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Sample records for efficient ontological engineering

  1. Reuse of terminological resources for efficient ontological engineering in Life Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimeno-Yepes, Antonio; Jiménez-Ruiz, Ernesto; Berlanga-Llavori, Rafael; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich

    2009-01-01

    This paper is intended to explore how to use terminological resources for ontology engineering. Nowadays there are several biomedical ontologies describing overlapping domains, but there is not a clear correspondence between the concepts that are supposed to be equivalent or just similar. These resources are quite precious but their integration and further development are expensive. Terminologies may support the ontological development in several stages of the lifecycle of the ontology; e.g. ontology integration. In this paper we investigate the use of terminological resources during the ontology lifecycle. We claim that the proper creation and use of a shared thesaurus is a cornerstone for the successful application of the Semantic Web technology within life sciences. Moreover, we have applied our approach to a real scenario, the Health-e-Child (HeC) project, and we have evaluated the impact of filtering and re-organizing several resources. As a result, we have created a reference thesaurus for this project, named HeCTh. PMID:19796401

  2. Ontological engineering versus metaphysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tataj, Emanuel; Tomanek, Roman; Mulawka, Jan

    2011-10-01

    It has been recognized that ontologies are a semantic version of world wide web and can be found in knowledge-based systems. A recent time survey of this field also suggest that practical artificial intelligence systems may be motivated by this research. Especially strong artificial intelligence as well as concept of homo computer can also benefit from their use. The main objective of this contribution is to present and review already created ontologies and identify the main advantages which derive such approach for knowledge management systems. We would like to present what ontological engineering borrows from metaphysics and what a feedback it can provide to natural language processing, simulations and modelling. The potential topics of further development from philosophical point of view is also underlined.

  3. Constructive Ontology Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousan, William L.

    2010-01-01

    The proliferation of the Semantic Web depends on ontologies for knowledge sharing, semantic annotation, data fusion, and descriptions of data for machine interpretation. However, ontologies are difficult to create and maintain. In addition, their structure and content may vary depending on the application and domain. Several methods described in…

  4. An Ontology for Software Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Thong Chee; Jusoh, Yusmadi Yah; Adbullah, Rusli; Alwi, Nor Hayati

    2013-01-01

    Software agents communicate using ontology. It is important to build an ontology for specific domain such as Software Engineering Education. Building an ontology from scratch is not only hard, but also incur much time and cost. This study aims to propose an ontology through adaptation of the existing ontology which is originally built based on a…

  5. Semoogle - An Ontology Based Search Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Aghajani, Nooshin

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, we present a prototype for search engine to show how such a semantic search application based on ontology techniques contributes to save time for user, and improve the quality of relevant search results compared to a traditional search engine. This system is built as a query improvement module, which uses ontology and sorts the results search based on four predefined categories. The first and important part of the implementation of search engine prototype is to apply ontology ...

  6. Ontological Engineering for the Cadastral Domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkjær, Erik; Stuckenschmidt, Heiner

    2000-01-01

    The term 'ontology' has been used in many ways and across different communities. In th following we will introduce ontologies as an explication of some shared vocabulary or conceptualization of a specific subject matter. The main problem with the use of a shared vocabulary according to a specific...... conceptualization of the world is that much information remains implicit. Ontologies have set out to overcome the problem of implicit and hidden knowledge by making the conceptualization of a domain (e.g. mathematics) explicit. Ontological engineering is thus an approach to achieve a conceptual rigor...

  7. Merged ontology for engineering design: Contrasting empirical and theoretical approaches to develop engineering ontologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Saeema; Storga, M

    2009-01-01

    to developing the ontology engineering design integrated taxonomies (EDIT) with a theoretical approach in which concepts and relations are elicited from engineering design theories ontology (DO) The limitations and advantages of each approach are discussed. The research methodology adopted is to map...

  8. Ontologies for software engineering and software technology

    CERN Document Server

    Calero, Coral; Piattini, Mario

    2006-01-01

    Covers two applications of ontologies in software engineering and software technology: sharing knowledge of the problem domain and using a common terminology among all stakeholders; and filtering the knowledge when defining models and metamodels. This book is of benefit to software engineering researchers in both academia and industry.

  9. Ontology Translation: The Semiotic Engineering of Content Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Villamarin M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper proposes the application of Semiotic Engineering theory to Content Management Systems (CMS focusing on the analysis of how the use of different ontologies can affect the user’s efficiency when performing tasks in a CMS. The analysis is performed using the theoretical semiotic model Web-Semiotic Interface Design Evaluation (W-SIDE model.

  10. How Ontologies are Made: Studying the Hidden Social Dynamics Behind Collaborative Ontology Engineering Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmaier, Markus; Walk, Simon; Pöschko, Jan; Lamprecht, Daniel; Tudorache, Tania; Nyulas, Csongor; Musen, Mark A; Noy, Natalya F

    2013-05-01

    Traditionally, evaluation methods in the field of semantic technologies have focused on the end result of ontology engineering efforts, mainly, on evaluating ontologies and their corresponding qualities and characteristics. This focus has led to the development of a whole arsenal of ontology-evaluation techniques that investigate the quality of ontologies as a product . In this paper, we aim to shed light on the process of ontology engineering construction by introducing and applying a set of measures to analyze hidden social dynamics. We argue that especially for ontologies which are constructed collaboratively, understanding the social processes that have led to its construction is critical not only in understanding but consequently also in evaluating the ontology. With the work presented in this paper, we aim to expose the texture of collaborative ontology engineering processes that is otherwise left invisible. Using historical change-log data, we unveil qualitative differences and commonalities between different collaborative ontology engineering projects. Explaining and understanding these differences will help us to better comprehend the role and importance of social factors in collaborative ontology engineering projects. We hope that our analysis will spur a new line of evaluation techniques that view ontologies not as the static result of deliberations among domain experts, but as a dynamic, collaborative and iterative process that needs to be understood, evaluated and managed in itself. We believe that advances in this direction would help our community to expand the existing arsenal of ontology evaluation techniques towards more holistic approaches.

  11. Semantic Wiki as a Basis for Software Engineering Ontology Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasisopha, Natsuda; Wongthongtham, Pornpit; Hussain, Farookh Khadeer

    Ontology plays a vital role in sharing a common understanding of the domain among groups of people and provides terminology interpretable by machines. Recently, ontology has grown and continued to evolve constantly, but there are not many tools to provide an environment to support ontology evolution. This paper introduces a framework to support the management and maintenance leading to the evolution of Ontology by focusing on Software Engineering Ontology. The proposed framework will take into account the users' perspectives on the ontology and keep track of the comments in a formal manner. We propose the use of technology such as Semantic MediaWiki as a means to overcome the aforementioned problems.

  12. A methodology for creating ontologies for engineering design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Saeema; Kim, S.; Wallace, K.M.

    2007-01-01

    , indexing, and retrieving engineering knowledge is described. The root concepts of the ontology were elicited from engineering designers. Relationships between concepts are extracted as the ontology is populated. The contribution of this research is a methodology to allow researchers. and industry to create......This paper describes a six-stage methodology for developing ontologies for engineering design, together with the research methods and evaluation of each stage. The methodology focuses upon understanding a user's domain models through empirical research. A case study of an ontology for searching...

  13. Using an ontology pattern stack to engineer a core ontology of Accounting Information Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blums, Ivar; Weigand, Hans

    Although the field of Accounting Information Systems (AIS) has a long tradition, there is still a lack of a widely adopted conceptualization. In this paper, The UFO ontology patterns are regarded for application by analogy and extension in the engineering of a core ontology for AIS. The new IASB

  14. Building Integrated Ontological Knowledge Structures with Efficient Approximation Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The integration of ontologies builds knowledge structures which brings new understanding on existing terminologies and their associations. With the steady increase in the number of ontologies, automatic integration of ontologies is preferable over manual solutions in many applications. However, available works on ontology integration are largely heuristic without guarantees on the quality of the integration results. In this work, we focus on the integration of ontologies with hierarchical structures. We identified optimal structures in this problem and proposed optimal and efficient approximation algorithms for integrating a pair of ontologies. Furthermore, we extend the basic problem to address the integration of a large number of ontologies, and correspondingly we proposed an efficient approximation algorithm for integrating multiple ontologies. The empirical study on both real ontologies and synthetic data demonstrates the effectiveness of our proposed approaches. In addition, the results of integration between gene ontology and National Drug File Reference Terminology suggest that our method provides a novel way to perform association studies between biomedical terms.

  15. Building integrated ontological knowledge structures with efficient approximation algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yang; Janga, Sarath Chandra

    2015-01-01

    The integration of ontologies builds knowledge structures which brings new understanding on existing terminologies and their associations. With the steady increase in the number of ontologies, automatic integration of ontologies is preferable over manual solutions in many applications. However, available works on ontology integration are largely heuristic without guarantees on the quality of the integration results. In this work, we focus on the integration of ontologies with hierarchical structures. We identified optimal structures in this problem and proposed optimal and efficient approximation algorithms for integrating a pair of ontologies. Furthermore, we extend the basic problem to address the integration of a large number of ontologies, and correspondingly we proposed an efficient approximation algorithm for integrating multiple ontologies. The empirical study on both real ontologies and synthetic data demonstrates the effectiveness of our proposed approaches. In addition, the results of integration between gene ontology and National Drug File Reference Terminology suggest that our method provides a novel way to perform association studies between biomedical terms.

  16. IBRI-CASONTO: Ontology-based semantic search engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awny Sayed

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The vast availability of information, that added in a very fast pace, in the data repositories creates a challenge in extracting correct and accurate information. Which has increased the competition among developers in order to gain access to technology that seeks to understand the intent researcher and contextual meaning of terms. While the competition for developing an Arabic Semantic Search systems are still in their infancy, and the reason could be traced back to the complexity of Arabic Language. It has a complex morphological, grammatical and semantic aspects, as it is a highly inflectional and derivational language. In this paper, we try to highlight and present an Ontological Search Engine called IBRI-CASONTO for Colleges of Applied Sciences, Oman. Our proposed engine supports both Arabic and English language. It is also employed two types of search which are a keyword-based search and a semantics-based search. IBRI-CASONTO is based on different technologies such as Resource Description Framework (RDF data and Ontological graph. The experiments represent in two sections, first it shows a comparison among Entity-Search and the Classical-Search inside the IBRI-CASONTO itself, second it compares the Entity-Search of IBRI-CASONTO with currently used search engines, such as Kngine, Wolfram Alpha and the most popular engine nowadays Google, in order to measure their performance and efficiency.

  17. Model driven engineering and ontology development

    CERN Document Server

    Gasevic, Dragan; Devedzic, Vladan; Bézivin, Jean; Selic, Bran

    2009-01-01

    Describes technologies, tools, and standards like XML, RDF, OWL, MDA, and UML. This book describes OMG's ODM (Ontology Definition Metamodel) initiative, a specification which is in the form of an OMG language like UML. It also covers applications and practical aspects of developing ontologies using MDA-based languages.

  18. Applied Ontology Engineering in Cloud Services, Networks and Management Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Serrano Orozco, J Martín

    2012-01-01

    Metadata standards in today’s ICT sector are proliferating at unprecedented levels, while automated information management systems collect and process exponentially increasing quantities of data. With interoperability and knowledge exchange identified as a core challenge in the sector, this book examines the role ontology engineering can play in providing solutions to the problems of information interoperability and linked data. At the same time as introducing basic concepts of ontology engineering, the book discusses methodological approaches to formal representation of data and information models, thus facilitating information interoperability between heterogeneous, complex and distributed communication systems. In doing so, the text advocates the advantages of using ontology engineering in telecommunications systems. In addition, it offers a wealth of guidance and best-practice techniques for instances in which ontology engineering is applied in cloud services, computer networks and management systems. �...

  19. Using Ontological Engineering to Overcome AI-ED Problems: Contribution, Impact and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizoguchi, Riichiro; Bourdeau, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    This article reflects on the ontology engineering methodology discussed by the paper entitled "Using Ontological Engineering to Overcome AI-ED Problems" published in this journal in 2000. We discuss the achievements obtained in the last 10 years, the impact of our work as well as recent trends and perspectives in ontology engineering for…

  20. Tasks and Ontologies in Engineering Modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Top, J.L.; Top, Jan; Akkermans, J.M.; Akkermans, Hans

    1994-01-01

    Constructing models of physical systems is a recurring activity in engineering problem solving. This paper presents a generic knowledge-level analysis of the task of engineering modelling. Starting from the premise that modelling is a design-like activity, it proposes the Specify-Construct-Assess

  1. Ontology for quality specification in requirements engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidari, F.; Loucopoulos, P.; Brazier, F.M.

    2013-01-01

    The field of Requirements Engineering (RE) is arguably one of the most crucial areas in the development of systems in support of organisational structures and processes. Eliciting, negotiating, analysing and validating are RE processes that rely on appropriate abstraction mechanisms. This paper

  2. Sentiment analysis and ontology engineering an environment of computational intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Shyi-Ming

    2016-01-01

    This edited volume provides the reader with a fully updated, in-depth treatise on the emerging principles, conceptual underpinnings, algorithms and practice of Computational Intelligence in the realization of concepts and implementation of models of sentiment analysis and ontology –oriented engineering. The volume involves studies devoted to key issues of sentiment analysis, sentiment models, and ontology engineering. The book is structured into three main parts. The first part offers a comprehensive and prudently structured exposure to the fundamentals of sentiment analysis and natural language processing. The second part consists of studies devoted to the concepts, methodologies, and algorithmic developments elaborating on fuzzy linguistic aggregation to emotion analysis, carrying out interpretability of computational sentiment models, emotion classification, sentiment-oriented information retrieval, a methodology of adaptive dynamics in knowledge acquisition. The third part includes a plethora of applica...

  3. Supporting collaboration in interdisciplinary research of water–energy–food nexus by means of ontology engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terukazu Kumazawa

    2017-06-01

    The introduction of ontology engineering approach will enable us to share a common language and a common theoretical basis. But the development of the new method based on ontology engineering is necessary. For example, knowledge structuring according to each perspective of researchers and simple figure accompanied with a reasoned argument in the background are the directions of tool development.

  4. An ontology-based search engine for protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Byungkyu; Han, Kyungsook

    2010-01-18

    Keyword matching or ID matching is the most common searching method in a large database of protein-protein interactions. They are purely syntactic methods, and retrieve the records in the database that contain a keyword or ID specified in a query. Such syntactic search methods often retrieve too few search results or no results despite many potential matches present in the database. We have developed a new method for representing protein-protein interactions and the Gene Ontology (GO) using modified Gödel numbers. This representation is hidden from users but enables a search engine using the representation to efficiently search protein-protein interactions in a biologically meaningful way. Given a query protein with optional search conditions expressed in one or more GO terms, the search engine finds all the interaction partners of the query protein by unique prime factorization of the modified Gödel numbers representing the query protein and the search conditions. Representing the biological relations of proteins and their GO annotations by modified Gödel numbers makes a search engine efficiently find all protein-protein interactions by prime factorization of the numbers. Keyword matching or ID matching search methods often miss the interactions involving a protein that has no explicit annotations matching the search condition, but our search engine retrieves such interactions as well if they satisfy the search condition with a more specific term in the ontology.

  5. A Posteriori Ontology Engineering for Data-Driven Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gessler, Damian Dg; Joslyn, Cliff A.; Verspoor, Karin M.

    2013-05-28

    Science—and biology in particular—has a rich tradition in categorical knowledge management. This continues today in the generation and use of formal ontologies. Unfortunately, the link between hard data and ontological content is predominately qualitative, not quantitative. The usual approach is to construct ontologies of qualitative concepts, and then annotate the data to the ontologies. This process has seen great value, yet it is laborious, and the success to which ontologies are managing and organizing the full information content of the data is uncertain. An alternative approach is the converse: use the data itself to quantitatively drive ontology creation. Under this model, one generates ontologies at the time they are needed, allowing them to change as more data influences both their topology and their concept space. We outline a combined approach to achieve this, taking advantage of two technologies, the mathematical approach of Formal Concept Analysis (FCA) and the semantic web technologies of the Web Ontology Language (OWL).

  6. Construction of Engineering Ontologies for Knowledge Sharing and Reuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, Willem Nico; Borst, W.N.

    1997-01-01

    This thesis describes an investigation into the practical use of ontologies for the development of information systems. Ontologies are formal descriptions of shared knowledge in a domain. An ontology can be used as a specification of an information system because it specifies the knowledge that is

  7. Ontology or formal ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žáček, Martin

    2017-07-01

    Ontology or formal ontology? Which word is correct? The aim of this article is to introduce correct terms and explain their basis. Ontology describes a particular area of interest (domain) in a formal way - defines the classes of objects that are in that area, and relationships that may exist between them. Meaning of ontology consists mainly in facilitating communication between people, improve collaboration of software systems and in the improvement of systems engineering. Ontology in all these areas offer the possibility of unification of view, maintaining consistency and unambiguity.

  8. Discovering beaten paths in collaborative ontology-engineering projects using Markov chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walk, Simon; Singer, Philipp; Strohmaier, Markus; Tudorache, Tania; Musen, Mark A; Noy, Natalya F

    2014-10-01

    Biomedical taxonomies, thesauri and ontologies in the form of the International Classification of Diseases as a taxonomy or the National Cancer Institute Thesaurus as an OWL-based ontology, play a critical role in acquiring, representing and processing information about human health. With increasing adoption and relevance, biomedical ontologies have also significantly increased in size. For example, the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases, which is currently under active development by the World Health Organization contains nearly 50,000 classes representing a vast variety of different diseases and causes of death. This evolution in terms of size was accompanied by an evolution in the way ontologies are engineered. Because no single individual has the expertise to develop such large-scale ontologies, ontology-engineering projects have evolved from small-scale efforts involving just a few domain experts to large-scale projects that require effective collaboration between dozens or even hundreds of experts, practitioners and other stakeholders. Understanding the way these different stakeholders collaborate will enable us to improve editing environments that support such collaborations. In this paper, we uncover how large ontology-engineering projects, such as the International Classification of Diseases in its 11th revision, unfold by analyzing usage logs of five different biomedical ontology-engineering projects of varying sizes and scopes using Markov chains. We discover intriguing interaction patterns (e.g., which properties users frequently change after specific given ones) that suggest that large collaborative ontology-engineering projects are governed by a few general principles that determine and drive development. From our analysis, we identify commonalities and differences between different projects that have implications for project managers, ontology editors, developers and contributors working on collaborative ontology-engineering

  9. Interactive ontology debugging: Two query strategies for efficient fault localization

    OpenAIRE

    Shchekotykhin, Kostyantyn; Friedrich, Gerhard; Fleiss, Philipp; Rodler, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Effective debugging of ontologies is an important prerequisite for their broad application, especially in areas that rely on everyday users to create and maintain knowledge bases, such as the Semantic Web. In such systems ontologies capture formalized vocabularies of terms shared by its users. However in many cases users have different local views of the domain, i.e. of the context in which a given term is used. Inappropriate usage of terms together with natural complications when formulating...

  10. Domain ontologies in software engineering: use of Protégé with the EON architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musen, M A

    1998-11-01

    Domain ontologies are formal descriptions of the classes of concepts and the relationships among those concepts that describe an application area. The Protégé software-engineering methodology provides a clear division between domain ontologies and domain-independent problem-solvers that, when mapped to domain ontologies, can solve application tasks. The Protégé approach allows domain ontologies to inform the total software-engineering process, and for ontologies to be shared among a variety of problem-solving components. We illustrate the approach by describing the development of EON, a set of middleware components that automate various aspects of protocol-directed therapy. Our work illustrates the organizing effect that domain ontologies can have on the software-development process. Ontologies, like all formal representations, have limitations in their ability to capture the semantics of application areas. Nevertheless, the capability of ontologies to encode clinical distinctions not usually captured by controlled medical terminologies provides significant advantages for developers and maintainers of clinical software applications.

  11. Modelling the cybersecurity environment using morphological ontology design engineering

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jansen van Vuuren, JC

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ). This methodology is based on the combination of three different research methods, i.e. design science, general morphological analysis, and ontology based representation. General morphological analysis offers a solution for extracting meaningful information from...

  12. Development of health information search engine based on metadata and ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Tae-Min; Park, Hyeoun-Ae; Jin, Dal-Lae

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a metadata and ontology-based health information search engine ensuring semantic interoperability to collect and provide health information using different application programs. Health information metadata ontology was developed using a distributed semantic Web content publishing model based on vocabularies used to index the contents generated by the information producers as well as those used to search the contents by the users. Vocabulary for health information ontology was mapped to the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT), and a list of about 1,500 terms was proposed. The metadata schema used in this study was developed by adding an element describing the target audience to the Dublin Core Metadata Element Set. A metadata schema and an ontology ensuring interoperability of health information available on the internet were developed. The metadata and ontology-based health information search engine developed in this study produced a better search result compared to existing search engines. Health information search engine based on metadata and ontology will provide reliable health information to both information producer and information consumers.

  13. Interactive ontology debugging: Two query strategies for efficient fault localization☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchekotykhin, Kostyantyn; Friedrich, Gerhard; Fleiss, Philipp; Rodler, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Effective debugging of ontologies is an important prerequisite for their broad application, especially in areas that rely on everyday users to create and maintain knowledge bases, such as the Semantic Web. In such systems ontologies capture formalized vocabularies of terms shared by its users. However in many cases users have different local views of the domain, i.e. of the context in which a given term is used. Inappropriate usage of terms together with natural complications when formulating and understanding logical descriptions may result in faulty ontologies. Recent ontology debugging approaches use diagnosis methods to identify causes of the faults. In most debugging scenarios these methods return many alternative diagnoses, thus placing the burden of fault localization on the user. This paper demonstrates how the target diagnosis can be identified by performing a sequence of observations, that is, by querying an oracle about entailments of the target ontology. To identify the best query we propose two query selection strategies: a simple “split-in-half” strategy and an entropy-based strategy. The latter allows knowledge about typical user errors to be exploited to minimize the number of queries. Our evaluation showed that the entropy-based method significantly reduces the number of required queries compared to the “split-in-half” approach. We experimented with different probability distributions of user errors and different qualities of the a priori probabilities. Our measurements demonstrated the superiority of entropy-based query selection even in cases where all fault probabilities are equal, i.e. where no information about typical user errors is available. PMID:23543507

  14. Interactive ontology debugging: Two query strategies for efficient fault localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchekotykhin, Kostyantyn; Friedrich, Gerhard; Fleiss, Philipp; Rodler, Patrick

    2012-04-01

    Effective debugging of ontologies is an important prerequisite for their broad application, especially in areas that rely on everyday users to create and maintain knowledge bases, such as the Semantic Web. In such systems ontologies capture formalized vocabularies of terms shared by its users. However in many cases users have different local views of the domain, i.e. of the context in which a given term is used. Inappropriate usage of terms together with natural complications when formulating and understanding logical descriptions may result in faulty ontologies. Recent ontology debugging approaches use diagnosis methods to identify causes of the faults. In most debugging scenarios these methods return many alternative diagnoses, thus placing the burden of fault localization on the user. This paper demonstrates how the target diagnosis can be identified by performing a sequence of observations, that is, by querying an oracle about entailments of the target ontology. To identify the best query we propose two query selection strategies: a simple "split-in-half" strategy and an entropy-based strategy. The latter allows knowledge about typical user errors to be exploited to minimize the number of queries. Our evaluation showed that the entropy-based method significantly reduces the number of required queries compared to the "split-in-half" approach. We experimented with different probability distributions of user errors and different qualities of the a priori probabilities. Our measurements demonstrated the superiority of entropy-based query selection even in cases where all fault probabilities are equal, i.e. where no information about typical user errors is available.

  15. Automatic generation of warehouse mediators using an ontology engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Critchlow, T., LLNL

    1998-04-01

    Data warehouses created for dynamic scientific environments, such as genetics, face significant challenges to their long-term feasibility One of the most significant of these is the high frequency of schema evolution resulting from both technological advances and scientific insight Failure to quickly incorporate these modifications will quickly render the warehouse obsolete, yet each evolution requires significant effort to ensure the changes are correctly propagated DataFoundry utilizes a mediated warehouse architecture with an ontology infrastructure to reduce the maintenance acquirements of a warehouse. Among the things, the ontology is used as an information source for automatically generating mediators, the methods that transfer data between the data sources and the warehouse The identification, definition and representation of the metadata required to perform this task is a primary contribution of this work.

  16. Global polar geospatial information service retrieval based on search engine and ontology reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nengcheng; E, Dongcheng; Di, Liping; Gong, Jianya; Chen, Zeqiang

    2007-01-01

    In order to improve the access precision of polar geospatial information service on web, a new methodology for retrieving global spatial information services based on geospatial service search and ontology reasoning is proposed, the geospatial service search is implemented to find the coarse service from web, the ontology reasoning is designed to find the refined service from the coarse service. The proposed framework includes standardized distributed geospatial web services, a geospatial service search engine, an extended UDDI registry, and a multi-protocol geospatial information service client. Some key technologies addressed include service discovery based on search engine and service ontology modeling and reasoning in the Antarctic geospatial context. Finally, an Antarctica multi protocol OWS portal prototype based on the proposed methodology is introduced.

  17. Towards an ontological model defining the social engineering domain

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mouton, F

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available information. Although Social Engineering is an important branch of Information Security, the discipline is not well defined; a number of different definitions appear in the literature. Several concepts in the domain of Social Engineering are defined...

  18. Noesis: Ontology based Scoped Search Engine and Resource Aggregator for Atmospheric Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, R.; Movva, S.; Li, X.; Cherukuri, P.; Graves, S.

    2006-12-01

    The goal for search engines is to return results that are both accurate and complete. The search engines should find only what you really want and find everything you really want. Search engines (even meta search engines) lack semantics. The basis for search is simply based on string matching between the user's query term and the resource database and the semantics associated with the search string is not captured. For example, if an atmospheric scientist is searching for "pressure" related web resources, most search engines return inaccurate results such as web resources related to blood pressure. In this presentation Noesis, which is a meta-search engine and a resource aggregator that uses domain ontologies to provide scoped search capabilities will be described. Noesis uses domain ontologies to help the user scope the search query to ensure that the search results are both accurate and complete. The domain ontologies guide the user to refine their search query and thereby reduce the user's burden of experimenting with different search strings. Semantics are captured by refining the query terms to cover synonyms, specializations, generalizations and related concepts. Noesis also serves as a resource aggregator. It categorizes the search results from different online resources such as education materials, publications, datasets, web search engines that might be of interest to the user.

  19. Semantic Modeling of Requirements: Leveraging Ontologies in Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Masood Saleem

    2012-01-01

    The interdisciplinary nature of "Systems Engineering" (SE), having "stakeholders" from diverse domains with orthogonal facets, and need to consider all stages of "lifecycle" of system during conception, can benefit tremendously by employing "Knowledge Engineering" (KE) to achieve semantic agreement among all…

  20. Ontology engineering for management of data in the transportation domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    This report discusses work done as a collaboration between the Kansas Department of Transportation, the University of Kansas Civil Engineering Department, and the Dakota State University School of Business and Information Systems. The work was an exa...

  1. Construction informatics - Issues in engineering, computer science and ontology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eir, Asger

    2004-01-01

    This Ph.D. thesis studies issues in the area of construction informatics. Construction informatics is the theoretical study of formal and conceptual aspects in the domain of civil engineering and design. The thesis is a collection of papers which each treat a specific subject within domain analysis...... and conceptual modelling of civil engineering and design. Due to the interdisciplinary content, the first half of the study has been carried out at Department of Civil Engineering (BYG"DTU), The Technical University of Denmark; whereas the second half has been carried out at Informatics and Mathematical....... The issues of the thesis are treated from three angles: from computer science, from civil engineering and design theory, and from philosophy. It is characteristic for the thesis that these angles are all present in analysis and argumentation. The philosophical aspect is a natural ingredient as construction...

  2. APPLICATION OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS ONTOLOGY IN THE PROCESS OF FUTURE ENGINEER AND EDUCATOR’S PRACTICAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Сергій Козіброда

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article develops the problem of the use of computer systems ontology in the professional activity of future engineers and teachers in the sphere of computer technology. The tasks of automated exchange of formal model descriptions as a main factor of a research performing in the sphere of ontology use have been grounded. The expediency of use of the ontology of computer systems in the following fields of intending engineers and teachers’ training: artificial intelligence, interface, natural language processing, question-answer systems, classification of goods and services semantic mark-up of text, modelling organizational structure of enterprises, systems of reference information (NSI.

  3. Clean and Efficient Diesel Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-12-31

    Task 1 was to design study for fuel-efficient system configuration. The objective of task 1 was to perform a system design study of locomotive engine configurations leading to a 5% improvement in fuel efficiency. Modeling studies were conducted in GT-Power to perform this task. GT-Power is an engine simulation tool that facilitates modeling of engine components and their system level interactions. It provides the capability to evaluate a variety of engine technologies such as exhaust gas circulation (EGR), variable valve timing, and advanced turbo charging. The setup of GT-Power includes a flexible format that allows the effects of variations in available technologies (i.e., varying EGR fractions or fuel injection timing) to be systematically evaluated. Therefore, development can be driven by the simultaneous evaluation of several technology configurations.

