ETLs) is a promising method of achieving high performance halide perovskite solar cells (HPSCs). ETLs consisting of oriented and aligned NWs and NTs offer the potential not merely for improved directional charge transport but also for the enhanced absorption of incoming light and thermodynamically efficient management of photogenerated carrier populations. The ordered architecture of NW/NT arrays affords superior infiltration of a deposited material making them ideal for use in HPSCs. Photoconversion efficiencies (PCEs) as high as 18% have been demonstrated for HPSCs using 1D ETLs. Despite the advantages of 1D ETLs, there are still challenges that need to be overcome to achieve even higher PCEs, such as better methods to eliminate or passivate surface traps, improved understanding of the hetero-interface and optimization of the morphology (i.e., length, diameter, and spacing of NWs/NTs). This review introduces the general considerations of ETLs for HPSCs, deposition techniques used, and the current research and challenges in the field of 1D ETLs for perovskite solar cells. PMID:28468280

  2. Efficient implementation of one- and two-component analytical energy gradients in exact two-component theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzke, Yannick J.; Middendorf, Nils; Weigend, Florian

    2018-03-01

    We present an efficient algorithm for one- and two-component analytical energy gradients with respect to nuclear displacements in the exact two-component decoupling approach to the one-electron Dirac equation (X2C). Our approach is a generalization of the spin-free ansatz by Cheng and Gauss [J. Chem. Phys. 135, 084114 (2011)], where the perturbed one-electron Hamiltonian is calculated by solving a first-order response equation. Computational costs are drastically reduced by applying the diagonal local approximation to the unitary decoupling transformation (DLU) [D. Peng and M. Reiher, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 244108 (2012)] to the X2C Hamiltonian. The introduced error is found to be almost negligible as the mean absolute error of the optimized structures amounts to only 0.01 pm. Our implementation in TURBOMOLE is also available within the finite nucleus model based on a Gaussian charge distribution. For a X2C/DLU gradient calculation, computational effort scales cubically with the molecular size, while storage increases quadratically. The efficiency is demonstrated in calculations of large silver clusters and organometallic iridium complexes.

  3. Measurements of the Electron Reconstruction and Identification Efficiencies in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Sommer, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Isolated, high-energy electrons constitute a very clean signature at hadron collider experiments. As the final states of many Standard Model processes, as well as physics beyond the Standard Model, analyses at the ATLAS experiment heavily rely on electrons. A precise knowledge of the efficiency to correctly reconstruct and identify these electrons is thus important. In this contribution the measurement of these efficiencies is described. It is performed with a tag-and-probe method using $Z$ and $J/\\psi$ decays to electrons in $20.3\\,\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$ of $pp$ collisions recorded in 2012 at $\\sqrt{s}=8$ TeV. The combination of the measurements results in identification efficiencies determined with an accuracy of a few per mil for electrons with a transverse energy of $E_{\\mathrm{T}}>30$ GeV.

  4. Rapid model building of beta-sheets in electron-density maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terwilliger, Thomas C

    2010-03-01

    A method for rapidly building beta-sheets into electron-density maps is presented. beta-Strands are identified as tubes of high density adjacent to and nearly parallel to other tubes of density. The alignment and direction of each strand are identified from the pattern of high density corresponding to carbonyl and C(beta) atoms along the strand averaged over all repeats present in the strand. The beta-strands obtained are then assembled into a single atomic model of the beta-sheet regions. The method was tested on a set of 42 experimental electron-density maps at resolutions ranging from 1.5 to 3.8 A. The beta-sheet regions were nearly completely built in all but two cases, the exceptions being one structure at 2.5 A resolution in which a third of the residues in beta-sheets were built and a structure at 3.8 A in which under 10% were built. The overall average r.m.s.d. of main-chain atoms in the residues built using this method compared with refined models of the structures was 1.5 A.

  5. Electrons, pseudoparticles, and quasiparticles in the one-dimensional many-electron problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmelo, J.M.; Castro Neto, A.H.

    1996-01-01

    We generalize the concept of quasiparticle for one-dimensional (1D) interacting electronic systems. The ↑ and ↓ quasiparticles recombine the pseudoparticle colors c and s (charge and spin at zero-magnetic field) and are constituted by one many-pseudoparticle topological-momentum shift and one or two pseudoparticles. These excitations cannot be separated. We consider the case of the Hubbard chain. We show that the low-energy electron-quasiparticle transformation has a singular character which justifies the perturbative and nonperturbative nature of the quantum problem in the pseudoparticle and electronic basis, respectively. This follows from the absence of zero-energy electron-quasiparticle overlap in 1D. The existence of Fermi-surface quasiparticles both in 1D and three dimensional (3D) many-electron systems suggests their existence in quantum liquids in dimensions 1 1 or whether it becomes finite as soon as we leave 1D remains an unsolved question. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  6. Effect of resonant-to-bulk electron momentum transfer on the efficiency of electron-cyclotron current-drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Y.; Smith, G.R.; Cohen, R.H.

    1989-01-01

    Efficiency of current drive by electron cyclotron waves is investigated numerically by a bounce-averaged Fokker-Planck code to ellucidate the effects of momentum transfer from resonant to bulk-electrons, finite bulk temperature relative to the energy of resonant electrons, and trapped electrons. Comparisons are made with existing theories to assess their validity and quantitative difference between theory and code results. Difference of nearly a factor of 2 was found in efficiency between some theory and code results. (author)

  7. The development of efficient coding for an electronic mail system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Techniques for efficiently representing scanned electronic documents were investigated. Major results include the definition and preliminary performance results of a Universal System for Efficient Electronic Mail (USEEM), offering a potential order of magnitude improvement over standard facsimile techniques for representing textual material.

  8. Adaptation to the electronics of fast and highly efficient fission chambers; Adaptation a l'electronique de chambres a fission rapides et de grande efficacite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buisson, Jacques

    1968-09-04

    When designing a fast and highly efficient sensor, not only optimal values of the sensor per se (nature of the filling gas, pressure, electric field, etc.), but also its adaptation to the cable of connection to the electronics must be taken into account. The author reports the development of the expression of the characteristic impedance of fission chambers and the determination of elementary tubes. He reports the theoretical study of the amplitude of pulses produced by a sensor in the case of a non-adapted sensor and in the case of an adapted sensor. It appears that an adapted chamber does not possess only benefits, but is an interesting solution only when the sensor collection time is very short and when the compliance with its speed is the essential objective. Some recommendations are made for the electronics characteristics, and for the connection cable (very low losses, which means a greater diameter than the current one)

  9. Rapid low dose electron tomography using a direct electron detection camera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Migunov (Vadim); H. Ryll; X. Zhuge (Jason); M. Simson; L. Strüder; K.J. Batenburg (Joost); L. Houben; R.E. Dunin-Borkowski (Rafal)

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractWe demonstrate the ability to record a tomographic tilt series containing 3487 images in only 3.5 s by using a direct electron detector in a transmission electron microscope. The electron dose is lower by at least one order of magnitude when compared with that used to record a

  10. A multichannel magnetic β-ray spectrometer for rapid measurements of electron spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kariya, Komyo; Morikawa, Kaoru.

    1989-01-01

    In order to make the magnetic β-ray spectrometer suitable for rapid measurements of electron spectra with short-lived nuclides, twelve small GM counters have been arrayed along the focal plane of a 180deg focusing flat type design. All the signal pulses from each one of these detectors are mixed together onto a single cable. By means of multichannel PHA, each pulse can be traced back to the specific detector which sent it out. In order to avoid time consuming evacuation procedures, the sample source is placed outside a thin window of the preevacuated analyzer chamber. By the use of this multichannel spectrometer a β-ray spectrum with maximum energy up to about 10 MeV can be measured within 1 min or so. Electron spectra measured with 113m In, 119m In and 144 Pr source are shown. (author)

  11. Rapid, efficient and selective preconcentration of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) by molecularly imprinted composite cartridge and HPLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Çorman, Mehmet Emin, E-mail: mecorman@sinop.edu.tr [Hacettepe University, Department of Chemistry, Ankara (Turkey); Sinop University, Department of Bioengineering, Sinop (Turkey); Armutcu, Canan [Hacettepe University, Department of Chemistry, Ankara (Turkey); Uzun, Lokman, E-mail: lokman@hacettepe.edu.tr [Hacettepe University, Department of Chemistry, Ankara (Turkey); Denizli, Adil [Hacettepe University, Department of Chemistry, Ankara (Turkey)

    2017-01-01

    In this study, cryogel-based molecularly imprinted composite cartridges were designed for the rapid, efficient, and selective preconcentration of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) from water samples. First, a BaP-imprinted poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-N-methacryloyl-(L)-phenylalanine) composite cartridge was synthesized under semi-frozen conditions and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and swelling tests. After the optimization of preconcentration parameters, i.e., pH and initial BaP concentration, the selectivity and preconcentration efficiency, and reusability of these cartridges were also evaluated. In selectivity experiments, BaP imprinted composite cartridge exhibited binding capacities 3.09, 9.52, 8.87, and 8.77-fold higher than that of the non-imprinted composite cartridge in the presence of competitors, such as benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF), benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF), indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (IcdP), and 1-naphthol, respectively. The method detection limit (MDL), relative standard deviation (RSD) and preconcentration efficiency (PE) of the synthesized composite cartridge were calculated as 24.86 μg/L, 1.60%, and 349.6%, respectively. - Highlights: • Cryogel based molecularly imprinted composite cartridges as solid-phase extraction sorbents • Combination unique structural features of cryogels with MIP • An excellent ability to recognize the BaP molecule even if single-run contact • Rapid, efficient, selective and cost-friendly PAH preconcentration • Hydrophobic interactions via N-methacryloyl-(L)-phenylalanine.

  12. DESY Measurement of $Z$ boson production using $Z \\rightarrow ee$ decays with one of the electrons detected in the forward calorimeters of the ATLAS detector using 4.6 fb$^{-1}$ of data collected at $\\sqrt{s} = 7$ TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Sedov, George; Haller, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    The double differential cross-section for $Z$ bosons decaying in the electron channel was measured as a function of the di-electron invariant mass and rapidity. For this measurement, the data collected at the ATLAS detector at the LHC during 2011 at a center-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s} = 7$ TeV was used.The analysis is focused on the central-forward $Z$ bosons, i.e. the bosons that decay into two electrons, one of which is reconstructed in the central region of the detector ($|\\eta| 2.5$). Several sources of the systematic uncertainties were taken into account, including the electron reconstruction and identification efficiencies, pileup effects, PDF sets for the initial protons, and differences between various Monte Carlo simulations. The main sources of uncertainties were found to be the efficiency scales of the forward electron identification and the forward electron energy resolution. The results of the analysis are in agreement with measurements in other decay channels of the $Z$ boson and with theoreti...

  13. Effect of resonant-to-bulk electron momentum transfer on the efficiency of electron-cyclotron current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Y.; Smith, G.R.; Cohen, R.H.

    1988-01-01

    Efficiency of current drive by electron-cyclotron waves is investigated numerically by a bounce-average Fokker-Planck code to elucidate the effects of momentum transfer from resonant to bulk electrons, finite bulk temperature relative to the energy of resonant electrons, and trapped electrons. Comparisons are made with existing theories to assess their validity and quantitative difference between theory and code results. Difference of nearly a factor of 2 was found in efficiency between some theory and code results. 4 refs., 4 figs

  14. Efficient electron heating in relativistic shocks and gamma-ray-burst afterglow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedalin, M; Balikhin, M A; Eichler, D

    2008-02-01

    Electrons in shocks are efficiently energized due to the cross-shock potential, which develops because of differential deflection of electrons and ions by the magnetic field in the shock front. The electron energization is necessarily accompanied by scattering and thermalization. The mechanism is efficient in both magnetized and nonmagnetized relativistic electron-ion shocks. It is proposed that the synchrotron emission from the heated electrons in a layer of strongly enhanced magnetic field is responsible for gamma-ray-burst afterglows.

  15. Plasmonic photocatalytic reactions enhanced by hot electrons in a one-dimensional quantum well

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Huang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The plasmonic endothermic oxidation of ammonium ions in a spinning disk reactor resulted in light energy transformation through quantum hot charge carriers (QHC, or quantum hot electrons, during a chemical reaction. It is demonstrated with a simple model that light of various intensities enhance the chemical oxidization of ammonium ions in water. It was further observed that light illumination, which induces the formation of plasmons on a platinum (Pt thin film, provided higher processing efficiency compared with the reaction on a bare glass disk. These induced plasmons generate quantum hot electrons with increasing momentum and energy in the one-dimensional quantum well of a Pt thin film. The energy carried by the quantum hot electrons provided the energy needed to catalyze the chemical reaction. The results indicate that one-dimensional confinement in spherical coordinates (i.e., nanoparticles is not necessary to provide an extra excited state for QHC generation; an 8 nm Pt thin film for one-dimensional confinement in Cartesian coordinates can also provide the extra excited state for the generation of QHC.

  16. Order enables efficient electron-hole separation at an organic heterojunction with a small energy loss

    KAUST Repository

    Menke, S. Matthew

    2018-01-12

    Donor–acceptor organic solar cells often show low open-circuit voltages (VOC) relative to their optical energy gap (Eg) that limit power conversion efficiencies to ~12%. This energy loss is partly attributed to the offset between Eg and that of intermolecular charge transfer (CT) states at the donor–acceptor interface. Here we study charge generation occurring in PIPCP:PC61BM, a system with a very low driving energy for initial charge separation (Eg−ECT ~ 50 meV) and a high internal quantum efficiency (ηIQE ~ 80%). We track the strength of the electric field generated between the separating electron-hole pair by following the transient electroabsorption optical response, and find that while localised CT states are formed rapidly (<100 fs) after photoexcitation, free charges are not generated until 5 ps after photogeneration. In PIPCP:PC61BM, electronic disorder is low (Urbach energy <27 meV) and we consider that free charge separation is able to outcompete trap-assisted non-radiative recombination of the CT state.

  17. Order enables efficient electron-hole separation at an organic heterojunction with a small energy loss

    KAUST Repository

    Menke, S. Matthew; Cheminal, Alexandre; Conaghan, Patrick; Ran, Niva A.; Greehnam, Neil C.; Bazan, Guillermo C.; Nguyen, Thuc-Quyen; Rao, Akshay; Friend, Richard H.

    2018-01-01

    Donor–acceptor organic solar cells often show low open-circuit voltages (VOC) relative to their optical energy gap (Eg) that limit power conversion efficiencies to ~12%. This energy loss is partly attributed to the offset between Eg and that of intermolecular charge transfer (CT) states at the donor–acceptor interface. Here we study charge generation occurring in PIPCP:PC61BM, a system with a very low driving energy for initial charge separation (Eg−ECT ~ 50 meV) and a high internal quantum efficiency (ηIQE ~ 80%). We track the strength of the electric field generated between the separating electron-hole pair by following the transient electroabsorption optical response, and find that while localised CT states are formed rapidly (<100 fs) after photoexcitation, free charges are not generated until 5 ps after photogeneration. In PIPCP:PC61BM, electronic disorder is low (Urbach energy <27 meV) and we consider that free charge separation is able to outcompete trap-assisted non-radiative recombination of the CT state.

  18. Excess electrons in methanol clusters: Beyond the one-electron picture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Gábor; Mones, Letif; Turi, László

    2016-10-01

    We performed a series of comparative quantum chemical calculations on various size negatively charged methanol clusters, ("separators=" CH 3 OH ) n - . The clusters are examined in their optimized geometries (n = 2-4), and in geometries taken from mixed quantum-classical molecular dynamics simulations at finite temperature (n = 2-128). These latter structures model potential electron binding sites in methanol clusters and in bulk methanol. In particular, we compute the vertical detachment energy (VDE) of an excess electron from increasing size methanol cluster anions using quantum chemical computations at various levels of theory including a one-electron pseudopotential model, several density functional theory (DFT) based methods, MP2 and coupled-cluster CCSD(T) calculations. The results suggest that at least four methanol molecules are needed to bind an excess electron on a hydrogen bonded methanol chain in a dipole bound state. Larger methanol clusters are able to form stronger interactions with an excess electron. The two simulated excess electron binding motifs in methanol clusters, interior and surface states, correlate well with distinct, experimentally found VDE tendencies with size. Interior states in a solvent cavity are stabilized significantly stronger than electron states on cluster surfaces. Although we find that all the examined quantum chemistry methods more or less overestimate the strength of the experimental excess electron stabilization, MP2, LC-BLYP, and BHandHLYP methods with diffuse basis sets provide a significantly better estimate of the VDE than traditional DFT methods (BLYP, B3LYP, X3LYP, PBE0). A comparison to the better performing many electron methods indicates that the examined one-electron pseudopotential can be reasonably used in simulations for systems of larger size.

  19. High-Intensity Laser-to-Hot-Electron Conversion Efficiency from 1 to 2100 J Using the OMEGA EP Laser System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilson, P. M.

    2010-11-01

    Intense laser--matter interactions generate high-current electron beams. The laser-electron conversion efficiency is an important parameter for fast ignition and for developing intense x-ray sources for flash-radiography and x-ray-scattering experiments. These applications may require kilojoules of laser energy focused to greater than 10^18 W/cm^2 with pulse durations of tens of picoseconds. Previous experiments have measured the conversion efficiency with picosecond and subpicosecond laser pulses with energies up to ˜500 J. The research extends conversion-efficiency measurements to 1- to 10-ps laser pulses with energies up to 2100 J using the OMEGA EP Laser System and shows that the conversion efficiency is constant (20±10%) over the entire range The conversion efficiency is measured for interactions with finite-mass, thin-foil targets. A collimated electron jet exits the target rear surface and initiates rapid target charging, causing the majority of laser-accelerated electrons to recirculate (reflux) within the target. The total fast-electron energy is inferred from K-photon spectroscopy. Time-resolved x-ray emission data suggest that electrons are accelerated into the target over the entire laser-pulse duration with approximately constant conversion. This work provides significant insight into high-intensity laser--target interactions. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion under Cooperative Agreement Nos. DE-FC52-08NA28302 and DE-FC02-04ER54789. [4pt] In collaboration with R. Betti, A. A. Solodov (LLE/FSC), R. S. Craxton, J. A. Delettrez, C. Dorrer, L. Gao, P. A. Jaanimagi, J. H. Kelly, B. E. Kruschwitz, D. D. Meyerhofer, J. F. Myatt, T. C. Sangster, C. Stoeckl, W. Theobald, B. Yaakobi, J. D. Zuegel (LLE), A. J. MacKinnon, P. K. Patel (LLNL), K. U. Akli (General Atomics), L. Willingale, K. M. Krushelnick (U. of Michigan).

  20. A rapid and efficient in vitro regeneration system for lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Isabel; Pogrebnyak, Natalia; Raskin, Ilya

    2017-01-01

    Successful biotechnological improvement of crop plants requires a reliable and efficient in vitro regeneration system. Lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L.), one the most important vegetable crops worldwide, is strongly genotype-dependent in terms of regeneration capacity, limiting the potential for biotechnological improvement of cultivars which show recalcitrance under currently available protocols. The effect of different nutrient sources, plant hormone combinations and activated charcoal supplementation on shoot induction efficiency was evaluated on the cultivar 'RSL NFR', which had previously shown poor regeneration efficiency. Multiple shoot organogenesis from cotyledon explants was recorded at the highest frequency and speed on Murashige and Skoog regeneration medium supplemented with 200 mg/l of activated charcoal, 3% sucrose, 10 mg/l benzylaminopurine and 0.5 mg/l naphthaleneacetic acid, which induced shoots through direct regeneration in 90.8 ± 7.9% of explants. High shoot induction efficiency was also observed, albeit not quantified, when using this medium on some other cultivars. This activated charcoal-containing regeneration medium might offer a rapid and efficient option for direct shoot induction in some lettuce genotypes that do not respond well to common lettuce regeneration protocols. This is also the first report of the effect of activated charcoal in lettuce tissue culture.

  1. Efficient Constructions for One-way Hash Chains

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hu, Yih-Chun; Jakobsson, Markus; Perrig, Adrian

    2003-01-01

    .... Our first construction, the Sandwich-chain, provides a smaller bandwidth overhead for one-way chain values, and enables efficient verification of one-way chain values if the trusted one-way chain value is far away...

  2. A CALCULATION OF SEMI-EMPIRICAL ONE-ELECTRON WAVE FUNCTIONS FOR MULTI-ELECTRON ATOMS USED FOR ELEMENTARY PROCESS SIMULATION IN NONLOCAL PLASMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Tchernycheva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The paper deals with development outcomes for creation method of one-electron wave functions of complex atoms, relatively simple, symmetrical for all atom electrons and free from hard computations. The accuracy and resource intensity of the approach are focused on systematic calculations of cross sections and rate constants of elementary processes of inelastic collisions of atoms or molecules with electrons (ionization, excitation, excitation transfer, and others. Method. The method is based on a set of two iterative processes. At the first iteration step the Schrödinger equation was solved numerically for the radial parts of the electron wave functions in the potential of the atomic core self-consistent field. At the second iteration step the new approximationfor the atomic core field is created that uses found solutions for all one-electron wave functions. The solution optimization for described multiparameter problem is achieved by the use of genetic algorithm. The suitability of the developed method was verified by comparing the calculation results with numerous data on the energies of atoms in the ground and excited states. Main Results. We have created the run-time version of the program for creation of sets of one-electron wave functions and calculation of the cross sections and constants of collisional transition rates in the first Born approximation. The priori available information about binding energies of the electrons for any many-particle system for creation of semi-empirical refined solutions for the one-electron wave functions can be considered at any step of this procedure. Practical Relevance. The proposed solution enables a simple and rapid preparation of input data for the numerical simulation of nonlocal gas discharge plasma. The approach is focused on the calculation of discharges in complex gas mixtures requiring inclusion in the model of a large number of elementary collisional and radiation

  3. New evidence for efficient collisionless heating of electrons at the reverse shock of a young supernova remnant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroya; Petre, Robert [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 662, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Eriksen, Kristoffer A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Badenes, Carles [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Pittsburgh Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology Center (PITT PACC), University of Pittsburgh, 3941 O' Hara St, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Hughes, John P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Brickhouse, Nancy S.; Foster, Adam R.; Patnaude, Daniel J.; Slane, Patrick O.; Smith, Randall K., E-mail: hiroya.yamaguchi@nasa.gov [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2014-01-10

    Although collisionless shocks are ubiquitous in astrophysics, certain key aspects of them are not well understood. In particular, the process known as collisionless electron heating, whereby electrons are rapidly energized at the shock front, is one of the main open issues in shock physics. Here, we present the first clear evidence for efficient collisionless electron heating at the reverse shock of Tycho's supernova remnant (SNR), revealed by Fe K diagnostics using high-quality X-ray data obtained by the Suzaku satellite. We detect Kβ (3p → 1s) fluorescence emission from low-ionization Fe ejecta excited by energetic thermal electrons at the reverse shock front, which peaks at a smaller radius than Fe Kα (2p → 1s) emission dominated by a relatively highly ionized component. Comparisons with our hydrodynamical simulations imply instantaneous electron heating to a temperature 1000 times higher than expected from Coulomb collisions alone. The unique environment of the reverse shock, which is propagating with a high Mach number into rarefied ejecta with a low magnetic field strength, puts strong constraints on the physical mechanism responsible for this heating and favors a cross-shock potential created by charge deflection at the shock front. Our sensitive observation also reveals that the reverse shock radius of this SNR is about 10% smaller than the previous measurement using the Fe Kα morphology from the Chandra observations. Since strong Fe Kβ fluorescence is expected only from low-ionization plasma where Fe ions still have many 3p electrons, this feature is key to diagnosing the plasma state and distribution of the immediate postshock ejecta in a young SNR.

  4. New Evidence for Efficient Collisionless Heating of Electrons at the Reverse Shock of a Young Supernova Remnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroya; Eriksen, Kristoffer A.; Badenes, Carles; Hughes, John P.; Brickhouse, Nancy S.; Foster, Adam R.; Patnaude, Daniel J.; Petre, Robert; Slane, Patrick O.; Smith, Randall K.

    2013-01-01

    Although collisionless shocks are ubiquitous in astrophysics, certain key aspects of them are not well understood. In particular, the process known as collisionless electron heating, whereby electrons are rapidly energized at the shock front, is one of the main open issues in shock physics. Here, we present the first clear evidence for efficient collisionless electron heating at the reverse shock of Tycho's supernova remnant (SNR), revealed by Fe K diagnostics using high-quality X-ray data obtained by the Suzaku satellite. We detect K beta (3p yields 1s) fluorescence emission from low-ionization Fe ejecta excited by energetic thermal electrons at the reverse shock front, which peaks at a smaller radius than Fe K alpha (2p yields 1s) emission dominated by a relatively highly ionized component. Comparisons with our hydrodynamical simulations imply instantaneous electron heating to a temperature 1000 times higher than expected from Coulomb collisions alone. The unique environment of the reverse shock, which is propagating with a high Mach number into rarefied ejecta with a low magnetic field strength, puts strong constraints on the physical mechanism responsible for this heating and favors a cross-shock potential created by charge deflection at the shock front. Our sensitive observation also reveals that the reverse shock radius of this SNR is about 10% smaller than the previous measurement using the Fe K alpha morphology from the Chandra observations. Since strong Fe K beta fluorescence is expected only from low-ionization plasma where Fe ions still have many 3p electrons, this feature is key to diagnosing the plasma state and distribution of the immediate postshock ejecta in a young SNR.

  5. Rapid lard identification with portable electronic nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latief, Marsad; Khorsidtalab, Aida; Saputra, Irwan; Akmeliawati, Rini; Nurashikin, Anis; Jaswir, Irwandi; Witjaksono, Gunawan

    2017-11-01

    Human sensory systems are limited in many different regards, yet they are great sources of inspiration for development of technologies that help humans to overcome their restraints. This paper signifies the capability of our developed electronic nose in rapid lard identification. The developed device, known as E-Nose, mimics human’s olfactory system’s technique to identify a particular substance. Lard is a common pig derivative which is often used as a food additive, emulsion or shortening. It’s also commonly used as an adulterant or as an alternative for cooking oils, margarine and butter. This substance is prohibited to be consumed by Muslims and Orthodox Jews for religious reasons. A portable reliable device with an ability to identify lard rapidly can be convenient to users concerned about lard adulteration. The prototype was examined using K-Nearest Neighbors algorithm (KNN), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Bagged Trees and Simple Tree, and can identify lard with the highest accuracy of 95.6% among three types of fat (lard, chicken and beef) in liquid form over a certain range of temperature using KNN.

  6. Rapid fabrication of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} encapsulations for organic electronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Kamran; Ali, Junaid [Department of Mechatronics Engineering, Jeju National University, Jeju 690-756 (Korea, Republic of); Mehdi, Syed Murtuza [Department of Mechanical Engineering, NED University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi 75270 (Pakistan); Choi, Kyung-Hyun, E-mail: amm@jejunu.ac.kr [Department of Mechatronics Engineering, Jeju National University, Jeju 690-756 (Korea, Republic of); An, Young Jin [Jeonnam Science and Technology Promotion Center, Yeongam-gun, Jeollanam-do 526-897 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} encapsulations are being developed through a unique R2R-AALD system. • The encapsulations have resulted in life time enhancement of PVP memristor devices. • The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} encapsulated memristor performed with superior stability for four weeks. • Encapsulated devices performed efficiently even after bending test for 100 cycles. - Abstract: Organic electronics have earned great reputation in electronic industry yet they suffer technical challenges such as short lifetimes and low reliability because of their susceptibility to water vapor and oxygen which causes their fast degradation. This paper report on the rapid fabrication of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} encapsulations through a unique roll-to-roll atmospheric atomic layer deposition technology (R2R-AALD) for the life time enhancement of organic poly (4-vinylphenol) (PVP) memristor devices. The devices were then categorized into two sets. One was processed with R2R-AALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} encapsulations at 50 °C and the other one was kept as un-encapsulated. The field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) results revealed that pin holes and other irregularities in PVP films with average arithmetic roughness (R{sub a}) of 9.66 nm have been effectively covered by Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} encapsulation having R{sub a} of 0.92 nm. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy XPS spectrum for PVP film showed peaks of C 1s and O 1s at the binding energies of 285 eV and 531 eV, respectively. The respective appearance of Al 2p, Al 2s, and O 1s peaks at the binding energies of 74 eV, 119 eV, and 531 eV, confirms the fabrication of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films. Electrical current–voltage (I–V) measurements confirmed that the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} encapsulation has a huge influence on the performance, robustness and life time of memristor devices. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} encapsulated memristor performed with superior stability for four weeks whereas the un-encapsulated devices could only last for one

  7. Modulation transfer function and detective quantum efficiency of electron bombarded charge coupled device detector for low energy electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horacek, Miroslav

    2005-01-01

    The use of a thinned back-side illuminated charge coupled device chip as two-dimensional sensor working in direct electron bombarded mode at optimum energy of the incident signal electrons is demonstrated and the measurements of the modulation transfer function (MTF) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) are described. The MTF was measured for energy of electrons 4 keV using an edge projection method and a stripe projection method. The decrease of the MTF for a maximum spatial frequency of 20.8 cycles/mm, corresponding to the pixel size 24x24 μm, is 0.75≅-2.5 dB, and it is approximately the same for both horizontal and vertical directions. DQE was measured using an empty image and the mixing factor method. Empty images were acquired for energies of electrons from 2 to 5 keV and for various doses, ranging from nearly dark image to a nearly saturated one. DQE increases with increasing energy of bombarded electrons and reaches 0.92 for electron energy of 5 keV. For this energy the detector will be used for the angle- and energy-selective detection of signal electrons in the scanning low energy electron microscope

  8. Efficiency calibration of electron spectrometers by the help of standard spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, J.; Cserny, I.; Varga, D.; Koever, I.; Toekesi, K.

    2004-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. For studying thin films and surface nanostructures quantitative analytical applications of electron spectroscopic techniques have a great importance. The most frequently used techniques are XPS, XAES and AES in quantitative surface electron spectroscopy. Applying these techniques changes in the detection efficiency vs. electron kinetic energy change the measured electron peak intensity ratios and in this way the neglect of the energy dependence of the spectrometer efficiency can influence surface atomic concentrations derived. The importance of the precise determination of the atomic concentrations is very crucial, especially in the determination of non-destructive depth profiles by the help of AR-XPS in which small changes in the relative concentrations can change dramatically the concentration depth profiles of a few nanometer depth ranges. In the present study the REELS technique was used to determine the relative detection efficiency by the help of a standard spectrum measured on the surface of fine microcrystalline Cu specimen. The experimental relative efficiency curves vs. electron kinetic energy were compared to the calculated efficiency curve. The efficiency calibration is discussed from the point of view of quantitative XPS, AR- XPS, AES and from the point of view of IMFP determination by XPS. The work was supported by the Hungarian National Science Foundation, OTKAT038016. For the Cu specimen and the standard spectrum the authors are indebted to the Sur- face Analysis Society of Japan, to Dr. Shigeo Tanuma and Professor Keisuke Goto (NIT). (author)

  9. Cutting efficiency of Reciproc and waveOne reciprocating instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotino, Gianluca; Giansiracusa Rubini, Alessio; Grande, Nicola M; Testarelli, Luca; Gambarini, Gianluca

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cutting efficiency of 2 new reciprocating instruments, Reciproc and WaveOne. Twenty-four new Reciproc R25 and 24 new WaveOne Primary files were activated by using a torque-controlled motor (Silver Reciproc) and divided into 4 groups (n = 12): group 1, Reciproc activated by Reciproc ALL program; group 2, Reciproc activated by WaveOne ALL program; group 3, WaveOne activated by Reciproc ALL program; and group 4, WaveOne activated by WaveOne ALL program. The device used for the cutting test consisted of a main frame to which a mobile plastic support for the handpiece is connected and a stainless steel block containing a Plexiglas block (inPlexiglass, Rome, Italy) against which the cutting efficiency of the instruments was tested. The length of the block cut in 1 minute was measured in a computerized program with a precision of 0.1 mm. Means and standard deviations of each group were calculated, and data were statistically analyzed with 1-way analysis of variance and Bonferroni test (P cutting efficiency than WaveOne Primary for both the movements used (P cutting efficiency than WaveOne instruments used with their proper reciprocating motion (P .05). Reciproc instruments demonstrated statistically higher cutting efficiency than WaveOne instruments. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Ion collection efficiency of ionization chambers in electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, S.; Cecatti, E.R.

    1984-01-01

    When ionization chambers are used in pulsed radiation beams the high-density of ions produced per pulse permits ion recombination, demanding the use of a correction factor. An experimental technique using the charge collected at two different voltages permits the calculation of the ion collection efficiency. The ion collection efficiency of some common ionization chambers in pulsed electron beams were studied as a function of electron energy, dose rate and depth. Accelerators with magnetic scanning system, in which the instantaneous dose rate is much greater than the average dose rate, present a smaller collection efficiency than accelerators with scattering foil. The results lead to the introduction of a correction factor for ion recombination that is the reciprocal of the ion collection efficiency. It is also suggested a simple technique to connect an external variable DC power supply in a Baldwin Farmer dosemeter. (Author) [pt

  11. An Efficient Method for Electron-Atom Scattering Using Ab-initio Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yuan; Yang, Yonggang; Xiao, Liantuan; Jia, Suotang [Shanxi University, Taiyuan (China)

    2017-02-15

    We present an efficient method based on ab-initio calculations to investigate electron-atom scatterings. Those calculations profit from methods implemented in standard quantum chemistry programs. The new approach is applied to electron-helium scattering. The results are compared with experimental and other theoretical references to demonstrate the efficiency of our method.

  12. Saturation mechanism and improvement of conversion efficiency of free electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taguchi, T.; Mima, K.; Mochizuki, T.

    1980-01-01

    Saturation mechanisms of free electron laser are investigated in the Compton regime. It is found that the saturation occurs due to quasi-linear energy spreading of electron beam in the case of many mode excitation. The energy conversion efficiency remains low even if many modes are taken into account. For improvement of the conversion efficiency, effects of reacceleration by a traveling wave are investigated and turn out to increase the efficiency up to more than 50%. (author)

  13. High efficiency, multiterawatt x-ray free electron lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Emma

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present undulator magnet tapering methods for obtaining high efficiency and multiterawatt peak powers in x-ray free electron lasers (XFELs, a key requirement for enabling 3D atomic resolution single molecule imaging and nonlinear x-ray science. The peak power and efficiency of tapered XFELs is sensitive to time dependent effects, like synchrotron sideband growth. To analyze this dependence in detail we perform a comparative numerical optimization for the undulator magnetic field tapering profile including and intentionally disabling these effects. We show that the solution for the magnetic field taper profile obtained from time independent optimization does not yield the highest extraction efficiency when time dependent effects are included. Our comparative optimization is performed for a novel undulator designed specifically to obtain TW power x-ray pulses in the shortest distance: superconducting, helical, with short period and built-in strong focusing. This design reduces the length of the breaks between modules, decreasing diffraction effects, and allows using a stronger transverse electron focusing. Both effects reduce the gain length and the overall undulator length. We determine that after a fully time dependent optimization of a 100 m long Linac coherent light source-like XFEL we can obtain a maximum efficiency of 7%, corresponding to 3.7 TW peak radiation power. Possible methods to suppress the synchrotron sidebands, and further enhance the FEL peak power, up to about 6 TW by increasing the seed power and reducing the electron beam energy spread, are also discussed.

  14. Electron microscopy of rapid identification of animal viruses in hematoxylin-eosin sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, R; Johnson, G R; Christian, R G

    1977-01-01

    Routine hematoxylin-eosin stained, paraffin sections were processed for electron microscopy, using a rapid method for localization of animal viruses. Formalin fixation was effective in preserving DNA as well as RNA viruses, however cellular fine structural details and organelles were not well preserved. The procedure is useful for morphological recognition of viral groups and as a rapid diagnostic aid for identifying viral disease. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:72592

  15. Innovative energy efficient low-voltage electron beam emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felis, Kenneth P.; Avnery, Tovi; Berejka, Anthony J.

    2002-01-01

    Advanced electron beams (AEB) has developed a modular, low voltage (80-125 keV), high beam current (up to 40 ma), electron emitter with typically 25 cm of beam width, that is housed in an evacuated, returnable chamber that is easy to plug in and connect. The latest in nanofabrication enables AEB to use an ultra-thin beam window. The power supply for AEB's emitter is based on solid-state electronics. This combination of features results in a remarkable electrical efficiency. AEB's electron emitter relies on a touch screen, computer control system. With 80 μm of unit density beam penetration, AEB's electron emitter has gained market acceptance in the curing of opaque, pigmented inks and coatings used on flexible substrates, metals and fiber composites and in the curing of adhesives in foil based laminates

  16. Innovative energy efficient low-voltage electron beam emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felis, Kenneth P.; Avnery, Tovi; Berejka, Anthony J.

    2002-03-01

    Advanced electron beams (AEB) has developed a modular, low voltage (80-125 keV), high beam current (up to 40 ma), electron emitter with typically 25 cm of beam width, that is housed in an evacuated, returnable chamber that is easy to plug in and connect. The latest in nanofabrication enables AEB to use an ultra-thin beam window. The power supply for AEB's emitter is based on solid-state electronics. This combination of features results in a remarkable electrical efficiency. AEB's electron emitter relies on a touch screen, computer control system. With 80 μm of unit density beam penetration, AEB's electron emitter has gained market acceptance in the curing of opaque, pigmented inks and coatings used on flexible substrates, metals and fiber composites and in the curing of adhesives in foil based laminates.

  17. Electron-phonon coupling in one dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostol, M.; Baldea, I.

    1981-08-01

    The Ward identity is derived for the electron-phonon coupling in one dimension and the spectrum of elementary excitations is calculated by assuming that the Fermi distribution is not strongly distorted by interaction. The electron-phonon vertex is renormalized in the case of the forward scattering and Migdal's theorem is discussed. A model is proposed for the giant Kohn anomaly. The dip in the phonon spectrum is obtained and found to be in agreement with the experimental data for KCP. (author)

  18. Electron efficiency measurements with the ATLAS detector using 2012 LHC proton-proton collision data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaboud, M. [Univ. Mohamed Premier et LPTPM, Oujda (Morocco). Faculte des Sciences; Aad, G. [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Univ. et CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Abbott, B. [Oklahoma Univ., Norman, OK (United States). Homer L. Dodge Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Collaboration: ATLAS Collaboration; and others

    2017-03-15

    This paper describes the algorithms for the reconstruction and identification of electrons in the central region of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). These algorithms were used for all ATLAS results with electrons in the final state that are based on the 2012 pp collision data produced by the LHC at √(s) = 8 TeV. The efficiency of these algorithms, together with the charge misidentification rate, is measured in data and evaluated in simulated samples using electrons from Z → ee, Z → eeγ and J/ψ → ee decays. For these efficiency measurements, the full recorded data set, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb{sup -1}, is used. Based on a new reconstruction algorithm used in 2012, the electron reconstruction efficiency is 97% for electrons with E{sub T} = 15 GeV and 99% at E{sub T} = 50 GeV. Combining this with the efficiency of additional selection criteria to reject electrons from background processes or misidentified hadrons, the efficiency to reconstruct and identify electrons at the ATLAS experiment varies from 65 to 95%, depending on the transverse momentum of the electron and background rejection. (orig.)

  19. High efficiency confinement mode by electron cyclotron heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funahashi, Akimasa

    1987-01-01

    In the medium size nuclear fusion experiment facility JFT-2M in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, the research on the high efficiency plasma confinement mode has been advanced, and in the experiment in June, 1987, the formation of a high efficiency confinement mode was successfully controlled by electron cyclotron heating, for the first time in the world. This result further advanced the control of the formation of a high efficiency plasma confinement mode and the elucidation of the physical mechanism of that mode, and promoted the research and development of the plasma heating by electron cyclotron heating. In this paper, the recent results of the research on a high efficiency confinement mode at the JFT-2M are reported, and the role of the JFT-2M and the experiment on the improvement of core plasma performance are outlined. Now the plasma temperature exceeding 100 million deg C has been attained in large tokamaks, and in medium size facilities, the various measures for improving confinement performance are to be brought forth and their scientific basis is elucidated to assist large facilities. The JFT-2M started the operation in April, 1983, and has accumulated the results smoothly since then. (Kako, I.)

  20. One- and zero-dimensional electron systems over liquid helium (Review article)

    CERN Document Server

    Kovdrya, Y Z

    2003-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical investigations of one-dimensional and zero-dimensional electron systems near the liquid helium surface are surveyed. The properties of electron states over the plane surface of liquid helium including thin layers of helium are considered. The methods of realization of one- and zero-dimensional electron systems are discussed, and the results of experimental and theoretical investigations of their properties are given. The experiments with localization processes in a quasi-one-dimensional electron systems on liquid helium are described. The collective effects in one-dimensional and quasi-one-dimensional electron systems are considered, and the point of possible application of low-dimensional electron systems on liquid helium in electron devices and quantum computers is discussed.

  1. One-electron transfer equilibria and redox potentials of radicals studied by pulse radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meisel, D.; Czapski, G.

    1975-01-01

    The pulse radiolysis technique is utilized for measurements of the equilibrium constants for electron transfer between the durosemiquinone radical anion and oxygen, menadione, and indigodisulfonate. These equilibrium constants are in turn used for calculations of one-electron redox potentials for these systems. Each of these equilibrium constants was determined experimentally and independently and found to be self-consistent. Only for the reactions of the semiquinone radical ions with oxygen could the electron transfer reaction be followed directly. For the reactions between the various quinone-semiquinone systems substantial indirect evidence is presented that these equilibria are achieved rapidly. In those cases equilibrium constants were determined from studies of the effect of quinone concentrations on the relative yields of the semiquinones. A method for distinguishing between kinetic competition and equilibrium is outlined and its usefulness is emphasized. The DQ parallel DQ - (DQ = duroquinone) and IDS parallel IDS - (IDS = indigodisulfonate) systems were employed as reference couples as the redox potentials for those systems are either available in the literature (IDS parallel IDS - ) or may be calculated from available data (DQ parallel DQ - ). Taking E 7 1 , the redox potential for the first one-electron reduction step at pH 7, of DQ parallel DQ - as -0.235 V or of IDS parallelIDS - as -0.247 V both yield E 7 1 = -0.325 V for the O 2 parallel O 2 - system (1 atm of O 2 ) and E 2 1 = -0.20 V for the menadione system. (U.S.)

  2. Interference electron microscopy of one-dimensional electron-optical phase objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazzini, P.F.; Ortolani, L.; Pozzi, G.; Ubaldi, F.

    2006-01-01

    The application of interference electron microscopy to the investigation of electron optical one-dimensional phase objects like reverse biased p-n junctions and ferromagnetic domain walls is considered. In particular the influence of diffraction from the biprism edges on the interference images is analyzed and the range of applicability of the geometric optical equation for the interpretation of the interference fringe shifts assessed by comparing geometric optical images with full wave-optical simulations. Finally, the inclusion of partial spatial coherence effects are discussed

  3. Pre-treatment verification of RapidArc® using Electronic Portal Imaging Device; Verificacao pre-tratamento de RapidArc® utilizando Dispositivo Eletronico de Imagem Porta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Marilia B.; Ferreira, Anne Caroline M.; Bittencourt, Guilherme R.; Pirani, Luis F.; Silveira, Thiago B., E-mail: mbeckerlima@gmail.com [Instituto Nacional do Cancer (INCA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-12-15

    The RapidArc® is a novel but widespread technique to achieve intensity modulated beams. One of the major challenges concerning this technique is the pretreatment verification process. The aim of this paper was to analyze the viability of the Electronic Portal Imaging Device (EPID) used to perform the verification of RapidArc® using the Sun Nuclear SNC Patient software enable to EPID dose conversion (EPIDose license) and compare its results with punctual dose measurements against a low volume ion chamber. There were analyze five RapidArc® planning, evaluating, separately, planar and punctual doses for each arc. For punctual measurements was used a 0,15 cm³ volume ion chamber and the planar distributions, in Calibration Units (CU), were acquired using the EPID and then converted to absolute dose in centigray through EPIDose. The predicted doses were calculated using the AAA algorithm in Eclipse treatment planning system, version 8.6. The planar comparisons, performed in SNC Patient, employed the Gamma Index tool with a 4% dose difference, 4 mm distance to agreement and 20% threshold. The evaluation of punctual dose was defined by calculating deviations between predicted and measured doses. The mean approval percentage in planar distributions was 94.8% and the average deviation in punctual dose was -1.2%. The use of EPID for RapidArc® pre-treatment verification proved to be feasible and showed good sensibility, because of its high spatial resolution. However one must consider the uncertainty of the method. (author)

  4. Doxorubicin in vivo rapidly alters expression and translation of myocardial electron transport chain genes, leads to ATP loss and caspase 3 activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy V Pointon

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Doxorubicin is one of the most effective anti-cancer drugs but its use is limited by cumulative cardiotoxicity that restricts lifetime dose. Redox damage is one of the most accepted mechanisms of toxicity, but not fully substantiated. Moreover doxorubicin is not an efficient redox cycling compound due to its low redox potential. Here we used genomic and chemical systems approaches in vivo to investigate the mechanisms of doxorubicin cardiotoxicity, and specifically test the hypothesis of redox cycling mediated cardiotoxicity.Mice were treated with an acute dose of either doxorubicin (DOX (15 mg/kg or 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (DMNQ (25 mg/kg. DMNQ is a more efficient redox cycling agent than DOX but unlike DOX has limited ability to inhibit gene transcription and DNA replication. This allowed specific testing of the redox hypothesis for cardiotoxicity. An acute dose was used to avoid pathophysiological effects in the genomic analysis. However similar data were obtained with a chronic model, but are not specifically presented. All data are deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO. Pathway and biochemical analysis of cardiac global gene transcription and mRNA translation data derived at time points from 5 min after an acute exposure in vivo showed a pronounced effect on electron transport chain activity. This led to loss of ATP, increased AMPK expression, mitochondrial genome amplification and activation of caspase 3. No data gathered with either compound indicated general redox damage, though site specific redox damage in mitochondria cannot be entirely discounted.These data indicate the major mechanism of doxorubicin cardiotoxicity is via damage or inhibition of the electron transport chain and not general redox stress. There is a rapid response at transcriptional and translational level of many of the genes coding for proteins of the electron transport chain complexes. Still though ATP loss occurs with activation caspase 3 and these

  5. One-pot synthesis of well-defined polyether/polyester block copolymers and terpolymers by a highly efficient catalyst switch approach

    KAUST Repository

    Alamri, Haleema

    2016-04-20

    A highly efficient methodology, based on a novel catalyst switch approach with rapid crossover characteristics, was developed for the one-pot synthesis of block co/terpolymers of cyclic ethers and esters. This new approach, which takes advantage of one of the best catalysts for epoxide (t-BuP4) and cyclic ester (t-BuP2) polymerization, opens new horizons toward the synthesis of cyclic ether/ester complex macromolecular architectures. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016.

  6. One-pot synthesis of well-defined polyether/polyester block copolymers and terpolymers by a highly efficient catalyst switch approach

    KAUST Repository

    Alamri, Haleema; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    A highly efficient methodology, based on a novel catalyst switch approach with rapid crossover characteristics, was developed for the one-pot synthesis of block co/terpolymers of cyclic ethers and esters. This new approach, which takes advantage of one of the best catalysts for epoxide (t-BuP4) and cyclic ester (t-BuP2) polymerization, opens new horizons toward the synthesis of cyclic ether/ester complex macromolecular architectures. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016.

  7. On the applicability of one- and many-electron quantum chemistry models for hydrated electron clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turi, László

    2016-04-01

    We evaluate the applicability of a hierarchy of quantum models in characterizing the binding energy of excess electrons to water clusters. In particular, we calculate the vertical detachment energy of an excess electron from water cluster anions with methods that include one-electron pseudopotential calculations, density functional theory (DFT) based calculations, and ab initio quantum chemistry using MP2 and eom-EA-CCSD levels of theory. The examined clusters range from the smallest cluster size (n = 2) up to nearly nanosize clusters with n = 1000 molecules. The examined cluster configurations are extracted from mixed quantum-classical molecular dynamics trajectories of cluster anions with n = 1000 water molecules using two different one-electron pseudopotenial models. We find that while MP2 calculations with large diffuse basis set provide a reasonable description for the hydrated electron system, DFT methods should be used with precaution and only after careful benchmarking. Strictly tested one-electron psudopotentials can still be considered as reasonable alternatives to DFT methods, especially in large systems. The results of quantum chemistry calculations performed on configurations, that represent possible excess electron binding motifs in the clusters, appear to be consistent with the results using a cavity structure preferring one-electron pseudopotential for the hydrated electron, while they are in sharp disagreement with the structural predictions of a non-cavity model.

  8. On the applicability of one- and many-electron quantum chemistry models for hydrated electron clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turi, László, E-mail: turi@chem.elte.hu [Department of Physical Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, P.O. Box 32, H-1518 Budapest 112 (Hungary)

    2016-04-21

    We evaluate the applicability of a hierarchy of quantum models in characterizing the binding energy of excess electrons to water clusters. In particular, we calculate the vertical detachment energy of an excess electron from water cluster anions with methods that include one-electron pseudopotential calculations, density functional theory (DFT) based calculations, and ab initio quantum chemistry using MP2 and eom-EA-CCSD levels of theory. The examined clusters range from the smallest cluster size (n = 2) up to nearly nanosize clusters with n = 1000 molecules. The examined cluster configurations are extracted from mixed quantum-classical molecular dynamics trajectories of cluster anions with n = 1000 water molecules using two different one-electron pseudopotenial models. We find that while MP2 calculations with large diffuse basis set provide a reasonable description for the hydrated electron system, DFT methods should be used with precaution and only after careful benchmarking. Strictly tested one-electron psudopotentials can still be considered as reasonable alternatives to DFT methods, especially in large systems. The results of quantum chemistry calculations performed on configurations, that represent possible excess electron binding motifs in the clusters, appear to be consistent with the results using a cavity structure preferring one-electron pseudopotential for the hydrated electron, while they are in sharp disagreement with the structural predictions of a non-cavity model.

  9. Efficient electronic structure methods applied to metal nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ask Hjorth

    of efficient approaches to density functional theory and the application of these methods to metal nanoparticles. We describe the formalism and implementation of localized atom-centered basis sets within the projector augmented wave method. Basis sets allow for a dramatic increase in performance compared....... The basis set method is used to study the electronic effects for the contiguous range of clusters up to several hundred atoms. The s-electrons hybridize to form electronic shells consistent with the jellium model, leading to electronic magic numbers for clusters with full shells. Large electronic gaps...... and jumps in Fermi level near magic numbers can lead to alkali-like or halogen-like behaviour when main-group atoms adsorb onto gold clusters. A non-self-consistent NewnsAnderson model is used to more closely study the chemisorption of main-group atoms on magic-number Au clusters. The behaviour at magic...

  10. ELECTRON CYCLOTRON CURRENT DRIVE EFFICIENCY IN GENERAL TOKAMAK GEOMETRY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LIN-LUI, Y.R; CHAN, V.S; PRATER, R.