  4. Ontorat: automatic generation of new ontology terms, annotations, and axioms based on ontology design patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Zuoshuang; Zheng, Jie; Lin, Yu; He, Yongqun

    2015-01-01

    It is time-consuming to build an ontology with many terms and axioms. Thus it is desired to automate the process of ontology development. Ontology Design Patterns (ODPs) provide a reusable solution to solve a recurrent modeling problem in the context of ontology engineering. Because ontology terms often follow specific ODPs, the Ontology for Biomedical Investigations (OBI) developers proposed a Quick Term Templates (QTTs) process targeted at generating new ontology classes following the same pattern, using term templates in a spreadsheet format. Inspired by the ODPs and QTTs, the Ontorat web application is developed to automatically generate new ontology terms, annotations of terms, and logical axioms based on a specific ODP(s). The inputs of an Ontorat execution include axiom expression settings, an input data file, ID generation settings, and a target ontology (optional). The axiom expression settings can be saved as a predesigned Ontorat setting format text file for reuse. The input data file is generated based on a template file created by a specific ODP (text or Excel format). Ontorat is an efficient tool for ontology expansion. Different use cases are described. For example, Ontorat was applied to automatically generate over 1,000 Japan RIKEN cell line cell terms with both logical axioms and rich annotation axioms in the Cell Line Ontology (CLO). Approximately 800 licensed animal vaccines were represented and annotated in the Vaccine Ontology (VO) by Ontorat. The OBI team used Ontorat to add assay and device terms required by ENCODE project. Ontorat was also used to add missing annotations to all existing Biobank specific terms in the Biobank Ontology. A collection of ODPs and templates with examples are provided on the Ontorat website and can be reused to facilitate ontology development. With ever increasing ontology development and applications, Ontorat provides a timely platform for generating and annotating a large number of ontology terms by following

  5. Attainability of Carnot efficiency with autonomous engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Naoto

    2015-11-01

    The maximum efficiency of autonomous engines with a finite chemical potential difference is investigated. We show that, without a particular type of singularity, autonomous engines cannot attain the Carnot efficiency. This singularity is realized in two ways: single particle transports and the thermodynamic limit. We demonstrate that both of these ways actually lead to the Carnot efficiency in concrete setups. Our results clearly illustrate that the singularity plays a crucial role in the maximum efficiency of autonomous engines.

  6. Ontology based log content extraction engine for a posteriori security control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azkia, Hanieh; Cuppens-Boulahia, Nora; Cuppens, Frédéric; Coatrieux, Gouenou

    2012-01-01

    In a posteriori access control, users are accountable for actions they performed and must provide evidence, when required by some legal authorities for instance, to prove that these actions were legitimate. Generally, log files contain the needed data to achieve this goal. This logged data can be recorded in several formats; we consider here IHE-ATNA (Integrating the healthcare enterprise-Audit Trail and Node Authentication) as log format. The difficulty lies in extracting useful information regardless of the log format. A posteriori access control frameworks often include a log filtering engine that provides this extraction function. In this paper we define and enforce this function by building an IHE-ATNA based ontology model, which we query using SPARQL, and show how the a posteriori security controls are made effective and easier based on this function.

  7. Las ontologías en la ingeniería de software: un acercamiento de dos grandes áreas del conocimiento Ontologies in software engineering: approaching two great knowledge areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Mario Zapata Jaramillo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Los conceptos ontológicos se suelen acercar más a la ingeniería del conocimiento, por lo que los ingenieros del software no los suelen aplicar para resolver problemas de su área. Es necesario que los ingenieros de software se apropien de las ontologías, pues éstas proporcionan un vocabulario común, que podría contribuir en la solución de problemas recurrentes en ingeniería del software, tales como la dificultad de la comunicación entre analista e interesado para definir los requisitos de un sistema, la baja reutilización de componentes y la escasa generación automática de código, entre otros. En este artículo se presenta un primer enlace entre las ontologías y la ingeniería de software mediante la recopilación y análisis de la literatura relativa a la utilización de las ontologías en las diferentes fases del ciclo de vida de un producto de software.Ontology concepts have been traditionally linked to knowledge engineering and software engineers have not applied them to solve problems of this area. It is necessary that software engineers use these ontologies, since they provide a common language, which can contribute to the solution of some common software engineering problems like difficulties in communication between the analyst and the interested person in order to define a system requirements, the low components re-use, and scarce automatic generation in code generation, among others. In this paper, a first encounter between ontologies and software engineering by means of a state-of-the-art analysis related to the use of ontologies in several phases of software development life cycle is presented.

  8. The current landscape of pitfalls in Ontologies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Keet, CM

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available 2Ontology Engineering Group, Departamento de Inteligencia Artificial, Universidad Polite´cnica de Madrid, Madrid, Spain keet@ukzn.ac.za, {mcsuarez,mpoveda}@fi.upm.es Keywords: Ontology Development : Ontology Quality : Pitfall Abstract: A growing...

  9. Assessment of total efficiency in adiabatic engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitianiec, W.

    2016-09-01

    The paper presents influence of ceramic coating in all surfaces of the combustion chamber of SI four-stroke engine on working parameters mainly on heat balance and total efficiency. Three cases of engine were considered: standard without ceramic coating, fully adiabatic combustion chamber and engine with different thickness of ceramic coating. Consideration of adiabatic or semi-adiabatic engine was connected with mathematical modelling of heat transfer from the cylinder gas to the cooling medium. This model takes into account changeable convection coefficient based on the experimental formulas of Woschni, heat conductivity of multi-layer walls and also small effect of radiation in SI engines. The simulation model was elaborated with full heat transfer to the cooling medium and unsteady gas flow in the engine intake and exhaust systems. The computer program taking into account 0D model of engine processes in the cylinder and 1D model of gas flow was elaborated for determination of many basic engine thermodynamic parameters for Suzuki DR-Z400S 400 cc SI engine. The paper presents calculation results of influence of the ceramic coating thickness on indicated pressure, specific fuel consumption, cooling and exhaust heat losses. Next it were presented comparisons of effective power, heat losses in the cooling and exhaust systems, total efficiency in function of engine rotational speed and also comparison of temperature inside the cylinder for standard, semi-adiabatic and full adiabatic engine. On the basis of the achieved results it was found higher total efficiency of adiabatic engines at 2500 rpm from 27% for standard engine to 37% for full adiabatic engine.

  10. A cognitive science perspective on legal ontologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breuker, J.; Hoekstra, R.; Sartor, G.; Casanovas, P.; Biasiotti, M.; Fernández-Barrera, M.

    2011-01-01

    We can trace five origins of ontology engineering, and all five still play a major role in ontology engineering. Each of these roots gives a different perspective on content and use of ontologies. Philosophical ontology is concerned with "reality"; Information science with systematic terminology;

  11. Applications of Ontologies in Collaborative Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happel, Hans-Jörg; Maalej, Walid; Seedorf, Stefan

    Making distributed teams more efficient is one main goal of Collaborative Software Development (CSD) research. To this end, ontologies, which are models that capture a shared understanding of a specific domain, provide key benefits. Ontologies have formal, machine-interpretable semantics that allow to define semantic mappings for heterogeneous data and to infer implicit knowledge at run-time. Extending development infrastructures and software architectures with ontologies (of problem and solution domains) will address coordination and knowledge sharing challenges in activities such as documentation, requirements specificationrequirements specification , component reuse, error handling, and test case management. The purpose of this article is to provide systematic account of how ontologies can be applied in CSD, and to describe benefits of both existing applications such as "semantic wikissemantic wikis " as well as visionary scenarios such as a "Software Engineering Semantic Websemantic web ".

  12. Applications of Ontology Design Patterns in Biomedical Ontologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Jonathan M.; Horridge, Matthew; Musen, Mark A.; Noy, Natalya F.

    2012-01-01

    Ontology design patterns (ODPs) are a proposed solution to facilitate ontology development, and to help users avoid some of the most frequent modeling mistakes. ODPs originate from similar approaches in software engineering, where software design patterns have become a critical aspect of software development. There is little empirical evidence for ODP prevalence or effectiveness thus far. In this work, we determine the use and applicability of ODPs in a case study of biomedical ontologies. We encoded ontology design patterns from two ODP catalogs. We then searched for these patterns in a set of eight ontologies. We found five patterns of the 69 patterns. Two of the eight ontologies contained these patterns. While ontology design patterns provide a vehicle for capturing formally reoccurring models and best practices in ontology design, we show that today their use in a case study of widely used biomedical ontologies is limited. PMID:23304337

  13. Implementation of an onto-wiki toolkit using web services to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of medical ontology co-authoring and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Adela S M

    2009-01-01

    The ICD11 draft was launched by the WHO in order to define ICD ontology by selected experts using a wiki-like structured joint-authoring tool. The challenge of this expert-/community-based ontology co-authoring is how to manage and process the ontology objects in the wiki page. The wiki-tools in the market require lots of time and human effort to organise, process and extract the ontology content from the wiki page for review and analysis. Therefore, this article is to investigate how to apply semantic web technology to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of ontology co-authoring and analysis. An onto-wiki toolkit that provides a set of web services is proposed for ontology creators to create, co-edit, organise, map and relate the wiki-like structured ontology objects on a wiki page for review and analysis. By using the onto-wiki toolkits, the pace of terminology standardisation, e-patient records integration, exchange and sharing can be improved.

  14. Use of project ontologies and terminology servers to support software engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bång, M; Eriksson, H; Timpka, T

    1998-01-01

    Complex medical software imposes new requirements on the methods and tools used for maintenance. Appropriate maintenance tools can increase software reliability and quality by providing means to trace dependencies among software artifacts for reducing unexpected impacts in software caused by software changes. We have used the GRAIL concept-representation language for medical terminologies to build a project ontology that models relationships among software artifacts. Our approach involves modeling of the terminology used in software projects, which enables us to describe, classify and relate individual software artifacts. A networked repository accessible to the entire software development staff stores the conceptual model, source code and associated documents. We present an architecture for a maintenance tool, and show how developers can use GRAIL to build a project ontology.

  15. Development of a One-Stop Data Search and Discovery Engine using Ontologies for Semantic Mappings (HydroSeek)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasecki, M.; Beran, B.

    2007-12-01

    Search engines have changed the way we see the Internet. The ability to find the information by just typing in keywords was a big contribution to the overall web experience. While the conventional search engine methodology worked well for textual documents, locating scientific data remains a problem since they are stored in databases not readily accessible by search engine bots. Considering different temporal, spatial and thematic coverage of different databases, especially for interdisciplinary research it is typically necessary to work with multiple data sources. These sources can be federal agencies which generally offer national coverage or regional sources which cover a smaller area with higher detail. However for a given geographic area of interest there often exists more than one database with relevant data. Thus being able to query multiple databases simultaneously is a desirable feature that would be tremendously useful for scientists. Development of such a search engine requires dealing with various heterogeneity issues. In scientific databases, systems often impose controlled vocabularies which ensure that they are generally homogeneous within themselves but are semantically heterogeneous when moving between different databases. This defines the boundaries of possible semantic related problems making it easier to solve than with the conventional search engines that deal with free text. We have developed a search engine that enables querying multiple data sources simultaneously and returns data in a standardized output despite the aforementioned heterogeneity issues between the underlying systems. This application relies mainly on metadata catalogs or indexing databases, ontologies and webservices with virtual globe and AJAX technologies for the graphical user interface. Users can trigger a search of dozens of different parameters over hundreds of thousands of stations from multiple agencies by providing a keyword, a spatial extent, i.e. a bounding box

  16. Using a Foundational Ontology for Reengineering a Software Enterprise Ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perini Barcellos, Monalessa; de Almeida Falbo, Ricardo

    The knowledge about software organizations is considerably relevant to software engineers. The use of a common vocabulary for representing the useful knowledge about software organizations involved in software projects is important for several reasons, such as to support knowledge reuse and to allow communication and interoperability between tools. Domain ontologies can be used to define a common vocabulary for sharing and reuse of knowledge about some domain. Foundational ontologies can be used for evaluating and re-designing domain ontologies, giving to these real-world semantics. This paper presents an evaluating of a Software Enterprise Ontology that was reengineered using the Unified Foundation Ontology (UFO) as basis.

  17. Ontology Repositories

    OpenAIRE

    Hartmann, J.; Palma, R.; Gómez-Pérez, A.

    2009-01-01

    The growing use and application of ontologies in the last years has led to an increased interest of researchers and practitioners in the development of ontologies, either from scratch o by reusing existing ones. ...

  18. Knowledge Representation and Ontological Model based on Software Engineering Body of Knowledge as a tool to Evaluate Professional and Occupational Profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo- Alejandro Quezada Sarmiento

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge representation is a multidisciplinary subject that needs to apply theories, and techniques from logic, ontology, and computation, for this reason the Bodies of Knowledge (BOK, contain the relevant information for an area of knowledge, and it is necessary for the development of the science, and application in the professional, occupational profiles, and the possible incidence in the industry. This paper showed an evaluation of professional, and occupational profiles based on standard Software Engineering Body of Knowledge (SWEBOK, and ontological model as tool in order to obtain the necessary information to establish the relationship in these contexts.

  19. Tailored Materials for High Efficiency CIDI Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, G.J.; Jana, S.

    2012-03-30

    The overall goal of the project, Tailored Materials for High Efficiency Compression Ignition Direct Injection (CIDI) Engines, is to enable the implementation of new combustion strategies, such as homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), that have the potential to significantly increase the energy efficiency of current diesel engines and decrease fuel consumption and environmental emissions. These strategies, however, are increasing the demands on conventional engine materials, either from increases in peak cylinder pressure (PCP) or from increases in the temperature of operation. The specific objective of this project is to investigate the application of a new material processing technology, friction stir processing (FSP), to improve the thermal and mechanical properties of engine components. The concept is to modify the surfaces of conventional, low-cost engine materials. The project focused primarily on FSP in aluminum materials that are compositional analogs to the typical piston and head alloys seen in small- to mid-sized CIDI engines. Investigations have been primarily of two types over the duration of this project: (1) FSP of a cast hypoeutectic Al-Si-Mg (A356/357) alloy with no introduction of any new components, and (2) FSP of Al-Cu-Ni alloys (Alloy 339) by physically stirring-in various quantities of carbon nanotubes/nanofibers or carbon fibers. Experimental work to date on aluminum systems has shown significant increases in fatigue lifetime and stress-level performance in aluminum-silicon alloys using friction processing alone, but work to demonstrate the addition of carbon nanotubes and fibers into aluminum substrates has shown mixed results due primarily to the difficulty in achieving porosity-free, homogeneous distributions of the particulate. A limited effort to understand the effects of FSP on steel materials was also undertaken during the course of this project. Processed regions were created in high-strength, low-alloyed steels up to 0.5 in

  20. Gene Ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaston K. Mazandu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The wide coverage and biological relevance of the Gene Ontology (GO, confirmed through its successful use in protein function prediction, have led to the growth in its popularity. In order to exploit the extent of biological knowledge that GO offers in describing genes or groups of genes, there is a need for an efficient, scalable similarity measure for GO terms and GO-annotated proteins. While several GO similarity measures exist, none adequately addresses all issues surrounding the design and usage of the ontology. We introduce a new metric for measuring the distance between two GO terms using the intrinsic topology of the GO-DAG, thus enabling the measurement of functional similarities between proteins based on their GO annotations. We assess the performance of this metric using a ROC analysis on human protein-protein interaction datasets and correlation coefficient analysis on the selected set of protein pairs from the CESSM online tool. This metric achieves good performance compared to the existing annotation-based GO measures. We used this new metric to assess functional similarity between orthologues, and show that it is effective at determining whether orthologues are annotated with similar functions and identifying cases where annotation is inconsistent between orthologues.

  1. Bioblendstocks that Enable High Efficiency Engine Designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, Robert L.; Fioroni, Gina M.; Ratcliff, Matthew A.; Zigler, Bradley T.; Farrell, John

    2016-11-03

    The past decade has seen a high level of innovation in production of biofuels from sugar, lipid, and lignocellulose feedstocks. As discussed in several talks at this workshop, ethanol blends in the E25 to E50 range could enable more highly efficient spark-ignited (SI) engines. This is because of their knock resistance properties that include not only high research octane number (RON), but also charge cooling from high heat of vaporization, and high flame speed. Emerging alcohol fuels such as isobutanol or mixed alcohols have desirable properties such as reduced gasoline blend vapor pressure, but also have lower RON than ethanol. These fuels may be able to achieve the same knock resistance benefits, but likely will require higher blend levels or higher RON hydrocarbon blendstocks. A group of very high RON (>150) oxygenates such as dimethyl furan, methyl anisole, and related compounds are also produced from biomass. While providing no increase in charge cooling, their very high octane numbers may provide adequate knock resistance for future highly efficient SI engines. Given this range of options for highly knock resistant fuels there appears to be a critical need for a fuel knock resistance metric that includes effects of octane number, heat of vaporization, and potentially flame speed. Emerging diesel fuels include highly branched long-chain alkanes from hydroprocessing of fats and oils, as well as sugar-derived terpenoids. These have relatively high cetane number (CN), which may have some benefits in designing more efficient CI engines. Fast pyrolysis of biomass can produce diesel boiling range streams that are high in aromatic, oxygen and acid contents. Hydroprocessing can be applied to remove oxygen and consequently reduce acidity, however there are strong economic incentives to leave up to 2 wt% oxygen in the product. This oxygen will primarily be present as low CN alkyl phenols and aryl ethers. While these have high heating value, their presence in diesel fuel

  2. Voice-enabled Knowledge Engine using Flood Ontology and Natural Language Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sermet, M. Y.; Demir, I.; Krajewski, W. F.

    2015-12-01

    The Iowa Flood Information System (IFIS) is a web-based platform developed by the Iowa Flood Center (IFC) to provide access to flood inundation maps, real-time flood conditions, flood forecasts, flood-related data, information and interactive visualizations for communities in Iowa. The IFIS is designed for use by general public, often people with no domain knowledge and limited general science background. To improve effective communication with such audience, we have introduced a voice-enabled knowledge engine on flood related issues in IFIS. Instead of navigating within many features and interfaces of the information system and web-based sources, the system provides dynamic computations based on a collection of built-in data, analysis, and methods. The IFIS Knowledge Engine connects to real-time stream gauges, in-house data sources, analysis and visualization tools to answer natural language questions. Our goal is the systematization of data and modeling results on flood related issues in Iowa, and to provide an interface for definitive answers to factual queries. The goal of the knowledge engine is to make all flood related knowledge in Iowa easily accessible to everyone, and support voice-enabled natural language input. We aim to integrate and curate all flood related data, implement analytical and visualization tools, and make it possible to compute answers from questions. The IFIS explicitly implements analytical methods and models, as algorithms, and curates all flood related data and resources so that all these resources are computable. The IFIS Knowledge Engine computes the answer by deriving it from its computational knowledge base. The knowledge engine processes the statement, access data warehouse, run complex database queries on the server-side and return outputs in various formats. This presentation provides an overview of IFIS Knowledge Engine, its unique information interface and functionality as an educational tool, and discusses the future plans

  3. Ontology Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Vrandecic, Zdenko

    2010-01-01

    Ontology evaluation is the task of measuring the quality of an ontology. It enables us to answer the following main question: How to assess the quality of an ontology for the Web? In this thesis a theoretical framework and several methods breathing life into the framework are presented. The application to the above scenarios is explored, and the theoretical foundations are thoroughly grounded in the practical usage of the emerging Semantic Web.

  4. Contextualizing ontologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouquet, Paolo; Giunchiglia, Fausto; Van Harmelen, Frank; Serafini, Luciano; Stuckenschmidt, Heiner

    2004-01-01

    Ontologies are shared models of a domain that encode a view which is common to a set of different parties. Contexts are local models that encode a party's subjective view of a domain. In this paper, we show how ontologies can be contextualized, thus acquiring certain useful properties that a pure

  5. Ontological dependency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stamper, R.K.

    1996-01-01

    Successful ontological analysis depends upon having the right underlying theory. The work described here, exploring how to understand organisations as systems of social norms found that the familiar objectivist position did not work, eventually replacing it with a radically subjectivist ontology

  6. Improvement of Engineering Work Efficiency through System Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sangdae; Jo, Sunghan; Hyun, Jinwoo [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    This paper presents the concept of developing an integrated engineering system for ER to improve efficiency and utilization of engineering system. Each process including computer system and database was introduced separately by each department at that different time. Each engineering process has a close relation with other engineering processes. The introduction of processes in a different time has caused the several problems such as lack of interrelationship between engineering processes, lack of integration fleet-wide statistical data, lack of the function of data comparison among plants and increase of access time by different access location on internet. These problems have caused inefficiency of engineering system utilization to get proper information and degraded engineering system utilization. KHNP has introduced and conducted advanced engineering processes to maintain equipment effectively in a highly reliable condition since 2000s. But engineering systems for process implementation have been developed in each department at a different time. This has caused the problems of process inefficiency and data discordance. Integrated Engineering System(IES) to integrate dispersed engineering processes will improve work efficiency and utilization of engineering system because integration system would enable engineer to get total engineering information easily and do engineering work efficiently.

  7. Efficient quantum optical state engineering and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCusker, Kevin T.

    Over a century after the modern prediction of the existence of individual particles of light by Albert Einstein, a reliable source of this simple quantum state of one photon does not exist. While common light sources such as a light bulb, LED, or laser can produce a pulse of light with an average of one photon, there is (currently) no way of knowing the number of photons in that pulse without first absorbing (and thereby destroying) them. Spontaneous parametric down-conversion, a process in which one high-energy photon splits into two lower-energy photons, allows us to prepare a single-photon state by detecting one of the photons, which then heralds the existence of its twin. This process has been the workhorse of quantum optics, allowing demonstrations of a myriad of quantum processes and protocols, such as entanglement, cryptography, superdense coding, teleportation, and simple quantum computing demonstrations. All of these processes would benefit from better engineering of the underlying down-conversion process, but despite significant effort (both theoretical and experimental), optimization of this process is ongoing. The focus of this work is to optimize certain aspects of a down-conversion source, and then use this tool in novel experiments not otherwise feasible. Specifically, the goal is to optimize the heralding efficiency of the down-conversion photons, i.e., the probability that if one photon is detected, the other photon is also detected. This source is then applied to two experiments (a single-photon source, and a quantum cryptography implementation), and the detailed theory of an additional application (a source of Fock states and path-entangled states, called N00N states) is discussed, along with some other possible applications.

  8. Ontological Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Alkan

    2017-12-01

    • Is it possible to redefine ontology within the hierarchical structure of planning? We are going to seek answers to some of these questions within the limited scope of this paper and we are going to offer the rest for discussion by just asking them. In light of these assessments, drawing attention, based on ontological knowledge relying on the wholeness of universe, to the question, on macro level planning, of whether or not the ontological realities of man, energy and movements of thinking can provide macro data for planning on a universal level as important factors affecting mankind will be one of the limited objectives of the paper.

  9. Highly efficient 6-stroke engine cycle with water injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szybist, James P; Conklin, James C

    2012-10-23

    A six-stroke engine cycle having improved efficiency. Heat is recovered from the engine combustion gases by using a 6-stroke engine cycle in which combustion gases are partially vented proximate the bottom-dead-center position of the fourth stroke cycle, and water is injected proximate the top-dead-center position of the fourth stroke cycle.

  10. Components for Ontology Driven Information Push

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hart, Lewis L

    2005-01-01

    .... Four primary applications were developed AND supported by these technologies. Duet was developed to support visualization, application and management of ontologies using the UML/MOF engineering standard...

  11. Single ion heat engine with maximum efficiency at maximum power

    OpenAIRE

    Abah, Obinna; Rossnagel, Johannes; Jacob, Georg; Deffner, Sebastian; Schmidt-Kaler, Ferdinand; Singer, Kilian; Lutz, Eric

    2012-01-01

    We propose an experimental scheme to realize a nano heat engine with a single ion. An Otto cycle may be implemented by confining the ion in a linear Paul trap with tapered geometry and coupling it to engineered laser reservoirs. The quantum efficiency at maximum power is analytically determined in various regimes. Moreover, Monte Carlo simulations of the engine are performed that demonstrate its feasibility and its ability to operate at maximum efficiency of 30% under realistic conditions.

  12. On the Efficiency of a Quantum Heat Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Ramezani, Mehdi; Golshani, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    The efficiency of a Carnot Heat Engine enhances whenever one increases the temperature of the hot reservoir or decreases the temperature of the cold reservoir. We show that for a Quantum Heat Engine, decreasing the temperature of the cold reservoir may not enhance the efficiency of the heat engine. This is because at low temperatures the small internal interaction energy of the working substance becomes comparable with thermal fluctuation energy. Thus the internal interaction reduces the effi...

  13. Efficient Optoelectronics Teaching in Undergraduate Engineering Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matin, M. A.

    2005-01-01

    The Engineering Department's vision for undergraduate education for the next century is to develop a set of laboratory experiences that are thoughtfully sequenced and integrated to promote the full development of students in all courses. Optoelectronics is one of the most important and most demanding courses in Electrical and Computer Engineering.…

  14. Technological approaches to improve the engine efficiency and to reduce pollutant emissions of automotive diesel engines

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo Marcano, Sergio Jose

    2014-01-01

    The research work was mainly focused on the technological approach to improve engine efficiency and reduce pollutant emissions applicable to diesel engines which are very often incompatible were assessed through a set of full- scale tests on a real diesel engine in order to satisfy the new emissions limits. (1) The first strategy evaluated in this work to improve the engine efficiency was the reduction of the mechanical losses: through the incorporation of nanomaterials in the lubricant formu...

  15. Enhanced efficiency of internal combustion engines by employing spinning gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyko, V I; Fisch, N J

    2014-08-01

    The efficiency of the internal combustion engine might be enhanced by employing spinning gas. A gas spinning at near sonic velocities has an effectively higher heat capacity, which allows practical fuel cycles, which are far from the Carnot efficiency, to approach more closely the Carnot efficiency. A remarkable gain in fuel efficiency is shown to be theoretically possible for the Otto and Diesel cycles. The use of a flywheel, in principle, could produce even greater increases in efficiency.

  16. Engineering crop nutrient efficiency for sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liyu; Liao, Hong

    2017-10-01

    Increasing crop yields can provide food, animal feed, bioenergy feedstocks and biomaterials to meet increasing global demand; however, the methods used to increase yield can negatively affect sustainability. For example, application of excess fertilizer can generate and maintain high yields but also increases input costs and contributes to environmental damage through eutrophication, soil acidification and air pollution. Improving crop nutrient efficiency can improve agricultural sustainability by increasing yield while decreasing input costs and harmful environmental effects. Here, we review the mechanisms of nutrient efficiency (primarily for nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and iron) and breeding strategies for improving this trait, along with the role of regulation of gene expression in enhancing crop nutrient efficiency to increase yields. We focus on the importance of root system architecture to improve nutrient acquisition efficiency, as well as the contributions of mineral translocation, remobilization and metabolic efficiency to nutrient utilization efficiency. © 2017 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  17. Engineering microbes for efficient production of chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Wei; Dole, Sudhanshu; Grabar, Tammy; Collard, Andrew Christopher; Pero, Janice G; Yocum, R Rogers

    2015-04-28

    This present invention relates to production of chemicals from microorganisms that have been genetically engineered and metabolically evolved. Improvements in chemical production have been established, and particular mutations that lead to those improvements have been identified. Specific examples are given in the identification of mutations that occurred during the metabolic evolution of a bacterial strain genetically engineered to produce succinic acid. This present invention also provides a method for evaluating the industrial applicability of mutations that were selected during the metabolic evolution for increased succinic acid production. This present invention further provides microorganisms engineered to have mutations that are selected during metabolic evolution and contribute to improved production of succinic acid, other organic acids and other chemicals of commercial interest.

  18. High efficiency stoichiometric internal combustion engine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsor, Richard Edward; Chase, Scott Allen

    2009-06-02

    A power system including a stoichiometric compression ignition engine in which a roots blower is positioned in the air intake for the engine to control air flow. Air flow is decreased during part power conditions to maintain the air-fuel ratio in the combustion chamber of the engine at stoichiometric, thus enabling the use of inexpensive three-way catalyst to reduce oxides of nitrogen. The roots blower is connected to a motor generator so that when air flow is reduced, electrical energy is stored which is made available either to the roots blower to temporarily increase air flow or to the system electrical load and thus recapture energy that would otherwise be lost in reducing air flow.

  19. Efficient Parallel Engineering Computing on Linux Workstations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, John Z.

    2010-01-01

    A C software module has been developed that creates lightweight processes (LWPs) dynamically to achieve parallel computing performance in a variety of engineering simulation and analysis applications to support NASA and DoD project tasks. The required interface between the module and the application it supports is simple, minimal and almost completely transparent to the user applications, and it can achieve nearly ideal computing speed-up on multi-CPU engineering workstations of all operating system platforms. The module can be integrated into an existing application (C, C++, Fortran and others) either as part of a compiled module or as a dynamically linked library (DLL).

  20. Surreptitious, Evolving and Participative Ontology Development: An End-User Oriented Ontology Development Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachore, Zelalem

    2012-01-01

    Ontology not only is considered to be the backbone of the semantic web but also plays a significant role in distributed and heterogeneous information systems. However, ontology still faces limited application and adoption to date. One of the major problems is that prevailing engineering-oriented methodologies for building ontologies do not…

  1. Pattern-based OWL Ontology Debugging Guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Corcho, Oscar; Roussey, C.; Vilches-Blázquez, LM.; Perez Dominguez, Iván

    2009-01-01

    Debugging inconsistent OWL ontologies is a tedious and time-consuming task where a combination of ontology engineers and domain experts is often required to understand whether the changes to be performed are actually dealing with formalisation errors or changing the intended meaning of the original knowledge model. Debugging services from existing ontology engineering tools and debugging strategies available in the literature aid in this task. However, in complex cases they are still far from...

  2. Effective Tutorial Ontology Modeling on Organic Rice Farming for Non-Science & Technology Educated Farmers Using Knowledge Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanchinda, Jirawit; Chakpitak, Nopasit; Yodmongkol, Pitipong

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the appropriate technologies for sustainable development projects has encouraged grass roots development, which has in turn promoted sustainable and successful community development, which a requirement is to share and reuse this knowledge effectively. This research aims to propose a tutorial ontology effectiveness modeling on organic…

  3. Green Engineering Principle #4 Maximize Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    As one reads the twelve principles of Green Engineering, there is one message that stands out and becomes ever increasingly more evident with each principle. Moreover, that message is simplicity! It is simplicity that will allow us, as a society, to become more sustainable.Althou...

  4. Ontology modeling in physical asset integrity management

    CERN Document Server

    Yacout, Soumaya

    2015-01-01

    This book presents cutting-edge applications of, and up-to-date research on, ontology engineering techniques in the physical asset integrity domain. Though a survey of state-of-the-art theory and methods on ontology engineering, the authors emphasize essential topics including data integration modeling, knowledge representation, and semantic interpretation. The book also reflects novel topics dealing with the advanced problems of physical asset integrity applications such as heterogeneity, data inconsistency, and interoperability existing in design and utilization. With a distinctive focus on applications relevant in heavy industry, Ontology Modeling in Physical Asset Integrity Management is ideal for practicing industrial and mechanical engineers working in the field, as well as researchers and graduate concerned with ontology engineering in physical systems life cycles. This book also: Introduces practicing engineers, research scientists, and graduate students to ontology engineering as a modeling techniqu...

  5. The design ontology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storga, Mario; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup; Marjanovic, Dorian

    2010-01-01

    The article presents the research of the nature, building and practical role of a Design Ontology as a potential framework for the more efficient product development (PD) data-, information- and knowledge- description, -explanation, -understanding and -reusing. In the methodology for development...... of the ontology two steps could be identified: empirical research and computer implementation. Empirical research has included domain documentation analysis (Genetic Design Model System developed by Mortensen 1999), identification of the key concepts and relations between them, and categorisation of the concepts...... physical and abstract world. As a next step the computer thesaurus has been created. Using the thesauri, the knowledge evolved during the PD has been described, and the set of the created concepts and relations instances has been used for the ontology model consistency checking and refinement. The Design...

  6. Modeling of hybrid vehicle fuel economy and fuel engine efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei

    "Near-CV" (i.e., near-conventional vehicle) hybrid vehicles, with an internal combustion engine, and a supplementary storage with low-weight, low-energy but high-power capacity, are analyzed. This design avoids the shortcoming of the "near-EV" and the "dual-mode" hybrid vehicles that need a large energy storage system (in terms of energy capacity and weight). The small storage is used to optimize engine energy management and can provide power when needed. The energy advantage of the "near-CV" design is to reduce reliance on the engine at low power, to enable regenerative braking, and to provide good performance with a small engine. The fuel consumption of internal combustion engines, which might be applied to hybrid vehicles, is analyzed by building simple analytical models that reflect the engines' energy loss characteristics. Both diesel and gasoline engines are modeled. The simple analytical models describe engine fuel consumption at any speed and load point by describing the engine's indicated efficiency and friction. The engine's indicated efficiency and heat loss are described in terms of several easy-to-obtain engine parameters, e.g., compression ratio, displacement, bore and stroke. Engine friction is described in terms of parameters obtained by fitting available fuel measurements on several diesel and spark-ignition engines. The engine models developed are shown to conform closely to experimental fuel consumption and motored friction data. A model of the energy use of "near-CV" hybrid vehicles with different storage mechanism is created, based on simple algebraic description of the components. With powertrain downsizing and hybridization, a "near-CV" hybrid vehicle can obtain a factor of approximately two in overall fuel efficiency (mpg) improvement, without considering reductions in the vehicle load.

  7. Quantum engine efficiency bound beyond the second law of thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedenzu, Wolfgang; Mukherjee, Victor; Ghosh, Arnab; Kofman, Abraham G; Kurizki, Gershon

    2018-01-11

    According to the second law, the efficiency of cyclic heat engines is limited by the Carnot bound that is attained by engines that operate between two thermal baths under the reversibility condition whereby the total entropy does not increase. Quantum engines operating between a thermal and a squeezed-thermal bath have been shown to surpass this bound. Yet, their maximum efficiency cannot be determined by the reversibility condition, which may yield an unachievable efficiency bound above unity. Here we identify the fraction of the exchanged energy between a quantum system and a bath that necessarily causes an entropy change and derive an inequality for this change. This inequality reveals an efficiency bound for quantum engines energised by a non-thermal bath. This bound does not imply reversibility, unless the two baths are thermal. It cannot be solely deduced from the laws of thermodynamics.

  8. SUGOI: automated ontology interchangeability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khan, ZC

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available : Automated Ontology Interchangeability Zubeida Casmod Khan and C. Maria Abstract. A foundational ontology can solve interoperability issues among the domain ontologies aligned to it. However, several foundational ontologies have been developed, hence...

  9. Marine Planning and Service Platform: specific ontology based semantic search engine serving data management and sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzella, Giuseppe M. R.; Bartolini, Andrea; Bustaffa, Franco; D'Angelo, Paolo; De Mattei, Maurizio; Frontini, Francesca; Maltese, Maurizio; Medone, Daniele; Monachini, Monica; Novellino, Antonio; Spada, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    : the whole document gets parsed to extract the words which are more meaningful for the main argument of the document, and applies the extraction in the form of N-grams (mono-grams, bi-grams, tri-grams). • MAPS database - This module is a simple database which contains all the N-grams used by MAPS (physical parameters from SeaDataNet vocabularies) to define our marine "ontology". • Relation identifier - This module performs the most important task of identifying relationships between the N-gram extracted from the text by the parser and the provided oceanographic terminology. It checks N-grams supplied by the Syntactic parser and then matches them with the terms stored in the MAPS database. Found matches are returned back to the parser with flexed form appearing in the source text. • A "relaxed" extractor - This option can be activated when the search engine is launched. It was introduced to give the user a chance to create new N-grams combining existing mono-grams and bi-grams in the database with rich-words found within the source text. The innovation of a semantic engine lies in the fact that the process is not just about the retrieval of already known documents by means of a simple term query but rather the retrieval of a population of documents whose existence was unknown. The system answers by showing a screenshot of results ordered according to the following criteria: • Relevance - of the document with respect to the concept that is searched • Date - of publication of the paper • Source - data provider as defined in the SeaDataNet Common Data Index • Matrix - environmental matrices as defined in the oceanographic field • Geographic area - area specified in the text • Clustering - the process of organizing objects into groups whose members are similar The clustering returns as the output the related documents. For each document the MAPS visualization provides: • Title, author, source/provider of data, web address • Tagging of key terms or

  10. Development and Targeting Efficiency of Irinotecan Engineered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The proniosomes were smooth in texture indicating, thin and uniform coating over maltodextrin powder. The highest entrapment efficiency was found for formulation F2 (74.9 ± 2.7 %). The highest cumulative drug release in 24 h was achieved with formulation F3 (98.2 %) In vivo results for the proniosomes reveal ...

  11. A criterion to maximize the irreversible efficiency in heat engines

    CERN Document Server

    Aragon-Gonzalez, G; Leon-Galicia, A; Musharrafie-Martinez, M

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to obtain a more precise calculation of the effective limits to the efficiency, of several cyclic heat engines. This calculation is based, first, on the equations describing the irreversible efficiency, and second, on a method which results from a general criterion to maximize this efficiency, applicable to several heat engines. With this method, we apply the criterion to maximize efficiencies; establish lower and upper bounds, corresponding to the efficiencies of Curzon-Ahlborn-like and Carnot-like heat engines; and, finally, find analytical or numerical expressions for the efficiencies eta sub m sub e and eta sub m sub a sub x. eta sub m sub a sub x is the maximum irreversible efficiency; eta sub m sub e is the efficiency in which the irreversible efficiency achieves its maximum, in a similar way to the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency (maximum work or power). The method was applied to a Brayton cycle, presenting internal dissipations of the working fluid and irreversibilities due to th...

  12. Efficient Spatial Data Structure for Multiversion Management of Engineering Drawings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuaki Nakamura

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available In the engineering database system, multiple versions of a design including engineering drawings should be managed efficiently. The paper proposes an extended spatial data structure for efficient management of multiversion engineering drawings. The R-tree is adapted as a basic data structure. The efficient mechanism to manage the difference between drawings is introduced to the R-tree to eliminate redundant duplications and to reduce the amount of storage required for the data structure. The extended data structures of the R-tree, MVR and MVR* trees, are developed and the performances of these trees are evaluated. A series of simulation tests shows that, compared with the basic R-tree, the amounts of storage required for the MVR and MVR* trees are reduced to 50% and 30%, respectively. The search efficiencies of the R, MVR, and MVR* trees are almost the same.

  13. An engineered yeast efficiently secreting penicillin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loknath Gidijala

    Full Text Available This study aimed at developing an alternative host for the production of penicillin (PEN. As yet, the industrial production of this beta-lactam antibiotic is confined to the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum. As such, the yeast Hansenula polymorpha, a recognized producer of pharmaceuticals, represents an attractive alternative. Introduction of the P. chrysogenum gene encoding the non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS delta-(L-alpha-aminoadipyl-L-cysteinyl-D-valine synthetase (ACVS in H. polymorpha, resulted in the production of active ACVS enzyme, when co-expressed with the Bacillus subtilis sfp gene encoding a phosphopantetheinyl transferase that activated ACVS. This represents the first example of the functional expression of a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase in yeast. Co-expression with the P. chrysogenum genes encoding the cytosolic enzyme isopenicillin N synthase as well as the two peroxisomal enzymes isopenicillin N acyl transferase (IAT and phenylacetyl CoA ligase (PCL resulted in production of biologically active PEN, which was efficiently secreted. The amount of secreted PEN was similar to that produced by the original P. chrysogenum NRRL1951 strain (approx. 1 mg/L. PEN production was decreased over two-fold in a yeast strain lacking peroxisomes, indicating that the peroxisomal localization of IAT and PCL is important for efficient PEN production. The breakthroughs of this work enable exploration of new yeast-based cell factories for the production of (novel beta-lactam antibiotics as well as other natural and semi-synthetic peptides (e.g. immunosuppressive and cytostatic agents, whose production involves NRPS's.

  14. Influence of Gasoline Components on Engine Efficiency and Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machado Guilherme B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For the next few decades, it is expected that fossil fuels and bio-fuels used in internal combustion engines will remain the primary source for vehicular propulsion. This justifies the intense worldwide research and development effort to comply with the challenges of increasing efficiency and reducing internal combustion engine emissions. The modeling of commercial fuels and engine combustion processes presents great challenges. There is also the need to better understand how different fuel components interact and influence engine combustion and performance parameters. In the present work, surrogate fuels were used to implement methodologies to evaluate the influence of fuel components on fuel properties and multiple engine combustion and performance parameters. Special attention is given to engine efficiency and emissions behavior and their correlations to fuel properties and others performance parameters of the engine. The potentials of each component and corresponding chemical group were identified for different engine designs. The results combine information and methodologies that can be used to develop fuels for different applications.

  15. Effects of engine oil viscosity and composition on fuel efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clevenger, J.E.; Carlson, D.C.; Kleiser, W.M.

    1984-01-01

    A 2.3l engine dynamometer test procedure that measures the effects of engine oils on fuel efficiency has been developed that a) generally agrees with the ASTM five-car test, b) has good test repeatability and c) is capable of detecting small differences among test oils with high statistical confidence. Factors in a lubricant affecting fuel efficiency such as SAE viscosity grade, VI improver, detergent-inhibitor (DI) package and friction modifier selection were investigated in the 2.3l engine dynamometer test. A general trend of improved fuel efficiency was found with reduction in single-grade and multigrade oil viscosity. VI improver selection was found to have a significant effect on the fuel efficiency of multigrade oils. In some cases the difference in fuel efficiency among multigrade oils containing different VI improvers was about the same as the gain in fuel efficiency from reducing SAE grade from an SAE 10w-40 to an SAE 5w-30. Results show that by careful selection of the VI improver and DI package it is possible to formulate multigrade oils that exceed the requirements of the current ASTM energy-conserving engine oil classification.

  16. Knowledge engineering as a support for building an actor profile ontology for integrating Home-Care systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibert, Karina; Valls, Aida; Riaño, David

    2008-01-01

    One of the tasks towards the definition of a knowledge model for home care is the definition of the different roles of the users involved in the system. The roles determine the actions and services that can or must be performed by each type of user. In this paper the experience of building an ontology to represent the home-care users and their associated information is presented, in a proposal for a standard model of a Home-Care support system to the European Community.

  17. Efficiency at maximum power of thermally coupled heat engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apertet, Y; Ouerdane, H; Goupil, C; Lecoeur, Ph

    2012-04-01

    We study the efficiency at maximum power of two coupled heat engines, using thermoelectric generators (TEGs) as engines. Assuming that the heat and electric charge fluxes in the TEGs are strongly coupled, we simulate numerically the dependence of the behavior of the global system on the electrical load resistance of each generator in order to obtain the working condition that permits maximization of the output power. It turns out that this condition is not unique. We derive a simple analytic expression giving the relation between the electrical load resistance of each generator permitting output power maximization. We then focus on the efficiency at maximum power (EMP) of the whole system to demonstrate that the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency may not always be recovered: The EMP varies with the specific working conditions of each generator but remains in the range predicted by irreversible thermodynamics theory. We discuss our results in light of nonideal Carnot engine behavior.

  18. Ontology-driven voiceXML dialogues generation

    OpenAIRE

    Gatius Vila, Marta; González Bermúdez, Meritxell

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a proposal to improve the communication process and the engineering features in VoiceXML dialogues. This proposal is focused on the efficient and reusable representation of the knowledge involved in communication. In order to achieve a good dialogue design we propose the explicit representation of the conceptual information the application needs form the user in an ontology. A syntactic-semantic taxonomy is provided to facilitate the generation of the grammars and the sys...

  19. Building ontologies with basic formal ontology

    CERN Document Server

    Arp, Robert; Spear, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    In the era of "big data," science is increasingly information driven, and the potential for computers to store, manage, and integrate massive amounts of data has given rise to such new disciplinary fields as biomedical informatics. Applied ontology offers a strategy for the organization of scientific information in computer-tractable form, drawing on concepts not only from computer and information science but also from linguistics, logic, and philosophy. This book provides an introduction to the field of applied ontology that is of particular relevance to biomedicine, covering theoretical components of ontologies, best practices for ontology design, and examples of biomedical ontologies in use. After defining an ontology as a representation of the types of entities in a given domain, the book distinguishes between different kinds of ontologies and taxonomies, and shows how applied ontology draws on more traditional ideas from metaphysics. It presents the core features of the Basic Formal Ontology (BFO), now u...

  20. Describing the Breakbone Fever: IDODEN, an Ontology for Dengue Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitraka, Elvira; Topalis, Pantelis; Dritsou, Vicky; Dialynas, Emmanuel; Louis, Christos

    2015-01-01

    Background Ontologies represent powerful tools in information technology because they enhance interoperability and facilitate, among other things, the construction of optimized search engines. To address the need to expand the toolbox available for the control and prevention of vector-borne diseases we embarked on the construction of specific ontologies. We present here IDODEN, an ontology that describes dengue fever, one of the globally most important diseases that are transmitted by mosquitoes. Methodology/Principal Findings We constructed IDODEN using open source software, and modeled it on IDOMAL, the malaria ontology developed previously. IDODEN covers all aspects of dengue fever, such as disease biology, epidemiology and clinical features. Moreover, it covers all facets of dengue entomology. IDODEN, which is freely available, can now be used for the annotation of dengue-related data and, in addition to its use for modeling, it can be utilized for the construction of other dedicated IT tools such as decision support systems. Conclusions/Significance The availability of the dengue ontology will enable databases hosting dengue-associated data and decision-support systems for that disease to perform most efficiently and to link their own data to those stored in other independent repositories, in an architecture- and software-independent manner. PMID:25646954

  1. EVALUATION OF A LOW FRICTION - HIGH EFFICIENCY ROLLER BEARING ENGINE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolarik, Robert V. II; Shattuck, Charles W.; Copper, Anthony P.

    2009-06-30

    This Low Friction (High Efficiency Roller Bearing) Engine (LFE) report presents the work done by The Timken Company to conduct a technology demonstration of the benefits of replacing hydrodynamic bearings with roller bearings in the crankshaft and camshaft assemblies of an internal combustion engine for the purpose of collecting data sufficient to prove merit. The engines in the present study have been more extensively converted to roller bearings than any previous studies (40 needle roller bearings per engine) to gain understanding of the full potential of application of bearing technology. The project plan called for comparative testing of a production vehicle which was already respected for having demonstrated low engine friction levels with a rollerized version of that engine. Testing was to include industry standard tests for friction, emissions and fuel efficiency conducted on instrumented dynamometers. Additional tests for fuel efficiency, cold start resistance and other measures of performance were to be made in the actual vehicle. Comparative measurements of noise, vibration and harshness (NVH), were planned, although any work to mitigate the suspected higher NVH level in the rollerized engine was beyond the scope of this project. Timken selected the Toyota Avalon with a 3.5L V-6 engine as the test vehicle. In an attempt to minimize cost and fabrication time, a ‘made-from’ approach was proposed in which as many parts as possible would be used or modified from production parts to create the rollerized engine. Timken commissioned its test partner, FEV Engine Technology, to do a feasibility study in which they confirmed that using such an approach was possible to meet the required dimensional restrictions and tolerances. In designing the roller bearing systems for the crank and cam trains, Timken utilized as many production engine parts as possible. The crankshafts were produced from production line forgings, which use Timken steel, modified with special

  2. Ontological Surprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leahu, Lucian

    2016-01-01

    a hybrid approach where machine learning algorithms are used to identify objects as well as connections between them; finally, it argues for remaining open to ontological surprises in machine learning as they may enable the crafting of different relations with and through technologies.......This paper investigates how we might rethink design as the technological crafting of human-machine relations in the context of a machine learning technique called neural networks. It analyzes Google’s Inceptionism project, which uses neural networks for image recognition. The surprising output...

  3. Energy efficient engine preliminary design and integration study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, D.E.

    1978-11-01

    The technology and configurational requirements of an all new 1990's energy efficient turbofan engine having a twin spool arrangement with a directly coupled fan and low-pressure turbine, a mixed exhaust nacelle, and a high 38.6:1 overall pressure ratio were studied. Major advanced technology design features required to provide the overall benefits were a high pressure ratio compression system, a thermally actuated advanced clearance control system, lightweight shroudless fan blades, a low maintenance cost one-stage high pressure turbine, a short efficient mixer and structurally integrated engine and nacelle. A conceptual design analysis was followed by integration and performance analyses of geared and direct-drive fan engines with separate or mixed exhaust nacelles to refine previously designed engine cycles. Preliminary design and more detailed engine-aircraft integration analysis were then conducted on the more promising configurations. Engine and aircraft sizing, fuel burned, and airframe noise studies on projected 1990's domestic and international aircraft produced sufficient definition of configurational and advanced technology requirements to allow immediate initiation of component technology development.

  4. Fundamentals of electromagnetic levitation engineering sustainability through efficiency

    CERN Document Server

    Sangster, Alan J

    2012-01-01

    This book aims to make aspiring and existing electrical engineers aware of the efficiency implications of frictionless machines and how important this may be in a post fossil-fuel world in which the energy available from renewable sources is strictly limited.

  5. Ontology authoring with Forza

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Keet, CM

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Generic, reusable ontology elements, such as a foundational ontology's categories and part-whole relations, are essential for good and interoperable knowledge representation. Ontology developers, which include domain experts and novices, face...

  6. Optimal power and efficiency of quantum Stirling heat engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yong; Chen, Lingen; Wu, Feng

    2017-01-01

    A quantum Stirling heat engine model is established in this paper in which imperfect regeneration and heat leakage are considered. A single particle which contained in a one-dimensional infinite potential well is studied, and the system consists of countless replicas. Each particle is confined in its own potential well, whose occupation probabilities can be expressed by the thermal equilibrium Gibbs distributions. Based on the Schrödinger equation, the expressions of power output and efficiency for the engine are obtained. Effects of imperfect regeneration and heat leakage on the optimal performance are discussed. The optimal performance region and the optimal values of important parameters of the engine cycle are obtained. The results obtained can provide some guidelines for the design of a quantum Stirling heat engine.

  7. Size dependence of efficiency at maximum power of heat engine

    KAUST Repository

    Izumida, Y.

    2013-10-01

    We perform a molecular dynamics computer simulation of a heat engine model to study how the engine size difference affects its performance. Upon tactically increasing the size of the model anisotropically, we determine that there exists an optimum size at which the model attains the maximum power for the shortest working period. This optimum size locates between the ballistic heat transport region and the diffusive heat transport one. We also study the size dependence of the efficiency at the maximum power. Interestingly, we find that the efficiency at the maximum power around the optimum size attains a value that has been proposed as a universal upper bound, and it even begins to exceed the bound as the size further increases. We explain this behavior of the efficiency at maximum power by using a linear response theory for the heat engine operating under a finite working period, which naturally extends the low-dissipation Carnot cycle model [M. Esposito, R. Kawai, K. Lindenberg, C. Van den Broeck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 150603 (2010)]. The theory also shows that the efficiency at the maximum power under an extreme condition may reach the Carnot efficiency in principle.© EDP Sciences Società Italiana di Fisica Springer-Verlag 2013.

  8. RIO: Minimizing User Interaction in Ontology Debugging

    OpenAIRE

    Rodler, Patrick; Shchekotykhin, Kostyantyn; Fleiss, Philipp; Friedrich, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Efficient ontology debugging is a cornerstone for many activities in the context of the Semantic Web, especially when automatic tools produce (parts of) ontologies such as in the field of ontology matching. The best currently known interactive debugging systems rely upon some meta information in terms of fault probabilities, which can speed up the debugging procedure in the good case, but can also have negative impact on the performance in the bad case. The problem is that assessment of the m...

  9. Energy efficient engine program contributions to aircraft fuel conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterton, P. G.

    1984-01-01

    Significant advances in high bypass turbofan technologies that enhance fuel efficiency have been demonstrated in the NASA Energy Efficient Engine Program. This highly successful second propulsion element of the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program included major contract efforts with both General Electric and Pratt & Whitney. Major results of these efforts will be presented including highlights from the NASA/General Electric E3 research turbofan engine test. Direct application of all the E3 technologies could result in fuel savings of over 18% compared to the CF6-50 and JT9D-7. Application of the E3 technologies to new and derivative engines such as the CF6-80C and PW 2037, as well as others, will be discussed. Significant portions of the fuel savings benefit for these new products can be directly related to the E3 technology program. Finally, results of a study looking at far term advanced turbofan engines will be briefly described. The study shows that substantial additional fuel savings over E3 are possible with additional turbofan technology programs.

  10. Didactical Ontologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Mencke, Reiner Dumke

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Ontologies are a fundamental concept of theSemantic Web envisioned by Tim Berners-Lee [1]. Togetherwith explicit representation of the semantics of data formachine-accessibility such domain theories are the basis forintelligent next generation applications for the web andother areas of interest [2]. Their application for specialaspects within the domain of e-learning is often proposed tosupport the increasing complexity ([3], [4], [5], [6]. So theycan provide a better support for course generation orlearning scenario description [7]. By the modeling ofdidactics-related expertise and their provision for thecreators of courses many improvements like reuse, rapiddevelopment and of course increased learning performancebecome possible due to the separation from other aspects ofe-learning platforms as already proposed in [8].

  11. Finite-size effect on optimal efficiency of heat engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Hiroyasu; Hayashi, Masahito

    2017-07-01

    The optimal efficiency of quantum (or classical) heat engines whose heat baths are n -particle systems is given by the strong large deviation. We give the optimal work extraction process as a concrete energy-preserving unitary time evolution among the heat baths and the work storage. We show that our optimal work extraction turns the disordered energy of the heat baths to the ordered energy of the work storage, by evaluating the ratio of the entropy difference to the energy difference in the heat baths and the work storage, respectively. By comparing the statistical mechanical optimal efficiency with the macroscopic thermodynamic bound, we evaluate the accuracy of the macroscopic thermodynamics with finite-size heat baths from the statistical mechanical viewpoint. We also evaluate the quantum coherence effect on the optimal efficiency of the cycle processes without restricting their cycle time by comparing the classical and quantum optimal efficiencies.

  12. Optimal efficiency of a noisy quantum heat engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanatos, Dionisis

    2014-07-01

    In this article we use optimal control to maximize the efficiency of a quantum heat engine executing the Otto cycle in the presence of external noise. We optimize the engine performance for both amplitude and phase noise. In the case of phase damping we additionally show that the ideal performance of a noiseless engine can be retrieved in the adiabatic (long time) limit. The results obtained here are useful in the quest for absolute zero, the design of quantum refrigerators that can cool a physical system to the lowest possible temperature. They can also be applied to the optimal control of a collection of classical harmonic oscillators sharing the same time-dependent frequency and subjected to similar noise mechanisms. Finally, our methodology can be used for the optimization of other interesting thermodynamic processes.

  13. EFFICIENT RECONSTRUCTION OF ENGINEERING BUILDINGS IN CONDITIONS OF ORGANIZATIONAL CONSTRAINTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Nikiforo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of experimental and statistical modeling and the search for effective organizationalsolutions for reconstruction of high-rise engineering structures by the example of the Ostankino television tower. Thedependences of the factors having the greatest impact on the studied parameters are found. Restrictions on possibleorganizational solutions, on effectiveness indicators are imposed. According to the analysis of diagrams containingrestrictions the most efficient organizational options for reconstruction are recommended.

  14. Insider Threat Indicator Ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-25

    Sattler, "Description logics," in Handbook on ontologies , ed: Springer, 2004, pp. 3-28. [22] T. R. Gruber, "A translation approach to portable ontology ...Education, 2012. [55] G. Antoniou and F. Van Harmelen, "Web ontology language: Owl," in Handbook on ontologies , ed: Springer, 2004, pp. 67-92. [56] R...

  15. Efficiency at maximum power and efficiency fluctuations in a linear Brownian heat-engine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Min; Chun, Hyun-Myung; Noh, Jae Dong

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the stochastic thermodynamics of a two-particle Langevin system. Each particle is in contact with a heat bath at different temperatures T_{1} and T_{2} (heat engine performing work against the external driving force. Linearity of the system enables us to examine thermodynamic properties of the engine analytically. We find that the efficiency of the engine at maximum power η_{MP} is given by η_{MP}=1-sqrt[T_{2}/T_{1}]. This universal form has been known as a characteristic of endoreversible heat engines. Our result extends the universal behavior of η_{MP} to nonendoreversible engines. We also obtain the large deviation function of the probability distribution for the stochastic efficiency in the overdamped limit. The large deviation function takes the minimum value at macroscopic efficiency η=η[over ¯] and increases monotonically until it reaches plateaus when η≤η_{L} and η≥η_{R} with model-dependent parameters η_{R} and η_{L}.

  16. Efficiency at maximum power and efficiency fluctuations in a linear Brownian heat-engine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Min; Chun, Hyun-Myung; Noh, Jae Dong

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the stochastic thermodynamics of a two-particle Langevin system. Each particle is in contact with a heat bath at different temperatures T1 and T2 (autonomous heat engine performing work against the external driving force. Linearity of the system enables us to examine thermodynamic properties of the engine analytically. We find that the efficiency of the engine at maximum power ηM P is given by ηM P=1 -√{T2/T1 } . This universal form has been known as a characteristic of endoreversible heat engines. Our result extends the universal behavior of ηM P to nonendoreversible engines. We also obtain the large deviation function of the probability distribution for the stochastic efficiency in the overdamped limit. The large deviation function takes the minimum value at macroscopic efficiency η =η ¯ and increases monotonically until it reaches plateaus when η ≤ηL and η ≥ηR with model-dependent parameters ηR and ηL.

  17. Enzyme engineering: reaching the maximal catalytic efficiency peak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Moshe; Tawfik, Dan S

    2017-10-13

    The practical need for highly efficient enzymes presents new challenges in enzyme engineering, in particular, the need to improve catalytic turnover (kcat) or efficiency (kcat/KM) by several orders of magnitude. However, optimizing catalysis demands navigation through complex and rugged fitness landscapes, with optimization trajectories often leading to strong diminishing returns and dead-ends. When no further improvements are observed in library screens or selections, it remains unclear whether the maximal catalytic efficiency of the enzyme (the catalytic 'fitness peak') has been reached; or perhaps, an alternative combination of mutations exists that could yield additional improvements. Here, we discuss fundamental aspects of the process of catalytic optimization, and offer practical solutions with respect to overcoming optimization plateaus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Lubricant Formulations to Enhance Engine Efficiency in Modern Internal Combustion Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Wai [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Wong, Victor [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Plumley, Michael [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Martins, Tomas [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Gu, Grace [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Tracy, Ian [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Molewyk, Mark [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Park, Soo Youl [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2017-04-19

    The research program presented aimed to investigate, develop, and demonstrate low-friction, environmentally-friendly and commercially-feasible lubricant formulations that would significantly improve the mechanical efficiency of modern engines without incurring increased wear, emissions or deterioration of the emission-aftertreatment system.