    2003-01-01

    Green's-function techniques are used to calculate electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) efficiency in general tokamak geometry in the low-collisionality regime. Fully relativistic electron dynamics is employed in the theoretical formulation. The high-velocity collision model is used to model Coulomb collisions and a simplified quasi-linear rf diffusion operator describes wave-particle interactions. The approximate analytic solutions which are benchmarked with a widely used ECCD model, facilitate time-dependent simulations of tokamak operational scenarios using the non-inductive current drive of electron cyclotron waves

  11. Electron efficiency measurements with the ATLAS detector using 2012 LHC proton-proton collision data

    CERN Document Server

    Aaboud, Morad; Abbott, Brad; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abeloos, Baptiste; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abraham, Nicola; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adachi, Shunsuke; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Ali, Babar; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allen, Benjamin William; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Alshehri, Azzah Aziz; Alstaty, Mahmoud; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Άlvarez Piqueras, Damián; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amadio, Brian Thomas; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, John Kenneth; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antel, Claire; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antrim, Daniel Joseph; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Arabidze, Giorgi; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Armitage, Lewis James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Artz, Sebastian; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Augsten, Kamil; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, Bradley; Ayoub, Mohamad Kassem; Azuelos, Georges; Baak, Max; Baas, Alessandra; Baca, Matthew John; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Baines, John; Bajic, Milena; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baldin, Evgenii; Balek, Petr; Balestri, Thomas; Balli, Fabrice; Balunas, William Keaton; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Barak, Liron; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisits, Martin-Stefan; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnes, Sarah Louise; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska-Blenessy, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barranco Navarro, Laura; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Basalaev, Artem; Bassalat, Ahmed; Bates, Richard; Batista, Santiago Juan; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Bauce, Matteo; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans~Peter; Becker, Kathrin; Becker, Maurice; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bedognetti, Matteo; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Janna Katharina; Bell, Andrew Stuart; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Belyaev, Nikita; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez, Jose; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Beringer, Jürg; Berlendis, Simon; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertram, Iain Alexander; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethani, Agni; Bethke, Siegfried; Bevan, Adrian John; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Biedermann, Dustin; Bielski, Rafal; Biesuz, Nicolo Vladi; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Billoud, Thomas Remy Victor; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biondi, Silvia; Bisanz, Tobias; Bjergaard, David Martin; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blue, Andrew; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Blunier, Sylvain; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boehler, Michael; Boerner, Daniela; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogavac, Danijela; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bokan, Petar; Bold, Tomasz; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortoletto, Daniela; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Bossio Sola, Jonathan David; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouffard, Julian; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Boutle, Sarah Kate; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bracinik, Juraj; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Breaden Madden, William Dmitri; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Lydia; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Britzger, Daniel; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Broughton, James; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruni, Lucrezia Stella; Brunt, Benjamin; Bruschi, Marco; Bruscino, Nello; Bryant, Patrick; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Buchholz, Peter; Buckley, Andrew; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bullock, Daniel; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgard, Carsten Daniel; Burger, Angela Maria; Burghgrave, Blake; Burka, Klaudia; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Burr, Jonathan Thomas Peter; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Buzykaev, Aleksey; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cairo, Valentina; Cakir, Orhan; Calace, Noemi; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Callea, Giuseppe; Caloba, Luiz; Calvente Lopez, Sergio; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Calvet, Thomas Philippe; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Camincher, Clement; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Camplani, Alessandra; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Canepa, Anadi; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Carbone, Ryne Michael; Cardarelli, Roberto; Cardillo, Fabio; Carli, Ina; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carlson, Benjamin Taylor; Carminati, Leonardo; Carney, Rebecca; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Casper, David William; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelijn, Remco; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Caudron, Julien; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavallaro, Emanuele; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerda Alberich, Leonor; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chan, Stephen Kam-wah; Chan, Yat Long; Chang, Philip; Chapman, John Derek; Charlton, Dave; Chatterjee, Avishek; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Che, Siinn; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Shion; Chen, Xin; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Huajie; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cheremushkina, Evgenia; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiarelli, Giorgio; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Choi, Kyungeon; Chomont, Arthur Rene; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Christodoulou, Valentinos; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chudoba, Jiri; Chuinard, Annabelle Julia; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Cioara, Irina Antonela; Ciocca, Claudia; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirotto, Francesco; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Brian Lee; Clark, Michael; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Colasurdo, Luca; Cole, Brian; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cormier, Felix; Cormier, Kyle James Read; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Crawley, Samuel Joseph; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cribbs, Wayne Allen; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cueto, Ana; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cúth, Jakub; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; D'amen, Gabriele; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dado, Tomas; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dandoy, Jeffrey; Dang, Nguyen Phuong; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Dann, Nicholas Stuart; Danninger, Matthias; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Peter; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Benedetti, Abraham; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Maria, Antonio; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Dehghanian, Nooshin; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Gaudio, Michela; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delgove, David; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; DeMarco, David; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Denysiuk, Denys; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Dette, Karola; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Clemente, William Kennedy; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Petrillo, Karri Folan; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaconu, Cristinel; Diamond, Miriam; Dias, Flavia; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Díez Cornell, Sergio; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Djuvsland, Julia Isabell; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Dobos, Daniel; Dobre, Monica; Doglioni, Caterina; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Drechsler, Eric; Dris, Manolis; Du, Yanyan; Duarte-Campderros, Jorge; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudder, Andreas Christian; Duffield, Emily Marie; Duflot, Laurent; Dührssen, Michael; Dumancic, Mirta; Duncan, Anna Kathryn; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Duschinger, Dirk; Dutta, Baishali; Dyndal, Mateusz; Eckardt, Christoph; Ecker, Katharina Maria; Edgar, Ryan Christopher; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellajosyula, Venugopal; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Elliot, Alison; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Ennis, Joseph Stanford; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Fabbri, Federica; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falla, Rebecca Jane; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farina, Christian; Farina, Edoardo Maria; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Faucci Giannelli, Michele; Favareto, Andrea; Fawcett, William James; Fayard, Louis; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Feremenga, Last; Fernandez Martinez, Patricia; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Fischer, Adam; Fischer, Cora; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Flaschel, Nils; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Rob Roy MacGregor; Flick, Tobias; Flierl, Bernhard Matthias; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Forcolin, Giulio Tiziano; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Foster, Andrew Geoffrey; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Francis, David; Franconi, Laura; Franklin, Melissa; Frate, Meghan; Fraternali, Marco; Freeborn, David; Fressard-Batraneanu, Silvia; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fusayasu, Takahiro; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gach, Grzegorz; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Louis Guillaume; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Ganguly, Sanmay; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yanyan; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gascon Bravo, Alberto; Gasnikova, Ksenia; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudiello, Andrea; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gauthier, Lea; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Geisen, Marc; Geisler, Manuel Patrice; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Geng, Cong; Gentile, Simonetta; Gentsos, Christos; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghasemi, Sara; Ghneimat, Mazuza; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giannetti, Paola; Gibson, Stephen; Gignac, Matthew; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giromini, Paolo; Giugni, Danilo; Giuli, Francesco; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gkougkousis, Evangelos Leonidas; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Godlewski, Jan; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Giulia; Gonella, Laura; Gongadze, Alexi; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Goudet, Christophe Raymond; Goujdami, Driss; Goussiou, Anna; Govender, Nicolin; Gozani, Eitan; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Gradin, Per Olov Joakim; Grafström, Per; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gravila, Paul Mircea; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Grefe, Christian; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Grevtsov, Kirill; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Groh, Sabrina; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Grout, Zara Jane; Guan, Liang; Guan, Wen; Guenther, Jaroslav; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Gui, Bin; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Guo, Jun; Guo, Wen; Guo, Yicheng; Gupta, Ruchi; Gupta, Shaun; Gustavino, Giuliano; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Hadef, Asma; Hageböck, Stephan; Hagihara, Mutsuto; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Haley, Joseph; Halladjian, Garabed; Hallewell, Gregory David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Han, Shuo; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Haney, Bijan; Hanke, Paul; Hanna, Remie; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Maike Christina; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harrington, Robert; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hartmann, Nikolai Marcel; Hasegawa, Makoto; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, Ahmed; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauser, Reiner; Hauswald, Lorenz; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hayakawa, Daiki; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hays, Jonathan Michael; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Jochen Jens; Heinrich, Lukas; Heinz, Christian; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Hellman, Sten; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Henkelmann, Steffen; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Herde, Hannah; Herget, Verena; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hetherly, Jeffrey Wayne; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hladik, Ondrej; Hoad, Xanthe; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hohn, David; Holmes, Tova Ray; Homann, Michael; Honda, Shunsuke; Honda, Takuya; Hong, Tae Min; Hooberman, Benjamin Henry; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horton, Arthur James; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howarth, James; Hoya, Joaquin; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Qipeng; Hu, Shuyang; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Huo, Peng; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Yuriy; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Introzzi, Gianluca; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Ishijima, Naoki; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ito, Fumiaki; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jabbar, Samina; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Paul; Jain, Vivek; Jakobi, Katharina Bianca; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansky, Roland; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Janus, Piotr Andrzej; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Javurkova, Martina; Jeanneau, Fabien; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jenni, Peter; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Hai; Jiang, Yi; Jiang, Zihao; Jiggins, Stephen; Jimenez Pena, Javier; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Jivan, Harshna; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Johnson, Christian; Johnson, William Joseph; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Sarah; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Köhler, Markus Konrad; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kahn, Sebastien Jonathan; Kaji, Toshiaki; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kaluza, Adam; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneti, Steven; Kanjir, Luka; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karamaoun, Andrew; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karentzos, Efstathios; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kasahara, Kota; Kashif, Lashkar; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Kato, Chikuma; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kawade, Kentaro; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazanin, Vassili; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Keyes, Robert; Khader, Mazin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Kharlamova, Tatyana; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kido, Shogo; Kilby, Callum; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Shinhong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver Maria; King, Barry; King, Matthew; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kivernyk, Oleh; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Matthew Henry; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knapik, Joanna; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Aine; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Köhler, Nicolas Maximilian; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolb, Mathis; Koletsou, Iro; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kosek, Tomas; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Koulouris, Aimilianos; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Kowalewska, Anna Bozena; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozakai, Chihiro; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kravchenko, Anton; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Krizka, Karol; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumnack, Nils; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuechler, Jan Thomas; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuger, Fabian; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kukla, Romain; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kuprash, Oleg; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurchaninov, Leonid; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurth, Matthew Glenn; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwan, Tony; Kyriazopoulos, Dimitrios; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rosa Navarro, Jose Luis; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Lammers, Sabine; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lanfermann, Marie Christine; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, J örn Christian; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Lazovich, Tomo; Lazzaroni, Massimo; Le, Brian; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Quilleuc, Eloi; LeBlanc, Matthew Edgar; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Benoit; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Lerner, Giuseppe; Leroy, Claude; Lesage, Arthur; Lester, Christopher; Lester, Christopher Michael; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Dave; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Changqiao; Li, Haifeng; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Qi; Li, Shu; Li, Xingguo; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liberti, Barbara; Liblong, Aaron; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Lionti, Anthony Eric; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Hongbin; Liu, Jian; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanlin; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina Maria; Loch, Peter; Loebinger, Fred; Loew, Kevin Michael; Loginov, Andrey; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan David; Long, Robin Eamonn; Longo, Luigi; Looper, Kristina Anne; Lopez, Jorge; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lopez Solis, Alvaro; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Lösel, Philipp Jonathan; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lu, Haonan; Lu, Nan; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luedtke, Christian; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Luzi, Pierre Marc; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Lyubushkin, Vladimir; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Ma, Yanhui; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macdonald, Calum Michael; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeda, Junpei; Maeland, Steffen; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magradze, Erekle; Mahlstedt, Joern; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maier, Thomas; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Claire; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mancini, Giada; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Maneira, José; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany; Mann, Alexander; Manousos, Athanasios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mansour, Jason Dhia; Mantifel, Rodger; Mantoani, Matteo; Manzoni, Stefano; Mapelli, Livio; Marceca, Gino; March, Luis; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marjanovic, Marija; Marley, Daniel; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martoiu, Victor Sorin; Martyniuk, Alex; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massa, Lorenzo; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Maznas, Ioannis; Mazza, Simone Michele; Mc Fadden, Neil Christopher; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McClymont, Laurie; McDonald, Emily; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Melini, Davide; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Melo, Matej; Meloni, Federico; Menary, Stephen Burns; Meng, Lingxin; Meng, Xiangting; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer Zu Theenhausen, Hanno; Miano, Fabrizio; Middleton, Robin; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milesi, Marco; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minami, Yuto; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Minegishi, Yuji; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mistry, Khilesh; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mizukami, Atsushi; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Mlynarikova, Michaela; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mogg, Philipp; Mohapatra, Soumya; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Monden, Ryutaro; Mondragon, Matthew Craig; Mönig, Klaus; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montalbano, Alyssa; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Stefanie; Mori, Daniel; Mori, Tatsuya; Morii, Masahiro; Morinaga, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moschovakos, Paris; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Harry James; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Ralph Soeren Peter; Mueller, Thibaut; Muenstermann, Daniel; Mullen, Paul; Mullier, Geoffrey; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Muškinja, Miha; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nachman, Benjamin Philip; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nagy, Elemer; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Narrias Villar, Daniel Isaac; Naryshkin, Iouri; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nguyen Manh, Tuan; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nielsen, Jason; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Jon Kerr; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nooney, Tamsin; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Norjoharuddeen, Nurfikri; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Rourke, Abigail Alexandra; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Oide, Hideyuki; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onogi, Kouta; Onyisi, Peter; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Owen, Mark; Owen, Rhys Edward; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Pacheco Rodriguez, Laura; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganini, Michela; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palazzo, Serena; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panagoulias, Ilias; Pandini, Carlo Enrico; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Adam Jackson; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parker, Kerry Ann; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pascuzzi, Vincent; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Pater, Joleen; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pearson, Benjamin; Pedersen, Lars Egholm; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Penc, Ondrej; Peng, Cong; Peng, Haiping; Penwell, John; Peralva, Bernardo; Perego, Marta Maria; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petroff, Pierre; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrov, Mariyan; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Peyaud, Alan; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickering, Mark Andrew; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pin, Arnaud Willy J; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pires, Sylvestre; Pirumov, Hayk; Pitt, Michael; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Pluth, Daniel; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Polesello, Giacomo; Poley, Anne-luise; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Poppleton, Alan; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pozo Astigarraga, Mikel Eukeni; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Primavera, Margherita; Prince, Sebastien; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Puddu, Daniele; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Raddum, Silje; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Raine, John Andrew; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Ratti, Maria Giulia; Rauch, Daniel; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Stefan; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Ravinovich, Ilia; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Reale, Marilea; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reed, Robert; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reichert, Joseph; Reiss, Andreas; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resseguie, Elodie Deborah; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter, Stefan; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ricken, Oliver; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Riegel, Christian Johann; Rieger, Julia; Rifki, Othmane; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rimoldi, Marco; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ristić, Branislav; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Rizzi, Chiara; Roberts, Rhys Thomas; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Rodina, Yulia; Rodriguez Perez, Andrea; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Daniel; Roe, Shaun; Rogan, Christopher Sean; Røhne, Ole; Roloff, Jennifer; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romano Saez, Silvestre Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Peyton; Rosien, Nils-Arne; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Jonatan; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Russell, Heather; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryu, Soo; Ryzhov, Andrey; Rzehorz, Gerhard Ferdinand; Saavedra, Aldo; Sabato, Gabriele; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Saha, Puja; Sahinsoy, Merve; Saimpert, Matthias; Saito, Tomoyuki; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Salazar Loyola, Javier Esteban; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sammel, Dirk; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sanchez Pineda, Arturo Rodolfo; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Carlos; Sankey, Dave; Sannino, Mario; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sasaki, Osamu; Sato, Koji; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savage, Graham; Savard, Pierre; Savic, Natascha; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Scarfone, Valerio; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schachtner, Balthasar Maria; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Leigh; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaeffer, Jan; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Schiavi, Carlo; Schier, Sheena; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, Korbinian Ralf; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Stefan; Schmitz, Simon; Schneider, Basil; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schopf, Elisabeth; Schott, Matthias; Schouwenberg, Jeroen; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schuh, Natascha; Schulte, Alexandra; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwarz, Thomas Andrew; Schweiger, Hansdieter; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Seema, Pienpen; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekhon, Karishma; Sekula, Stephen; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Serre, Thomas; Sessa, Marco; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shaikh, Nabila Wahab; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shaw, Savanna Marie; Shcherbakova, Anna; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shirabe, Shohei; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shoaleh Saadi, Diane; Shochet, Mel; Shojaii, Seyed Ruhollah; Shope, David Richard; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sickles, Anne Marie; Sidebo, Per Edvin; Sideras Haddad, Elias; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simon, Dorian; Simon, Manuel; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sioli, Maximiliano; Siragusa, Giovanni; Siral, Ismet; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Skinner, Malcolm Bruce; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Slawinska, Magdalena; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Slovak, Radim; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smiesko, Juraj; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Joshua Wyatt; Smith, Matthew; Smith, Russell; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snyder, Ian Michael; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Sokhrannyi, Grygorii; Solans Sanchez, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Son, Hyungsuk; Song, Hong Ye; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Vit; Sorin, Veronica; Sosa, David; Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Sowden, Benjamin; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spalla, Margherita; Spangenberg, Martin; Spanò, Francesco; Sperlich, Dennis; Spettel, Fabian; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Spousta, Martin; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stabile, Alberto; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Giordon; Stark, Jan; Stark, Simon Holm; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Stärz, Steffen; Staszewski, Rafal; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strubig, Antonia; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Suchek, Stanislav; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Suster, Carl; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Shota; Svatos, Michal; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Swift, Stewart Patrick; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Masahiro; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanioka, Ryo; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tapia Araya, Sebastian; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Aaron; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Pierre Thor Elliot; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Temple, Darren; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Tepel, Fabian-Phillipp; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Tibbetts, Mark James; Ticse Torres, Royer Edson; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todome, Kazuki; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tolley, Emma; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tong, Baojia(Tony); Tornambe, Peter; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Trofymov, Artur; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; Truong, Loan; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsui, Ka Ming; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tu, Yanjun; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tulbure, Traian Tiberiu; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turgeman, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Ucchielli, Giulia; Ueda, Ikuo; Ughetto, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Unverdorben, Christopher; Urban, Jozef; Urquijo, Phillip; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Usui, Junya; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Valdes Santurio, Eduardo; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Graaf, Harry; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vasquez, Jared Gregory; Vasquez, Gerardo; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Veloce, Laurelle Maria; Veloso, Filipe; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigani, Luigi; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Vittori, Camilla; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wallangen, Veronica; Wang, Chao; Wang, Chao; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tingting; Wang, Wenxiao; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Washbrook, Andrew; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Weber, Stephen; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Michael David; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; Whallon, Nikola Lazar; Wharton, Andrew Mark; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; Whiteson, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wildauer, Andreas; Wilk, Fabian; Wilkens, Henric George; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winklmeier, Frank; Winston, Oliver James; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; Wolf, Tim Michael Heinz; Wolff, Robert; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Worm, Steven; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wu, Mengqing; Wu, Miles; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xi, Zhaoxu; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamaguchi, Daiki; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zongchang; Yao, Weiming; Yap, Yee Chinn; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yeletskikh, Ivan; Yildirim, Eda; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yuen, Stephanie P; Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zacharis, Georgios; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zakharchuk, Nataliia; Zalieckas, Justas; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zeng, Jian Cong; Zeng, Qi; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Guangyi; Zhang, Huijun; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Liqing; Zhang, Matt; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Xiandong; Zhao, Yongke; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Chen; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Maosen; Zhou, Mingliang; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zinser, Markus; Ziolkowski, Michael; Živković, Lidija; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2017-03-27

    This paper describes the algorithms for the reconstruction and identification of electrons in the central region of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). These algorithms were used for all ATLAS results with electrons in the final state that are based on the 2012 pp collision data produced by the LHC at $\\sqrt{\\mathrm{s}}$ = 8 TeV. The efficiency of these algorithms, together with the charge misidentification rate, is measured in data and evaluated in simulated samples using electrons from $Z\\rightarrow ee$, $Z\\rightarrow ee\\gamma$ and $J/\\psi \\rightarrow ee$ decays. For these efficiency measurements, the full recorded data set, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb$^{-1}$, is used. Based on a new reconstruction algorithm used in 2012, the electron reconstruction efficiency is 97% for electrons with $E_\\mathrm{T}=15$ GeV and 99% at $E_\\mathrm{T} = 50$ GeV. Combining this with the efficiency of additional selection criteria to reject backgrounds from background electrons or misi...

  12. High-efficiency CARM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratman, V.L.; Kol`chugin, B.D.; Samsonov, S.V.; Volkov, A.B. [Institute of Applied Physics, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    The Cyclotron Autoresonance Maser (CARM) is a well-known variety of FEMs. Unlike the ubitron in which electrons move in a periodical undulator field, in the CARM the particles move along helical trajectories in a uniform magnetic field. Since it is much simpler to generate strong homogeneous magnetic fields than periodical ones for a relatively low electron energy ({Brit_pounds}{le}1-3 MeV) the period of particles` trajectories in the CARM can be sufficiently smaller than in the undulator in which, moreover, the field decreases rapidly in the transverse direction. In spite of this evident advantage, the number of papers on CARM is an order less than on ubitron, which is apparently caused by the low (not more than 10 %) CARM efficiency in experiments. At the same time, ubitrons operating in two rather complicated regimes-trapping and adiabatic deceleration of particles and combined undulator and reversed guiding fields - yielded efficiencies of 34 % and 27 %, respectively. The aim of this work is to demonstrate that high efficiency can be reached even for a simplest version of the CARM. In order to reduce sensitivity to an axial velocity spread of particles, a short interaction length where electrons underwent only 4-5 cyclotron oscillations was used in this work. Like experiments, a narrow anode outlet of a field-emission electron gun cut out the {open_quotes}most rectilinear{close_quotes} near-axis part of the electron beam. Additionally, magnetic field of a small correcting coil compensated spurious electron oscillations pumped by the anode aperture. A kicker in the form of a sloping to the axis frame with current provided a control value of rotary velocity at a small additional velocity spread. A simple cavity consisting of a cylindrical waveguide section restricted by a cut-off waveguide on the cathode side and by a Bragg reflector on the collector side was used as the CARM-oscillator microwave system.

  13. Inkjet-printed conductive features for rapid integration of electronic circuits in centrifugal microfluidics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kruger, J

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the properties of conductive circuits inkjet-printed onto the polycarbonate discs used in CD-based centrifugal microfluidics, contributing towards rapidly prototyped electronic systems in smart ubiquitous biosensors, which...

  14. One-electron transfer reactions of the couple NAD./NADH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grodkowski, J.; Neta, P.; Carlson, B.W.; Miller, L.

    1983-01-01

    One-electron transfer reactions involving nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide in its oxidized and reducd forms (NAD./NADH) were studied by pulse radiolysis in aqueous solutions. One-electron oxidation of NADH by various phenoxyl radicals and phenothiazine cation radicals was found to take place with rate constants in the range of 10 5 to 10 8 M -1 s -1 , depending on the redox potential of the oxidizing species. In all cases, NAD. is formed quantitatively with no indication for the existence of the protonated form (NADH + .). The spectrum of NAD., as well as the rates of oxidation of NADH by phenoxyl and by (chlorpromazine) + . were independent of pH between pH 4.5 and 13.5. Reaction of deuterated NADH indicated only a small kinetic isotope effect. All these findings point to an electron transfer mechanism. On the other hand, attempts to observe the reverse electron transfer, i.e., one-electron reduction of NAD. to NADH by radicals such as semiquinones, showed that k was less than 10 4 to 10 5 M -1 s -1 , so that it was unobservable. Consequently, it was not possible to achieve equilibrium conditions which would have permitted the direct measurement of the redox potential for NAD./NADH. One-electron reduction of NAD. appears to be an unlikely process. 1 table

  15. Electronic field emission models beyond the Fowler-Nordheim one

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepetit, Bruno

    2017-12-01

    We propose several quantum mechanical models to describe electronic field emission from first principles. These models allow us to correlate quantitatively the electronic emission current with the electrode surface details at the atomic scale. They all rely on electronic potential energy surfaces obtained from three dimensional density functional theory calculations. They differ by the various quantum mechanical methods (exact or perturbative, time dependent or time independent), which are used to describe tunneling through the electronic potential energy barrier. Comparison of these models between them and with the standard Fowler-Nordheim one in the context of one dimensional tunneling allows us to assess the impact on the accuracy of the computed current of the approximations made in each model. Among these methods, the time dependent perturbative one provides a well-balanced trade-off between accuracy and computational cost.

  16. Electron cyclotron current drive efficiency in an axisymmetric tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez-Tapia, C.; Beltran-Plata, M. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Dept. de Fisica, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The neoclassical transport theory is applied to calculate electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) efficiency in an axisymmetric tokamak in the low-collisionality regime. The tokamak ordering is used to obtain a system of equations that describe the dynamics of the plasma where the nonlinear ponderomotive (PM) force due to high-power radio-frequency (RF) waves is included. The PM force is produced around an electron cyclotron resonant surface at a specific poloidal location. The ECCD efficiency is analyzed in the cases of first and second harmonics (for different impinging angles of the RF waves) and it is validated using experimental parameter values from TCV and T-10 tokamaks. The results are in agreement with those obtained by means of Green's function techniques. (authors)

  17. Efficient, Broadband and Wide-Angle Hot-Electron Transduction using Metal-Semiconductor Hyperbolic Metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Sakhdari, Maryam

    2016-05-20

    Hot-electron devices are emerging as promising candidates for the transduction of optical radiation into electrical current, as they enable photodetection and solar/infrared energy harvesting at sub-bandgap wavelengths. Nevertheless, poor photoconversion quantum yields and low bandwidth pose fundamental challenge to fascinating applications of hot-electron optoelectronics. Based on a novel hyperbolic metamaterial (HMM) structure, we theoretically propose a vertically-integrated hot-electron device that can efficiently couple plasmonic excitations into electron flows, with an external quantum efficiency approaching the physical limit. Further, this metamaterial-based device can have a broadband and omnidirectional response at infrared and visible wavelengths. We believe that these findings may shed some light on designing practical devices for energy-efficient photodetection and energy harvesting beyond the bandgap spectral limit.

  18. Determination of local absolute detection efficiency of a ceratron with 55Fe Auger electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, C.; Sugiyama, T.; Watanabe, T.

    1983-01-01

    The local absolute detection efficiency of a Ceratron (channel electron multiplier made of ceramics) was determined with collimated Mn K Auger electrons ( 5 keV) emitted from 55 Fe as a function of electron incident position and applied voltage. The local efficiency at the channel inlet did not depend so much on the applied voltage. The efficiency at the funnel increased with the applied voltage, while it was always lower than that at the channel inlet. (orig.)

  19. Electron transfer oxidation of DNA radicals by paranitroacetophenone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whillans, D W; Adams, G E [Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood (UK)

    1975-12-01

    The reaction of a typical electron-affinic sensitizer, paranitroacetophenone (PNAP) with the model compounds thymine, thymidine, thymidylic acid, deoxyribose and single and double-stranded DNA has been investigated by pulse radiolysis. Radicals formed by one-electron reduction of the bases and of DNA reacted rapidly and efficiently with PNAP by electron transfer. A small yield of transfer (< 10 per cent) was also observed arising from oxidation of the radicals formed by the small proportion of OH which reacted at the sugar moieties in DNA. In contrast, electron transfer oxidation by PNAP of radicals formed by the addition of OH to the base moieties, e.g. thymine, was not an efficient process. Further, addition of the sensitizer to the thymine OH-adduct proceeded at a rate that was too low to measure the pulse radiolysis. We conclude that, since the major sites of OH reaction by DNA are the heterocyclic bases (> 80 per cent), oxidation of the resultant radicals is unlikely to be a major step in the mechanism of sensitization by this typical hypoxic-cell sensitizer.

  20. Automated rapid particle investigation using scanning electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Jerod Laurence

    The chemical composition of fly ash particles has been known to vary significantly depending on a number of factors. Current bulk methods of investigation including X-Ray Fluorescence and X-Ray Diffraction are thought to be inadequate in determining the performance of fly ash in concrete. It is the goal of this research to develop a method of Automated Rapid Particle Investigation that will not look at fly ash as a bulk material but as individual particles. By examining each particle individually scientists and engineers will have the ability to study the variation in chemical composition by comparing the chemistry present in each particle. The method of investigation developed by this research provides a practical technique that will allow the automated chemical analysis of hundreds, or even thousands, of fly ash particles in a matter of minutes upon completion of sample preparation and automated scanning electron microscope (ASEM) scanning. This research does not examine the significance of the chemical compounds discovered; rather, only the investigation methodology is discussed. Further research will be done to examine the importance of the chemistry discovered with this automated rapid particle investigation technique.

  1. One-Electron Theory of Metals. Cohesive and Structural Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Hans Lomholt

    The work described in the report r.nd the 16 accompanying publications is based upon a one-electron theory obtained within the local approximation to density-functional theory, and deals with the ground state of metals as obtained from selfconsistent electronic-structure calculations performed...... by means of the Linear Muffin-Tin Orbital (LMTO) method. It has been the goal of the work to establish how well this one-electron approach describes physical properties such as the crystal structures of the transition metals, the structural phase transitions in the alkali, alkaline earth, and rare earth...

  2. Efficient temporal shaping of electron distributions for high-brightness photoemission electron guns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan V. Bazarov

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available To achieve the lowest emittance electron bunches from photoemission electron guns, it is essential to limit the uncorrelated emittance growth due to space charge forces acting on the bunch in the vicinity of the photocathode through appropriate temporal shaping of the optical pulses illuminating the photocathode. We present measurements of the temporal profile of electron bunches from a bulk crystal GaAs photocathode illuminated with 520 nm wavelength pulses from a frequency-doubled Yb-fiber laser. A transverse deflecting rf cavity was used to make these measurements. The measured laser pulse temporal profile and the corresponding electron beam temporal profile have about 30 ps FWHM duration, with rise and fall times of a few ps. GaAs illuminated by 520 nm optical pulses is a prompt emitter within our measurement uncertainty of ∼1  ps rms. Combined with the low thermal emittance of negative electron affinity photocathodes, GaAs is a very suitable photocathode for high-brightness photoinjectors. We also report measurements of the photoemission response time for GaAsP, which show a strong dependence on the quantum efficiency of the photocathode.

  3. Influence of electron transport on the efficiency of polymer-based solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuxhaus, Viktor; Jaiser, Frank; Neher, Dieter [Institute of Physics and Astronomy, University Potsdam (Germany); Voges, Frank [Merck KGaA, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Recently, we showed that the mobility of electrons in polymer-based solar cells has a large influence on the overall performance of such devices. Here, we investigate the correlation between electron mobility and charge generation efficiency in organic bilayer solar cells for a series of electron transporting materials (ETMs) with comparable HOMO and LUMO levels. The electron mobility was measured by transient electroluminescence. Here, a thin M3EH-PPV was used as a sensing layer. The interface between M3EH-PPV and ETM acted as a recombination zone of electrons transported through the ETM layer and holes that are blocked at the interface. Therefore, the electron mobility can easily be determined from the onset of M3EH-PPV emission which is spectrally well separated from the ETM emission. To determine the charge generation efficiency, the different ETMs were combined in bilayer solar cell with PFB as donator.

  4. Highly efficient electron vortex beams generated by nanofabricated phase holograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grillo, Vincenzo, E-mail: vincenzo.grillo@nano.cnr.it [CNR-Istituto Nanoscienze, Centro S3, Via G Campi 213/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy); CNR-IMEM Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A, I-43124 Parma (Italy); Carlo Gazzadi, Gian [CNR-Istituto Nanoscienze, Centro S3, Via G Campi 213/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Karimi, Ebrahim [CNR-Istituto Nanoscienze, Centro S3, Via G Campi 213/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); Mafakheri, Erfan [Dipartimento di Fisica Informatica e Matematica, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via G Campi 213/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Boyd, Robert W. [Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); Frabboni, Stefano [CNR-Istituto Nanoscienze, Centro S3, Via G Campi 213/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica Informatica e Matematica, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via G Campi 213/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy)

    2014-01-27

    We propose an improved type of holographic-plate suitable for the shaping of electron beams. The plate is fabricated by a focused ion beam on a silicon nitride membrane and introduces a controllable phase shift to the electron wavefunction. We adopted the optimal blazed-profile design for the phase hologram, which results in the generation of highly efficient (25%) electron vortex beams. This approach paves the route towards applications in nano-scale imaging and materials science.

  5. Highly efficient electron vortex beams generated by nanofabricated phase holograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grillo, Vincenzo; Carlo Gazzadi, Gian; Karimi, Ebrahim; Mafakheri, Erfan; Boyd, Robert W.; Frabboni, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    We propose an improved type of holographic-plate suitable for the shaping of electron beams. The plate is fabricated by a focused ion beam on a silicon nitride membrane and introduces a controllable phase shift to the electron wavefunction. We adopted the optimal blazed-profile design for the phase hologram, which results in the generation of highly efficient (25%) electron vortex beams. This approach paves the route towards applications in nano-scale imaging and materials science

  6. Rapid methods for jugular bleeding of dogs requiring one technician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisk, C S; Richardson, M R

    1979-06-01

    Two methods were used to collect blood from the jugular vein of dogs. In both techniques, only one technician was required. A rope with a slip knot was placed around the base of the neck to assist in restraint and act as a tourniquet for the vein. The technician used one hand to restrain the dog by the muzzle and position the head. The other hand was used for collecting the sample. One of the methods could be accomplished with the dog in its cage. The bleeding techniques were rapid, requiring approximately 1 minute per dog.

  7. Rapid and Efficient Collection of Platinum from Karstedt's Catalyst Solution via Ligands-Exchange-Induced Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gonghua; Wei, Yanlong; Huang, Zhenzhu; Hu, Jiwen; Liu, Guojun; Ou, Ming; Lin, Shudong; Tu, Yuanyuan

    2018-02-21

    Reported herein is a novel strategy for the rapid and efficient collection of platinum from Karstedt's catalyst solution. By taking advantage of a ligand-exchange reaction between alkynols and the 1,3-divinyltetramethyldisiloxane ligand (M Vi M Vi ) that coordinated with platinum (Pt(0)), the Karstedt's catalyst particles with a size of approximately 2.5 ± 0.7 nm could be reconstructed and assembled into larger particles with a size of 150 ± 35 nm due to the hydrogen bonding between the hydroxyl groups of the alkynol. In addition, because the silicone-soluble M Vi M Vi ligand of the Karstedt's catalyst was replaced by water-soluble alkynol ligands, the resultant large particles were readily dispersed in water, resulting in rapid, efficient, and complete collection of platinum from the Karstedt's catalyst solutions with platinum concentrations in the range from ∼20 000 to 0.05 ppm. Our current strategy not only was used for the rapid and efficient collection of platinum from the Karstedt's catalyst solutions, but it also enabled the precise evaluation of the platinum content in the Karstedt's catalysts, even if this platinum content was extremely low (i.e., 0.05 ppm). Moreover, these platinum specimens that were efficiently collected from the Karstedt's catalyst solutions could be directly used for the evaluation of platinum without the need for pretreatment processes, such as calcination and digestion with hydrofluoric acid, that were traditionally used prior to testing via inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in conventional methods.

  8. Single turnover studies of oxidative halophenol dehalogenation by horseradish peroxidase reveal a mechanism involving two consecutive one electron steps: toward a functional halophenol bioremediation catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumithran, Suganya; Sono, Masanori; Raner, Gregory M; Dawson, John H

    2012-12-01

    Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) catalyzes the oxidative para-dechlorination of the environmental pollutant/carcinogen 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP). A possible mechanism for this reaction is a direct oxygen atom transfer from HRP compound I (HRP I) to trichlorophenol to generate 2,6-dichloro 1,4-benzoquinone, a two-electron transfer process. An alternative mechanism involves two consecutive one-electron transfer steps in which HRP I is reduced to compound II (HRP II) and then to the ferric enzyme as first proposed by Wiese et al. [F.W. Wiese, H.C. Chang, R.V. Lloyd, J.P. Freeman, V.M. Samokyszyn, Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 34 (1998) 217-222]. To probe the mechanism of oxidative halophenol dehalogenation, the reactions between 2,4,6-TCP and HRP compounds I or II have been investigated under single turnover conditions (i.e., without excess H(2)O(2)) using rapid scan stopped-flow spectroscopy. Addition of 2,4,6-TCP to HRP I leads rapidly to HRP II and then more slowly to the ferric resting state, consistent with a mechanism involving two consecutive one-electron oxidations of the substrate via a phenoxy radical intermediate. HRP II can also directly dechlorinate 2,4,6-TCP as judged by rapid scan stopped-flow and mass spectrometry. This observation is particularly significant since HRP II can only carry out one-electron oxidations. A more detailed understanding of the mechanism of oxidative halophenol dehalogenation will facilitate the use of HRP as a halophenol bioremediation catalyst. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Doping efficiency analysis of highly phosphorous doped epitaxial/amorphous silicon emitters grown by PECVD for high efficiency silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Gohary, H.G.; Sivoththaman, S. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    2008-08-15

    The efficient doping of hydrogenated amorphous and crystalline silicon thin films is a key factor in the fabrication of silicon solar cells. The most popular method for developing those films is plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) because it minimizes defect density and improves doping efficiency. This paper discussed the preparation of different structure phosphorous doped silicon emitters ranging from epitaxial to amorphous films at low temperature. Phosphine (PH{sub 3}) was employed as the doping gas source with the same gas concentration for both epitaxial and amorphous silicon emitters. The paper presented an analysis of dopant activation by applying a very short rapid thermal annealing process (RTP). A spreading resistance profile (SRP) and SIMS analysis were used to detect both the active dopant and the dopant concentrations, respectively. The paper also provided the results of a structural analysis for both bulk and cross-section at the interface using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy, for epitaxial and amorphous films. It was concluded that a unity doping efficiency could be achieved in epitaxial layers by applying an optimized temperature profile using short time processing rapid thermal processing technique. The high quality, one step epitaxial layers, led to both high conductive and high doping efficiency layers.

  10. Two-electron one-photon decay rates in doubly ionized atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baptista, G.B.

    1984-01-01

    The transion rate for the two-electron one-photon and one-electron one-photon decaying processes in atoms bearing initially two K-shell vacancies were evaluated for Ne up to Zr. The two-electron one-photon decay process is considered to be the result of the interaction between the jumping electrons and their interaction with the radiation field. The calculation is performed in second order perturbation theory and the many particle states are constructed from single particle solutions. The present approach allows one to discuss several aspects of the decaying process. The results obtained for the branching ratio between the two processes reproduces reasonably well available experimental data and show an almost linear dependence on the second power of the atomic number. A comparison with other theoretical predictions is also presented for the two decaying processes and the strong dependence of the branching ratio on the initial configuration of the decaying atom is pointed out. (Author) [pt

  11. Chasing the limits of the one electron approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kędziera, Dariusz [Department of Chemistry, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Gagarina 7, 87-100 Toruń (Poland); Mentel, Łukasz M. [Section of Theoretical Chemistry, VU University, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-10-06

    Rapid progress in the development of computational methods for quantum chemistry is not properly balanced by the development of basis sets. Even in the case of few-electron systems it is hard to find basis set which are able to reproduce the ECG benchmarks with the mhartree accuracy. In this paper we show early work on improvements of the basis sets for small atomic and molecular systems. As a starting point the ground state of lithium atom and the lowest states of lithium dimer will be investigated. The exploratory optimization of the exponents of primitive gaussians will be based on even tempered scheme combined with CISD method.

  12. Rapid and efficient method to extract metagenomic DNA from estuarine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Kashif; Sharma, Jaya; Dubey, Santosh Kumar

    2017-07-01

    Metagenomic DNA from sediments of selective estuaries of Goa, India was extracted using a simple, fast, efficient and environment friendly method. The recovery of pure metagenomic DNA from our method was significantly high as compared to other well-known methods since the concentration of recovered metagenomic DNA ranged from 1185.1 to 4579.7 µg/g of sediment. The purity of metagenomic DNA was also considerably high as the ratio of absorbance at 260 and 280 nm ranged from 1.88 to 1.94. Therefore, the recovered metagenomic DNA was directly used to perform various molecular biology experiments viz. restriction digestion, PCR amplification, cloning and metagenomic library construction. This clearly proved that our protocol for metagenomic DNA extraction using silica gel efficiently removed the contaminants and prevented shearing of the metagenomic DNA. Thus, this modified method can be used to recover pure metagenomic DNA from various estuarine sediments in a rapid, efficient and eco-friendly manner.

  13. Efficient Ab-Initio Electron Transport Calculations for Heterostructures by the Nonequilibrium Green’s Function Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Takaki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an efficient computation technique for ab-initio electron transport calculations based on density functional theory and the nonequilibrium Green’s function formalism for application to heterostructures with two-dimensional (2D interfaces. The computational load for constructing the Green’s functions, which depends not only on the energy but also on the 2D Bloch wave vector along the interfaces and is thus catastrophically heavy, is circumvented by parallel computational techniques with the message passing interface, which divides the calculations of the Green’s functions with respect to energy and wave vectors. To demonstrate the computational efficiency of the present code, we perform ab-initio electron transport calculations of Al(100-Si(100-Al(100 heterostructures, one of the most typical metal-semiconductor-metal systems, and show their transmission spectra, density of states (DOSs, and dependence on the thickness of the Si layers.

  14. Sideband instability analysis based on a one-dimensional high-gain free electron laser model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Ying; Wu, Juhao; Yang, Chuan; Yoon, Moohyun; Zhou, Guanqun

    2017-12-01

    When an untapered high-gain free electron laser (FEL) reaches saturation, the exponential growth ceases and the radiation power starts to oscillate about an equilibrium. The FEL radiation power or efficiency can be increased by undulator tapering. For a high-gain tapered FEL, although the power is enhanced after the first saturation, it is known that there is a so-called second saturation where the FEL power growth stops even with a tapered undulator system. The sideband instability is one of the primary reasons leading to this second saturation. In this paper, we provide a quantitative analysis on how the gradient of undulator tapering can mitigate the sideband growth. The study is carried out semianalytically and compared with one-dimensional numerical simulations. The physical parameters are taken from Linac Coherent Light Source-like electron bunch and undulator systems. The sideband field gain and the evolution of the radiation spectra for different gradients of undulator tapering are examined. It is found that a strong undulator tapering (˜10 %) provides effective suppression of the sideband instability in the postsaturation regime.

  15. One-day pulsed-field gel electrophoresis protocol for rapid determination of emetic Bacillus cereus isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminska, Paulina S; Fiedoruk, Krzysztof; Jankowska, Dominika; Mahillon, Jacques; Nowosad, Karol; Drewicka, Ewa; Zambrzycka, Monika; Swiecicka, Izabela

    2015-04-01

    Bacillus cereus, the Gram-positive and spore-forming ubiquitous bacterium, may cause emesis as the result of food intoxication with cereulide, a heat-stable emetic toxin. Rapid determination of cereulide-positive B. cereus isolates is of highest importance due to consequences of this intoxication for human health and life. Here we present a 1-day pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for emetic B. cereus isolates, which allows rapid and efficient determination of their genomic relatedness and helps determining the source of intoxication in case of outbreaks caused by these bacilli. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. X-ray microscopy as an approach to increasing accuracy and efficiency of serial block-face imaging for correlated light and electron microscopy of biological specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushong, Eric A; Johnson, Donald D; Kim, Keun-Young; Terada, Masako; Hatori, Megumi; Peltier, Steven T; Panda, Satchidananda; Merkle, Arno; Ellisman, Mark H

    2015-02-01

    The recently developed three-dimensional electron microscopic (EM) method of serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBEM) has rapidly established itself as a powerful imaging approach. Volume EM imaging with this scanning electron microscopy (SEM) method requires intense staining of biological specimens with heavy metals to allow sufficient back-scatter electron signal and also to render specimens sufficiently conductive to control charging artifacts. These more extreme heavy metal staining protocols render specimens light opaque and make it much more difficult to track and identify regions of interest (ROIs) for the SBEM imaging process than for a typical thin section transmission electron microscopy correlative light and electron microscopy study. We present a strategy employing X-ray microscopy (XRM) both for tracking ROIs and for increasing the efficiency of the workflow used for typical projects undertaken with SBEM. XRM was found to reveal an impressive level of detail in tissue heavily stained for SBEM imaging, allowing for the identification of tissue landmarks that can be subsequently used to guide data collection in the SEM. Furthermore, specific labeling of individual cells using diaminobenzidine is detectable in XRM volumes. We demonstrate that tungsten carbide particles or upconverting nanophosphor particles can be used as fiducial markers to further increase the precision and efficiency of SBEM imaging.

  17. A relativistic model of electron cyclotron current drive efficiency in tokamak plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Liu Y.R.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A fully relativistic model of electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD efficiency based on the adjoint function techniques is considered. Numerical calculations of the current drive efficiency in a tokamak by using the variational approach are performed. A fully relativistic extension of the variational principle with the modified basis functions for the Spitzer function with momentum conservation in the electron-electron collision is described in general tokamak geometry. The model developed has generalized that of Marushchenko’s (N.B . Marushchenko, et al. Fusion Sci. & Tech., 2009, which is extended for arbitrary temperatures and covers exactly the asymptotic for u ≫ 1 when Z → ∞, and suitable for ray-tracing calculations.

  18. Rapid long range intramolecular electron transfer within a steroid molecule with two electron binding groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huddleston, R.K.; Miller, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Intramolecular electron transfer has been observed to have occurred in less than 100 ns in a steroid molecule having two distinct electron binding groups separated by distances distributed from 7--11 A. Experiments were carried out in organic glasses at 77 K with pulse radiolysis techniques to create trapped electrons which were captured by a group on one end of the steroid molecule. Although one of the groups, benzoate, is held to the steroid spacer by a flexible linkage, the rigidity of the glassy matrices prevented movement to alter the initial distance. Interestingly, no effects of distance were seen: all ET processes appeared to have occurred much faster than our 100 ns time resolution, consistent with measurements of the rate of intermolecular electron transfer between the same functional groups in random solutions. Solvation energetics, on the other hand, had a remarkable influence on the extent and direction of electron transfer. A change in solvent polarity was observed to reverse the direction of electron transfer. Evidence was obtained for a distribution of solvation environments for ions in glasses which may be as broad as 0.15 eV

  19. Efficient electron beam deposition for repetitively pulsed krypton fluoride lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegeler, F.; Myers, M.C.; Friedman, M.; Sethian, J.D.; Swanekamp, S.B.; Rose, D.V.; Welch, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    We have demonstrated that we can significantly increase the electron beam transmission efficiency through a pressure foil structure (hibachi) by segmenting the beam into strips to miss the hibachi support ribs. In order to increase the electron beam transmission, the cathode strips are adjusted to compensate for beam rotation and pinching. The beam propagation through the hibachi has been both measured and simulated with 1-D and 3-D codes

  20. A rapid method of reprocessing for electronic microscopy of cut histological in paraffin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez Chavarri, F.; Vargas Montero, M.; Rivera, P.; Carranza, A.

    2000-01-01

    A simple and rapid method is described for re-processing of light microscopy paraffin sections to observe they under transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) The paraffin-embedded tissue is sectioned and deparaffinized in toluene; then exposed to osmium vapor under microwave irradiation using a domestic microwave oven. The tissues were embedded in epoxy resin, polymerized and ultrathin sectioned. The method requires a relatively short time (about 30 minutes for TEM and 15 for SEM), and produces a reasonable quality of the ultrastructure for diagnostic purposes. (Author) [es

  1. Modulation transfer function and detective quantum efficiency of electron bombarded charge coupled device detector for low energy electrons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horáček, Miroslav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 9 (2005), 093704:1-6 ISSN 0034-6748 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/03/1575 Keywords : electron bombarded CCD * modulation transfer function * detective quantum efficiency Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.235, year: 2005

  2. Positivity of the spherically averaged atomic one-electron density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fournais, Søren; Hoffmann-Ostenhof, Maria; Hoffmann-Ostenhof, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the positivity of the spherically averaged atomic one-electron density . For a which stems from a physical ground state we prove that for r ≥  0. This article may be reproduced in its entirety for non-commercial purposes.......We investigate the positivity of the spherically averaged atomic one-electron density . For a which stems from a physical ground state we prove that for r ≥  0. This article may be reproduced in its entirety for non-commercial purposes....

  3. Rapid flattening of butterfly pitch angle distributions of radiation belt electrons by whistler-mode chorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chang; Su, Zhenpeng; Xiao, Fuliang; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.; Baker, D. N.; Blake, J. B.; Funsten, H. O.

    2016-08-01

    Van Allen radiation belt electrons exhibit complex dynamics during geomagnetically active periods. Investigation of electron pitch angle distributions (PADs) can provide important information on the dominant physical mechanisms controlling radiation belt behaviors. Here we report a storm time radiation belt event where energetic electron PADs changed from butterfly distributions to normal or flattop distributions within several hours. Van Allen Probes observations showed that the flattening of butterfly PADs was closely related to the occurrence of whistler-mode chorus waves. Two-dimensional quasi-linear STEERB simulations demonstrate that the observed chorus can resonantly accelerate the near-equatorially trapped electrons and rapidly flatten the corresponding electron butterfly PADs. These results provide a new insight on how chorus waves affect the dynamic evolution of radiation belt electrons.

  4. Rapid flattening of butterfly pitch angle distributions of radiation belt electrons by whistler-mode chorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Chang; Changsha University of Science and Technology, Changsha; Su, Zhenpeng; Xiao, Fuliang; Zheng, Huinan

    2016-01-01

    Van Allen radiation belt electrons exhibit complex dynamics during geomagnetically active periods. Investigation of electron pitch angle distributions (PADs) can provide important information on the dominant physical mechanisms controlling radiation belt behaviors. In this paper, we report a storm time radiation belt event where energetic electron PADs changed from butterfly distributions to normal or flattop distributions within several hours. Van Allen Probes observations showed that the flattening of butterfly PADs was closely related to the occurrence of whistler-mode chorus waves. Two-dimensional quasi-linear STEERB simulations demonstrate that the observed chorus can resonantly accelerate the near-equatorially trapped electrons and rapidly flatten the corresponding electron butterfly PADs. Finally, these results provide a new insight on how chorus waves affect the dynamic evolution of radiation belt electrons.

  5. Enhanced Electronic Properties of SnO2 via Electron Transfer from Graphene Quantum Dots for Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jiangsheng; Huang, Kun; Yu, Xuegong; Yang, Zhengrui; Xiao, Ke; Qiang, Yaping; Zhu, Xiaodong; Xu, Lingbo; Wang, Peng; Cui, Can; Yang, Deren

    2017-09-26

    Tin dioxide (SnO 2 ) has been demonstrated as an effective electron-transporting layer (ETL) for attaining high-performance perovskite solar cells (PSCs). However, the numerous trap states in low-temperature solution processed SnO 2 will reduce the PSCs performance and result in serious hysteresis. Here, we report a strategy to improve the electronic properties in SnO 2 through a facile treatment of the films with adding a small amount of graphene quantum dots (GQDs). We demonstrate that the photogenerated electrons in GQDs can transfer to the conduction band of SnO 2 . The transferred electrons from the GQDs will effectively fill the electron traps as well as improve the conductivity of SnO 2 , which is beneficial for improving the electron extraction efficiency and reducing the recombination at the ETLs/perovskite interface. The device fabricated with SnO 2 :GQDs could reach an average power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 19.2 ± 1.0% and a highest steady-state PCE of 20.23% with very little hysteresis. Our study provides an effective way to enhance the performance of perovskite solar cells through improving the electronic properties of SnO 2 .

  6. Development of a high efficiency integration system and promoter library for rapid modification of Pseudomonas putida KT2440

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmore, Joshua R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Biosciences Division; Furches, Anna [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Biosciences Division; Wolff, Gara N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Biosciences Division; Gorday, Kent [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Biosciences Division; Guss, Adam M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Biosciences Division

    2017-04-15

    Pseudomonas putida strains are highly robust bacteria known for their ability to efficiently utilize a variety of carbon sources, including aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. Recently, P. putida has been engineered to valorize the lignin stream of a lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment process. Nonetheless, when compared to platform organisms such as Escherichia coli, the toolkit for engineering P. putida is underdeveloped. Heterologous gene expression in particular is problematic. Plasmid instability and copy number variance provide challenges for replicative plasmids, while use of homologous recombination for insertion of DNA into the chromosome is slow and laborious. Furthermore, heterologous expression efforts to date typically rely on overexpression of exogenous pathways using a handful of poorly characterized promoters. In order to improve the P. putida toolkit, we developed a rapid genome integration system using the site-specific recombinase from bacteriophage Bxb1 to enable rapid, high efficiency integration of DNA into the P. putida chromosome. We also developed a library of synthetic promoters with various UP elements, -35 sequences, and -10 sequences, as well as different ribosomal binding sites. We tested these promoters using a fluorescent reporter gene, mNeonGreen, to characterize the strength of each promoter, and identified UP-element-promoter-ribosomal binding sites combinations capable of driving a ~150-fold range of protein expression levels. One additional integrating vector was developed that confers more robust kanamycin resistance when integrated at single copy into the chromosome. This genome integration and reporter systems are extensible for testing other genetic parts, such as examining terminator strength, and will allow rapid integration of heterologous pathways for metabolic engineering.

  7. High efficiency charge recuperation for electron beams of MeV energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLachlan, J.A.

    1996-05-01

    Electron cooling of ion beams with energies of some GeV per nucleon requires high-quality electron beams of MeV energies and currents as high as several amperes. The enormous beam power dictates that the beam current be returned to the high voltage terminal which provides the accelerating potential. The beam is returned to a carefully designed collector within the terminal and biased a few kV positive with respect to it. Thus the load on the HV supply is only the accelerating potential times the sum of the beam current loss and the current used to maintain a graded potential on the accelerating structure. If one employs an electrostatic HV supply like a Van de Graaff with maximum charging current of a few hundred microA, the permissible fractional loss is ∼ 10 -4 . During the 15 years or so the concept of medium energy electron cooling has been evolving, the need to demonstrate the practicability of such high efficiency beam recovery has been recognized. This paper will review some experimental tests and further experiments which have been proposed. The design and status are presented for a new re-circulation experiment at 2 MV being carried out by Fermilab at National Electrostatics Corp

  8. Cherenkov imaging method for rapid optimization of clinical treatment geometry in total skin electron beam therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreozzi, Jacqueline M., E-mail: Jacqueline.M.Andreozzi.th@dartmouth.edu, E-mail: Lesley.A.Jarvis@hitchcock.org; Glaser, Adam K. [Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States); Zhang, Rongxiao [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States); Gladstone, David J.; Williams, Benjamin B.; Jarvis, Lesley A., E-mail: Jacqueline.M.Andreozzi.th@dartmouth.edu, E-mail: Lesley.A.Jarvis@hitchcock.org [Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire 03766 (United States); Pogue, Brian W. [Thayer School of Engineering and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Purpose: A method was developed utilizing Cherenkov imaging for rapid and thorough determination of the two gantry angles that produce the most uniform treatment plane during dual-field total skin electron beam therapy (TSET). Methods: Cherenkov imaging was implemented to gather 2D measurements of relative surface dose from 6 MeV electron beams on a white polyethylene sheet. An intensified charge-coupled device camera time-gated to the Linac was used for Cherenkov emission imaging at sixty-two different gantry angles (1° increments, from 239.5° to 300.5°). Following a modified Stanford TSET technique, which uses two fields per patient position for full body coverage, composite images were created as the sum of two beam images on the sheet; each angle pair was evaluated for minimum variation across the patient region of interest. Cherenkov versus dose correlation was verified with ionization chamber measurements. The process was repeated at source to surface distance (SSD) = 441, 370.5, and 300 cm to determine optimal angle spread for varying room geometries. In addition, three patients receiving TSET using a modified Stanford six-dual field technique with 6 MeV electron beams at SSD = 441 cm were imaged during treatment. Results: As in previous studies, Cherenkov intensity was shown to directly correlate with dose for homogenous flat phantoms (R{sup 2} = 0.93), making Cherenkov imaging an appropriate candidate to assess and optimize TSET setup geometry. This method provided dense 2D images allowing 1891 possible treatment geometries to be comprehensively analyzed from one data set of 62 single images. Gantry angles historically used for TSET at their institution were 255.5° and 284.5° at SSD = 441 cm; however, the angles optimized for maximum homogeneity were found to be 252.5° and 287.5° (+6° increase in angle spread). Ionization chamber measurements confirmed improvement in dose homogeneity across the treatment field from a range of 24.4% at the initial

  9. One electron oxidation of Ni(II)-iminodiacetate by carbonate radical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandal, P.C.; Bardhan, D.K.; Bhattacharyya, S.N.

    1995-01-01

    Reactions of carbonate radical (CO 3 - ), generated by photolysis or by radiolysis of a carbonate solution with nickel(II)-iminodiacetate (Ni(II)IDA) were studied at pH 10.5 and ionic strength (I)=0.2 mol x dm -3 . The stable product arising from the ligand degradation in the complex is mainly glyoxalic acid. Time-resolved spectroscopy and transient kinetics were studied using flash photolysis. From the kinetic data it was suggested that the carbonate radical initially reacts with Ni(III)IDA with a rate constant (2.4.±0.4) x 10 6 dm 3 x mol -1 x s -1 to form a Ni(II)IDA species which, however, undergoes a first-order transformation (k=2.7 x 10 2 x s -1 ) to give a radical intermediate of the type Ni(II)RNHCHCO - 2 ) which rapidly forms an adduct containing a Ni-C bond. This adduct decays very slowly to give rise to glyoxalic acid. From a consideration of equilibrium between Ni(II)IDA and Ni(III)IDA, the one electron reduction potential for the Ni(III)IDA/Ni(II)IDA couple was determined to be 1.467 V. (author) 30 refs.; 5 figs

  10. Synthesis and Characterization of V2O5/SiO2 Nanoparticles as Efficient Catalyst for Aromatization 1,4 Dihydropyridines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farzaneh, F.; Zamanifar, E.; Jafari Foruzin, L.; Ghandi, M.

    2012-01-01

    V 2 O 5 /SiO 2 nanoparticles was prepared via an one-pot sol gel method from vanadyl- acetylacetonate and tetraethyl orthosilicate in refluxing MeOH, followed by calcination at 700 °C for 2 hours. The resultant nanoparticles was characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, TGA and FTIR techniques. Rapid and efficient aromatization of 1,4-dihydropyridines catalyzed by V 2 O 5 /SiO 2 nanoparticles is described in this presentation.

  11. Observation of Zero-Dimensional States in a One-Dimensional Electron Interferometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wees, B.J. van; Kouwenhoven, L.P.; Harmans, C.J.P.M.; Williamson, J.G.; Timmering, C.E.; Broekaart, M.E.I.; Foxon, C.T.; Harris, J.J.

    1989-01-01

    We have studied the electron transport in a one-dimensional electron interferometer. It consists of a disk-shaped two-dimensional electron gas, to which quantum point contacts are attached. Discrete zero-dimensional states are formed due to constructive interference of electron waves traveling along

  12. $ANBA; a rapid, combined data acquisition and correction program for the SEMQ electron microprobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, James J.

    1983-01-01

    $ANBA is a program developed for rapid data acquisition and correction on an automated SEMQ electron microprobe. The program provides increased analytical speed and reduced disk read/write operations compared with the manufacturer's software, resulting in a doubling of analytical throughput. In addition, the program provides enhanced analytical features such as averaging, rapid and compact data storage, and on-line plotting. The program is described with design philosophy, flow charts, variable names, a complete program listing, and system requirements. A complete operating example and notes to assist in running the program are included.

  13. Efficiency evaluation of an electronic equipment: availability,reliability and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guyot, C.

    1966-01-01

    This concept of efficiency often called ''system effectiveness'', is presented and analyzed in terms of reliability and maintenance. It allows to define the availability factor of an electronic equipment. A procedure of evaluation is proposed. (A.L.B.)

  14. Rapid polyether cleavage via extracellular one-electron oxidation by a brown-rot basidiomycete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerem, Z; Bao, W; Hammel, K E

    1998-09-01

    Fungi that cause brown rot of wood are essential biomass recyclers and also the principal agents of decay in wooden structures, but the extracellular mechanisms by which they degrade lignocellulose remain unknown. To test the hypothesis that brown-rot fungi use extracellular free radical oxidants as biodegradative tools, Gloeophyllum trabeum was examined for its ability to depolymerize an environmentally recalcitrant polyether, poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), that cannot penetrate cell membranes. Analyses of degraded PEOs by gel permeation chromatography showed that the fungus cleaved PEO rapidly by an endo route. 13C NMR analyses of unlabeled and perdeuterated PEOs recovered from G. trabeum cultures showed that a major route for depolymerization was oxidative C---C bond cleavage, a reaction diagnostic for hydrogen abstraction from a PEO methylene group by a radical oxidant. Fenton reagent (Fe(II)/H2O2) oxidized PEO by the same route in vitro and therefore might account for PEO biodegradation if it is produced by the fungus, but the data do not rule out involvement of less reactive radicals. The reactivity and extrahyphal location of this PEO-degrading system suggest that its natural function is to participate in the brown rot of wood and that it may enable brown-rot fungi to degrade recalcitrant organopollutants.

  15. Highly efficient exciplex organic light-emitting diodes incorporating a heptazine derivative as an electron acceptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Nomura, Hiroko; Miyazaki, Hiroshi; Adachi, Chihaya

    2014-06-11

    Highly efficient exciplex systems incorporating a heptazine derivative () as an electron acceptor and 1,3-di(9H-carbazol-9-yl)benzene () as an electron donor are developed. An organic light-emitting diode containing 8 wt% : as an emitting layer exhibits a maximum external quantum efficiency of 11.3%.

  16. Evaluating the energy efficiency of a one pedal driving algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.; Besselink, I.J.M.; van Boekel, J.J.P.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2015-01-01

    Regenerative braking of electric vehicles (EVs) is important to improve the energy efficiency and increase the vehicle range. However, the additional friction braking during deceleration may limit the amount of recuperated energy. To improve the energy efficiency and driving comfort of EVs, a one

  17. To the theory of spin-charge separation in one-dimensional correlated electron systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvyagin, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    Spin-charge separation is considered to be one of the key properties that distinguish low-dimensional electron systems from others. Three-dimensional correlated electron systems are described by the Fermi liquid theory. There, low-energy excitations (quasiparticles) are reminiscent of noninteracting electrons: They carry charges -e and spins 1/2 . It is believed that for any one-dimensional correlated electron system, low-lying electron excitations carry either only spin and no charge, or only charge without spin. That is why recent experiments looked for such low-lying collective electron excitations, one of which carries only spin, and the other carries only charge. Here we show that despite the fact that for exactly solvable one-dimensional correlated electron models there exist excitations which carry only spin and only charge, in all these models with short-range interactions the low-energy physics is described by low-lying collective excitations, one of which carries both spin and charge

  18. One electron-based smallest flexible logic cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S. J.; Lee, J. J.; Kang, H. J.; Choi, J. B.; Yu, Y.-S.; Takahashi, Y.; Hasko, D. G.

    2012-10-01

    A one electron-based operating half-adder, the smallest arithmetic block, has been implemented on silicon-on-insulator structure whose basic element is a nanoscale single-electron transistor (SET) with two symmetrical side-wall gates. Grayscale contour plots of the resulting cell output voltages exhibit the Coulomb blockade-induced periodic alternating high/low features. Their voltage transfer characteristics display typical Sum and Carry-Out functions for binary, multi-valued (MV), and binary-MV mixed input voltages. Moreover, the half-adder function converts into a subtraction mode by adjusting control gates of the SET element. This flexible multi-valued cell provides an arithmetic block for the SET MV logic family of high density integration, operating with ultra-low power.

  19. One-stop endoscopic hernia surgery: efficient and satisfactory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorbrood, C E H; Burgmans, J P J; Clevers, G J; Davids, P H P; Verleisdonk, E J M M; Schouten, N; van Dalen, T

    2015-06-01

    One-stop surgery offers patients diagnostic work-up and subsequent surgical treatment on the same day. In the present study, patient satisfaction and efficiency from an institutional perspective were evaluated in patients who were referred for one-stop endoscopic inguinal hernia repair. In a high-volume inguinal hernia clinic, all consecutive patients referred for one-stop surgical treatment, were registered prospectively. An instructed secretary screened patients for eligibility for the one-stop option when the appointment was made. Totally extraperitoneal hernia repair under general anaesthesia was the preferred operative technique. Patient's satisfaction, successful day surgery and institutional efficiency were evaluated. Between January 2010 and January 2012 a total of 349 patients (17 % of all patients in the hernia clinic) were referred for one-stop hernia repair. Mean age was 47.5 years and 96.3 % were males. Three hundred thirty-six patients underwent hernia surgery on the same day (96.3 %). In thirteen patients (3.7 %) no operative repair was done on the day of presentation due to an incorrect diagnosis (n = 7), a watchful waiting policy for asymptomatic hernia (n = 3), rescheduling due to a large scrotal hernia, and there were two "no shows". Following hernia repair 97 % of the patients were discharged on the same day, while ten patients required hospitalization. Based on the questionnaires the main satisfaction score among patients was 9.0 (8.89-9.17 95 % CI) on a scale ranging from 0 to 10. One-stop hernia surgery is feasible and satisfactory from an institutional as well as from a patient's perspective.

  20. Acoustic and electronic properties of one-dimensional quasicrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nori, F.; Rodriguez, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    We study the acoustic and electronic properties of one-dimensional quasicrystals. Both numerical (nonperturbative) and analytical (perturbative) results are shown. The phonon and electronic spectra exhibit a self-similar hierarchy of gaps and many localized states in the gaps. We study quasiperiodic structures with any number of layers and several types of boundary conditions. We discuss the connection between our phonon model and recent experiments on quasiperiodic GaAs-AlAs superlattices. We predict the existence of many gap states localized at the surfaces

  1. Scalable Approach to Highly Efficient and Rapid Capacitive Deionization with CNT-Thread As Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moronshing, Maku; Subramaniam, Chandramouli

    2017-11-22

    A scalable route to highly efficient purification of water through capacitive deionization (CDI) is reported using CNT-thread as electrodes. Electro-sorption capacity (q e ) of 139 mg g -1 and average salt-adsorption rate (ASAR) of 2.78 mg g -1 min -1 achieved here is the highest among all known electrode materials and nonmembrane techniques, indicating efficient and rapid deionization. Such exceptional performance is achieved with feedstock concentrations (≤1000 ppm) where conventional techniques such as reverse osmosis and electrodialysis prove ineffective. Further, both cations (Na + , K + , Mg 2+ , and Ca 2+ ) and anions (Cl - , SO 4 2- and NO 3 - ) are removed with equally high efficiency (∼80%). Synergism between electrical conductivity (∼25 S cm -1 ), high specific surface area (∼900 m 2 g -1 ), porosity (0.7 nm, 3 nm) and hydrophilicity (contact angle ∼25°) in CNT-thread electrode enable superior contact with water, rapid formation of extensive electrical double layer and consequently efficient deionization. The tunable capacitance of the device (0.4-120 mF) and its high specific capacitance (∼27.2 F g -1 ) enable exceptional performance across a wide range of saline concentrations (50-1000 ppm). Facile regeneration of the electrode and reusability of the device is achieved for several cycles. The device demonstrated can desalinate water as it trickles down its surface because of gravity, thereby eliminating the requirement of any water pumping system. Finally, its portable adaptability is demonstrated by operating the device with an AA battery.

  2. Atomic and electronic structure transformations of silver nanoparticles under rapid cooling conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Lobato, I.; Rojas, J.; Landauro, C. V.; Torres, J.

    2008-01-01

    The structural evolution and dynamics of silver nanodrops Ag${}_{2896}$ (4.4 nm in diameter) during rapid cooling conditions has been studied by means of molecular dynamics simulations and electronic density of state calculations. The interaction of silver atoms is modeled by a tight-binding semiempirical interatomic potential proposed by Cleri and Rosato. The pair correlation functions and the pair analysis technique is applied to reveal the structural transition in the process of solidifica...

  3. Realization of high efficiency in a plasma-assisted microwave source with two-dimensional electron motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shkvarunets, A.G.; Carmel, Y.; Nusinovich, G.S.; Abu-elfadl, T.M.; Rodgers, J.; Antonsen, T.M. Jr.; Granatstein, V.; Goebel, D.M.