  19. OIntEd: online ontology instance editor enabling a new approach to ontology development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wibisono, A.; Koning, R.; Grosso, P.; Belloum, A.; Bubak, M.; de Laat, C.

    2013-01-01

    Ontology development involves people with different background knowledge and expertise. It is an elaborate process, where sophisticated tools for experienced knowledge engineers are available. However, domain experts need simple tools that they can use to focus on ontology instantiation. In this

  20. Datamining with Ontologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehndorf, Robert; Gkoutos, Georgios V; Schofield, Paul N

    2016-01-01

    The use of ontologies has increased rapidly over the past decade and they now provide a key component of most major databases in biology and biomedicine. Consequently, datamining over these databases benefits from considering the specific structure and content of ontologies, and several methods have been developed to use ontologies in datamining applications. Here, we discuss the principles of ontology structure, and datamining methods that rely on ontologies. The impact of these methods in the biological and biomedical sciences has been profound and is likely to increase as more datasets are becoming available using common, shared ontologies.

  1. High Efficiency, Low Emissions Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravel, Roland [U.S. Department of Energy' s Vehicle Technologies Office, Washington, DC (United States); Maronde, Carl [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States); Gehrke, Chris [Caterpillar, Inc., Peoria, IL (United States); Fiveland, Scott [Caterpillar, Inc., Peoria, IL (United States)

    2010-10-30

    This is the final report of the High Efficiency Clean Combustion (HECC) Research Program for the U.S. Department of Energy. Work under this co-funded program began in August 2005 and finished in July 2010. The objective of this program was to develop and demonstrate a low emission, high thermal efficiency engine system that met 2010 EPA heavy-duty on-highway truck emissions requirements (0.2g/bhp-hr NOx, 0.14g/bhp-hr HC and 0.01g/bhp-hr PM) with a thermal efficiency of 46%. To achieve this goal, development of diesel homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion was the chosen approach. This report summarizes the development of diesel HCCI combustion and associated enabling technologies that occurred during the HECC program between August 2005 and July 2010. This program showed that although diesel HCCI with conventional US diesel fuel was not a feasible means to achieve the program objectives, the HCCI load range could be increased with a higher volatility, lower cetane number fuel, such as gasoline, if the combustion rate could be moderated to avoid excessive cylinder pressure rise rates. Given the potential efficiency and emissions benefits, continued research of combustion with low cetane number fuels and the effects of fuel distillation are recommended. The operation of diesel HCCI was only feasible at part-load due to a limited fuel injection window. A 4% fuel consumption benefit versus conventional, low-temperature combustion was realized over the achievable operating range. Several enabling technologies were developed under this program that also benefited non-HCCI combustion. The development of a 300MPa fuel injector enabled the development of extended lifted flame combustion. A design methodology for minimizing the heat transfer to jacket water, known as precision cooling, will benefit conventional combustion engines, as well as HCCI engines. An advanced combustion control system based on cylinder pressure measurements was developed. A Well

  2. Energy efficient engine ICLS Nacelle detail design report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskridge, R. R.; Kuchar, A. P.; Stotler, C. L.

    1982-01-01

    The results of the detail design of the Nacelle for the General Electric Energy Efficient Engine (E3) Integrated Core Low Spool (ICLS) test vehicles are presented. A slave nacelle is designed for the ICLS test. Cost and reliability are the important factors considered. The slave nacelle simulates the internal flow lines of the actual Flight Propulsion System (FPS) but has no external fairing. The aerodynamic differences between the ICLS and FPS nacelles are presented, followed by the structural description and analysis of the various nacelle components.

  3. Energy Efficient Engine ICLS Nacelle detail design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eskridge, R.R.; Kuchar, A.P.; Stotler, C.L.

    1982-07-01

    The results of the detail design of the Nacelle for the General Electric Energy Efficient Engine (E3) Integrated Core Low Spool (ICLS) test vehicles are presented. A slave nacelle is designed for the ICLS test. Cost and reliability are the important factors considered. The slave nacelle simulates the internal flow lines of the actual Flight Propulsion System (FPS) but has no external fairing. The aerodynamic differences between the ICLS and FPS nacelles are presented, followed by the structural description and analysis of the various nacelle components.

  4. Semantic similarity between ontologies at different scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qingpeng; Haglin, David J.

    2016-04-01

    In the past decade, existing and new knowledge and datasets has been encoded in different ontologies for semantic web and biomedical research. The size of ontologies is often very large in terms of number of concepts and relationships, which makes the analysis of ontologies and the represented knowledge graph computational and time consuming. As the ontologies of various semantic web and biomedical applications usually show explicit hierarchical structures, it is interesting to explore the trade-offs between ontological scales and preservation/precision of results when we analyze ontologies. This paper presents the first effort of examining the capability of this idea via studying the relationship between scaling biomedical ontologies at different levels and the semantic similarity values. We evaluate the semantic similarity between three Gene Ontology slims (Plant, Yeast, and Candida, among which the latter two belong to the same kingdom—Fungi) using four popular measures commonly applied to biomedical ontologies (Resnik, Lin, Jiang-Conrath, and SimRel). The results of this study demonstrate that with proper selection of scaling levels and similarity measures, we can significantly reduce the size of ontologies without losing substantial detail. In particular, the performance of Jiang-Conrath and Lin are more reliable and stable than that of the other two in this experiment, as proven by (a) consistently showing that Yeast and Candida are more similar (as compared to Plant) at different scales, and (b) small deviations of the similarity values after excluding a majority of nodes from several lower scales. This study provides a deeper understanding of the application of semantic similarity to biomedical ontologies, and shed light on how to choose appropriate semantic similarity measures for biomedical engineering.

  5. Engineered silybin nanoparticles educe efficient control in experimental diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvadra Das

    Full Text Available Silybin, is one imminent therapeutic for drug induced hepatotoxicity, human prostate adenocarcinoma and other degenerative organ diseases. Recent evidences suggest that silybin influences gluconeogenesis pathways favorably and is beneficial in the treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The compound however is constrained due to solubility (0.4 mg/mL and bioavailabilty limitations. Appropriate nanoparticle design for silybin in biocompatible polymers was thus proposed as a probable solution for therapeutic inadequacy. New surface engineered biopolymeric nanoparticles with high silybin encapsulation efficiency of 92.11% and zeta potential of +21 mV were designed. Both the pure compound and the nanoparticles were evaluated in vivo for the first time in experimental diabetic conditions. Animal health recovered substantially and the blood glucose levels came down to near normal values after 28 days treatment schedule with the engineered nanoparticles. Restoration from hyperglycemic damage condition was traced to serum insulin regeneration. Serum insulin recovered from the streptozotocin induced pancreatic damage levels of 0.17 ± 0.01 µg/lit to 0.57 ± 0.11 µg/lit after nanoparticle treatment. Significant reduction in glycated hemoglobin level, and restoration of liver glycogen content were some of the other interesting observations. Engineered silybin nanoparticle assisted recovery in diabetic conditions was reasoned due to improved silybin dissolution, passive transport in nanoscale, and restoration of antioxidant status.

  6. Engineered silybin nanoparticles educe efficient control in experimental diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Suvadra; Roy, Partha; Pal, Rajat; Auddy, Runa Ghosh; Chakraborti, Abhay Sankar; Mukherjee, Arup

    2014-01-01

    Silybin, is one imminent therapeutic for drug induced hepatotoxicity, human prostate adenocarcinoma and other degenerative organ diseases. Recent evidences suggest that silybin influences gluconeogenesis pathways favorably and is beneficial in the treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The compound however is constrained due to solubility (0.4 mg/mL) and bioavailabilty limitations. Appropriate nanoparticle design for silybin in biocompatible polymers was thus proposed as a probable solution for therapeutic inadequacy. New surface engineered biopolymeric nanoparticles with high silybin encapsulation efficiency of 92.11% and zeta potential of +21 mV were designed. Both the pure compound and the nanoparticles were evaluated in vivo for the first time in experimental diabetic conditions. Animal health recovered substantially and the blood glucose levels came down to near normal values after 28 days treatment schedule with the engineered nanoparticles. Restoration from hyperglycemic damage condition was traced to serum insulin regeneration. Serum insulin recovered from the streptozotocin induced pancreatic damage levels of 0.17 ± 0.01 µg/lit to 0.57 ± 0.11 µg/lit after nanoparticle treatment. Significant reduction in glycated hemoglobin level, and restoration of liver glycogen content were some of the other interesting observations. Engineered silybin nanoparticle assisted recovery in diabetic conditions was reasoned due to improved silybin dissolution, passive transport in nanoscale, and restoration of antioxidant status.

  7. Engineered Silybin Nanoparticles Educe Efficient Control in Experimental Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Suvadra; Roy, Partha; Pal, Rajat; Auddy, Runa Ghosh; Chakraborti, Abhay Sankar; Mukherjee, Arup

    2014-01-01

    Silybin, is one imminent therapeutic for drug induced hepatotoxicity, human prostrate adenocarcinoma and other degenerative organ diseases. Recent evidences suggest that silybin influences gluconeogenesis pathways favorably and is beneficial in the treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The compound however is constrained due to solubility (0.4 mg/mL) and bioavailabilty limitations. Appropriate nanoparticle design for silybin in biocompatible polymers was thus proposed as a probable solution for therapeutic inadequacy. New surface engineered biopolymeric nanoparticles with high silybin encapsulation efficiency of 92.11% and zeta potential of +21 mV were designed. Both the pure compound and the nanoparticles were evaluated in vivo for the first time in experimental diabetic conditions. Animal health recovered substantially and the blood glucose levels came down to near normal values after 28 days treatment schedule with the engineered nanoparticles. Restoration from hyperglycemic damage condition was traced to serum insulin regeneration. Serum insulin recovered from the streptozotocin induced pancreatic damage levels of 0.17±0.01 µg/lit to 0.57±0.11 µg/lit after nanoparticle treatment. Significant reduction in glycated hemoglobin level, and restoration of liver glycogen content were some of the other interesting observations. Engineered silybin nanoparticle assisted recovery in diabetic conditions was reasoned due to improved silybin dissolution, passive transport in nanoscale, and restoration of antioxidant status. PMID:24991800

  8. Modulation of sulfur metabolism enables efficient glucosinolate engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geu-Flores Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic engineering in heterologous organisms is an attractive approach to achieve efficient production of valuable natural products. Glucosinolates represent a good example of such compounds as they are thought to be the cancer-preventive agents in cruciferous plants. We have recently demonstrated that it is feasible to engineer benzylglucosinolate (BGLS in the non-cruciferous plant Nicotiana benthamiana by transient expression of five genes from Arabidopsis thaliana. In the same study, we showed that co-expression of a sixth Arabidopsis gene, γ-glutamyl peptidase 1 (GGP1, resolved a metabolic bottleneck, thereby increasing BGLS accumulation. However, the accumulation did not reach the expected levels, leaving room for further optimization. Results To optimize heterologous glucosinolate production, we have in this study performed a comparative metabolite analysis of BGLS-producing N. benthamiana leaves in the presence or absence of GGP1. The analysis revealed that the increased BGLS levels in the presence of GGP1 were accompanied by a high accumulation of the last intermediate, desulfoBGLS, and a derivative thereof. This evidenced a bottleneck in the last step of the pathway, the transfer of sulfate from 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS to desulfoBGLS by the sulfotransferase AtSOT16. While substitution of AtSOT16 with alternative sulfotransferases did not alleviate the bottleneck, experiments with the three genes involved in the formation and recycling of PAPS showed that co-expression of adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate kinase 2 (APK2 alone reduced the accumulation of desulfoBGLS and its derivative by more than 98% and increased BGLS accumulation 16-fold. Conclusion Adjusting sulfur metabolism by directing sulfur from primary to secondary metabolism leads to a remarkable improvement in BGLS accumulation and thereby represents an important step towards a clean and efficient production of glucosinolates in

  9. Tuning Ontology Interoperability

    OpenAIRE

    Giunchiglia, Fausto; Pan, Jeff Z.; Serafini, Luciano

    2005-01-01

    The main contribution of this paper is the notion of ontology space, which allows us to move from an ontology-centric vision to a constellation-centric vision of the Web, where multiple ontologies and their interactions can be explicitly modeled and studied. This, in turn, allows us to study how OWL ontologies can interoperate, and, in particular, to provide two main results. The first is a formalization of the intended semantics of the OWL importing operator as opaque semantics. This result ...

  10. Issues in learning an ontology from text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewster, Christopher; Jupp, Simon; Luciano, Joanne; Shotton, David; Stevens, Robert D; Zhang, Ziqi

    2009-01-01

    Ontology construction for any domain is a labour intensive and complex process. Any methodology that can reduce the cost and increase efficiency has the potential to make a major impact in the life sciences. This paper describes an experiment in ontology construction from text for the animal behaviour domain. Our objective was to see how much could be done in a simple and relatively rapid manner using a corpus of journal papers. We used a sequence of pre-existing text processing steps, and here describe the different choices made to clean the input, to derive a set of terms and to structure those terms in a number of hierarchies. We describe some of the challenges, especially that of focusing the ontology appropriately given a starting point of a heterogeneous corpus. Using mainly automated techniques, we were able to construct an 18055 term ontology-like structure with 73% recall of animal behaviour terms, but a precision of only 26%. We were able to clean unwanted terms from the nascent ontology using lexico-syntactic patterns that tested the validity of term inclusion within the ontology. We used the same technique to test for subsumption relationships between the remaining terms to add structure to the initially broad and shallow structure we generated. All outputs are available at . We present a systematic method for the initial steps of ontology or structured vocabulary construction for scientific domains that requires limited human effort and can make a contribution both to ontology learning and maintenance. The method is useful both for the exploration of a scientific domain and as a stepping stone towards formally rigourous ontologies. The filtering of recognised terms from a heterogeneous corpus to focus upon those that are the topic of the ontology is identified to be one of the main challenges for research in ontology learning. PMID:19426458

  11. An Extensible, Ontology-based, Distributed Information System Architecture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chao, Alan I; Krikeles, Basil C; Lusignan, Angela E; Starczewski, Edward

    2003-01-01

    .... This ontology based approach strikes a balance between having enough expressiveness to capture complex semantic interactions between components and being succinct enough for efficient, cross platform implementation...

  12. Integrative modules for efficient genome engineering in yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triana Amen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a set of vectors containing integrative modules for efficient genome integration into the commonly used selection marker loci of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A fragment for genome integration is generated via PCR with a unique set of short primers and integrated into HIS3, URA3, ADE2, and TRP1 loci. The desired level of expression can be achieved by using constitutive (TEF1p, GPD1p, inducible (CUP1p, GAL1/10p, and daughter-specific (DSE4p promoters available in the modules. The reduced size of the integrative module compared to conventional integrative plasmids allows efficient integration of multiple fragments. We demonstrate the efficiency of this tool by simultaneously tagging markers of the nucleus, vacuole, actin, and peroxisomes with genomically integrated fluorophores. Improved integration of our new pDK plasmid series allows stable introduction of several genes and can be used for multi-color imaging. New bidirectional promoters (TEF1p-GPD1p, TEF1p-CUP1p, and TEF1p-DSE4p allow tractable metabolic engineering.

  13. Increased Photochemical Efficiency in Cyanobacteria via an Engineered Sucrose Sink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Bradley W; Kachel, Benjamin; Kramer, David M; Ducat, Daniel C

    2016-12-01

    In plants, a limited capacity to utilize or export the end-products of the Calvin-Benson cycle (CB) from photosynthetically active source cells to non-photosynthetic sink cells can result in reduced carbon capture and photosynthetic electron transport (PET), and lowered photochemical efficiency. The down-regulation of photosynthesis caused by reduced capacity to utilize photosynthate has been termed 'sink limitation'. Recently, several cyanobacterial and algal strains engineered to overproduce target metabolites have exhibited increased photochemistry, suggesting that possible source-sink regulatory mechanisms may be involved. We directly examined photochemical properties following induction of a heterologous sucrose 'sink' in the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942. We show that total photochemistry increases proportionally to the experimentally controlled rate of sucrose export. Importantly, the quantum yield of PSII (ΦII) increases in response to sucrose export while the PET chain becomes more oxidized from less PSI acceptor-side limitation, suggesting increased CB activity and a decrease in sink limitation. Enhanced photosynthetic activity and linear electron flow are detectable within hours of induction of the heterologous sink and are independent of pigmentation alterations or the ionic/osmotic effects of the induction system. These observations provide direct evidence that secretion of heterologous carbon bioproducts can be used as an alternative approach to improve photosynthetic efficiency, presumably by by-passing sink limitation. Our results also suggest that engineered microalgal production strains are valuable alternative models for examining photosynthetic sink limitation because they enable greater control and monitoring of metabolite fluxes relative to plants. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email

  14. Toxicology ontology perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Barry; Apic, Gordana; Carthew, Philip; Clark, Dominic; Cook, David; Dix, Ian; Escher, Sylvia; Hastings, Janna; Heard, David J; Jeliazkova, Nina; Judson, Philip; Matis-Mitchell, Sherri; Mitic, Dragana; Myatt, Glenn; Shah, Imran; Spjuth, Ola; Tcheremenskaia, Olga; Toldo, Luca; Watson, David; White, Andrew; Yang, Chihae

    2012-01-01

    The field of predictive toxicology requires the development of open, public, computable, standardized toxicology vocabularies and ontologies to support the applications required by in silico, in vitro, and in vivo toxicology methods and related analysis and reporting activities. In this article we review ontology developments based on a set of perspectives showing how ontologies are being used in predictive toxicology initiatives and applications. Perspectives on resources and initiatives reviewed include OpenTox, eTOX, Pistoia Alliance, ToxWiz, Virtual Liver, EU-ADR, BEL, ToxML, and Bioclipse. We also review existing ontology developments in neighboring fields that can contribute to establishing an ontological framework for predictive toxicology. A significant set of resources is already available to provide a foundation for an ontological framework for 21st century mechanistic-based toxicology research. Ontologies such as ToxWiz provide a basis for application to toxicology investigations, whereas other ontologies under development in the biological, chemical, and biomedical communities could be incorporated in an extended future framework. OpenTox has provided a semantic web framework for the implementation of such ontologies into software applications and linked data resources. Bioclipse developers have shown the benefit of interoperability obtained through ontology by being able to link their workbench application with remote OpenTox web services. Although these developments are promising, an increased international coordination of efforts is greatly needed to develop a more unified, standardized, and open toxicology ontology framework.

  15. Crowdsourcing the verification of relationships in biomedical ontologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Jonathan M; Musen, Mark A; Noy, Natalya F

    2013-01-01

    Biomedical ontologies are often large and complex, making ontology development and maintenance a challenge. To address this challenge, scientists use automated techniques to alleviate the difficulty of ontology development. However, for many ontology-engineering tasks, human judgment is still necessary. Microtask crowdsourcing, wherein human workers receive remuneration to complete simple, short tasks, is one method to obtain contributions by humans at a large scale. Previously, we developed and refined an effective method to verify ontology hierarchy using microtask crowdsourcing. In this work, we report on applying this method to find errors in the SNOMED CT CORE subset. By using crowdsourcing via Amazon Mechanical Turk with a Bayesian inference model, we correctly verified 86% of the relations from the CORE subset of SNOMED CT in which Rector and colleagues previously identified errors via manual inspection. Our results demonstrate that an ontology developer could deploy this method in order to audit large-scale ontologies quickly and relatively cheaply.

  16. Performance optimization of Brayton heat engine at maximum efficient power using temperature dependent specific heat of working fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Rajesh; Kaushik, S C; Kumar, Raj

    2015-01-01

    Efficient power optimization of Brayton heat engine with variable specific heat of the working fluid is analyzed from the view of finite time thermodynamics. The efficient power is defined as the multiplication of engine power and engine efficiency. Hence, the proposed method considers not only the power output but also the engine efficiency. Optimizing the efficient power gives a compromise between power and engine efficiency. Results obtained are compared with those obtained by using the ma...

  17. Stationary engines in and beyond the linear response regime at the Carnot efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Naoto

    2017-05-01

    The condition for stationary engines to attain the Carnot efficiency in and beyond the linear response regime is investigated. We find that this condition for finite-size engines is significantly different from that for macroscopic engines in the thermodynamic limit. For the case of finite-size engines, the tight-coupling condition in the linear response regime directly implies the attainability of the Carnot efficiency beyond the linear response regime. As opposed to this, for the case of macroscopic engines in the thermodynamic limit, there are three types of mechanisms to attain the Carnot efficiency. One mechanism allows engines to attain the Carnot efficiency only in the linear response limit, while the other two mechanisms enable engines to attain the Carnot efficiency beyond the linear response regime. These three mechanisms are classified by introducing a tight-coupling window.

  18. Ontology Enabled Generation of Embedded Web Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius; Zhang, Weishan; Soares, Goncalo Teofilo Afonso Pinheiro

    2008-01-01

    Web services are increasingly adopted as a service provision mechanism in pervasive computing environments. Implementing web services on networked, embedded devices raises a number of challenges, for example efficiency of web services, handling of variability and dependencies of hardware...... and software platforms, and of devices state and context changes. To address these challenges, we developed a Web service compiler, Limbo, in which Web Ontology Language (OWL) ontologies are used to make the Limbo compiler aware of its compilation context, such as targeted hardware and software. At the same...... time, knowledge on device details, platform dependencies, and resource/power consumption is built into the supporting ontologies, which are used to configure Limbo for generating resource efficient web service code. A state machine ontology is used to generate stub code to facilitate handling of state...

  19. COHeRE: Cross-Ontology Hierarchical Relation Examination for Ontology Quality Assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Licong

    Biomedical ontologies play a vital role in healthcare information management, data integration, and decision support. Ontology quality assurance (OQA) is an indispensable part of the ontology engineering cycle. Most existing OQA methods are based on the knowledge provided within the targeted ontology. This paper proposes a novel cross-ontology analysis method, Cross-Ontology Hierarchical Relation Examination (COHeRE), to detect inconsistencies and possible errors in hierarchical relations across multiple ontologies. COHeRE leverages the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) knowledge source and the MapReduce cloud computing technique for systematic, large-scale ontology quality assurance work. COHeRE consists of three main steps with the UMLS concepts and relations as the input. First, the relations claimed in source vocabularies are filtered and aggregated for each pair of concepts. Second, inconsistent relations are detected if a concept pair is related by different types of relations in different source vocabularies. Finally, the uncovered inconsistent relations are voted according to their number of occurrences across different source vocabularies. The voting result together with the inconsistent relations serve as the output of COHeRE for possible ontological change. The highest votes provide initial suggestion on how such inconsistencies might be fixed. In UMLS, 138,987 concept pairs were found to have inconsistent relationships across multiple source vocabularies. 40 inconsistent concept pairs involving hierarchical relationships were randomly selected and manually reviewed by a human expert. 95.8% of the inconsistent relations involved in these concept pairs indeed exist in their source vocabularies rather than being introduced by mistake in the UMLS integration process. 73.7% of the concept pairs with suggested relationship were agreed by the human expert. The effectiveness of COHeRE indicates that UMLS provides a promising environment to enhance

  20. The transhumanism of Ray Kurzweil. Is biological ontology reducible to computation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Monserrat

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Computer programs, primarily engineering machine vision and programming of somatic sensors, have already allowed, and they will do it more perfectly in the future, to build high perfection androids or cyborgs. They will collaborate with man and open new moral reflections to respect the ontological dignity in the new humanoid machines. In addition, both men and new androids will be in connection with huge external computer networks that will grow up to almost incredible levels the efficiency in the domain of body and nature. However, our current scientific knowledge, on the one hand, about hardware and software that will support both the humanoid machines and external computer networks, made with existing engineering (and also the foreseeable medium and even long term engineering and, on the other hand, our scientific knowledge about animal and human behavior from neural-biological structures that produce a psychic system, allow us to establish that there is no scientific basis to talk about an ontological identity between the computational machines and man. Accordingly, different ontologies (computational machines and biological entities will produce various different functional systems. There may be simulation, but never ontological identity. These ideas are essential to assess the transhumanism of Ray Kurzweil.

  1. Research on the complex network of the UNSPSC ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yingying; Zou, Shengrong; Gu, Aihua; Wei, Li; Zhou, Ta

    The UNSPSC ontology mainly applies to the classification system of the e-business and governments buying the worldwide products and services, and supports the logic structure of classification of the products and services. In this paper, the related technologies of the complex network were applied to analyzing the structure of the ontology. The concept of the ontology was corresponding to the node of the complex network, and the relationship of the ontology concept was corresponding to the edge of the complex network. With existing methods of analysis and performance indicators in the complex network, analyzing the degree distribution and community of the ontology, and the research will help evaluate the concept of the ontology, classify the concept of the ontology and improve the efficiency of semantic matching.

  2. Mapping between the OBO and OWL ontology languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirmizi, Syed Hamid; Aitken, Stuart; Moreira, Dilvan A; Mungall, Chris; Sequeda, Juan; Shah, Nigam H; Miranker, Daniel P

    2011-03-07

    Ontologies are commonly used in biomedicine to organize concepts to describe domains such as anatomies, environments, experiment, taxonomies etc. NCBO BioPortal currently hosts about 180 different biomedical ontologies. These ontologies have been mainly expressed in either the Open Biomedical Ontology (OBO) format or the Web Ontology Language (OWL). OBO emerged from the Gene Ontology, and supports most of the biomedical ontology content. In comparison, OWL is a Semantic Web language, and is supported by the World Wide Web consortium together with integral query languages, rule languages and distributed infrastructure for information interchange. These features are highly desirable for the OBO content as well. A convenient method for leveraging these features for OBO ontologies is by transforming OBO ontologies to OWL. We have developed a methodology for translating OBO ontologies to OWL using the organization of the Semantic Web itself to guide the work. The approach reveals that the constructs of OBO can be grouped together to form a similar layer cake. Thus we were able to decompose the problem into two parts. Most OBO constructs have easy and obvious equivalence to a construct in OWL. A small subset of OBO constructs requires deeper consideration. We have defined transformations for all constructs in an effort to foster a standard common mapping between OBO and OWL. Our mapping produces OWL-DL, a Description Logics based subset of OWL with desirable computational properties for efficiency and correctness. Our Java implementation of the mapping is part of the official Gene Ontology project source. Our transformation system provides a lossless roundtrip mapping for OBO ontologies, i.e. an OBO ontology may be translated to OWL and back without loss of knowledge. In addition, it provides a roadmap for bridging the gap between the two ontology languages in order to enable the use of ontology content in a language independent manner.

  3. Domain XML semantic integration based on extraction rules and ontology mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huayu LI

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A plenty of XML documents exist in petroleum engineering field, but traditional XML integration solution can’t provide semantic query, which leads to low data use efficiency. In light of WeXML(oil&gas well XML data semantic integration and query requirement, this paper proposes a semantic integration method based on extraction rules and ontology mapping. The method firstly defines a series of extraction rules with which elements and properties of WeXML Schema are mapped to classes and properties in WeOWL ontology, respectively; secondly, an algorithm is used to transform WeXML documents into WeOWL instances. Because WeOWL provides limited semantics, ontology mappings between two ontologies are then built to explain class and property of global ontology with terms of WeOWL, and semantic query based on global domain concepts model is provided. By constructing a WeXML data semantic integration prototype system, the proposed transformational rule, the transfer algorithm and the mapping rule are tested.

  4. PSOM 2—partitioning-based scalable ontology matching using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These sets of clusters or sub-ontologies are matched across the input ontologies to identify matchable cluster pairs, based on anchors that are efficiently discovered through a new light-weight linguistic matcher (EI-sub). However, in order to further increase the efficiency of the time-consuming anchor discovery process we ...

  5. Using Sustainability Engineering to Gain Universal Sustainability Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandras Vytautas Rutkauskas

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present article is an attempt to perceive the universal sustainability observable in an individual country or region, where the religious, political, social-demographic, economic, environmental, creative, technological and investment subsystems are revealed not only through the vitality of spiritual and material existence media, but rather through the signs of the development of these subsystems as self-assembled units through the erosion of their interaction. The problem of optimal allocation of investment resources among the separate sustainability’s subsystems was addressed by means of expert methods and techniques of portfolio methodology which will enable the achievement of the enshrined universal sustainability standards. A country-specific index composition of sustainability subsystems’ indices was chosen as the universal sustainability index for the specific country. The index in its dynamics is perceived as a random process. While projecting its state and evaluating its power, i.e., the impact of the subsystem efficiency in a particular moment, this power is measured by the level of the index and the reliability or guarantee of an appropriate level. To solve the problem of investment resources allocation, the idea of Markowitz Random Field was invoked in order to reach the maximum power of sustainability index while applying the technical solution—the so-called “GoldSim” system. Engineering is a methodology that aspires to reveal the core attributes of complex systems and instruments in order to manage the possibility to influence these properties for the systems. Experimental expert evaluation and case study is performed on Lithuanian data.

  6. Ontologies vs. Classification Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bodil Nistrup; Erdman Thomsen, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    data sets or for obtaining advanced search facilities. In this paper we will present an attempt at answering these questions. We will give a presentation of various types of ontologies and briefly introduce terminological ontologies. Furthermore we will argue that classification systems, e.g. product...

  7. The Ontology of Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Neil

    1995-01-01

    Explores some key existential or ontological concepts to show their applicability to the complex area of disaster impact as it relates to health and social welfare practice. Draws on existentialist philosophy, particularly that of John Paul Sartre, and introduces some key ontological concepts to show how they specifically apply to the experience…

  8. An ontology for major histocompatibility restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vita, Randi; Overton, James A; Seymour, Emily; Sidney, John; Kaufman, Jim; Tallmadge, Rebecca L; Ellis, Shirley; Hammond, John; Butcher, Geoff W; Sette, Alessandro; Peters, Bjoern

    2016-01-01

    MHC molecules are a highly diverse family of proteins that play a key role in cellular immune recognition. Over time, different techniques and terminologies have been developed to identify the specific type(s) of MHC molecule involved in a specific immune recognition context. No consistent nomenclature exists across different vertebrate species. To correctly represent MHC related data in The Immune Epitope Database (IEDB), we built upon a previously established MHC ontology and created an ontology to represent MHC molecules as they relate to immunological experiments. This ontology models MHC protein chains from 16 species, deals with different approaches used to identify MHC, such as direct sequencing verses serotyping, relates engineered MHC molecules to naturally occurring ones, connects genetic loci, alleles, protein chains and multi-chain proteins, and establishes evidence codes for MHC restriction. Where available, this work is based on existing ontologies from the OBO foundry. Overall, representing MHC molecules provides a challenging and practically important test case for ontology building, and could serve as an example of how to integrate other ontology building efforts into web resources.

  9. Conceptual querying through ontologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Troels; Bulskov, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    We present here ail approach to conceptual querying where the aim is, given a collection of textual database objects or documents, to target an abstraction of the entire database content in terms of the concepts appearing in documents, rather than the documents in the collection. The approach...... is motivated by an obvious need for users to survey huge volumes of objects in query answers. An ontology formalism and a special notion of-instantiated ontology" are introduced. The latter is a structure reflecting the content in the document collection in that; it is a restriction of a general world...... knowledge ontology to the concepts instantiated in the collection. The notion of ontology-based similarity is briefly described, language constructs for direct navigation and retrieval of concepts in the ontology are discussed and approaches to conceptual summarization are presented....

  10. Ayurveda research: Ontological challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayakrishna Nayak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Collaborative research involving Ayurveda and the current sciences is undoubtedly an imperative and is emerging as an exciting horizon, particularly in basic sciences. Some work in this direction is already going on and outcomes are awaited with bated breath. For instance the ′ASIIA (A Science Initiative In Ayurveda′ projects of Dept of Science and Technology, Govt of India, which include studies such as Ayurvedic Prakriti and Genetics. Further intense and sustained collaborative research needs to overcome a subtle and fundamental challenge-the ontologic divide between Ayurveda and all the current sciences. Ontology, fundamentally, means existence; elaborated, ontology is a particular perspective of an object of existence and the vocabulary developed to share that perspective. The same object of existence is susceptible to several ontologies. Ayurveda and modern biomedical as well as other sciences belong to different ontologies, and as such, collaborative research cannot be carried out at required levels until a mutually acceptable vocabulary is developed.

  11. Survey on Ontology Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junwu

    To create a sharable semantic space in which the terms from different domain ontology or knowledge system, Ontology mapping become a hot research point in Semantic Web Community. In this paper, motivated factors of ontology mapping research are given firstly, and then 5 dominating theories and methods, such as information accessing technology, machine learning, linguistics, structure graph and similarity, are illustrated according their technology class. Before we analyses the new requirements and takes a long view, the contributions of these theories and methods are summarized in details. At last, this paper suggest to design a group of semantic connector with the ability of migration learning for OWL-2 extended with constrains and the ontology mapping theory of axiom, so as to provide a new methodology for ontology mapping.

  12. Improvement of PubMed Literature Searching using Biomedical Ontology

    OpenAIRE

    Zuoshuang Xiang; Yongqun He

    2009-01-01

    PubMed articles are annotated using the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) to increase search efficiency. However, MeSH contains limited information on many biomedical domains (e.g., vaccine). Biomedical ontologies may be used to improve PubMed searching capability. This study demonstrates that Vaccine Ontology (VO) can be used to significantly improve PubMed searching efficacy in the vaccine domain. The recall and precision of the ontology-based literature mining approach are analyzed and discu...

  13. Efficiency at maximum power for an Otto engine with ideal feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Honghui; He, Jizhou; Wang, Jianhui; Wu, Zhaoqi

    2016-10-01

    We propose an Otto heat engine that undergoes processes involving a special class of feedback and analyze theoretically its response. We use stochastic thermodynamics to determine the performance characteristics of the heat engine and indicate the possibility that its maximum efficiency can surpass the Carnot value. The analytical expression for efficiency at maximum power, including the effects resulting from feedback, reduces to that previously derived based on an engine without feedback.

  14. Ontology Learning for Chinese Information Organization and Knowledge Discovery in Ethnology and Anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Kong

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an ontology learning architecture that reflects the interaction between ontology learning and other applications such as ontology-engineering tools and information systems. Based on this architecture, we have developed a prototype system CHOL: a Chinese ontology learning tool. CHOL learns domain ontology from Chinese domain specific texts. On the one hand, it supports a semi-automatic domain ontology acquisition and dynamic maintenance, and on the other hand, it supports an auto-indexing and auto-classification of Chinese scholarly literature. CHOL has been applied in ethnology and anthropology for Chinese information organization and knowledge discovery.

  15. Textpresso: an ontology-based information retrieval and extraction system for biological literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Michael Müller

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available We have developed Textpresso, a new text-mining system for scientific literature whose capabilities go far beyond those of a simple keyword search engine. Textpresso's two major elements are a collection of the full text of scientific articles split into individual sentences, and the implementation of categories of terms for which a database of articles and individual sentences can be searched. The categories are classes of biological concepts (e.g., gene, allele, cell or cell group, phenotype, etc. and classes that relate two objects (e.g., association, regulation, etc. or describe one (e.g., biological process, etc.. Together they form a catalog of types of objects and concepts called an ontology. After this ontology is populated with terms, the whole corpus of articles and abstracts is marked up to identify terms of these categories. The current ontology comprises 33 categories of terms. A search engine enables the user to search for one or a combination of these tags and/or keywords within a sentence or document, and as the ontology allows word meaning to be queried, it is possible to formulate semantic queries. Full text access increases recall of biological data types from 45% to 95%. Extraction of particular biological facts, such as gene-gene interactions, can be accelerated significantly by ontologies, with Textpresso automatically performing nearly as well as expert curators to identify sentences; in searches for two uniquely named genes and an interaction term, the ontology confers a 3-fold increase of search efficiency. Textpresso currently focuses on Caenorhabditis elegans literature, with 3,800 full text articles and 16,000 abstracts. The lexicon of the ontology contains 14,500 entries, each of which includes all versions of a specific word or phrase, and it includes all categories of the Gene Ontology database. Textpresso is a useful curation tool, as well as search engine for researchers, and can readily be extended to other

  16. Textpresso: an ontology-based information retrieval and extraction system for biological literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Hans-Michael; Kenny, Eimear E; Sternberg, Paul W

    2004-11-01

    We have developed Textpresso, a new text-mining system for scientific literature whose capabilities go far beyond those of a simple keyword search engine. Textpresso's two major elements are a collection of the full text of scientific articles split into individual sentences, and the implementation of categories of terms for which a database of articles and individual sentences can be searched. The categories are classes of biological concepts (e.g., gene, allele, cell or cell group, phenotype, etc.) and classes that relate two objects (e.g., association, regulation, etc.) or describe one (e.g., biological process, etc.). Together they form a catalog of types of objects and concepts called an ontology. After this ontology is populated with terms, the whole corpus of articles and abstracts is marked up to identify terms of these categories. The current ontology comprises 33 categories of terms. A search engine enables the user to search for one or a combination of these tags and/or keywords within a sentence or document, and as the ontology allows word meaning to be queried, it is possible to formulate semantic queries. Full text access increases recall of biological data types from 45% to 95%. Extraction of particular biological facts, such as gene-gene interactions, can be accelerated significantly by ontologies, with Textpresso automatically performing nearly as well as expert curators to identify sentences; in searches for two uniquely named genes and an interaction term, the ontology confers a 3-fold increase of search efficiency. Textpresso currently focuses on Caenorhabditis elegans literature, with 3,800 full text articles and 16,000 abstracts. The lexicon of the ontology contains 14,500 entries, each of which includes all versions of a specific word or phrase, and it includes all categories of the Gene Ontology database. Textpresso is a useful curation tool, as well as search engine for researchers, and can readily be extended to other organism

  17. The neurological disease ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Mark; Cox, Alexander P; Chaudhry, Naveed; Ng, Marcus; Sule, Donat; Duncan, William; Ray, Patrick; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca; Smith, Barry; Ruttenberg, Alan; Szigeti, Kinga; Diehl, Alexander D

    2013-12-06

    We are developing the Neurological Disease Ontology (ND) to provide a framework to enable representation of aspects of neurological diseases that are relevant to their treatment and study. ND is a representational tool that addresses the need for unambiguous annotation, storage, and retrieval of data associated with the treatment and study of neurological diseases. ND is being developed in compliance with the Open Biomedical Ontology Foundry principles and builds upon the paradigm established by the Ontology for General Medical Science (OGMS) for the representation of entities in the domain of disease and medical practice. Initial applications of ND will include the annotation and analysis of large data sets and patient records for Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, and stroke. ND is implemented in OWL 2 and currently has more than 450 terms that refer to and describe various aspects of neurological diseases. ND directly imports the development version of OGMS, which uses BFO 2. Term development in ND has primarily extended the OGMS terms 'disease', 'diagnosis', 'disease course', and 'disorder'. We have imported and utilize over 700 classes from related ontology efforts including the Foundational Model of Anatomy, Ontology for Biomedical Investigations, and Protein Ontology. ND terms are annotated with ontology metadata such as a label (term name), term editors, textual definition, definition source, curation status, and alternative terms (synonyms). Many terms have logical definitions in addition to these annotations. Current development has focused on the establishment of the upper-level structure of the ND hierarchy, as well as on the representation of Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, and stroke. The ontology is available as a version-controlled file at http://code.google.com/p/neurological-disease-ontology along with a discussion list and an issue tracker. ND seeks to provide a formal foundation for the representation of clinical and research data

  18. Decimal Engine for Energy-Efficient Multicore Processors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nannarelli, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    propose a hybrid BFP/DFP engine to perform BFP division and DFP addition, multiplication and division. The main purpose of this engine is to offload the binary floating-point units for this type of operations and reduce the latency for decimal operations, and power and temperature for the whole die....

  19. Efficient EGR technology for future HD diesel engine emission targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baert, R.S.G.; Beckman, D.E.; Veen, A.

    1999-01-01

    Different systems for achieving short-route cooled EGR on turbocharged and aftercooled heavy-duty diesel engines have been tested on a 12 litre 315 kW engine with 4 valves per cylinder and an electronically controlled unit pump fuel injection system. In all of these systems the exhaust gas was

  20. Towards a reference ontology of complex economic exchanges for Accounting Information Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blums, Ivar; Weigand, Hans; Matthes, Flores; Mendling, Jan; Rinderle-Ma, Stefanie

    Although the field of Accounting Information Systems (AIS) has a long tradition, there is still a lack of a widely adopted conceptualization. The Unified Foundational Ontology (UFO) and its Services sub- ontology (UFO-S) are regarded as grounding the engineering of a reference ontology for AIS. The

  1. Ontology Merging as Social Choice: Judgment Aggregation under the Open World Assumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porello, D.; Endriss, U.

    2014-01-01

    The problem of merging several ontologies has important applications in the Semantic Web, medical ontology engineering and other domains where information from several distinct sources needs to be integrated in a coherent manner. We propose to view ontology merging as a problem of social choice,

  2. Practical ontologies for information professionals

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2071712

    2016-01-01

    Practical Ontologies for Information Professionals provides an introduction to ontologies and their development, an essential tool for fighting back against information overload. The development of robust and widely used ontologies is an increasingly important tool in the fight against information overload. The publishing and sharing of explicit explanations for a wide variety of conceptualizations, in a machine readable format, has the power to both improve information retrieval and identify new knowledge. This new book provides an accessible introduction to the following: * What is an ontology? Defining the concept and why it is increasingly important to the information professional * Ontologies and the semantic web * Existing ontologies, such as SKOS, OWL, FOAF, schema.org, and the DBpedia Ontology * Adopting and building ontologies, showing how to avoid repetition of work and how to build a simple ontology with Protege * Interrogating semantic web ontologies * The future of ontologies and the role of the ...

  3. evelopment and Use of an Environment for Building/Using Ontologies “Hozo”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozaki, Kouji; Kitamura, Yoshinobu; Sano, Toshinobu; Motomatsu, Shin'ichiro; Ishikawa, Seiichi; Mizoguchi, Riichiro

    Ontological engineering is a successor of knowledge engineering which has been considered as a technology for building knowledge-intensive systems. Although knowledge engineering has contributed to eliciting expertise, organizing it into a computational structure, and building knowledge bases, AI researchers have noticed the necessity of a more robust and theoretically sound engineering which enables knowledge sharing/reuse and formulation of the problem solving process itself. Knowledge engineering has thus developed into “ontological engineering” where “ontology” is the key concept to investigate. Although the necessity of an ontology and ontological engineering is well-understood, there has been few success stories about ontology construction and its deployment to date. The reason for this is that the principles of ontology design is not clear enough. Therefore, a methodology of ontology design and a computer system supporting ontology design are needed. Our research goals include a methodology of ontology design, and development of an environment for building and using ontologies. This article outlines an environment for building and using ontologies “Hozo” which is under development. Hozo is designed based on a fundamental consideration of an ontological theory. And it has been extensively used in many projects to develop various ontologies. As an example, this paper presents an activity of ontology construction and its deployment in an interface system for an oil-refinery plant operation which has been done under the umbrella of Human-Media Project for five years. And we demonstrate the ability of Hozo through the ontology building/using process.

  4. Ontological foundations for evolutionary economics: A Darwinian social ontology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoelhorst, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to further the project of generalized Darwinism by developing a social ontology on the basis of a combined commitment to ontological continuity and ontological commonality. Three issues that are central to the development of a social ontology are addressed: (1) the

  5. The geographical ontology, LDAP, and the space information semantic grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Wei; Li, Deren

    2005-10-01

    The research purpose is to discuss the development trend and theory of the semantic integration and interoperability of Geography Information Systems on the network ages and to point out that the geography ontology is the foregone conclusion of the development of the semantic-based integration and interoperability of Geography Information Systems. After analyzing the effect by using the various new technologies, the paper proposes new idea for the family of the ontology class based on the GIS knowledge built here. They are the basic ontology, the domain ontology and the application ontology and are very useful for the sharing and transferring of the semantic information between the complicated distributed systems and object abstracting. The main contributions of the paper are as follows: 1) For the first time taking the ontology and LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) in creating and optimizing the architecture of Spatial Information Gird and accelerating the fusion of Geography Information System and other domain's information systems. 2) For the first time, introducing a hybrid method to build geography ontology. This hybrid method mixes the excellence of the independent domain expert and data mining. It improves the efficiency of the method of the domain expert and builds ontology semi-automatically. 3) For the first time, implementing the many-to-many relationship of integration ontology system by LDAP's reference and creating ontology-based virtual organization that could provide transparent service to guests.

  6. Generalized power versus efficiency characteristics of heat engines: The thermoelectric generator as an instructive illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, J. M.

    1991-06-01

    The performance of real heat engines can be characterized by their power versus efficiency curves. Real heat engines with sources of irreversibility that include friction and heat leaks exhibit fundamentally different power versus efficiency curves than those predicted by many previous studies in the finite-time thermodynamics of endoreversible heat engines, in which finite-rate heat transfer was the only irreversibility considered. It is shown that the thermoelectric generator provides an instructive illustration of a cyclic, irreversible heat engine with a power versus efficiency curve that qualitatively reproduces the key features of the corresponding curves for real heat engines. The generic sources of irreversibility are easily identifiable and analytically expressed so as to reveal more transparently the basis for the power versus efficiency characteristic.

  7. Perspectives on ontology learning

    CERN Document Server

    Lehmann, J

    2014-01-01

    Perspectives on Ontology Learning brings together researchers and practitioners from different communities − natural language processing, machine learning, and the semantic web − in order to give an interdisciplinary overview of recent advances in ontology learning.Starting with a comprehensive introduction to the theoretical foundations of ontology learning methods, the edited volume presents the state-of-the-start in automated knowledge acquisition and maintenance. It outlines future challenges in this area with a special focus on technologies suitable for pushing the boundaries beyond the c

  8. Practical and Efficient Searching in Proteomics: A Cross Engine Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulo, Joao A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Analysis of large datasets produced by mass spectrometry-based proteomics relies on database search algorithms to sequence peptides and identify proteins. Several such scoring methods are available, each based on different statistical foundations and thereby not producing identical results. Here, the aim is to compare peptide and protein identifications using multiple search engines and examine the additional proteins gained by increasing the number of technical replicate analyses. Methods A HeLa whole cell lysate was analyzed on an Orbitrap mass spectrometer for 10 technical replicates. The data were combined and searched using Mascot, SEQUEST, and Andromeda. Comparisons were made of peptide and protein identifications among the search engines. In addition, searches using each engine were performed with incrementing number of technical replicates. Results The number and identity of peptides and proteins differed across search engines. For all three search engines, the differences in proteins identifications were greater than the differences in peptide identifications indicating that the major source of the disparity may be at the protein inference grouping level. The data also revealed that analysis of 2 technical replicates can increase protein identifications by up to 10-15%, while a third replicate results in an additional 4-5%. Conclusions The data emphasize two practical methods of increasing the robustness of mass spectrometry data analysis. The data show that 1) using multiple search engines can expand the number of identified proteins (union) and validate protein identifications (intersection), and 2) analysis of 2 or 3 technical replicates can substantially expand protein identifications. Moreover, information can be extracted from a dataset by performing database searching with different engines and performing technical repeats, which requires no additional sample preparation and effectively utilizes research time and effort. PMID:25346847

  9. NanoParticle Ontology for Cancer Nanotechnology Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Dennis G.; Pappu, Rohit V.; Baker, Nathan A.

    2010-01-01

    Data generated from cancer nanotechnology research are so diverse and large in volume that it is difficult to share and efficiently use them without informatics tools. In particular, ontologies that provide a unifying knowledge framework for annotating the data are required to facilitate the semantic integration, knowledge-based searching, unambiguous interpretation, mining and inferencing of the data using informatics methods. In this paper, we discuss the design and development of NanoParticle Ontology (NPO), which is developed within the framework of the Basic Formal Ontology (BFO), and implemented in the Ontology Web Language (OWL) using well-defined ontology design principles. The NPO was developed to represent knowledge underlying the preparation, chemical composition, and characterization of nanomaterials involved in cancer research. Public releases of the NPO are available through BioPortal website, maintained by the National Center for Biomedical Ontology. Mechanisms for editorial and governance processes are being developed for the maintenance, review, and growth of the NPO. PMID:20211274

  10. Data mining for ontology development.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, George S.; Strasburg, Jana (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA); Stampf, David (Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY); Neymotin,Lev (Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY); Czajkowski, Carl (Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY); Shine, Eugene (Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC); Bollinger, James (Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC); Ghosh, Vinita (Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY); Sorokine, Alexandre (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Ferrell, Regina (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Ward, Richard (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Schoenwald, David Alan

    2010-06-01

    A multi-laboratory ontology construction effort during the summer and fall of 2009 prototyped an ontology for counterfeit semiconductor manufacturing. This effort included an ontology development team and an ontology validation methods team. Here the third team of the Ontology Project, the Data Analysis (DA) team reports on their approaches, the tools they used, and results for mining literature for terminology pertinent to counterfeit semiconductor manufacturing. A discussion of the value of ontology-based analysis is presented, with insights drawn from other ontology-based methods regularly used in the analysis of genomic experiments. Finally, suggestions for future work are offered.

  11. Ontologies for Bioinformatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Leszczynski

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The past twenty years have witnessed an explosion of biological data in diverse database formats governed by heterogeneous infrastructures. Not only are semantics (attribute terms different in meaning across databases, but their organization varies widely. Ontologies are a concept imported from computing science to describe different conceptual frameworks that guide the collection, organization and publication of biological data. An ontology is similar to a paradigm but has very strict implications for formatting and meaning in a computational context. The use of ontologies is a means of communicating and resolving semantic and organizational differences between biological databases in order to enhance their integration. The purpose of interoperability (or sharing between divergent storage and semantic protocols is to allow scientists from around the world to share and communicate with each other. This paper describes the rapid accumulation of biological data, its various organizational structures, and the role that ontologies play in interoperability.

  12. Appreciating ontological struggles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danholt, Peter

    the world in the singular is taken for granted, but where each and every one of us may have different perspectives and understandings of the world. Latour following the work of Brazilian anthropologist Eduardo Viveiros de Castro suggests the concept of multinaturalism. Multinaturalism in contrast...... it in relation, not to Amerindian ontology vs. Euroamerican ontology as Viveiros de Castro does, but in relation to the clinical practice of diabetes treatment. I will argue that by conceiving of the encounter in the clinic between a person with diabetes and a diabetes nurse, not as a matter of treating...... a condition in the world, but as the playing out of an ontological struggle, we become able to appreciate the situation and the treatment differently and in a manner that reconsiders treatment and disease in novel ways. Importantly, when the encounter is conceived of as an ontological struggle it becomes ever...

  13. Language engineering for the Semantic Web: a digital library for endangered languages. Endangered languages, Ontology, Digital library, Multimedia, EMELD, Intelligent querying and retrieval, ImageSpace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Shiyong

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe the effort undertaken at Wayne State University to preserve endangered languages using the state-of-the-art information technologies. In particular, we discuss the issues involved in such an effort, and present the architecture of a distributed digital library for endangered languages which will contain various data of endangered languages in the forms of text, image, video, audio and include advanced tools for intelligent cataloguing, indexing, searching and browsing information on languages and language analysis. We use various Semantic Web technologies such as XML, OLAC, ontologies so that our digital library becomes a useful linguistic resource on the Semantic Web.

  14. Cooling system operation efficiency of locomotive diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovcharenko, Sergey; Balagin, Oleg; Balagin, Dmitry

    2017-10-01

    A theoretical model for the calculation of the heat parameters of locomotive diesel engine cooling system in case of using heating agent bypass between the circuits is represented. The influence of the cooling fluid on the bypass from “hot” circuit to the “cold” circuit at different ambient air temperature is studied.

  15. Fuel-Efficient Road Vehicle Non-Engine Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The need to address global energy issues, i.e. energy security and climate change, is more urgent than ever. Road vehicles dominate global oil consumption and are one of the fastest growing energy end-uses. This paper studies policies and measures to improve on-road fuel efficiency of vehicles by focusing on energy efficiency of automobile components not generally considered in official fuel efficiency test, namely tyres, cooling technologies and lightings. In this paper, current policies and industry activities on these components are reviewed, fuel saving potential by the components analysed and possible policies to realise the potential recommended.

  16. LED Provides Effective and Efficient Parking Area Lighting at the NAVFAC Engineering Service Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-08-12

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) emerging technology case study showcasing LED lighting to improve energy efficiency in parking areas at the NAVFAC Engineering Services Center.

  17. Efficiency of internal combustion engine of automobile as means of priority its operations

    OpenAIRE

    Shapko, V.; Shapko, S.

    2007-01-01

    Exceeded is the analysis of distribution automobile internal combustion engine modes operations on rate crankshaft and on loading with priority of conditions considers engines efficiency. Presented is a methods of analytical determination to optimal conditions use of multi-purpose performance.

  18. Efficient, Low Pressure Ratio Propulsor for Gas Turbine Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Edward J. (Inventor); Monzon, Byron R. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A gas turbine engine includes a spool, a turbine coupled to drive the spool, and a propulsor that is coupled to be driven by the turbine through the spool. A gear assembly is coupled between the propulsor and the spool such that rotation of the turbine drives the propulsor at a different speed than the spool. The propulsor includes a hub and a row of propulsor blades that extends from the hub. The row includes no more than 20 of the propulsor blades.

  19. Energy Efficient Engine program advanced turbofan nacelle definition study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, David C.; Wynosky, T. A.

    1985-01-01

    Advanced, low drag, nacelle configurations were defined for some of the more promising propulsion systems identified in the earlier Benefit/Cost Study, to assess the benefits associated with these advanced technology nacelles and formulate programs for developing these nacelles and low volume thrust reversers/spoilers to a state of technology readiness in the early 1990's. The study results established the design feasibility of advanced technology, slim line nacelles applicable to advanced technology, high bypass ratio turbofan engines. Design feasibility was also established for two low volume thrust reverse/spoiler concepts that meet or exceed the required effectiveness for these engines. These nacelle and thrust reverse/spoiler designs were shown to be applicable in engines with takeoff thrust sizes ranging from 24,000 to 60,000 pounds. The reduced weight, drag, and cost of the advanced technology nacelle installations relative to current technology nacelles offer a mission fuel burn savings ranging from 3.0 to 4.5 percent and direct operating cost plus interest improvements from 1.6 to 2.2 percent.

  20. OWLing Clinical Data Repositories With the Ontology Web Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Rubí, Raimundo; Pastor, Xavier; Lozano, Esther

    2014-08-01

    The health sciences are based upon information. Clinical information is usually stored and managed by physicians with precarious tools, such as spreadsheets. The biomedical domain is more complex than other domains that have adopted information and communication technologies as pervasive business tools. Moreover, medicine continuously changes its corpus of knowledge because of new discoveries and the rearrangements in the relationships among concepts. This scenario makes it especially difficult to offer good tools to answer the professional needs of researchers and constitutes a barrier that needs innovation to discover useful solutions. The objective was to design and implement a framework for the development of clinical data repositories, capable of facing the continuous change in the biomedicine domain and minimizing the technical knowledge required from final users. We combined knowledge management tools and methodologies with relational technology. We present an ontology-based approach that is flexible and efficient for dealing with complexity and change, integrated with a solid relational storage and a Web graphical user interface. Onto Clinical Research Forms (OntoCRF) is a framework for the definition, modeling, and instantiation of data repositories. It does not need any database design or programming. All required information to define a new project is explicitly stated in ontologies. Moreover, the user interface is built automatically on the fly as Web pages, whereas data are stored in a generic repository. This allows for immediate deployment and population of the database as well as instant online availability of any modification. OntoCRF is a complete framework to build data repositories with a solid relational storage. Driven by ontologies, OntoCRF is more flexible and efficient to deal with complexity and change than traditional systems and does not require very skilled technical people facilitating the engineering of clinical software systems.

  1. Ontology Alignment Repair through Modularization and Confidence-Based Heuristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Emanuel; Faria, Daniel; Pesquita, Catia; Couto, Francisco M

    2015-01-01

    Ontology Matching aims at identifying a set of semantic correspondences, called an alignment, between related ontologies. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in efficient and effective matching methods for large ontologies. However, alignments produced for large ontologies are often logically incoherent. It was only recently that the use of repair techniques to improve the coherence of ontology alignments began to be explored. This paper presents a novel modularization technique for ontology alignment repair which extracts fragments of the input ontologies that only contain the necessary classes and relations to resolve all detectable incoherences. The paper presents also an alignment repair algorithm that uses a global repair strategy to minimize both the degree of incoherence and the number of mappings removed from the alignment, while overcoming the scalability problem by employing the proposed modularization technique. Our evaluation shows that our modularization technique produces significantly small fragments of the ontologies and that our repair algorithm produces more complete alignments than other current alignment repair systems, while obtaining an equivalent degree of incoherence. Additionally, we also present a variant of our repair algorithm that makes use of the confidence values of the mappings to improve alignment repair. Our repair algorithm was implemented as part of AgreementMakerLight, a free and open-source ontology matching system.

  2. Possibility to Increase Biofuels Energy Efficiency used for Compression Ignition Engines Fueling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calin D. Iclodean

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the possibilities of optimizing the use of biofuels in terms of energy efficiency in compression ignition (CI engines fueling. Based on the experimental results was determinate the law of variation of the rate of heat released by the combustion process for diesel fuel and different blends of biodiesel. Using this law, were changed parameters of the engine management system (fuel injection law and was obtain increased engine performance (in terms of energy efficiency for use of different biofuel blends.