    2002-01-01

    Conventional microwave sources utilize a strong axial magnetic field to guide an electron beam through an interaction region. A plasma-assisted slow wave microwave oscillator (Pasotron) can operate without an external magnetic field because the presence of ions neutralizes the space charge in the beam, permits the self-pinch forces to provide beam propagation, and allows for the radial motion of electrons under the action of transverse fields of the wave. While the inherent efficiency of conventional microwave sources with 1D electron flow is limited to 15%-20%, it is shown in this work that both the calculated and measured inherent efficiency of devices with 2D electron flow can be higher than 50%. Both in situ diagnostics and analysis confirmed that the enhanced efficiency is due to the fact that rf forces dominate the beam dynamics

  4. Efikasnost sistema PVO u uslovima elektronskih dejstava / Efficiency of antiaircraft system in electronic warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Šepec

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available U radu je primenjena teorija masovnog opsluživanja u analizi efikasnosti sistema protivvazduhoplovne odbrane (sistema PVO u uslovima elektronskih dejstava protivnika. Prikazan je model za ocenu efikasnosti sistema PVO i predstavljeni su izrazi za procenu efikasnosti sistema PVO u uslovima elektronskih dejstava. / In this article the theory of mass servicing is used in the analysis of efficiency of antiaircraft system in the conditions of electronic warfare. The model for analysis of the antiaircraft system efficiency has been shown and formulas for qualitative analysis of antiaircraft system efficiency have been presented in the conditions of electronic warfare.

  5. Efficient quantum circuits for one-way quantum computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanamoto, Tetsufumi; Liu, Yu-Xi; Hu, Xuedong; Nori, Franco

    2009-03-13

    While Ising-type interactions are ideal for implementing controlled phase flip gates in one-way quantum computing, natural interactions between solid-state qubits are most often described by either the XY or the Heisenberg models. We show an efficient way of generating cluster states directly using either the imaginary SWAP (iSWAP) gate for the XY model, or the sqrt[SWAP] gate for the Heisenberg model. Our approach thus makes one-way quantum computing more feasible for solid-state devices.

  6. Measurement of Z boson production using Z→ ee decays with one of the electrons detected in the forward calorimeters of the ATLAS detector using 4.6 fb-1 of data collected at √(s)=7 TeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedov, George

    2016-12-01

    The double differential cross-section for Z bosons decaying in the electron channel was measured as a function of the di-electron invariant mass and rapidity. For this measurement, the data collected at the ATLAS detector at the LHC during 2011 at a center-of-mass energy of √(s)=7 TeV was used. The analysis is focused on the central-forward Z bosons, i.e. the bosons that decay into two electrons, one of which is reconstructed in the central region of the detector (vertical stroke η vertical stroke <2.5) and the other in the forward region of the detector (vertical stroke η vertical stroke >2.5). Several sources of the systematic uncertainties were taken into account, including the electron reconstruction and identification efficiencies, pileup effects, PDF sets for the initial protons, and differences between various Monte Carlo simulations. The main sources of uncertainties were found to be the efficiency scales of the forward electron identification and the forward electron energy resolution. The results of the analysis are in agreement with measurements in other decay channels of the Z boson and with theoretical predictions.The fast simulation method called Frozen Showers was developed to speed up the simulation of Monte Carlo data samples. This method increases the simulation speed by ∝25% while introducing additional errors of less than 1% in the energy scale and resolution of the reconstructed particles. The method was used to speed up the production of all Monte Carlo samples used in this analysis.

  7. Fast Crystallization and improved Stability of Perovskite Solar Cells with Zn 2 SnO 4 Electron Transporting Layer: Interface Matters

    KAUST Repository

    Bera, Ashok

    2015-12-03

    Here we report that mesoporous ternary oxide Zn2SnO4 can significantly promotes the crystallization of hybrid perovskite layers and serves as an efficient electron transporting material in perovskite solar cells. Such devices exhibit an energy conversion efficiency of 13.34%, which is even higher than that achieved with the commonly used TiO2 in the similar experimental conditions (9.1%). Simple one-step spin coating of CH3NH3PbI3−xClx on Zn2SnO4 is found to lead to rapidly crystalized bilayer perovskite structure without any solvent engineering. Furthermore, ultrafast transient absorption measurement reveals efficient charge transfer at the Zn2SnO4/perovskite interface. Most importantly, solar cells with Zn2SnO4 as the electron-transporting material exhibit negligible electrical hysteresis and exceptionally high stability without encapsulation for over one month. Besides underscoring Zn2SnO4 as a highly promising electron transporting material for perovskite solar cells, our results demonstrate the significant role of interfaces on improving the perovskite crystallization and photovoltaic performance.

  8. The Influence of Non-Equilibrium Excitation on the Electron Density in One-Dimensional MFD Channel Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichert, K.; Kaeppeler, H. J. [Institut fuer Plasmaforschung der Technischen Hochschule Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1966-10-15

    In previous publications, a system of equations was derived from the gas-kinetic description of a multi-component reacting plasma and employed for the calculation of one-dimensional subsonic flows. This system is now extended to include non-equilibrium excitation. No thermal or chemical equilibrium between the various components of the plasma is assumed. The components of the plasma considered are a non-reacting working fluid, an alkali metal vapour as a seeding material, ions of this seeding substance, and electrons. Three levels for the excited states are introduced. The reactions considered are excitation and ionization by electron collisions, and photo-ionization, as well as the corresponding reverse processes. For the reaction velocities, analytical equations are introduced permitting insertion of any excitation or ionization cross-sections of either experimental or theoretical origin. The method employed had been previously suggested by one of the authors. As examples, the degrees of excitation and ionization in the flow of a helium working fluid with 1% caesium seeding through a channel against transverse magnetic fields of 15 and 40 kg at Mach numbers of 0.7 and 0.8, respectively, were calculated. The results of the calculations show that for relatively small magnetic fields there is no rapid rise of the ionization to Saha-equilibrium as a function of electron temperature. A comparison with the results of a calculation neglecting excitation shows that especially for relatively large magnetic fields non-equilibrium excitation has an essential influence on the electron density and its approach to equilibrium. Neglecting excitation, there results a nearly frozen behaviour of the degree of ionization within channel lengths of technical interest for small magnetic fields. (author)

  9. One dimensional CuO nanocrystals synthesis by electrical explosion: A study on structural, optical and electronic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, Shutesh, E-mail: shutesh.k@onsemi.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); ON Semiconductor Package Innovation and Development Center, 70450 Seremban (Malaysia); Haseeb, A.S.M.A.; Johan, Mohd Rafie [Department of Mechanical Engineering University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • One-dimensional CuO nanoflakes were synthesized by novel wire explosion technique. • A physical synthesis method capable of producing high aspect ratio (1:16) nanocrystals. • Most energy efficient and eco-friendly synthesis of low-dimensional transition metal oxide nanocrystals. -- Abstract: One-dimensional (1D) copper oxide (CuO) nanocrystals were synthesized using a novel wire explosion in de-ionized (DI) water without any chemical additives. Highly crystalline 1D CuO nanocrystals with 1:16 aspect ratio were successfully synthesized using this technique. The chemical nature and physical structure of the nanocrystals were controlled by simply modulating the exploding medium temperature. The results showed that nanocrystals produced at explosion temperatures 65 °C and 95 °C are pure CuO with optical band-gap energy of 2.38 eV. High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope analysis (HRTEM) indicates that the CuO nanocrystals are with growth in [1{sup ¯}11] and [1 1 1] directions. The epitaxial crystal growth kinetics of the 1D nanostructure by aggregation was discussed. The incorporation of microstructural features like edge dislocations and porosity in the growth mechanism was examined. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterization indicates the formation of high purity CuO nanocrystals with valence state +2. This study provides an energy efficient and eco-friendly synthesis method of 1D transition metal oxide nanocrystals for electronic applications.

  10. One dimensional CuO nanocrystals synthesis by electrical explosion: A study on structural, optical and electronic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, Shutesh; Haseeb, A.S.M.A.; Johan, Mohd Rafie

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • One-dimensional CuO nanoflakes were synthesized by novel wire explosion technique. • A physical synthesis method capable of producing high aspect ratio (1:16) nanocrystals. • Most energy efficient and eco-friendly synthesis of low-dimensional transition metal oxide nanocrystals. -- Abstract: One-dimensional (1D) copper oxide (CuO) nanocrystals were synthesized using a novel wire explosion in de-ionized (DI) water without any chemical additives. Highly crystalline 1D CuO nanocrystals with 1:16 aspect ratio were successfully synthesized using this technique. The chemical nature and physical structure of the nanocrystals were controlled by simply modulating the exploding medium temperature. The results showed that nanocrystals produced at explosion temperatures 65 °C and 95 °C are pure CuO with optical band-gap energy of 2.38 eV. High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope analysis (HRTEM) indicates that the CuO nanocrystals are with growth in [1 ¯ 11] and [1 1 1] directions. The epitaxial crystal growth kinetics of the 1D nanostructure by aggregation was discussed. The incorporation of microstructural features like edge dislocations and porosity in the growth mechanism was examined. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterization indicates the formation of high purity CuO nanocrystals with valence state +2. This study provides an energy efficient and eco-friendly synthesis method of 1D transition metal oxide nanocrystals for electronic applications

  11. Quantifying the Precipitation Loss of Radiation Belt Electrons during a Rapid Dropout Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, K. H.; Tu, W.; Xiang, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Relativistic electron flux in the radiation belt can drop by orders of magnitude within the timespan of hours. In this study, we used the drift-diffusion model that includes azimuthal drift and pitch angle diffusion of electrons to simulate low-altitude electron distribution observed by POES/MetOp satellites for rapid radiation belt electron dropout event occurring on May 1, 2013. The event shows fast dropout of MeV energy electrons at L>4 over a few hours, observed by the Van Allen Probes mission. By simulating the electron distributions observed by multiple POES satellites, we resolve the precipitation loss with both high spatial and temporal resolution and a range of energies. We estimate the pitch angle diffusion coefficients as a function of energy, pitch angle, and L-shell, and calculate corresponding electron lifetimes during the event. The simulation results show fast electron precipitation loss at L>4 during the electron dropout, with estimated electron lifetimes on the order of half an hour for MeV energies. The electron loss rate show strong energy dependence with faster loss at higher energies, which suggest that this dropout event is dominated by quick and localized scattering process that prefers higher energy electrons. The estimated pitch angle diffusion rates from the model are then compared with in situ wave measurements from Van Allen Probes to uncover the underlying wave-particle-interaction mechanisms that are responsible for the fast electron precipitation. Comparing the resolved precipitation loss with the observed electron dropouts at high altitudes, our results will suggest the relative role of electron precipitation loss and outward radial diffusion to the radiation belt dropouts during storm and non-storm times, in addition to its energy and L dependence.

  12. High efficiency inductive output tubes with intense annular electron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appanam Karakkad, J.; Matthew, D.; Ray, R.; Beaudoin, B. L.; Narayan, A.; Nusinovich, G. S.; Ting, A.; Antonsen, T. M.

    2017-10-01

    For mobile ionospheric heaters, it is necessary to develop highly efficient RF sources capable of delivering radiation in the frequency range from 3 to 10 MHz with an average power at a megawatt level. A promising source, which is capable of offering these parameters, is a grid-less version of the inductive output tube (IOT), also known as a klystrode. In this paper, studies analyzing the efficiency of grid-less IOTs are described. The basic trade-offs needed to reach high efficiency are investigated. In particular, the trade-off between the peak current and the duration of the current micro-pulse is analyzed. A particle in the cell code is used to self-consistently calculate the distribution in axial and transverse momentum and in total electron energy from the cathode to the collector. The efficiency of IOTs with collectors of various configurations is examined. It is shown that the efficiency of IOTs can be in the 90% range even without using depressed collectors.

  13. Highly efficient perovskite solar cells based on a nanostructured WO3-TiO2 core-shell electron transporting material

    KAUST Repository

    Mahmood, Khalid; Swain, Bhabani Sankar; Kirmani, Ahmad R.; Amassian, Aram

    2015-01-01

    Until recently, only mesoporous TiO2 and ZnO were successfully demonstrated as electron transport layers (ETL) alongside the reports of ZrO2 and Al2O3 as scaffold materials in organometal halide perovskite solar cells, largely owing to ease of processing and to high power conversion efficiency. In this article, we explore tungsten trioxide (WO3)-based nanostructured and porous ETL materials directly grown hydrothermally with different morphologies such as nanoparticles, nanorods and nanosheet arrays. The nanostructure morphology strongly influences the photocurrent and efficiency in organometal halide perovskite solar cells. We find that the perovskite solar cells based on WO3 nanosheet arrays yield significantly enhanced photovoltaic performance as compared to nanoparticles and nanorod arrays due to good perovskite absorber infiltration in the porous scaffold and more rapid carrier transport. We further demonstrate that treating the WO3 nanostructures with an aqueous solution of TiCl4 reduces charge recombination at the perovskite/WO3 interface, resulting in the highest power conversion efficiency of 11.24% for devices based on WO3 nanosheet arrays. The successful demonstration of alternative ETL materials and nanostructures based on WO3 will open up new opportunities in the development of highly efficient perovskite solar cells. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

  14. Business-to-business electronic commerce

    OpenAIRE

    John Wenninger

    1999-01-01

    To improve efficiency, some large retailers, suppliers, and distributors have begun to conduct business-to-business commerce electronically. This practice could grow rapidly if the Internet becomes the primary low-cost network for such transactions. Before the Internet can fully support business-to-business commerce, however, companies must overcome several technological and security obstacles.

  15. Hyperpolarizabilities of one and two electron ions under strongly coupled plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, Subhrangsu; Mandal, Puspajit; Kumar Mukherjee, Prasanta; Fricke, Burkhard

    2013-01-01

    Systematic investigations on the hyperpolarizabilities of hydrogen and helium like ions up to nuclear charge Z = 7 under strongly coupled plasma environment have been performed. Variation perturbation theory has been adopted to evaluate such properties for the one and two electron systems. For the two electron systems coupled Hartree-Fock theory, which takes care of partial electron correlation effects, has been utilised. Ion sphere model of the strongly coupled plasma, valid for ionic systems only, has been adopted for estimating the effect of plasma environment on the hyperpolarizability. The calculated free ion hyperpolarizability for all the systems is in good agreement with the existing data. Under confinement hyperpolarizabilities of one and two electron ions show interesting trend with respect to plasma coupling strength.

  16. Nearly Efficiency-Droop-Free AlGaN-Based Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with a Specifically Designed Superlattice p-Type Electron Blocking Layer for High Mg Doping Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zi-Hui; Huang Chen, Sung-Wen; Chu, Chunshuang; Tian, Kangkai; Fang, Mengqian; Zhang, Yonghui; Bi, Wengang; Kuo, Hao-Chung

    2018-04-01

    This work reports a nearly efficiency-droop-free AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diode (DUV LED) emitting in the peak wavelength of 270 nm. The DUV LED utilizes a specifically designed superlattice p-type electron blocking layer (p-EBL). The superlattice p-EBL enables a high hole concentration in the p-EBL which correspondingly increases the hole injection efficiency into the multiple quantum wells (MQWs). The enhanced hole concentration within the MQW region can more efficiently recombine with electrons in the way of favoring the radiative recombination, leading to a reduced electron leakage current level. As a result, the external quantum efficiency for the proposed DUV LED structure is increased by 100% and the nearly efficiency-droop-free DUV LED structure is obtained experimentally.

  17. Determination of one-electron reduction potentials of some radiosensitive compounds by pulse radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo Zhihua; Yao Side; Li Hucheng; Lin Nianyun; Jin Yizun

    1994-01-01

    One-electron reduction potential (E 7 1 ) is one of the important parameters of radiosensitive compound with high electron affinity. In this work one-electron reduction potentials of some radiosensitizers, such as Miso, 911, CMNa, SMU-1, SMU-2, SMD, SNN, S 3 and BSO, were determined pulse radiolytically by using anthraquinone-2-sulfate (AQS), duroquinone (DQ) and methyl viologen (MV 2+ ) as references

  18. An Efficient Searchable Encryption Against Keyword Guessing Attacks for Sharable Electronic Medical Records in Cloud-based System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yilun; Lu, Xicheng; Su, Jinshu; Chen, Peixin

    2016-12-01

    Preserving the privacy of electronic medical records (EMRs) is extremely important especially when medical systems adopt cloud services to store patients' electronic medical records. Considering both the privacy and the utilization of EMRs, some medical systems apply searchable encryption to encrypt EMRs and enable authorized users to search over these encrypted records. Since individuals would like to share their EMRs with multiple persons, how to design an efficient searchable encryption for sharable EMRs is still a very challenge work. In this paper, we propose a cost-efficient secure channel free searchable encryption (SCF-PEKS) scheme for sharable EMRs. Comparing with existing SCF-PEKS solutions, our scheme reduces the storage overhead and achieves better computation performance. Moreover, our scheme can guard against keyword guessing attack, which is neglected by most of the existing schemes. Finally, we implement both our scheme and a latest medical-based scheme to evaluate the performance. The evaluation results show that our scheme performs much better performance than the latest one for sharable EMRs.

  19. Novel multi-chromophor light absorber concepts for DSSCs for efficient electron injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuetz, Robert; Strothkaemper, Christian; Bartelt, Andreas; Hannappel, Thomas; Eichberger, Rainer [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Fasting, Carlo [Institut fuer Organische Chemie, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Takustrasse 3, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Thomas, Inara [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Institut fuer Organische Chemie, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Takustrasse 3, 14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) operate by injecting electrons from the excited state of a light-harvesting dye into the continuum of conduction band states of a wide bandgap semiconductor. The light harvesting efficiency of pure organic dyes is limited by a narrow spectral electronic transition. A beneficial broad ground state absorption in the VIS region can be achieved by applying a single molecular dye system with multiple chromophors involving a Foerster resonance energy transfer (FRET) mechanism for an efficient electron injection. A model donor acceptor dye system capable for FRET chemically linked to colloidal TiO{sub 2} and ZnO nanorod surfaces was investigated in UHV environment. We used VIS/NIR femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy and optical pump terahertz probe spectroscopy to study the charge injection dynamics of the antenna system. Different chromophors attached to a novel scaffold/anchor system connecting the organic absorber unit to the metal oxide semiconductor were probed.

  20. Tunneling explains efficient electron transport via protein junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fereiro, Jerry A; Yu, Xi; Pecht, Israel; Sheves, Mordechai; Cuevas, Juan Carlos; Cahen, David

    2018-05-15

    Metalloproteins, proteins containing a transition metal ion cofactor, are electron transfer agents that perform key functions in cells. Inspired by this fact, electron transport across these proteins has been widely studied in solid-state settings, triggering the interest in examining potential use of proteins as building blocks in bioelectronic devices. Here, we report results of low-temperature (10 K) electron transport measurements via monolayer junctions based on the blue copper protein azurin (Az), which strongly suggest quantum tunneling of electrons as the dominant charge transport mechanism. Specifically, we show that, weakening the protein-electrode coupling by introducing a spacer, one can switch the electron transport from off-resonant to resonant tunneling. This is a consequence of reducing the electrode's perturbation of the Cu(II)-localized electronic state, a pattern that has not been observed before in protein-based junctions. Moreover, we identify vibronic features of the Cu(II) coordination sphere in transport characteristics that show directly the active role of the metal ion in resonance tunneling. Our results illustrate how quantum mechanical effects may dominate electron transport via protein-based junctions.

  1. Quasi-one-dimensional electron transport over the surface of a liquid-helium film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, Sviatoslav; Studart, Nelson

    2003-01-01

    Quasi-one-dimensional mobility of surface electrons over a liquid-helium suspended film is studied for a conducting channel. The electron mobility is calculated taking into account the electron scattering by helium atoms in the vapor phase, ripplons, and surface defects of the film substrate both in one-electron regime and in the so-called complete-control limit where the influence of inter-electron collisions on the electron distribution function is taken into account. It is shown that the mobility for low temperatures is dominated by the surface-defect scattering and its temperature dependence is essentially different from that of the electron-ripplon scattering

  2. Highly Efficient Flexible Quantum Dot Solar Cells with Improved Electron Extraction Using MgZnO Nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoliang; Santra, Pralay Kanti; Tian, Lei; Johansson, Malin B; Rensmo, Håkan; Johansson, Erik M J

    2017-08-22

    Colloidal quantum dot (CQD) solar cells have high potential for realizing an efficient and lightweight energy supply for flexible or wearable electronic devices. To achieve highly efficient and flexible CQD solar cells, the electron transport layer (ETL), extracting electrons from the CQD solid layer, needs to be processed at a low-temperature and should also suppress interfacial recombination. Herein, a highly stable MgZnO nanocrystal (MZO-NC) layer is reported for efficient flexible PbS CQD solar cells. Solar cells fabricated with MZO-NC ETL give a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 10.4% and 9.4%, on glass and flexible plastic substrates, respectively. The reported flexible CQD solar cell has the record efficiency to date of flexible CQD solar cells. Detailed theoretical simulations and extensive characterizations reveal that the MZO-NCs significantly enhance charge extraction from CQD solids and diminish the charge accumulation at the ETL/CQD interface, suppressing charge interfacial recombination. These important results suggest that the low-temperature processed MZO-NCs are very promising for use in efficient flexible solar cells or other flexible optoelectronic devices.

  3. Addressing the efficiency roll-off in a fluorescent OLED by facile electron transport layer doping and carrier confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soman, Anjaly; M, Manuraj; Unni, K. N. Narayanan

    2018-05-01

    Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) often face the issue of decreasing power efficiency with increasing brightness. Loss of charge carrier balance is one of the factors contributing to the efficiency roll-off. We demonstrate that by using a combination of doped electron transport layer (ETL) and a specially chosen electron blocking layer (EBL) having high hole mobility, this efficiency roll-off can be effectively suppressed. A tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium (Alq3) based OLED has been fabricated with 2,3,6,7-Tetrahydro-1,1,7,7,-tetramethyl-1H, 5H,11H-10-(2-benzothiazolyl) quinolizino-[9,9a, 1n gh]coumarin (C545T) as the emissive dopant. Bulk doping of the ETL with lithium fluoride (LiF) was optimized to increase the luminous intensity as well as the current efficiency. An EBL with high hole mobility introduced between the EML and the hole transport layer (HTL) improved the performance drastically, and the device brightness at 9 V got improved by a factor of 2.5 compared to that of the control device. While increasing the brightness from 100 cd/m2 to 1000 cd/m2, the power efficiency drop was 47% for the control device whereas only a drop of 15% was observed for the modified device. The possible mechanisms for the enhanced performance are discussed.

  4. A Strategy to Enhance the Efficiency of Quantum Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells by Decreasing Electron Recombination with Polyoxometalate/TiO2 as the Electronic Interface Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Chen, Weilin; Li, Jianping; Wang, Jiabo; Wang, Enbo

    2017-07-21

    Electron recombination occurring at the TiO 2 /quantum dot sensitizer/electrolyte interface is the key reason for hindering further efficiency improvements to quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSCs). Polyoxometalate (POM) can act as an electron-transfer medium to decrease electron recombination in a photoelectric device owing to its excellent oxidation/reduction properties and thermostability. A POM/TiO 2 electronic interface layer prepared by a simple layer-by-layer self-assembly method was added between fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) and mesoporous TiO 2 in the photoanode of QDSCs, and the effect on the photovoltaic performance was systematically investigated. Photovoltaic experimental results and the electron transmission mechanism show that the POM/TiO 2 electronic interface layer in the QDSCs can clearly suppress electron recombination, increase the electron lifetime, and result in smoother electron transmission. In summary, the best conversion efficiency of QDSCs with POM/TiO 2 electronic interface layers increases to 8.02 %, which is an improvement of 25.1 % compared with QDSCs without POM/TiO 2 . This work first builds an electron-transfer bridge between FTO and the quantum dot sensitizer and paves the way for further improved efficiency of QDSCs. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Electron linac for medical isotope production with improved energy efficiency and isotope recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, John; Walters, Dean; Virgo, Matt; Lewellen, John

    2015-09-08

    A method and isotope linac system are provided for producing radio-isotopes and for recovering isotopes. The isotope linac is an energy recovery linac (ERL) with an electron beam being transmitted through an isotope-producing target. The electron beam energy is recollected and re-injected into an accelerating structure. The ERL provides improved efficiency with reduced power requirements and provides improved thermal management of an isotope target and an electron-to-x-ray converter.

  6. Rapid and highly efficient growth of graphene on copper by chemical vapor deposition of ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisi, Nicola, E-mail: nicola.lisi@enea.it [ENEA, Materials Technology Unit, Surface Technology Laboratory, Casaccia Research Centre, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy); Buonocore, Francesco; Dikonimos, Theodoros; Leoni, Enrico [ENEA, Materials Technology Unit, Surface Technology Laboratory, Casaccia Research Centre, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy); Faggio, Giuliana; Messina, Giacomo [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, delle Infrastrutture e dell' Energia Sostenibile (DIIES), Università “Mediterranea” di Reggio Calabria, 89122 Reggio Calabria (Italy); Morandi, Vittorio; Ortolani, Luca [CNR-IMM Bologna, Via Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Capasso, Andrea [ENEA, Materials Technology Unit, Surface Technology Laboratory, Casaccia Research Centre, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy)

    2014-11-28

    The growth of graphene by chemical vapor deposition on metal foils is a promising technique to deliver large-area films with high electron mobility. Nowadays, the chemical vapor deposition of hydrocarbons on copper is the most investigated synthesis method, although many other carbon precursors and metal substrates are used too. Among these, ethanol is a safe and inexpensive precursor that seems to offer favorable synthesis kinetics. We explored the growth of graphene on copper from ethanol, focusing on processes of short duration (up to one min). We investigated the produced films by electron microscopy, Raman and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. A graphene film with high crystalline quality was found to cover the entire copper catalyst substrate in just 20 s, making ethanol appear as a more efficient carbon feedstock than methane and other commonly used precursors. - Highlights: • Graphene films were grown by fast chemical vapor deposition of ethanol on copper. • High-temperature/short-time growth produced highly crystalline graphene. • The copper substrate was entirely covered by a graphene film in just 20 s. • Addition of H{sub 2} had a negligible effect on the crystalline quality.

  7. Exploiting Efficient Transpacking for One-Sided Communication and MPI-IO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Faisal Ghias; Träff, Jesper Larsson

    Based on a construction of socalled input-output datatypes that define a mapping between non-consecutive input and output buffers, we outline an efficient method for copying of structured data. We term this operation transpacking, and show how transpacking can be applied for the MPI implementation of one-sided communication and MPI-IO. For one-sided communication via shared-memory, we demonstrate the expected performance improvements by up to a factor of two. For individual MPI-IO, the time to read or write from file dominates the overall time, but even here efficient transpacking can in some scenarios reduce file I/O time considerably. The reported results have been achieved on a single NEC SX-8 vector node.

  8. Efficient communication in the electronic mail game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jaegher, K.

    The literature on the electronic mail game shows that players’ mutual expectations may lock them into requiring an inefficiently large number of confirmations and confirmations of confirmations from one another. This paper shows that this result hinges on the assumption that, with the exception of

  9. A rapid and efficient branched DNA hybridization assay to titer lentiviral vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Ayyappan; Xie, Jinger; Joshi, Sarasijam; Harden, Paul; Davies, Joan; Hermiston, Terry

    2008-11-01

    A robust assay to titer lentiviral vectors is imperative to qualifying their use in drug discovery, target validation and clinical applications. In this study, a novel branched DNA based hybridization assay was developed to titer lentiviral vectors by quantifying viral RNA genome copy numbers from viral lysates without having to purify viral RNA, and this approach was compared with other non-functional (p24 protein ELISA and viral RT-qPCR) and a functional method (reporter gene expression) used commonly. The RT-qPCR method requires purification of viral RNA and the accuracy of titration therefore depends on the efficiency of purification; this requirement is ameliorated in the hybridization assay as RNA is measured directly in viral lysates. The present study indicates that the hybridization based titration assay performed on viral lysates was more accurate and has additional advantages of being rapid, robust and not dependent on transduction efficiency in different cell types.

  10. Advances in electron transfer chemistry, v.6

    CERN Document Server

    Mariano, PS

    1999-01-01

    It is clear that electron transfer chemisty is now one of the most active areas of chemical study. Advances in Electron Transfer Chemistry has been designed to allow scientists who are developing new knowledge in this rapidly expanding area to describe their most recent research findings. This volume will serve those interested in learning about current breakthroughs in this rapidly expanding area of chemical research.

  11. Acetylacetone as an efficient electron shuttle for concerted redox conversion of arsenite and nitrate in the opposite direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhihao; Song, Xiaojie; Zhang, Shujuan; Wu, Bingdang; Zhang, Guoyang; Pan, Bingcai

    2017-11-01

    The redox conversion of arsenite and nitrate has direct effects on their potential environment risks. Due to the similar reduction potentials, there are few technologies that can simultaneously oxidize arsenite and reduce nitrate in one process. Here, we demonstrate that a diketone-mediated photochemical process could efficiently do this. A combined experimental and theoretical investigation was conducted to elucidate the mechanisms behind the redox conversion in the UV/acetylacetone (AA) process. Our key finding is that UV irradiation significantly changed the redox potential of AA. The excited AA, 3 (AA)*, acted as a semiquinone radical-like electron shuttle. For arsenite oxidation, the efficiency of 3 (AA)* was 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than those of quinone-type electron shuttles, whereas the consumption of AA was 2-4 orders of magnitude less than those of benzonquinones. The oxidation of arsenite and reduction of nitrate could be both accelerated when they existed together in UV/AA process. The results indicate that small diketones are some neglected but potent electron shuttles of great application potential in regulating aquatic redox reactions with the combination of UV irradiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The efficient ones; Die Leistungsfaehigen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2000-06-01

    The increase of output of a solar system where vacuum tube collectors replace flatbed collectors is difficult to calculate exactly. The formula for the calculation of efficiency is the basis of such calculations. Due to evacuation and better insulation the heat loss of vacuum tube collectors is smaller than that of flatbed collectors. This is also evident in the fact that the efficiency curve decreases less steeply as the temperature difference increases. Efficiency remains relatively high. Up to now vacuum tube collectors have been a niche product but more and more companies now sell these efficient collectors.(orig.). [German] Wie stark sich die Leistung der Solaranlage verbessert, wenn man Vakuumroehrenkollektoren (VRK) statt Flachkollektoren einsetzt, laesst sich nur schwer berechnen. Grundlage ist stets die Wirkungsgradformel. Aufgrund der Evakuierung und dadurch besseren Isolierung weisen die VRK deutlich geringere Waermeverluste auf als Flachkollektoren. Dies drueckt sich auch dadurch aus, dass die Wirkungsgradkurve mit wachsender Temperaturdifferenz {delta}{theta} deutlich flacher abfaellt. Der Wirkungsgrad bleibt relativ hoch. Als Hightech-Produkt hatte der Vakuumroehrenkollektor bisher eine typische Marktnische besetzt. Doch immer mehr Anbieter entscheiden sich fuer die Vermarktung dieser leistungsfaehigen Kollektoren. (orig.)

  13. Visualizing One-Dimensional Electronic States and their Scattering in Semi-conducting Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beidenkopf, Haim; Reiner, Jonathan; Norris, Andrew; Nayak, Abhay Kumar; Avraham, Nurit; Shtrikman, Hadas

    One-dimensional electronic systems constitute a fascinating playground for the emergence of exotic electronic effects and phases, within and beyond the Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid paradigm. More recently topological superconductivity and Majorana modes were added to that long list of phenomena. We report scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy measurements conducted on pristine, epitaxialy grown InAs nanowires. We resolve the 1D electronic band structure manifested both via Van-Hove singularities in the local density-of-states, as well as by the quasi-particle interference patterns, induced by scattering from surface impurities. By studying the scattering of the one-dimensional electronic states off various scatterers, including crystallographic defects and the nanowire end, we identify new one-dimensional relaxation regimes and yet unexplored effects of interactions. Some of these may bear implications on the topological superconducting state and Majorana modes therein. The authors acknowledge support from the Israeli Science Foundation (ISF).

  14. A microwave-catalyzed rapid, efficient and ecofriendly synthesis of substituted pyrazol-5-ones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAHUL P. GAVANDE

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available A series of 1-(3,4-dihydro-3-oxo-2H-1,4-benzoxazine-2-carbonyl-3-methyl-4-(substituted phenylhydrazono-2-pyrazolin-5-ones have been synthesized by the reaction of 2H-3,4-dihydro-3-oxo-1,4-benzoxazine-2-carboxylic acid hydrazide with substituted acetoacetic ester derivatives using acetic acid as solvent under microwave irradiation (MWI, as well as by conventional methods. The reaction rate is enhanced tremendously and the yields are improved under MWI as compared to conventional methods.

  15. Rapidly solidified prealloyed powders by laser spin atomization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konitzer, D. G.; Walters, K. W.; Heiser, E. L.; Fraser, H. L.

    1984-01-01

    A new technique, termed laser spin atomization, for the production of rapidly solidified prealloyed powders is described. The results of experiments involving the production of powders of two alloys, one based on Ni, the other on Ti, are presented. The powders have been characterized using light optical metallography, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and Auger elec-tron spectroscopy, and these various observations are described.

  16. One-dimensional organic lead halide perovskites with efficient bluish white-light emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhao; Zhou, Chenkun; Tian, Yu; Shu, Yu; Messier, Joshua; Wang, Jamie C.; van de Burgt, Lambertus J.; Kountouriotis, Konstantinos; Xin, Yan; Holt, Ethan; Schanze, Kirk; Clark, Ronald; Siegrist, Theo; Ma, Biwu

    2017-01-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid metal halide perovskites, an emerging class of solution processable photoactive materials, welcome a new member with a one-dimensional structure. Herein we report the synthesis, crystal structure and photophysical properties of one-dimensional organic lead bromide perovskites, C4N2H14PbBr4, in which the edge sharing octahedral lead bromide chains [PbBr4 2-]∞ are surrounded by the organic cations C4N2H14 2+ to form the bulk assembly of core-shell quantum wires. This unique one-dimensional structure enables strong quantum confinement with the formation of self-trapped excited states that give efficient bluish white-light emissions with photoluminescence quantum efficiencies of approximately 20% for the bulk single crystals and 12% for the microscale crystals. This work verifies once again that one-dimensional systems are favourable for exciton self-trapping to produce highly efficient below-gap broadband luminescence, and opens up a new route towards superior light emitters based on bulk quantum materials.

  17. Magnetotransport in a quasi-one-dimensional electron system over superfluid helium

    CERN Document Server

    Nikolaenko, V A; Gladchenko, S P

    2002-01-01

    Magnetotransport in a nondegenerate quasi-one-dimensional electron system (Q1D) over superfluid helium is investigated experimentally. The experiments were carried out at perpendicular magnetic fields, B 0.9 K) and the electron-ripplon scattering (T 1(here omega sub c is the cyclotron frequency and t is the relaxation time of the electron system) agree qualitatively with the self-consistent Born approximation theory for a 2D electron system over helium. It is supposed that the quantitative discrepancies in the experimental and theoretical data are connected with different peculiar features of the investigated and analyzed electron systems. The experimental data on electron mobility at low temperatures and small magnetic fields coincide with the theoretical calculation made for the Q1D system. The negative magnetoresistance of the channels observed both in the electron-gas scattering and electron-ripplon scattering regions is supposed to be due to weak localization of carriers in the investigated electron syst...

  18. High-efficiency detector of secondary and backscattered electrons for low-dose imaging in the ESEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neděla, Vilém; Tihlaříková, Eva; Runštuk, Jiří; Hudec, Jiří

    2018-01-01

    A new Combined System for high-efficiency detection of Secondary and Backscattered Electrons (CSSBE) in the ESEM consists of three detectors: an ionisation SE detector, an improved scintillation BSE detector, and a new Ionisation Secondary Electron Detector with an electrostatic Separator (ISEDS). The ISEDS optimizes conditions for electron-gas ionisation phenomena in the ESEM to achieve a strongly amplified signal from the secondary electrons with a minimal contribution from backscattered and beam electrons. For this purpose, it is originally equipped with an electrostatic separator, which focuses signal electrons towards a detection electrode and controls the concentration of positive ions above the sample. The working principle of the ISEDS is explained by simulations of signal electron trajectories in gas using the EOD program with our Monte Carlo module. The ability to detect the signal electrons in a selected range of energies is described with Geant4 Monte Carlo simulations of electron-solid interactions and proven by experimental results. High-efficiency detection of the ISEDS is demonstrated by imaging a low atomic number sample under a reduced beam energy of 5 keV, very low beam currents of up to 0.2 pA, and gas pressure of hundreds of Pa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. General and efficient one-pot synthesis of novel sugar/heterocyclic(aryl) 1,2-diketones from sugar terminal alkynes by Sonogashira/tetra-n- butylammonium permanganate oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fuyi; Wu, Xiaopei; Wang, Liming; Liu, Hong; Zhao, Yufen

    2015-11-19

    A new approach for one-pot synthesis of novel sugar/heterocyclic(aryl) 1,2-diketones has been achieved by the reaction of various sugar terminal alkynes with heterocyclic(aryl) iodides at room temperature. This one-pot protocol includes Sonogashira coupling and mild n-Bu4NMnO4 oxidation reaction. This method is mild, general and efficient. Fifty-six examples have been given and the sugar/heterocyclic(aryl) 1,2-diketones were obtained in 71-94% yields. The sugar terminal alkynes include 9 structurally different sugars in pyranose, furanose, and acyclic form which have various protecting groups, sensitive groups, and sterically bulky substituents. The heterocyclic(aryl) iodides include sterically bulky heterocyclic compounds and iodobenzenes with electron-donating, electron-neutral, and electron-withdrawing substituents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Theory of the one- and two-dimensional electron gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, V.J.

    1987-01-01

    Two topics are discussed: (1) the competition between 2k/sub F/ and 4k/sub F/ charge state waves in a one-dimensional electron gas and (2) a two-dimensional model of high T/sub c/ superconductivity in the oxides

  1. The Technical Efficiency of Earthquake Medical Rapid Response Teams Following Disasters: The Case of the 2010 Yushu Earthquake in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Tang, Bihan; Yang, Hongyang; Liu, Yuan; Xue, Chen; Zhang, Lulu

    2015-12-04

    Performance assessments of earthquake medical rapid response teams (EMRRTs), particularly the first responders deployed to the hardest hit areas following major earthquakes, should consider efficient and effective use of resources. This study assesses the daily technical efficiency of EMRRTs in the emergency period immediately following the 2010 Yushu earthquake in China. Data on EMRRTs were obtained from official daily reports of the general headquarters for Yushu earthquake relief, the emergency office of the National Ministry of Health, and the Health Department of Qinghai Province, for a sample of data on 15 EMRRTs over 62 days. Data envelopment analysis was used to examine the technical efficiency in a constant returns to scale model, a variable returns to scale model, and the scale efficiency of EMRRTs. Tobit regression was applied to analyze the effects of corresponding influencing factors. The average technical efficiency scores under constant returns to scale, variable returns to scale, and the scale efficiency scores of the 62 units of analysis were 77.95%, 89.00%, and 87.47%, respectively. The staff-to-bed ratio was significantly related to global technical efficiency. The date of rescue was significantly related to pure technical efficiency. The type of institution to which an EMRRT belonged and the staff-to-bed ratio were significantly related to scale efficiency. This study provides evidence that supports improvements to EMRRT efficiency and serves as a reference for earthquake emergency medical rapid assistance leaders and teams.

  2. The Technical Efficiency of Earthquake Medical Rapid Response Teams Following Disasters: The Case of the 2010 Yushu Earthquake in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Performance assessments of earthquake medical rapid response teams (EMRRTs, particularly the first responders deployed to the hardest hit areas following major earthquakes, should consider efficient and effective use of resources. This study assesses the daily technical efficiency of EMRRTs in the emergency period immediately following the 2010 Yushu earthquake in China. Methods: Data on EMRRTs were obtained from official daily reports of the general headquarters for Yushu earthquake relief, the emergency office of the National Ministry of Health, and the Health Department of Qinghai Province, for a sample of data on 15 EMRRTs over 62 days. Data envelopment analysis was used to examine the technical efficiency in a constant returns to scale model, a variable returns to scale model, and the scale efficiency of EMRRTs. Tobit regression was applied to analyze the effects of corresponding influencing factors. Results: The average technical efficiency scores under constant returns to scale, variable returns to scale, and the scale efficiency scores of the 62 units of analysis were 77.95%, 89.00%, and 87.47%, respectively. The staff-to-bed ratio was significantly related to global technical efficiency. The date of rescue was significantly related to pure technical efficiency. The type of institution to which an EMRRT belonged and the staff-to-bed ratio were significantly related to scale efficiency. Conclusions: This study provides evidence that supports improvements to EMRRT efficiency and serves as a reference for earthquake emergency medical rapid assistance leaders and teams.

  3. Beam energy distribution influences on density modulation efficiency in seeded free-electron lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanglei Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The beam energy spread at the entrance of an undulator system is of paramount importance for efficient density modulation in high-gain seeded free-electron lasers (FELs. In this paper, the dependences of high harmonic bunching efficiency in high-gain harmonic generation (HGHG, echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG and phase-merging enhanced harmonic generation (PEHG schemes on the electron beam energy spread distribution are studied. Theoretical investigations and multidimensional numerical simulations are applied to the cases of uniform and saddle beam energy distributions and compared to a traditional Gaussian distribution. It shows that the uniform and saddle electron energy distributions significantly enhance the bunching performance of HGHG FELs, while they almost have no influence on EEHG and PEHG schemes. A further start-to-end simulation example demonstrated that, with the saddle distribution of sliced beam energy spread controlled by a laser heater, the 30th harmonic can be directly generated by a single-stage HGHG scheme for a soft x-ray FEL facility.

  4. Physical mechanism causing rapid changes in ultrarelativistic electron pitch angle distributions right after a shock arrival: Evaluation of an electron dropout event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.-J.; Li, W.; Thorne, R. M.; Angelopoulos, V.; Ma, Q.; Li, J.; Bortnik, J.; Nishimura, Y.; Chen, L.; Baker, D. N.; Reeves, G. D.; Spence, H. E.; Kletzing, C. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Blake, J. B.; Fennell, J. F.

    2016-09-01

    Three mechanisms have been proposed to explain relativistic electron flux depletions (dropouts) in the Earth's outer radiation belt during storm times: adiabatic expansion of electron drift shells due to a decrease in magnetic field strength, magnetopause shadowing and subsequent outward radial diffusion, and precipitation into the atmosphere (driven by EMIC wave scattering). Which mechanism predominates in causing electron dropouts commonly observed in the outer radiation belt is still debatable. In the present study, we evaluate the physical mechanism that may be primarily responsible for causing the sudden change in relativistic electron pitch angle distributions during a dropout event observed by Van Allen Probes during the main phase of the 27 February 2014 storm. During this event, the phase space density of ultrarelativistic (>1 MeV) electrons was depleted by more than 1 order of magnitude over the entire radial extent of the outer radiation belt (3 pitch angle distribution under a compressed magnetic field topology based on actual solar wind conditions. Although these ultrarelativistic electrons exhibit highly anisotropic (peaked in 90°), energy-dependent pitch angle distributions, which appear to be associated with the typical EMIC wave scattering, comparison of the modeled electron distribution to electron measurements indicates that drift shell splitting is responsible for this rapid change in electron pitch angle distributions. This further indicates that magnetopause loss is the predominant cause of the electron dropout right after the shock arrival.

  5. Magnetotransport in a quasi-one-dimensional electron system over superfluid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaenko, V.A.; Kovdrya, Yu.Z.; Gladchenko, S.P.

    2002-01-01

    Magnetotransport in a nondegenerate quasi-one-dimensional electron system (Q1D) over superfluid helium is investigated experimentally. The experiments were carried out at perpendicular magnetic fields, B xx of the conducting channels mainly grows with increasing B for both the electron-gas atom scattering (T > 0.9 K) and the electron-ripplon scattering (T c τ>1(here ω c is the cyclotron frequency and t is the relaxation time of the electron system) agree qualitatively with the self-consistent Born approximation theory for a 2D electron system over helium. It is supposed that the quantitative discrepancies in the experimental and theoretical data are connected with different peculiar features of the investigated and analyzed electron systems. The experimental data on electron mobility at low temperatures and small magnetic fields coincide with the theoretical calculation made for the Q1D system. The negative magnetoresistance of the channels observed both in the electron-gas scattering and electron-ripplon scattering regions is supposed to be due to weak localization of carriers in the investigated electron system

  6. Enhanced Photocurrent Efficiency of a Carbon Nanotube Embedded in a Photonic Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Bryan M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Materials Science

    2008-08-01

    One of the most rapidly-growing areas in nanoscience is the ability to artificially manipulate optical and electrical properties at the nanoscale. In particular, nanomaterials such as single-wall carbon nanotubes offer enhanced methods for converting infrared light to electrical energy due to their unique one-dimensional electronic properties. However, in order for this energy conversion to occur, a realistic nanotube device would require high-intensity light to be confined on a nanometer scale. This arises from the fact that the diameter of a single nanotube is on the order of a nanometer, and infrared light from an external source must be tightly focused on the narrow nanotube for efficient energy conversion. To address this problem, I calculate the theoretical photocurrent of a nanotube p-n junction illuminated by a highly-efficient photonic structure. These results demonstrate the utility of using a photonic structure to couple large-scale infrared sources with carbon nanotubes while still retaining all the unique optoelectronic properties found at the nanoscale.

  7. Electron Emission from Ultra-Large Area MOS Electron Emitters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lasse Bjørchmar; Nielsen, Gunver; Vendelbo, Søren Bastholm

    2009-01-01

    Ultralarge metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices with an active oxide area of 1 cm2 have been fabricated for use as electron emitters. The MOS structures consist of a Si substrate, a SiO2 tunnel barrier (~5 nm), a Ti wetting layer (3–10 Å), and a Au top layer (5–60 nm). Electron emission from...... layer is varied from 3 to 10 Å which changes the emission efficiency by more than one order of magnitude. The apparent mean free path of ~5 eV electrons in Au is found to be 52 Å. Deposition of Cs on the Au film increased the electron emission efficiency to 4.3% at 4 V by lowering the work function....... Electron emission under high pressures (up to 2 bars) of Ar was observed. ©2009 American Vacuum Society...

  8. Design of an efficient photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cells using electrospun one-dimensional GO/N-doped nanocomposite SnO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, Ibrahim M.A. [Department of Bionanosystem Engineering, Graduate School, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Sohag University, Sohag 82524 (Egypt); Dao, Van-Duong [Department of Chemical Engineering & Applied Chemistry, Chungnam National University, 220 Gung-Dong, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon, 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Yasin, Ahmed S. [Department of Bionanosystem Engineering, Graduate School, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Barakat, Nasser A.M., E-mail: nasser@jbnu.ac.kr [Department of Bionanosystem Engineering, Graduate School, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Minia University, El-Minia (Egypt); Choi, Ho-Suk [Department of Chemical Engineering & Applied Chemistry, Chungnam National University, 220 Gung-Dong, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon, 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • GO &N@SnO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} NFs are synthesized via facile two steps. • The novel NFs photoanode exhibit high dye-loading ability; 2.164 × 10{sup −7} mol/cm{sup 2}. • Prolonged electron lifetime (20.09 ms) is due to reduced charge recombination. • High power conversion efficiency was achieved; 6.18%. - Abstract: This study presents the combination of N, graphene oxide (GO) and SnO{sub 2} as efficient dopants into TiO{sub 2} nanofibers (NFs) photoanode substrate for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The developed NFs are synthesized by electrospinning and hydrothermal processes and characterized by FESEM, TEM, XPS, FT-IR, Raman and EDX-studies. The formation of short NFs is confirmed through FESEM and TEM measurements. As the results, the major crystal structure of TiO{sub 2} in the prepared NFs has anatase (85.23%) and rutile-structure (14.67%). XPS and EDX studies affirm that the material has Ti, O, Sn, N and C elements. In addition, FT-IR and Raman spectra give an indication about the GO-content. Typically, the DSC based on the novel NFs shows 6.18% efficiency. The J{sub sc}, V{sub oc}, FF and R{sub ct} are estimated and found to be 10.32 mA cm{sup −2}, 0.825 V, 0.73 and 21.66 Ω, respectively. The high-power efficiency is contributed by three reasons. The first one is the high dye-loading (2.16 × 10{sup −7} mol cm{sup −2}). The second reason is the enhanced charge transfer and decreasing of the electrons/holes recombination through formation of wide band-gap oxide (3.246 eV). Finally, the third one is GO-doping which may create new routes for the electron transfer in working electrode layer.

  9. Detection efficiency for radionuclides decaying by electron capture and gamma-Ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau, A.; Fernandez, A.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper, the electron capture partial counting efficiency vs the figure of merit for electron-capture and gamma-ray emitters has been computed. The radionuclides tabulated are 48 c r, 54 M n, 57 C o 56 N i, 72 S e, 73 A s, 85 S r, 88 Z r, 92 N b, 103 P d, 111 l n, 119 S b, 125 I , 139 C e and 152 D y. It has been assumed that the liquid is a toluene based scintillator solution in standard glass vials containing 15 cm 3 . (Author) 17 refs

  10. Variations in land surface temperature and cooling efficiency of green space in rapid urbanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Zhaowu; Guo, Xieying; Zeng, Yuxi

    2018-01-01

    understood. Additionally, a strategy to optimize the most significant decreased land cover type in order to maximize the cooling effect is still lacking. Therefore, in this study, we selected the rapidly urbanizing and ‘hottest’ city in China, Fuzhou, as a case study. Two algorithms were selected to compare....... This study extends the current understanding of LCC dynamics and LST variation. The concepts of the CE and TVoE are meaningful for landscape planning practice and can be used in other cases....... and obtain reliable LST data. A land use transfer matrix was used to detect critical contributions leading to the LST variations. The concept of cooling efficiency (CE) and the threshold value of efficiency (TVoE) are also proposed, defined, and calculated. The results show that LST values increased...

  11. Rapid and efficient synthesis of soluble graphene nanosheets using N-methyl-p-aminophenol sulfate as a reducing agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xialie; Wen Xiaohong; Liu Zhanpeng; Tan Yi; Yuan Ye; Zhang Ping

    2012-01-01

    Mass production of soluble graphene still remains a challenge, although several methodologies have been proposed. Here we report a rapid and efficient method for the synthesis of soluble graphene nanosheets (GNSs) with long-term dispersion stability in both aqueous and common organic solvents. Within only 12 min at 95 °C, exfoliated graphite oxide in ammonia solution (pH 10) was reduced to soluble GNSs using N-methyl-p-aminophenol sulfate (metol) as a reducing agent without external stabilizers. The prepared GNSs were characterized by different techniques and a comparison of metol and hydrazine hydrate as reducing agents was made. The results indicated that, with the advantages of being rapid, efficient, inexpensive and relatively environmentally friendly, the reduction of graphite oxide into soluble GNSs by metol is a promising substitute for hydrazine hydrate in the mass production of soluble GNSs. (paper)

  12. Resolving Rapid Variation in Energy for Particle Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haut, Terry Scot [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Computer, Computational, and Statistical Sciences Division; Ahrens, Cory Douglas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Computer, Computational, and Statistical Sciences Division; Jonko, Alexandra [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Computer, Computational, and Statistical Sciences Division; Till, Andrew Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Computer, Computational, and Statistical Sciences Division; Lowrie, Robert Byron [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Computer, Computational, and Statistical Sciences Division

    2016-08-23

    Resolving the rapid variation in energy in neutron and thermal radiation transport is needed for the predictive simulation capability in high-energy density physics applications. Energy variation is difficult to resolve due to rapid variations in cross sections and opacities caused by quantized energy levels in the nuclei and electron clouds. In recent work, we have developed a new technique to simultaneously capture slow and rapid variations in the opacities and the solution using homogenization theory, which is similar to multiband (MB) and to the finite-element with discontiguous support (FEDS) method, but does not require closure information. We demonstrated the accuracy and efficiency of the method for a variety of problems. We are researching how to extend the method to problems with multiple materials and the same material but with different temperatures and densities. In this highlight, we briefly describe homogenization theory and some results.

  13. A simple analytical model for electronic conductance in a one dimensional atomic chain across a defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khater, Antoine; Szczesniak, Dominik

    2011-01-01

    An analytical model is presented for the electronic conductance in a one dimensional atomic chain across an isolated defect. The model system consists of two semi infinite lead atomic chains with the defect atom making the junction between the two leads. The calculation is based on a linear combination of atomic orbitals in the tight-binding approximation, with a single atomic one s-like orbital chosen in the present case. The matching method is used to derive analytical expressions for the scattering cross sections for the reflection and transmission processes across the defect, in the Landauer-Buttiker representation. These analytical results verify the known limits for an infinite atomic chain with no defects. The model can be applied numerically for one dimensional atomic systems supported by appropriate templates. It is also of interest since it would help establish efficient procedures for ensemble averages over a field of impurity configurations in real physical systems.

  14. Parameter-free one-center model potential for an effective one-electron description of molecular hydrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lühr, Armin Christian; Vanne, Yulian; Saenz, Alejandro

    2008-01-01

    For the description of an H2 molecule, an effective one-electron model potential is proposed which is fully determined by the exact ionization potential of the H2 molecule. In order to test the model potential and examine its properties, it is employed to determine excitation energies, transition...

  15. Efficiency enhancement of a harmonic lasing free-electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salehi, E.; Maraghechi, B.; Mirian, N. S.

    2015-01-01

    The harmonic lasing free-electron laser amplifier, in which two wigglers is employed in order for the fundamental resonance of the second wiggler to coincide with the third harmonic of the first wiggler to generate ultraviolet radiation, is studied. A set of coupled nonlinear first-order differential equations describing the nonlinear evolution of the system, for a long electron bunch, is solved numerically by CYRUS code. Solutions for the non-averaged and averaged equations are compared. Remarkable agreement is found between the averaged and non-averaged simulations for the evolution of the third harmonic. Thermal effects in the form of longitudinal velocity spread are also investigated. For efficiency enhancement, the second wiggler field is set to decrease linearly and nonlinearly at the point where the radiation of the third harmonic saturates. The optimum starting point and the slope of the tapering of the amplitude of the wiggler are found by a successive run of the code. It is found that tapering can increase the saturated power of the third harmonic considerably. In order to reduce the length of the wiggler, the prebunched electron beam is considered

  16. Efficiency enhancement of a harmonic lasing free-electron laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, E.; Maraghechi, B.; Mirian, N. S.

    2015-03-01

    The harmonic lasing free-electron laser amplifier, in which two wigglers is employed in order for the fundamental resonance of the second wiggler to coincide with the third harmonic of the first wiggler to generate ultraviolet radiation, is studied. A set of coupled nonlinear first-order differential equations describing the nonlinear evolution of the system, for a long electron bunch, is solved numerically by CYRUS code. Solutions for the non-averaged and averaged equations are compared. Remarkable agreement is found between the averaged and non-averaged simulations for the evolution of the third harmonic. Thermal effects in the form of longitudinal velocity spread are also investigated. For efficiency enhancement, the second wiggler field is set to decrease linearly and nonlinearly at the point where the radiation of the third harmonic saturates. The optimum starting point and the slope of the tapering of the amplitude of the wiggler are found by a successive run of the code. It is found that tapering can increase the saturated power of the third harmonic considerably. In order to reduce the length of the wiggler, the prebunched electron beam is considered.

  17. Efficiency enhancement of a harmonic lasing free-electron laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salehi, E.; Maraghechi, B., E-mail: behrouz@aut.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, 15875-4413 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mirian, N. S. [School of Particle and Accelerator Physics, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), 19395-5531 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    The harmonic lasing free-electron laser amplifier, in which two wigglers is employed in order for the fundamental resonance of the second wiggler to coincide with the third harmonic of the first wiggler to generate ultraviolet radiation, is studied. A set of coupled nonlinear first-order differential equations describing the nonlinear evolution of the system, for a long electron bunch, is solved numerically by CYRUS code. Solutions for the non-averaged and averaged equations are compared. Remarkable agreement is found between the averaged and non-averaged simulations for the evolution of the third harmonic. Thermal effects in the form of longitudinal velocity spread are also investigated. For efficiency enhancement, the second wiggler field is set to decrease linearly and nonlinearly at the point where the radiation of the third harmonic saturates. The optimum starting point and the slope of the tapering of the amplitude of the wiggler are found by a successive run of the code. It is found that tapering can increase the saturated power of the third harmonic considerably. In order to reduce the length of the wiggler, the prebunched electron beam is considered.

  18. Ferrocene-Functionalized Graphene Oxide Nanosheets: Efficient Electronic Communication between Ferrocene Centers across Graphene Nanosheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Yizhong; Jiang, Yuanyuan; Wu, Haibin; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets functionalized with ferrocenyl moieties (GO-Fc) are fabricated. • GO-Fc shows efficient electronic communication between ferrocene centers. • GO-Fc exhibits two pairs of voltammetric peaks with a large potential spacing of 0.515 V. • GO-Fc shows a broad absorption peak in the near-infrared range (∼ 1428 nm) at mixed valence. - Abstract: Graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets functionalized with ferrocenyl moieties (GO-Fc) were fabricated through strong covalent C−C bonds. The resulting hybrid showed efficient electronic communication between ferrocene centers due to the strong electron delocalization facilitated by the large pi-pi conjugated structure of graphene sheets. The obtained hybrid exhibited two pairs of voltammetric peaks with a large potential spacing of 0.515 V and a broad absorption peak in the near-infrared range (∼ 1428 nm) at mixed valence. The electrochemical and near IR spectroscopic features suggested a Class II/III behavior of the intervalence charge transfer. This work indicates clearly that strong electronic coupling between ferrocene centers can be easily realized across graphene nanosheets with sp 2 -hybridized carbon

  19. One-dimensional versus two-dimensional electronic states in vicinal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega, J E; Ruiz-Oses, M; Cordon, J; Mugarza, A; Kuntze, J; Schiller, F

    2005-01-01

    Vicinal surfaces with periodic arrays of steps are among the simplest lateral nanostructures. In particular, noble metal surfaces vicinal to the (1 1 1) plane are excellent test systems to explore the basic electronic properties in one-dimensional superlattices by means of angular photoemission. These surfaces are characterized by strong emissions from free-electron-like surface states that scatter at step edges. Thereby, the two-dimensional surface state displays superlattice band folding and, depending on the step lattice constant d, it splits into one-dimensional quantum well levels. Here we use high-resolution, angle-resolved photoemission to analyse surface states in a variety of samples, in trying to illustrate the changes in surface state bands as a function of d

  20. Highly efficient dual cocatalyst-modified TiO2 photocatalyst: RGO as electron-transfer mediator and MoSx as H2-evolution active site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ying; Li, Yongan; Wang, Ping; Wang, Xuefei; Yu, Huogen

    2018-02-01

    The rapid interfacial charge transfer and interfacial catalytic reaction are highly desirable to improve the photocatalytic H2-evolution performance of semiconductor photocatalysts. To achieve the goal, in the paper, MoSx-rGO/TiO2 was synthesized by a facilely two-step photocatalytic reduction approach including reducing GO/TiO2 to rGO/TiO2 and then reducing ammonium tetrathiomolybdate ((NH4)2MoS4) to form amorphous MoSx on the rGO surface. In the case, the rGO nanosheets as an electron mediator caused rapid transportation of photogenerated electrons from the conduction band (CB) of TiO2, while amorphous MoSx served as an effective active site for the following interfacial reduction reaction for H2 evolution. The photocatalytic results indicated that the H2-evolution rate of synthesized MoSx-rGO/TiO2 was 206.6 μmol h-1, which was obviously higher than that of TiO2 (6.9 μmol h-1), rGO/TiO2 (31.8 μmol h-1) and MoSx/TiO2 (150.1 μmol h-1) due to the rapid interfacial charge transfer and interfacial catalytic reaction. Considering the present mild and green approach, the obtained MoSx-rGO/TiO2 could be regarded as a potential photocatalyst for the practical application. In addition, this work also could provide some new insights for the smart design and preparation of inexpensive and high-efficiency photocatalytic materials.