  3. Increased Efficiency in SI Engine with Air Replaced by Oxygen in Argon Mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Killingsworth, N J; Rapp, V H; Flowers, D L; Aceves, S M; Chen, J; Dibble, R

    2010-01-13

    Basic engine thermodynamics predicts that spark ignited engine efficiency is a function of both the compression ratio of the engine and the specific heat ratio of the working fluid. In practice the compression ratio of the engine is often limited due to knock. Both higher specific heat ratio and higher compression ratio lead to higher end gas temperatures and increase the likelihood of knock. In actual engine cycles, heat transfer losses increase at higher compression ratios and limit efficiency even when the knock limit is not reached. In this paper we investigate the role of both the compression ratio and the specific heat ratio on engine efficiency by conducting experiments comparing operation of a single-cylinder variable-compression-ratio engine with both hydrogen-air and hydrogen-oxygen-argon mixtures. For low load operation it is found that the hydrogen-oxygen-argon mixtures result in higher indicated thermal efficiencies. Peak efficiency for the hydrogen-oxygen-argon mixtures is found at compression ratio 5.5 whereas for the hydrogen-air mixture with an equivalence ratio of 0.24 the peak efficiency is found at compression ratio 13. We apply a three-zone model to help explain the effects of specific heat ratio and compression ratio on efficiency. Operation with hydrogen-oxygen-argon mixtures at low loads is more efficient because the lower compression ratio results in a substantially larger portion of the gas to reside in the adiabatic core rather than in the boundary layer and in the crevices, leading to less heat transfer and more complete combustion.

  4. FROG - Fingerprinting Genomic Variation Ontology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Abinaya

    Full Text Available Genetic variations play a crucial role in differential phenotypic outcomes. Given the complexity in establishing this correlation and the enormous data available today, it is imperative to design machine-readable, efficient methods to store, label, search and analyze this data. A semantic approach, FROG: "FingeRprinting Ontology of Genomic variations" is implemented to label variation data, based on its location, function and interactions. FROG has six levels to describe the variation annotation, namely, chromosome, DNA, RNA, protein, variations and interactions. Each level is a conceptual aggregation of logically connected attributes each of which comprises of various properties for the variant. For example, in chromosome level, one of the attributes is location of variation and which has two properties, allosomes or autosomes. Another attribute is variation kind which has four properties, namely, indel, deletion, insertion, substitution. Likewise, there are 48 attributes and 278 properties to capture the variation annotation across six levels. Each property is then assigned a bit score which in turn leads to generation of a binary fingerprint based on the combination of these properties (mostly taken from existing variation ontologies. FROG is a novel and unique method designed for the purpose of labeling the entire variation data generated till date for efficient storage, search and analysis. A web-based platform is designed as a test case for users to navigate sample datasets and generate fingerprints. The platform is available at http://ab-openlab.csir.res.in/frog.

  5. Performance and efficiency evaluation and heat release study of a direct-injection stratified-charge rotary engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, H. L.; Addy, H. E.; Bond, T. H.; Lee, C. M.; Chun, K. S.

    1987-01-01

    A computer simulation which models engine performance of the Direct Injection Stratified Charge (DISC) rotary engines was used to study the effect of variations in engine design and operating parameters on engine performance and efficiency of an Outboard Marine Corporation (OMC) experimental rotary combustion engine. Engine pressure data were used in a heat release analysis to study the effects of heat transfer, leakage, and crevice flows. Predicted engine data were compared with experimental test data over a range of engine speeds and loads. An examination of methods to improve the performance of the rotary engine using advanced heat engine concepts such as faster combustion, reduced leakage, and turbocharging is also presented.

  6. Engines with ideal efficiency and nonzero power for sublinear transport laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koning, Jesper; Indekeu, Joseph O.

    2016-11-01

    It is known that an engine with ideal efficiency (η = 1 for a chemical engine and e = eCarnot for a thermal one) has zero power because a reversible cycle takes an infinite time. However, at least from a theoretical point of view, it is possible to conceive (irreversible) engines with nonzero power that can reach ideal efficiency. Here this is achieved by replacing the usual linear transport law by a sublinear one and taking the step-function limit for the particle current (chemical engine) or heat current (thermal engine) versus the applied force. It is shown that in taking this limit exact thermodynamic inequalities relating the currents to the entropy production are not violated.

  7. Reducing barriers to energy efficiency in the German mechanical engineering sector. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, J.; Boede, U.

    2000-12-01

    This report describes the empirical research into barriers to energy efficiency in the German mechanical engineering (ME) sector. It is one of nine such reports in the BARRIERS project. The report contains description and analysis of four case studies of energy management in German companies in the ME sector. The results are analysed using the theoretical framework developed for the BARRIERS project. The report also provides brief recommendations on how these barriers to the rational use of energy (RUE) may be overcome and how energy efficiency within the ME sector may be improved. The results of the study for the ME sector in Germany are summarised in this executive summary under the following headings: - Characterising the mechanical engineering sector; - Case studies of energy management in the German mechanical engineering sector; - Evidence of barriers in the German mechanical engineering sector; - The role of energy service companies in the mechanical engineering sector; - Policy implications. (orig.)

  8. Reducing barriers to energy efficiency in the German mechanical engineering sector. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, J.; Boede, U.

    2000-12-01

    This report describes the empirical research into barriers to energy efficiency in the German mechanical engineering (ME) sector. It is one of nine such reports in the BARRIERS project. The report contains description and analysis of four case studies of energy management in German companies in the ME sector. The results are analysed using the theoretical framework developed for the BARRIERS project. The report also provides brief recommendations on how these barriers to the rational use of energy (RUE) may be overcome and how energy efficiency within the ME sector may be improved. The results of the study for the ME sector in Germany are summarised in this executive summary under the following headings: - Characterising the mechanical engineering sector; - Case studies of energy management in the German mechanical engineering sector; - Evidence of barriers in the German mechanical engineering sector; - The role of energy service companies in the mechanical engineering sector; - Policy implications. (orig.)

  9. Engines with ideal efficiency and nonzero power for sublinear transport laws

    CERN Document Server

    Koning, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    It is known that an engine with ideal efficiency ($\\eta =1$ for a chemical engine and $e = e_{\\rm Carnot}$ for a thermal one) has zero power because a reversible cycle takes an infinite time. However, at least from a theoretical point of view, it is possible to conceive (irreversible) engines with nonzero power that can reach ideal efficiency. Here this is achieved by replacing the usual linear transport law by a sublinear one and taking the step-function limit for the particle current (chemical engine) or heat current (thermal engine) versus the applied force. It is shown that in taking this limit exact thermodynamic inequalities relating the currents to the entropy production are not violated.

  10. Energy Efficient Engine Flight Propulsion System Preliminary Analysis and Design Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisset, J. W.; Howe, D. C.

    1983-01-01

    The final design and analysis of the flight propulsion system is presented. This system is the conceptual study engine defined to meet the performance, economic and environmental goals established for the Energy Efficient Engine Program. The design effort included a final definition of the engine, major components, internal subsystems, and nacelle. Various analytical representations and results from component technology programs are used to verify aerodynamic and structural design concepts and to predict performance. Specific design goals and specifications, reflecting future commercial aircraft propulsion system requirements for the mid-1980's, are detailed by NASA and used as guidelines during engine definition. Information is also included which details salient results from a separate study to define a turbofan propulsion system, known as the maximum efficiency engine, which reoptimized the advanced fuel saving technologies for improved fuel economy and direct operating costs relative to the flight propulsion system.

  11. Efficiency and education in mechanical engineering.; Cultural anthropological perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushijima, F. [Kyushu Women`s Univ., Kitakyushu (Japan). Faculty of Literature

    1996-01-05

    Regarding cultural anthropology, interviews with and observations on a targeted social group are used as its central techniques and an ethnography is created using what has been obtained by its techniques as material. In the process of its description, culture and society are never separated for investigation. When mechanical technique is contained in this culture, it must be depicted vividly as a social creation. The author of this article points out that there has been a measure similar to efficiency as a criterion for comparing its merits and demerits, since the inception of mechanical technique, but as an industrial society progresses, that measure has been applied to a man. It was in 1920`s that efficiency improvement and aptitude tests were gradually adopted in Japan, but the essence of mechanization is not the introduction of mechanical power, but is the mechanization of a man and a person must be reborn to be a manhood capable for being measured by a measure called efficiency. Also the agricultural changes in Northern Kyushu are shown by its examination in a cultural anthropological perspective. 1 ref.

  12. Taking Critical Ontology Seriously

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigger, Angela; Horn, Laura

    2017-01-01

    research have for fundamental questions of ontology (the central premises on the constitutive elements that underpin social reality), epistemology (the assumptions about how knowledge about this reality can be produced) and methodology (how this knowledge is gathered and ordered)? This chapter offers...... claims and identifies the emancipatory commitment inherent in critical approaches as a distinguishing feature. Drawing on critical realism as an illustration of a philosophy of science and as a critical ontology, the chapter then engages with meta-theoretical questions about why critical perspectives...... privilege ontology over epistemology – that is, why we need to accept that social reality is constituted by complex power relations that evolve from a constant dialectical interplay of structure and agency over time, and that these power relations are revealed in both ideational and material dimensions...

  13. Ontology: ambiguity and accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Schiessl

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Ambiguity is a major obstacle to information retrieval. It is source of several researches in Information Science. Ontologies have been studied in order to solve problems related to ambiguities. Paradoxically, “ontology” term is also ambiguous and it is understood according to the use by the community. Philosophy and Computer Science seems to have the most accentuated difference related to the term sense. The former holds undisputed tradition and authority. The latter, in despite of being quite recent, holds an informal sense, but pragmatic. Information Science acts ranging from philosophical to computational approaches so as to get organized collections based on balance between users’ necessities and available information. The semantic web requires informational cycle automation and demands studies related to ontologies. Consequently, revisiting relevant approaches for the study of ontologies plays a relevant role as a way to provide useful ideas to researchers maintaining philosophical rigor, and convenience provided by computers.

  14. Ontology Based Access Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgü CAN

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available As computer technologies become pervasive, the need for access control mechanisms grow. The purpose of an access control is to limit the operations that a computer system user can perform. Thus, access control ensures to prevent an activity which can lead to a security breach. For the success of Semantic Web, that allows machines to share and reuse the information by using formal semantics for machines to communicate with other machines, access control mechanisms are needed. Access control mechanism indicates certain constraints which must be achieved by the user before performing an operation to provide a secure Semantic Web. In this work, unlike traditional access control mechanisms, an "Ontology Based Access Control" mechanism has been developed by using Semantic Web based policies. In this mechanism, ontologies are used to model the access control knowledge and domain knowledge is used to create policy ontologies.

  15. Efficient genetic engineering of human intestinal organoids using electroporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Masayuki; Matano, Mami; Nanki, Kosaku; Sato, Toshiro

    2015-10-01

    Gene modification in untransformed human intestinal cells is an attractive approach for studying gene function in intestinal diseases. However, because of the lack of practical tools, such studies have largely depended upon surrogates, such as gene-engineered mice or immortalized human cell lines. By taking advantage of the recently developed intestinal organoid culture method, we developed a methodology for modulating genes of interest in untransformed human colonic organoids via electroporation of gene vectors. Here we describe a detailed protocol for the generation of intestinal organoids by culture with essential growth factors in a basement membrane matrix. We also describe how to stably integrate genes via the piggyBac transposon, as well as precise genome editing using the CRISPR-Cas9 system. Beginning with crypt isolation from a human colon sample, genetically modified organoids can be obtained in 3 weeks.

  16. Evolutionary engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for efficient aerobic xylose consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scalcinati, Gionata; Otero, José Manuel; Van Vleet, Jennifer R. H.

    2012-01-01

    Industrial biotechnology aims to develop robust microbial cell factories, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to produce an array of added value chemicals presently dominated by petrochemical processes. Xylose is the second most abundant monosaccharide after glucose and the most prevalent pentose...... flux to biomass production. Such a platform may then be enhanced with complementary metabolic engineering strategies that couple biomass production with high value-added chemical. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, expressing xylose reductase, xylitol dehydrogenase and xylulose kinase, from the native xylose......-metabolizing yeast Pichia stipitis, was constructed, followed by a directed evolution strategy to improve xylose utilization rates. The resulting S. cerevisiae strain was capable of rapid growth and fast xylose consumption producing only biomass and negligible amount of byproducts. Transcriptional profiling...

  17. Feasibility of automated foundational ontology interchangeability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khan, ZC

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available While a foundational ontology can solve interoperability issues among the domain ontologies aligned to it, multiple foundational ontologies have been developed. Thus, there are still interoperability issues among domain ontologies aligned...

  18. Using multiple ontologies as background knowledge in ontology matching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aleksovski, Zharko; Ten Kate, Warner; Van Harmelen, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Using ontology as a background knowledge in ontology match- ing is being actively investigated. Recently the idea attracted attention because of the growing number of available ontologies, which in turn opens up new opportunities, and reduces the problem of nding candi- date background knowledge.

  19. IDEF5 Ontology Description Capture Method: Concept Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Christopher P.; Mayer, Richard J.

    1990-01-01

    The results of research towards an ontology capture method referred to as IDEF5 are presented. Viewed simply as the study of what exists in a domain, ontology is an activity that can be understood to be at work across the full range of human inquiry prompted by the persistent effort to understand the world in which it has found itself - and which it has helped to shape. In the contest of information management, ontology is the task of extracting the structure of a given engineering, manufacturing, business, or logistical domain and storing it in an usable representational medium. A key to effective integration is a system ontology that can be accessed and modified across domains and which captures common features of the overall system relevant to the goals of the disparate domains. If the focus is on information integration, then the strongest motivation for ontology comes from the need to support data sharing and function interoperability. In the correct architecture, an enterprise ontology base would allow th e construction of an integrated environment in which legacy systems appear to be open architecture integrated resources. If the focus is on system/software development, then support for the rapid acquisition of reliable systems is perhaps the strongest motivation for ontology. Finally, ontological analysis was demonstrated to be an effective first step in the construction of robust knowledge based systems.

  20. Learning expressive ontologies

    CERN Document Server

    Völker, J

    2009-01-01

    This publication advances the state-of-the-art in ontology learning by presenting a set of novel approaches to the semi-automatic acquisition, refinement and evaluation of logically complex axiomatizations. It has been motivated by the fact that the realization of the semantic web envisioned by Tim Berners-Lee is still hampered by the lack of ontological resources, while at the same time more and more applications of semantic technologies emerge from fast-growing areas such as e-business or life sciences. Such knowledge-intensive applications, requiring large scale reasoning over complex domai

  1. Anticipation and ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechsner, Franz

    2012-01-01

    Anticipation has recently been rediscovered by psychologists as a fundamental aspect of human cognitive-motoric activity. Cognitive anticipation is connected to goal directedness and purposefulness of mental activity. Humans perceive and cogitate in service of goals and purposes, i.e. in an action-related and action-relevant way that gives special status to goals and anticipation. With this in mind, I suggest that there are three fundamental and distinct kinds of prototypical situational schemes, or naïve event ontologies, which are defined and distinguished by the underlying causal scheme. These three ontologies are characterized by prototypical anticipatory schemes.

  2. Constructing an Efficient Self-Tuning Aircraft Engine Model for Control and Health Management Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Jeffrey B.; Simon, Donald L.

    2012-01-01

    Self-tuning aircraft engine models can be applied for control and health management applications. The self-tuning feature of these models minimizes the mismatch between any given engine and the underlying engineering model describing an engine family. This paper provides details of the construction of a self-tuning engine model centered on a piecewise linear Kalman filter design. Starting from a nonlinear transient aerothermal model, a piecewise linear representation is first extracted. The linearization procedure creates a database of trim vectors and state-space matrices that are subsequently scheduled for interpolation based on engine operating point. A series of steady-state Kalman gains can next be constructed from a reduced-order form of the piecewise linear model. Reduction of the piecewise linear model to an observable dimension with respect to available sensed engine measurements can be achieved using either a subset or an optimal linear combination of "health" parameters, which describe engine performance. The resulting piecewise linear Kalman filter is then implemented for faster-than-real-time processing of sensed engine measurements, generating outputs appropriate for trending engine performance, estimating both measured and unmeasured parameters for control purposes, and performing on-board gas-path fault diagnostics. Computational efficiency is achieved by designing multidimensional interpolation algorithms that exploit the shared scheduling of multiple trim vectors and system matrices. An example application illustrates the accuracy of a self-tuning piecewise linear Kalman filter model when applied to a nonlinear turbofan engine simulation. Additional discussions focus on the issue of transient response accuracy and the advantages of a piecewise linear Kalman filter in the context of validation and verification. The techniques described provide a framework for constructing efficient self-tuning aircraft engine models from complex nonlinear

  3. Engineering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Includes papers in the following fields: Aerospace Engineering, Agricultural Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Civil Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Industrial Engineering, Materials Engineering, Mechanical...

  4. Efficiency versus speed in quantum heat engines: Rigorous constraint from Lieb-Robinson bound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Naoto; Tajima, Hiroyasu

    2017-08-01

    A long-standing open problem whether a heat engine with finite power achieves the Carnot efficiency is investgated. We rigorously prove a general trade-off inequality on thermodynamic efficiency and time interval of a cyclic process with quantum heat engines. In a first step, employing the Lieb-Robinson bound we establish an inequality on the change in a local observable caused by an operation far from support of the local observable. This inequality provides a rigorous characterization of the following intuitive picture that most of the energy emitted from the engine to the cold bath remains near the engine when the cyclic process is finished. Using this description, we prove an upper bound on efficiency with the aid of quantum information geometry. Our result generally excludes the possibility of a process with finite speed at the Carnot efficiency in quantum heat engines. In particular, the obtained constraint covers engines evolving with non-Markovian dynamics, which almost all previous studies on this topic fail to address.

  5. Efficiency versus speed in quantum heat engines: Rigorous constraint from Lieb-Robinson bound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Naoto; Tajima, Hiroyasu

    2017-08-01

    A long-standing open problem whether a heat engine with finite power achieves the Carnot efficiency is investgated. We rigorously prove a general trade-off inequality on thermodynamic efficiency and time interval of a cyclic process with quantum heat engines. In a first step, employing the Lieb-Robinson bound we establish an inequality on the change in a local observable caused by an operation far from support of the local observable. This inequality provides a rigorous characterization of the following intuitive picture that most of the energy emitted from the engine to the cold bath remains near the engine when the cyclic process is finished. Using this description, we prove an upper bound on efficiency with the aid of quantum information geometry. Our result generally excludes the possibility of a process with finite speed at the Carnot efficiency in quantum heat engines. In particular, the obtained constraint covers engines evolving with non-Markovian dynamics, which almost all previous studies on this topic fail to address.

  6. National education program for energy efficient illumination engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Constance E.; Pompea, Stephen M.

    2011-05-01

    About one-third of outdoor lighting escapes unused into the sky, wasting energy and causing sky glow. Because of excessive sky glow around astronomical facilities, the National Optical Astronomy Observatory has a strong motivation to lead light pollution education efforts. While our original motivation of preserving the dark skies near observatories is still important, energy conservation is a critical problem that needs to be addressed nationwide. To address this problem we have created an extensive educational program on understanding and measuring light pollution. A set of four learning experiences introduces school students at all grade levels to basic energy-responsive illumination engineering design principles that can minimize light pollution. We created and utilize the GLOBE at Night citizen science light pollution assessment campaign as a cornerstone activity. We also utilize educational activities on light shielding that are introduced through a teaching kit. These two components provide vocabulary, concepts, and visual illustrations of the causes of light pollution. The third, more advanced component is the school outdoor lighting audit, which has students perform an audit and produce a revised master plan for compliant lighting. These learning experiences provide an integrated learning unit that is highly adaptable for U.S. and international education efforts in this area.

  7. An Ontology Design Pattern for Representing Relevance in OWL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobillo, Fernando; Delgado, Miguel; Gómez-Romero, Juan

    Design patterns are widely-used software engineering abstractions which define guidelines for modeling common application scenarios. Ontology design patterns are the extension of software patterns for knowledge acquisition in the Semantic Web. In this work we present a design pattern for representing relevance depending on context in OWL ontologies, i.e. to assert which knowledge from the domain ought to be considered in a given scenario. Besides the formal semantics and the features of the pattern, we describe a reasoning procedure to extract relevant knowledge in the resulting ontology and a plug-in for Protégé which assists pattern use.

  8. Challenges to increasing targeting efficiency in genome engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii, Takuro; Hatada, Izuho

    2016-01-01

    Gene targeting technologies are essential for the analysis of gene functions. Knockout mouse generation via genetic modification of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is the commonest example, but it is a time-consuming and labor-intensive procedure. Recently, a novel genome editing technology called CRISPR/Cas has enabled the direct production of knockout mice by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ)-mediated mutations. Unexpectedly, however, it generally exhibits a low efficiency in homologous recombination (HR) and is prone to high mosaicism. Meanwhile, gene targeting using ESCs is still being improved, as reported by Fukuda et al. in this issue. Here, we outline current gene targeting technologies with special emphasis on HR-mediated technologies, which are currently being performed using these two major strategies.

  9. Does the Future Engineer Force Transition Engineer Units between Offensive and Stability Operations in Ways That Achieve Responsiveness, Versatility, Agility, Effectiveness, and Efficiency?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    London, David T

    2005-01-01

    .... The main question is as follows: Does the FEF transition engineer units between offensive and stability operations in ways that achieve responsiveness, versatility, agility, effectiveness, and efficiency...

  10. Study of Efficiency Control by Hybrid Jet Engine Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. F. Maksimov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes main control aspects of thrust jet engines, which use fuel components in different states of aggregation (solid fuels - liquid oxidant, a solid oxidizer - liquid fuel. Following the analytical review of literature a conclusion has been drawn that it is technically and functionally complicated to provide a process of thrust control by changing the mass flow and the combustion rate of a solid fuel charge.The objective of this work is to give a theoretical prediction of how the thermal knife impacts on the local combustion rate.The paper presents a diagram of interaction between thermal knife and solid fuel. There are three modes, namely: pyrolysis, transition (from pyrolysis to cutting charge, and fuel cut. In the computational model generation it is assumed that the solid fuel combustion rate is not dependent on the combustion direction, and the temperature distribution along the length of the charge (in the direction perpendicular to the face obeys the Michelson dependence without considering a resistance of the heated layer at the surface of the combustion charge. The paper considers mechanical interaction of the thermal knife with the surface of charge. The Hertz formula describes the relationship between the pressing force, the penetration depth and the radius of thermal knife mark in the fuel.Numerical modeling methods and direct calculations allow us to obtain relationships to describe the changing local combustion rate under the action of the thermal knife on a solid fuel charge in its mechanical penetration, depending on the blade geometry, mechanical properties of charge and pressing force.

  11. GalenOWL: Ontology-based drug recommendations discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doulaverakis Charalampos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of drug-drug and drug-diseases interactions can pose a difficult problem to cope with, as the increasingly large number of available drugs coupled with the ongoing research activities in the pharmaceutical domain, make the task of discovering relevant information difficult. Although international standards, such as the ICD-10 classification and the UNII registration, have been developed in order to enable efficient knowledge sharing, medical staff needs to be constantly updated in order to effectively discover drug interactions before prescription. The use of Semantic Web technologies has been proposed in earlier works, in order to tackle this problem. Results This work presents a semantic-enabled online service, named GalenOWL, capable of offering real time drug-drug and drug-diseases interaction discovery. For enabling this kind of service, medical information and terminology had to be translated to ontological terms and be appropriately coupled with medical knowledge of the field. International standards such as the aforementioned ICD-10 and UNII, provide the backbone of the common representation of medical data, while the medical knowledge of drug interactions is represented by a rule base which makes use of the aforementioned standards. Details of the system architecture are presented while also giving an outline of the difficulties that had to be overcome. A comparison of the developed ontology-based system with a similar system developed using a traditional business logic rule engine is performed, giving insights on the advantages and drawbacks of both implementations. Conclusions The use of Semantic Web technologies has been found to be a good match for developing drug recommendation systems. Ontologies can effectively encapsulate medical knowledge and rule-based reasoning can capture and encode the drug interactions knowledge.

  12. OWL Web Ontology Language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staab, S.; Studer, R.; Antoniou, Grigoris; Van Harmelen, Frank; Staab, S; Studer, R

    2004-01-01

    The OWL Web Ontology Language is designed for use by applications that need to process the content of information instead of just presenting information to humans. OWL facilitates greater machine interpretability of Web content than that supported by XML, RDF, and RDF Schema (RDF-S) by providing

  13. Energy Efficiency as a Factor of Engineering Product Competitiveness and its Formation on Product Economic Life Cycle Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan V. Evstratov

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the concept of energy efficiency of enterprises and engineering products. The author research how energy efficiency effect on engineering product competitiveness and how rate of enterprise and engineering product formation on stages of the economic product life cycle.

  14. Semantic Indexing of Web Documents Based on Domain Ontology

    OpenAIRE

    Abdeslem DENNAI; Sidi Mohammed BENSLIMANE

    2015-01-01

    The first phase of reverse engineering of web-oriented applications is the extraction of concepts hidden in HTML pages including tables, lists and forms, or marked in XML documents. In this paper, we present an approach to index semantically these two sources of information (HTML page and XML document) using on the one hand, domain ontology to validate the extracted concepts and on the other hand the similarity measurement between ontology concepts with the aim of enrichment the index. This a...

  15. Experience of Developing a Meta-Semantic Search Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Mukhopadhyay, Debajyoti; Sharma, Manoj; Joshi, Gajanan; Pagare, Trupti; Palwe, Adarsha

    2013-01-01

    Thinking of todays web search scenario which is mainly keyword based, leads to the need of effective and meaningful search provided by Semantic Web. Existing search engines are vulnerable to provide relevant answers to users query due to their dependency on simple data available in web pages. On other hand, semantic search engines provide efficient and relevant results as the semantic web manages information with well defined meaning using ontology. A Meta-Search engine is a search tool that ...

  16. A simplified and efficient germline-specific CRISPR/Cas9 system for Drosophila genomic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebo, Zachary L; Lee, Han B; Peng, Ying; Guo, Yi

    2014-01-01

    The type II CRISPR/Cas9 system (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated) has recently emerged as an efficient and simple tool for site-specific engineering of eukaryotic genomes. To improve its applications in Drosophila genome engineering, we simplified the standard two-component CRISPR/Cas9 system by generating a stable transgenic fly line expressing the Cas9 endonuclease in the germline (Vasa-Cas9 line). By injecting vectors expressing engineered target-specific guide RNAs into Vasa-Cas9 fly embryos, mutations were generated from site-specific DNA cleavages and efficiently transmitted into progenies. Because Cas9 endonuclease is the universal component of the type II CRISPR/Cas9 system, site-specific genomic engineering based on this improved platform can be achieved with lower complexity and toxicity, greater consistency, and excellent versatility.

  17. Molecular and Nanoscale Engineering of High Efficiency Excitonic Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenekhe, Samson A. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Ginger, David S. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Cao, Guozhong [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2016-01-15

    We combined the synthesis of new polymers and organic-inorganic hybrid materials with new experimental characterization tools to investigate bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells and hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells during the 2007-2010 period (phase I) of this project. We showed that the bulk morphology of polymer/fullerene blend solar cells could be controlled by using either self-assembled polymer semiconductor nanowires or diblock poly(3-alkylthiophenes) as the light-absorbing and hole transport component. We developed new characterization tools in-house, including photoinduced absorption (PIA) spectroscopy, time-resolved electrostatic force microscopy (TR-EFM) and conductive and photoconductive atomic force microscopy (c-AFM and pc-AFM), and used them to investigate charge transfer and recombination dynamics in polymer/fullerene BHJ solar cells, hybrid polymer-nanocrystal (PbSe) devices, and dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs); we thus showed in detail how the bulk photovoltaic properties are connected to the nanoscale structure of the BHJ polymer solar cells. We created various oxide semiconductor (ZnO, TiO2) nanostructures by solution processing routes, including hierarchical aggregates and nanorods/nanotubes, and showed that the nanostructured photoanodes resulted in substantially enhanced light-harvesting and charge transport, leading to enhanced power conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells.

  18. The Drosophila anatomy ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Marta; Reeve, Simon; Grumbling, Gary; Osumi-Sutherland, David

    2013-10-18

    Anatomy ontologies are query-able classifications of anatomical structures. They provide a widely-used means for standardising the annotation of phenotypes and expression in both human-readable and programmatically accessible forms. They are also frequently used to group annotations in biologically meaningful ways. Accurate annotation requires clear textual definitions for terms, ideally accompanied by images. Accurate grouping and fruitful programmatic usage requires high-quality formal definitions that can be used to automate classification and check for errors. The Drosophila anatomy ontology (DAO) consists of over 8000 classes with broad coverage of Drosophila anatomy. It has been used extensively for annotation by a range of resources, but until recently it was poorly formalised and had few textual definitions. We have transformed the DAO into an ontology rich in formal and textual definitions in which the majority of classifications are automated and extensive error checking ensures quality. Here we present an overview of the content of the DAO, the patterns used in its formalisation, and the various uses it has been put to. As a result of the work described here, the DAO provides a high-quality, queryable reference for the wild-type anatomy of Drosophila melanogaster and a set of terms to annotate data related to that anatomy. Extensive, well referenced textual definitions make it both a reliable and useful reference and ensure accurate use in annotation. Wide use of formal axioms allows a large proportion of classification to be automated and the use of consistency checking to eliminate errors. This increased formalisation has resulted in significant improvements to the completeness and accuracy of classification. The broad use of both formal and informal definitions make further development of the ontology sustainable and scalable. The patterns of formalisation used in the DAO are likely to be useful to developers of other anatomy ontologies.

  19. An effective method of large scale ontology matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diallo, Gayo

    2014-01-01

    We are currently facing a proliferation of heterogeneous biomedical data sources accessible through various knowledge-based applications. These data are annotated by increasingly extensive and widely disseminated knowledge organisation systems ranging from simple terminologies and structured vocabularies to formal ontologies. In order to solve the interoperability issue, which arises due to the heterogeneity of these ontologies, an alignment task is usually performed. However, while significant effort has been made to provide tools that automatically align small ontologies containing hundreds or thousands of entities, little attention has been paid to the matching of large sized ontologies in the life sciences domain. We have designed and implemented ServOMap, an effective method for large scale ontology matching. It is a fast and efficient high precision system able to perform matching of input ontologies containing hundreds of thousands of entities. The system, which was included in the 2012 and 2013 editions of the Ontology Alignment Evaluation Initiative campaign, performed very well. It was ranked among the top systems for the large ontologies matching. We proposed an approach for large scale ontology matching relying on Information Retrieval (IR) techniques and the combination of lexical and machine learning contextual similarity computing for the generation of candidate mappings. It is particularly adapted to the life sciences domain as many of the ontologies in this domain benefit from synonym terms taken from the Unified Medical Language System and that can be used by our IR strategy. The ServOMap system we implemented is able to deal with hundreds of thousands entities with an efficient computation time.

  20. Disease Ontology: a backbone for disease semantic integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schriml, Lynn Marie; Arze, Cesar; Nadendla, Suvarna; Chang, Yu-Wei Wayne; Mazaitis, Mark; Felix, Victor; Feng, Gang; Kibbe, Warren Alden

    2012-01-01

    The Disease Ontology (DO) database (http://disease-ontology.org) represents a comprehensive knowledge base of 8043 inherited, developmental and acquired human diseases (DO version 3, revision 2510). The DO web browser has been designed for speed, efficiency and robustness through the use of a graph database. Full-text contextual searching functionality using Lucene allows the querying of name, synonym, definition, DOID and cross-reference (xrefs) with complex Boolean search strings. The DO semantically integrates disease and medical vocabularies through extensive cross mapping and integration of MeSH, ICD, NCI's thesaurus, SNOMED CT and OMIM disease-specific terms and identifiers. The DO is utilized for disease annotation by major biomedical databases (e.g. Array Express, NIF, IEDB), as a standard representation of human disease in biomedical ontologies (e.g. IDO, Cell line ontology, NIFSTD ontology, Experimental Factor Ontology, Influenza Ontology), and as an ontological cross mappings resource between DO, MeSH and OMIM (e.g. GeneWiki). The DO project (http://diseaseontology.sf.net) has been incorporated into open source tools (e.g. Gene Answers, FunDO) to connect gene and disease biomedical data through the lens of human disease. The next iteration of the DO web browser will integrate DO's extended relations and logical definition representation along with these biomedical resource cross-mappings.

  1. COMPARISON OF EFFICIENCY OF A SOLAR DRIVEN CARNOT ENGINE UNDER MAXIMUM POWER AND POWER DENSITY CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Sinha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative analysis on thermodynamic efficiency based on maximum power & power density conditions have been performed for a solar-driven Carnot heat engine with internal irreversibility. In this analysis, the heat transfer from the hot reservoir is to be in the radiation mode and the heat transfer to the cold reservoir is to be in the convection mode. The thermodynamic efficiency function, power & power density functions have been derived and maximization of the power functions have been performed for various design parameters. From the optimum conditions, the thermal efficiencies at maximum power and power densities have been obtained. The effects of internal irreversibility, extreme temperature ratios & specific engine size in area ratio between the hot & cold reservoirs as various design parameters on thermodynamic efficiencies have been investigated for both the conditions. The efficiencies have been compared with Curzon-Ahlborn & Carnot efficiencies respectively.The analysis showed that the efficiency at maximum power output is greater than the efficiency at maximum power density. And the efficiencies can be greater than the Curzon- Ahlborn`s efficiency only for low values of design parameters.

  2. Automotive Thermoelectric Generator impact on the efficiency of a drive system with a combustion engine

    OpenAIRE

    Ziolkowski Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Increasing the combustion engine drive systems efficiency is currently being achieved by structural changes in internal combustion engines and its equipment, which are geared towards limiting mechanical, thermal and outlet losses. For this reason, downsizing. In addition to these changes, all manner of exhaust gas energy recovery systems are being investigated and implemented, including turbocompound, turbogenerators and thermoelectric generators. The article presents the author’s idea of a t...

  3. Epistemology and ontology in core ontologies: FOLaw and LRI-Core, two core ontologies for law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breukers, J.A.P.J.; Hoekstra, R.J.

    2004-01-01

    For more than a decade constructing ontologies for legal domains, we, at the Leibniz Center for Law, felt really the need to develop a core ontology for law that would enable us to re-use the common denominator of the various legal domains. In this paper we present two core ontologies for law. The

  4. Interfacial Engineering for Highly Efficient-Conjugated Polymer-Based Bulk Heterojunction Photovoltaic Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alex Jen; David Ginger; Christine Luscombe; Hong Ma

    2012-04-02

    The aim of our proposal is to apply interface engineering approach to improve charge extraction, guide active layer morphology, improve materials compatibility, and ultimately allow the fabrication of high efficiency tandem cells. Specifically, we aim at developing: i. Interfacial engineering using small molecule self-assembled monolayers ii. Nanostructure engineering in OPVs using polymer brushes iii. Development of efficient light harvesting and high mobility materials for OPVs iv. Physical characterization of the nanostructured systems using electrostatic force microscopy, and conducting atomic force microscopy v. All-solution processed organic-based tandem cells using interfacial engineering to optimize the recombination layer currents vi. Theoretical modeling of charge transport in the active semiconducting layer The material development effort is guided by advanced computer modeling and surface/ interface engineering tools to allow us to obtain better understanding of the effect of electrode modifications on OPV performance for the investigation of more elaborate device structures. The materials and devices developed within this program represent a major conceptual advancement using an integrated approach combining rational molecular design, material, interface, process, and device engineering to achieve solar cells with high efficiency, stability, and the potential to be used for large-area roll-to-roll printing. This may create significant impact in lowering manufacturing cost of polymer solar cells for promoting clean renewable energy use and preventing the side effects from using fossil fuels to impact environment.

  5. Application of neuroanatomical ontologies for neuroimaging data annotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A Turner

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The annotation of functional neuroimaging results for data sharing and reuse is particularly challenging, due to the diversity of terminologies of neuroanatomical structures and cortical parcellation schemes. To address this challenge, we extended the Foundational Model of Anatomy Ontology (FMA to include cytoarchitectural, Brodmann area labels, and a morphological cortical labeling scheme (e.g., the part of Brodmann area 6 in the left precentral gyrus. This representation was also used to augment the neuroanatomical axis of RadLex, the ontology for clinical imaging. The resulting neuroanatomical ontology contains explicit relationships indicating which brain regions are “part of” which other regions, across cytoarchitectural and morphological labeling schemas. We annotated a large functional neuroimaging dataset with terms from the ontology and applied a reasoning engine to analyze this dataset in conjunction with the ontology, and achieved successful inferences from the most specific level (e.g., how many subjects showed activation in a sub-part of the middle frontal gyrus to more general (how many activations were found in areas connected via a known white matter tract?. In summary, we have produced a neuroanatomical ontology that harmonizes several different terminologies of neuroanatomical structures and cortical parcellation schemes. This neuranatomical ontology is publicly available as a view of FMA at the Bioportal website at http://rest.bioontology.org/bioportal/ontologies/download/10005. The ontological encoding of anatomic knowledge can be exploited by computer reasoning engines to make inferences about neuroanatomical relationships described in imaging datasets using different terminologies. This approach could ultimately enable knowledge discovery from large, distributed fMRI studies or medical record mining.

  6. User centered and ontology based information retrieval system for life sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sy Mohameth-François

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of the increasing number of electronic resources, designing efficient tools to retrieve and exploit them is a major challenge. Some improvements have been offered by semantic Web technologies and applications based on domain ontologies. In life science, for instance, the Gene Ontology is widely exploited in genomic applications and the Medical Subject Headings is the basis of biomedical publications indexation and information retrieval process proposed by PubMed. However current search engines suffer from two main drawbacks: there is limited user interaction with the list of retrieved resources and no explanation for their adequacy to the query is provided. Users may thus be confused by the selection and have no idea on how to adapt their queries so that the results match their expectations. Results This paper describes an information retrieval system that relies on domain ontology to widen the set of relevant documents that is retrieved and that uses a graphical rendering of query results to favor user interactions. Semantic proximities between ontology concepts and aggregating models are used to assess documents adequacy with respect to a query. The selection of documents is displayed in a semantic map to provide graphical indications that make explicit to what extent they match the user's query; this man/machine interface favors a more interactive and iterative exploration of data corpus, by facilitating query concepts weighting and visual explanation. We illustrate the benefit of using this information retrieval system on two case studies one of which aiming at collecting human genes related to transcription factors involved in hemopoiesis pathway. Conclusions The ontology based information retrieval system described in this paper (OBIRS is freely available at: http://www.ontotoolkit.mines-ales.fr/ObirsClient/. This environment is a first step towards a user centred application in which the system enlightens

  7. Rapid and efficient galactose fermentation by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarterman, Josh; Skerker, Jeffrey M; Feng, Xueyang; Liu, Ian Y; Zhao, Huimin; Arkin, Adam P; Jin, Yong-Su

    2016-07-10

    In the important industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, galactose metabolism requires energy production by respiration; therefore, this yeast cannot metabolize galactose under strict anaerobic conditions. While the respiratory dependence of galactose metabolism provides benefits in terms of cell growth and population stability, it is not advantageous for producing fuels and chemicals since a substantial fraction of consumed galactose is converted to carbon dioxide. In order to force S. cerevisiae to use galactose without respiration, a subunit (COX9) of a respiratory enzyme was deleted, but the resulting deletion mutant (Δcox9) was impaired in terms of galactose assimilation. Interestingly, after serial sub-cultures on galactose, the mutant evolved rapidly and was able to use galactose via fermentation only. The evolved strain (JQ-G1) produced ethanol from galactose with a 94% increase in yield and 6.9-fold improvement in specific productivity as compared to the wild-type strain. (13)C-metabolic flux analysis demonstrated a three-fold reduction in carbon flux through the TCA cycle of the evolved mutant with redirection of flux toward the fermentation pathway. Genome sequencing of the JQ-G1 strain revealed a loss of function mutation in a master negative regulator of the Leloir pathway (Gal80p). The mutation (Glu348*) in Gal80p was found to act synergistically with deletion of COX9 for efficient galactose fermentation, and thus the double deletion mutant Δcox9Δgal80 produced ethanol 2.4 times faster and with 35% higher yield than a single knockout mutant with deletion of GAL80 alone. When we introduced a functional COX9 cassette back into the JQ-G1 strain, the JQ-G1-COX9 strain showed a 33% reduction in specific galactose uptake rate and a 49% reduction in specific ethanol production rate as compared to JQ-G1. The wild-type strain was also subjected to serial sub-cultures on galactose but we failed to isolate a mutant capable of utilizing galactose without

  8. Benchmarking ontologies: bigger or better?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixia Yao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A scientific ontology is a formal representation of knowledge within a domain, typically including central concepts, their properties, and relations. With the rise of computers and high-throughput data collection, ontologies have become essential to data mining and sharing across communities in the biomedical sciences. Powerful approaches exist for testing the internal consistency of an ontology, but not for assessing the fidelity of its domain representation. We introduce a family of metrics that describe the breadth and depth with which an ontology represents its knowledge domain. We then test these metrics using (1 four of the most common medical ontologies with respect to a corpus of medical documents and (2 seven of the most popular English thesauri with respect to three corpora that sample language from medicine, news, and novels. Here we show that our approach captures the quality of ontological representation and guides efforts to narrow the breach between ontology and collective discourse within a domain. Our results also demonstrate key features of medical ontologies, English thesauri, and discourse from different domains. Medical ontologies have a small intersection, as do English thesauri. Moreover, dialects characteristic of distinct domains vary strikingly as many of the same words are used quite differently in medicine, news, and novels. As ontologies are intended to mirror the state of knowledge, our methods to tighten the fit between ontology and domain will increase their relevance for new areas of biomedical science and improve the accuracy and power of inferences computed across them.

  9. Benchmarking Ontologies: Bigger or Better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lixia; Divoli, Anna; Mayzus, Ilya; Evans, James A.; Rzhetsky, Andrey

    2011-01-01

    A scientific ontology is a formal representation of knowledge within a domain, typically including central concepts, their properties, and relations. With the rise of computers and high-throughput data collection, ontologies have become essential to data mining and sharing across communities in the biomedical sciences. Powerful approaches exist for testing the internal consistency of an ontology, but not for assessing the fidelity of its domain representation. We introduce a family of metrics that describe the breadth and depth with which an ontology represents its knowledge domain. We then test these metrics using (1) four of the most common medical ontologies with respect to a corpus of medical documents and (2) seven of the most popular English thesauri with respect to three corpora that sample language from medicine, news, and novels. Here we show that our approach captures the quality of ontological representation and guides efforts to narrow the breach between ontology and collective discourse within a domain. Our results also demonstrate key features of medical ontologies, English thesauri, and discourse from different domains. Medical ontologies have a small intersection, as do English thesauri. Moreover, dialects characteristic of distinct domains vary strikingly as many of the same words are used quite differently in medicine, news, and novels. As ontologies are intended to mirror the state of knowledge, our methods to tighten the fit between ontology and domain will increase their relevance for new areas of biomedical science and improve the accuracy and power of inferences computed across them. PMID:21249231

  10. Energy efficient engine flight propulsion system preliminary analysis and design report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, W. B.

    1979-01-01

    A flight propulsion system preliminary design was established that meets the program goals of at least a 12 percent reduction in thrust specific fuel consumption, at least a five percent reduction in direct operating cost, and one-half the performance deterioration rate of the most efficient current commercial engines. The engine provides a high probability of meeting the 1978 noise rule goal. Smoke and gaseous emissions defined by the EPA proposed standards for engines newly certified after 1 January 1981 are met with the exception of NOx, despite incorporation of all known NOx reduction technology.

  11. Strained-graphene-based highly efficient quantum heat engine operating at maximum power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Arjun; Benjamin, Colin

    2017-09-01

    A strained graphene monolayer is shown to operate as a highly efficient quantum heat engine delivering maximum power. The efficiency and power of the proposed device exceeds that of recent proposals. The reason for these excellent characteristics is that strain enables complete valley separation in transmittance through the device, implying that increasing strain leads to very high Seebeck coefficient as well as lower conductance. In addition, since time-reversal symmetry is unbroken in our system, the proposed strained graphene quantum heat engine can also act as a high-performance refrigerator.

  12. Study of Volumetric Efficiency for Spark Ignition Engines Using Alternative Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Irimescu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important parameter for spark ignition engines is volumetric efficiency, as it directly influences specific power output. Several definitions of this parameter are studied from a theoretical point of view, taking into consideration the use of alternative fuels. The influence of using gasoline-bioethanol blends is investigated, as well as the effect of fuelling spark ignition engines with methane, liquefied petroleum gas and hydrogen. Bioethanol features the highest volumetric efficiency, while gaseous fuels cause a drop in specific power output compared to gasoline operation.

  13. Study of Stirling Engine Efficiency Coefficient under Conditions Being Close to Real Ones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Abramian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An absolute internal efficiency coefficient of the Stirling engine has been obtained without regenerator and with regenerator under conditions when van der Waals gas serves as a working medium. The paper reveals that while taking into account own volume of molecules thermal efficiency coefficient of the Stirling engine depends on mole number of the working medium  and it is slightly increasing  in comparison with the case of an ideal gas. The paper gives consideration to heat losses while the Stirling machine operates with heat regeneration. Dependence of regeneration rate on time of heat transfer has been obtained in the paper. 

  14. Ontology-based Information Retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Styltsvig, Henrik Bulskov

    In this thesis, we will present methods for introducing ontologies in information retrieval. The main hypothesis is that the inclusion of conceptual knowledge such as ontologies in the information retrieval process can contribute to the solution of major problems currently found in information...... retrieval. This utilization of ontologies has a number of challenges. Our focus is on the use of similarity measures derived from the knowledge about relations between concepts in ontologies, the recognition of semantic information in texts and the mapping of this knowledge into the ontologies in use......, as well as how to fuse together the ideas of ontological similarity and ontological indexing into a realistic information retrieval scenario. To achieve the recognition of semantic knowledge in a text, shallow natural language processing is used during indexing that reveals knowledge to the level of noun...

  15. Impact of Turbocharger Non-Adiabatic Operation on Engine Volumetric Efficiency and Turbo Lag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shaaban

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Turbocharger performance significantly affects the thermodynamic properties of the working fluid at engine boundaries and hence engine performance. Heat transfer takes place under all circumstances during turbocharger operation. This heat transfer affects the power produced by the turbine, the power consumed by the compressor, and the engine volumetric efficiency. Therefore, non-adiabatic turbocharger performance can restrict the engine charging process and hence engine performance. The present research work investigates the effect of turbocharger non-adiabatic performance on the engine charging process and turbo lag. Two passenger car turbochargers are experimentally and theoretically investigated. The effect of turbine casing insulation is also explored. The present investigation shows that thermal energy is transferred to the compressor under all circumstances. At high rotational speeds, thermal energy is first transferred to the compressor and latter from the compressor to the ambient. Therefore, the compressor appears to be “adiabatic” at high rotational speeds despite the complex heat transfer processes inside the compressor. A tangible effect of turbocharger non-adiabatic performance on the charging process is identified at turbocharger part load operation. The turbine power is the most affected operating parameter, followed by the engine volumetric efficiency. Insulating the turbine is recommended for reducing the turbine size and the turbo lag.

  16. An Ontology for a TripTych Formal Software Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Dines

    2003-01-01

    An ontology, ie., a formalised set of strongly interrelated definitions, is given for an approach to software development that spans domain engineering, requirements engineering and software design - and which is otherwise based on a judicious use of both informal and formal, mathematics...

  17. Efficient protocols for Stirling heat engines at the micro-scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratore-Ginanneschi, Paolo; Schwieger, Kay

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the thermodynamic efficiency of sub-micro-scale Stirling heat engines operating under the conditions described by overdamped stochastic thermodynamics. We show how to construct optimal protocols such that at maximum power the efficiency attains for constant isotropic mobility the universal law η=2 ηC/(4-ηC) , where ηC is the efficiency of an ideal Carnot cycle. We show that these protocols are specified by the solution of an optimal mass transport problem. Such solution can be determined explicitly using well-known Monge-Ampère-Kantorovich reconstruction algorithms. Furthermore, we show that the same law describes the efficiency of heat engines operating at maximum work over short time periods. Finally, we illustrate the straightforward extension of these results to cases when the mobility is anisotropic and temperature dependent.

  18. Quantum efficiency bound for continuous heat engines coupled to noncanonical reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwalla, Bijay Kumar; Jiang, Jian-Hua; Segal, Dvira

    2017-09-01

    We derive an efficiency bound for continuous quantum heat engines absorbing heat from squeezed thermal reservoirs. Our approach relies on a full-counting statistics description of nonequilibrium transport and it is not limited to the framework of irreversible thermodynamics. Our result, a generalized Carnot efficiency bound, is valid beyond the small-squeezing and high-temperature limit. Our findings are embodied in a prototype three-terminal quantum photoelectric engine where a qubit converts heat absorbed from a squeezed thermal reservoir into electrical power. We demonstrate that in the quantum regime, the efficiency can be greatly amplified by squeezing. From the fluctuation relation, we further receive other operational measures in linear response, for example, the universal maximum power efficiency bound.

  19. Semi Automatic Ontology Instantiation in the domain of Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makki, Jawad; Alquier, Anne-Marie; Prince, Violaine

    One of the challenging tasks in the context of Ontological Engineering is to automatically or semi-automatically support the process of Ontology Learning and Ontology Population from semi-structured documents (texts). In this paper we describe a Semi-Automatic Ontology Instantiation method from natural language text, in the domain of Risk Management. This method is composed from three steps 1 ) Annotation with part-of-speech tags, 2) Semantic Relation Instances Extraction, 3) Ontology instantiation process. It's based on combined NLP techniques using human intervention between steps 2 and 3 for control and validation. Since it heavily relies on linguistic knowledge it is not domain dependent which is a good feature for portability between the different fields of risk management application. The proposed methodology uses the ontology of the PRIMA1 project (supported by the European community) as a Generic Domain Ontology and populates it via an available corpus. A first validation of the approach is done through an experiment with Chemical Fact Sheets from Environmental Protection Agency2.

  20. Appreciating ontological struggles

    OpenAIRE

    Danholt, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Appreciating ontological strugglesPeter Danholt, ass. prof., Information studies, Aarhus UniversityIn the west – most of us – take for granted that we inhabit a common world, which we share with 6 billion other human beings and multiple other living beings, animals and plants. As Annemarie Mol and Bruno Latour among others have pointed out, the idea of a common world is shared by both realists and perspectivists. Both realists and perspectivists conceive of the world as existing separate from...

  1. Dual-Fuel Combustion for Future Clean and Efficient Compression Ignition Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Benajes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Stringent emissions limits introduced for internal combustion engines impose a major challenge for the research community. The technological solution adopted by the manufactures of diesel engines to meet the NOx and particle matter values imposed in the EURO VI regulation relies on using selective catalytic reduction and particulate filter systems, which increases the complexity and cost of the engine. Alternatively, several new combustion modes aimed at avoiding the formation of these two pollutants by promoting low temperature combustion reactions, are the focus of study nowadays. Among these new concepts, the dual-fuel combustion mode known as reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI seems more promising because it allows better control of the combustion process by means of modulating the fuel reactivity depending on the engine operating conditions. The present experimental work explores the potential of different strategies for reducing the energy losses with RCCI in a single-cylinder research engine, with the final goal of providing the guidelines to define an efficient dual-fuel combustion system. The results demonstrate that the engine settings combination, piston geometry modification, and fuel properties variation are good methods to increase the RCCI efficiency while maintaining ultra-low NOx and soot emissions for a wide range of operating conditions.

  2. Engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for efficient anaerobic alcoholic fermentation of L-arabinose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisselink, H Wouter; Toirkens, Maurice J; del Rosario Franco Berriel, M; Winkler, Aaron A; van Dijken, Johannes P; Pronk, Jack T; van Maris, Antonius J A

    2007-08-01

    For cost-effective and efficient ethanol production from lignocellulosic fractions of plant biomass, the conversion of not only major constituents, such as glucose and xylose, but also less predominant sugars, such as l-arabinose, is required. Wild-type strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the organism used in industrial ethanol production, cannot ferment xylose and arabinose. Although metabolic and evolutionary engineering has enabled the efficient alcoholic fermentation of xylose under anaerobic conditions, the conversion of l-arabinose into ethanol by engineered S. cerevisiae strains has previously been demonstrated only under oxygen-limited conditions. This study reports the first case of fast and efficient anaerobic alcoholic fermentation of l-arabinose by an engineered S. cerevisiae strain. This fermentation was achieved by combining the expression of the structural genes for the l-arabinose utilization pathway of Lactobacillus plantarum, the overexpression of the S. cerevisiae genes encoding the enzymes of the nonoxidative pentose phosphate pathway, and extensive evolutionary engineering. The resulting S. cerevisiae strain exhibited high rates of arabinose consumption (0.70 g h(-1) g [dry weight](-1)) and ethanol production (0.29 g h(-1) g [dry weight](-1)) and a high ethanol yield (0.43 g g(-1)) during anaerobic growth on l-arabinose as the sole carbon source. In addition, efficient ethanol production from sugar mixtures containing glucose and arabinose, which is crucial for application in industrial ethanol production, was achieved.

  3. Under actuated air path control of diesel engines for low emissions and high efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Criens, C.; Willems, F.P.T.; Steinbuch, M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for feedback control using the Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) valve and Variable Geometry Turbine (VGT) of a diesel engine. The controller effectively counteracts disturbances in NOx and PM emissions while maintaining the fuel efficiency. It is shown that by using a

  4. Quick assessment of binary distillation efficiency using a heat engine perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blahusiak, Marek; Kiss, Anton Alexandru; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Schuur, Boelo

    2016-01-01

    With emphasis on close boiling, (near-)ideal VLE mixtures, this paper links the efficiency of distillation to the binary feed composition and thermal properties of the compounds. The proposed approach, treating the process as a heat engine, allows to directly quantify distillation performance (in

  5. Reconsideration of Criteria and Modeling in Order to Optimize the Efficiency of Irreversible Thermomechanical Heat Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Feidt

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to precise and complete one recently proposed in the literature and relative to a general criterion to maximize the first law efficiency of irreversible heat engines. It is shown that the previous proposal seems to be a particular case. A new proposal has been developed for a Carnot irreversible thermomechanical heat engine at steady state associated to two infinite heat reservoirs (hot source, and cold sink: this constitutes the studied system. The presence of heat leak is accounted for, with the most simple form, as is done generally in the literature. Irreversibility is modeled through , created internal entropy rate in the converter (engine, and , total created entropy rate in the system. Heat transfer laws are represented as general functions of temperatures. These concepts are particularized to the most common heat transfer law (linear one. Consequences of the proposal are examined; some new analytical results are proposed for efficiencies.

  6. Constructing a Geology Ontology Using a Relational Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, W.; Yang, L.; Yin, S.; Ye, J.; Clarke, K.

    2013-12-01

    In geology community, the creation of a common geology ontology has become a useful means to solve problems of data integration, knowledge transformation and the interoperation of multi-source, heterogeneous and multiple scale geological data. Currently, human-computer interaction methods and relational database-based methods are the primary ontology construction methods. Some human-computer interaction methods such as the Geo-rule based method, the ontology life cycle method and the module design method have been proposed for applied geological ontologies. Essentially, the relational database-based method is a reverse engineering of abstracted semantic information from an existing database. The key is to construct rules for the transformation of database entities into the ontology. Relative to the human-computer interaction method, relational database-based methods can use existing resources and the stated semantic relationships among geological entities. However, two problems challenge the development and application. One is the transformation of multiple inheritances and nested relationships and their representation in an ontology. The other is that most of these methods do not measure the semantic retention of the transformation process. In this study, we focused on constructing a rule set to convert the semantics in a geological database into a geological ontology. According to the relational schema of a geological database, a conversion approach is presented to convert a geological spatial database to an OWL-based geological ontology, which is based on identifying semantics such as entities, relationships, inheritance relationships, nested relationships and cluster relationships. The semantic integrity of the transformation was verified using an inverse mapping process. In a geological ontology, an inheritance and union operations between superclass and subclass were used to present the nested relationship in a geochronology and the multiple inheritances

  7. Materials Ontology: An Infrastructure for Exchanging Materials Information and Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiro Ashino

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We have rich information resources for materials science and engineering - raw measurement data, computational simulation methods, digitized handbooks, and digital libraries. However, these resources have a wide variety of formats, terminologies, and concepts, which makes it difficult to find appropriate information for materials design, development, and evaluation. One solution to this problem is to integrate these resources into a computer readable concept map, called a domain ontology, which describes concepts and relationships among the concepts in materials science and engineering. This paper describes a trial that constructs a standard of metadata description using ontology language and demonstrates the validity of this construction through data exchange among heterogeneous material databases. "Materials Ontology," which consists of several sub ontologies corresponding to substance, process, environment, and property, is developed using the ontology language of the Semantic Web, OWL, which enables the definition of a flexible and detailed structure of materials information. A versatile "materials data format" is built on the Materials Ontology as a component of the materials information platform and is applied to exchange data among three different thermal property databases, maintained by two major materials science research institutes in Japan.

  8. Overview of Knowledge Sharing and Reuse Components: Ontologies and Problem-Solving Methods

    OpenAIRE

    A. GÓMEZ-PÉREZ; Benjamins, R

    1999-01-01

    Ontologies and problem-solving methods are promising candidates for reuse in Knowledge Engineering. Ontologies define domain knowledge at a generic level, while problem-solving methods specify generic reasoning knowledge. Both type of components can be viewed as complementary entities that can be used to configure new knowledge systems from existing, reusable components. In this paper, we give an overview of approaches for ontologies and problem-solving methods.

  9. OntoEnrich: A Platform for the Lexical Analysis of Ontologies

    OpenAIRE

    Quesada Martinez, Manuel; Fernández-Breis, Jesualdo Tomás; Stevens, Robert; Aussenac-Gilles, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The content of the labels in ontologies is usually considered hidden semantics, because the domain knowledge of such labels is not available as logical axioms in the ontology. The use of systematic naming conventions as best practice for the design of the content of the labels generates labels with structural regularities, namely, lexical regularities. The structure and content of such regularities can help ontology engineers to increase the amount of machine-friendly ...

  10. Design and analysis of a fuel-efficient single-engine, turboprop-powered, business airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, G. L.; Everest, D. E., Jr.; Lovell, W. A.; Price, J. E.; Walkley, K. B.; Washburn, G. F.

    1981-01-01

    The speed, range, payload, and fuel efficiency of a general aviation airplane powered by one turboprop engine was determined and compared to a twin engine turboprop aircraft. An airplane configuration was developed which can carry six people for a noreserve range of 2,408 km at a cruise speed above 154 m/s, and a cruise altitude of about 9,144 m. The cruise speed is comparable to that of the fastest of the current twin turboprop powered airplanes. It is found that the airplane has a cruise specific range greater than all twin turboprop engine airplanes flying in its speed range and most twin piston engine airplanes flying at considerably slower cruise airspeeds.