  1. Optimisation of pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) for rapid and efficient extraction of superficial and total mineral oil contamination from dry foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moret, Sabrina; Scolaro, Marianna; Barp, Laura; Purcaro, Giorgia; Sander, Maren; Conte, Lanfranco S

    2014-08-15

    Pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) represents a powerful technique which can be conveniently used for rapid extraction of mineral oil saturated (MOSH) and aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH) from dry foods with a low fat content, such as semolina pasta, rice, and other cereals. Two different PLE methods, one for rapid determination of superficial contamination mainly from the packaging, the other for efficient extraction of total contamination from different sources, have been developed and optimised. The two methods presented good performance characteristics in terms of repeatability (relative standard deviation lower than 5%) and recoveries (higher than 95%). To show their potentiality, the two methods have been applied in combination on semolina pasta and rice packaged in direct contact with recycled cardboard. In the case of semolina pasta it was possible to discriminate between superficial contamination coming from the packaging, and pre-existing contamination (firmly enclosed into the matrix). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Efficient and color-saturated inverted bottom-emitting organic light-emitting devices with a semi-transparent metal-assisted electron injection layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Meng-Huan, E-mail: kinneas.ac94g@nctu.edu.t [Department of Applied Chemistry, National Chiao Tung University, 210 R, CPT Building, 1001 Ta Hsueh Road, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Wu, Chang-Yen [Department of Photonics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Chen, Teng-Ming [Department of Applied Chemistry, National Chiao Tung University, 210 R, CPT Building, 1001 Ta Hsueh Road, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chin H. [Display Institute, Microelectronics and Information Systems Research Center, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)

    2011-01-15

    We report the development of highly efficient and color-saturated green fluorescent 10-(2-benzothiazolyl)-1,1,7,7-tetramethyl-2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-1H,5H, 11H-benzo[l]pyrano-[6,7,8-ij]quinolizin-11-one dye-doped inverted bottom-emitting organic light-emitting diode (IBOLED). This was enabled by the insertion of a silver (Ag) based semi-transparent metal-assisted electron injection layer between the ITO cathode and n-doped electron transporting layer. This IBOLED with ITO/Ag bilayer cathode with its synergistic microcavity effect achieved luminous efficiencies of 20.7 cd/A and 12.4 lm/W and a saturated CIE{sub x,y} of (0.22, 0.72) at 20 mA/cm{sup 2}, which are twice better than those of the conventional OLED and have over 60% improvement on IBOLED without ITO/Ag bilayer cathode.

  3. Non-linear effects and thermoelectric efficiency of quantum dot-based single-electron transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbo, Vincent; Saint-Martin, Jérôme; Retailleau, Sylvie; Dollfus, Philippe

    2017-11-01

    By means of advanced numerical simulation, the thermoelectric properties of a Si-quantum dot-based single-electron transistor operating in sequential tunneling regime are investigated in terms of figure of merit, efficiency and power. By taking into account the phonon-induced collisional broadening of energy levels in the quantum dot, both heat and electrical currents are computed in a voltage range beyond the linear response. Using our homemade code consisting in a 3D Poisson-Schrödinger solver and the resolution of the Master equation, the Seebeck coefficient at low bias voltage appears to be material independent and nearly independent on the level broadening, which makes this device promising for metrology applications as a nanoscale standard of Seebeck coefficient. Besides, at higher voltage bias, the non-linear characteristics of the heat current are shown to be related to the multi-level effects. Finally, when considering only the electronic contribution to the thermal conductance, the single-electron transistor operating in generator regime is shown to exhibit very good efficiency at maximum power.

  4. Rapid isolation of gene homologs across taxa: Efficient identification and isolation of gene orthologs from non-model organism genomes, a technical report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heffer Alison

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tremendous progress has been made in the field of evo-devo through comparisons of related genes from diverse taxa. While the vast number of species in nature precludes a complete analysis of the molecular evolution of even one single gene family, this would not be necessary to understand fundamental mechanisms underlying gene evolution if experiments could be designed to systematically sample representative points along the path of established phylogenies to trace changes in regulatory and coding gene sequence. This isolation of homologous genes from phylogenetically diverse, representative species can be challenging, especially if the gene is under weak selective pressure and evolving rapidly. Results Here we present an approach - Rapid Isolation of Gene Homologs across Taxa (RIGHT - to efficiently isolate specific members of gene families. RIGHT is based upon modification and a combination of degenerate polymerase chain reaction (PCR and gene-specific amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP. It allows targeted isolation of specific gene family members from any organism, only requiring genomic DNA. We describe this approach and how we used it to isolate members of several different gene families from diverse arthropods spanning millions of years of evolution. Conclusions RIGHT facilitates systematic isolation of one gene from large gene families. It allows for efficient gene isolation without whole genome sequencing, RNA extraction, or culturing of non-model organisms. RIGHT will be a generally useful method for isolation of orthologs from both distant and closely related species, increasing sample size and facilitating the tracking of molecular evolution of gene families and regulatory networks across the tree of life.

  5. Diffraction efficiency of plasmonic gratings fabricated by electron beam lithography using a silver halide film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudheer,, E-mail: sudheer@rrcat.gov.in, E-mail: sudheer.rrcat@gmail.com; Tiwari, P.; Srivastava, Himanshu; Rai, V. N.; Srivastava, A. K.; Naik, P. A. [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400094 (India); Indus Synchrotrons Utilization Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore, Madhya Pradesh 452013 (India); Porwal, S. [Solid State Lasers Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore, Madhya Pradesh 452013 (India); Bhartiya, S. [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400094 (India); Laser Materials Development and Device Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore, Madhya Pradesh 452013 (India); Rao, B. T. [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400094 (India); Laser Materials Processing Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore, Madhya Pradesh 452013 (India); Sharma, T. K. [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400094 (India); Solid State Lasers Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore, Madhya Pradesh 452013 (India)

    2016-07-28

    The silver nanoparticle surface relief gratings of ∼10 μm period are fabricated using electron beam lithography on the silver halide film substrate. Morphological characterization of the gratings shows that the period, the shape, and the relief depth in the gratings are mainly dependent on the number of lines per frame, the spot size, and the accelerating voltage of electron beam raster in the SEM. Optical absorption of the silver nanoparticle gratings provides a broad localized surface plasmon resonance peak in the visible region, whereas the intensity of the peaks depends on the number density of silver nanoparticles in the gratings. The maximum efficiency of ∼7.2% for first order diffraction is observed for the grating fabricated at 15 keV. The efficiency is peaking at 560 nm with ∼380 nm bandwidth. The measured profiles of the diffraction efficiency for the gratings are found in close agreement with the Raman-Nath diffraction theory. This technique provides a simple and efficient method for the fabrication of plasmonic nanoparticle grating structures with high diffraction efficiency having broad wavelength tuning.

  6. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy of quasi-one-dimensional cuprates and vanadates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atzkern, S.

    2001-01-01

    In a combination of experimental and theoretical methods in this thesis the electronic structures of quasi-one-dimensional cuprates and vanadates were studied. For this the momentum-dependent loss function was measured by means of the electron energy-loss spectroscopy in transmission on monocrystals of Li 2 CuO 2 , CuGeO 3 , V 2 O 5 and α'-NaVO 5 . The comparison of the experimental data with results from band-structure and cluster calculations allowed conclusions on the mobility and correlations of the electrons in these systems

  7. Electronic structure of the quasi-one-dimensional organic conductor TTF-TCNQ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sing, M.; Schwingenschlögl, U.; Claessen, R.

    2003-01-01

    We study the electronic structure of the quasi-one-dimensional organic conductor TTF-TCNQ by means of density-functional band theory, Hubbard model calculations, and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES). The experimental spectra reveal significant quantitative and qualitative......-dimensional Hubbard model for the low-energy spectral behavior is attributed to interchain coupling and the additional effect of electron-phonon interaction....

  8. One-step rapid synthesis of ultrafine γ-Ga2O3 nanocrystals by microwave hydrothermal method in ammonium hydroxide medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lu; Wang, Hong; Xin, Baifu; Mao, Guijie

    2017-10-01

    Ultrafine nanocrystals of γ-gallium oxide (γ-Ga2O3) were rapidly synthesized via microwave hydrothermal method at 140 °C, in which Ga(NO3)3 was used as the gallium source and urea was the precipitant. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-Vis), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nitrogen physisorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). The crystallite size of ultrafine spinel γ-Ga2O3 was in the range from 4 to 5 nm and the optical bandgap was 4.61 eV. To improve the crystallinity, the ultrafine γ-Ga2O3 nanocrystals were calcined at 300-700 °C further. The ultrafine γ-Ga2O3 calcined at 500 °C (calcined-γ-Ga2O3) still remained the metastable γ-phase with relatively high crystallinity and the crystallite size around 5-7 nm. Photocatalytic performances of the synthesized samples were also evaluated by the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB). Results revealed that the ultrafine γ-Ga2O3 and the calcined-γ-Ga2O3 samples exhibited high photocatalytic efficiencies of 68.2 and 90.7%, respectively.

  9. To what extent can charge localization influence electron injection efficiency at graphene-porphyrin interfaces?

    KAUST Repository

    Parida, Manas R.

    2015-04-28

    Controlling the electron transfer process at donor- acceptor interfaces is a research direction that has not yet seen much progress. Here, with careful control of the charge localization on the porphyrin macrocycle using β -Cyclodextrin as an external cage, we are able to improve the electron injection efficiency from cationic porphyrin to graphene carboxylate by 120% . The detailed reaction mechanism is also discussed.

  10. The Investigation of Electron Beam Catalytical Oxidation Process Efficiency with Potassium Persulfate in Removal Humic Acid from Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MT Ghaneian

    2015-05-01

    Results: Based on the results, changes in pH had little effect on the Humic acid removal efficiency. The average, with increasing of pH from 4 to 10, the removal efficiency of humic acid from 72.59% to 73.36% increased, respectively. The results showed that increasing of the dose from 1 to 15 kGy, humic acid removal efficiency increases. Based on results by increasing of persulfate concentration, the removal efficiency increased so that with increasing of concentration of potassium persulfate from 0.1 to 0.5 mmol/100cc, removal efficiency from 69.43% to 83.82% was increased. Kinetic experiments showed that the decomposition of humic acid by electron beam radiation followed the second-order kinetic. Conclusion: The data from this study showed that the aqueous solution containing acid Humic is decomposed effectively by electron beams irradiation. Addition of potassium persulfate can be have significant improvements in removal efficiency of humic acid in the presence of electron beam.

  11. Pyridine substituted spirofluorene derivative as an electron transport material for high efficiency in blue organic light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Soon Ok; Yook, Kyoung Soo; Lee, Jun Yeob, E-mail: leej17@dankook.ac.k

    2010-11-01

    The quantum efficiency of blue fluorescent organic light-emitting diodes was enhanced by 20% using a pyridine substituted spirofluorene-benzofluorene derivative as an electron transport material. 2',7'-Di(pyridin-3-yl)spiro[benzofluorene-7,9'-fluorene] (SPBP) was synthesized and it was used as the electron transport material to block the hole leakage from the emitting layer. The improvement of the quantum efficiency and power efficiency of the blue fluorescent organic light-emitting diodes using the SPBP was investigated.

  12. Coherent electron cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinenko,V.

    2009-05-04

    Cooling intense high-energy hadron beams remains a major challenge in modern accelerator physics. Synchrotron radiation is still too feeble, while the efficiency of two other cooling methods, stochastic and electron, falls rapidly either at high bunch intensities (i.e. stochastic of protons) or at high energies (e-cooling). In this talk a specific scheme of a unique cooling technique, Coherent Electron Cooling, will be discussed. The idea of coherent electron cooling using electron beam instabilities was suggested by Derbenev in the early 1980s, but the scheme presented in this talk, with cooling times under an hour for 7 TeV protons in the LHC, would be possible only with present-day accelerator technology. This talk will discuss the principles and the main limitations of the Coherent Electron Cooling process. The talk will describe the main system components, based on a high-gain free electron laser driven by an energy recovery linac, and will present some numerical examples for ions and protons in RHIC and the LHC and for electron-hadron options for these colliders. BNL plans a demonstration of the idea in the near future.

  13. One electron transfer equilibria and redox potentials of radicals studies by pulse radiolysis. Progress report, September 1, 1975--July 1, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meisel, D.; Czapski, G.

    1976-01-01

    The pulse radiolysis technique is utilized for measurements of the equilibrium constants for electron transfer between the durosemiquinone radical anion and oxygen, menadione and indigo disulfonate. These equilibrium constants are in turn used for calculations of one-electron redox potentials for these systems. Each of these equilibrium constants was determined experimentally and independently and found to be self consistent. Only for the reactions of the semiquinones with oxygen could the electron transfer reaction be followed directly. For the reactions between the various quinone/semiquinone systems substantial indirect evidence is presented that these equilibria are achieved rapidly. In those cases equilibrium constants were determined from studies of the effect of quinone concentrations on the relative yields of the semiquinones. A method for distinguishing between kinetic competition and equilibrium is outlined and its usefulness is emphasized. The DQ/DQ - (DQ = duroquinone) and IDS/IDS - (IDS = indigo disulfonate) systems were employed as reference couples as the redox potentials for those systems are either available in the literature (IDS/IDS - ) or may be calculated from available data (DQ/DQ - ). Taking E 7 1 , the redox potential for the first one-electron reduction step at pH 7, of DQ/DQ - as -0.235 volts or of IDS/IDS - as -0.125 volts, both yield E 7 1 = -0.325 V for the O 2 /O 2 - system (1 atm O 2 ) and E 7 1 = -0.20 for the menadione system

  14. Efficient and Flexible Computation of Many-Electron Wave Function Overlaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasser, Felix; Ruckenbauer, Matthias; Mai, Sebastian; Oppel, Markus; Marquetand, Philipp; González, Leticia

    2016-03-08

    A new algorithm for the computation of the overlap between many-electron wave functions is described. This algorithm allows for the extensive use of recurring intermediates and thus provides high computational efficiency. Because of the general formalism employed, overlaps can be computed for varying wave function types, molecular orbitals, basis sets, and molecular geometries. This paves the way for efficiently computing nonadiabatic interaction terms for dynamics simulations. In addition, other application areas can be envisaged, such as the comparison of wave functions constructed at different levels of theory. Aside from explaining the algorithm and evaluating the performance, a detailed analysis of the numerical stability of wave function overlaps is carried out, and strategies for overcoming potential severe pitfalls due to displaced atoms and truncated wave functions are presented.

  15. Efficiency of a clinical prediction model for selective rapid testing in children with pharyngitis: A prospective, multicenter study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, Jérémie F.; Cohen, Robert; Bidet, Philippe; Elbez, Annie; Levy, Corinne; Bossuyt, Patrick M.; Chalumeau, Martin

    2017-01-01

    There is controversy whether physicians can rely on signs and symptoms to select children with pharyngitis who should undergo a rapid antigen detection test (RADT) for group A streptococcus (GAS). Our objective was to evaluate the efficiency of signs and symptoms in selectively testing children with

  16. Electron identification in the CDF [Collider Detector at Fermilab] central calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proudfoot, J.

    1989-01-01

    Efficient identification of electrons both from W decay and QCD heavy flavour production has been achieved with the CDF Central Calorimeter, which is a lead -- scintillator plate calorimeter incorporating tower geometry. The fine calorimetry granularity (0.1 /times/ 0.26 in /eta/, /phi/ space) allows identification of electrons well within the typical jet cone and is wholly sufficient for the measurement of the isolation of electrons from W decay. With minor improvements, such a detector is a realistic option for electron identification in the central rapidity region at the SSC. 1 ref., 7 figs

  17. Rapid localized deactivation of self-assembled monolayers by propagation-controlled laser-induced plasma and its application to self-patterning of electronics and biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongsu; Kwon, Seung-Gab; Back, Seunghyun; Kang, Bongchul

    2018-03-01

    We present a novel laser-induced surface treatment process to rapidly control the spatial wettabilities of various functional solutions with submicron to micron resolutions. Ultrathin hydrophobic self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) that little absorb typical laser lights due to short penetration depth were selectively deactivated by instantaneous interaction with laser-induced metallic plasmas. The spatial region of the deactivated SAM, which corresponds to process resolution, is adjustable by controlling the spatial propagation of the plasma. This method leads to the parallel formation of hydrophilic functional solutions on glass substrates with a minimum resolution on the submicron scale. To show its feasibility in device engineering fields, this method was applied to the cost-effective fabrication of electronics and biosensors. Rapid self-patterning of electronic and biological functional solutions (silver nanoparticle solution and streptavidin protein solution) was successfully realized by selective deactivation of two different SAMs (tridecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetrahydrooctyltrichlorosilane (FOTS) for electronics and the hetero-hybrid SAM (octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS)/2-[methoxy(polyethyleneoxy)propyl] trichlorosilane (PEG)) for biosensors). As a result, this method can be exploited for the rapid and low-cost fabrication of various thin film devices such as electronics, biosensors, energy, displays, and photonics.

  18. COMPUTATIONAL ELECTROCHEMISTRY: AQUEOUS ONE-ELECTRON OXIDATION POTENTIALS FOR SUBSTITUTED ANILINES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semiempirical molecular orbital theory and density functional theory are used to compute one-electron oxidation potentials for aniline and a set of 21 mono- and di-substituted anilines in aqueous solution. Linear relationships between theoretical predictions and experiment are co...

  19. A Rapid and Efficient Sonogashira Protocol and Improved Synthesis of Free Fatty Acid 1 (FFA1) Receptor Agonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Elisabeth; Due-Hansen, Maria E; Ulven, Trond

    2010-01-01

    A protocol for rapid and efficient Pd/Cu-catalyzed coupling of aryl bromides and iodides to terminal alkynes has been developed with use of 2-(di-tert-butylphosphino)-N-phenylindole (cataCXium PIntB) as ligand in TMEDA and water. The new protocol successfully couples substrates which failed...

  20. Efficient Injection of Electron Beams into Magnetic Guide Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chorny, V.; Cooperstein, G.; Dubyna, V.; Frolov, O.; Harper-Slaboszewicz, V.; Hinshelwood, D.; Schneider, R.; Solovyov, V.; Tsepilov, H.; Vitkovitsky, I.; Ware, K.

    1999-01-01

    Preliminary experimental and modeling study of injection and transport of high current electron beams in current-neutralized background gas has been performed. Initial analysis of the results indicates that high current triaxial ring diode operates very reproducibly in the pinch mode. High current density beam can be injected efficiently into the drift region, using azimuthal guide field with reduced intensity near the injection region. This was shown to improve the effectiveness of capturing the beam for the transport. The transport length was insufficient to measure losses, such as would arise from scattering with the background gas

  1. Rapid Characterization of Bacterial Electrogenicity Using a Single-Sheet Paper-Based Electrofluidic Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Gao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Electrogenicity, or bacterial electron transfer capacity, is an important application which offers environmentally sustainable advances in the fields of biofuels, wastewater treatment, bioremediation, desalination, and biosensing. Significant boosts in this technology can be achieved with the growth of synthetic biology that manipulates microbial electron transfer pathways, thereby potentially significantly improving their electrogenic potential. There is currently a need for a high-throughput, rapid, and highly sensitive test array to evaluate the electrogenic properties of newly discovered and/or genetically engineered bacterial species. In this work, we report a single-sheet, paper-based electrofluidic (incorporating both electronic and fluidic structure screening platform for rapid, sensitive, and potentially high-throughput characterization of bacterial electrogenicity. This novel screening array uses (i a commercially available wax printer for hydrophobic wax patterning on a single sheet of paper and (ii water-dispersed electrically conducting polymer mixture, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:polystyrene sulfonate, for full integration of electronic and fluidic components into the paper substrate. The engineered 3-D, microporous, hydrophilic, and conductive paper structure provides a large surface area for efficient electron transfer. This results in rapid and sensitive power assessment of electrogenic bacteria from a microliter sample volume. We validated the effectiveness of the sensor array using hypothesis-driven genetically modified Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutant strains. Within 20 min, we observed that the sensor platform successfully measured the electricity-generating capacities of five isogenic mutants of P. aeruginosa while distinguishing their differences from genetically unmodified bacteria.

  2. Experimental efforts at NIST towards one-electron ions in circular Rydberg states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Joseph N; Guise, Nicholas D; Brewer, Samuel M

    2011-01-01

    Experimental effort is underway at NIST to enable tests of theory with one-electron ions synthesized in circular Rydberg states from captured bare nuclei. Problematic effects that limit the accuracy of predicted energy levels for low-lying states are vanishingly small for high-angular-momentum (high-L) states; in particular, the nuclear size correction for high-L states is completely negligible for any foreseeable improvement of measurement precision. As an initial step towards realizing such states, highly charged ions are extracted from the NIST electron beam ion trap (EBIT) and steered through the electrodes of a Penning trap. The goal is to capture bare nuclei in the Penning trap for experiments to make one-electron atoms in circular Rydberg states with dipole (E1) transitions in the optical domain accessible to a frequency comb.

  3. Rapid and Efficient CRISPR/Cas9-Based Mating-Type Switching of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze-Xiong Xie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid and highly efficient mating-type switching of Saccharomyces cerevisiae enables a wide variety of genetic manipulations, such as the construction of strains, for instance, isogenic haploid pairs of both mating-types, diploids and polyploids. We used the CRISPR/Cas9 system to generate a double-strand break at the MAT locus and, in a single cotransformation, both haploid and diploid cells were switched to the specified mating-type at ∼80% efficiency. The mating-type of strains carrying either rod or ring chromosome III were switched, including those lacking HMLα and HMRa cryptic mating loci. Furthermore, we transplanted the synthetic yeast chromosome V to build a haploid polysynthetic chromosome strain by using this method together with an endoreduplication intercross strategy. The CRISPR/Cas9 mating-type switching method will be useful in building the complete synthetic yeast (Sc2.0 genome. Importantly, it is a generally useful method to build polyploids of a defined genotype and generally expedites strain construction, for example, in the construction of fully a/a/α/α isogenic tetraploids.

  4. Rapid and efficient radiosynthesis of [123I]I-PK11195, a single photon emission computed tomography tracer for peripheral benzodiazepine receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimlott, Sally L.; Stevenson, Louise; Wyper, David J.; Sutherland, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: [ 123 I]I-PK11195 is a high-affinity single photon emission computed tomography radiotracer for peripheral benzodiazepine receptors that has previously been used to measure activated microglia and to assess neuroinflammation in the living human brain. This study investigates the radiosynthesis of [ 123 I]I-PK11195 in order to develop a rapid and efficient method that obtains [ 123 I]I-PK11195 with a high specific activity for in vivo animal and human imaging studies. Methods: The synthesis of [ 123 I]I-PK11195 was evaluated using a solid-state interhalogen exchange method and an electrophilic iododestannylation method, where bromine and trimethylstannyl derivatives were used as precursors, respectively. In the electrophilic iododestannylation method, the oxidants peracetic acid and chloramine-T were both investigated. Results: Electrophilic iododestannylation produced [ 123 I]I-PK11195 with a higher isolated radiochemical yield and a higher specific activity than achievable using the halogen exchange method investigated. Using chloramine-T as oxidant provided a rapid and efficient method of choice for the synthesis of [ 123 I]I-PK11195. Conclusions: [ 123 I]I-PK11195 has been successfully synthesized via a rapid and efficient electrophilic iododestannylation method, producing [ 123 I]I-PK11195 with a higher isolated radiochemical yield and a higher specific activity than previously achieved

  5. Design study of the large hadron electron collider and a rapid cycling synchrotron as alternative to the PS booster upgrade at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitterer, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    With the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) the exploration of particle physics at center of mass energies at the TeV scale has begun. To extend the discovery potential of the LHC, a major upgrade is foreseen around 2020 of the LHC itself and the LHC injectors - the chain of accelerators preparing the beam for the LHC. One of the injectors - the second one in the chain - is the Proton Synchrotron (PS) Booster. Its performance is currently limited by the space-charge effect, which is the effect of the electromagnetic field of the particle beam on itself. This effect becomes weaker with higher energy, and therefore an energy upgrade of the PS Booster to 2 GeV maximum beam energy is foreseen. As the PS Booster is with its 40 years already an old machine, the construction of a new accelerator, a Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS), to replace the PS Booster has been proposed. In this thesis different options for the beam guidance in the RCS - referred to as lattice and optics - are studied, followed by a more general comparison of different lattices and optics and their performance under consideration of the space-charge effect. To further complement the LHC physics program, also the possibility of deep inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering at the LHC has been suggested, referred to as Large Hadron Electron Collider (LHeC). In this case the proton beam of the LHC collides with the electron beam, which is accelerated in a separate newly built machine. Two options are considered as electron accelerator: a new energy recovery linac - the Linac-Ring option - and the installation of an electron ring in the existing LHC tunnel - the Ring-Ring option. One of the main challenges of the Ring-Ring option is the integration of the electron ring in the current LHC tunnel. A layout, lattice and optics of the electron accelerator is developed in this thesis, which meets the requirements with regard to integration and reaches the beam parameters demanded by the particle physics experiments.

  6. Design study of the large hadron electron collider and a rapid cycling synchrotron as alternative to the PS booster upgrade at CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitterer, Miriam

    2013-02-22

    With the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) the exploration of particle physics at center of mass energies at the TeV scale has begun. To extend the discovery potential of the LHC, a major upgrade is foreseen around 2020 of the LHC itself and the LHC injectors - the chain of accelerators preparing the beam for the LHC. One of the injectors - the second one in the chain - is the Proton Synchrotron (PS) Booster. Its performance is currently limited by the space-charge effect, which is the effect of the electromagnetic field of the particle beam on itself. This effect becomes weaker with higher energy, and therefore an energy upgrade of the PS Booster to 2 GeV maximum beam energy is foreseen. As the PS Booster is with its 40 years already an old machine, the construction of a new accelerator, a Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS), to replace the PS Booster has been proposed. In this thesis different options for the beam guidance in the RCS - referred to as lattice and optics - are studied, followed by a more general comparison of different lattices and optics and their performance under consideration of the space-charge effect. To further complement the LHC physics program, also the possibility of deep inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering at the LHC has been suggested, referred to as Large Hadron Electron Collider (LHeC). In this case the proton beam of the LHC collides with the electron beam, which is accelerated in a separate newly built machine. Two options are considered as electron accelerator: a new energy recovery linac - the Linac-Ring option - and the installation of an electron ring in the existing LHC tunnel - the Ring-Ring option. One of the main challenges of the Ring-Ring option is the integration of the electron ring in the current LHC tunnel. A layout, lattice and optics of the electron accelerator is developed in this thesis, which meets the requirements with regard to integration and reaches the beam parameters demanded by the particle physics experiments.

  7. Electron localization in one-dimensional systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, K.A.

    1984-01-01

    The pure regional localization and the global localization have been investigated via the inverse participation ratio and te moment analysis. If the envelop function of a localized state is more complicated than the simple exponential function e sup(-r/xi), the inverse participation ratio is inadequate to describe the localization properties of an electron. This is the case discovered recently in a stereo-irregular chain fo atoms including the electron-electron interaction and the structure disorder. The localization properties in this system are analysed in terms of the moments. (Author) [pt

  8. Electronics all-in-one for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, Doug

    2011-01-01

    Take your electronics skills to the next level! If you're looking for a solitary resource that covers everything you need to know about electronics, then look no further. This friendly-and-straightforward guide introduces the basics of electronics and enhances your learning experience by debunking and explaining concepts such as circuits, analog and digital, schematics, voltage, safety concerns, and more. Packed with nearly 900 pages of detailed information, this book shows you how to develop your own breadboard, design your own circuit, and get savvy with schematics. Cover

  9. Tunneling induced electron transfer between separated protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vindel-Zandbergen, Patricia; Meier, Christoph; Sola, Ignacio R.

    2018-04-01

    We study electron transfer between two separated protons using local control theory. In this symmetric system one can favour a slow transfer by biasing the algorithm, achieving high efficiencies for fixed nuclei. The solution can be parametrized using a sequence of a pump followed by a dump pulse that lead to tunneling-induced electron transfer. Finally, we study the effect of the nuclear kinetic energy on the efficiency. Even in the absence of relative motion between the protons, the spreading of the nuclear wave function is enough to reduce the yield of electronic transfer to less than one half.

  10. New generation of one-dimensional photonic crystal cavities as robust high-efficient frequency converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvini, T. S.; Tehranchi, M. M.; Hamidi, S. M.

    2017-07-01

    An effective method is proposed to design finite one-dimensional photonic crystal cavities (PhCCs) as robust high-efficient frequency converter. For this purpose, we consider two groups of PhCCs which are constructed by stacking m nonlinear (LiNbO3) and n linear (air) layers with variable thicknesses. In the first group, the number of linear layers is less than the nonlinear layers by one and in the second group by two. The conversion efficiency is calculated as a function of the arrangement and thicknesses of the linear and nonlinear layers by benefiting from nonlinear transfer matrix method. Our numerical simulations show that for each group of PhCCs, there is a structural formula by which the configurations with the highest efficiency can be constructed for any values of m and n (i.e. any number of layers). The efficient configurations are equivalent to Fabry-Pérot cavities that depend on the relationship between m and n and the mirrors in two sides of these cavities can be periodic or nonperiodic. The conversion efficiencies of these designed PhCCs are more than 5 orders of magnitude higher than the perfect ones which satisfy photonic bandgap edge and quasi-phase matching. Moreover, the results reveal that conversion efficiencies of Fabry-Pérot cavities with non-periodic mirrors are one order of magnitude higher than those with periodic mirrors. The major physical mechanisms of the enhancement are quasi-phase matching effect, cavity effect induced by dispersive mirrors, and double resonance for the pump and the harmonic fields in defect state. We believe that this method is very beneficial to the design of high-efficient compact optical frequency converters.

  11. Double-layered ZnO nanostructures for efficient perovskite solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Mahmood, Khalid; S. Swain, Bhabani; Amassian, Aram

    2014-01-01

    To date, a single layer of TiO2 or ZnO has been the most successful implementations of any electron transport layer (ETL) in solution-processed perovskite solar cells. In a quest to improve the ETL, we explore a new nanostructured double-layer ZnO film for mesoscopic perovskite-based thin film photovoltaics. This approach yields a maximum power conversion efficiency of 10.35%, which we attribute to the morphology of oxide layer and to faster electron transport. The successful implementation of the low-temperature hydrothermally processed double-layer ZnO film as ETL in perovskite solar cells highlights the opportunities to further improve the efficiencies by focusing on the ETL in this rapidly developing field. This journal is

  12. New method for the rapid extraction of natural products: efficient isolation of shikimic acid from star anise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Just, Jeremy; Deans, Bianca J; Olivier, Wesley J; Paull, Brett; Bissember, Alex C; Smith, Jason A

    2015-05-15

    A new, practical, rapid, and high-yielding process for the pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE) of multigram quantities of shikimic acid from star anise (Illicium verum) using an unmodified household espresso machine has been developed. This operationally simple and inexpensive method enables the efficient and straightforward isolation of shikimic acid and the facile preparation of a range of its synthetic derivatives.

  13. Efficient creation of electron vortex beams for high resolution STEM imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béché, A; Juchtmans, R; Verbeeck, J

    2017-07-01

    The recent discovery of electron vortex beams carrying quantised angular momentum in the TEM has led to an active field of research, exploring a variety of potential applications including the possibility of mapping magnetic states at the atomic scale. A prerequisite for this is the availability of atomic sized electron vortex beams at high beam current and mode purity. In this paper we present recent progress showing that by making use of the Aharonov-Bohm effect near the tip of a long single domain ferromagnetic Nickel needle, a very efficient aperture for the production of electron vortex beams can be realised. The aperture transmits more than 99% of all electrons and provides a vortex mode purity of up to 92%. Placing this aperture in the condenser plane of a state of the art Cs corrected microscope allows us to demonstrate atomic resolution HAADF STEM images with spatial resolution better than 1 Angström, in agreement with theoretical expectations and only slightly inferior to the performance of a non-vortex probe on the same instrument. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Efficient k⋅p method for the calculation of total energy and electronic density of states

    OpenAIRE

    Iannuzzi, Marcella; Parrinello, Michele

    2001-01-01

    An efficient method for calculating the electronic structure in large systems with a fully converged BZ sampling is presented. The method is based on a k.p-like approximation developed in the framework of the density functional perturbation theory. The reliability and efficiency of the method are demostrated in test calculations on Ar and Si supercells

  15. Confinement of hot, hard x-ray producing electrons in solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.F.; Lilliequist, C.G.

    1979-01-01

    Possible thermal models for solar, hard X-ray emission, consisting of small volumes in which the electrons are rapidly heated to 4 x 10 8 K, are examined to determine under what conditions such models can be more efficient than nonthermal models. The primary energy-loss mechanism in these models is source expansion due to heat conduction which deviates from its classical value by mechanisms which are reviewed and systematized. One such mechanism is saturation of the heat flux at its maximum possible value, corresponding to direct convection by electrons. Another mechanism is anomalous limitation of the heat flux due to instability of the return current which must compensate the electron current carrying the heat. A simple, one-dimensional model in which a section of the flux tube of constant density is heated to 4 x 10 8 K is analyzed. A conduction front, determined by the above collisionless process, moves along the flux tube at the head of the expanding source. A more realistic, one-dimensional, one-fluid, two-temperature model with a spatially and temporally varying energy source which delivers energy to the electrons at a finite rate is formulated and solved numerically. This results in some ion heating and mass motions which, by themselves, represent only a small energy loss. However, because of changes in the anomalous limitation of the heat flux with higher ion temperature, the expansion losses increase considerably

  16. Rapid, Selection-Free, High-Efficiency Genome Editing in Protozoan Parasites Using CRISPR-Cas9 Ribonucleoproteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Carolina Soares Medeiros

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosomatids (order Kinetoplastida, including the human pathogens Trypanosoma cruzi (agent of Chagas disease, Trypanosoma brucei, (African sleeping sickness, and Leishmania (leishmaniasis, affect millions of people and animals globally. T. cruzi is considered one of the least studied and most poorly understood tropical disease-causing parasites, in part because of the relative lack of facile genetic engineering tools. This situation has improved recently through the application of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats–CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR-Cas9 technology, but a number of limitations remain, including the toxicity of continuous Cas9 expression and the long drug marker selection times. In this study, we show that the delivery of ribonucleoprotein (RNP complexes composed of recombinant Cas9 from Staphylococcus aureus (SaCas9, but not from the more routinely used Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 (SpCas9, and in vitro-transcribed single guide RNAs (sgRNAs results in rapid gene edits in T. cruzi and other kinetoplastids at frequencies approaching 100%. The highly efficient genome editing via SaCas9/sgRNA RNPs was obtained for both reporter and endogenous genes and observed in multiple parasite life cycle stages in various strains of T. cruzi, as well as in T. brucei and Leishmania major. RNP complex delivery was also used to successfully tag proteins at endogenous loci and to assess the biological functions of essential genes. Thus, the use of SaCas9 RNP complexes for gene editing in kinetoplastids provides a simple, rapid, and cloning- and selection-free method to assess gene function in these important human pathogens.

  17. One-dimensional titania nanostructures: Synthesis and applications in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hao [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials and Hubei Collaborative Innovation Centre for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Guo, Zhiguang, E-mail: zguo@licp.cas.cn [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials and Hubei Collaborative Innovation Centre for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wang, Shimin [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials and Hubei Collaborative Innovation Centre for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Liu, Weimin [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2014-05-02

    One-dimensional (1D) titania (TiO{sub 2}) in the form of nanorods, nanowires, nanobelts and nanotubes have attracted much attention due to their unique physical, chemical and optical properties enabling extraordinary performance in biomedicine, sensors, energy storage, solar cells and photocatalysis. In this review, we mainly focus on synthetic methods for 1D TiO{sub 2} nanostructures and the applications of 1D TiO{sub 2} nanostructures in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Traditional nanoparticle-based DSCs have numerous grain boundaries and surface defects, which increase the charge recombination from photoanode to electrolyte. 1D TiO{sub 2} nanostructures can provide direct and rapid electron transport to the electron collecting electrode, indicating a promising choice for DSCs. We divide the applications of 1D TiO{sub 2} nanostructures in DSCs into four parts, that is, 1D TiO{sub 2} nanostructures only, 1D TiO{sub 2} nanostructure/nanoparticle composites, branched 1D TiO{sub 2} nanostructures, and 1D TiO{sub 2} nanostructures combined with other materials. This work will provide guidance for preparing 1D TiO{sub 2} nanostructures, and using them as photoanodes in efficient DSCs. - Graphical abstract: 1D TiO{sub 2} nanostructures which can provide direct and rapid pathways for electron transport have promising applications in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The synthetic methods and applications of 1D TiO{sub 2} nanostructures in DSCs are summarized in this review article.

  18. [COMPUTER ASSISTED DESIGN AND ELECTRON BEAMMELTING RAPID PROTOTYPING METAL THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING TECHNOLOGY FOR PREPARATION OF INDIVIDUALIZED FEMORAL PROSTHESIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongwei; Weng, Yiping; Zhang, Yunkun; Xu, Nanwei; Tong, Jing; Wang, Caimei

    2015-09-01

    To study the feasibility of preparation of the individualized femoral prosthesis through computer assisted design and electron beammelting rapid prototyping (EBM-RP) metal three-dimensional (3D) printing technology. One adult male left femur specimen was used for scanning with 64-slice spiral CT; tomographic image data were imported into Mimics15.0 software to reconstruct femoral 3D model, then the 3D model of individualized femoral prosthesis was designed through UG8.0 software. Finally the 3D model data were imported into EBM-RP metal 3D printer to print the individualized sleeve. According to the 3D model of individualized prosthesis, customized sleeve was successfully prepared through the EBM-RP metal 3D printing technology, assembled with the standard handle component of SR modular femoral prosthesis to make the individualized femoral prosthesis. Customized femoral prosthesis accurately matching with metaphyseal cavity can be designed through the thin slice CT scanning and computer assisted design technology. Titanium alloy personalized prosthesis with complex 3D shape, pore surface, and good matching with metaphyseal cavity can be manufactured by the technology of EBM-RP metal 3D printing, and the technology has convenient, rapid, and accurate advantages.

  19. Highly efficient electron gun with a single-atom electron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi; Urata, Tomohiro; Cho, Boklae; Rokuta, Eiji; Oshima, Chuhei; Terui, Yoshinori; Saito, Hidekazu; Yonezawa, Akira; Tsong, Tien T.

    2007-01-01

    The authors have demonstrated highly collimated electron-beam emission from a practical electron gun with a single-atom electron source; ∼80% of the total emission current entered the electron optics. This ratio was two or three orders of magnitude higher than those of the conventional electron sources such as a cold field emission gun and a Zr/O/W Schottky gun. At the pressure of less than 1x10 -9 Pa, the authors observed stable emission of 20 nA, which generates the specimen current of 5 pA required for scanning electron microscopes

  20. Improved efficiency of NiOx-based p-i-n perovskite solar cells by using PTEG-1 as electron transport layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, Bart G. H. M.; Najafi, Mehrdad; Steensma, Bauke; Adjokatse, Sampson; Fang, Hong-Hua; Jahani, Fatemeh; Qiu, Li; ten Brink, Gert H.; Hummelen, Jan C.; Loi, Maria Antonietta

    We present efficient p-i-n type perovskite solar cells using NiOx as the hole transport layer and a fulleropyrrolidine with a triethylene glycol monoethyl ether side chain (PTEG-1) as electron transport layer. This electron transport layer leads to higher power conversion efficiencies compared to

  1. Electron transfer reactions induced by the triplet state of thiacarbocyanine dimers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chibisov, Alexander K.; Slavnova, Tatyana D.; Goerner, Helmut

    2004-01-01

    The photoinduced electron transfer between either cationic 5,5 ' -dichloro-3,3 ' ,9-triethylthiacarbocyanine (1) or a structurally similar anionic dye (2) and appropriate donors, e.g. ascorbic acid, and acceptors, e.g. methyl viologen, was studied by ns-laser photolysis. In aqueous solution the dyes in the ground state are present as an equilibrated mixture of dimers and monomers, whereas the triplet state is mainly populated from dimers. The triplet states of both dimers and monomers are quenched by electron donors or acceptors and the rate constant for quenching is generally 2-4 times higher for dimers than for monomers. The kinetics of triplet decay and radical formation and decay as a result of primary and secondary electron transfer were analyzed. While the one-electron reduced dimer decays due to back reactions, the one-electron oxidized dimer rapidly dissociates into the monomer and the monomeric dye radical. For the dimeric dye/donor/acceptor systems the primary photoinduced electron transfer occurs either from the donor or to the acceptor yielding the dimeric dye radicals. The one-electron reduced dimer can be efficiently oxidized by acceptors, e.g. the rate constant for reaction of the dimeric dye radical of 1 with methyl viologen (photoreductive pathway of sensitization) is 1.6x10 9 M -1 s -1 . The photooxidative pathway of sensitization is more complicated; after dissociation of the dimeric dye radical, the monomeric dye radical is reduced in a secondary electron transfer from ascorbic acid, e.g. with a rate constant of 1x10 9 M -1 s -1 for 2, yielding the monomer. On increasing the donor concentration the photooxidative pathway of sensitization is switched to a photoreductive one

  2. Atomic and electronic structure transformations of silver nanoparticles under rapid cooling conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobato, I; Rojas, J; Landauro, C V; Torres, J

    2009-02-04

    The structural evolution and dynamics of silver nanodrops Ag(2869) (4.4 nm in diameter) under rapid cooling conditions have been studied by means of molecular dynamics simulations and electronic density of state calculations. The interaction of silver atoms is modelled by a tight-binding semiempirical interatomic potential proposed by Cleri and Rosato. The pair correlation functions and the pair analysis technique are used to reveal the structural transition in the process of solidification. It is shown that Ag nanoparticles evolve into different nanostructures under different cooling processes. At a cooling rate of 1.5625 × 10(13) K s(-1) the nanoparticles preserve an amorphous-like structure containing a large amount of 1551 and 1541 pairs which correspond to icosahedral symmetry. For a lower cooling rate (1.5625 × 10(12) K s(-1)), the nanoparticles transform into a crystal-like structure consisting mainly of 1421 and 1422 pairs which correspond to the face centred cubic and hexagonal close packed structures, respectively. The variations of the electronic density of states for the differently cooled nanoparticles are small, but in correspondence with the structural changes.

  3. Evaluation of a Rapid One-step Real-time PCR Method as a High-throughput Screening for Quantification of Hepatitis B Virus DNA in a Resource-limited Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashed-Ul Islam, S M; Jahan, Munira; Tabassum, Shahina

    2015-01-01

    Virological monitoring is the best predictor for the management of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections. Consequently, it is important to use the most efficient, rapid and cost-effective testing systems for HBV DNA quantification. The present study compared the performance characteristics of a one-step HBV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) vs the two-step HBV PCR method for quantification of HBV DNA from clinical samples. A total of 100 samples consisting of 85 randomly selected samples from patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and 15 samples from apparently healthy individuals were enrolled in this study. Of the 85 CHB clinical samples tested, HBV DNA was detected from 81% samples by one-step PCR method with median HBV DNA viral load (VL) of 7.50 × 10 3 lU/ml. In contrast, 72% samples were detected by the two-step PCR system with median HBV DNA of 3.71 × 10 3 lU/ml. The one-step method showed strong linear correlation with two-step PCR method (r = 0.89; p Tabassum S. Evaluation of a Rapid One-step Real-time PCR Method as a High-throughput Screening for Quantification of Hepatitis B Virus DNA in a Resource-limited Setting. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2015;5(1):11-15.

  4. One- and two-electron processes in collisions of heavy ions with H2 and He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, P.; Hall, J.; Shinpaugh, J.L.; Sanders, J.M.; Tipping, T.N.; Zouros, T.J.M.; Lee, D.H.; Schmidt-Boecking, H.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper we present a description of the apparatus and results for experiments involving one- and two-electron processes in collisions of heavy ions with H 2 and He. The experiments were performed using one-electron and bare projectiles. In the first section we describe the measurement of pure ionization of one-electron projectiles by H 2 targets and compare with previous results for He targets. We also present the results for one-electron capture by the projectile from H 2 targets. The energy dependence of the cross sections is compared to theoretical predictions for atomic and molecular hydrogen targets. Both experiments were performed by measuring only the final charge state of the projectile. In the second section we describe the measurement of partial cross sections for the same collisions by measuring the target recoil charge state in coincidence with the projectile charge state. By this method we can measure pure single- and double-ionization of the target, pure single-electron transfer and transfer ionization, and pure double-electron transfer. This experiment is presently being performed for bare flourine on He; however, absolute cross sections are not available at the time of this conference. (orig.)

  5. One-electron propagation in Fermi, Pasta, Ulam disordered chains with Gaussian acoustic pulse pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, L. D. Da; Dos Santos, J. L. L.; Ranciaro Neto, A.; Sales, M. O.; de Moura, F. A. B. F.

    In this work, we consider a one-electron moving on a Fermi, Pasta, Ulam disordered chain under effect of electron-phonon interaction and a Gaussian acoustic pulse pumping. We describe electronic dynamics using quantum mechanics formalism and the nonlinear atomic vibrations using standard classical physics. Solving numerical equations related to coupled quantum/classical behavior of this system, we study electronic propagation properties. Our calculations suggest that the acoustic pumping associated with the electron-lattice interaction promote a sub-diffusive electronic dynamics.

  6. Plug-and-play paper-based toolkit for rapid prototyping of microfluidics and electronics towards point-of-care diagnostic solutions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, S

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a plug-and-play toolkit for the rapid assembly of paper-based microfluidic and electronic components for quick prototyping of paper-based components towards point-of-care diagnostic solutions. Individual modules, each with a specific...

  7. Investigation of Heat Sink Efficiency for Electronic Component Cooling Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staliulionis, Ž.; Zhang, Zhe; Pittini, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    Research and optimisation of cooling of electronic components using heat sinks becomes increasingly important in modern industry. Numerical methods with experimental real-world verification are the main tools to evaluate efficiency of heat sinks or heat sink systems. Here the investigation...... of relatively simple heat sink application is performed using modeling based on finite element method, and also the potential of such analysis was demonstrated by real-world measurements and comparing obtained results. Thermal modeling was accomplished using finite element analysis software COMSOL and thermo...

  8. PLEASE: The Python Low-energy Electron Analysis SuitE – Enabling Rapid Analysis of LEEM and LEED Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwell Grady

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available PLEASE, the Python Low-energy Electron Analysis SuitE, provides an open source and cross-platform graphical user interface (GUI for rapid analysis and visualization of low energy electron microscopy (LEEM data sets. LEEM and the associated technique, selected area micro-spot low energy electron diffraction (μ-LEED, are powerful tools for analysis of the surface structure for many novel materials. Specifically, these tools are uniquely suited for the characterization of two-dimensional materials. PLEASE offers a user-friendly point-and-click method for extracting intensity-voltage curves from LEEM and LEED data sets. Analysis of these curves provides insight into the atomic structure of the target material surface with unparalleled resolution.

  9. Enhanced efficiency of organic solar cells by using ZnO as an electron-transport layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Irfan; Shah, Said Karim; Wali, Sartaj; Hayat, Khizar; Khattak, Shaukat Ali; Khan, Aurangzeb

    2017-12-01

    This paper reports the use of ZnO, processed by sol-gel, as an efficient electron-transport layer for inverted organic photovoltaic cells. The device with incorporated ZnO interlayer, annealed at 100 °C, between transparent electrode and blend film plays an effective role in enhancing photovoltaic properties: the short-circuit current density (J sc) doubles while open-circuit voltage (V oc) and fill factor increase by 0.12 V and 10 %, respectively. Power conversion efficiency (PCE) of solar cell increases, approximately, three times. The improvement in the PCE is attributed to the presence of ZnO which, being an electron-facilitating layer, provides an energy step for charge collection at electrodes.

  10. Using rapid-scan EPR to improve the detection limit of quantitative EPR by more than one order of magnitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möser, J; Lips, K; Tseytlin, M; Eaton, G R; Eaton, S S; Schnegg, A

    2017-08-01

    X-band rapid-scan EPR was implemented on a commercially available Bruker ELEXSYS E580 spectrometer. Room temperature rapid-scan and continuous-wave EPR spectra were recorded for amorphous silicon powder samples. By comparing the resulting signal intensities the feasibility of performing quantitative rapid-scan EPR is demonstrated. For different hydrogenated amorphous silicon samples, rapid-scan EPR results in signal-to-noise improvements by factors between 10 and 50. Rapid-scan EPR is thus capable of improving the detection limit of quantitative EPR by at least one order of magnitude. In addition, we provide a recipe for setting up and calibrating a conventional pulsed and continuous-wave EPR spectrometer for rapid-scan EPR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Silica nanoparticles as a highly efficient catalyst for the one-pot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Silica nanoparticles as a highly efficient catalyst for the one-pot synthesis of sterically congested ... Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia ... 42 nm) as a catalyst under solvent free conditions at room temperature is described. The ease of ...

  12. A rapid, efficient, and economic device and method for the isolation and purification of mouse islet cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Zongyi

    Full Text Available Rapid, efficient, and economic method for the isolation and purification of islets has been pursued by numerous islet-related researchers. In this study, we compared the advantages and disadvantages of our developed patented method with those of commonly used conventional methods (Ficoll-400, 1077, and handpicking methods. Cell viability was assayed using Trypan blue, cell purity and yield were assayed using diphenylthiocarbazone, and islet function was assayed using acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-glucose stimulation testing 4 days after cultivation. The results showed that our islet isolation and purification method required 12 ± 3 min, which was significantly shorter than the time required in Ficoll-400, 1077, and HPU groups (34 ± 3, 41 ± 4, and 30 ± 4 min, respectively; P 1000 islets. In summary, the MCT method is a rapid, efficient, and economic method for isolating and purifying murine islet cell clumps. This method overcomes some of the shortcomings of conventional methods, showing a relatively higher quality and yield of islets within a shorter duration at a lower cost. Therefore, the current method provides researchers with an alternative option for islet isolation and should be widely generalized.

  13. Factors affecting commuter rail energy efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-17

    The objective of this study is to develop a planninglevel model of commuter rail energy efficiency. The : environmental benefits of commuter rail are often cited as one of the key benefits and motivators for its rapid development as a public trans...

  14. Electronic structure and transport properties of quasi-one-dimensional carbon nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. N. Wu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on the density functional theory combined with the nonequilibrium Green’s function, the influence of the wrinkle on the electronic structures and transport properties of quasi-one-dimensional carbon nanomaterials have been investigated, in which the wrinkled armchair graphene nanoribbons (wAGNRs and the composite of AGNRs and single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs were considered with different connection of ripples. The wrinkle adjusts the electronic structures and transport properties of AGNRs. With the change of the strain, the wAGNRs for three width families reveal different electrical behavior. The band gap of AGNR(6 increases in the presence of the wrinkle, which is opposite to that of AGNR(5 and AGNR(7. The transport of AGNRs with the widths 6 or 7 has been modified by the wrinkle, especially by the number of isolated ripples, but it is insensitive to the strain. The nanojunctions constructed by AGNRs and SWCNTs can form the quantum wells, and some specific states are confined in wAGNRs. Although these nanojunctions exhibit the metallic, they have poor conductance due to the wrinkle. The filling of C20 into SWCNT has less influence on the electronic structure and transport of the junctions. The width and connection type of ripples have greatly influenced on the electronic structures and transport properties of quasi-one-dimensional nanomaterials.

  15. Electronic structure and transport properties of quasi-one-dimensional carbon nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y. N.; Cheng, P.; Wu, M. J.; Zhu, H.; Xiang, Q.; Ni, J.

    2017-09-01

    Based on the density functional theory combined with the nonequilibrium Green's function, the influence of the wrinkle on the electronic structures and transport properties of quasi-one-dimensional carbon nanomaterials have been investigated, in which the wrinkled armchair graphene nanoribbons (wAGNRs) and the composite of AGNRs and single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were considered with different connection of ripples. The wrinkle adjusts the electronic structures and transport properties of AGNRs. With the change of the strain, the wAGNRs for three width families reveal different electrical behavior. The band gap of AGNR(6) increases in the presence of the wrinkle, which is opposite to that of AGNR(5) and AGNR(7). The transport of AGNRs with the widths 6 or 7 has been modified by the wrinkle, especially by the number of isolated ripples, but it is insensitive to the strain. The nanojunctions constructed by AGNRs and SWCNTs can form the quantum wells, and some specific states are confined in wAGNRs. Although these nanojunctions exhibit the metallic, they have poor conductance due to the wrinkle. The filling of C20 into SWCNT has less influence on the electronic structure and transport of the junctions. The width and connection type of ripples have greatly influenced on the electronic structures and transport properties of quasi-one-dimensional nanomaterials.

  16. Rapid Two-stage Versus One-stage Surgical Repair of Interrupted Aortic Arch with Ventricular Septal Defect in Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Lin Lee

    2008-11-01

    Conclusion: The outcome of rapid two-stage repair is comparable to that of one-stage repair. Rapid two-stage repair has the advantages of significantly shorter cardiopulmonary bypass duration and AXC time, and avoids deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. LVOTO remains an unresolved issue, and postoperative aortic arch restenosis can be dilated effectively by percutaneous balloon angioplasty.

  17. A new method to measure and increase the detection efficiency of a microchannel plate for 100 keV electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tornow, R.P.

    1990-01-01

    A new method is described which permits measurement of efficiency of a microchannel plate (MCP) simply by tracing the output current pulse in the saturated mode. The dependence of the detection efficiency on the gain of the input stages of a detector is calculated and the result is applied to a MCP. Furthermore, an enhancement of the detection efficiency of a MCP is presented for 100 keV electrons up to more than 90% by means of the field-enhanced secondary electron emission. (author)

  18. Phase mapping of iron-based rapidly quenched alloys using precession electron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svec, P.; Janotova, I.; Hosko, J.; Matko, I.; Janickovic, D.; Svec, P. Sr.; Kepaptsoglou, D. M.

    2013-01-01

    The present contribution is focused on application of PED and phase/orientation mapping of nanocrystals of bcc-Fe formed during the first crystallization stage of amorphous Fe-Co-Si-B ribbon. Using precession electron diffraction and phase/orientation mapping the formation of primary crystalline phase, bcc-Fe, from amorphous Fe-Co-Si-B has been analyzed. Important information about mutual orientation of the phase in individual submicron grains as well as against the sample surface has been obtained. This information contributes to the understanding of micromechanisms controlling crystallization from amorphous rapidly quenched structure and of the structure of the original amorphous state. The presented technique due to its high spatial resolution, speed and information content provided complements well classical techniques, especially in nanocrystalline materials. (authors)

  19. Enhancing electron transport in Si:P delta-doped devices by rapid thermal anneal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goh, K. E. J.; Augarten, Y.; Oberbeck, L.; Simmons, M. Y.

    2008-01-01

    We address the use of rapid thermal anneal (RTA) to enhance electron mobility and phase coherent transport in Si:P δ-doped devices encapsulated by low temperature Si molecular beam epitaxy while minimizing dopant diffusion. RTA temperatures of 500-700 deg. C were applied to δ-doped layers encapsulated at 250 deg. C. From 4.2 K magnetotransport measurements, we find that the improved crystal quality after RTA increases the mobility/mean free path by ∼40% and the phase coherence length by ∼25%. Our results suggest that the initial capping layer has near optimal crystal quality and transport improvement achieved by a RTA is limited

  20. Power efficiency optimization of disk-loaded waveguide traveling wave structure of electron linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jinghe; Li Jinhai; Li Chunguang

    2014-01-01

    Disk-loaded waveguide traveling wave structure (TWS), which is widely used in scientific research and industry, is a vital accelerating structure in electron linear accelerator. The power efficiency is an important parameter for designing TWS, which greatly effects the expenses for the fabrication and commercial running. The key parameters related with power efficiency were studied for TWS optimization. The result was proved by experiment result, and it shows some help for accelerator engineering. (authors)

  1. Measurements of threshold behavior for one- and two-electron photodetachment from the H- ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, C.A.

    1981-09-01

    One and two-electron photodetachment from the H - ion by a single photon has been studied using a crossed beam apparatus. A Q-switched laser beam was directed across the 800 MeV H - beam at LAMPF (β=0.842) resulting in Doppler-shifted photon energies in the H - barycentric frame, which were tunable from 0.4 eV to 15.5 eV by changing the intersection angle. The particles (e - , H 0 , H + ) resulting from photodetachment reactions were magnetically deflected into scintillation detectors allowing the total and partial cross sections for 1e - and 2e - processes to be separately measured. The 2e - signal (H + ) was produced by two different mechanisms, the true signal γ + H - → H + + 2e - and the background process γ + H - → H 0 (n), followed by motional electric field ionization of excited H 0 . Two-electron photodetachment which had been predicted theoretically was observed for the first time, and the relative cross section was measured from threshold to 15.5 eV. Tfrared absorption spectra of intrinsic a-Si:H films by the argon working gas partial pressure, hydrogen partial pressure, and substrate temperature variperiods of time at lower temperatures because aromatic hydrocarbons economic conditions. The symptomology of the various trace metals and oxides isen as potentially more efficient for both employer and employee than is the use of regulatory standards

  2. Charge transfer in quasi-one-electron systems at 'high' energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gay, T.J.; Redd, E.; Blankenship, D.M.; Park, J.T.; Peacher, J.L.; Seeley, D.G.

    1988-08-14

    We have made absolute and relative measurements of differential cross sections for single-electron transfer in collisions between Mg/sup +/ (30-150 keV) and Be/sup +/ (56.25 keV) ions and He atoms. The behaviour of transfer probability as a function of impact parameter can be understood qualitatively from recent molecular orbital calculations of quasi-one-electron systems.

  3. Facile Condensation of Aromatic Aldehydes with Chroman-4-ones and 1-Thiochroman-4-ones Catalysed by Amberlyst-15 under Microwave Irradiation Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapas K. Mandal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Different aromatic aldehydes and cinnamaldehyde undergo cross-aldol condensation with chroman-4-ones and1-thiochroman-4-ones in the presence of amberlyst-15 under microwave irradiation in solvent free condition to afford rapidly the corresponding E-3-arylidene and E-3-cinnamylidene derivatives, respectively, in high yield. This process is simple, efficient and environmentally benign.

  4. Electronic patient-reported data capture as a foundation of rapid learning cancer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernethy, Amy P; Ahmad, Asif; Zafar, S Yousuf; Wheeler, Jane L; Reese, Jennifer Barsky; Lyerly, H Kim

    2010-06-01

    "Rapid learning healthcare" presents a new infrastructure to support comparative effectiveness research. By leveraging heterogeneous datasets (eg, clinical, administrative, genomic, registry, and research), health information technology, and sophisticated iterative analyses, rapid learning healthcare provides a real-time framework in which clinical studies can evaluate the relative impact of therapeutic approaches on a diverse array of measures. This article describes an effort, at 1 academic medical center, to demonstrate what rapid learning healthcare might look like in operation. The article describes the process of developing and testing the components of this new model of integrated clinical/research function, with the pilot site being an academic oncology clinic and with electronic patient-reported outcomes (ePROs) being the foundational dataset. Steps included: feasibility study of the ePRO system; validation study of ePRO collection across 3 cancers; linking ePRO and other datasets; implementation; stakeholder alignment and buy in, and; demonstration through use cases. Two use cases are presented; participants were metastatic breast cancer (n = 65) and gastrointestinal cancer (n = 113) patients at 2 academic medical centers. (1) Patient-reported symptom data were collected with tablet computers; patients with breast and gastrointestinal cancer indicated high levels of sexual distress, which prompted multidisciplinary response, design of an intervention, and successful application for funding to study the intervention's impact. (2) The system evaluated the longitudinal impact of a psychosocial care program provided to patients with breast cancer. Participants used tablet computers to complete PRO surveys; data indicated significant impact on psychosocial outcomes, notably distress and despair, despite advanced disease. Results return to the clinic, allowing iterative update and evaluation. An ePRO-based rapid learning cancer clinic is feasible, providing

  5. Integration of nanoparticle cell lysis and microchip PCR for one-step rapid detection of bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Weijie; Yeow, John T W

    2012-04-01

    This paper describes an integrated microchip system as an efficient and cost-effective solution involving Nanotechnology and Lab-on-a-Chip technology for the rapid detection of bacteria. The system is based on using surface-modified gold nanoparticles for efficient cell lysis followed by microchip PCR without having to remove the nanoparticles from the PCR solution. Poly(quaternary ammonium) modified gold nanoparticles are used to provide a novel and efficient cell lysis method without the need to go through time-consuming, expensive and complicated microfabrication processes as most of current cell lysis methods for Lab-on-a-Chip applications do. It also facilitates the integration of cell lysis and PCR by sharing the same reaction chamber as PCR uses. It is integrated with a prototype microchip PCR system consisting of a physical microchip PCR device and an automated temperature control mechanism. The research work explores solutions for the problem of PCR inhibition caused by gold nanoparticles as well as for the problem of non-specific PCR amplification in the integrated microchip system. It also explores the possibility of greatly reducing PCR cycling time to achieve the same result compared to the protocol for a regular PCR machine. The simplicity of the setup makes it easy to be integrated with other Lab-on-a-Chip functional modules to create customized solutions for target applications.

  6. Efficient O(N) integration for all-electron electronic structure calculation using numeric basis functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havu, V.; Blum, V.; Havu, P.; Scheffler, M.

    2009-01-01

    We consider the problem of developing O(N) scaling grid-based operations needed in many central operations when performing electronic structure calculations with numeric atom-centered orbitals as basis functions. We outline the overall formulation of localized algorithms, and specifically the creation of localized grid batches. The choice of the grid partitioning scheme plays an important role in the performance and memory consumption of the grid-based operations. Three different top-down partitioning methods are investigated, and compared with formally more rigorous yet much more expensive bottom-up algorithms. We show that a conceptually simple top-down grid partitioning scheme achieves essentially the same efficiency as the more rigorous bottom-up approaches.

  7. Reversal of local spins in transport of electrons through a one-dimensional chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, D.-S.; Xiong, S.-J.

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the spin reversal of two coupled magnetic impurities in the transport processes of electrons in a one-dimensional chain. The impurities are side coupled to the chain and the electrons are injected and tunneling through it. The transmission coefficient of electrons and the polarization of impurities are calculated by the use of the equivalent single-particle network method for the correlated system. It is found that both the transmission coefficient and the polarization of impurities depend on the initial state of impurities and the impurity spins can be converted into the direction of electron spin if the injected electrons are polarized and the number of electrons is large enough. The evolution of the spin-reversal processes is studied in details

  8. A comparison of different silver inks for printing of conductive tracks on paper substrates for rapid prototyping of electronic circuits

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bezuidenhout, PH

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the performance between two commercially-available electrically conductive silver inks, Harima NPS-J nanopaste and the NBSIJ-FD02 Mitsubishi conductive ink, used in rapid prototyping of electronic circuits. The comparative...

  9. Facile one-step hydrothermal synthesis toward strongly coupled TiO2/graphene quantum dots photocatalysts for efficient hydrogen evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Shixiong; Hou, Jianhua; Lei, Yonggang; Ma, Xiaohua; Lu, Gongxuan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • TiO 2 /GQDs composites were prepared by a facile one-step hydrothermal method. • GQDs were strongly coupled onto the surface of TiO 2 nanoparticles by this method. • The TiO 2 /GQDs showed enhanced light absorption and charge separation efficiency. • The TiO 2 /GQDs exhibited higher photocatalytic H 2 evolution activity than pure TiO 2 . • GQDs play synergistic roles by acting as both photosensitizer and electron acceptor. - Abstract: The coupling of semiconductor photocatalysts with graphene quantum dots (GQDs) has been proven to be an effective strategy to enhance the photocatalytic and photoelectrical conversion performances of the resulted composites; however, the preparation of semiconductor/GQDs composites usually involves several time-inefficient and tedious post-treatment steps. Herein, we present a facile one-step hydrothermal route for the preparation of GQDs coupled TiO 2 (TiO 2 /GQDs) photocatalysts using 1,3,6-trinitropyrene (TNP) as the sole precursor of GQDs. During the hydrothermal process, TNP molecules undergo an intramolecular fusion to form GQDs, which simultaneously decorate on the surface of TiO 2 nanoparticles, leading to a strong surface interaction between the two components. The effective coupling of GQDs on TiO 2 can effectively extend the light absorption of the TiO 2 to visible region and enhance the charge separation efficiency of TiO 2 /GQDs composites as a result of GQDs acting as a photosensitizer and an excellent electron acceptor. These key advances make the TiO 2 /GQDs photocatalyst highly active towards the H 2 evolution reaction, resulting in 7 and 3 times higher H 2 evolution rate and photocurrent response at optimal GQDs content than TiO 2 alone, respectively. This study provides a new methodology for the development of high-performance GQDs modified semiconductor photocatalysts for energy conversion applications.

  10. Multifunctional Inverse Opal-Like TiO2 Electron Transport Layer for Efficient Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; Yang, Shuang; Zheng, Yi Chu; Chen, Ying; Hou, Yu; Yang, Xiao Hua; Yang, Hua Gui

    2015-09-01

    A novel multifunctional inverse opal-like TiO 2 electron transport layer (IOT-ETL) is designed to replace the traditional compact layer and mesoporous scaffold layer in perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Improved light harvesting efficiency and charge transporting performance in IOT-ETL based PSCs yield high power conversion efficiency of 13.11%.

  11. Effects of weak localization in quasi-one-dimensional electronic system over liquid helium

    CERN Document Server

    Kovdrya, Y Z; Gladchenko, S P

    2001-01-01

    One measured rho sub x sub x magnetoresistance of a quasi-one-dimensional electronic system over liquid helium within gas scattering range (1.3-2.0 K temperature range). It is shown that with increase of magnetic field the magnetoresistance is reduced at first and them upon passing over minimum it begins to increase from rho sub x sub x approx B sup 2 law. One anticipated that the negative magnetoresistance detected in the course of experiments resulted from the effects of weak localization. The experiment results are in qualitative conformity with the theoretical model describing processes of weak localization in single-dimensional nondegenerate electronic systems

  12. An Exponential Regulator for Rapidity Divergences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ye [Fermilab; Neill, Duff [MIT, Cambridge, CTP; Zhu, Hua Xing [MIT, Cambridge, CTP

    2016-04-01

    Finding an efficient and compelling regularization of soft and collinear degrees of freedom at the same invariant mass scale, but separated in rapidity is a persistent problem in high-energy factorization. In the course of a calculation, one encounters divergences unregulated by dimensional regularization, often called rapidity divergences. Once regulated, a general framework exists for their renormalization, the rapidity renormalization group (RRG), leading to fully resummed calculations of transverse momentum (to the jet axis) sensitive quantities. We examine how this regularization can be implemented via a multi-differential factorization of the soft-collinear phase-space, leading to an (in principle) alternative non-perturbative regularization of rapidity divergences. As an example, we examine the fully-differential factorization of a color singlet's momentum spectrum in a hadron-hadron collision at threshold. We show how this factorization acts as a mother theory to both traditional threshold and transverse momentum resummation, recovering the classical results for both resummations. Examining the refactorization of the transverse momentum beam functions in the threshold region, we show that one can directly calculate the rapidity renormalized function, while shedding light on the structure of joint resummation. Finally, we show how using modern bootstrap techniques, the transverse momentum spectrum is determined by an expansion about the threshold factorization, leading to a viable higher loop scheme for calculating the relevant anomalous dimensions for the transverse momentum spectrum.

  13. Calculation of two-center one-electron molecular integrals with STOs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rico, J.F.; Lopez, R.; Paniagua, M.; Ramirez, G.

    1991-01-01

    A program for the calculation of two-center one-electron integrals (overlap, nuclear attraction and kinetic energy) between real Slater-type orbitals (STOs) is reported. The integrals are obtained by recursion over simple auxiliary matrices, whose elements are calculated in terms of further auxiliary functions evaluated in a quick and accurate way. (orig.)

  14. Computationally efficient description of relativistic electron beam transport in dense plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polomarov, Oleg; Sefkov, Adam; Kaganovich, Igor; Shvets, Gennady

    2006-10-01

    A reduced model of the Weibel instability and electron beam transport in dense plasma is developed. Beam electrons are modeled by macro-particles and the background plasma is represented by electron fluid. Conservation of generalized vorticity and quasineutrality of the plasma-beam system are used to simplify the governing equations. Our approach is motivated by the conditions of the FI scenario, where the beam density is likely to be much smaller than the plasma density and the beam energy is likely to be very high. For this case the growth rate of the Weibel instability is small, making the modeling of it by conventional PICs exceedingly time consuming. The present approach does not require resolving the plasma period and only resolves a plasma collisionless skin depth and is suitable for modeling a long-time behavior of beam-plasma interaction. An efficient code based on this reduced description is developed and benchmarked against the LSP PIC code. The dynamics of low and high current electron beams in dense plasma is simulated. Special emphasis is on peculiarities of its non-linear stages, such as filament formation and merger, saturation and post-saturation field and energy oscillations. *Supported by DOE Fusion Science through grant DE-FG02-05ER54840.

  15. Highly efficient method for 125I-radiolabeling of biomolecules using inverse-electron-demand Diels-Alder reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi Hee; Shim, Ha Eun; Yun, Seong-Jae; Kim, Hye Rim; Mushtaq, Sajid; Lee, Chang Heon; Park, Sang Hyun; Choi, Dae Seong; Lee, Dong-Eun; Byun, Eui-Baek; Jang, Beom-Su; Jeon, Jongho

    2016-04-19

    In this report, we present a rapid and highly efficient method for radioactive iodine labeling of trans-cyclooctene group conjugated biomolecules using inverse-electron-demand Diels-Alder reaction. Radioiodination reaction of the tetrazine structure was carried out using the stannylated precursor 2 to give 125 I-labeled azide ([ 125 I]1) with high radiochemical yield (65±8%) and radiochemical purity (>99%). For radiolabeling application of [ 125 I]1, trans-cyclooctene derived cRGD peptide and human serum albumin were prepared. These substrated were reacted with [ 125 I]1 under mild condition to provide the radiolabeled products [ 125 I]6 and [ 125 I]8, respectively, with excellent radiochemical yields. The biodistribution study of [ 125 I]8 in normal ICR mice showed significantly lower thyroid uptake values than that of 125 I-labeled human serum albumin prepared by a traditional radiolabeling method. Therefore [ 125 I]8 will be a useful radiolabeled tracer in various molecular imaging and biological studies. Those results clearly demonstrate that [ 125 I]1 will be used as a valuable prosthetic group for radiolabeling of biomolecules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. All-in-one nanowire-decorated multifunctional membrane for rapid cell lysis and direct DNA isolation.

    KAUST Repository

    So, Hongyun; Lee, Kunwoo; Murthy, Niren; Pisano, Albert P

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a handheld device that uses an all-in-one membrane for continuous mechanical cell lysis and rapid DNA isolation without the assistance of power sources, lysis reagents, and routine centrifugation. This nanowire-decorated multifunctional membrane was fabricated to isolate DNA by selective adsorption to silica surface immediately after disruption of nucleus membranes by ultrasharp tips of nanowires for a rapid cell lysis, and it can be directly assembled with commercial syringe filter holders. The membrane was fabricated by photoelectrochemical etching to create microchannel arrays followed by hydrothermal synthesis of nanowires and deposition of silica. The proposed membrane successfully purifies high-quality DNA within 5 min, whereas a commercial purification kit needs more than an hour.

  17. All-in-one nanowire-decorated multifunctional membrane for rapid cell lysis and direct DNA isolation.

    KAUST Repository

    So, Hongyun

    2014-11-24

    This paper describes a handheld device that uses an all-in-one membrane for continuous mechanical cell lysis and rapid DNA isolation without the assistance of power sources, lysis reagents, and routine centrifugation. This nanowire-decorated multifunctional membrane was fabricated to isolate DNA by selective adsorption to silica surface immediately after disruption of nucleus membranes by ultrasharp tips of nanowires for a rapid cell lysis, and it can be directly assembled with commercial syringe filter holders. The membrane was fabricated by photoelectrochemical etching to create microchannel arrays followed by hydrothermal synthesis of nanowires and deposition of silica. The proposed membrane successfully purifies high-quality DNA within 5 min, whereas a commercial purification kit needs more than an hour.

  18. Entanglement growth and simulation efficiency in one-dimensional quantum lattice systems

    OpenAIRE

    Perales, Alvaro; Vidal, Guifre

    2007-01-01

    We study the evolution of one-dimensional quantum lattice systems when the ground state is perturbed by altering one site in the middle of the chain. For a large class of models, we observe a similar pattern of entanglement growth during the evolution, characterized by a moderate increase of significant Schmidt coefficients in all relevant bipartite decompositions of the state. As a result, the evolution can be accurately described by a matrix product state and efficiently simulated using the...

  19. Improving the drug delivery characteristics of graphene oxide based polymer nanocomposites through the “one-pot” synthetic approach of single-electron-transfer living radical polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Peng; Liu, Meiying; Tian, Jianwen; Deng, Fengjie [Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031 (China); Wang, Ke [Department of Chemistry and the Tsinghua Center for Frontier Polymer Research, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Xu, Dazhuang [Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031 (China); Liu, Liangji [Affiliated Hospital of Jiangxi University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanchang 330006 (China); Zhang, Xiaoyong, E-mail: xiaoyongzhang1980@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031 (China); Wei, Yen, E-mail: weiyen@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry and the Tsinghua Center for Frontier Polymer Research, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Graphical abstract: The PEGylated graphene oxides with high water dispersibility, good biocompatibility as well as high drug loading capability were fabricated via “one-pot” SET-LRP. - Highlights: • Surface modification of graphene oxide with polymers. • One-pot single-electron-transfer living radical polymerization. • Improving drug delivery characteristics. • The synthetic approach is rather simple, universal and effective. - Abstract: Graphene oxide (GO) based polymer nanocomposites have attracted extensive research interest recently for their outstanding physicochemical properties and potential applications. However, surface modification of GO with synthetic polymers has demonstrated to be trouble for most polymerization procedures are occurred under non-aqueous solution, which will in turn lead to the restacking of GO. In this work, a facile and efficientone-pot” strategy has been developed for surface modification of GO with synthetic polymers through single-electron-transfer living radical polymerization (SET-LRP). The GO based polymer nanocomposites were obtained via SET-LRP in aqueous solution using poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA) as the monomer and 11-bromoundecanoic acid as the initiator, which could be effectively adsorbed on GO through hydrophobic interaction. The successful preparation of GO based polymer nanocomposites was confirmed by a series of characterization techniques such as {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The resultant products exhibit high water disperisibility, excellent biocompatibility and high efficient drug loading capability, making these PEGylated GO nanocomposites promising candidates for biomedical applications.

  20. Rapid single flux quantum logic in high temperature superconductor technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shunmugavel, K.

    2006-01-01

    A Josephson junction is the basic element of rapid single flux quantum logic (RSFQ) circuits. A high operating speed and low power consumption are the main advantages of RSFQ logic over semiconductor electronic circuits. To realize complex RSFQ circuits in HTS technology one needs a reproducible

  1. Improved efficiency of NiOx-based p-i-n perovskite solar cells by using PTEG-1 as electron transport layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeneveld, Bart G. H. M.; Najafi, Mehrdad; Steensma, Bauke; Adjokatse, Sampson; Fang, Hong-Hua; Jahani, Fatemeh; Qiu, Li; ten Brink, Gert H.; Hummelen, Jan C.; Loi, Maria Antonietta

    2017-07-01

    We present efficient p-i-n type perovskite solar cells using NiOx as the hole transport layer and a fulleropyrrolidine with a triethylene glycol monoethyl ether side chain (PTEG-1) as electron transport layer. This electron transport layer leads to higher power conversion efficiencies compared to perovskite solar cells with PCBM (phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester). The improved performance of PTEG-1 devices is attributed to the reduced trap-assisted recombination and improved charge extraction in these solar cells, as determined by light intensity dependence and photoluminescence measurements. Through optimization of the hole and electron transport layers, the power conversion efficiency of the NiOx/perovskite/PTEG-1 solar cells was increased up to 16.1%.

  2. Probabilities and energies to obtain the counting efficiency of electron-capture nuclides, KLMN model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casas Galiano, G.; Grau Malonda, A.

    1994-01-01

    An intelligent computer program has been developed to obtain the mathematical formulae to compute the probabilities and reduced energies of the different atomic rearrangement pathways following electron-capture decay. Creation and annihilation operators for Auger and X processes have been introduced. Taking into account the symmetries associated with each process, 262 different pathways were obtained. This model allows us to obtain the influence of the M-electron-capture in the counting efficiency when the atomic number of the nuclide is high

  3. Rapid and efficient proteolysis through laser-assisted immobilized enzyme reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Gao, Mingxia; Zhu, Shaochun; Lei, Jie; Zhang, Xiangmin

    2011-11-25

    In this report, laser radiation (808nm) for the first time was employed to enhance the efficiency of proteolysis through immobilized enzyme reactor (IMER). IMER based monolithic support was prepared in the fused-silica capillary via a simple two-step procedure including acryloylation on trypsin surface and in situ aqueous polymerization/immobilization. The feasibility and high efficiency of the laser-assisted IMER were demonstrated by the digestion of bovine serum albumin (BSA), cytochrome c (Cyt-c) and β-casein. The digestion process was achieved in 60s. The peptides were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS, yielding the sequence coverage of 33% for BSA, 73% for Cyt-c and 22% for β-casein. The comparisons between the in-solution digestion and on IMER reaction with/without laser assistance were made. To further confirm its efficiency in proteome analysis, the laser-assisted IMER was also applied to the analysis of one fraction of human serum sample through two-dimensional (2-D) separation of strong anion exchange/reversed-phase liquid chromatography (SAX/RPLC). After a database search, 49 unique peptides corresponding to 5 proteins were identified. The results showed that the laser-assisted IMER provides a promising platform for the high-throughput protein identification. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Efficient Regular Perovskite Solar Cells Based on Pristine [70]Fullerene as Electron-Selective Contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collavini, Silvia; Kosta, Ivet; Völker, Sebastian F; Cabanero, German; Grande, Hans J; Tena-Zaera, Ramón; Delgado, Juan Luis

    2016-06-08

    [70]Fullerene is presented as an efficient alternative electron-selective contact (ESC) for regular-architecture perovskite solar cells (PSCs). A smart and simple, well-described solution processing protocol for the preparation of [70]- and [60]fullerene-based solar cells, namely the fullerene saturation approach (FSA), allowed us to obtain similar power conversion efficiencies for both fullerene materials (i.e., 10.4 and 11.4 % for [70]- and [60]fullerene-based devices, respectively). Importantly, despite the low electron mobility and significant visible-light absorption of [70]fullerene, the presented protocol allows the employment of [70]fullerene as an efficient ESC. The [70]fullerene film thickness and its solubility in the perovskite processing solutions are crucial parameters, which can be controlled by the use of this simple solution processing protocol. The damage to the [70]fullerene film through dissolution during the perovskite deposition is avoided through the saturation of the perovskite processing solution with [70]fullerene. Additionally, this fullerene-saturation strategy improves the performance of the perovskite film significantly and enhances the power conversion efficiency of solar cells based on different ESCs (i.e., [60]fullerene, [70]fullerene, and TiO2 ). Therefore, this universal solution processing protocol widens the opportunities for the further development of PSCs. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. A rapid, one step molecular identification of Trichoderma citrinoviride and Trichoderma reesei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saroj, Dina B; Dengeti, Shrinivas N; Aher, Supriya; Gupta, Anil K

    2015-06-01

    Trichoderma species are widely used as production hosts for industrial enzymes. Identification of Trichoderma species requires a complex molecular biology based identification involving amplification and sequencing of multiple genes. Industrial laboratories are required to run identification tests repeatedly in cell banking procedures and also to prove absence of production host in the product. Such demands can be fulfilled by a brief method which enables confirmation of strain identity. This communication describes one step identification method for two common Trichoderma species; T. citrinoviride and T. reesei, based on identification of polymorphic region in the nucleotide sequence of translation elongation factor 1 alpha. A unique forward primer and common reverse primer resulted in 153 and 139 bp amplicon for T. citrinoviride and T. reesei, respectively. Simplification was further introduced by using mycelium as template for PCR amplification. Method described in this communication allows rapid, one step identification of two Trichoderma species.

  6. Rapid fabrication of hierarchically structured supramolecular nanocomposite thin films in one minute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Ting; Kao, Joseph

    2016-11-08

    Functional nanocomposites containing nanoparticles of different chemical compositions may exhibit new properties to meet demands for advanced technology. It is imperative to simultaneously achieve hierarchical structural control and to develop rapid, scalable fabrication to minimize degradation of nanoparticle properties and for compatibility with nanomanufacturing. The assembly kinetics of supramolecular nanocomposite in thin films is governed by the energetic cost arising from defects, the chain mobility, and the activation energy for inter-domain diffusion. By optimizing only one parameter, the solvent fraction in the film, the assembly kinetics can be precisely tailored to produce hierarchically structured thin films of supramolecular nanocomposites in approximately one minute. Moreover, the strong wavelength dependent optical anisotropy in the nanocomposite highlights their potential applications for light manipulation and information transmission. The present invention opens a new avenue in designing manufacture-friendly continuous processing for the fabrication of functional nanocomposite thin films.

  7. Electric dipole, polarizability and structure of cesium chloride clusters with one-excess electron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jraij, A.; Allouche, A.R.; Rabilloud, F.; Korek, M.; Aubert-Frecon, M.; Rayane, D.; Compagnon, I.; Antoine, R.; Broyer, M.; Dugourd, Ph.

    2006-01-01

    The measurement of the electric dipole of gas phase one-excess electron Cs n Cl n-1 clusters is reported together with a theoretical ab initio prediction of stable structures, dipole moments and electronic polarizabilities for these species in their ground state. Results are in agreement with NaCl cubic structures

  8. Enhancement of Electron Transfer Efficiency in Solar Cells Based on PbS QD/N719 Dye Cosensitizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Gao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cosensitized solar cells (CSSCs have recently become an active subject in the field of sensitized solar cells (SSCs due to their increasing electronic utilization. However, because of the dye molecules, layer must be single, dye-SSCs cannot be co-sensitized with two different dyes to form two different molecules layer. But it is possible to be cosensitized with quantum dots (QDs and dyes. Here we designed novel photoanode architecture, namely, PbS QDs and N719 dyes are used as co-sensitizers of the TiO2 mesoporous film. The experimental result shows that PbS QDs/N719 dyes co-sensitized structure can make PbS QDs and N719 dyes mutual improvement. Taking the advantage of PbS not only achieved higher transfer efficiency of photo-excited electron, but also achieved obviously wider range and higher intensity of absorption. The PbS QDs which have been deposited on the TiO2 film was coated by N719 dyes, which can effectively prevent PbS QDs from corroding by I-/I3-electrolyte and light. As we expected, the solar energy-conversion efficiency which is showed by CSSCs fabricated following these photoanodes is relatively higher than the PbS QDs or N719 dyes, single-sensitized solar cells under the illumination of one sun.

  9. Simulation of the electron collection efficiency of a PMT based on the MCP coated with high secondary yield material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Lin, E-mail: chenlin@opt.cn [State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi' an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics (XIOPM), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Xi' an 710119 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100049 (China); Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Extreme Optics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China); Tian, Jinshou [State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi' an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics (XIOPM), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Xi' an 710119 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Extreme Optics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China); Zhao, Tianchi [Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP) of CAS, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Chunliang [Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Liu, Hulin; Wei, Yonglin; Sai, Xiaofeng [State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi' an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics (XIOPM), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Xi' an 710119 (China); Chen, Ping [State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi' an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics (XIOPM), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Xi' an 710119 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100049 (China); Wang, Xing; Lu, Yu [State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi' an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics (XIOPM), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Xi' an 710119 (China); Hui, Dandan [State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi' an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics (XIOPM), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Xi' an 710119 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100049 (China)

    2016-11-01

    Owning to the serious loss of photoelectrons striking at the input electrode of traditional microchannel plate (MCP), photoelectron collection efficiency (CE) of photomultiplier tubes based on MCP (MCP-PMTs) fluctuates around the MCP open area fraction and cannot make a breakthrough. Depositing a thin film of high secondary electron yield material on the MCP is proposed as an effective approach to improve the CE. The available simulation and experimental data to validate it, however, is sparse. In our work, a three-dimensional small area MCP model is developed in CST Studio Suite to evaluate the collection efficiencies of PMTs based on the traditional MCP and the coated one, respectively. Results predict that CE of the PMT based on the coated MCP has a significant increase and a better uniformity, which is expected to reach 100%.

  10. Organic High Electron Mobility Transistors Realized by 2D Electron Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Panlong; Wang, Haibo; Yan, Donghang

    2017-09-01

    A key breakthrough in inorganic modern electronics is the energy-band engineering that plays important role to improve device performance or develop novel functional devices. A typical application is high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs), which utilizes 2D electron gas (2DEG) as transport channel and exhibits very high electron mobility over traditional field-effect transistors (FETs). Recently, organic electronics have made very rapid progress and the band transport model is demonstrated to be more suitable for explaining carrier behavior in high-mobility crystalline organic materials. Therefore, there emerges a chance for applying energy-band engineering in organic semiconductors to tailor their optoelectronic properties. Here, the idea of energy-band engineering is introduced and a novel device configuration is constructed, i.e., using quantum well structures as active layers in organic FETs, to realize organic 2DEG. Under the control of gate voltage, electron carriers are accumulated and confined at quantized energy levels, and show efficient 2D transport. The electron mobility is up to 10 cm 2 V -1 s -1 , and the operation mechanisms of organic HEMTs are also argued. Our results demonstrate the validity of tailoring optoelectronic properties of organic semiconductors by energy-band engineering, offering a promising way for the step forward of organic electronics. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. RBE comparison between rapid electrons of 20 MeV and 45 MeV with survival rate, DNA synthesis, DNA reparation and nucleoid sedimentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alth, G.; Weniger, P.; Turtzer, K.; Klein, W.; Kocsis, F.; Krankenhaus der Stadt Wien-Lainz; Oesterreichisches Forschungszentrum Seibersdorf G.m.b.H. Inst. fuer Biologie)

    1982-01-01

    In order to find out possible differences of the biologic efficacy of rapid electrons of different energies, the authors examined the influence of rapid electrons of 20 MeV and 45 MeV upon the survival rate of Hela cells S3, their cell growth, DNA synthesis, DNA reparation, and sedimentation of nucleoids. The results show a difference only for the nucleoid sedimentation, i.e. there are more fractured DNA cords after 45 MeV irradiation. No significant differences could be demonstrated for the parameters of the survival curve, DNA synthesis and DNA reparation. Four double tests were carried out corresponding to the indicated types of examination. (orig.) [de

  12. Tangiplay: prototyping tangible electronic games

    OpenAIRE

    Boileau, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Tangible electronic games currently exist in research laboratories around the world but have yet to transition to the commercial sector. The development process of a tangible electronic game is one of the factors preventing progression, as it requires much time and money. Prototyping tools for tangible hardware and software development are becoming more available but are targeted to programmers and technically trained developers. Paper prototyping board and video games is a proven and rapid m...

  13. Enhanced carrier collection efficiency and reduced quantum state absorption by electron doping in self-assembled quantum dot solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tian, E-mail: tianlee@umd.edu, E-mail: dage@ece.umd.edu; Dagenais, Mario, E-mail: tianlee@umd.edu, E-mail: dage@ece.umd.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Lu, Haofeng; Fu, Lan; Tan, Hark Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2015-02-02

    Reduced quantum dot (QD) absorption due to state filling effects and enhanced electron transport in doped QDs are demonstrated to play a key role in solar energy conversion. Reduced QD state absorption with increased n-doping is observed in the self-assembled In{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}As/GaAs QDs from high resolution below-bandgap external quantum efficiency (EQE) measurement, which is a direct consequence of the Pauli exclusion principle. We also show that besides partial filling of the quantum states, electron-doping produces negatively charged QDs that exert a repulsive Coulomb force on the mobile electrons, thus altering the electron trajectory and reducing the probability of electron capture, leading to an improved collection efficiency of photo-generated carriers, as indicated by an absolute above-bandgap EQE measurement. The resulting redistribution of the mobile electron in the planar direction is further validated by the observed photoluminescence intensity dependence on doping.

  14. Heavy component of spent nuclear fuel: Efficiency of model-substance ionization by electron-induced discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonov, N. N., E-mail: antonovnickola@gmail.com; Gavrikov, A. V.; Samokhin, A. A.; Smirnov, V. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, High Energy Density Research Center, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    The method of plasma separation of spent nuclear fuel can be tested with a model substance which has to be transformed from the condensed to plasma state. For this purpose, electron-induced discharge in lead vapor injected into the interelectrode gap is simulated using the kinetic approach. The ionization efficiency, the electrostatic-potential distribution, and those of the ion and electron densities in the discharge gap are derived as functions of the discharge-current density and concentration of the vapor of the model substance. Given a discharge-current density of 3.5 A/cm{sup 2} and a lead-vapor concentration of 2 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup –3}, the simulated ionization efficiency proves to be nearly 60%. The discharge in lead vapor is also investigated experimentally.

  15. Electronic health records and cardiac implantable electronic devices: new paradigms and efficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotwiner, David J

    2016-10-01

    The anticipated advantages of electronic health records (EHRs)-improved efficiency and the ability to share information across the healthcare enterprise-have so far failed to materialize. There is growing recognition that interoperability holds the key to unlocking the greatest value of EHRs. Health information technology (HIT) systems including EHRs must be able to share data and be able to interpret the shared data. This requires a controlled vocabulary with explicit definitions (data elements) as well as protocols to communicate the context in which each data element is being used (syntactic structure). Cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) provide a clear example of the challenges faced by clinicians when data is not interoperable. The proprietary data formats created by each CIED manufacturer, as well as the multiple sources of data generated by CIEDs (hospital, office, remote monitoring, acute care setting), make it challenging to aggregate even a single patient's data into an EHR. The Heart Rhythm Society and CIED manufacturers have collaborated to develop and implement international standard-based specifications for interoperability that provide an end-to-end solution, enabling structured data to be communicated from CIED to a report generation system, EHR, research database, referring physician, registry, patient portal, and beyond. EHR and other health information technology vendors have been slow to implement these tools, in large part, because there have been no financial incentives for them to do so. It is incumbent upon us, as clinicians, to insist that the tools of interoperability be a prerequisite for the purchase of any and all health information technology systems.

  16. Combining nanocalorimetry and dynamic transmission electron microscopy for in situ characterization of materials processes under rapid heating and cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grapes, Michael D., E-mail: mgrapes1@jhu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Materials Measurement Science Division, Material Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); LaGrange, Thomas; Reed, Bryan W.; Campbell, Geoffrey H. [Condensed Matter and Materials Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Friedman, Lawrence H.; LaVan, David A., E-mail: david.lavan@nist.gov [Materials Measurement Science Division, Material Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Weihs, Timothy P., E-mail: weihs@jhu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Nanocalorimetry is a chip-based thermal analysis technique capable of analyzing endothermic and exothermic reactions at very high heating and cooling rates. Here, we couple a nanocalorimeter with an extremely fast in situ microstructural characterization tool to identify the physical origin of rapid enthalpic signals. More specifically, we describe the development of a system to enable in situ nanocalorimetry experiments in the dynamic transmission electron microscope (DTEM), a time-resolved TEM capable of generating images and electron diffraction patterns with exposure times of 30 ns–500 ns. The full experimental system consists of a modified nanocalorimeter sensor, a custom-built in situ nanocalorimetry holder, a data acquisition system, and the DTEM itself, and is capable of thermodynamic and microstructural characterization of reactions over a range of heating rates (10{sup 2} K/s–10{sup 5} K/s) accessible by conventional (DC) nanocalorimetry. To establish its ability to capture synchronized calorimetric and microstructural data during rapid transformations, this work describes measurements on the melting of an aluminum thin film. We were able to identify the phase transformation in both the nanocalorimetry traces and in electron diffraction patterns taken by the DTEM. Potential applications for the newly developed system are described and future system improvements are discussed.

  17. Rapid and Efficient Synthesis of Silver Nanofluid Using Electrical Discharge Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Hsiung Tseng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrical discharge machining (EDM system has been proven feasible as a rapid and efficient method for silver nanofluid preparation. This study prepared the silver nano-fluid via EDM and investigated the relationship between its process parameters and product characteristics. The prior study had found that the silver nano-fluid prepared by EDM contained both silver nanoparticles and silver ions. Silver ions had revealed the cause of the high suspension of the silver nanoparticles. To examine the relationship between the stability of silver nanofluid and the process parameters, this study quantified the relationship of process parameters to the material removal rate (MRR of silver electrode and silver ion output rate (IOR in the fluid, in order to achieve the most effective process parameter condition. Furthermore, the stability of silver nano-fluid was analyzed by various devices, including UV-Vis spectroscopy, size-distribution, and Zeta-potential analyzer. The effects of MRR, IOR, particle size, Zeta-potential, and optical properties of silver nanofluid under different process parameters are also discussed.

  18. Energy deposition, heat flow, and rapid solidification during laser and electron beam irradiation of materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, C.W.; Aziz, M.J.

    1985-10-01

    The fundamentals of energy deposition, heat flow, and rapid solidification during energy deposition from lasers and electron beams is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the deposition of energy from pulsed sources (10 to 100 ns pulse duration time) in order to achieve high heating and cooling rates (10/sup 8/ to 10/sup 10/ /sup 0/C/s) in the near surface region. The response of both metals and semiconductors to pulsed energy deposition is considered. Guidelines are presented for the choice of energy source, wavelength, and pulse duration time.

  19. An efficient catalytic reductive amination: A facile one-pot access to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An efficient catalytic reductive amination: A facile one-pot access to ... itors and in the manufacture of detergents and plastics.1 ... ammoniaborane/Ti(OiPr)4,5e ... demonstrated the first method for synthesis of 1,2- ... and column chromatography (Silica gel, n-hexane/ethyl .... supporting information at www.ias.ac.in/chemsci.

  20. Two-Electron Transfer Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiaxing; Balamurugan, D; Zhang, Peng; Skourtis, Spiros S; Beratan, David N

    2015-06-18

    The frontiers of electron-transfer chemistry demand that we develop theoretical frameworks to describe the delivery of multiple electrons, atoms, and ions in molecular systems. When electrons move over long distances through high barriers, where the probability for thermal population of oxidized or reduced bridge-localized states is very small, the electrons will tunnel from the donor (D) to acceptor (A), facilitated by bridge-mediated superexchange interactions. If the stable donor and acceptor redox states on D and A differ by two electrons, it is possible that the electrons will propagate coherently from D to A. While structure-function relations for single-electron superexchange in molecules are well established, strategies to manipulate the coherent flow of multiple electrons are largely unknown. In contrast to one-electron superexchange, two-electron superexchange involves both one- and two-electron virtual intermediate states, the number of virtual intermediates increases very rapidly with system size, and multiple classes of pathways interfere with one another. In the study described here, we developed simple superexchange models for two-electron transfer. We explored how the bridge structure and energetics influence multielectron superexchange, and we compared two-electron superexchange interactions to single-electron superexchange. Multielectron superexchange introduces interference between singly and doubly oxidized (or reduced) bridge virtual states, so that even simple linear donor-bridge-acceptor systems have pathway topologies that resemble those seen for one-electron superexchange through bridges with multiple parallel pathways. The simple model systems studied here exhibit a richness that is amenable to experimental exploration by manipulating the multiple pathways, pathway crosstalk, and changes in the number of donor and acceptor species. The features that emerge from these studies may assist in developing new strategies to deliver multiple

  1. Rapid and efficient radiosynthesis of [{sup 123}I]I-PK11195, a single photon emission computed tomography tracer for peripheral benzodiazepine receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimlott, Sally L. [Department of Clinical Physics, West of Scotland Radionuclide Dispensary, Western Infirmary, G11 6NT Glasgow (United Kingdom)], E-mail: s.pimlott@clinmed.gla.ac.uk; Stevenson, Louise [Department of Chemistry, WestCHEM, University of Glasgow, G12 8QQ Glasgow (United Kingdom); Wyper, David J. [Institute of Neurological Sciences, Southern General Hospital, G51 4TF Glasgow (United Kingdom); Sutherland, Andrew [Department of Chemistry, WestCHEM, University of Glasgow, G12 8QQ Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-15

    Introduction: [{sup 123}I]I-PK11195 is a high-affinity single photon emission computed tomography radiotracer for peripheral benzodiazepine receptors that has previously been used to measure activated microglia and to assess neuroinflammation in the living human brain. This study investigates the radiosynthesis of [{sup 123}I]I-PK11195 in order to develop a rapid and efficient method that obtains [{sup 123}I]I-PK11195 with a high specific activity for in vivo animal and human imaging studies. Methods: The synthesis of [{sup 123}I]I-PK11195 was evaluated using a solid-state interhalogen exchange method and an electrophilic iododestannylation method, where bromine and trimethylstannyl derivatives were used as precursors, respectively. In the electrophilic iododestannylation method, the oxidants peracetic acid and chloramine-T were both investigated. Results: Electrophilic iododestannylation produced [{sup 123}I]I-PK11195 with a higher isolated radiochemical yield and a higher specific activity than achievable using the halogen exchange method investigated. Using chloramine-T as oxidant provided a rapid and efficient method of choice for the synthesis of [{sup 123}I]I-PK11195. Conclusions: [{sup 123}I]I-PK11195 has been successfully synthesized via a rapid and efficient electrophilic iododestannylation method, producing [{sup 123}I]I-PK11195 with a higher isolated radiochemical yield and a higher specific activity than previously achieved.

  2. Differential cross sections for the one electron two center symmetric systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maidagan, J.M.; Piacentini, R.D.; Rivarola, R.D.; Universidad Autonoma de Madrid

    1982-01-01

    We use the two-state atomic expansion with variable nuclear charge to study charge-exchange differential cross sections for symmetrical one-electron systems at intermediate energy. The nonclassical small angle diffraction scattering is discussed. Our results are compared with data for H + -H collisions. (orig.)

  3. Differential cross sections for the one electron two center symmetric systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maidagan, J.M.; Piacentini, R.D. (Universidad Nacional de Rosario (Argentina). Dept. de Fisica); Rivarola, R.D. (Bordeaux-1 Univ., 33 - Talence (France). Lab. d' Astrophysique; Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Quimica Fisica y Quimica Cuantica)

    1982-03-01

    We use the two-state atomic expansion with variable nuclear charge to study charge-exchange differential cross sections for symmetrical one-electron systems at intermediate energy. The nonclassical small angle diffraction scattering is discussed. Our results are compared with data for H/sup +/-H collisions.

  4. Study the Precipitation of Radiation Belt Electrons during the Rapid Dropout Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, W.; Cunningham, G.; Li, X.; Chen, Y.

    2015-12-01

    During the main phase of storms, the relativistic electron flux in the radiation belt can drop by orders of magnitude on timescales of a few hours. Where do the electrons go? This is one of the most important outstanding questions in radiation belt studies. Radiation belt electrons can be lost either by transport across the magnetopause into interplanetary space or by precipitation into the atmosphere. In this work we first conduct a survey of the MeV electron dropouts using the Van Allen Probes data in conjunction with the low-altitude measurements of precipitating electrons by 6 NOAA/POES satellites. The dropout events are categorized into three types: precipitation-loss dominant, outward radial diffusion dominant, or with contributions from both mechanisms. The survey results suggest the relative importance of precipitation and outward radial diffusion to the fast dropouts of radiation belt electrons, and their extent in L-shell and electron energy. Then, for specific events identified as dominated by precipitation loss, we use the Drift-Diffusion model, which includes the effects of azimuthal drift and pitch angle diffusion, to simulate both the electron dropout observed by Van Allen Probes and the distributions of drift-loss-cone electrons observed by multiple low-earth-orbit satellites (6 POES and the Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment). The model quantifies the electron precipitation loss and pitch angle diffusion coefficient, Dxx, with high temporal and spatial resolution. Finally, by comparing the Dxx derived from the model with those estimated from the quasi-linear theory using wave data from Van Allen Probes and other event-specific wave models, we are able to test the validity of quasi-linear theory and seek direct evidence of the wave-particle interactions during the dropouts.

  5. Rapid and sustained cost management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, D.

    2009-01-01

    Accenture helps clients develop comprehensive, process-driven strategies for rapid and sustained cost management that leverage deep insights and analytics. This approach enables companies to gain operating cost advantages by rationalizing, simplifying and automating current operating capabilities. It drives structural cost advantages by optimizing business mix, capital structure, organizational structure and geographic presence. This paper discussed how successful companies achieve high performance during times of economic turmoil. It also discussed the value of the winner's strategy in terms of rapid and sustained cost management (RSCM). It discussed how Accenture operates and its leveraged capabilities, improved efficiency, margins and cash flow while maintaining customer service levels. Building structural advantage and the Accenture difference were also discussed. It was concluded that RSCM is one vital way that Accenture can help companies achieve success. 4 figs

  6. Defining Usability Heuristics for Adoption and Efficiency of an Electronic Workflow Document Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Steven

    2017-01-01

    Usability heuristics have been established for different uses and applications as general guidelines for user interfaces. These can affect the implementation of industry solutions and play a significant role regarding cost reduction and process efficiency. The area of electronic workflow document management (EWDM) solutions, also known as…

  7. Printable Spacecraft: Flexible Electronic Platforms for NASA Missions. Phase One

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Kendra (Principal Investigator); Van Buren, David (Principal Investigator)

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric confetti. Inchworm crawlers. Blankets of ground penetrating radar. These are some of the unique mission concepts which could be enabled by a printable spacecraft. Printed electronics technology offers enormous potential to transform the way NASA builds spacecraft. A printed spacecraft's low mass, volume and cost offer dramatic potential impacts to many missions. Network missions could increase from a few discrete measurements to tens of thousands of platforms improving areal density and system reliability. Printed platforms could be added to any prime mission as a low-cost, minimum resource secondary payload to augment the science return. For a small fraction of the mass and cost of a traditional lander, a Europa flagship mission might carry experimental printed surface platforms. An Enceladus Explorer could carry feather-light printed platforms to release into volcanic plumes to measure composition and impact energies. The ability to print circuits directly onto a variety of surfaces, opens the possibility of multi-functional structures and membranes such as "smart" solar sails and balloons. The inherent flexibility of a printed platform allows for in-situ re-configurability for aerodynamic control or mobility. Engineering telemetry of wheel/soil interactions are possible with a conformal printed sensor tape fit around a rover wheel. Environmental time history within a sample return canister could be recorded with a printed sensor array that fits flush to the interior of the canister. Phase One of the NIAC task entitled "Printable Spacecraft" investigated the viability of printed electronics technologies for creating multi-functional spacecraft platforms. Mission concepts and architectures that could be enhanced or enabled with this technology were explored. This final report captures the results and conclusions of the Phase One study. First, the report presents the approach taken in conducting the study and a mapping of results against the proposed

  8. Manipulating the Electronic Excited State Energies of Pyrimidine-Based Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Emitters To Realize Efficient Deep-Blue Emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Ryutaro; Ohsawa, Tatsuya; Sasabe, Hisahiro; Nakao, Kohei; Hayasaka, Yuya; Kido, Junji

    2017-02-08

    The development of efficient and robust deep-blue emitters is one of the key issues in organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) for environmentally friendly, large-area displays or general lighting. As a promising technology that realizes 100% conversion from electrons to photons, thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) emitters have attracted considerable attention. However, only a handful of examples of deep-blue TADF emitters have been reported to date, and the emitters generally show large efficiency roll-off at practical luminance over several hundreds to thousands of cd m -2 , most likely because of the long delayed fluorescent lifetime (τ d ). To overcome this problem, we molecularly manipulated the electronic excited state energies of pyrimidine-based TADF emitters to realize deep-blue emission and reduced τ d . We then systematically investigated the relationships among the chemical structure, properties, and device performances. The resultant novel pyrimidine emitters, called Ac-XMHPMs (X = 1, 2, and 3), contain different numbers of bulky methyl substituents at acceptor moieties, increasing the excited singlet (E S ) and triplet state (E T ) energies. Among them, Ac-3MHPM, with a high E T of 2.95 eV, exhibited a high external quantum efficiency (η ext,max ) of 18% and an η ext of 10% at 100 cd m -2 with Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage chromaticity coordinates of (0.16, 0.15). These efficiencies are among the highest values to date for deep-blue TADF OLEDs. Our molecular design strategy provides fundamental guidance to design novel deep-blue TADF emitters.

  9. Preparation of TiO2-based nanotubes/nanoparticles composite thin film electrodes for their electron transport properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Wanyu; Fu, Wuyou; Chen, Jingkuo; Li, Huayang; Bala, Hari; Wang, Xiaodong; Sun, Guang; Cao, Jianliang; Zhang, Zhanying

    2015-01-01

    The composite thin film electrodes were prepared with one-dimensional (1D) TiO 2 -B nanotubes (NTs) and zero-dimensional TiO 2 nanoparticles (NPs) based on different weight ratios. The electron transport properties of the NTs/NPs composite thin film electrodes applied for dye-sensitized solar cells had been investigated systematically. The results indicated that although the amount of dye adsorption decreased slightly, the devices with the NTs/NPs composite thin film electrodes could obtain higher open-circuit voltage and overall conversion efficiency compared to devices with pure TiO 2 NPs electrodes by rational tuning the weight ratio of TiO 2 -B NTs and TiO 2 NPs. When the weight ratio of TiO 2 -B NTs in the NTs/NPs composite thin film electrodes increased, the density of states and recombination rate decreased. The 1D structure of TiO 2 -B NTs can provide direct paths for electron transport, resulting in higher electron lifetime, electron diffusion coefficient and electron diffusion length. The composite thin film electrodes possess the merits of the rapid electron transport of TiO 2 -B NTs and the high surface area of TiO 2 NPs, which has great applied potential in the field of photovoltaic devices. - Highlights: • The composite thin film electrodes (CTFEs) were prepared with nanotubes and nanoparticles. • The CTFEs possess the rapid electron transport and high surface area. • The CTFEs exhibit lower recombination rate and longer electron life time. • The CTFEs have great applied potential in the field of photovoltaic devices

  10. Electron reconstruction and identification efficiency measurements with the ATLAS detector using the 2011 LHC proton-proton collision data

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abbott, Brad; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allison, Lee John; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Auerbach, Benjamin; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Backus Mayes, John; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Sarah; Balek, Petr; Balli, Fabrice; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Bartsch, Valeria; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernat, Pauline; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia, Olga; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boek, Thorsten Tobias; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Bohm, Jan; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bolnet, Nayanka Myriam; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borri, Marcello; Borroni, Sara; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouffard, Julian; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boutouil, Sara; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bracinik, Juraj; Branchini, Paolo; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brazzale, Simone Federico; Brelier, Bertrand; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Kieran; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Bromberg, Carl; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Brown, Gareth; Brown, Jonathan; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Bucci, Francesca; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Lars; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bundock, Aaron Colin; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burghgrave, Blake; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Butt, Aatif Imtiaz; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Byszewski, Marcin; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Cameron, David; Caminada, Lea Michaela; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Canepa, Anadi; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Antony; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catastini, Pierluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerio, Benjamin; Cerny, Karel; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cerv, Matevz; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chan, Kevin; Chang, Philip; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Charfeddine, Driss; Charlton, Dave; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Liming; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Chen, Yujiao; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiefari, Giovanni; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Christidi, Ilektra-Athanasia; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirkovic, Predrag; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Benoit; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cole, Brian; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Colon, German; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consonni, Sofia Maria; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cooper-Smith, Neil; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Côté, David; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuenca Almenar, Cristóbal; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cuthbert, Cameron; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davignon, Olivier; Davison, Adam; Davison, Peter; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De La Taille, Christophe; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; De Zorzi, Guido; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dechenaux, Benjamin; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Domenico, Antonio; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Dohmae, Takeshi; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dos Anjos, Andre; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Dube, Sourabh; Dubreuil, Emmanuelle; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Duflot, Laurent; Duguid, Liam; Dührssen, Michael; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Dwuznik, Michal; Dyndal, Mateusz; Ebke, Johannes; Edson, William; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Endo, Masaki; Engelmann, Roderich; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Matthew; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Fitzgerald, Eric Andrew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Florez Bustos, Andres Carlos; Flowerdew, Michael; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; French, Sky; Friedrich, Conrad; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; Garberson, Ford; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Giannetti, Paola; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Glonti, George; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goeringer, Christian; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Gozpinar, Serdar; Grabas, Herve Marie Xavier; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grout, Zara Jane; Grybel, Kai; Guan, Liang; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Shaun; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guttman, Nir; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Haefner, Petra; Hageboeck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Lukas; Heisterkamp, Simon; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Hengler, Christopher; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Hensel, Carsten; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg-Schubert, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hofmann, Julia Isabell; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holmes, Tova Ray; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Hurwitz, Martina; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Ideal, Emma; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Inamaru, Yuki; Ince, Tayfun; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanty, Laura; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Keener, Paul; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Keller, John; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Khodinov, Alexander; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kitamura, Takumi; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; König, Sebastian; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Sergey; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurumida, Rie; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laier, Heiko; Lambourne, Luke; Lammers, Sabine; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavorini, Vincenzo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Le, Bao Tran; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lester, Christopher; Lester, Christopher Michael; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Jonathan; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Losty, Michael; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeno, Mayuko; Maeno, Tadashi; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Mahmoud, Sara; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany Andreina; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marques, Carlos; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Homero; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Matricon, Pierre; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Meric, Nicolas; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Moeller, Victoria; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Mueller, Thibaut; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Munwes, Yonathan; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Nanava, Gizo; Narayan, Rohin; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newcomer, Mitchel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petteni, Michele; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piec, Sebastian Marcin; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pinto, Belmiro; Pires, Sylvestre; Pizio, Caterina; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Pohl, Martin; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Prabhu, Robindra; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quilty, Donnchadha; Qureshi, Anum; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rammes, Marcus; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rao, Kanury; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Tobias Christian; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisin, Hernan; Relich, Matthew; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resende, Bernardo; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Rodrigues, Luis; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romeo, Gaston; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Anthony; Rose, Matthew; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Saddique, Asif; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Satsounkevitch, Igor; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savard, Pierre; Savu, Dan Octavian; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaelicke, Andreas; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R. Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Christopher; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schram, Malachi; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schroeder, Christian; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwegler, Philipp; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scott, Bill; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekula, Stephen; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellers, Graham; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Serre, Thomas; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Sherwood, Peter; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Shushkevich, Stanislav; Sicho, Petr; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silbert, Ohad; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simoniello, Rosa; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinnari, Louise Anastasia; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snow, Joel; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Sodomka, Jaromir; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Song, Hong Ye; Soni, Nitesh; Sood, Alexander; Sopko, Vit; Sopko, Bruno; Sorin, Veronica; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soueid, Paul; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spearman, William Robert; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Staerz, Steffen; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Stavina, Pavel; Steele, Genevieve; Steinberg, Peter; Stekl, Ivan; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoerig, Kathrin; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramania, Halasya Siva; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Svatos, Michal; Swedish, Stephen; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tamsett, Matthew; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Christopher; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thong, Wai Meng; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Topilin, Nikolai; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Tran, Huong Lan; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Triplett, Nathan; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; True, Patrick; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tua, Alan; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Urquijo, Phillip; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Berg, Richard; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloso, Filipe; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigne, Ralph; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virzi, Joseph; Vitells, Ofer; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Adrian; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner, Peter; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Walsh, Brian; Wang, Chao; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Warsinsky, Markus; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watanabe, Ippei; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wendland, Dennis; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; White, Sebastian; Whiteson, Daniel; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wilson, Alan; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winkelmann, Stefan; Winklmeier, Frank; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittig, Tobias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wright, Michael; Wu, Mengqing; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xiao, Meng; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Liwen; Yao, Weiming; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yen, Andy L; Yildirim, Eda; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zitoun, Robert; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2014-07-15

    The electron reconstruction and identification efficiencies of the ATLAS detector at the LHC have been evaluated using proton-proton collision data collected in 2011 at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.7 fb$^{-1}$. Tag-and-probe methods using events with leptonic decays of $W$ and $Z$ bosons and $J/\\psi$ mesons are employed to benchmark these performance parameters. The combination of all measurements results in identification efficiencies determined with an accuracy at the few per mil level for electron transverse energy greater than 30 GeV.

  11. Twelve-month results of the rapid renal sympathetic denervation for resistant hypertension using the OneShotTM ablation system (RAPID) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheye, Stefan; Ormiston, John; Bergmann, Martin W; Sievert, Horst; Schwindt, Arne; Werner, Nikos; Vogel, Britta; Colombo, Antonio

    2015-02-01

    Renal denervation has emerged as a treatment option for patients with drug-resistant hypertension. This study was designed to assess the safety and effectiveness of the OneShotª Renal Denervation System. RAPID is a prospective, multicentre, single-arm study which enrolled 50 patients at 11 clinical sites in Europe and New Zealand. Eligible patients had an office systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥160 mmHg and were on a stable regimen of ≥3 antihypertensive medications including a diuretic. The primary safety endpoints were acute procedural safety at discharge and chronic procedural safety at six months. The primary effectiveness endpoint was the rate of office SBP reduction ≥10 mmHg at six months compared to baseline. While not a predefined endpoint, change in 24-hour ambulatory BP was evaluated. The mean baseline office SBP and diastolic BP measurements were 181.6±20.8 and 95.5±15.5 mmHg, respectively. Patients were on a mean of 5.1 antihypertensive medications at baseline. The mean office BP decreased by -20/-8 mmHg (prenal artery injury or SAE/adverse device effects at six months. The results of the RAPID study demonstrate safe delivery of RF energy by the OneShot Renal Denervation System for renal sympathetic denervation and sustained efficacy, as evidenced by a significant reduction in office and 24-hour ABPM for six months, which was sustained up to 12 months. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01520506.

  12. A new Langmuir probe concept for rapid sampling of space plasma electron density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, K S; Pedersen, A; Moen, J I; Bekkeng, T A

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we describe a new Langmuir probe concept that was invented for the in situ investigation of HF radar backscatter irregularities, with the capability to measure absolute electron density at a resolution sufficient to resolve the finest conceivable structure in an ionospheric plasma. The instrument consists of two or more fixed-bias cylindrical Langmuir probes whose radius is small compared to the Debye length. With this configuration, it is possible to acquire absolute electron density measurements independent of electron temperature and rocket/satellite potential. The system was flown on the ICI-2 sounding rocket to investigate the plasma irregularities which cause HF backscatter. It had a sampling rate of more than 5 kHz and successfully measured structures down to the scale of one electron gyro radius. The system can easily be adapted for any ionospheric rocket or satellite, and provides high-quality measurements of electron density at any desired resolution

  13. Pulse-radiolytic one-electron reduction of anthraquinone and chloro-anthraquinones in aqueous-isopropanol-acetone mixed solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rath, M.C.; Pal, H.; Mukherjee, T.

    1996-01-01

    One-electron reduction of 9,10-anthraquinone and some chloro-anthraquinones and the characteristics of the semiquinones thus formed have been investigated in aqueous-isipropanol-acetone mixed solvent using electron pulse radiolysis technique. Spectroscopic characteristics, kinetic parameters of formation and decay, and the acid/base behaviour of the semiquinones have been investigated. The one-electron reduction potential of the quinones have been measured following electron transfer equilibria with a reference redox system (methyl viologen) and the values thus obtained have been compared with those of some other anthrasemiquinone systems. An analysis of the characteristics of the semiquinones shows that α-chloro substituents adjacent to the C=O group act as electron withdrawing groups. (author)

  14. Efficient recovery of gold and other noble metals from electronic and other scraps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, Hidetoshi

    1987-01-01

    Pure gold is extracted from crude gold by the solvent extraction method in the recovery and refining process for Noble metals recovered from electronic and other scraps. This solvent extraction method is advantageous in that it facilitates rapid processing, thereby reducing the interest burden of gold staying too long in the unit. Therefore, the method is also used in the refining of platinum and palladium. Technological innovation has created more complex and diversified types of scraps, and efforts are being made to accommodate ourselves to such a trend.

  15. Information needs for the rapid response team electronic clinical tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barwise, Amelia; Caples, Sean; Jensen, Jeffrey; Pickering, Brian; Herasevich, Vitaly

    2017-10-02

    Information overload in healthcare is dangerous. It can lead to critical errors and delays. During Rapid Response Team (RRT) activations providers must make decisions quickly to rescue patients from physiological deterioration. In order to understand the clinical data required and how best to present that information in electronic systems we aimed to better assess the data needs of providers on the RRT when they respond to an event. A web based survey to evaluate clinical data requirements was created and distributed to all RRT providers at our institution. Participants were asked to rate the importance of each data item in guiding clinical decisions during a RRT event response. There were 96 surveys completed (24.5% response rate) with fairly even distribution throughout all clinical roles on the RRT. Physiological data including heart rate, respiratory rate, and blood pressure were ranked by more than 80% of responders as being critical information. Resuscitation status was also considered critically useful by more than 85% of providers. There is a limited dataset that is considered important during an RRT. The data is widely available in EMR. The findings from this study could be used to improve user-centered EMR interfaces.

  16. Organic photovoltaic cell incorporating electron conducting exciton blocking layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Stephen R.; Lassiter, Brian E.

    2014-08-26

    The present disclosure relates to photosensitive optoelectronic devices including a compound blocking layer located between an acceptor material and a cathode, the compound blocking layer including: at least one electron conducting material, and at least one wide-gap electron conducting exciton blocking layer. For example, 3,4,9,10 perylenetetracarboxylic bisbenzimidazole (PTCBI) and 1,4,5,8-napthalene-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride (NTCDA) function as electron conducting and exciton blocking layers when interposed between the acceptor layer and cathode. Both materials serve as efficient electron conductors, leading to a fill factor as high as 0.70. By using an NTCDA/PTCBI compound blocking layer structure increased power conversion efficiency is achieved, compared to an analogous device using a conventional blocking layers shown to conduct electrons via damage-induced midgap states.

  17. Secondary-electron-emission losses in multistage depressed collectors and traveling-wave-tube efficiency improvements with carbon collector electrode surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramins, P.; Ebihara, B. T.

    1986-01-01

    Secondary-electron-emission losses in multistage depressed collectors (MDC's) and their effects on overall traveling-wave-tube (TWT) efficiency were investigated. Two representative TWT's and several computer-modeled MDC's were used. The experimental techniques provide the measurement of both the TWT overall and the collector efficiencies. The TWT-MDC performance was optimized and measured over a wide range of operating conditions, with geometrically identical collectors, which utilized different electrode surface materials. Comparisons of the performance of copper electrodes to that of various forms of carbon, including pyrolytic and iisotropic graphites, were stressed. The results indicate that: (1) a significant improvement in the TWT overall efficiency was obtained in all cases by the use of carbon, rather than copper electrodes, and (2) that the extent of this efficiency enhancement depended on the characteristics of the TWT, the TWT operating point, the MDC design, and collector voltages. Ion textured graphite was found to be particularly effective in minimizing the secondary-electron-emission losses. Experimental and analytical results, however, indicate that it is at least as important to provide a maximum amount of electrostatic suppression of secondary electrons by proper MDC design. Such suppression, which is obtained by ensuring that a substantial suppressing electric field exists over the regions of the electrodes where most of the current is incident, was found to be very effective. Experimental results indicate that, with proper MDC design and the use of electrode surfaces with low secondary-electron yield, degradation of the collector efficiency can be limited to a few percent.

  18. Rapid, all-optical crystal orientation imaging of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, Sabrina N.; Zhai, Yao; Zande, Arend M. van der; O'Brien, Kevin; Huang, Pinshane Y.; Chenet, Daniel A.; Hone, James C.; Zhang, Xiang; Yin, Xiaobo

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) atomic materials such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) have attracted significant research and industrial interest for their electronic, optical, mechanical, and thermal properties. While large-area crystal growth techniques such as chemical vapor deposition have been demonstrated, the presence of grain boundaries and orientation of grains arising in such growths substantially affect the physical properties of the materials. There is currently no scalable characterization method for determining these boundaries and orientations over a large sample area. We here present a second-harmonic generation based microscopy technique for rapidly mapping grain orientations and boundaries of 2D TMDCs. We experimentally demonstrate the capability to map large samples to an angular resolution of ±1° with minimal sample preparation and without involved analysis. A direct comparison of the all-optical grain orientation maps against results obtained by diffraction-filtered dark-field transmission electron microscopy plus selected-area electron diffraction on identical TMDC samples is provided. This rapid and accurate tool should enable large-area characterization of TMDC samples for expedited studies of grain boundary effects and the efficient characterization of industrial-scale production techniques

  19. Local and global properties of eigenfunctions and one-electron densities of Coulombic Schrödinger operators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fournais, Søren; Hoffmann-Ostenhof, Maria; Hoffmann-Ostenhof, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    We review recent results by the authors on the regularity of molecular eigenfunctions ψ and their corresponding one-electron densities ρ, as well as of the spherically averaged one-electron atomic density ρ. Furthermore, we prove an exponentially decreasing lower bound for ρ in the case when...

  20. Energy efficient hotspot-targeted embedded liquid cooling of electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Chander Shekhar; Tiwari, Manish K.; Zimmermann, Severin; Brunschwiler, Thomas; Schlottig, Gerd; Michel, Bruno; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We present a novel concept for hotspot-targeted, energy efficient ELC for electronic chips. • Microchannel throttling zones distribute flow optimally without any external control. • Design is optimized for highly non-uniform multicore chip heat flux maps. • Optimized design minimizes chip temperature non-uniformity. • This is achieved with pumping power consumption less than 1% of total chip power. - Abstract: Large data centers today already account for nearly 1.31% of total electricity consumption with cooling responsible for roughly 33% of that energy consumption. This energy intensive cooling problem is exacerbated by the presence of hotspots in multicore microprocessors due to excess coolant flow requirement for thermal management. Here we present a novel liquid-cooling concept, for targeted, energy efficient cooling of hotspots through passively optimized microchannel structures etched into the backside of a chip (embedded liquid cooling or ELC architecture). We adopt an experimentally validated and computationally efficient modeling approach to predict the performance of our hotspot-targeted ELC design. The design is optimized for exemplar non-uniform chip power maps using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). For industrially acceptable limits of approximately 0.4 bar (40 kPa) on pressure drop and one percent of total chip power on pumping power, the optimized designs are computationally evaluated against a base, standard ELC design with uniform channel widths and uniform flow distribution. For an average steady-state heat flux of 150 W/cm 2 in core areas (hotspots) and 20 W/cm 2 over remaining chip area (background), the optimized design reduces the maximum chip temperature non-uniformity by 61% to 3.7 °C. For a higher average, steady-state hotspot heat flux of 300 W/cm 2 , the maximum temperature non-uniformity is reduced by 54% to 8.7 °C. It is shown that the base design requires a prohibitively high level of pumping power (about

  1. Liquid scintillation counting efficiency in three photomultiplier systems. Pure electron capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Arcos, J. M.; Grau Carles, A.; Grau Malonda, A.

    1990-01-01

    The tables of counting efficiency as a function of the figure of merit for a liquid scintillation counting system working with three phototubes are presented. The evaluation has been carried out for a Toluene-based scintillator with 5, 10 and 15 ml column, and 19 different radionuclides decaying by pure electron capture: 37Ar 41Ca, 49V, 53 Mn, 55Fe, 59Ni, 68Ge 7iGe, 82Sr, 97Tc, 118Te, 131CS, 137La, 140Ca, 157Tb, 165Er, 193Pt, 194Hg, 205Pb. (Author) 22 refs

  2. One-step synthesis of high conductivity silver nanoparticle-reduced graphene oxide composite films by electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Gang; Wang, Yujia; Pu, Xianjuan; Jiang, Yong; Cheng, Lingli, E-mail: chenglingli@shu.edu.cn; Jiao, Zheng, E-mail: zjiao@shu.edu.cn

    2015-09-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Both graphene oxide and silver ion were reduced simultaneously by electron beam-based method. • The size of AgNPs can be controlled by changing the irradiation dose of electron beam. • The AgNPs/rGO nanocomposite exhibits much lower sheet resistivity (0.06 Ω m). - Abstract: A rapid, eco-friendly, one-step electron beam (EB)-based method for both the reduction of graphene oxide and loading of Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) were achieved. Further, the effects of irradiation dose on the morphology of AgNPs and the sheet resistance of Ag nanoparticles/reduced graphene oxide (AgNPs/rGO) were studied. The results reveal that when the irradiation dose increased from 70 kGy to 350 kGy, the size of the AgNPs decreased and became uniformly distributed over the surface of the rGO nanosheets. However the size of the AgNPs increased when the irradiation dose reached 500 kGy. Four-point probe measurement showed that the sheet resistance of the AgNPs/rGO films decreased with decreasing AgNPs size. The lowest sheet resistivity of 0.06 Ω m was obtained in the film corresponding to 350 kGy irradiation dose, which showed a much lower resistivity than the GO film (5.04 × 10{sup 5} Ω m). The formation mechanisms of the as-prepared AgNPs/rGO nanocomposites were proposed. This study provides a fast and eco-friendly EB irradiation induced method to controlling the dimensions of AgNPs/rGO nanocomposites, which can strongly support the mass production of AgNPs/rGO nanocomposites for practical applications.

  3. One-step synthesis of high conductivity silver nanoparticle-reduced graphene oxide composite films by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Gang; Wang, Yujia; Pu, Xianjuan; Jiang, Yong; Cheng, Lingli; Jiao, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Both graphene oxide and silver ion were reduced simultaneously by electron beam-based method. • The size of AgNPs can be controlled by changing the irradiation dose of electron beam. • The AgNPs/rGO nanocomposite exhibits much lower sheet resistivity (0.06 Ω m). - Abstract: A rapid, eco-friendly, one-step electron beam (EB)-based method for both the reduction of graphene oxide and loading of Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) were achieved. Further, the effects of irradiation dose on the morphology of AgNPs and the sheet resistance of Ag nanoparticles/reduced graphene oxide (AgNPs/rGO) were studied. The results reveal that when the irradiation dose increased from 70 kGy to 350 kGy, the size of the AgNPs decreased and became uniformly distributed over the surface of the rGO nanosheets. However the size of the AgNPs increased when the irradiation dose reached 500 kGy. Four-point probe measurement showed that the sheet resistance of the AgNPs/rGO films decreased with decreasing AgNPs size. The lowest sheet resistivity of 0.06 Ω m was obtained in the film corresponding to 350 kGy irradiation dose, which showed a much lower resistivity than the GO film (5.04 × 10 5 Ω m). The formation mechanisms of the as-prepared AgNPs/rGO nanocomposites were proposed. This study provides a fast and eco-friendly EB irradiation induced method to controlling the dimensions of AgNPs/rGO nanocomposites, which can strongly support the mass production of AgNPs/rGO nanocomposites for practical applications

  4. Microwave-assisted rapid synthesis of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ACF hybrid for high efficient As(V) removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Huiyun; Lv, Kangle; Du, Ying; Ye, Hengpeng; Du, Dongyun, E-mail: dydu666@mail.scuec.edu.cn

    2016-07-25

    In this paper, an efficient adsorbent, iron-modified activated carbon fiber (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ACF), was rapidly fabricated by microwave-assisted heating treatment strategy, which is used to remove As(V) from simulated wastewater. The adsorbent was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), TEM, N{sub 2} sorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The characterization results showed that rod-like Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles in sizes of about 20 nm × 50 nm were homogeneously anchored on the surface of ACF. The goal of high As(V) removal efficiency was achieved with maximum adsorption capacity of 20.33 mg g{sup −1}. The effects of temperature on thermodynamics and kinetics of As(V) adsorption were systematically studied. It was found that the adsorption of As(V) on the surface of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ACF is an endothermic process with a standard enthalpy change (ΔH{sup 0}) of 24.79 kJ mol{sup −1}. Batch experimental result showed that almost all of the As(V) with initial concentration of 3.0 mg L{sup −1} can be removed in the presence of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ACF, where the residual As(V) in filtrate was less than 0.01 mg L{sup −1}, below the tolerance level of drinking water suggested by World Health Organization (WHO). The presence of salt such as NaCl, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, and MgSO{sub 4} showed little effects on the adsorption of As(V), indicating the promising application of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ACF in industrial wastewater. - Highlights: • Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ACF hybrid was rapidly fabricated using a microwave-assisted heating strategy. • Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorods in sizes of 20 × 50 nm were homogeneously anchored on the surface of ACF. • The maximum adsorption capacity of 20.33 mg g{sup −1} As (V) on Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ACF was achieved. • The adsorption of As (V) is an endothermic process (ΔH{sup 0} = 24.79 kJ mol{sup −1}). • The presence of salt shows little effect on the adsorption of As (V).

  5. Electron efficiency of nZVI does not change with variation of environmental parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schöftner, Philipp, E-mail: philipp.schoeftner@ait.ac.at [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Konrad-Lorenz-Straße 24, 3430 Tulln a.d. Donau (Austria); Waldner, Georg [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Konrad-Lorenz-Straße 24, 3430 Tulln a.d. Donau (Austria); Lottermoser, Werner, E-mail: werner.lottermoser@sbg.ac.at [Salzburg University, FB Materialforschung und Physik, Hellbrunnerstr. 34, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Stöger-Pollach, Michael, E-mail: stoeger@ustem.tuwien.ac.at [Technical University of Vienna, Universitäre Service-Einrichtung für Transmissionselektronenmikroskopie — USTEM (Austria); Freitag, Peter, E-mail: p.freitag@kellergrundbau.at [Keller Grundbau Ges. mbH, Mariahilfer Straße 127a, 1150 Vienna (Austria); Reichenauer, Thomas G., E-mail: thomas.reichenauer@ait.ac.at [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Konrad-Lorenz-Straße 24, 3430 Tulln a.d. Donau (Austria)

    2015-12-01

    Nanoscale zero-valent iron particles (nZVI) are already applied for in-situ dechlorination of halogenated organic contaminants in the field. We performed batch experiments whereby trichloroethene (TCE) was dehalogenated by nZVI under different environmental conditions that are relevant in practice. The tested conditions include different ionic strengths, addition of polyelectrolytes (carboxymethylcellulose and ligninsulphonate), lowered temperature, dissolved oxygen and different particle contents. Particle properties were determined by Mössbauer spectroscopy, XRD, TEM, SEM, AAS and laser obscuration time measurements. TCE dehalogenation and H{sub 2} evolution were decelerated by reduced ionic strength, addition of polyelectrolytes, temperature reduction, the presence of dissolved oxygen and reduced particle content. The partitioning of released electrons between reactions with the contaminant vs. with water (selectivity) was low, independent of the tested conditions. Basically out of hundred electrons that were released via nZVI oxidation only 3.1 ± 1.4 were used for TCE dehalogenation. Even lower selectivities were observed at TCE concentrations below 3.5 mg l{sup −1}, hence particle modifications and/or combination of nZVI with other remediation technologies seem to be necessary to reach target concentrations for remediation. Our results suggest that selectivity is particle intrinsic and not as much condition dependent, hence particle synthesis and potential particle modifications of nZVI particles may be more important for optimization of the pollutant degradation rate, than tested environmental conditions. - Highlights: • We investigated the degradation kinetics of trichloroethene by zerovalent nanoiron particles. • Electron efficiency of the tested particles was very low (about 3%). • The tested environmental conditions had no significant influence on the degradation kinetics and electron efficiency. • We conclude that particle type is more

  6. Electron efficiency of nZVI does not change with variation of environmental parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schöftner, Philipp; Waldner, Georg; Lottermoser, Werner; Stöger-Pollach, Michael; Freitag, Peter; Reichenauer, Thomas G.

    2015-01-01

    Nanoscale zero-valent iron particles (nZVI) are already applied for in-situ dechlorination of halogenated organic contaminants in the field. We performed batch experiments whereby trichloroethene (TCE) was dehalogenated by nZVI under different environmental conditions that are relevant in practice. The tested conditions include different ionic strengths, addition of polyelectrolytes (carboxymethylcellulose and ligninsulphonate), lowered temperature, dissolved oxygen and different particle contents. Particle properties were determined by Mössbauer spectroscopy, XRD, TEM, SEM, AAS and laser obscuration time measurements. TCE dehalogenation and H 2 evolution were decelerated by reduced ionic strength, addition of polyelectrolytes, temperature reduction, the presence of dissolved oxygen and reduced particle content. The partitioning of released electrons between reactions with the contaminant vs. with water (selectivity) was low, independent of the tested conditions. Basically out of hundred electrons that were released via nZVI oxidation only 3.1 ± 1.4 were used for TCE dehalogenation. Even lower selectivities were observed at TCE concentrations below 3.5 mg l −1 , hence particle modifications and/or combination of nZVI with other remediation technologies seem to be necessary to reach target concentrations for remediation. Our results suggest that selectivity is particle intrinsic and not as much condition dependent, hence particle synthesis and potential particle modifications of nZVI particles may be more important for optimization of the pollutant degradation rate, than tested environmental conditions. - Highlights: • We investigated the degradation kinetics of trichloroethene by zerovalent nanoiron particles. • Electron efficiency of the tested particles was very low (about 3%). • The tested environmental conditions had no significant influence on the degradation kinetics and electron efficiency. • We conclude that particle type is more important for

  7. Collaborative validation of a rapid method for efficient virus concentration in bottled water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Anna Charlotte; Perelle, Sylvie; Di Pasquale, Simona

    2011-01-01

    . Three newly developed methods, A, B and C, for virus concentration in bottled water were compared against the reference method D: (A) Convective Interaction Media (CIM) monolithic chromatography; filtration of viruses followed by (B) direct lysis of viruses on membrane; (C) concentration of viruses......Enteric viruses, including norovirus (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV), have emerged as a major cause of waterborne outbreaks worldwide. Due to their low infectious doses and low concentrations in water samples, an efficient and rapid virus concentration method is required for routine control...... by ultracentrifugation; and (D) concentration of viruses by ultrafiltration, for each methods' (A, B and C) efficacy to recover 10-fold dilutions of HAV and feline calicivirus (FCV) spiked in bottles of 1.5L of mineral water. Within the tested characteristics, all the new methods showed better performance than method D...

  8. Polymer Solar Cells with Efficiency >10% Enabled via a Facile Solution-Processed Al-Doped ZnO Electron Transporting Layer

    KAUST Repository

    Jagadamma, Lethy Krishnan

    2015-04-22

    A facile and low-temperature (125 °C) solution-processed Al-doped ZnO (AZO) buffer layer functioning very effectively as electron accepting/hole blocking layer for a wide range of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction systems, yielding power conversion efficiency in excess of 10% (8%) on glass (plastic) substrates is described. The ammonia-treatment of the aqueous AZO nanoparticle solution produces compact, crystalline, and smooth thin films, which retain the aluminum doping, and eliminates/reduces the native defects by nitrogen incorporation, making them good electron transporters and energetically matched with the fullerene acceptor. It is demonstrated that highly efficient solar cells can be achieved without the need for additional surface chemical modifications of the buffer layer, which is a common requirement for many metal oxide buffer layers to yield efficient solar cells. Also highly efficient solar cells are achieved with thick AZO films (>50 nm), highlighting the suitability of this material for roll-to-roll coating. Preliminary results on the applicability of AZO as electron injection layer in F8BT-based polymer light emitting diode are also presented. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Real evaporative cooling efficiency of one-layer tight-fitting sportswear in a hot environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F; Annaheim, S; Morrissey, M; Rossi, R M

    2014-06-01

    Real evaporative cooling efficiency, the ratio of real evaporative heat loss to evaporative cooling potential, is an important parameter to characterize the real cooling benefit for the human body. Previous studies on protective clothing showed that the cooling efficiency decreases with increasing distance between the evaporation locations and the human skin. However, it is still unclear how evaporative cooling efficiency decreases as the moisture is transported from the skin to the clothing layer. In this study, we performed experiments with a sweating torso manikin to mimic three different phases of moisture absorption in one-layer tight-fitting sportswear. Clothing materials Coolmax(®) (CM; INVISTA, Wichita, Kansas, USA; 100%, profiled cross-section polyester fiber), merino wool (MW; 100%), sports wool (SW; 50% wool, 50% polyester), and cotton (CO; 100%) were selected for the study. The results demonstrated that, for the sportswear materials tested, the real evaporative cooling efficiency linearly decreases with the increasing ratio of moisture being transported away from skin surface to clothing layer (adjusted R(2) >0.97). In addition, clothing fabric thickness has a negative effect on the real evaporative cooling efficiency. Clothing CM and SW showed a good ability in maintaining evaporative cooling efficiency. In contrast, clothing MW made from thicker fabric had the worst performance in maintaining evaporative cooling efficiency. It is thus suggested that thin fabric materials such as CM and SW should be used to manufacture one-layer tight-fitting sportswear. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. A new stage of nuclear electronics-particle electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Deming

    1987-01-01

    The rapid development of high energy physics experiments has pushed the nuclear electronics to a new stage, i.e. the particle electronics. In this paper the background, main features and recent trends of the particle electronics are expounded

  11. Compact two-beam push-pull free electron laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Andrew [Yorktown, VA

    2009-03-03

    An ultra-compact free electron laser comprising a pair of opposed superconducting cavities that produce identical electron beams moving in opposite directions such that each set of superconducting cavities accelerates one electron beam and decelerates the other electron beam. Such an arrangement, allows the energy used to accelerate one beam to be recovered and used again to accelerate the second beam, thus, each electron beam is decelerated by a different structure than that which accelerated it so that energy exchange rather than recovery is achieved resulting in a more compact and highly efficient apparatus.

  12. One-dimensional free-electron laser equations without the slowly varying envelope approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Maroli

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A set of one-dimensional equations has been deduced in the time domain from the Maxwell-Lorentz system with the aim of describing the free-electron laser radiation without using the slowly varying envelope approximation (SVEA. These equations are valid even in the case of arbitrarily short electron bunches and of current distributions with ripples on the scale of or shorter than the wavelength. Numerical examples are presented, showing that for long homogeneous bunches the new set of equations gives results in agreement with the SVEA free-electron laser theory and that the use of short or prebunched electron beams leads to a decrease of the emission lethargy. Furthermore, we demonstrate that in all cases in which the backward low frequency wave has negligible effects, these equations can be reduced to a form similar to the usual 1D SVEA equations but with a different definition of the bunching term.

  13. Effect of the Microstructure of the Functional Layers on the Efficiency of Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fuzhi; Pascoe, Alexander R; Wu, Wu-Qiang; Ku, Zhiliang; Peng, Yong; Zhong, Jie; Caruso, Rachel A; Cheng, Yi-Bing

    2017-05-01

    The efficiencies of the hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite solar cells have been rapidly approaching the benchmarks held by the leading thin-film photovoltaic technologies. Arguably, one of the most important factors leading to this rapid advancement is the ability to manipulate the microstructure of the perovskite layer and the adjacent functional layers within the device. Here, an analysis of the nucleation and growth models relevant to the formation of perovskite films is provided, along with the effect of the perovskite microstructure (grain sizes and voids) on device performance. In addition, the effect of a compact or mesoporous electron-transport-layer (ETL) microstructure on the perovskite film formation and the optical/photoelectric properties at the ETL/perovskite interface are overviewed. Insight into the formation of the functional layers within a perovskite solar cell is provided, and potential avenues for further development of the perovskite microstructure are identified. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Lowest order in inelastic tunneling approximation : efficient scheme for simulation of inelastic electron tunneling data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossen, E.T.R.; Flipse, C.F.J.; Cerda, J.I.

    2013-01-01

    We have developed an efficient and accurate formalism which allows the simulation at the ab initio level of inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy data under a scanning tunneling microscope setup. It exploits fully the tunneling regime by carrying out the structural optimization and vibrational

  15. Power Electronics as Efficient Interface of Renewable Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe; Kjær, Søren Bækhøj

    2004-01-01

    The global electrical energy consumption is steadily rising and consequently there is a demand to increase the power generation capacity. A significant percentage of the required capacity increase can be based on renewable energy sources. Wind turbine technology, as the most cost effective...... renewable energy conversion system, will play an important part in our future energy supply. But other sources like microturbines, photovoltaics and fuel cell systems may also be serious contributor to the power supply. Characteristically, power electronics will be an efficient and important interface...... to the grid and this paper will first briefly discuss three different alternative/ renewable energy sources. Next, various configurations of the wind turbine technology are presented, as this technology seems to be most developed and cost-effective. Finally, the developments and requirements from the grid...

  16. Rational Strategies for Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jangwon; Noh, Jun Hong; Seok, Sang Il

    2016-03-15

    A long-standing dream in the large scale application of solar energy conversion is the fabrication of solar cells with high-efficiency and long-term stability at low cost. The realization of such practical goals depends on the architecture, process and key materials because solar cells are typically constructed from multilayer heterostructures of light harvesters, with electron and hole transporting layers as a major component. Recently, inorganic-organic hybrid lead halide perovskites have attracted significant attention as light absorbers for the fabrication of low-cost and high-efficiency solar cells via a solution process. This mainly stems from long-range ambipolar charge transport properties, low exciton binding energies, and suitable band gap tuning by managing the chemical composition. In our pioneering work, a new photovoltaic platform for efficient perovskite solar cells (PSCs) was proposed, which yielded a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 12%. The platform consisted of a pillared architecture of a three-dimensional nanocomposite of perovskites fully infiltrating mesoporous TiO2, resulting in the formation of continuous phases and perovskite domains overlaid with a polymeric hole conductor. Since then, the PCE of our PSCs has been rapidly increased from 3% to over 20% certified efficiency. The unprecedented increase in the PCE can be attributed to the effective integration of the advantageous attributes of the refined bicontinuous architecture, deposition process, and composition of perovskite materials. Specifically, the bicontinuous architectures used in the high efficiency comprise a layer of perovskite sandwiched between mesoporous metal-oxide layer, which is a very thinner than that of used in conventional dye-sensitized solar cells, and hole-conducting contact materials with a metal back contact. The mesoporous scaffold can affect the hysteresis under different scan direction in measurements of PSCs. The hysteresis also greatly depends on

  17. Calculation of two-center one-electron molecular integrals with STOs. [BICEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rico, J.F.; Lopez, R.; Paniagua, M.; Ramirez, G. (Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Quimica Fisica y Quimica Cuantica)

    1991-05-01

    A program for the calculation of two-center one-electron integrals (overlap, nuclear attraction and kinetic energy) between real Slater-type orbitals (STOs) is reported. The integrals are obtained by recursion over simple auxiliary matrices, whose elements are calculated in terms of further auxiliary functions evaluated in a quick and accurate way. (orig.).

  18. Optimization of the electron collection efficiency of a large area MCP-PMT for the JUNO experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Lin; Tian, Jinshou; Liu, Chunliang; Wang, Yifang; Zhao, Tianchi; Liu, Hulin; Wei, Yonglin; Sai, Xiaofeng; Chen, Ping; Wang, Xing; Lu, Yu; Hui, Dandan; Guo, Lehui; Liu, Shulin; Qian, Sen; Xia, Jingkai; Yan, Baojun; Zhu, Na; Sun, Jianning; Si, Shuguang

    2016-01-01

    A novel large-area (20-inch) photomultiplier tube based on microchannel plate (MCP-PMTs) is proposed for the Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) experiment. Its photoelectron collection efficiency C e is limited by the MCP open area fraction (A open ). This efficiency is studied as a function of the angular (θ), energy (E) distributions of electrons in the input charge cloud and the potential difference (U) between the PMT photocathode and the MCP input surface, considering secondary electron emission from the MCP input electrode. In CST Studio Suite, Finite Integral Technique and Monte Carlo method are combined to investigate the dependence of C e on θ, E and U. Results predict that C e can exceed A open , and are applied to optimize the structure and operational parameters of the 20-inch MCP-PMT prototype. C e of the optimized MCP-PMT is expected to reach 81.2%. Finally, the reduction of the penetration depth of the MCP input electrode layer and the deposition of a high secondary electron yield material on the MCP are proposed to further optimize C e .

  19. One size fits all electronics for insole-based activity monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Nagaraj; Bries, Matthew; Melanson, Edward; Sazonov, Edward

    2017-07-01

    Footwear based wearable sensors are becoming prominent in many areas of monitoring health and wellness, such as gait and activity monitoring. In our previous research we introduced an insole based wearable system SmartStep, which is completely integrated in a socially acceptable package. From a manufacturing perspective, SmartStep's electronics had to be custom made for each shoe size, greatly complicating the manufacturing process. In this work we explore the possibility of making a universal electronics platform for SmartStep - SmartStep 3.0, which can be used in the most common insole sizes without modifications. A pilot human subject experiments were run to compare the accuracy between the one-size fits all (SmartStep 3.0) and custom size SmartStep 2.0. A total of ~10 hours of data was collected in the pilot study involving three participants performing different activities of daily living while wearing SmartStep 2.0 and SmartStep 3.0. Leave one out cross validation resulted in a 98.5% average accuracy from SmartStep 2.0, while SmartStep 3.0 resulted in 98.3% accuracy, suggesting that the SmartStep 3.0 can be as accurate as SmartStep 2.0, while fitting most common shoe sizes.

  20. Electronic banking

    OpenAIRE

    Gradišnik, Monika

    2017-01-01

    The development of information and communication technology is one of the most important reasons for the incredibly fast changes in business. Electronic commerce is spreading unstoppably in the operations of companies. The creation of new models, such as online banking, online shopping and the like, has sped up the development of the World Wide Web. Owing to the rapid progress of the World Wide Web and technologies for secure business operations, we can barely imagine life today without e...

  1. MATLAB Algorithms for Rapid Detection and Embedding of Palindrome and Emordnilap Electronic Watermarks in Simulated Chemical and Biological Image Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robbins, Ronny C

    2004-01-01

    .... This is similar to words such as STOP which when flipped left right gives the new word POTS. Emordnilap is palindrome spelled backwards. This paper explores the use of MATLAB algorithms in the rapid detection and embedding of palindrome and emordnilap electronic watermarks in simulated chemical and biological Image Data.

  2. Electron microscopy investigations of rapidly solidified Fe-Zr-B-Cu alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, B.; Arvindha Babu, D.; Akhtar, D.

    2010-01-01

    Rapidly solidified Fe-based nanocrystalline soft magnetic materials possess a unique combination of properties i,e high permeability, saturation and Curie temperature and very low coercivity which are otherwise not attainable in conventional soft magnetic materials. The alloys are processed by producing amorphous phase through melt spinning route followed by a partial devitrification for incorporation of nanocrystalline phase in the amorphous matrix. In this paper, detailed electron microscopic investigations of melt spun Fe-Zr-B-Cu alloys are presented. Melt spun ribbons of Fe 99-x-y Zr x BCu 1 alloys with x+y = 11 and x+y = 13 were prepared under different wheel speed conditions and then vacuum annealed for 1 h at different temperatures. The microstructure changes from completely amorphous to a cellular/dendritic bcc solid solution coexisting with the amorphous phase at intercellular/dendritic regions when Zr/B ratio or the process parameters are varied. Annealing leads to the precipitation of nanocrystalline bcc-Fe phase from both amorphous phase and already existing bcc solid solution. (author)

  3. Rapid and efficient CRISPR/Cas9 gene inactivation in human neurons during human pluripotent stem cell differentiation and direct reprogramming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Alicia; Luoni, Mirko; Giannelli, Serena G; Radice, Isabella; Iannielli, Angelo; Cancellieri, Cinzia; Di Berardino, Claudia; Regalia, Giulia; Lazzari, Giovanna; Menegon, Andrea; Taverna, Stefano; Broccoli, Vania

    2016-11-18

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system is a rapid and customizable tool for gene editing in mammalian cells. In particular, this approach has widely opened new opportunities for genetic studies in neurological disease. Human neurons can be differentiated in vitro from hPSC (human Pluripotent Stem Cells), hNPCs (human Neural Precursor Cells) or even directly reprogrammed from fibroblasts. Here, we described a new platform which enables, rapid and efficient CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome targeting simultaneously with three different paradigms for in vitro generation of neurons. This system was employed to inactivate two genes associated with neurological disorder (TSC2 and KCNQ2) and achieved up to 85% efficiency of gene targeting in the differentiated cells. In particular, we devised a protocol that, combining the expression of the CRISPR components with neurogenic factors, generated functional human neurons highly enriched for the desired genome modification in only 5 weeks. This new approach is easy, fast and that does not require the generation of stable isogenic clones, practice that is time consuming and for some genes not feasible.

  4. Rapid and accurate detection of urinary pathogens by mobile IMS-based electronic nose: a proof-of-principle study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roine, Antti; Saviauk, Taavi; Kumpulainen, Pekka; Karjalainen, Markus; Tuokko, Antti; Aittoniemi, Janne; Vuento, Risto; Lekkala, Jukka; Lehtimäki, Terho; Tammela, Teuvo L; Oksala, Niku K J

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common disease with significant morbidity and economic burden, accounting for a significant part of the workload in clinical microbiology laboratories. Current clinical chemisty point-of-care diagnostics rely on imperfect dipstick analysis which only provides indirect and insensitive evidence of urinary bacterial pathogens. An electronic nose (eNose) is a handheld device mimicking mammalian olfaction that potentially offers affordable and rapid analysis of samples without preparation at athmospheric pressure. In this study we demonstrate the applicability of ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) -based eNose to discriminate the most common UTI pathogens from gaseous headspace of culture plates rapidly and without sample preparation. We gathered a total of 101 culture samples containing four most common UTI bacteries: E. coli, S. saprophyticus, E. faecalis, Klebsiella spp and sterile culture plates. The samples were analyzed using ChemPro 100i device, consisting of IMS cell and six semiconductor sensors. Data analysis was conducted by linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and logistic regression (LR). The results were validated by leave-one-out and 5-fold cross validation analysis. In discrimination of sterile and bacterial samples sensitivity of 95% and specificity of 97% were achieved. The bacterial species were identified with sensitivity of 95% and specificity of 96% using eNose as compared to urine bacterial cultures. These findings strongly demonstrate the ability of our eNose to discriminate bacterial cultures and provides a proof of principle to use this method in urinanalysis of UTI.

  5. Plasma relativistic microwave electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzelev, M.V.; Loza, O.T.; Rukhadze, A.A.; Strelkov, P.S.; Shkvarunets, A.G.

    2001-01-01

    One formulated the principles of plasma relativistic microwave electronics based on the induced Cherenkov radiation of electromagnetic waves at interaction of a relativistic electron beam with plasma. One developed the theory of plasma relativistic generators and accelerators of microwave radiation, designed and studied the prototypes of such devices. One studied theoretically the mechanisms of radiation, calculated the efficiencies and the frequency spectra of plasma relativistic microwave generators and accelerators. The theory findings are proved by the experiment: intensity of the designed sources of microwave radiation is equal to 500 μW, the frequency of microwave radiation is increased by 7 times (from 4 up to 28 GHz), the width of radiation frequency band may vary from several up to 100%. The designed sources of microwave radiation are no else compared in the electronics [ru

  6. Management and recycling of electronic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanskanen, Pia

    2013-01-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is one of the largest growing waste streams globally. Hence, for a sustainable environment and the economic recovery of valuable material for reuse, the efficient recycling of electronic scrap has been rendered indispensable, and must still be regarded as a major challenge for today’s society. In contrast to the well-established recycling of metallic scrap, it is much more complicated to recycle electronics products which have reached the end of their life as they contain many different types of material types integrated into each other. As illustrated primarily for the recycling of mobile phones, the efficient recycling of WEEE is not only a challenge for the recycling industry; it is also often a question of as-yet insufficient collection infrastructures and poor collection efficiencies, and a considerable lack of the consumer’s awareness for the potential of recycling electronics for the benefit of the environment, as well as for savings in energy and raw materials

  7. Quantum ballistic transport by interacting two-electron states in quasi-one-dimensional channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Danhong [Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate, Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico 87117 (United States); Center for High Technology Materials, University of New Mexico, 1313 Goddard St SE, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States); Gumbs, Godfrey [Center for High Technology Materials, University of New Mexico, 1313 Goddard St SE, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States); Abranyos, Yonatan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Hunter College of the City University of New York, 695 Park Avenue, New York, New York 10065 (United States); Pepper, Michael; Kumar, Sanjeev [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, London, WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); London Centre for Nanotechnology, 17-19 Gordon Street, London, WC1H 0AH (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-15

    For quantum ballistic transport of electrons through a short conduction channel, the role of Coulomb interaction may significantly modify the energy levels of two-electron states at low temperatures as the channel becomes wide. In this regime, the Coulomb effect on the two-electron states is calculated and found to lead to four split energy levels, including two anticrossing-level and two crossing-level states. Moreover, due to the interplay of anticrossing and crossing effects, our calculations reveal that the ground two-electron state will switch from one anticrossing state (strong confinement) to a crossing state (intermediate confinement) as the channel width gradually increases and then back to the original anticrossing state (weak confinement) as the channel width becomes larger than a threshold value. This switching behavior leaves a footprint in the ballistic conductance as well as in the diffusion thermoelectric power of electrons. Such a switching is related to the triple spin degeneracy as well as to the Coulomb repulsion in the central region of the channel, which separates two electrons away and pushes them to different channel edges. The conductance reoccurrence region expands from the weak to the intermediate confinement regime with increasing electron density.

  8. One-electron oxidation of BD84, an ellipticine antitumor derivative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekaki, A.; Gardes-Albert, M.; Houee-Levin, C.; Ferradini, C.; Rivalle, C.; Bisagni, E.; Hickel, B.

    1991-01-01

    The one-electron oxidation of BD84, an ellipticine-related drug, has been studied by pulse radiolysis using OH· radicals as oxidizing agents. In the absence of oxygen, R· radicals are formed. They disappear by recombination. In the presence of oxygen, R· radicals react with O 2 to give peroxy radicals RO 2 ·, which decay by a second-order process. These results are compared to those obtained for other ellipticine derivatives [fr

  9. Electron Beam Evaporated TiO2 Layer for High Efficiency Planar Perovskite Solar Cells on Flexible Polyethylene Terephthalate Substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Qiu, Weiming; Paetzold, Ulrich W; Gehlhaar, Robert; Smirnov, Vladimir; Boyen, Hans-Gerd; Tait, Jeffrey Gerhart; Conings, Bert; Zhang, Weimin; Nielsen, Christian; McCulloch, Iain; Froyen, Ludo; Heremans, Paul; Cheyns, David

    2015-01-01

    The TiO2 layer made by electron beam (e-beam) induced evaporation is demonstrated as electron transport layer (ETL) in high efficiency planar junction perovskite solar cells. The temperature of the substrate and the thickness of the TiO2 layer can

  10. The accuracy and efficiency of electronic screening for recruitment into a clinical trial on COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmickl, Christopher N; Li, Man; Li, Guangxi; Wetzstein, Marnie M; Herasevich, Vitaly; Gajic, Ognjen; Benzo, Roberto P

    2011-10-01

    Participant recruitment is an important process in successful conduct of randomized controlled trials. To facilitate enrollment into a National Institutes of Health-sponsored clinical trial involving patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), we developed and prospectively validated an automated electronic screening tool based on boolean free-text search of admission notes in electronic medical records. During a 2-week validation period, all patients admitted to prespecified general medical services were screened for eligibility by both the electronic screening tool and a COPD nurse. Group discussion was the gold standard for confirmation of true-positive results. Compared with the gold standard, electronic screening yielded 100% sensitivity, 92% specificity, 100% negative predictive value, and 72% positive predictive value. Compared with traditional manual screening, electronic screening demonstrated time-saving potential of 76%. Thus, the electronic screening tool accurately identifies potential study subjects and improves efficiency of patient accrual for a clinical trial on COPD. This method may be expanded into other institutional and clinical settings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Recent trends in rapid dereplication of natural product extracts:an update

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fikre Mammo; Milkyas Endale

    2015-01-01

    Natural products are the prominent sources of drugs to combat various infectious diseases. The rapid progress of multi-resistance and pan-resistant pathogens to various medicines represents today a major challenge. The search for novel natural products requires a quick and efficient approach to distinguish novel compounds from the known ones, a process called dereplication. Dereplication strategy is generic and time-saving, avoids isolation/purification of known compounds, enables an efficient liquid chromatography peak annotation of most of the studied compounds and can be well adapted for plant chemotaxonomy, phytochemical screening and metabolite profiling. In this review, recent developments of hyphenated techniques towards dereplication of active compounds, chemotaxonomy, metabolite profiling and rapid detection of novel compounds in medicinal plant extracts are presented.

  12. Bunch compression efficiency of the femtosecond electron source at Chiang Mai University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thongbai, C.; Kusoljariyakul, K.; Saisut, J.

    2011-01-01

    A femtosecond electron source has been developed at the Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility (PBP), Chiang Mai University (CMU), Thailand. Ultra-short electron bunches can be produced with a bunch compression system consisting of a thermionic cathode RF-gun, an alpha-magnet as a magnetic bunch compressor, and a linear accelerator as a post acceleration section. To obtain effective bunch compression, it is crucial to provide a proper longitudinal phase-space distribution at the gun exit matched to the subsequent beam transport system. Via beam dynamics calculations and experiments, we investigate the bunch compression efficiency for various RF-gun fields. The particle distribution at the RF-gun exit will be tracked numerically through the alpha-magnet and beam transport. Details of the study and results leading to an optimum condition for our system will be presented.

  13. Bunch compression efficiency of the femtosecond electron source at Chiang Mai University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongbai, C.; Kusoljariyakul, K.; Saisut, J.

    2011-07-01

    A femtosecond electron source has been developed at the Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility (PBP), Chiang Mai University (CMU), Thailand. Ultra-short electron bunches can be produced with a bunch compression system consisting of a thermionic cathode RF-gun, an alpha-magnet as a magnetic bunch compressor, and a linear accelerator as a post acceleration section. To obtain effective bunch compression, it is crucial to provide a proper longitudinal phase-space distribution at the gun exit matched to the subsequent beam transport system. Via beam dynamics calculations and experiments, we investigate the bunch compression efficiency for various RF-gun fields. The particle distribution at the RF-gun exit will be tracked numerically through the alpha-magnet and beam transport. Details of the study and results leading to an optimum condition for our system will be presented.

  14. Changes of glucose utilization by erythrocytes, lactic acid concentration in the serum and blood cells, and haematocrit value during one hour rest after maximal effort in individuals differing in physical efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasik, M

    1982-01-01

    Glucose utilization by the erythrocytes, lactic acid concentration in the blood and erythrocytes, and haematocrit value were determined before exercise and during one hour rest following maximal exercise in 97 individuals of either sex differing in physical efficiency. In the investigations reported by the author individuals with strikingly high physical fitness performed maximal work one-third greater than that performed by individuals with medium fitness. The serum concentration of lactic acid was in all individuals above the resting value still after 60 minutes of rest. On the other hand, this concentration returned to the normal level in the erythrocytes but only in individuals with strikingly high efficiency. Glucose utilization by the erythrocytes during the restitution period was highest immediately after the exercise in all studied individuals and showed a tendency for more rapid return to resting values again in individuals with highest efficiency. The investigation of very efficient individuals repeated twice demonstrated greater utilization of glucose by the erythrocytes at the time of greater maximal exercise. This was associated with greater lactic acid concentration in the serum and erythrocytes throughout the whole one-hour rest period. The observed facts suggest an active participation of erythrocytes in the process of adaptation of the organism to exercise.

  15. Extending the precision and efficiency of the all-electron full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave density-functional theory method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalicek, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) is the most widely-used first-principles theory for analyzing, describing and predicting the properties of solids based on the fundamental laws of quantum mechanics. The success of the theory is a consequence of powerful approximations to the unknown exchange and correlation energy of the interacting electrons and of sophisticated electronic structure methods that enable the computation of the density functional equations on a computer. A widely used electronic structure method is the full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave (FLAPW) method, that is considered to be one of the most precise methods of its kind and often referred to as a standard. Challenged by the demand of treating chemically and structurally increasingly more complex solids, in this thesis this method is revisited and extended along two different directions: (i) precision and (ii) efficiency. In the full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave method the space of a solid is partitioned into nearly touching spheres, centered at each atom, and the remaining interstitial region between the spheres. The Kohn-Sham orbitals, which are used to construct the electron density, the essential quantity in DFT, are expanded into a linearized augmented plane-wave basis, which consists of plane waves in the interstitial region and angular momentum dependent radial functions in the spheres. In this thesis it is shown that for certain types of materials, e.g., materials with very broad electron bands or large band gaps, or materials that allow the usage of large space-filling spheres, the variational freedom of the basis in the spheres has to be extended in order to represent the Kohn-Sham orbitals with high precision over a large energy spread. Two kinds of additional radial functions confined to the spheres, so-called local orbitals, are evaluated and found to successfully eliminate this error. A new efficient basis set is developed, named linearized augmented lattice

  16. Growth and structure of rapid thermal silicon oxides and nitroxides studied by spectroellipsometry and Auger electron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonon, N.; Gagnaire, A.; Barbier, D.; Glachant, A.

    1994-11-01

    Rapid thermal oxidation of Czochralski-grown silicon in either O2 or N2O atmospheres have been studied using spectroellipsometry and Auger electron spectroscopy. Multiwavelength ellipsometric data were processed in order to separately derive the thickness and refractive indexes of rapid thermal dielectrics. Results revealed a significant increase of the mean refractive index as the film thickness falls below 20 nm for both O2 or N2O oxidant species. A multilayer structure including an about 0.3-nm-thick interfacial region of either SiO(x) or nitroxide in the case of O2 and N2O growth, respectively, followed by a densified SiO2 layer, was found to accurately fit the experimental data. The interfacial region together with the densified state of SiO2 close to the interface suggest a dielectric structure in agreement with the continuous random network model proposed for classical thermal oxides. Auger electron spectroscopy analysis confirmed the presence of noncrystalline Si-Si bonds in the interfacial region, mostly in the case of thin oxides grown in O2. It was speculated that the initial fast growth regime was due to a transient oxygen supersaturation in the interfacial region. Besides, the self-limiting growth in N2O was confirmed and explained in agreement with several recently published data, by the early formation of a very thin nitride or oxynitride membrane in the highly densified oxide beneath the interface. The beneficial effect of direct nitrogen incorporation by rapid thermal oxidation in N2O instead of O2 for the electrical behavior of metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors is likely a better SiO2/Si lattice accommodation through the reduction of stresses and Si-Si bonds in the interfacial region of the dielectric.

  17. One-step fabrication of biomimetic superhydrophobic surface by electrodeposition on magnesium alloy and its corrosion inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Xue, Jingze; Luo, Dan; Wang, Huiyuan; Gong, Xu; Han, Zhiwu; Ren, Luquan

    2017-04-01

    A facile, rapid and one-step electrodeposition process has been employed to construct a superhydrophobic surface with micro/nano scale structure on a Mg-Sn-Zn (TZ51) alloy, which is expected to be applied as a biodegradable biomedical implant materials. By changing the electrodeposition time, the maximum contact angle of the droplet was observed as high as 160.4°±0.7°. The characteristics of the as-prepared surface were conducted by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Besides, the anti-corrosion performance of the coatings in stimulated body fluid (SBF) solution were investigated by electrochemical measurement. The results demonstrated that the anti-corrosion property of superhydrophobic surface was greatly improved. This method show beneficial effects on the wettability and corrosion behavior, and therefore provides a efficient route to mitigate the undesirable rapid corrosion of magnesium alloy in favor of application for clinical field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. High-efficiency one-dimensional atom localization via two parallel standing-wave fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhiping; Wu, Xuqiang; Lu, Liang; Yu, Benli

    2014-01-01

    We present a new scheme of high-efficiency one-dimensional (1D) atom localization via measurement of upper state population or the probe absorption in a four-level N-type atomic system. By applying two classical standing-wave fields, the localization peak position and number, as well as the conditional position probability, can be easily controlled by the system parameters, and the sub-half-wavelength atom localization is also observed. More importantly, there is 100% detecting probability of the atom in the subwavelength domain when the corresponding conditions are satisfied. The proposed scheme may open up a promising way to achieve high-precision and high-efficiency 1D atom localization. (paper)

  19. Fluorescent QDs-polystyrene composite nanospheres for highly efficient and rapid protein antigen detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Changhua; Mao, Mao [Henan University, Key Laboratory for Special Functional Materials of the Ministry of Education (China); Yuan, Hang [Tsinghua University, Life Science Division, Graduate School at Shenzhen (China); Shen, Huaibin [Henan University, Key Laboratory for Special Functional Materials of the Ministry of Education (China); Wu, Feng; Ma, Lan, E-mail: malan@sz.tsinghua.edu.cn [Tsinghua University, Life Science Division, Graduate School at Shenzhen (China); Li, Lin Song, E-mail: lsli@henu.edu.cn [Henan University, Key Laboratory for Special Functional Materials of the Ministry of Education (China)

    2013-09-15

    In this paper, high-quality carboxyl-functionalized fluorescent (red, green, and blue emitting) nanospheres (46-103 nm) consisting of hydrophobic quantum dots (QDs) and polystyrene were prepared by a miniemulsion polymerization approach. This miniemulsion polymerization approach induced a homogeneous distribution and high aqueous-phase transport efficiency of fluorescent QDs in composite nanospheres, which proved the success of our encoding QDs strategy. The obtained fluorescent nanospheres exhibited high stability in aqueous solution under a wide range of pH, different salt concentrations, PBS buffer, and thermal treatment at 80 Degree-Sign C. Based on the red emitting composite nanosphere, we performed fluorescent lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) strips for high-sensitivity and rapid alpha-fetal protein detection. The detection limit reached 0.1 ng/mL, which was 200 times higher than commercial colloidal gold-labeled LFIA strips, and it reached similar detection level in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit.

  20. Highly efficient hybrid photovoltaics based on hyperbranched three-dimensional TiO2 electron transporting materials

    KAUST Repository

    Mahmood, Khalid; Swain, Bhabani Sankar; Amassian, Aram

    2015-01-01

    A 3D hyperbranched TiO2 electron transporting material is demonstrated, which exhibits superior carrier transport and lifetime, as well as excellent infiltration, leading to highly efficient mesostructured hybrid solar cells, such as lead-halide perovskites (15.5%) and dye-sensitized solar cells (11.2%).

  1. Highly efficient hybrid photovoltaics based on hyperbranched three-dimensional TiO2 electron transporting materials

    KAUST Repository

    Mahmood, Khalid

    2015-03-23

    A 3D hyperbranched TiO2 electron transporting material is demonstrated, which exhibits superior carrier transport and lifetime, as well as excellent infiltration, leading to highly efficient mesostructured hybrid solar cells, such as lead-halide perovskites (15.5%) and dye-sensitized solar cells (11.2%).

  2. Rapid MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelman, R.R.; Buxton, R.B.; Brady, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    Conventional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging methods typically require several minutes to produce an image, but the periods of respiration, cardiac motion and peristalsis are on the order of seconds or less. The need to reduce motion artifact, as well as the need to reduce imaging time for patient comfort and efficiency, have provided a strong impetus for the development of rapid imaging methods. For abdominal imaging, motion artifacts due to respiration can be significantly reduced by collecting the entire image during one breath hold. For other applications, such as following the kinetics of administered contrast agents, rapid imaging is essential to achieve adequate time resolution. A shorter imaging time entails a cost in image signal/noise (S/N), but improvements in recent years in magnet homogeneity, gradient and radiofrequency coil design have led to steady improvements in S/N and consequently in image quality. For many chemical applications the available S/N is greater than needed, and a trade-off of lower S/N for a shorter imaging time is acceptable. In this chapter, the authors consider the underlying principles of rapid imaging as well as clinical applications of these methods. The bulk of this review concentrates on short TR imaging, but methods that provide for a more modest decrease in imaging time as well as or those that dramatically shorten the imaging time to tens of milliseconds are also discussed

  3. High-efficiency free-electron-laser experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, K.; Brau, C.A.; Goldstein, J.C.; Hohla, K.L.; Newnam, B.E.; Stein, W.E.; Warren, R.W.; Winston, J.G.

    1983-01-01

    Experiments with a tapered-wiggler free-electron laser have demonstrated extraction of about 3% of the energy from the electron beam and measured the corresponding optical emission. These results are in excellent agreement with theory and represent an order-of-magnitude improvement over all previous results

  4. High-efficiency green phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with double-emission layer and thick N-doped electron transport layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobuki, Shunichiro, E-mail: shunichiro.nobuki.nb@hitachi.com [Hitachi Research Laboratory, Hitachi Ltd., 7-1-1 Omika-cho, Hitachi-city, Ibaraki 319-1292 (Japan); Wakana, Hironori; Ishihara, Shingo [Hitachi Research Laboratory, Hitachi Ltd., 7-1-1 Omika-cho, Hitachi-city, Ibaraki 319-1292 (Japan); Mikami, Akiyoshi [Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Kanazawa Institute of Technology, 7-1 Ohgigaoka, Nonoichimachi, Ishikawa 921-8501 (Japan)

    2014-03-03

    We have developed green phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with high external quantum efficiency of 59.7% and power efficiency of 243 lm/W at 2.73 V at 0.053 mA/cm{sup 2}. A double emission layer and a thick n-doped electron transport layer were adopted to improve the exciton recombination factor. A high refractive index hemispherical lens was attached to a high refractive index substrate for extracting light trapped inside the substrate and the multiple-layers of OLEDs to air. Additionally, we analyzed an energy loss mechanism to clarify room for the improvement of our OLEDs including the charge balance factor. - Highlights: • We developed high efficiency green phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode (OLED). • Our OLED had external quantum efficiency of 59.7% and power efficiency of 243 lm/W. • A double emission layer and thick n-doped electron transport layer were adopted. • High refractive index media (hemispherical lens and substrate) were also used. • We analyzed an energy loss mechanism to clarify the charge balance factor of our OLED.

  5. Calcium carbonate electronic-insulating layers improve the charge collection efficiency of tin oxide photoelectrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, Shoyebmohamad F.; Mane, Rajaram S.; Hwang, Yun Jeong; Joo, Oh-Shim

    2015-01-01

    In dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), a surface passivation layer has been employed on the tin oxide (SnO 2 ) photoanodes to enhance the charge collection efficiency, and thus the power conversion efficiency. Herein, we demonstrate that the electronic-insulating layering of calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) can improve the charge collection efficiency in dye-sensitized solar cells designed with photoanodes. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of CaCO 3 layering, both layered and pristine SnO 2 photoanodes are characterized with regard to their structures, morphologies, and photo-electrochemical measurements. The SnO 2 -6L CaCO 3 photoanode has demonstrated as high as 3.5% power conversion efficiency; 3.5-fold greater than that of the pristine SnO 2 photoanode. The enhancement in the power conversion efficiency is corroborated with the number of the dye molecules, the passivation of surface states, a negative shift in the conduction band position, and the reduced electron recombination rate of photoelectrons following the coating of the CaCO 3 surface layer

  6. Physical mechanism causing rapid changes in ultrarelativistic electron pitch angle distributions right after a shock arrival: Evaluation of an electron dropout event: Drift Shell Splitting on the Dayside

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, X.-J.; University of California, Los Angeles, CA; Li, W.; Boston University, MA; Thorne, R. M.

    2016-01-01

    Three mechanisms have been proposed to explain relativistic electron flux depletions (dropouts) in the Earth's outer radiation belt during storm times: adiabatic expansion of electron drift shells due to a decrease in magnetic field strength, magnetopause shadowing and subsequent outward radial diffusion, and precipitation into the atmosphere (driven by EMIC wave scattering). Which mechanism predominates in causing electron dropouts commonly observed in the outer radiation belt is still debatable. In the present study, we evaluate the physical mechanism that may be primarily responsible for causing the sudden change in relativistic electron pitch angle distributions during a dropout event observed by Van Allen Probes during the main phase of the 27 February 2014 storm. During this event, the phase space density of ultrarelativistic (>1MeV) electrons was depleted by more than 1 order of magnitude over the entire radial extent of the outer radiation belt (3 < L* < 5) in less than 6 h after the passage of an interplanetary shock. We model the electron pitch angle distribution under a compressed magnetic field topology based on actual solar wind conditions. Although these ultrarelativistic electrons exhibit highly anisotropic (peaked in 90°), energy-dependent pitch angle distributions, which appear to be associated with the typical EMIC wave scattering, comparison of the modeled electron distribution to electron measurements indicates that drift shell splitting is responsible for this rapid change in electron pitch angle distributions. This further indicates that magnetopause loss is the predominant cause of the electron dropout right after the shock arrival.

  7. Dynamics in ion-molecule collisions at high velocities: One- and two-electron processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yudong.

    1992-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the dynamic interactions in ion-molecule collisions. Theoretical methods are developed for single and multiple electron transitions in fast collisions with diatomic molecules by heavy-ion projectiles. Various theories and models are developed to treat the three basic inelastic processes (excitation, ionization and charge transfer) involving one and more electrons. The development, incorporating the understanding of ion-atom collision theories with some unique characteristics for molecular targets, provides new insights into phenomena that are absent from collisions with atomic targets. The influence from the multiple scattering centers on collision dynamics is assessed. For diatomic molecules, effects due to a fixed molecular orientation or alignment are calculated and compared with available experimental observations. Compared with excitation and ionization, electron capture, which probes deeper into the target, presents significant two-center interference and strong orientation dependence. Attention has been given in this dissertation to exploring mechanisms for two-and multiple electron transitions. Application of independent electron approximation to transfer excitation from molecular hydrogen is studied. Electron-electron interaction originated from projectile and target nuclear centers is studied in conjunction with the molecular nature of target. Limitations of the present theories and models as well as possible new areas for future theoretical and experimental applications are also discussed. This is the first attempt to describe multi-electron processes in molecular dynamics involving fast highly charged ions

  8. Development of an optical resonator with high-efficient output coupler for the JAERI far-infrared free-electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Ryoji; Hajima, Ryoichi; Nishimori, Nobuyuki; Sawamura, Masaru; Kikuzawa, Nobuhiro; Shizuma, Toshiyuki; Minehara, Eisuke

    2001-01-01

    An optical resonator with a high-efficient output coupler was developed for the JAERI far-infrared free-electron laser. The optical resonator is symmetrical near-concentric geometry with an insertable scraper output coupler. As a result of the development of the optical resonator, the JAERI-FEL has been successfully, lased with averaged power over 1 kW. Performance of the optical resonator with the output coupler was evaluated at optical wavelength of 22 μm by using an optical mode calculation code. The output coupling and diffractive loss with a dominant eigen-mode of the resonator were calculated using an iterative computation called Fox-Li procedure. An efficiency factor of the optical resonator was introduced for the evaluation of the optical resonator performance. The efficiency factor was derived by the amount of the output coupling and diffractive loss of the optical resonator. It was found that the optical resonator with the insertable scraper coupler was the most suitable to a high-power and high-efficient far-infrared free-electron laser. (author)

  9. Simulation of a Rapid Dropout Event for Highly Relativistic Electrons with the RBE Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, S-B.; Fok, M.-C.; Glocer, A.; Min, K.-W.; Choi, C.-R.; Choi, E.; Hwang, J.

    2016-01-01

    A flux dropout is a sudden and sizable decrease in the energetic electron population of the outer radiation belt on the time scale of a few hours. We simulated a flux dropout of highly relativistic 2.5 MeV electrons using the Radiation Belt Environment model, incorporating the pitch angle diffusion coefficients caused by electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves for the geomagnetic storm events of 23-26 October 2002. This simulation showed a remarkable decrease in the 2.5 MeV electron flux during main phase of the storm, compared to those without EMIC waves. This decrease was independent of magnetopause shadowing or drift loss to the magnetopause. We suggest that the flux decrease was likely to be primarily due to pitch angle scattering to the loss cone by EMIC waves. Furthermore, the 2.5 MeV electron flux calculated with EMIC waves correspond very well with that observed from Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle EXplorer spacecraft. EMIC wave scattering is therefore likely one of the key mechanisms to understand flux dropouts. We modeled EMIC wave intensities by the Kp index. However, the calculated dropout is a several hours earlier than the observed one. We propose that Kp is not the best parameter to predict EMIC waves.

  10. The exothermic reaction route of a self-heatable conductive ink for rapid processable printed electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong-Youn; Han, Jin Wook; Chun, Sangki

    2013-12-01

    We report the exothermic reaction route and new capability of a self-heatable conductive ink (Ag2O and silver 2,2-dimethyloctanoate) in order to achieve both a low sintering temperature and electrical resistivity within a short sintering time for flexible printed electronics and display appliances. Unlike conventional conductive ink, which requires a costly external heating instrument for rapid sintering, self-heatable conductive ink by itself is capable of generating heat as high as 312 °C when its exothermic reaction is triggered at a temperature of 180 °C. This intensive exothermic reaction is found to result from the recursive reaction of the 2,2-dimethyloctanoate anion, which is thermally dissociated from silver 2,2-dimethyloctanoate, with silver oxide microparticles. Through this recursive reaction, a massive number of silver atoms are supplied from silver oxide microparticles, and the nucleation of silver atoms and the fusion of silver nanoparticles become the major source of heat. This exothermic reaction eventually realizes the electrical resistivity of self-heatable conductive ink as low as 27.5 μΩ cm within just 40 s by combining chemical annealing, which makes it suitable for the roll-to-roll printable electronics such as a flexible touch screen panel.We report the exothermic reaction route and new capability of a self-heatable conductive ink (Ag2O and silver 2,2-dimethyloctanoate) in order to achieve both a low sintering temperature and electrical resistivity within a short sintering time for flexible printed electronics and display appliances. Unlike conventional conductive ink, which requires a costly external heating instrument for rapid sintering, self-heatable conductive ink by itself is capable of generating heat as high as 312 °C when its exothermic reaction is triggered at a temperature of 180 °C. This intensive exothermic reaction is found to result from the recursive reaction of the 2,2-dimethyloctanoate anion, which is thermally

  11. Monolayer graphene-insulator-semiconductor emitter for large-area electron lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirley, Matthew P.; Aloui, Tanouir; Glass, Jeffrey T.

    2017-06-01

    The rapid adoption of nanotechnology in fields as varied as semiconductors, energy, and medicine requires the continual improvement of nanopatterning tools. Lithography is central to this evolving nanotechnology landscape, but current production systems are subject to high costs, low throughput, or low resolution. Herein, we present a solution to these problems with the use of monolayer graphene in a graphene-insulator-semiconductor (GIS) electron emitter device for large-area electron lithography. Our GIS device displayed high emission efficiency (up to 13%) and transferred large patterns (500 × 500 μm) with high fidelity (industries and opening opportunities in nanomanufacturing.

  12. A rapid and efficient two-step gel electrophoresis method for the purification of major rye grass pollen allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, D; Davies, J; O'Hehir, R; Suphioglu, C

    2001-06-01

    Purified proteins are mandatory for molecular, immunological and cellular studies. However, purification of proteins from complex mixtures requires specialised chromatography methods (i.e., gel filtration, ion exchange, etc.) using fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) systems. Such systems are expensive and certain proteins require two or more different steps for sufficient purity and generally result in low recovery. The aim of this study was to develop a rapid, inexpensive and efficient gel-electrophoresis-based protein purification method using basic and readily available laboratory equipment. We have used crude rye grass pollen extract to purify the major allergens Lol p 1 and Lol p 5 as the model protein candidates. Total proteins were resolved on large primary gel and Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB)-stained Lol p 1/5 allergens were excised and purified on a secondary "mini"-gel. Purified proteins were extracted from unstained separating gels and subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblot analyses. Silver-stained SDS-PAGE gels resolved pure proteins (i.e., 875 microg of Lol p 1 recovered from a 8 mg crude starting material) while immunoblot analysis confirmed immunological reactivity of the purified proteins. Such a purification method is rapid, inexpensive, and efficient in generating proteins of sufficient purity for use in monoclonal antibody (mAb) production, protein sequencing and general molecular, immunological, and cellular studies.

  13. Optimization of the electron collection efficiency of a large area MCP-PMT for the JUNO experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Lin, E-mail: chenlin@opt.cn [State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi’an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics (XIOPM), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Xi’an 710119 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100049 (China); Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Tian, Jinshou [Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Chunliang [Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Wang, Yifang; Zhao, Tianchi [Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP) of CAS, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Hulin; Wei, Yonglin; Sai, Xiaofeng [Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, Ping [State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi’an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics (XIOPM), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Xi’an 710119 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100049 (China); Wang, Xing; Lu, Yu [Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100049 (China); Hui, Dandan; Guo, Lehui [State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi’an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics (XIOPM), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Xi’an 710119 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Shulin; Qian, Sen; Xia, Jingkai; Yan, Baojun; Zhu, Na [Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP) of CAS, Beijing 100049 (China); Sun, Jianning; Si, Shuguang [North Night Vision Technology (NNVT) CO., LTD, Nanjing 210110 (China); and others

    2016-08-11

    A novel large-area (20-inch) photomultiplier tube based on microchannel plate (MCP-PMTs) is proposed for the Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) experiment. Its photoelectron collection efficiency C{sub e} is limited by the MCP open area fraction (A{sub open}). This efficiency is studied as a function of the angular (θ), energy (E) distributions of electrons in the input charge cloud and the potential difference (U) between the PMT photocathode and the MCP input surface, considering secondary electron emission from the MCP input electrode. In CST Studio Suite, Finite Integral Technique and Monte Carlo method are combined to investigate the dependence of C{sub e} on θ, E and U. Results predict that C{sub e} can exceed A{sub open}, and are applied to optimize the structure and operational parameters of the 20-inch MCP-PMT prototype. C{sub e} of the optimized MCP-PMT is expected to reach 81.2%. Finally, the reduction of the penetration depth of the MCP input electrode layer and the deposition of a high secondary electron yield material on the MCP are proposed to further optimize C{sub e}.

  14. Highly Efficient and Scalable Compound Decomposition of Two-Electron Integral Tensor and Its Application in Coupled Cluster Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Bo [William R. Wiley Environmental; Kowalski, Karol [William R. Wiley Environmental

    2017-08-11

    The representation and storage of two-electron integral tensors are vital in large- scale applications of accurate electronic structure methods. Low-rank representation and efficient storage strategy of integral tensors can significantly reduce the numerical overhead and consequently time-to-solution of these methods. In this paper, by combining pivoted incomplete Cholesky decomposition (CD) with a follow-up truncated singular vector decomposition (SVD), we develop a decomposition strategy to approximately represent the two-electron integral tensor in terms of low-rank vectors. A systematic benchmark test on a series of 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D carbon-hydrogen systems demonstrates high efficiency and scalability of the compound two-step decomposition of the two-electron integral tensor in our implementation. For the size of atomic basis set N_b ranging from ~ 100 up to ~ 2, 000, the observed numerical scaling of our implementation shows O(N_b^{2.5~3}) versus O(N_b^{3~4}) of single CD in most of other implementations. More importantly, this decomposition strategy can significantly reduce the storage requirement of the atomic-orbital (AO) two-electron integral tensor from O(N_b^4) to O(N_b^2 log_{10}(N_b)) with moderate decomposition thresholds. The accuracy tests have been performed using ground- and excited-state formulations of coupled- cluster formalism employing single and double excitations (CCSD) on several bench- mark systems including the C_{60} molecule described by nearly 1,400 basis functions. The results show that the decomposition thresholds can be generally set to 10^{-4} to 10^{-3} to give acceptable compromise between efficiency and accuracy.

  15. Gravure printing of graphene for large-area flexible electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secor, Ethan B; Lim, Sooman; Zhang, Heng; Frisbie, C Daniel; Francis, Lorraine F; Hersam, Mark C

    2014-07-09

    Gravure printing of graphene is demonstrated for the rapid production of conductive patterns on flexible substrates. Development of suitable inks and printing parameters enables the fabrication of patterns with a resolution down to 30 μm. A mild annealing step yields conductive lines with high reliability and uniformity, providing an efficient method for the integration of graphene into large-area printed and flexible electronics. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Research on the Application of Rapid Surveying and Mapping for Large Scare Topographic Map by Uav Aerial Photography System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Z.; Song, Y.; Li, C.; Zeng, F.; Wang, F.

    2017-08-01

    Rapid acquisition and processing method of large scale topographic map data, which relies on the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) low-altitude aerial photogrammetry system, is studied in this paper, elaborating the main work flow. Key technologies of UAV photograph mapping is also studied, developing a rapid mapping system based on electronic plate mapping system, thus changing the traditional mapping mode and greatly improving the efficiency of the mapping. Production test and achievement precision evaluation of Digital Orth photo Map (DOM), Digital Line Graphic (DLG) and other digital production were carried out combined with the city basic topographic map update project, which provides a new techniques for large scale rapid surveying and has obvious technical advantage and good application prospect.

  17. A Rapid and Efficient Screening Method for Antibacterial Compound-Producing Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettiarachchi, Sachithra; Lee, Su-Jin; Lee, Youngdeuk; Kwon, Young-Kyung; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Moon, Song; Jo, Eunyoung; Kim, Taeho; Kang, Do-Hyung; Heo, Soo-Jin; Oh, Chulhong

    2017-08-28

    Antibacterial compounds are widely used in the treatment of human and animal diseases. The overuse of antibiotics has led to a rapid rise in the prevalence of drug-resistant bacteria, making the development of new antibacterial compounds essential. This study focused on developing a fast and easy method for identifying marine bacteria that produce antibiotic compounds. Eight randomly selected marine target bacterial species ( Agrococcus terreus, Bacillus algicola, Mesoflavibacter zeaxanthinifaciens, Pseudoalteromonas flavipulchra, P. peptidolytica, P. piscicida, P. rubra , and Zunongwangia atlantica ) were tested for production of antibacterial compounds against four strains of test bacteria ( B. cereus, B. subtilis, Halomonas smyrnensis , and Vibrio alginolyticus ). Colony picking was used as the primary screening method. Clear zones were observed around colonies of P. flavipulchra, P. peptidolytica, P. piscicida , and P. rubra tested against B. cereus, B. subtilis , and H. smyrnensis . The efficiency of colony scraping and broth culture methods for antimicrobial compound extraction was also compared using a disk diffusion assay. P. peptidolytica, P. piscicida , and P. rubra showed antagonistic activity against H. smyrnensis, B. cereus , and B. subtilis , respectively, only in the colony scraping method. Our results show that colony picking and colony scraping are effective, quick, and easy methods of screening for antibacterial compound-producing bacteria.

  18. Facile one-step hydrothermal synthesis toward strongly coupled TiO{sub 2}/graphene quantum dots photocatalysts for efficient hydrogen evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Shixiong, E-mail: sxmin@nun.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Beifang University of Nationalities, Yinchuan, 750021, Ningxia Province (China); Hou, Jianhua; Lei, Yonggang; Ma, Xiaohua [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Beifang University of Nationalities, Yinchuan, 750021, Ningxia Province (China); Lu, Gongxuan [State Key Laboratory for Oxo Synthesis and Selective Oxidation, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, 730000 (China)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2}/GQDs composites were prepared by a facile one-step hydrothermal method. • GQDs were strongly coupled onto the surface of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles by this method. • The TiO{sub 2}/GQDs showed enhanced light absorption and charge separation efficiency. • The TiO{sub 2}/GQDs exhibited higher photocatalytic H{sub 2} evolution activity than pure TiO{sub 2}. • GQDs play synergistic roles by acting as both photosensitizer and electron acceptor. - Abstract: The coupling of semiconductor photocatalysts with graphene quantum dots (GQDs) has been proven to be an effective strategy to enhance the photocatalytic and photoelectrical conversion performances of the resulted composites; however, the preparation of semiconductor/GQDs composites usually involves several time-inefficient and tedious post-treatment steps. Herein, we present a facile one-step hydrothermal route for the preparation of GQDs coupled TiO{sub 2} (TiO{sub 2}/GQDs) photocatalysts using 1,3,6-trinitropyrene (TNP) as the sole precursor of GQDs. During the hydrothermal process, TNP molecules undergo an intramolecular fusion to form GQDs, which simultaneously decorate on the surface of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles, leading to a strong surface interaction between the two components. The effective coupling of GQDs on TiO{sub 2} can effectively extend the light absorption of the TiO{sub 2} to visible region and enhance the charge separation efficiency of TiO{sub 2}/GQDs composites as a result of GQDs acting as a photosensitizer and an excellent electron acceptor. These key advances make the TiO{sub 2}/GQDs photocatalyst highly active towards the H{sub 2} evolution reaction, resulting in 7 and 3 times higher H{sub 2} evolution rate and photocurrent response at optimal GQDs content than TiO{sub 2} alone, respectively. This study provides a new methodology for the development of high-performance GQDs modified semiconductor photocatalysts for energy conversion applications.

  19. Facile and efficient one-pot solvothermal and microwave-assisted synthesis of stable colloidal solutions of MFe2O4 spinel magnetic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solano, Eduardo; Perez-Mirabet, Leonardo; Martinez-Julian, Fernando; Guzmán, Roger; Arbiol, Jordi; Puig, Teresa; Obradors, Xavier; Yañez, Ramón; Pomar, Alberto; Ricart, Susagna; Ros, Josep

    2012-01-01

    Well-defined synthesis conditions of high quality MFe 2 O 4 (M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, and Cu) spinel ferrite magnetic nanoparticles, with diameters below 10 nm, have been described based on facile and efficient one-pot solvothermal or microwave-assisted heating procedures. Both methods are reproducible and scalable and allow forming concentrated stable colloidal solutions in polar solvents, but microwave-assisted heating allows reducing 15 times the required annealing time and leads to an enhanced monodispersity of the nanoparticles. Non-agglomerated nanoparticles dispersions have been achieved using a simple one-pot approach where a single compound, triethyleneglycol, behaves at the same time as solvent and capping ligand. A narrow nanoparticle size distribution and high quality crystallinity have been achieved through selected nucleation and growth conditions. High resolution transmission electron microscopy images and electron energy loss spectroscopy analysis confirm the expected structure and composition and show that similar crystal faceting has been formed in both synthetic approaches. The spinel nanoparticles behave as ferrimagnets with a high saturation magnetization and are superparamagnetic at room temperature. The influence of synthesis route on phase purity and unconventional magnetic properties is discussed in some particular cases such as CuFe 2 O 4 , CoFe 2 O 4 , and ZnFe 2 O 4 .

  20. One-electron oxidation reactions of purine and pyrimidine bases in cellular DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadet, Jean; Wagner, J Richard; Shafirovich, Vladimir; Geacintov, Nicholas E

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this survey is to critically review the available information on one-electron oxidation reactions of nucleobases in cellular DNA with emphasis on damage induced through the transient generation of purine and pyrimidine radical cations. Since the indirect effect of ionizing radiation mediated by hydroxyl radical is predominant in cells, efforts have been made to selectively ionize bases using suitable one-electron oxidants that consist among others of high intensity UVC laser pulses. Thus, the main oxidation product in cellular DNA was found to be 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine as a result of direct bi-photonic ionization of guanine bases and indirect formation of guanine radical cations through hole transfer reactions from other base radical cations. The formation of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine and other purine and pyrimidine degradation products was rationalized in terms of the initial generation of related radical cations followed by either hydration or deprotonation reactions in agreement with mechanistic pathways inferred from detailed mechanistic studies. The guanine radical cation has been shown to be implicated in three other nucleophilic additions that give rise to DNA-protein and DNA-DNA cross-links in model systems. Evidence was recently provided for the occurrence of these three reactions in cellular DNA. There is growing evidence that one-electron oxidation reactions of nucleobases whose mechanisms have been characterized in model studies involving aqueous solutions take place in a similar way in cells. It may also be pointed out that the above cross-linked lesions are only produced from the guanine radical cation and may be considered as diagnostic products of the direct effect of ionizing radiation.

  1. Efficiency of the generation of impulsion by cyclotron waves currents of the electrons in an Axisymmetric Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez T, C.; Beltran P, M.

    2004-01-01

    The neoclassical theory of transport is used to calculate the current efficiency of electronic cyclotron impulsion (ECCD) in an axisymmetric tokamak in the few collisions regime. The standard parameter of the tokamak is used to obtain a system of equations that describe the hydrodynamic of the plasma, where the ponderomotive force (PM) due to high power radio frequency waves is taken in account. The PM force is produced in the proximity of electron cyclotron resonance surface in a specific poloidal localization. The efficiency ECCD is analyzed in the cases of first and second harmonic (for different angles of injection of radio frequency waves) and it is validated using the experimental values of the TCV and T-10 tokamaks. The results are according to those obtained by means of the techniques of the Green functions. (Author)

  2. Rapid and accurate detection of urinary pathogens by mobile IMS-based electronic nose: a proof-of-principle study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti Roine

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is a common disease with significant morbidity and economic burden, accounting for a significant part of the workload in clinical microbiology laboratories. Current clinical chemisty point-of-care diagnostics rely on imperfect dipstick analysis which only provides indirect and insensitive evidence of urinary bacterial pathogens. An electronic nose (eNose is a handheld device mimicking mammalian olfaction that potentially offers affordable and rapid analysis of samples without preparation at athmospheric pressure. In this study we demonstrate the applicability of ion mobility spectrometry (IMS -based eNose to discriminate the most common UTI pathogens from gaseous headspace of culture plates rapidly and without sample preparation. We gathered a total of 101 culture samples containing four most common UTI bacteries: E. coli, S. saprophyticus, E. faecalis, Klebsiella spp and sterile culture plates. The samples were analyzed using ChemPro 100i device, consisting of IMS cell and six semiconductor sensors. Data analysis was conducted by linear discriminant analysis (LDA and logistic regression (LR. The results were validated by leave-one-out and 5-fold cross validation analysis. In discrimination of sterile and bacterial samples sensitivity of 95% and specificity of 97% were achieved. The bacterial species were identified with sensitivity of 95% and specificity of 96% using eNose as compared to urine bacterial cultures.These findings strongly demonstrate the ability of our eNose to discriminate bacterial cultures and provides a proof of principle to use this method in urinanalysis of UTI.

  3. One-Step Borylation of 1,3-Diaryloxybenzenes Towards Efficient Materials for Organic Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Hiroki; Nakajima, Kiichi; Nakatsuka, Soichiro; Shiren, Kazushi; Ni, Jingping; Nomura, Shintaro; Ikuta, Toshiaki; Hatakeyama, Takuji

    2015-11-09

    The development of a one-step borylation of 1,3-diaryloxybenzenes, yielding novel boron-containing polycyclic aromatic compounds, is reported. The resulting boron-containing compounds possess high singlet-triplet excitation energies as a result of localized frontier molecular orbitals induced by boron and oxygen. Using these compounds as a host material, we successfully prepared phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes exhibiting high efficiency and adequate lifetimes. Moreover, using the present one-step borylation, we succeeded in the synthesis of an efficient, thermally activated delayed fluorescence emitter and boron-fused benzo[6]helicene. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Magnetic-Field Control Of Tunnel-Coupling In Strongly Confined One-Dimensional Electron Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, S. F.; Apetrii, G.; Kunze, U.; Schuh, D.; Abstreiter, G.

    2007-04-01

    One-dimensional (1D) ballistic electron transport is studied through stacked 1D quantum conductors separated by a thin tunneling barrier. The 1D electron systems of large 1D subband spacings (more than 10 meV) allow single mode operation. Degeneracies of 1D subbands of equal lateral mode index are lifted by the formation of symmetric and antisymmetric states and are depicted by anti-crossings of transconductance maxima. We observe a mode-dependent turnover from level anti-crossings to crossings in longitudinal magnetic fields.

  5. Enhanced planar perovskite solar cell efficiency and stability using a perovskite/PCBM heterojunction formed in one step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Long; Chang, Jingjing; Liu, Ziye; Sun, Xu; Lin, Zhenhua; Chen, Dazheng; Zhang, Chunfu; Zhang, Jincheng; Hao, Yue

    2018-02-08

    Perovskite/PCBM heterojunctions are efficient for fabricating perovskite solar cells with high performance and long-term stability. In this study, an efficient perovskite/PCBM heterojunction was formed via conventional sequential deposition and one-step formation processes. Compared with conventional deposition, the one-step process was more facile, and produced a perovskite thin film of substantially improved quality due to fullerene passivation. Moreover, the resulting perovskite/PCBM heterojunction exhibited more efficient carrier transfer and extraction, and reduced carrier recombination. The perovskite solar cell device based on one-step perovskite/PCBM heterojunction formation exhibited a higher maximum PCE of 17.8% compared with that from the conventional method (13.7%). The device also showed exceptional stability, retaining 83% of initial PCE after 60 days of storage under ambient conditions.

  6. Electricity consumption by battery-powered consumer electronics: A household-level survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAllister, J. Andrew; Farrell, Alexander E.

    2007-01-01

    The rapid proliferation of battery-powered consumer electronics and their reliance on inefficient linear transformers has been suggested to be an important part of the rapid growth in 'miscellaneous' electricity consumption in recent years, but detailed data are scarce. We conducted a survey of 34 randomly selected households (HHs) in Northern California about the number, type, and usage of consumer electronics. We also measured the energy consumption of 85 typical consumer electronic devices through various parts of the charge cycle. These primary data were supplemented by national sales information for consumer electronics. Results indicate that typical HHs own 8.4 rechargeable devices, which have a total average demand of 12-17 W per HH. Statewide, this amounts to 160-220 MW of demand, with the peak occurring in the late evening, and about 1600 GWh per year. Only about 15% of this energy is used for battery charging, the rest is lost as waste heat during no-load and charge maintenance periods. Technical options to increase the efficiency of these devices, and the research and policy steps needed to realize these savings are discussed

  7. Effect of a Real-Time Electronic Dashboard on a Rapid Response System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Grant S; Aaronson, Barry A; White, Andrew A; Julka, Reena

    2017-11-20

    A rapid response system (RRS) may have limited effectiveness when inpatient providers fail to recognize signs of early patient decompensation. We evaluated the impact of an electronic medical record (EMR)-based alerting dashboard on outcomes associated with RRS activation. We used a repeated treatment study in which the dashboard display was successively turned on and off each week for ten 2-week cycles over a 20-week period on the inpatient acute care wards of an academic medical center. The Rapid Response Team (RRT) dashboard displayed all hospital patients in a single view ranked by severity score, updated in real time. The dashboard could be seen within the EMR by any provider, including RRT members. The primary outcomes were the incidence rate ratio (IRR) of all RRT activations, unexpected ICU transfers, cardiopulmonary arrests and deaths on general medical-surgical wards (wards). We conducted an exploratory analysis of first RRT activations. There were 6736 eligible admissions during the 20-week study period. There was no change in overall RRT activations (IRR = 1.14, p = 0.07), but a significant increase in first RRT activations (IRR = 1.20, p = 0.04). There were no significant differences in unexpected ICU transfers (IRR = 1.15, p = 0.25), cardiopulmonary arrests on general wards (IRR = 1.46, p = 0.43), or deaths on general wards (IRR = 0.96, p = 0.89). The introduction of the RRT dashboard was associated with increased initial RRT activations but not overall activations, unexpected ICU transfers, cardiopulmonary arrests, or death. The RRT dashboard is a novel tool to help providers recognize patient decompensation and may improve initial RRT notification.

  8. Electronic vending machines for dispensing rapid HIV self-testing kits: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Sean D; Klausner, Jeffrey; Fynn, Risa; Bolan, Robert

    2014-02-01

    This short report evaluates the feasibility of using electronic vending machines for dispensing oral, fluid, rapid HIV self-testing kits in Los Angeles County. Feasibility criteria that needed to be addressed were defined as: (1) ability to find a manufacturer who would allow dispensing of HIV testing kits and could fit them to the dimensions of a vending machine, (2) ability to identify and address potential initial obstacles, trade-offs in choosing a machine location, and (3) ability to gain community approval for implementing this approach in a community setting. To address these issues, we contracted a vending machine company who could supply a customized, Internet-enabled machine that could dispense HIV kits and partnered with a local health center available to host the machine onsite and provide counseling to participants, if needed. Vending machines appear to be feasible technologies that can be used to distribute HIV testing kits.

  9. High-power free-electron laser amplifier using a scalloped electron beam and a two-stage wiggler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C. Nguyen

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available High-power free-electron laser (FEL amplifiers present many practical design and construction problems. One such problem is possible damage to any optical beam control elements beyond the wiggler. The ability to increase the optical beam’s divergence angle after the wiggler, thereby reducing the intensity on the first optical element, is important to minimize such damage. One proposal to accomplish this optical beam spreading is to pinch the electron beam thereby focusing the radiation as well. In this paper, we analyze an approach that relies on the natural betatron motion to pinch the electron beam near the end of the wiggler. We also consider a step-tapered, two-stage wiggler to enhance the efficiency. The combination of a pinched electron beam and step-taper wiggler leads to additional optical guiding of the optical beam. This novel configuration is studied in simulation using the MEDUSA code. For a representative set of beam and wiggler parameters, we discuss (i the effect of the scalloped beam on the interaction in the FEL and on the focusing and propagation of the radiation, and (ii the efficiency enhancement in the two-stage wiggler.

  10. Electron identification and implications in SSC detector design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensinger, J.; Wang, E.M.; Yamamoto, H.

    1990-05-01

    In the context of Heavy Higgs searches in the decay mode H → ZZ → 4e, electron identification issues and their implications on detector design are discussed (though many of the issues are valid for muon modes as well). The backgrounds considered seem manageable (a net rejection of 100 for combined electron ID and isolation cut is needed and seems fairly straightforward). A detector must have wide electron rapidity coverage η T > GeV; be hermetic (in the sense of minimizing regions where electrons can disappear through cracks, dead spaces, or poorly placed walls); and have high efficiency electron ID (∼ 0.90) since we are trying to be sensitive to a feeble signal and we need 4 electrons. The product of a number of fairly high acceptances based on optimistic estimates still yields in the end a net Higgs acceptance about 0.15 to 0.25 depending on how hermetic a detector is assumed. For M Higgs < 500 GeV, this may be tolerable; whereas, for higher Higgs masses, the situation is much less clear

  11. A computationally efficient moment-preserving Monte Carlo electron transport method with implementation in Geant4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, D.A., E-mail: ddixon@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, MS P365, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Prinja, A.K., E-mail: prinja@unm.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, MSC01 1120, 1 University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131-0001 (United States); Franke, B.C., E-mail: bcfrank@sandia.gov [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87123 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    This paper presents the theoretical development and numerical demonstration of a moment-preserving Monte Carlo electron transport method. Foremost, a full implementation of the moment-preserving (MP) method within the Geant4 particle simulation toolkit is demonstrated. Beyond implementation details, it is shown that the MP method is a viable alternative to the condensed history (CH) method for inclusion in current and future generation transport codes through demonstration of the key features of the method including: systematically controllable accuracy, computational efficiency, mathematical robustness, and versatility. A wide variety of results common to electron transport are presented illustrating the key features of the MP method. In particular, it is possible to achieve accuracy that is statistically indistinguishable from analog Monte Carlo, while remaining up to three orders of magnitude more efficient than analog Monte Carlo simulations. Finally, it is shown that the MP method can be generalized to any applicable analog scattering DCS model by extending previous work on the MP method beyond analytical DCSs to the partial-wave (PW) elastic tabulated DCS data.

  12. High Efficiency Inverted Organic Solar Cells with a Neutral Fulleropyrrolidine Electron Collecting Interlayer

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Weidong

    2016-05-20

    A novel fulleropyrrolidine derivative, named as FPNOH, was designed, synthesized and utilized as an efficient electron-collecting (EC) layer for inverted organic solar cells (i-OSCs). The grafted diethanolamino-polar moieties can not only trigger its function as an EC interlayer, but also induce orthogonal solubility that guarantees subsequent multi-layer processing without interfacial mixing. A higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) value of 8.34% was achieved for i-OSC devices with ITO/FPNOH EC electrode, compared to that of the sol-gel ZnO based reference devices with an optimized PCE value of 7.92%. High efficiency exceeding 7.7% was still achieved even for the devices with a relatively thick PFNOH film (16.9 nm). It is worthwhile to mention that this kind of material exhibits less thickness dependent performance, in contrast to widely utilized p-type conjugated polyelectrolytes (CPEs) as well as the non-conjugated polyelectrolytes (NCPEs). Further investigation on illuminating intensity dependent parameters revealed the role of FPNOH in reducing interfacial traps-induced recombination at ITO/active layer interface.

  13. High Efficiency Inverted Organic Solar Cells with a Neutral Fulleropyrrolidine Electron Collecting Interlayer

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Weidong; Yan, Congfei; Kan, Zhipeng; Wang, Yang; Lai, Wen-Yong; Huang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    A novel fulleropyrrolidine derivative, named as FPNOH, was designed, synthesized and utilized as an efficient electron-collecting (EC) layer for inverted organic solar cells (i-OSCs). The grafted diethanolamino-polar moieties can not only trigger its function as an EC interlayer, but also induce orthogonal solubility that guarantees subsequent multi-layer processing without interfacial mixing. A higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) value of 8.34% was achieved for i-OSC devices with ITO/FPNOH EC electrode, compared to that of the sol-gel ZnO based reference devices with an optimized PCE value of 7.92%. High efficiency exceeding 7.7% was still achieved even for the devices with a relatively thick PFNOH film (16.9 nm). It is worthwhile to mention that this kind of material exhibits less thickness dependent performance, in contrast to widely utilized p-type conjugated polyelectrolytes (CPEs) as well as the non-conjugated polyelectrolytes (NCPEs). Further investigation on illuminating intensity dependent parameters revealed the role of FPNOH in reducing interfacial traps-induced recombination at ITO/active layer interface.

  14. Electronic Interactions of n-Doped Perylene Diimide Groups Appended to Polynorbornene Chains: Implications for Electron Transport in Organic Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh T; Biberdorf, Joshua D; Holliday, Bradley J; Jones, Richard A

    2017-11-01

    A polymer consisting of a polynorbornene backbone with perylene diimide (PDI) pendant groups on each monomeric unit is synthesized via ring opening metathesis polymerization. The PDI pendant groups along the polymer backbone, studied by UV-vis absorption, fluorescence emission, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy in addition to electrochemical methods, show evidence of molecular aggregation and corresponding electronic coupling with neighboring groups, which forms pathways for efficient electron transport from one group to another in a specific reduced form. When n-doped, the title polymer shows redox conductivity of 5.4 × 10 -3 S cm -1 , comparable with crystalline PDI materials, and is therefore a promising material for use in organic electronics. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Numerical Simulations of X-Ray Free Electron Lasers (XFEL)

    KAUST Repository

    Antonelli, Paolo; Athanassoulis, Agissilaos; Huang, Zhongyi; Markowich, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    and approximations has attracted increased attention. In this model the electrons move under a rapidly oscillating electromagnetic field, and the convergence of the problem to an effective time-averaged one is examined. We use an operator splitting pseudospectral

  16. [F-18] halofluorination: A rapid and efficient method for the incorporation of radiofluorine into organic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, D.Y.; Katzenellenbogen, J.A.; Kilbourn, M.R.; Welch, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    The addition of halogen fluoride to olefins (Hal-F, halofluorination, where Hal is Br or I) is a more favorable reaction for labeling with tracer levels of F-18 than is addition of hydrogen fluoride (H-F, hydrofluorination), because of the more productive soft acid-soft base interaction between the Hal and the olefin. The authors have found that simple olefins (allylbenzene, 1-hexene, 1-propene) undergo rapid bromofluorination when treated with 1,3-dibromo-5,5-dimethylhydantoin (DBH), giving a 7:1 mixture of Markownikow (M) and anti-Markownikow (AM) adducts. In chlorinated solvents, the reaction is rapid and efficient, giving yields of 50-90% based on fluoride as limiting reagent. The products can be reduced to the fluorocarbon by debromination (R/sub 3/SnH or LiAlH/sub 4/), or they can be used to alkylate amines. Reasonable radiochemical yields can be obtained using F-18 produced in a water target [/sup 18/O(p,n)/sup 18/F], in either carrier-added (20-50%) or no-carrier-added (ca. 10-20%) modes. This reaction is being used to prepare F-18 labeled radiopharmaceuticals

  17. Coding for Electronic Mail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, R. F.; Lee, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Scheme for coding facsimile messages promises to reduce data transmission requirements to one-tenth current level. Coding scheme paves way for true electronic mail in which handwritten, typed, or printed messages or diagrams sent virtually instantaneously - between buildings or between continents. Scheme, called Universal System for Efficient Electronic Mail (USEEM), uses unsupervised character recognition and adaptive noiseless coding of text. Image quality of resulting delivered messages improved over messages transmitted by conventional coding. Coding scheme compatible with direct-entry electronic mail as well as facsimile reproduction. Text transmitted in this scheme automatically translated to word-processor form.

  18. Novel dextran derivatives with unconventional structure formed in an efficient one-pot reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotzel, Konrad; Heinze, Thomas

    2016-11-03

    An efficient one-pot synthesis of new dextran derivatives is described. The functional groups of β-alanine, i.e., the carboxyl- and amine group, are converted independently in one-step by iminium chloride to form products with a single substituent. The dextran N-[(dimethylamino)methylene]-β-alanine ester is formed selectively. The structure of the resulting polymers is unambiguously determined by means of NMR- and FTIR-spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. X-ray Microscopy as an Approach to Increasing Accuracy and Efficiency of Serial Block-face Imaging for Correlated Light and Electron Microscopy of Biological Specimens

    OpenAIRE

    Bushong, Eric A.; Johnson, Donald D.; Kim, Keun-Young; Terada, Masako; Hatori, Megumi; Peltier, Steven T.; Panda, Satchidananda; Merkle, Arno; Ellisman, Mark H.

    2014-01-01

    The recently developed three-dimensional electron microscopic (EM) method of serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBEM) has rapidly established itself as a powerful imaging approach. Volume EM imaging with this scanning electron microscopy (SEM) method requires intense staining of biological specimens with heavy metals to allow sufficient back-scatter electron signal and also to render specimens sufficiently conductive to control charging artifacts. These more extreme heavy metal s...

  20. [Fabrication of 3-dimensional skull model with rapid prototyping technique and its primary application in repairing one case of cranio-maxillo-facial trauma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Delin; Gui, Lai; Zhang, Zhiyong; Lu, Changsheng; Niu, Feng; Jin, Ji; Liu, Xiaoqing

    2005-10-01

    To investigate the methods of establishing 3-dimensional skull model using electron beam CT (EBCT) data rapid prototyping technique, and to discuss its application in repairing cranio-maxillo-facial trauma. The data were obtained by EBCT continuous volumetric scanning with 1.0 mm slice at thickness. The data were transferred to work-station for 3-dimensional surface reconstruction by computer-aided design software and the images were saved as STL file. The data can be used to control a laser rapid-prototyping device (AFS-320QZ) to construct geometric model. The material for the model construction is a kind of laser-sensitive resin power, which will become a mass when scanned by laser beam. The design and simulation of operation can be done on the model. The image data were transferred to the device slice by slice. Thus a geometric model is constructed according to the image data by repeating this process. Preoperative analysis, surgery simulation and implant of bone defect could be done on this computer-aided manufactured 3D model. One case of cranio-maxillo-facial bone defect resulting from trauma was reconstructed with this method. The EBCT scanning showed that the defect area was 4 cm x 6 cm. The nose was flat and deviated to left. The 3-dimensional skull was reconstructed with EBCT data and rapid prototyping technique. The model can display the structure of 3-dimensional anatomy and their relationship. The prefabricated implant by 3-dimensional model was well-matched with defect. The deformities of flat and deviated nose were corrected. The clinical result was satisfactory after a follow-up of 17 months. The 3-dimensional model of skull can replicate the prototype of disease and play an important role in the diagnosis and simulation of operation for repairing cranio-maxillo-facial trauma.

  1. Formation of quinones by one-electron oxidation in the metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene and 6-fluorobenzo[a]pyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalieri, E.; Wong, A.; Cremonesi, P.; Warner, C.; Rogan, E.

    1986-01-01

    Metabolic activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), as well as other chemical carcinogens, occurs by two major pathways: One-electron oxidation and two-electron oxidation, or monooxygenation. One-electron oxidation generates radical cations or radicals, depending on the molecule in which the oxidation occurs, whereas two-electron oxidation produces oxygenated metabolites. Radical cations of PAH are ultimate electrophilic metabolites capable of binding to cellular macromolecules to initiate the tumor process. In this paper the authors will provide evidence that one-electron oxidation is involved not only in PAH carcinogenesis, but also in the formation of certain metabolites. Metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene (BP) by cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase yields three classes of products: phenols, dihydrodiols and the quinones, 1,6-, 3,6- and 6,12- dione

  2. An Analysis of Sources of Technological Change in Efficiency Improvement of Fluorescent Lamp Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanaka, Takeo

    In Japan, energy efficient fluorescent lamp systems which use “rare-earth phosphors” and “electronic ballasts” have shown rapid diffusion since 1990s. This report investigated sources of technological change in the efficiency improvement of fluorescent lamp systems: (i) Fluorescent lamp and luminaires have been under steady technological development for getting more energy efficient lighting and the concepts to achieve high efficiency had been found in such activities; however, it took long time until they realized and become widely used; (ii) Electronic ballasts and rare-earth phosphors add fluorescent lamp systems not only energy efficiency but also various values such as compactness, lightweight, higher output, and better color rendering properties, which have also been expected and have induced research and development (R&D) (iii) Affordable electronic ballasts are realized by the new technology “power MOSFET” which is based on IC technologies and has been developed for large markets of information and communication technologies and mobile devices; and (iv) Rare-earth phosphors became available after rare-earth industries developed for the purpose of supplying rare-earth phosphors for color television. In terms of sources of technological change, (i) corresponds to “R&D” aiming at the particular purpose i.e. energy efficiency in this case, on the other hand, (ii), (iii), and (iv) correspond to “spillovers” from activities aiming at other purposes. This case exhibits an actual example in which “spillovers” were the critical sources of technological change in energy technology.

  3. Efficient photosensitized splitting of the thymine dimer/oxetane unit on its modifying beta-cyclodextrin by a binding electron donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wen-Jian; Song, Qin-Hua; Wang, Hong-Bo; Yu, Jing-Yu; Guo, Qing-Xiang

    2006-07-07

    Two modified beta-cyclodextrins (beta-CDs) with a thymine dimer and a thymine oxetane adduct respectively, TD-CD and Ox-CD, have been prepared, and utilized to bind an electron-rich chromophore, indole or N,N-dimethylaniline (DMA), to form a supramolecular complex. We have examined the photosensitized splitting of the dimer/oxetane unit in TD-CD/Ox-CD by indole or DMA via an electron-transfer pathway, and observed high splitting efficiencies of the dimer/oxetane unit. On the basis of measurements of fluorescence spectra and splitting quantum yields, it is suggested that the splitting reaction occurs in a supramolecular complex by an inclusion interaction between the modified beta-CDs and DMA or indole. The back electron transfer, which leads low splitting efficiencies for the covalently-linked chromophore-dimer/oxetane compounds, is suppressed in the non-covalently-bound complex, and the mechanism has been discussed.

  4. Electronic medical records and efficiency and productivity during office visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Michael F

    2011-04-01

    To estimate the relationship between electronic medical record (EMR) use and efficiency of utilization and provider productivity during visits to US office-based physicians. Cross-sectional analysis of the 2006-2007 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey. The sample included 62,710 patient visits to 2625 physicians. EMR systems included demographics, clinical notes, prescription orders, and laboratory and imaging results. Efficiency was measured as utilization of examinations, laboratory tests, radiology procedures, health education, nonmedication treatments, and medications. Productivity was measured as total services provided per 20-minute period. Survey-weighted regressions estimated association of EMR use with services provided, visit intensity/duration, and productivity. Marginal effects were estimated by averaging across all visits and by major reason for visit. EMR use was associated with higher probability of any examination (7.7%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.4%, 13.1%); any laboratory test (5.7%, 95% CI = 2.6%, 8.8%); any health education (4.9%, 95% CI = 0.2%, 9.6%); and fewer laboratory tests (-7.1%, 95% CI = -14.2%, -0.1%). During pre/post surgery visits, EMR use was associated with 7.3% (95% CI= -12.9%, -1.8%) fewer radiology procedures. EMR use was not associated with utilization of nonmedication treatments and medications, or visit duration. During routine visits for a chronic problem, EMR use was associated with 11.2% (95% CI = 5.7%, 16.8%) more diagnostic/screening services provided per 20-minute period. EMR use had a mixed association with efficiency and productivity during office visits. EMRs may improve provider productivity, especially during visits for a new problem and routine chronic care.

  5. Au nanoparticle-decorated silicon pyramids for plasmon-enhanced hot electron near-infrared photodetection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zhiyang; Zhai, Yusheng; Wen, Long; Wang, Qilong; Chen, Qin; Iqbal, Sami; Chen, Guangdian; Xu, Ji; Tu, Yan

    2017-07-01

    The heterojunction between metal and silicon (Si) is an attractive route to extend the response of Si-based photodiodes into the near-infrared (NIR) region, so-called Schottky barrier diodes. Photons absorbed into a metallic nanostructure excite the surface plasmon resonances (SPRs), which can be damped non-radiatively through the creation of hot electrons. Unfortunately, the quantum efficiency of hot electron detectors remains low due to low optical absorption and poor electron injection efficiency. In this study, we propose an efficient and low-cost plasmonic hot electron NIR photodetector based on a Au nanoparticle (Au NP)-decorated Si pyramid Schottky junction. The large-area and lithography-free photodetector is realized by using an anisotropic chemical wet etching and rapid thermal annealing (RTA) of a thin Au film. We experimentally demonstrate that these hot electron detectors have broad photoresponsivity spectra in the NIR region of 1200-1475 nm, with a low dark current on the order of 10-5 A cm-2. The observed responsivities enable these devices to be competitive with other reported Si-based NIR hot electron photodetectors using perfectly periodic nanostructures. The improved performance is attributed to the pyramid surface which can enhance light trapping and the localized electric field, and the nano-sized Au NPs which are beneficial for the tunneling of hot electrons. The simple and large-area preparation processes make them suitable for large-scale thermophotovoltaic cell and low-cost NIR detection applications.

  6. Direct, rapid RNA sequence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peattie, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    The original methods of RNA sequence analysis were based on enzymatic production and chromatographic separation of overlapping oligonucleotide fragments from within an RNA molecule followed by identification of the mononucleotides comprising the oligomer. Over the past decade the field of nucleic acid sequencing has changed dramatically, however, and RNA molecules now can be sequenced in a variety of more streamlined fashions. Most of the more recent advances in RNA sequencing have involved one-dimensional electrophoretic separation of 32 P-end-labeled oligoribonucleotides on polyacrylamide gels. In this chapter the author discusses two of these methods for determining the nucleotide sequences of RNA molecules rapidly: the chemical method and the enzymatic method. Both methods are direct and degradative, i.e., they rely on fragmatic and chemical approaches should be utilized. The single-strand-specific ribonucleases (A, T 1 , T 2 , and S 1 ) provide an efficient means to locate double-helical regions rapidly, and the chemical reactions provide a means to determine the RNA sequence within these regions. In addition, the chemical reactions allow one to assign interactions to specific atoms and to distinguish secondary interactions from tertiary ones. If the RNA molecule is small enough to be sequenced directly by the enzymatic or chemical method, the probing reactions can be done easily at the same time as sequencing reactions

  7. Electron beam instabilities in gyrotron beam tunnels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrozzi, M.; Alberti, S.; Hogge, J.P.; Tran, M.Q.; Tran, T.M.

    1997-10-01

    Electron beam instabilities occurring in a gyrotron electron beam can induce an energy spread which might significantly deteriorate the gyrotron efficiency. Three types of instabilities are considered to explain the important discrepancy found between the theoretical and experimental efficiency in the case of quasi-optical gyrotrons (QOG): the electron cyclotron maser instability, the Bernstein instability and the Langmuir instability. The low magnetic field gradient in drift tubes of QOG makes that the electron cyclotron maser instability can develop in the drift tube at very low electron beam currents. Experimental measurements show that with a proper choice of absorbing structures in the beam tunnel, this instability can be suppressed. At high beam currents, the electrostatic Bernstein instability can induce a significant energy spread at the entrance of the interaction region. The induced energy spread scales approximately linearly with the electron beam density and for QOG one observes that the beam density is significantly higher than the beam density of an equivalent cylindrical cavity gyrotron. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  8. The asynchronous rapid single-flux quantum electronics ─ a promising alternative for the development of high-performance digital circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Terzieva

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the application of the asynchronous logic approach for the realization of ultra high-speed digital electronics with high complexity. We evaluate the possible physical, technological, and schematical origins of restrictions limiting such an application, and propose solutions for their overcoming. Although our considerations are based on the rapid single-flux quantum technique, the conclusions derived can be generalized about any type of digital information coding.

  9. One electron reduction of triphenyl methane dyes by hydrated electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhasikuttan, A C; Shastri, L V; Sapre, A V; Rama Rao, K V.S. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Chemistry Div.

    1994-12-31

    Electron reaction rates for the triphenylmethane (TPM) dyes have been evaluated. Spectral characteristics of the resulting dye radicals have been determined. Evolution of the transient spectra shows intramolecular rearrangement in the radical from brilliant green and malachite green. (author). 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  10. One electron reduction of triphenyl methane dyes by hydrated electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhasikuttan, A.C.; Shastri, L.V.; Sapre, A.V.; Rama Rao, K.V.S.

    1994-01-01

    Electron reaction rates for the triphenylmethane (TPM) dyes have been evaluated. Spectral characteristics of the resulting dye radicals have been determined. Evolution of the transient spectra shows intramolecular rearrangement in the radical from brilliant green and malachite green. (author). 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  11. Electronic Universal Vote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian USCATU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the days of informational society everything is going online. Most aspects of our lives have online components. Since democracy is a big issue, it could not escape this trend. Governments themselves are moving to the online environment for the purpose of improving their internal efficiency and their availability to the citizens, businesses and other parties interested. Since governments are the result of elections, elections have also been touched by the electronic fever. New electronic voting solutions arise and each one brings new debates with many arguments in their favor and against them. Accessibility and ease of use leads the arguments in favor of electronic voting over the internet, while fear of fraud is the main reason people are avoiding electronics and clinging on classic paper ballots.

  12. Very High Frequency Switch-Mode Power Supplies.:Miniaturization of Power Electronics.

    OpenAIRE

    Madsen, Mickey Pierre; Andersen, Michael A. E.; Knott, Arnold

    2015-01-01

    The importance of technology and electronics in our daily life is constantly increasing. At the same time portability and energy efficiency are currently some of the hottest topics. This creates a huge need for power converters in a compact form factor and with high efficiency, which can supply these electronic devices. This calls for new technologies in order to miniaturize the power electronics of today. One way to do this is by increasing the switching frequency dramatically and develop ve...

  13. Fully printable, strain-engineered electronic wrap for customizable soft electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Junghwan; Lee, Byeongmoon; Oh, Eunho; Kim, Hyunjong; Kim, Sangwoo; Lee, Seunghwan; Hong, Yongtaek

    2017-03-24

    Rapid growth of stretchable electronics stimulates broad uses in multidisciplinary fields as well as industrial applications. However, existing technologies are unsuitable for implementing versatile applications involving adaptable system design and functions in a cost/time-effective way because of vacuum-conditioned, lithographically-predefined processes. Here, we present a methodology for a fully printable, strain-engineered electronic wrap as a universal strategy which makes it more feasible to implement various stretchable electronic systems with customizable layouts and functions. The key aspects involve inkjet-printed rigid island (PRI)-based stretchable platform technology and corresponding printing-based automated electronic functionalization methodology, the combination of which provides fully printed, customized layouts of stretchable electronic systems with simplified process. Specifically, well-controlled contact line pinning effect of printed polymer solution enables the formation of PRIs with tunable thickness; and surface strain analysis on those PRIs leads to the optimized stability and device-to-island fill factor of strain-engineered electronic wraps. Moreover, core techniques of image-based automated pinpointing, surface-mountable device based electronic functionalizing, and one-step interconnection networking of PRIs enable customized circuit design and adaptable functionalities. To exhibit the universality of our approach, multiple types of practical applications ranging from self-computable digital logics to display and sensor system are demonstrated on skin in a customized form.

  14. Fully printable, strain-engineered electronic wrap for customizable soft electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Junghwan; Lee, Byeongmoon; Oh, Eunho; Kim, Hyunjong; Kim, Sangwoo; Lee, Seunghwan; Hong, Yongtaek

    2017-03-01

    Rapid growth of stretchable electronics stimulates broad uses in multidisciplinary fields as well as industrial applications. However, existing technologies are unsuitable for implementing versatile applications involving adaptable system design and functions in a cost/time-effective way because of vacuum-conditioned, lithographically-predefined processes. Here, we present a methodology for a fully printable, strain-engineered electronic wrap as a universal strategy which makes it more feasible to implement various stretchable electronic systems with customizable layouts and functions. The key aspects involve inkjet-printed rigid island (PRI)-based stretchable platform technology and corresponding printing-based automated electronic functionalization methodology, the combination of which provides fully printed, customized layouts of stretchable electronic systems with simplified process. Specifically, well-controlled contact line pinning effect of printed polymer solution enables the formation of PRIs with tunable thickness; and surface strain analysis on those PRIs leads to the optimized stability and device-to-island fill factor of strain-engineered electronic wraps. Moreover, core techniques of image-based automated pinpointing, surface-mountable device based electronic functionalizing, and one-step interconnection networking of PRIs enable customized circuit design and adaptable functionalities. To exhibit the universality of our approach, multiple types of practical applications ranging from self-computable digital logics to display and sensor system are demonstrated on skin in a customized form.

  15. Hydrogenated TiO2 Thin Film for Accelerating Electron Transport in Highly Efficient Planar Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xin; Liang, Junhui; Li, Yuelong; Luo, Jingshan; Shi, Biao; Wei, Changchun; Zhang, Dekun; Li, Baozhang; Ding, Yi; Zhao, Ying; Zhang, Xiaodan

    2017-10-01

    Intensive studies on low-temperature deposited electron transport materials have been performed to improve the efficiency of n-i-p type planar perovskite solar cells to extend their application on plastic and multijunction device architectures. Here, a TiO 2 film with enhanced conductivity and tailored band edge is prepared by magnetron sputtering at room temperature by hydrogen doping (HTO), which accelerates the electron extraction from perovskite photoabsorber and reduces charge transfer resistance, resulting in an improved short circuit current density and fill factor. The HTO film with upward shifted Fermi level guarantees a smaller loss on V OC and facilitates the growth of high-quality absorber with much larger grains and more uniform size, leading to devices with negligible hysteresis. In comparison with the pristine TiO 2 prepared without hydrogen doping, the HTO-based device exhibits a substantial performance enhancement leading to an efficiency of 19.30% and more stabilized photovoltaic performance maintaining 93% of its initial value after 300 min continuous illumination in the glove box. These properties permit the room-temperature magnetron sputtered HTO film as a promising electron transport material for flexible and tandem perovskite solar cell in the future.

  16. Recent advances in carbon nanotube-based electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Prithu; Ahuja, Prerit

    2008-01-01

    CNT-electronics is a field involving synthesis of carbon nanotubes-based novel electronic circuits, comparable to the size of molecules, the practically fundamental size possible. It has brought a new paradigm in science as it has enabled scientists to increase the device integration density tremendously, hence achieving better efficiency and speed. Here we review the state-of-art current research on the applications of CNTs in electronics and present recent results outlining their potential along with illustrating some current concerns in the research field. Unconventional projects such as CNT-based biological sensors, transistors, field emitters, integrated circuits, etc. are taking CNT-based electronics to its extremes. The field holds a promise for mass production of high speed and efficient electronic devices. However, the chemical complexity, reproducibility and other factors make the field a challenging one, which need to be addressed before the field realizes its true potential

  17. Efficiency enhancement of slow-wave electron-cyclotron maser by a second-order shaping of the magnetic field in the low-gain limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Si-Jia; Zhang, Yu-Fei; Wang, Kang [School of Science, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Li, Yong-Ming [Information Science and Engineering College, XinJiang University, Urumqi XinJiang 830046 (China); Jing, Jian, E-mail: jingjian@mail.buct.edu.cn [School of Science, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2017-03-15

    Based on the anomalous Doppler effect, we put forward a proposal to enhance the conversion efficiency of the slow-wave electron cyclotron masers (ECM) under the resonance condition. Compared with previous studies, we add a second-order shaping term in the guild magnetic field. Theoretical analyses and numerical calculations show that it can enhance the conversion efficiency in the low-gain limit. The case of the initial velocity spread of electrons satisfying the Gaussian distribution is also analysed numerically.

  18. Highly-sensitive and rapid detection of ponceau 4R and tartrazine in drinks using alumina microfibers-based electrochemical sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Hu, Lintong; Liu, Xin; Liu, Bifeng; Wu, Kangbing

    2015-01-01

    Alumina microfibers were prepared and used to construct an electrochemical sensor for simultaneous detection of ponceau 4R and tartrazine. In pH 3.6 acetate buffer, two oxidation waves at 0.67 and 1.01 V were observed. Due to porous structures and large surface area, alumina microfibers exhibited high accumulation efficiency to ponceau 4R and tartrazine, and increased their oxidation signals remarkably. The oxidation mechanisms were studied, and their oxidation reaction involved one electron and one proton. The influences of pH value, amount of alumina microfibers and accumulation time were examined. As a result, a highly-sensitive, rapid and simple electrochemical method was newly developed for simultaneous detection of ponceau 4R and tartrazine. The detection limits were 0.8 and 2.0 nM for ponceau 4R and tartrazine. This new sensor was used in different drink samples, and the results consisted with the values that obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Properties of the radicals formed by one-electron oxidation of acetaminophen - a pulse radiolysis study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisby, R.H.; Tabassum, N.

    1988-01-01

    The semi-iminoquinone radical of acetaminophen, which has previously been proposed as a possible hepatotoxic intermediate in the cytochrome P-450 catalysed oxidation of acetaminophen, has been generated and studied by pulse radiolysis. In the absence of other reactive solutes, the radical decays rapidly by second order kinetics with a rate constant (2k 2 ) of (2.2 ± 0.4) x 10 9 M -1 sec -1 . In alkaline solutions the radical deprotonates with a pK of 11.1 ± 0.1 to form a radical-anion. The acetaminophen radical-anion reacts with resorcinol at high pH values, leading to the formation of a transient equilibrium from which the one-electron reduction potential of the semi-iminoquinone radical of acetaminophen is estimated to be + 0.707 ± 0.01 V at pH 7. This value predicts that acetaminophen should be oxidised by thiyl radicals. This was confirmed by pulse radiolysis experiments for reaction of the cysteinyl radical, for which rate constants of 7 x 10 6 M -1 sec -1 at pH7 and 2.7 x 10 8 M -1 sec -1 at pH 11.3 were obtained. The reaction of O 2 with the acetaminophen semi-iminoquinone radical could not be detected by pulse radiolysis, and alternative mechanisms for superoxide radical formation are discussed. (author)

  20. Properties of the radicals formed by one-electron oxidation of acetaminophen - a pulse radiolysis study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisby, R H; Tabassum, N

    1988-07-15

    The semi-iminoquinone radical of acetaminophen, which has previously been proposed as a possible hepatotoxic intermediate in the cytochrome P-450 catalysed oxidation of acetaminophen, has been generated and studied by pulse radiolysis. In the absence of other reactive solutes, the radical decays rapidly by second order kinetics with a rate constant (2k/sub 2/) of (2.2 +- 0.4) x 10/sup 9/ M/sup -1/ sec/sup -1/. In alkaline solutions the radical deprotonates with a pK of 11.1 +- 0.1 to form a radical-anion. The acetaminophen radical-anion reacts with resorcinol at high pH values, leading to the formation of a transient equilibrium from which the one-electron reduction potential of the semi-iminoquinone radical of acetaminophen is estimated to be + 0.707 +- 0.01 V at pH 7. This value predicts that acetaminophen should be oxidised by thiyl radicals. This was confirmed by pulse radiolysis experiments for reaction of the cysteinyl radical, for which rate constants of 7 x 10/sup 6/ M/sup -1/ sec/sup -1/ at pH7 and 2.7 x 10/sup 8/ M/sup -1/ sec/sup -1/ at pH 11.3 were obtained. The reaction of O/sub 2/ with the acetaminophen semi-iminoquinone radical could not be detected by pulse radiolysis, and alternative mechanisms for superoxide radical formation are discussed.

  1. Rapid solidification growth mode transitions in Al-Si alloys by dynamic transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roehling, John D.; Coughlin, Daniel R.; Gibbs, John W.; Baldwin, J. Kevin; Mertens, James C.E.; Campbell, Geoffrey H.; Clarke, Amy J.; McKeown, Joseph T.

    2017-01-01

    In situ dynamic transmission electron microscope (DTEM) imaging of Al-Si thin-film alloys was performed to investigate rapid solidification behavior. Solidification of alloys with compositions from 1 to 15 atomic percent Si was imaged during pulsed laser melting and subsequent solidification. Solely α-Al solidification was observed in Al-1Si and Al-3Si alloys, and solely kinetically modified eutectic growth was observed in Al-6Si and Al-9Si alloys. A transition in the solidification mode in eutectic and hypereutectic alloys (Al-12Si and Al-15Si) from nucleated α-Al dendrites at lower solidification velocities to planar eutectic growth at higher solidification velocities was observed, departing from trends previously seen in laser-track melting experiments. Comparisons of the growth modes and corresponding velocities are compared with previous solidification models, and implications regarding the models are discussed.

  2. Residential Energy Efficiency Demonstration: Hawaii and Guam Energy Improvement Technology Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Earle, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sparn, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rutter, A. [Sustainability Solutions LLC (Guam); Briggs, D. [Naval Base Guam, Santa Rita (Guam)

    2014-03-01

    In order to meet its energy goals, the Department of Defense (DOD) has partnered with the Department of Energy (DOE) to rapidly demonstrate and deploy cost-effective renewable energy and energy-efficiency technologies. The scope of this project was to demonstrate tools and technologies to reduce energy use in military housing, with particular emphasis on measuring and reducing loads related to consumer electronics (commonly referred to as 'plug loads'), hot water, and whole-house cooling.

  3. Overview on thermal and mechanical challenges of high power RF electronic packaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, C.A.; Kregting, R.; Driel, W. van; Gielen, A.W.J.; Xiao, A.; Zhang, G.Q.

    2011-01-01

    High Power RF electronics is one of the essential parts for wireless communication, including the personal communication, broadcasting, microwave radar, etc. Moreover, high efficient high power electronics has entered the ISM market, such as the power generator of microwave oven. Power electronics

  4. Electron Beam Evaporated TiO2 Layer for High Efficiency Planar Perovskite Solar Cells on Flexible Polyethylene Terephthalate Substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Qiu, Weiming

    2015-09-30

    The TiO2 layer made by electron beam (e-beam) induced evaporation is demonstrated as electron transport layer (ETL) in high efficiency planar junction perovskite solar cells. The temperature of the substrate and the thickness of the TiO2 layer can be easily controlled with this e-beam induced evaporation method, which enables the usage of different types of substrates. Here, Perovskite solar cells based on CH3NH3PbI3-xClx achieve power conversion efficiencies of 14.6% on glass and 13.5% on flexible plastic substrates. The relationship between the TiO2 layer thickness and the perovskite morphology is studied with scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Our results indicate that pinholes in thin TiO2 layer lead to pinholes in the perovskite layer. By optimizing the TiO2 thickness, perovskite layers with substantially increased surface coverage and reduced pinhole areas are fabricated, increasing overall device performance.

  5. Vibrational and electronic excitation of hexatriacontane thin films by low energy electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilar, M.R.; Schott, M.; Pfluger, P.

    1990-01-01

    Thin polycrystalline films of hexatriacontane (HTC) were irradiated with low energy (E=0.5--15 eV) electrons, and off-specular backscattered electron spectra were measured. Below E∼7 eV, single and multiple vibrational excitations only are observed, which relax the electrons down to the bottom of the HTC conduction band. Due to the negative electron affinity of HTC, thermal electrons are emitted into vacuum. Structure in the backscattered electron current at kinetic energies about 1.5 and 4 eV are associated to conduction band density of states. Above E∼7 eV, the dominant losses correspond to electronic excitations, excitons, or above a threshold (energy of the electron inside the HTC film) at 9.2±0.1 eV, electron--hole pair generation. The latter process is very efficient and reaches a yield of the order of one ∼11 eV. Evidence for chemical reaction above E∼4 eV is observed

  6. Rapid One-Pot Microwave Synthesis of Mixed-Linker Hybrid Zeolitic-Imidazolate Framework Membranes for Tunable Gas Separations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Febrian; Brito, Jordan; Jeong, Hae-Kwon

    2018-02-14

    The relatively slow and complex fabrication processes of polycrystalline metal-organic framework (MOF) membranes often times restrict their way to commercialization, despite their potential for molecular separation applications. Herein, we report a rapid one-pot microwave synthesis of mixed-linker hybrid zeolitic-imidazolate framework (ZIF) membranes consisting of 2-methylimidazolate (ZIF-8 linker) and benzimidazolate (ZIF-7 linker) linkers, termed ZIF-7-8 membranes. The fast-volumetric microwave heating in conjunction with a unique counter diffusion of metal and linker solutions enabled unprecedented rapid synthesis of well-intergrown ZIF-7-8 membranes in ∼90 s, the fastest MOF membrane preparation up to date. Furthermore, we were able to tune the molecular sieving properties of the ZIF-7-8 membranes by varying the benzimidazole-to-2-methylimidazole (bIm-to-mIm) linker ratio in the hybrid frameworks. The tuning of their molecular sieving properties led to the systematic change in the permeance and selectivity of various small gases. The unprecedented rapid synthesis of well-intergrown ZIF-7-8 membranes with tunable molecular sieving properties is an important step forward for the commercial gas separation applications of ZIF membranes.

  7. Boric acid as a mild and efficient catalyst for one-pot synthesis of 1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. An efficient green chemistry method has been developed for the synthesis of 1-amidoalkyl-2-naphthol derivatives via a one-pot three-component condensation of 2-naphthol, aldehydes and amide in the presence of boric acid as a mild catalyst.

  8. Prediction of FAD binding sites in electron transport proteins according to efficient radial basis function networks and significant amino acid pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Nguyen-Quoc-Khanh; Ou, Yu-Yen

    2016-07-30

    Cellular respiration is a catabolic pathway for producing adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and is the most efficient process through which cells harvest energy from consumed food. When cells undergo cellular respiration, they require a pathway to keep and transfer electrons (i.e., the electron transport chain). Due to oxidation-reduction reactions, the electron transport chain produces a transmembrane proton electrochemical gradient. In case protons flow back through this membrane, this mechanical energy is converted into chemical energy by ATP synthase. The convert process is involved in producing ATP which provides energy in a lot of cellular processes. In the electron transport chain process, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is one of the most vital molecules for carrying and transferring electrons. Therefore, predicting FAD binding sites in the electron transport chain is vital for helping biologists understand the electron transport chain process and energy production in cells. We used an independent data set to evaluate the performance of the proposed method, which had an accuracy of 69.84 %. We compared the performance of the proposed method in analyzing two newly discovered electron transport protein sequences with that of the general FAD binding predictor presented by Mishra and Raghava and determined that the accuracy of the proposed method improved by 9-45 % and its Matthew's correlation coefficient was 0.14-0.5. Furthermore, the proposed method enabled reducing the number of false positives significantly and can provide useful information for biologists. We developed a method that is based on PSSM profiles and SAAPs for identifying FAD binding sites in newly discovered electron transport protein sequences. This approach achieved a significant improvement after we added SAAPs to PSSM features to analyze FAD binding proteins in the electron transport chain. The proposed method can serve as an effective tool for predicting FAD binding sites in electron

  9. A secure and efficient password-based user authentication scheme using smart cards for the integrated EPR information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tian-Fu; Chang, I-Pin; Lin, Tsung-Hung; Wang, Ching-Cheng

    2013-06-01

    The integrated EPR information system supports convenient and rapid e-medicine services. A secure and efficient authentication scheme for the integrated EPR information system provides safeguarding patients' electronic patient records (EPRs) and helps health care workers and medical personnel to rapidly making correct clinical decisions. Recently, Wu et al. proposed an efficient password-based user authentication scheme using smart cards for the integrated EPR information system, and claimed that the proposed scheme could resist various malicious attacks. However, their scheme is still vulnerable to lost smart card and stolen verifier attacks. This investigation discusses these weaknesses and proposes a secure and efficient authentication scheme for the integrated EPR information system as alternative. Compared with related approaches, the proposed scheme not only retains a lower computational cost and does not require verifier tables for storing users' secrets, but also solves the security problems in previous schemes and withstands possible attacks.

  10. One-electron standard reduction potentials of nitroaromatic and cyclic nitramine explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchimiya, Minori; Gorb, Leonid; Isayev, Olexandr; Qasim, Mohammad M.; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2010-01-01

    Extensive studies have been conducted in the past decades to predict the environmental abiotic and biotic redox fate of nitroaromatic and nitramine explosives. However, surprisingly little information is available on one-electron standard reduction potentials (E o (R-NO 2 /R-NO 2 - )). The E o (R-NO 2 /R-NO 2 - ) is an essential thermodynamic parameter for predicting the rate and extent of reductive transformation for energetic residues. In this study, experimental (linear free energy relationships) and theoretical (ab initio calculation) approaches were employed to determine E o (R-NO 2 /R-NO 2 - ) for nitroaromatic, (caged) cyclic nitramine, and nitroimino explosives that are found in military installations or are emerging contaminants. The results indicate a close agreement between experimental and theoretical E o (R-NO 2 /R-NO 2 - ) and suggest a key trend: E o (R-NO 2 /R-NO 2 - ) value decreases from di- and tri-nitroaromatic (e.g., 2,4-dinitroanisole) to nitramine (e.g., RDX) to nitroimino compound (e.g., nitroguanidine). The observed trend in E o (R-NO 2 /R-NO 2 - ) agrees with reported rate trends for reductive degradation, suggesting a thermodynamic control on the reduction rate under anoxic/suboxic conditions. - Reduction of explosives becomes less thermodynamically favorable as the one-electron standard reduction potential decreases from di- and tri-nitroaromatic, nitramine, to nitroimino compounds.

  11. Trends in the Electron Microscopy Data Bank (EMDB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Ardan

    2017-06-01

    Recent technological advances, such as the introduction of the direct electron detector, have transformed the field of cryo-EM and the landscape of molecular and cellular structural biology. This study analyses these trends from the vantage point of the Electron Microscopy Data Bank (EMDB), the public archive for three-dimensional EM reconstructions. Over 1000 entries were released in 2016, representing almost a quarter of the total number of entries (4431). Structures at better than 6 Å resolution now represent one of the fastest-growing categories, while the share of annually released tomography-related structures is approaching 20%. The use of direct electron detectors is growing very rapidly: they were used for 70% of the structures released in 2016, in contrast to none before 2011. Microscopes from FEI have an overwhelming lead in terms of usage, and the use of the RELION software package continues to grow rapidly after having attained a leading position in the field. China is rapidly emerging as a major player in the field, supplementing the US, Germany and the UK as the big four. Similarly, Tsinghua University ranks only second to the MRC Laboratory for Molecular Biology in terms of involvement in publications associated with cryo-EM structures at better than 4 Å resolution. Overall, the numbers point to a rapid democratization of the field, with more countries and institutes becoming involved.

  12. 19.2% Efficient InP Heterojunction Solar Cell with Electron-Selective TiO2 Contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xingtian; Battaglia, Corsin; Lin, Yongjing; Chen, Kevin; Hettick, Mark; Zheng, Maxwell; Chen, Cheng-Ying; Kiriya, Daisuke; Javey, Ali

    2014-12-17

    We demonstrate an InP heterojunction solar cell employing an ultrathin layer (∼10 nm) of amorphous TiO 2 deposited at 120 °C by atomic layer deposition as the transparent electron-selective contact. The TiO 2 film selectively extracts minority electrons from the conduction band of p-type InP while blocking the majority holes due to the large valence band offset, enabling a high maximum open-circuit voltage of 785 mV. A hydrogen plasma treatment of the InP surface drastically improves the long-wavelength response of the device, resulting in a high short-circuit current density of 30.5 mA/cm 2 and a high power conversion efficiency of 19.2%.

  13. Sulfur rich microporous polymer enables rapid and efficient removal of mercury(II) from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dan; Wu, Winston Duo; Qi, Hao-Jun; Yang, Rui-Xia; Deng, Wei-Qiao

    2018-04-01

    Design and synthesis of adsorbents for efficient decontamination of hazardous contaminants Hg 2+ from wastewater, based on a facile and economical strategy, is an attractive target. Here, a novel sulfur rich microporous polymer (sulfur content of 31.4 wt %) with high surface area as well as densely populated sulfur atom with fast accessibility was reported to remove mercury (II) from water. The as prepared polymer (SMP) exhibited high binding affinity, high adsorption capacities, rapid adsorption kinetics, and good recyclability for Hg 2+ . The adsorption capacity of SMP was 595.2 mg g -1 . Furthermore, SMP could reduce trace concentrations of Hg 2+ from 200 p. p. b. to a level below drinking water standards (2 p. p. b.) within 3 min. This work allows large-scale production of sulfur rich porous materials for the practical application in water treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Efficient scattering of electrons below few keV by Time Domain Structures around injection fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasko, I.; Agapitov, O. V.; Mozer, F.; Artemyev, A.; Krasnoselskikh, V.

    2016-12-01

    Van Allen Probes observations show an abundance of non-linear large-amplitude electrostatic spikes around injection fronts in the outer radiation belt. These spikes referred to as Time Domain Structures (TDS) include electron holes, double layers and more complicated solitary waves. The electron scattering driven by TDS may not be evaluated via the standard quasi-linear theory, since TDS are in principle non-linear plasma modes. In this paper we analyze the scattering of electrons by three-dimensional TDS (with non-negligible perpendicular electric field) around injection fronts. We derive the analytical formulas describing the local scattering by single TDS and show that the most efficiently scattered electrons are those in the first cyclotron resonance (electrons crossing TDS on a time scale comparable with their gyroperiod). The analytical formulas are verified via the test-particle simulation. We compute the bounce-averaged diffusion coefficients and demonstrate their dependence on the TDS spatial distribution, individual TDS parameters and L shell. We show that TDS are able to provide the pitch-angle scattering of <5 keV electrons at rate 10-2-10-4 s-1 and, thus, can be responsible for driving loss of electrons out of injections fronts on a time scale from few minutes to few hours. TDS can be, thus, responsible for driving diffuse aurora precipitations conjugated to injection fronts. We show that the pitch-angle scattering rates driven by TDS are comparable with those due to chorus waves and exceed those due to electron cyclotron harmonics. For injections fronts with no significant wave activity in the frequency range corresponding to chorus waves, TDS can be even dominant mechanism for losses of below few keV electrons.

  15. Rapid increase of near atomic resolution virus capsid structures determined by cryo-electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Phuong T; Reddy, Vijay S

    2018-01-01

    The recent technological advances in electron microscopes, detectors, as well as image processing and reconstruction software have brought single particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) into prominence for determining structures of bio-molecules at near atomic resolution. This has been particularly true for virus capsids, ribosomes, and other large assemblies, which have been the ideal specimens for structural studies by cryo-EM approaches. An analysis of time series metadata of virus structures on the methods of structure determination, resolution of the structures, and size of the virus particles revealed a rapid increase in the virus structures determined by cryo-EM at near atomic resolution since 2010. In addition, the data highlight the median resolution (∼3.0 Å) and size (∼310.0 Å in diameter) of the virus particles determined by X-ray crystallography while no such limits exist for cryo-EM structures, which have a median diameter of 508 Å. Notably, cryo-EM virus structures in the last four years have a median resolution of 3.9 Å. Taken together with minimal sample requirements, not needing diffraction quality crystals, and being able to achieve similar resolutions of the crystal structures makes cryo-EM the method of choice for current and future virus capsid structure determinations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Efficient 3D frequency response modeling with spectral accuracy by the rapid expansion method

    KAUST Repository

    Chu, Chunlei

    2012-07-01

    Frequency responses of seismic wave propagation can be obtained either by directly solving the frequency domain wave equations or by transforming the time domain wavefields using the Fourier transform. The former approach requires solving systems of linear equations, which becomes progressively difficult to tackle for larger scale models and for higher frequency components. On the contrary, the latter approach can be efficiently implemented using explicit time integration methods in conjunction with running summations as the computation progresses. Commonly used explicit time integration methods correspond to the truncated Taylor series approximations that can cause significant errors for large time steps. The rapid expansion method (REM) uses the Chebyshev expansion and offers an optimal solution to the second-order-in-time wave equations. When applying the Fourier transform to the time domain wavefield solution computed by the REM, we can derive a frequency response modeling formula that has the same form as the original time domain REM equation but with different summation coefficients. In particular, the summation coefficients for the frequency response modeling formula corresponds to the Fourier transform of those for the time domain modeling equation. As a result, we can directly compute frequency responses from the Chebyshev expansion polynomials rather than the time domain wavefield snapshots as do other time domain frequency response modeling methods. When combined with the pseudospectral method in space, this new frequency response modeling method can produce spectrally accurate results with high efficiency. © 2012 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  17. Rapid synthesis of an electron-deficient t-BuPHOX ligand: cross-coupling of aryl bromides with secondary phosphine oxides

    KAUST Repository

    McDougal, Nolan T.

    2010-10-01

    Herein an efficient and direct copper-catalyzed coupling of oxazoline-containing aryl bromides with electron-deficient secondary phosphine oxides is reported. The resulting tertiary phosphine oxides can be reduced to prepare a range of PHOX ligands. The presented strategy is a useful alternative to known methods for constructing PHOX derivatives.

  18. Rapid synthesis of an electron-deficient t-BuPHOX ligand: cross-coupling of aryl bromides with secondary phosphine oxides

    KAUST Repository

    McDougal, Nolan T.; Streuff, Jan; Mukherjee, Herschel; Virgil, Scott C.; Stoltz, Brian M.

    2010-01-01

    Herein an efficient and direct copper-catalyzed coupling of oxazoline-containing aryl bromides with electron-deficient secondary phosphine oxides is reported. The resulting tertiary phosphine oxides can be reduced to prepare a range of PHOX ligands. The presented strategy is a useful alternative to known methods for constructing PHOX derivatives.

  19. Rebound Effects in the Context of Developing Country Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McNeil, Michael A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Leventis, Greg [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-08-30

    Energy efficiency-related “rebound effects” usually refer to the tendency of most consumers to increase their use of energy services in response to efficiency measures that have reduced their energy costs. This phenomenon is one reason why energy efficiency policies often result in lower energy savings than engineering-based estimates predict. Rebound effects have been the subject of intense debate in the field of energy efficiency policy for many years.1 In the past, the focus of this debate has been on the perceived loss of the expected energy savings and related benefits resulting from the rebound effects. However, more recently, there has been a growing recognition that policymakers need to consider the health, economic and other non-energy benefits that often result from the increase in energy services represented by user “rebound effects”. This is especially true in developing countries where basic energy service demands—such as lighting, heating, cooling, and refrigeration of food—are often not being met. As economic conditions improve and household incomes increase, demand for increased energy services (such as space conditioning and appliances) tends to rise rapidly. Improving energy efficiency reduces the amount of energy needed to produce one unit of energy service output (for example an hour of cooling at 21°C delivered for X vs Y kWh). Greater efficiency therefore often enables more rapid increased in energy services (and sometimes access), expanding the amount of services that can be provided by a fixed amount (or cost) of energy.

  20. THE EFFECT OF LARGE-SCALE MAGNETIC TURBULENCE ON THE ACCELERATION OF ELECTRONS BY PERPENDICULAR COLLISIONLESS SHOCKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Fan; Giacalone, Joe

    2010-01-01

    We study the physics of electron acceleration at collisionless shocks that move through a plasma containing large-scale magnetic fluctuations. We numerically integrate the trajectories of a large number of electrons, which are treated as test particles moving in the time-dependent electric and magnetic fields determined from two-dimensional hybrid simulations (kinetic ions and fluid electron). The large-scale magnetic fluctuations effect the electrons in a number of ways and lead to efficient and rapid energization at the shock front. Since the electrons mainly follow along magnetic lines of force, the large-scale braiding of field lines in space allows the fast-moving electrons to cross the shock front several times, leading to efficient acceleration. Ripples in the shock front occurring at various scales will also contribute to the acceleration by mirroring the electrons. Our calculation shows that this process favors electron acceleration at perpendicular shocks. The current study is also helpful in understanding the injection problem for electron acceleration by collisionless shocks. It is also shown that the spatial distribution of energetic electrons is similar to in situ observations. The process may be important to our understanding of energetic electrons in planetary bow shocks and interplanetary shocks, and explaining herringbone structures seen in some type II solar radio bursts.

  1. Three-dimensional hollow graphene efficiently promotes electron transfer of Ag3PO4 for photocatalytically eliminating phenol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shaoqing; Meng, Aiyun; Jiang, Shujuan; Cheng, Bei

    2018-06-01

    The effective transport of photo-induced carriers over semiconductor photocatalyst is critical for enhancing the photocatalytic performance under light excitation. Although oxidized graphene (GO) and/or reduced graphene oxide (rGO) has been used as cocatalyst to promote the transfer and utilization of electrons, however, random diffusion and transfer of photo-induced charges are inevitable from all sides over these actual graphene owing to the limitation of the preparation process and theory. Herein, we utilized three-dimensional hollow carbon graphene (HCG) to promote the efficient electron transfer of Ag3PO4 in the photocatalytic process. Owing to the confinement-induced electron field of HCG, the constructed HCG-Ag3PO4 photocatalytic system demonstrated the enhanced visible-light adsorption, improved transfer of photo-induced charges, and suitable redox potentials as revealed by transient photo-current spectroscopic, surface photovoltage spectroscopy, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). EPR spectra of oxygen species and gas chromatography-mass spectra exhibited high efficiency activity over HCG-Ag3PO4 with Z-scheme photocatalytic mechanism for phenol decomposition by reaction between hexanoic acid and radOH and radO2-. It is noteworthy that photocatalytic performance over optimal HCG-Ag3PO4 is 6, 3.43, 1.92 times of pristine Ag3PO4, GO-Ag3PO4, and rGO-Ag3PO4, respectively. The results may supply a novel perspective to enhance transfer of photo-induced charges for the promotion of photocatalytic technology.

  2. Probing the Highly Efficient Electron Transfer Dynamics between Zinc Protoporphyrin IX and Sodium Titanate Nanosheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Sudipta; Mukherjee, Debdyuti; De, Swati; Kathiravan, Arunkumar

    2016-09-15

    Sodium titanate nanosheets (NaTiO2 NS) have been prepared by a new method and completely characterized by TEM, SEM, XRD, EDX, and XPS techniques. The sensitization of nanosheets is carried out with Zn protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX). The emission intensity of ZnPPIX is quenched by NaTiO2 NS, and the dominant process for this quenching has been attributed to the process of photoinduced electron injection from excited ZnPPIX to the nanosheets. Time resolved fluorescence measurement was used to elucidate the process of electron injection from the singlet state of ZnPPIX to the conduction band of NaTiO2 NS. Electron injection from the dye to the semiconductor is very fast (ket ≈ 10(11) s(-1)), much faster than previously reported rates. The large two-dimensional surface offered by the NaTiO2 NS for interaction with the dye and the favorable driving force for electron injection from ZnPPIX to NaTiO2 NS (ΔGinj = -0.66 V) are the two important factors responsible for such efficient electron injection. Thus, NaTiO2 NS can serve as an effective alternative to the use of TiO2 nanoparticles in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs).

  3. Coalescence of two polarized photons with antiparallel momenta into one on an electron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galynskii, M.V.

    1989-01-01

    The matrix elements have been calculated for the coalescence of two photons with antiparallel momenta and equal frequencies into one on an electron. An explicit expression for the differential probability for the process, with allowance for the polarization of all the particles, has been obtained in the nonrelativistic approximation

  4. Simulations of free electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwan, T.; Godfrey, B.B.

    1979-01-01

    The generation of coherent electromagnetic radiation by the interaction of a relativistic electron beam with a static helical magnetic field is investigated using one- and two-dimensional relativistic electromagnetic plasma simulation codes. In the one-dimensional simulations, we observed the coupling between the negative energy beam mode and the positive energy electromagnetic wave. Substantial growth rate (omega 1 approx. 0.1 omega/sub pe/) of the unstable electromagnetic wave has been observed and efficiency of radiation production is found to be between 25 to 30% depending on various parameters. In the two-dimensional simulations, we observed a decrease in the growth rate, but increased efficiency due to the decrease in the phase velocity of the unstable electrostatic wave. In addition, we also observed waves propagating at an angle with respect to the electron beam. Consequently, the beam is bunched in the radial as well as the axial directions. These waves are believed to be generated by another instability which saturates at relatively low level

  5. A Comprehensive Study of One-Step Selenization Process for Cu(In1-x Ga x )Se2 Thin Film Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shih-Chen; Wang, Sheng-Wen; Kuo, Shou-Yi; Juang, Jenh-Yih; Lee, Po-Tsung; Luo, Chih Wei; Wu, Kaung-Hsiung; Kuo, Hao-Chung

    2017-12-01

    In this work, aiming at developing a rapid and environmental-friendly process for fabricating CuIn 1-x Ga x Se 2 (CIGS) solar cells, we demonstrated the one-step selenization process by using selenium vapor as the atmospheric gas instead of the commonly used H 2 Se gas. The photoluminescence (PL) characteristics indicate that there exists an optimal location with superior crystalline quality in the CIGS thin films obtained by one-step selenization. The energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) reveals that the Ga lateral distribution in the one-step selenized CIGS thin film is intimately correlated to the blue-shifted PL spectra. The surface morphologies examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM) further suggested that voids and binary phase commonly existing in CIGS films could be successfully eliminated by the present one-step selenization process. The agglomeration phenomenon attributable to the formation of MoSe 2 layer was also observed. Due to the significant microstructural improvement, the current-voltage (J-V) characteristics and external quantum efficiency (EQE) of the devices made of the present CIGS films have exhibited the remarkable carrier transportation characteristics and photon utilization at the optimal location, resulting in a high conversion efficiency of 11.28%. Correlations between the defect states and device performance of the one-step selenized CIGS thin film were convincingly delineated by femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy.

  6. Morphology control for highly efficient organic–inorganic bulk heterojunction solar cell based on Ti-alkoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Takehito; Hagiwara, Naoki; Suzuki, Eiji; Nasu, Yuki; Izawa, Satoru; Tanaka, Kouichi; Kato, Ariyuki

    2016-01-01

    The number of publications concerned with typical bulk-heterojunction solar cells that use fullerene derivatives and inorganic materials as electron acceptors has grown very rapidly. In this work, we focus on Ti-alkoxides as electron acceptors in the photoactive layers of fullerene-free bulk-heterojunction solar cells. We show that it is possible to control the morphology by adjusting the molecular structure and size of the Ti-alkoxides. The short-circuit current density (J_s_c) increased to 191 μA/cm"2 from 25 μA/cm"2 with a maximum, when the phase-separation structure was continuously formed to within about 20 nm below the exciton diffusion length by using either titanium(IV) ethoxide or isopropoxide as an electron acceptor. Within a thickness of 30 nm, the photoactive layer is not influenced by the electron transfer ability; thus, we demonstrate that the charge-separation efficiency is equivalent to that of a fullerene system. - Highlights: • An organic–inorganic bulk-heterojunction photoactive layer was used. • Electron donor was a semiconducting polymer and electron acceptor was Ti-alkoxide. • Demonstration of morphology control by Ti-alkoxide molecules. • Determination of Jsc value by the phase-separation structure in an ultra-thin film. • Charge-separation efficiency of Ti-alkoxide system equivalent to fullerene system.

  7. SAGES: a suite of freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri L Lewis

    Full Text Available Public health surveillance is undergoing a revolution driven by advances in the field of information technology. Many countries have experienced vast improvements in the collection, ingestion, analysis, visualization, and dissemination of public health data. Resource-limited countries have lagged behind due to challenges in information technology infrastructure, public health resources, and the costs of proprietary software. The Suite for Automated Global Electronic bioSurveillance (SAGES is a collection of modular, flexible, freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings. One or more SAGES tools may be used in concert with existing surveillance applications or the SAGES tools may be used en masse for an end-to-end biosurveillance capability. This flexibility allows for the development of an inexpensive, customized, and sustainable disease surveillance system. The ability to rapidly assess anomalous disease activity may lead to more efficient use of limited resources and better compliance with World Health Organization International Health Regulations.

  8. Application of the method of continued fractions for electron scattering by linear molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.-T.; Iga, I.; Fujimoto, M.M.; Lara, O.; Brasilia Univ., DF

    1995-01-01

    The method of continued fractions (MCF) of Horacek and Sasakawa is adapted for the first time to study low-energy electron scattering by linear molecules. Particularly, we have calculated the reactance K-matrices for an electron scattered by hydrogen molecule and hydrogen molecular ion as well as by a polar LiH molecule in the static-exchange level. For all the applications studied herein. the calculated physical quantities converge rapidly, even for a strongly polar molecule such as LiH, to the correct values and in most cases the convergence is monotonic. Our study suggests that the MCF could be an efficient method for studying electron-molecule scattering and also photoionization of molecules. (Author)

  9. Efficient Atomic One-Qubit Phase Gate Realized by a Cavity QED and Identical Atoms System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Yong; Jiang Nianquan

    2010-01-01

    We present a scheme to implement a one-qubit phase gate with a two-level atom crossing an optical cavity in which some identical atoms are trapped. One can conveniently acquire an arbitrary phase shift of the gate by properly choosing the number of atoms trapped in the cavity and the velocity of the atom crossing the cavity. The present scheme provides a very simple and efficient way for implementing one-qubit phase gate. (general)

  10. One-electron reduction of anthraquinone sulphonates: a pulse radiolysis study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, H.; Palit, D.K.; Mukherjee, T.; Mittal, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Semiquinone free radicals, derived from 2-sulphonate, 1,5-disulphonate and 2,6-disulphonate derivatives of 9,10-anthraquinone, have been studied using pulse radiolysis and kinetic absorption spectrophotometry techniques. Spectroscopic characteristics of both neutral and anionic species have been ascertained. Kinetics of formation and decay, reactivity with oxygen and one-electron reduction potential values have been estimated. The semiquinone radicals have been shown to be very stable under suitable pH conditions where the equilibrium (2 semiquinone ↔ quinone + hydroquinone) lies predominantly to the left. From a measurement of the equilibrium constants at different pH, values of E 2 and E m have been calculated. (author)

  11. Microwave-assisted routes for rapid and efficient modification of layered perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarian-Tefaghi, S; Wiley, J B

    2018-02-27

    Recent advances in exploiting microwave radiation in the topochemical modification of layered oxide perovskites are presented. Such methods work well for rapid bulk synthetic steps used in the production of novel inorganic-organic hybrids (protonation, grafting, intercalation, and in situ click reactions), exfoliation to produce dispersed nanosheets, and post-exfoliation processing to rapidly vary nanosheet surface groups. Compared to traditional methods that often take days, microwave methods can produce quality products in as little as 1-2 h.

  12. An Efficient, "Burn in" Free Organic Solar Cell Employing a Nonfullerene Electron Acceptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Hyojung; Wu, Jiaying; Wadsworth, Andrew; Nagitta, Jade; Limbu, Saurav; Pont, Sebastian; Li, Zhe; Searle, Justin; Wyatt, Mark F; Baran, Derya; Kim, Ji-Seon; McCulloch, Iain; Durrant, James R

    2017-09-01

    A comparison of the efficiency, stability, and photophysics of organic solar cells employing poly[(5,6-difluoro-2,1,3-benzothiadiazol-4,7-diyl)-alt-(3,3'″-di(2-octyldodecyl)-2,2';5',2″;5″,2'″-quaterthiophen-5,5'″-diyl)] (PffBT4T-2OD) as a donor polymer blended with either the nonfullerene acceptor EH-IDTBR or the fullerene derivative, [6,6]-phenyl C 71 butyric acid methyl ester (PC 71 BM) as electron acceptors is reported. Inverted PffBT4T-2OD:EH-IDTBR blend solar cell fabricated without any processing additive achieves power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of 9.5 ± 0.2%. The devices exhibit a high open circuit voltage of 1.08 ± 0.01 V, attributed to the high lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) level of EH-IDTBR. Photoluminescence quenching and transient absorption data are employed to elucidate the ultrafast kinetics and efficiencies of charge separation in both blends, with PffBT4T-2OD exciton diffusion kinetics within polymer domains, and geminate recombination losses following exciton separation being identified as key factors determining the efficiency of photocurrent generation. Remarkably, while encapsulated PffBT4T-2OD:PC 71 BM solar cells show significant efficiency loss under simulated solar irradiation ("burn in" degradation) due to the trap-assisted recombination through increased photoinduced trap states, PffBT4T-2OD:EH-IDTBR solar cell shows negligible burn in efficiency loss. Furthermore, PffBT4T-2OD:EH-IDTBR solar cells are found to be substantially more stable under 85 °C thermal stress than PffBT4T-2OD:PC 71 BM devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. 3D-Printed, All-in-One Evaporator for High-Efficiency Solar Steam Generation under 1 Sun Illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiju; Gao, Tingting; Yang, Zhi; Chen, Chaoji; Luo, Wei; Song, Jianwei; Hitz, Emily; Jia, Chao; Zhou, Yubing; Liu, Boyang; Yang, Bao; Hu, Liangbing

    2017-07-01

    Using solar energy to generate steam is a clean and sustainable approach to addressing the issue of water shortage. The current challenge for solar steam generation is to develop easy-to-manufacture and scalable methods which can convert solar irradiation into exploitable thermal energy with high efficiency. Although various material and structure designs have been reported, high efficiency in solar steam generation usually can be achieved only at concentrated solar illumination. For the first time, 3D printing to construct an all-in-one evaporator with a concave structure for high-efficiency solar steam generation under 1 sun illumination is used. The solar-steam-generation device has a high porosity (97.3%) and efficient broadband solar absorption (>97%). The 3D-printed porous evaporator with intrinsic low thermal conductivity enables heat localization and effectively alleviates thermal dissipation to the bulk water. As a result, the 3D-printed evaporator has a high solar steam efficiency of 85.6% under 1 sun illumination (1 kW m -2 ), which is among the best compared with other reported evaporators. The all-in-one structure design using the advanced 3D printing fabrication technique offers a new approach to solar energy harvesting for high-efficiency steam generation. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Electron refrigeration in hybrid structures with spin-split superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouco, M.; Heikkilä, T. T.; Bergeret, F. S.

    2018-01-01

    Electron tunneling between superconductors and normal metals has been used for an efficient refrigeration of electrons in the latter. Such cooling is a nonlinear effect and usually requires a large voltage. Here we study the electron cooling in heterostructures based on superconductors with a spin-splitting field coupled to normal metals via spin-filtering barriers. The cooling power shows a linear term in the applied voltage. This improves the coefficient of performance of electron refrigeration in the normal metal by shifting its optimum cooling to lower voltage, and also allows for cooling the spin-split superconductor by reverting the sign of the voltage. We also show how tunnel coupling spin-split superconductors with regular ones allows for a highly efficient refrigeration of the latter.

  15. The exothermic reaction route of a self-heatable conductive ink for rapid processable printed electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong-Youn; Han, Jin Wook; Chun, Sangki

    2014-01-07

    We report the exothermic reaction route and new capability of a self-heatable conductive ink (Ag2O and silver 2,2-dimethyloctanoate) in order to achieve both a low sintering temperature and electrical resistivity within a short sintering time for flexible printed electronics and display appliances. Unlike conventional conductive ink, which requires a costly external heating instrument for rapid sintering, self-heatable conductive ink by itself is capable of generating heat as high as 312 °C when its exothermic reaction is triggered at a temperature of 180 °C. This intensive exothermic reaction is found to result from the recursive reaction of the 2,2-dimethyloctanoate anion, which is thermally dissociated from silver 2,2-dimethyloctanoate, with silver oxide microparticles. Through this recursive reaction, a massive number of silver atoms are supplied from silver oxide microparticles, and the nucleation of silver atoms and the fusion of silver nanoparticles become the major source of heat. This exothermic reaction eventually realizes the electrical resistivity of self-heatable conductive ink as low as 27.5 μΩ cm within just 40 s by combining chemical annealing, which makes it suitable for the roll-to-roll printable electronics such as a flexible touch screen panel.

  16. Improving efficiency and reducing administrative burden through electronic communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Katlyn E; Ludens, Gail M; Ghosh, Amit K; Mundell, William C; Fleming, Kevin C; Majka, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    The InBox messaging system is an internal, electronic program used at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, to facilitate the sending, receiving, and answering of patient-specific messages and alerts. A standardized InBox was implemented in the Division of General Internal Medicine to decrease the time physicians, physician assistants, and nurse practitioners (clinicians) spend on administrative tasks and to increase efficiency. Clinicians completed surveys and a preintervention InBox pilot test to determine inefficiencies related to administrative burdens and defects (message entry errors). Results were analyzed using Pareto diagrams, value stream mapping, and root cause analysis to prioritize administrative-burden inefficiencies to develop a new, standardized InBox. Clinicians and allied health staff were the target of this intervention and received standardized InBox training followed by a postintervention pilot test for clinicians. Sixteen of 28 individuals (57%) completed the preintervention survey. Twenty-eight clinicians participated in 2 separate 8-day pilot tests (before and after intervention) for the standardized InBox. The number of InBox defects was substantially reduced from 37 (Pilot 1) to 7 (Pilot 2). Frequent InBox defects decreased from 25% to 10%. More than half of clinicians believed the standardized InBox positively affected their work, and 100% of clinicians reported no negative affect on their work. This project demonstrated the successful implementation of the standardized InBox messaging system. Initial assessments show substantial reduction of InBox entry defects and administrative tasks completed by clinicians. The findings of this project suggest increased clinician and allied health staff efficiency, satisfaction, improved clinician work-life balance, and decreased clinician burden caused by administrative tasks.

  17. Printing versus coating - What will be the future production technology for printed electronics?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glawe, Andrea; Eggerath, Daniel; Schäfer, Frank [KROENERT GmbH and Co KG, Schuetzenstrasse 105, 22761 Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-02-17

    The market of Large Area Organic Printed Electronics is developing rapidly to increase efficiency and quality as well as to lower costs further. Applications for OPV, OLED, RFID and compact Printed Electronic systems are increasing. In order to make the final products more affordable, but at the same time highly accurate, Roll to Roll (R2R) production on flexible transparent polymer substrates is the way forward. There are numerous printing and coating technologies suitable depending on the design, the product application and the chemical process technology. Mainly the product design (size, pattern, repeatability) defines the application technology.

  18. Survival of plant tissue at super-low temperatures v. An electron microscope study of ice in cortical cells cooled rapidly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, A; Otsuka, K

    1967-12-01

    Experiments were carried out with cortical cells in twig bark of mulberry trees in winter in order to clarify the mechanism of survival at super-low temperatures with rapid cooling and rewarming. Attention was given to the relation between the existence of intracellular ice crystals and survival.Cortical cells were cooled rapidly by direct immersion into liquid nitrogen or isopentane cooled at various temperatures. After immersion, they were freeze-substituted with absolute ethanol at -78 degrees . They were then embedded, sectioned and examined under the electron microscope for the presence and distribution of cavities left after ice removal.Cells were found to remain alive and contain no ice cavities when immersed rapidly into isopentane baths kept below -60 degrees . Those cells at intermediate temperatures from -20 degrees to -45 degrees , were almost all destroyed. It was also observed that many ice cavities were contained in the cells immersed rapidly into isopentane baths at -30 degrees . The data seem to indicate that no ice crystals were formed when cooled rapidly by direct immersion into isopentane baths below -60 degrees or into liquid nitrogen.The tissue sections immersed in liquid nitrogen were rapidly transferred to isopentane baths at temperatures ranging from -70 degrees to -10 degrees before rapid rewarming. There was little damage when samples were held at temperatures below -50 degrees for 10 minutes or below -60 degrees for 16 hours. No cavities were found in these cells. Above -45 degrees , and especially at -30 degrees , however, all cells were completely destroyed even when exposed only for 1 minute. Many ice cavities were observed throughout these cells. The results obtained may be explained in terms of the growth rate of intracellular ice crystals.

  19. Inverted organic solar cells with solvothermal synthesized vanadium-doped TiO2 thin films as efficient electron transport layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehdi Ahmadi; Sajjad Rashidi Dafeh; Samaneh Ghazanfarpour; Mohammad Khanzadeh

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the effects of using different thicknesses of pure and vanadium-doped thin films of TiO2 as the electron transport layer in the inverted configuration of organic photovoltaic cells based on poly (3-hexylthiophene) P3HT:[6-6] phenyl-(6) butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM).1% vanadium-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized via the solvothermal method.Crystalline structure,morphology,and optical properties of pure and vanadium-doped TiO2 thin films were studied by different techniques such as x-ray diffraction,scanning electron microscopy,transmittance electron microscopy,and UV-visible transmission spectrum.The doctor blade method which is compatible with roll-2-roll printing was used for deposition of pure and vanadium-doped TiO2 thin films with thicknesses of 30 nm and 60 nm.The final results revealed that the best thickness of TiO2 thin films for our fabricated cells was 30 nm.The cell with vanadium-doped TiO2 thin film showed slightly higher power conversion efficiency and great Jsc of 10.7 mA/cm2 compared with its pure counterpart.In the cells using 60 nm pure and vanadium-doped TiO2 layers,the cell using the doped layer showed much higher efficiency.It is remarkable that the extemal quantum efficiency of vanadium-doped TiO2 thin film was better in all wavelengths.

  20. Transport of excess electrons in dense dielectric fluids. Phenomenological interpretation and application to a one-dimensional argon fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leycuras, A.; Larour, J.

    1978-01-01

    The main results about the drift velocities of excess electrons in dense argon are summarized. The weaknesses of the available theories are mainly due to poor information concerning the electron-atom potential during an atom-atom collision. The drift velocities, as a function of the applied electric field present the following features at high fields: the drift velocity reaches a limit that is at most one order of magnitude larger than the sound velocity at the same density. These remarks and the attractive nature of the electron-atom potential suggest a transport model, the collisional transfer model analog to the one applied to the determination of the sound velocity. Drift velocities obtained with this model applied to a one-dimensional molecular dynamics simulation are presented [fr

  1. Plan Quality and Treatment Efficiency for Radiosurgery to Multiple Brain Metastases: Non-Coplanar RapidArc vs Gamma Knife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haisong eLiu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study compares the dosimetry and efficiency of two modern radiosurgery (SRS modalities for multiple brain metastases (Gamma Knife and LINAC-based RapidArc/volumetric modulated arc therapy, with a special focus on the comparison of low dose spread.Methods: Six patients with three or four small brain metastases were used in this study. The size of targets varied from 0.1 ~ 10.5 cc. SRS doses were prescribed according to size of lesions. SRS plans were made using both Gamma Knife® Perfexion and a single-isocenter, multiple non-coplanar RapidArc®. Dosimetric parameters analyzed included RTOG conformity index (CI, gradient index (GI, 12 Gy isodose volume (V12Gy for each target, and the dose spread (Dspread for each plan. Dspread reflects SRS plan’s capability of confining radiation to within the local vicinity of the lesion and to not spread out to the surrounding normal brain tissues. Each plan has a dose (Dspread, such that once dose decreases below Dspread (on total tissue DVH, isodose volume starts increasing dramatically. Dspread is defined as that dose when volume increase first exceeds 20 cc per 0.1 Gy dose decrease. Results: RapidArc SRS has smaller CI (1.19 ±0.14 vs. 1.50 ± 0.16, p<0.001 and larger GI (4.77 ± 1.49 vs. 3.65 ± 0.98, p <0.01. V12Gy results were comparable (2.73 ± 1.38 cc vs. 3.06 ± 2.20 cc, p = 0.58. Moderate to lower dose spread, V6, V4.5, and V3, were also equivalent. Gamma Knife plans achieved better very low dose spread (≤3 Gy and also had slightly smaller Dspread, 1.9 Gy vs 2.5 Gy. Total treatment time for Gamma Knife is estimated between 60~100 min. Gamma Knife treatments are between 3~5 times longer compared to RapidArc treatment techniques.Conclusion: Dosimetric parameters reflecting prescription dose conformality (CI, dose fall off (GI, radiation necrosis indicator (V12Gy, and dose spread (Dspread were compared between Gamma Knife SRS and RapidArc SRS for multi-mets. RapidArc plans have

  2. Structure and Dissipation Characteristics of an Electron Diffusion Region Observed by MMS During a Rapid, Normal-Incidence Magnetopause Crossing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbert, R. B.; Burch, J. L.; Argall, M. R.; Alm, L.; Farrugia, C. J.; Forbes, T. G.; Giles, B. L.; Rager, A.; Dorelli, J.; Strangeway, R. J.; Ergun, R. E.; Wilder, F. D.; Ahmadi, N.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Khotyaintsev, Y.

    2017-12-01

    On 22 October 2016, the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft encountered the electron diffusion region (EDR) when the magnetosheath field was southward, and there were signatures of fast reconnection, including flow jets, Hall fields, and large power dissipation. One rapid, normal-incidence crossing, during which the EDR structure was almost stationary in the boundary frame, provided an opportunity to observe the spatial structure for the zero guide field case of magnetic reconnection. The reconnection electric field was determined unambiguously to be 2-3 mV/m. There were clear signals of fluctuating parallel electric fields, up to 6 mV/m on the magnetosphere side of the diffusion region, associated with a Hall-like parallel current feature on the electron scale. The width of the main EDR structure was determined to be 2 km (1.8 de). Although the MMS spacecraft were in their closest tetrahedral separation of 8 km, the divergences and curls for these thin current structures could therefore not be computed in the usual manner. A method is developed to determine these quantities on a much smaller scale and applied to compute the normal component of terms in the generalized Ohm's law for the positions of each individual spacecraft (not a barocentric average). Although the gradient pressure term has a qualitative dependence that follows the observed variation of E + Ve × B, the quantitative magnitude of these terms differs by more than a factor of 2, which is shown to be greater than the respective errors. Thus, future research is required to find the manner in which Ohm's law is balanced.

  3. Resonant tunneling and persistent current of a non-interacting and weakly interacting one-dimensional electron gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krive, I.V.; Sandstroem, P.

    1997-01-01

    The persistent current for a one-dimensional ring with two tunneling barriers is considered in the limit of weakly interacting electrons. In addition to small off-resonance current, there are two kinds of resonant behaviour; (i) a current independent of the barrier transparency (true resonance) and (ii) a current analogous to the one for a ring with only single barrier (''semi''-resonance). For a given barrier transparency the realization of this or that type of resonant behaviour depends both on the geometrical factor (the ratio of interbarrier distance to a ring circumference) and on the strength of electron-electron interaction. It is shown that repulsive interaction favours the ''semi''-resonance behaviour. For a small barrier transparency the ''semi''-resonance peaks are easily washed out by temperature whereas the true resonance peaks survive. (author). 22 refs, 2 figs

  4. The QWERTY/EE concept, Quantifying Recyclability and Eco-Efficiency for End-of-Life Treatment of Consumer Electronic Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, J.

    2003-01-01

    The QWERTY/EE concept addresses recyclability and eco-efficiency of take-back and recycling of consumer electronic products, a topic currently receiving large international attention. Through the environmental part of the concept an alternative for usual weight based recycling percentages is

  5. Highly efficient one-pot/one-step synthesis of multiblock copolymers from three-component polymerization of carbon dioxide, epoxide and lactone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Hong, Jiali; Wei, Renjian; Zhang, Yingying; Tong, Zaizai; Zhang, Xinghong; Du, Binyang; Xu, Junting; Fan, Zhiqiang

    2015-02-01

    It is a long-standing challenge to combine mixed monomers into multiblock copolymer (MBC) in a one-pot/one-step polymerization manner. We report the first example of MBC with biodegradable polycarbonate and polyester blocks that were synthesized from highly efficient one-pot/one-step polymerization of cyclohexene oxide (CHO), CO 2 and ε-caprolactone (ε-CL) in the presence of zinc-cobalt double metal cyanide complex and stannous octoate. In this protocol, two cross-chain exchange reactions (CCER) occurred at dual catalysts respectively and connected two independent chain propagation procedures ( i.e. , polycarbonate formation and polyester formation) simultaneously in a block-by-block manner, affording MBC without tapering structure. The multiblock structure of MBC was determined by the rate ratio of CCER to the two chain propagations and could be simply tuned by various kinetic factors. This protocol is also of significance due to partial utilization of renewable CO 2 and improved mechanical properties of the resultant MBC.

  6. Probabilities and energies to obtain the counting efficiency of electron-capture nuclides. KLMN model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galiano, G.; Grau, A.

    1994-01-01

    An intelligent computer program has been developed to obtain the mathematical formulae to compute the probabilities and reduced energies of the different atomic rearrangement pathways following electron-capture decay. Creation and annihilation operators for Auger and X processes have been introduced. Taking into account the symmetries associated with each process, 262 different pathways were obtained. This model allows us to obtain the influence of the M-electro capture in the counting efficiency when the atomic number of the nuclide is high. (Author)

  7. One-electron standard reduction potentials of nitroaromatic and cyclic nitramine explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchimiya, Minori, E-mail: sophie.uchimiya@ars.usda.go [Environmental Laboratory, U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS 39180 (United States); Gorb, Leonid [SpecPro Inc, 3909 Halls Ferry Road, Vicksburg, MS 39180 (United States); Isayev, Olexandr [Department of Chemistry, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Qasim, Mohammad M. [Environmental Laboratory, U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS 39180 (United States); Leszczynski, Jerzy [Environmental Laboratory, U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS 39180 (United States); Interdisciplinary Center for Nanotoxicity, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS 39217 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Extensive studies have been conducted in the past decades to predict the environmental abiotic and biotic redox fate of nitroaromatic and nitramine explosives. However, surprisingly little information is available on one-electron standard reduction potentials (E{sup o}(R-NO{sub 2}/R-NO{sub 2}{sup -})). The E{sup o}(R-NO{sub 2}/R-NO{sub 2}{sup -}) is an essential thermodynamic parameter for predicting the rate and extent of reductive transformation for energetic residues. In this study, experimental (linear free energy relationships) and theoretical (ab initio calculation) approaches were employed to determine E{sup o}(R-NO{sub 2}/R-NO{sub 2}{sup -}) for nitroaromatic, (caged) cyclic nitramine, and nitroimino explosives that are found in military installations or are emerging contaminants. The results indicate a close agreement between experimental and theoretical E{sup o}(R-NO{sub 2}/R-NO{sub 2}{sup -}) and suggest a key trend: E{sup o}(R-NO{sub 2}/R-NO{sub 2}{sup -}) value decreases from di- and tri-nitroaromatic (e.g., 2,4-dinitroanisole) to nitramine (e.g., RDX) to nitroimino compound (e.g., nitroguanidine). The observed trend in E{sup o}(R-NO{sub 2}/R-NO{sub 2}{sup -}) agrees with reported rate trends for reductive degradation, suggesting a thermodynamic control on the reduction rate under anoxic/suboxic conditions. - Reduction of explosives becomes less thermodynamically favorable as the one-electron standard reduction potential decreases from di- and tri-nitroaromatic, nitramine, to nitroimino compounds.

  8. Spin entanglement in elastic electron scattering from quasi-one electron atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca Dos Santos, Samantha; Bartschat, Klaus

    2017-04-01

    We have extended our work on e-Li collisions to investigate low-energy elastic electron collisions with atomic hydrogen and other alkali targets (Na,K,Rb). These systems have been suggested for the possibility of continuously varying the degree of entanglement between the elastically scattered projectile and the valence electron. In order to estimate how well such a scheme may work in practice, we carried out overview calculations for energies between 0 and 10 eV and the full range of scattering angles 0° -180° . In addition to the relative exchange asymmetry parameter that characterizes the entanglement, we present the differential cross section in order to estimate whether the count rates in the most interesting energy-angle regimes are sufficient to make such experiments feasible in practice. Work supported by the NSF under PHY-1403245.

  9. [Nurse's coworking to electronic medical record].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maresca, M; Gavaciuto, D; Cappelli, G

    2007-01-01

    Nephrologists need to register and look at a great number of clinical data. The use of electronic medical records may improve efficiency and reduce errors. Aim of our work is to report the experience of Villa Scassi Hospital in Genoa, where a "patient file" has been performed to improve nephrology practice management. The file contains all clinical records, laboratory and radiology data, therapy, dialysis clinics, in addition to reports of out-patients department. This system allowed a better efficiency in diagnosis and treatment of the patient. Moreover experience of nurses in employing electronic medical records is reported. A reduced number of errors was found in therapy administering, because of a only one data source for physicians and nurses.

  10. A high efficiency superconducting nanowire single electron detector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosticher, M.; Ladan, F.R.; Maneval, J.P.; Dorenbos, S.N.; Zijlstra, T.; Klapwijk, T.M.; Zwiller, V.; Lupa?cu, A.; Nogues, G.

    2010-01-01

    We report the detection of single electrons using a Nb0.7Ti0.3N superconducting wire deposited on an oxidized silicon substrate. While it is known that this device is sensitive to single photons, we show that it also detects single electrons with kilo-electron-volt energy emitted from the cathode of

  11. High-efficient electron linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glavatskikh, K.V.; Zverev, B.V.; Kalyuzhnyj, V.E.; Morozov, V.L.; Nikolaev, S.V.; Plotnikov, S.N.; Sobenin, N.P.; Vovna, V.A.; Gryzlov, A.V.

    1993-01-01

    Comparison analysis of ELA on running and still waves designed for 10 MeV energy and with high efficiency is carried out. It is shown, that from the point of view of dimensions ELA with a still wave or that of a combined type is more preferable. From the point of view of impedance characteristics in any variant with application of magnetron as HF-generator it is necessary to implement special requirements to the accelerating structure if no ferrite isolation is provided in HF-channel. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  12. Free form CMOS electronics: Physically flexible and stretchable

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2015-12-07

    Free form (physically flexible and stretchable) electronics can be used for applications which are unexplored today due to the rigid and brittle nature of the state-of-the-art electronics. Therefore, we show integration strategy to rationally design materials, processes and devices to transform advanced complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) electronics into flexible and stretchable one while retaining their high performance, energy efficiency, ultra-large-scale-integration (ULSI) density, reliability and performance over cost benefit to expand its applications for wearable, implantable and Internet-of-Everything electronics.

  13. Efficient analysis of mode profiles in elliptical microcavity using dynamic-thermal electron-quantum medium FDTD method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, E H; Ahmed, I; Goh, R S M; Lee, K H; Hung, T G G; Li, E P

    2013-03-11

    The dynamic-thermal electron-quantum medium finite-difference time-domain (DTEQM-FDTD) method is used for efficient analysis of mode profile in elliptical microcavity. The resonance peak of the elliptical microcavity is studied by varying the length ratio. It is observed that at some length ratios, cavity mode is excited instead of whispering gallery mode. This depicts that mode profiles are length ratio dependent. Through the implementation of the DTEQM-FDTD on graphic processing unit (GPU), the simulation time is reduced by 300 times as compared to the CPU. This leads to an efficient optimization approach to design microcavity lasers for wide range of applications in photonic integrated circuits.

  14. Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for Rapid and Efficient Production of Stevia Tissue Culture Seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norazlina Noordin; Peng, C.S.; Rusli Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a non-caloric natural sweetener which is 300 times sweeter than cane sugar. Extracts from stevia leaves has vast application in food and beverages based industries, can be added to tea and coffee, cooked or baked goods, processed foods and confectionary goods. Recently, stevia attained awareness owing to its natural, non-caloric sweetness by diet/ health conscious and diabetic persons (Arpita et al., 2011). This natural sweetener has high commercial value in global market, it was estimated that global market value for stevia is be around USD11 billion by year 2015. Although stevia is being largely popularized in Malaysia and other countries but large-scale propagation procedures for the continuous supply of planting materials in commercial plantation has yet to be established, optimized and standardized. Furthermore, propagation through stevia seeds is often very difficult due to self-incompatibility which results in sterile seeds (Sakaguchi et al., 1982). Tissue culture is the only rapid process for the mass propagation of stevia and there have been few reports of in vitro growth of stevia (Miyagaya et al., 1986) and in vitro micropropagation from shoot tip and leaf (Uddin et al., 2006). Hence, study was carried out to establish a suitable protocol for in vitro propagation of S. rebaudiana Bertoni that can be further up-scaled for mass propagation of stevia seedlings. The established Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) will ensure rapid and efficient production of stevia tissue culture seedlings for continuous supply of planting materials for commercial stevia plantations in Malaysia. Preparation of growth medium, multiplication of shoots, rooting of plant lets and hardening of ex-vitro rooted plant lets is discussed in this paper. (author)

  15. Application of Data Envelopment Analysis to Measure Cost, Revenue and Profit Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristína Kočišová

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The literature analysing efficiency of financial institutions has enveloped rapidly over the last years. Most studies have focused on the input side analysing input technical and cost efficiency. Only few studies have examined the output side evaluating output technical and revenue efficiency. We know that both sides are relevant when evaluating efficiency of financial institutions. Therefore the primary purpose of this paper is to review a number of approaches for efficiency measurement. In particular, the concepts of cost, revenue and profit functions are discussed. We apply Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA to a sample of Slovak and Czech commercial banks during years 2009–2013 comparing the efficiencies by either minimizing cost or maximizing revenue and profit. The results showed that the level of average revenue efficiency was the highest and the average profit efficiency was the lowest one. As can be seen the Czech banks were more cost, revenue and profit efficient than Slovak ones during the whole analysed period.

  16. Chitin nanofibrils for rapid and efficient removal of metal ions from water system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dagang; Zhu, Yi; Li, Zehui; Tian, Donglin; Chen, Lei; Chen, Peng

    2013-10-15

    Joint mechanical defibrillation was successfully used to downsize chitin micro-particles (CMP) into nanofibrils without changing its chemical or crystalline structure. The fine chitin nanofibrils (CNF) bearing width of about 50 nm and length of more than 1 μm were then developed as heavy metal ion sorbents. The uptake performance of CNF dependent on pH, ionic concentration, time, and temperature was investigated. Results show that fixation amount of Cd(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Pb(II), Cr(III) on CNF was up to 2.94, 2.30, 2.22, 2.06, 1.46, and 0.31 mmol/g, respectively, much higher than CMP due to high specific surface area and widely distributed pores of CNF. Adsorption kinetics of CMP and CNF followed pseudo-second-order model and Freundlich isotherm although CNF exhibited higher rate constant and sorption capacity than that of CMP. The defibrillated CNF is renewable, feasible, easily recyclable, and is thought as good candidate for heavy metal ion treatment due to their low sorption energy, rapid and efficient uptake capacity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Rapid establishment of thermophilic anaerobic microbial community during the one-step startup of thermophilic anaerobic digestion from a mesophilic digester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhe; Zhang, Yu; Li, Yuyou; Chi, Yongzhi; Yang, Min

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how fast the thermophilic anaerobic microbial community could be established during the one-step startup of thermophilic anaerobic digestion from a mesophilic digester. Stable thermophilic anaerobic digestion was achieved within 20 days from a mesophilic digester treating sewage sludge by adopting the one-step startup strategy. The succession of archaeal and bacterial populations over a period of 60 days after the temperature increment was followed by using 454-pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR. After the increase of temperature, thermophilic methanogenic community was established within 11 days, which was characterized by the fast colonization of Methanosarcina thermophila and two hydrogenotrophic methanogens (Methanothermobacter spp. and Methanoculleus spp.). At the same time, the bacterial community was dominated by Fervidobacterium, whose relative abundance rapidly increased from 0 to 28.52 % in 18 days, followed by other potential thermophilic genera, such as Clostridium, Coprothermobacter, Anaerobaculum and EM3. The above result demonstrated that the one-step startup strategy could allow the rapid establishment of the thermophilic anaerobic microbial community. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Improving building energy efficiency in India: State-level analysis of building energy efficiency policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Sha; Tan, Qing; Evans, Meredydd; Kyle, Page; Vu, Linh; Patel, Pralit L.

    2017-11-01

    India is expected to add 40 billion m2 of new buildings till 2050. Buildings are responsible for one third of India’s total energy consumption today and building energy use is expected to continue growing driven by rapid income and population growth. The implementation of the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) is one of the measures to improve building energy efficiency. Using the Global Change Assessment Model, this study assesses growth in the buildings sector and impacts of building energy policies in Gujarat, which would help the state adopt ECBC and expand building energy efficiency programs. Without building energy policies, building energy use in Gujarat would grow by 15 times in commercial buildings and 4 times in urban residential buildings between 2010 and 2050. ECBC improves energy efficiency in commercial buildings and could reduce building electricity use in Gujarat by 20% in 2050, compared to the no policy scenario. Having energy codes for both commercial and residential buildings could result in additional 10% savings in electricity use. To achieve these intended savings, it is critical to build capacity and institution for robust code implementation.

  19. One pot synthesis of multi-functional tin oxide nanostructures for high efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wali, Qamar; Fakharuddin, Azhar; Yasin, Amina; Ab Rahim, Mohd Hasbi; Ismail, Jamil; Jose, Rajan, E-mail: rjose@ump.edu.my

    2015-10-15

    Photoanode plays a key role in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) as a scaffold for dye molecules, transport medium for photogenerated electrons, and scatters light for improved absorption. Herein, tin oxide nanostructures unifying the above three characteristics were optimized by a hydrothermal process and used as photoanode in DSSCs. The optimized morphology is a combination of hollow porous nanoparticles of size ∼50 nm and micron sized spheres with BET surface area (up to 29 m{sup 2}/g) to allow large dye-loading and light scattering as well as high crystallinity to support efficient charge transport. The optimized morphology gave the highest photovoltaic conversion efficiency (∼7.5%), so far achieved in DSSCs with high open circuit voltage (∼700 mV) and short circuit current density (∼21 mA/cm{sup 2}) employing conventional N3 dye and iodide/triiodide electrolyte. The best performing device achieved an incident photon to current conversion efficiency of ∼90%. The performance of the optimized tin oxide nanostructures was comparable to that of conventional titanium based DSSCs fabricated at similar conditions. - Graphical abstract: Tin oxide hollow nanostructure simultaneously supporting improved light scattering, dye-loading, and charge transport yielded high photovoltaic conversion efficiency in dye-sensitized solar cells. - Highlights: • Uniformly and bimodelly distributed tin oxide hollow nanospheres (HNS) are synthesized. • Uniform HNS are of size ∼10 nm; bimodel HNS has additional size up to ∼800 nm. • They are evaluated as photoelectrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). • The uniform HNS increase dye-loading and the larger increase light scattering in DSSCs. • Photo conversion efficiency ∼7.5% is achieved using bimodel HNS.

  20. Cogeneration: One way to use biomass efficiently

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustavsson, L.; Johansson, B.

    1993-01-01

    Cogeneration in district heating systems is the most energy-efficient way to convert biomass into heat and electricity with current or nearly commercial technologies. Methanol produced from biomass and used in vehicles instead of petrol or diesel could reduce carbon dioxide emissions nearly as much per unit of biomass as if the biomass were used to replace natural gas for cogeneration, but at some higher cost per unit of carbon dioxide reduction. The most energy-efficient way to use biomass for cogeneration appears to be combined cycle technology, and the world's first demonstration plant is now being built. Potentially, this technology can be used for electricity production in Swedish district heating systems to provide nearly 20% of current Swedish electricity production, while simultaneously reducing carbon dioxide emissions from the district heating systems by some 55%. The heat costs from cogeneration with biomass are higher than the heat costs from fossil fuel plants at current fuel prices. Biomass can only compete with fossil fuel if other advantages, for example a lower environmental impact are considered. (au) (35 refs.)

  1. The Role Of Product Quality Information, Market State Information And Transaction Costs In Electronic Auctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.R. Koppius (Otto); H.W.G.M. van Heck (Eric)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractElectronic auctions have rapidly increased in popularity, but the consequences of switching to an electronic auction are unclear. In part this is because multiple changes occur at the same time so one can only observe the combined effect of these changes and not the effect of each

  2. Sensitive electrospray mass spectrometry analysis of one-bead-one-compound peptide libraries labeled by quaternary ammonium salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bąchor, Remigiusz; Cydzik, Marzena; Rudowska, Magdalena; Kluczyk, Alicja; Stefanowicz, Piotr; Szewczuk, Zbigniew

    2012-08-01

    A rapid and straightforward method for high-throughput analysis of single resin beads from one-bead-one-compound combinatorial libraries with high resolution electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HR ESI-MS/MS) is presented. The application of an efficient method of peptide derivatization by quaternary ammonium salts (QAS) formation increases ionization efficiency and reduces the detection limit, allowing analysis of trace amounts of compounds by ESI-MS. Peptides, synthesized on solid support, contain a new cleavable linker composed of a Peg spacer (9-aza-3,6,12,15-tetraoxa-10-on-heptadecanoic acid), lysine with ɛ-amino group marked by the N,N,N-triethylglycine salt, and methionine, which makes possible the selective cleavage by cyanogen bromide. Even a small portion of peptides derivatized by QAS cleaved from a single resin bead is sufficient for sequencing by HR ESI-MS/MS experiments. The developed strategy was applied to a small training library of α chymotrypsin substrates. The obtained results confirm the applicability of the proposed method in combinatorial chemistry.

  3. Numerically robust and efficient nonlocal electron transport in 2D DRACO simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Duc; Chenhall, Jeff; Moses, Greg; Delettrez, Jacques; Collins, Tim

    2013-10-01

    An improved implicit algorithm based on Schurtz, Nicolai and Busquet (SNB) algorithm for nonlocal electron transport is presented. Validation with direct drive shock timing experiments and verification with the Goncharov nonlocal model in 1D LILAC simulations demonstrate the viability of this efficient algorithm for producing 2D lagrangian radiation hydrodynamics direct drive simulations. Additionally, simulations provide strong incentive to further modify key parameters within the SNB theory, namely the ``mean free path.'' An example 2D polar drive simulation to study 2D effects of the nonlocal flux as well as mean free path modifications will also be presented. This research was supported by the University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics.

  4. Numerology, hydrogenic levels, and the ordering of excited states in one-electron atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Lloyd, Jr.

    1982-03-01

    We show that the observed ordering of Rydberg states of one-electron atoms can be understood by assuming that these states are basically hydrogenic in nature. Much of the confusion concerning this point is shown to arise from the failure to differentiate between hydrogenic ordering as the nuclear charge approaches infinity, and hydrogenic ordering for an effective charge of one. The origin of κ ordering of Rydberg levels suggested by Sternheimer is considered within this picture, and the predictions of κ ordering are compared with those obtained by assuming hydrogenic ordering.