  11. Efficiency of a new internal combustion engine concept with variable piston motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorić Jovan Ž.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents simulation of working process in a new IC engine concept. The main feature of this new IC engine concept is the realization of variable movement of the piston. With this unconventional piston movement it is easy to provide variable compression ratio, variable displacement and combustion during constant volume. These advantages over standard piston mechanism are achieved through synthesis of the two pairs of non-circular gears. Presented mechanism is designed to obtain a specific motion law which provides better fuel consumption of IC engines. For this paper Ricardo/WAVE software was used, which provides a fully integrated treatment of time-dependent fluid dynamics and thermodynamics by means of onedimensional formulation. The results obtained herein include the efficiency characteristic of this new heat engine concept. The results show that combustion during constant volume, variable compression ratio and variable displacement have significant impact on improvement of fuel consumption.

  12. An Evolutive Process to Convert Glossaries into Ontologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R. Hilera

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a method to generate ontologies from glossaries of terms. The proposed method presupposes an evolutionary life cycle based on successive transformations of the original glossary that lead to products of intermediate knowledge representation (dictionary, taxonomy, and thesaurus. These products are characterized by an increase in semantic expressiveness in comparison to the product obtained in the previous transformation, with the ontology as the end product. Although this method has been applied to produce an ontology from the “IEEE Standard Glossary of Software Engineering Terminology,” it could be applied to any glossary of any knowledge domain to generate an ontology that may be used to index or search for information resources and documents stored in libraries or on the Semantic Web.

  13. Adapting Clinical Ontologies in Real-World Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenzhorn, Holger; Schulz, Stefan; Boeker, Martin; Smith, Barry

    2008-01-01

    The desideratum of semantic interoperability has been intensively discussed in medical informatics circles in recent years. Originally, experts assumed that this issue could be sufficiently addressed by insisting simply on the application of shared clinical terminologies or clinical information models. However, the use of the term 'ontology' has been steadily increasing more recently. We discuss criteria for distinguishing clinical ontologies from clinical terminologies and information models. Then, we briefly present the role clinical ontologies play in two multicentric research projects. Finally, we discuss the interactions between these different kinds of knowledge representation artifacts and the stakeholders involved in developing interoperational real-world clinical applications. We provide ontology engineering examples from two EU-funded projects.

  14. Efficiency at and near maximum power of low-dissipation heat engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holubec, Viktor; Ryabov, Artem

    2015-11-01

    A universality in optimization of trade-off between power and efficiency for low-dissipation Carnot cycles is presented. It is shown that any trade-off measure expressible in terms of efficiency and the ratio of power to its maximum value can be optimized independently of most details of the dynamics and of the coupling to thermal reservoirs. The result is demonstrated on two specific trade-off measures. The first one is designed for finding optimal efficiency for a given output power and clearly reveals diseconomy of engines working at maximum power. As the second example we derive universal lower and upper bounds on the efficiency at maximum trade-off given by the product of power and efficiency. The results are illustrated on a model of a diffusion-based heat engine. Such engines operate in the low-dissipation regime given that the used driving minimizes the work dissipated during the isothermal branches. The peculiarities of the corresponding optimization procedure are reviewed and thoroughly discussed.

  15. Stochastic efficiency of an isothermal work-to-work converter engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Deepak; Sabhapandit, Sanjib

    2017-10-01

    We investigate the efficiency of an isothermal Brownian work-to-work converter engine, composed of a Brownian particle coupled to a heat bath at a constant temperature. The system is maintained out of equilibrium by using two external time-dependent stochastic Gaussian forces, where one is called load force and the other is called drive force. Work done by these two forces are stochastic quantities. The efficiency of this small engine is defined as the ratio of stochastic work done against load force to stochastic work done by the drive force. The probability density function as well as large deviation function of the stochastic efficiency are studied analytically and verified by numerical simulations.

  16. Enhanced Emission Performance and Fuel Efficiency for HD Methane Engines. Literature Study. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broman, R.; Staalhammar, P.; Erlandsson, L.

    2010-05-15

    A literature survey has been conducted in order to define state-of-the-art for methane fuelled engines to be used in heavy duty vehicles. Use of methane can be favourable to increase security of supply and mitigate CO2 emissions, especially when the methane origins from biomass. Furthermore, methane used as a fuel in heavy duty engines has a potential to reduce toxic exhaust emissions. Historically, use of methane in heavy duty engines has often been hampered by poor efficiency, i.e. high fuel consumption when using the Otto-cycle. However, current generation technology engines might be within 5-10 % of the efficiency of Diesel engine technology. In this context it is worth mentioning that compliance-driven changes for meeting future emission regulations for Diesel engines may have a negative impact on fuel efficiency, thereby narrowing the gap. This may present an opportunity for heavy methane fuelled engines. The reliability and durability of the exhaust aftertreatment devices for methane fuelled engines has also given rise to some concerns. Some concepts are performing acceptable while others do not meet expectations. This is partly due to difficulties in handling methane in the aftertreatment device and partly to issues in the design of the ignition system. Methane is a fuel used worldwide and has a potential to be an important complement to Diesel oil. There are two categories of HD methane engines available to end-users: Retrofitted engines, which often include computer controlled retrofit systems developed as 'bolt-on' technologies that can be removed if necessary, to resell the vehicle with a normal diesel engine, and those developed specifically for and in conjunction with engine manufacturers and delivered to customers as factory-built engines or vehicles (OEM). Additionally, both these categories can include engines that use the Otto- or Diesel combustion cycles. When adapting a HD Diesel engine to run on methane there are two options, either

  17. Keyword Ontology Development for Discovering Hydrologic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasecki, Michael; Hooper, Rick; Choi, Yoori

    2010-05-01

    Supply of adequate keywords in data searches is a key element to building search clients. This is particularly true for science or engineering areas that straddle many subjects such as the hydrology field. The main difficulties that arise when trying to search across many disparate data holdings is that there are no norms that describe data sets uniformly (this is a lack of common metadata profiles) in particular when it comes to identifying them with recognizable labels. This leads to problems associated with hyponymy (a word or phrase whose semantic range is included within that of another) and synonymy (several terms are used to describe the same thing or parameter). Particularly the latter is endemic in the hydrologic data world and poses a substantial obstacle when trying to build information systems that can search for data across multiple data sources. This paper discusses the effort that has been undertaken within the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Sciences Inc. (CUAHSI: http://www.cuahsi.org) Hydrologic Information Systems (HIS) development group to overcome these semantic heterogeneities by developing a keyword ontology that can be navigated to identify search keywords of ascending or descending generality to identify parameter sets or fairly specific parameters that the search engine should be searching for. The general is to tag or connect any variable name to a presented leaf concept in the ontology that best describes what a specific data set represents. While the search environment is not part of this paper, we will describe the underlying ontology, its extent, the way it is organized and why, and what sources and considerations were taken into account in developing the current version. An initial ontology of 4033 leaf concepts describing physical, chemical and biological properties has been developed. These leaf concepts cover the vast majority of the records contained in major data sources such as the US Geological

  18. A Probabilistic Ontology Development Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Journal of Human-Computer Studies, pp. 907-928, 1995. [8] Grigoris Antoniou and Frank Van Harmelen, "Web Ontology Language: OWL," in Handbook on...Probabilistic Ontology Development Methodology Topic 3: Data, Information,and Knowledge Topic 5: Modeling and Simulation Topic 7: Autonomy...2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Probabilistic Ontology Development Methodology 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  19. Nursing theories as nursing ontologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaming, Don

    2004-10-01

    By understanding the constructions of knowledge we currently label nursing theories as nursing ontologies, nurses can perceive these conceptualizations differently. Paul Ricoeur and Stephen White offer a conceptualization of ontology that differs from traditional, realist perspectives because they assume that a person's experience of a phenomenon (e.g., nursing) will change, but also maintain some stability. Discussing nursing ontologies, rather than nursing theories, might increase philosophy's status in nursing and may also more accurately reflect the experience of being a nurse.

  20. Application of neuroanatomical ontologies for neuroimaging data annotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Jessica A; Mejino, Jose L V; Brinkley, James F; Detwiler, Landon T; Lee, Hyo Jong; Martone, Maryann E; Rubin, Daniel L

    2010-01-01

    The annotation of functional neuroimaging results for data sharing and re-use is particularly challenging, due to the diversity of terminologies of neuroanatomical structures and cortical parcellation schemes. To address this challenge, we extended the Foundational Model of Anatomy Ontology (FMA) to include cytoarchitectural, Brodmann area labels, and a morphological cortical labeling scheme (e.g., the part of Brodmann area 6 in the left precentral gyrus). This representation was also used to augment the neuroanatomical axis of RadLex, the ontology for clinical imaging. The resulting neuroanatomical ontology contains explicit relationships indicating which brain regions are "part of" which other regions, across cytoarchitectural and morphological labeling schemas. We annotated a large functional neuroimaging dataset with terms from the ontology and applied a reasoning engine to analyze this dataset in conjunction with the ontology, and achieved successful inferences from the most specific level (e.g., how many subjects showed activation in a subpart of the middle frontal gyrus) to more general (how many activations were found in areas connected via a known white matter tract?). In summary, we have produced a neuroanatomical ontology that harmonizes several different terminologies of neuroanatomical structures and cortical parcellation schemes. This neuroanatomical ontology is publicly available as a view of FMA at the Bioportal website. The ontological encoding of anatomic knowledge can be exploited by computer reasoning engines to make inferences about neuroanatomical relationships described in imaging datasets using different terminologies. This approach could ultimately enable knowledge discovery from large, distributed fMRI studies or medical record mining.

  1. The ontology of biological sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelso Janet

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biological sequences play a major role in molecular and computational biology. They are studied as information-bearing entities that make up DNA, RNA or proteins. The Sequence Ontology, which is part of the OBO Foundry, contains descriptions and definitions of sequences and their properties. Yet the most basic question about sequences remains unanswered: what kind of entity is a biological sequence? An answer to this question benefits formal ontologies that use the notion of biological sequences and analyses in computational biology alike. Results We provide both an ontological analysis of biological sequences and a formal representation that can be used in knowledge-based applications and other ontologies. We distinguish three distinct kinds of entities that can be referred to as "biological sequence": chains of molecules, syntactic representations such as those in biological databases, and the abstract information-bearing entities. For use in knowledge-based applications and inclusion in biomedical ontologies, we implemented the developed axiom system for use in automated theorem proving. Conclusion Axioms are necessary to achieve the main goal of ontologies: to formally specify the meaning of terms used within a domain. The axiom system for the ontology of biological sequences is the first elaborate axiom system for an OBO Foundry ontology and can serve as starting point for the development of more formal ontologies and ultimately of knowledge-based applications.

  2. Development of an Optimal Controller and Validation Test Stand for Fuel Efficient Engine Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehn, Jack G., III

    There are numerous motivations for improvements in automotive fuel efficiency. As concerns over the environment grow at a rate unmatched by hybrid and electric automotive technologies, the need for reductions in fuel consumed by current road vehicles has never been more present. Studies have shown that a major cause of poor fuel consumption in automobiles is improper driving behavior, which cannot be mitigated by purely technological means. The emergence of autonomous driving technologies has provided an opportunity to alleviate this inefficiency by removing the necessity of a driver. Before autonomous technology can be relied upon to reduce gasoline consumption on a large scale, robust programming strategies must be designed and tested. The goal of this thesis work was to design and deploy an autonomous control algorithm to navigate a four cylinder, gasoline combustion engine through a series of changing load profiles in a manner that prioritizes fuel efficiency. The experimental setup is analogous to a passenger vehicle driving over hilly terrain at highway speeds. The proposed approach accomplishes this using a model-predictive, real-time optimization algorithm that was calibrated to the engine. Performance of the optimal control algorithm was tested on the engine against contemporary cruise control. Results indicate that the "efficient'' strategy achieved one to two percent reductions in total fuel consumed for all load profiles tested. The consumption data gathered also suggests that further improvements could be realized on a different subject engine and using extended models and a slightly modified optimal control approach.

  3. Magnetically-Driven Quantum Heat Engines: The Quasi-Static Limit of Their Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Muñoz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of a quantum heat engine (QHEN has been discussed in the literature, not only due to its intrinsic scientific interest, but also as an alternative to efficiently recover, on a nanoscale device, thermal energy in the form of useful work. The quantum character of a QHEN relies, for instance, on the fact that any of its intermediate states is determined by a density matrix operator. In particular, this matrix can represent a mixed state. For a classical heat engine, a theoretical upper bound for its efficiency is obtained by analyzing its quasi-static operation along a cycle drawn by a sequence of quasi-equilibrium states. A similar analysis can be carried out for a quantum engine, where quasi-static processes are driven by the evolution of ensemble-averaged observables, via variation of the corresponding operators or of the density matrix itself on a tunable physical parameter. We recently proposed two new conceptual designs for a magnetically-driven quantum engine, where the tunable parameter is the intensity of an external magnetic field. Along this article, we shall present the general quantum thermodynamics formalism developed in order to analyze this type of QHEN, and moreover, we shall apply it to describe the theoretical efficiency of two different practical implementations of this concept: an array of semiconductor quantum dots and an ensemble of graphene flakes submitted to mechanical tension.

  4. Improving Metabolic Pathway Efficiency by Statistical Model-Based Multivariate Regulatory Metabolic Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Rizzoni, Elizabeth Anne; Sul, Se-Yeong; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2017-01-20

    Metabolic engineering entails target modification of cell metabolism to maximize the production of a specific compound. For empowering combinatorial optimization in strain engineering, tools and algorithms are needed to efficiently sample the multidimensional gene expression space and locate the desirable overproduction phenotype. We addressed this challenge by employing design of experiment (DoE) models to quantitatively correlate gene expression with strain performance. By fractionally sampling the gene expression landscape, we statistically screened the dominant enzyme targets that determine metabolic pathway efficiency. An empirical quadratic regression model was subsequently used to identify the optimal gene expression patterns of the investigated pathway. As a proof of concept, our approach yielded the natural product violacein at 525.4 mg/L in shake flasks, a 3.2-fold increase from the baseline strain. Violacein production was further increased to 1.31 g/L in a controlled benchtop bioreactor. We found that formulating discretized gene expression levels into logarithmic variables (Linlog transformation) was essential for implementing this DoE-based optimization procedure. The reported methodology can aid multivariate combinatorial pathway engineering and may be generalized as a standard procedure for accelerating strain engineering and improving metabolic pathway efficiency.

  5. Automotive Thermoelectric Generator impact on the efficiency of a drive system with a combustion engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziolkowski Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the combustion engine drive systems efficiency is currently being achieved by structural changes in internal combustion engines and its equipment, which are geared towards limiting mechanical, thermal and outlet losses. For this reason, downsizing. In addition to these changes, all manner of exhaust gas energy recovery systems are being investigated and implemented, including turbocompound, turbogenerators and thermoelectric generators. The article presents the author’s idea of a thermoelectric generator system of automotive applications ATEG (Automotive Thermoelectric Generator and the study of the recovery of exhaust gas energy stream. The ATEG consists of a heat exchanger, thermoelectric modules and a cooling system. In this solution, 24 commercial thermoelectric modules based on Bi2Te3 (bismuth telluride were used. Measurements were made at two engine test sites on which SI and CI engines were installed. The exhaust gas parameters (temperature and mass flow rate, fuel consumption and operating parameters of the ATEG – the intensity and the voltage generated by the thermoelectric modules and the temperature on the walls of the heat exchanger – were all measured in the experiments. Based on the obtained results, the exhaust gas energy flow and the power of the ATEG were determined as well as its effect on the diesel engine drive system efficiency.

  6. Ultra Clean 1.1MW High Efficiency Natural Gas Engine Powered System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zurlo, James; Lueck, Steve

    2011-08-31

    Dresser, Inc. (GE Energy, Waukesha gas engines) will develop, test, demonstrate, and commercialize a 1.1 Megawatt (MW) natural gas fueled combined heat and power reciprocating engine powered package. This package will feature a total efficiency > 75% and ultra low CARB permitting emissions. Our modular design will cover the 1 – 6 MW size range, and this scalable technology can be used in both smaller and larger engine powered CHP packages. To further advance one of the key advantages of reciprocating engines, the engine, generator and CHP package will be optimized for low initial and operating costs. Dresser, Inc. will leverage the knowledge gained in the DOE - ARES program. Dresser, Inc. will work with commercial, regulatory, and government entities to help break down barriers to wider deployment of CHP. The outcome of this project will be a commercially successful 1.1 MW CHP package with high electrical and total efficiency that will significantly reduce emissions compared to the current central power plant paradigm. Principal objectives by phases for Budget Period 1 include: • Phase 1 – market study to determine optimum system performance, target first cost, lifecycle cost, and creation of a detailed product specification. • Phase 2 – Refinement of the Waukesha CHP system design concepts, identification of critical characteristics, initial evaluation of technical solutions, and risk mitigation plans. Background

  7. Development of High Efficiency Clean Combustion Engine Designs for Spark-Ignition and Compression-Ignition Internal Combustion Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marriott, Craig; Gonzalez, Manual; Russell, Durrett

    2011-06-30

    This report summarizes activities related to the revised STATEMENT OF PROJECT OBJECTIVES (SOPO) dated June 2010 for the Development of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion engine Designs for Spark-Ignition and Compression-Ignition Internal Combustion Engines (COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NUMBER DE-FC26-05NT42415) project. In both the spark- (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) development activities covered in this program, the goal was to develop potential production-viable internal combustion engine system technologies that both reduce fuel consumption and simultaneously met exhaust emission targets. To be production-viable, engine technologies were also evaluated to determine if they would meet customer expectations of refinement in terms of noise, vibration, performance, driveability, etc. in addition to having an attractive business case and value. Prior to this activity, only proprietary theoretical / laboratory knowledge existed on the combustion technologies explored The research reported here expands and develops this knowledge to determine series-production viability. Significant SI and CI engine development occurred during this program within General Motors, LLC over more than five years. In the SI program, several engines were designed and developed that used both a relatively simple multi-lift valve train system and a Fully Flexible Valve Actuation (FFVA) system to enable a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion process. Many technical challenges, which were unknown at the start of this program, were identified and systematically resolved through analysis, test and development. This report documents the challenges and solutions for each SOPO deliverable. As a result of the project activities, the production viability of the developed clean combustion technologies has been determined. At this time, HCCI combustion for SI engines is not considered production-viable for several reasons. HCCI combustion is excessively sensitive to control variables

  8. Efficiency of thermoelectric recuperators of the exhaust gas energy of internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anatychuk, L. I.; Kuz, R. V.; Rozver, Yu. Yu.

    2012-06-01

    Results of computer simulation of thermoelectric generators (TEG) using the exhaust heat of internal combustion engines are presented. Sectionalized generator schematics whereby maximum efficiency is achieved for cases of real temperature dependences of the most suitable thermoelectric materials are considered. A model optimized for minimum cost is considered as well. Results of experimental research on generator that employs exhaust heat from heat and electricity cogeneration plant with a diesel engine are presented. Computer simulation is verified by the test results. The outlook for application of such heat recuperators in stationary plants is considered.

  9. Ontology of World Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Khristin Brown

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Culture division influences our lives differently in how we identify and evaluate who we are as individuals. We respond to life situations in how we interpret ourselves. How we function in society as a whole signifies invaluable differences in how we base our demeanor. Freedom of speech is a given right in American society. It is the social norm to be able to voice your opinion on diverse issues faced in our global environment. The Ontology of World Politics is a form of mediating issues of concern.

  10. Expert2OWL: A Methodology for Pattern-Based Ontology Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahar, Kais; Xu, Jie; Herre, Heinrich

    2017-01-01

    The formalization of expert knowledge enables a broad spectrum of applications employing ontologies as underlying technology. These include eLearning, Semantic Web and expert systems. However, the manual construction of such ontologies is time-consuming and thus expensive. Moreover, experts are often unfamiliar with the syntax and semantics of formal ontology languages such as OWL and usually have no experience in developing formal ontologies. To overcome these barriers, we developed a new method and tool, called Expert2OWL that provides efficient features to support the construction of OWL ontologies using GFO (General Formal Ontology) as a top-level ontology. This method allows a close and effective collaboration between ontologists and domain experts. Essentially, this tool integrates Excel spreadsheets as part of a pattern-based ontology development and refinement process. Expert2OWL enables us to expedite the development process and modularize the resulting ontologies. We applied this method in the field of Chinese Herbal Medicine (CHM) and used Expert2OWL to automatically generate an accurate Chinese Herbology ontology (CHO). The expressivity of CHO was tested and evaluated using ontology query languages SPARQL and DL. CHO shows promising results and can generate answers to important scientific questions such as which Chinese herbal formulas contain which substances, which substances treat which diseases, and which ones are the most frequently used in CHM.

  11. A Semi-Automatic Approach to Construct Vietnamese Ontology from Online Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Bao-An; Yang, Don-Lin

    2012-01-01

    An ontology is an effective formal representation of knowledge used commonly in artificial intelligence, semantic web, software engineering, and information retrieval. In open and distance learning, ontologies are used as knowledge bases for e-learning supplements, educational recommenders, and question answering systems that support students with…

  12. Highly Efficient Soluble Blue Delayed Fluorescent and Hyperfluorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes by Host Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Sang Kyu; Park, Hee-Jun; Lee, Jun Yeob

    2018-01-30

    Solution-processed high-efficiency fluorescent organic light-emitting diodes with an external quantum efficiency over 18% were developed by engineering a host material and device structure designed for solution process. A high triplet energy host material designed for the solution process, (oxybis(3-(tert-butyl)-6,1-phenylene))bis(diphenylphosphine oxide) (DPOBBPE), worked efficiently as the host of blue fluorescent devices because of good solubility, high photoluminescence quantum yield, and good film properties. The DPOBBPE host enabled a high external quantum efficiency of 18.8% in the fluorescent organic light-emitting diodes by the solution process. Moreover, 25.8% external quantum efficiency in the soluble blue thermally activated delayed fluorescent devices was also realized. The 25.8% external quantum efficiency of the DPOBBPE delayed fluorescent device and 18.8% external quantum efficiency of the fluorescent device are the highest efficiency values achieved in the solution-processed blue fluorescent organic light-emitting diodes. Moreover, the solution-processed fluorescent device showed an improved blue color coordinate of (0.14, 0.20) compared to (0.17, 0.31) of the delayed fluorescent device.

  13. RightField: embedding ontology annotation in spreadsheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolstencroft, Katy; Owen, Stuart; Horridge, Matthew; Krebs, Olga; Mueller, Wolfgang; Snoep, Jacky L; du Preez, Franco; Goble, Carole

    2011-07-15

    In the Life Sciences, guidelines, checklists and ontologies describing what metadata is required for the interpretation and reuse of experimental data are emerging. Data producers, however, may have little experience in the use of such standards and require tools to support this form of data annotation. RightField is an open source application that provides a mechanism for embedding ontology annotation support for Life Science data in Excel spreadsheets. Individual cells, columns or rows can be restricted to particular ranges of allowed classes or instances from chosen ontologies. The RightField-enabled spreadsheet presents selected ontology terms to the users as a simple drop-down list, enabling scientists to consistently annotate their data. The result is 'semantic annotation by stealth', with an annotation process that is less error-prone, more efficient, and more consistent with community standards. RightField is open source under a BSD license and freely available from http://www.rightfield.org.uk

  14. Automatic Generation of OWL Ontology from XML Data Source

    CERN Document Server

    Yahia, Nora; Ahmed, AbdelWahab

    2012-01-01

    The eXtensible Markup Language (XML) can be used as data exchange format in different domains. It allows different parties to exchange data by providing common understanding of the basic concepts in the domain. XML covers the syntactic level, but lacks support for reasoning. Ontology can provide a semantic representation of domain knowledge which supports efficient reasoning and expressive power. One of the most popular ontology languages is the Web Ontology Language (OWL). It can represent domain knowledge using classes, properties, axioms and instances for the use in a distributed environment such as the World Wide Web. This paper presents a new method for automatic generation of OWL ontology from XML data sources.

  15. Fuel efficiency of conventional design tractors diesel engines in relation to new design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevtić Jeremija

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Total consumption of all types of energies is rather high nowadays with constant tendency of increasing. Transport section is one of the highest consumers of energy obtained from fossil fuels. It is absolutely clear that the reduction of energy consumption and the protection of environment - exhaust emission reduction, i. e. cleaner air, will be one of the main tasks of automotive industry in the first decades of the 21st century. In spite of its superiority over the petrol engine in respect of the fuel consumption, a diesel engine "suffers" from the increased exhaust emission, particles and NOx first of all and also from the noise and vibrations. The paper gives a review of fuel efficiency of conventional design tractors diesel engines in relation to new design. .

  16. A two-staged approach to developing and evaluating an ontology for delivering personalized education to diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Susan; Bond, Raymond; Nugent, Chris

    2017-10-16

    Ontologies are often used in biomedical and health domains to provide a concise and consistent means of attributing meaning to medical terminology. While they are novices in terms of ontology engineering, the evaluation of an ontology by domain specialists provides an opportunity to enhance its objectivity, accuracy, and coverage of the domain itself. This paper provides an evaluation of the viability of using ontology engineering novices to evaluate and enrich an ontology that can be used for personalized diabetic patient education. We describe a methodology for engaging healthcare and information technology specialists with a range of ontology engineering tasks. We used 87.8% of the data collected to validate the accuracy of our ontological model. The contributions also enabled a 16% increase in the class size and an 18% increase in object properties. Furthermore, we propose that ontology engineering novices can make valuable contributions to ontology development. Application-specific evaluation of the ontology using a semantic-web-based architecture is also discussed.

  17. Efficiency at maximum power of a quantum heat engine based on two coupled oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianhui; Ye, Zhuolin; Lai, Yiming; Li, Weisheng; He, Jizhou

    2015-06-01

    We propose and theoretically investigate a system of two coupled harmonic oscillators as a heat engine. We show how these two coupled oscillators within undamped regime can be controlled to realize an Otto cycle that consists of two adiabatic and two isochoric processes. During the two isochores the harmonic system is embedded in two heat reservoirs at constant temperatures T(h) and T(c)(heat engine, we adopt the semigroup approach to model the thermal relaxation dynamics along the two isochoric processes, and we find the upper bound of efficiency at maximum power (EMP) η* to be a function of the Carnot efficiency η(C)(=1-T(c)/T(h)): η*≤η(+)≡η(C)(2)/[η(C)-(1-η(C))ln(1-η(C))], identical to those previously derived from ideal (noninteracting) microscopic, mesoscopic, and macroscopic systems.

  18. The universal power and efficiency characteristics for irreversible reciprocating heat engine cycles

    CERN Document Server

    Qin Xiao Yong; Sun Feng Rui; Wu Chih

    2003-01-01

    The performance of irreversible reciprocating heat engine cycles with heat transfer loss and friction-like term loss is analysed using finite-time thermodynamics. The universal relations between the power output and the compression ratio, between the thermal efficiency and the compression ratio, and the optimal relation between power output and the efficiency of the cycles are derived. Moreover, analysis and optimization of the model were carried out in order to investigate the effect of cycle processes on the performance of the cycle using numerical examples. The results obtained herein include the performance characteristics of irreversible reciprocating Diesel, Otto, Atkinson and Brayton cycles.

  19. The Semantics of Ontology Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-01

    AUG 2004 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2004 to 00-00-2004 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Semantics of Ontology Alignment 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 1 The Semantics of Ontology Alignment

  20. The foundational ontology library ROMULUS

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khan, ZC

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available . We present here a basic step in that direction with the Repository of Ontologies for MULtiple USes, ROMULUS, which is the first online library of machine-processable, modularised, aligned, and logic-based merged foundational ontologies. In addition...

  1. JointDNN: An Efficient Training and Inference Engine for Intelligent Mobile Cloud Computing Services

    OpenAIRE

    Eshratifar, Amir Erfan; Abrishami, Mohammad Saeed; Pedram, Massoud

    2018-01-01

    Deep neural networks are among the most influential architectures of deep learning algorithms, being deployed in many mobile intelligent applications. End-side services, such as intelligent personal assistants (IPAs), autonomous cars, and smart home services often employ either simple local models or complex remote models on the cloud. Mobile-only and cloud-only computations are currently the status quo approaches. In this paper, we propose an efficient, adaptive, and practical engine, JointD...

  2. Suggesting Missing Relations in Biomedical Ontologies Based on Lexical Regularities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada-Martínez, Manuel; Fernández-Breis, Jesualdo Tomás; Karlsson, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The number of biomedical ontologies has increased significantly in recent years. Many of such ontologies are the result of efforts of communities of domain experts and ontology engineers. The development and application of quality assurance (QA) methods should help these communities to develop useful ontologies for both humans and machines. According to previous studies, biomedical ontologies are rich in natural language content, but most of them are not so rich in axiomatic terms. Here, we are interested in studying the relation between content in natural language and content in axiomatic form. The analysis of the labels of the classes permits to identify lexical regularities (LRs), which are sets of words that are shared by labels of different classes. Our assumption is that the classes exhibiting an LR should be logically related through axioms, which is used to propose an algorithm to detect missing relations in the ontology. Here, we analyse a lexical regularity of SNOMED CT, congenital stenosis, which is reported as problematic by the SNOMED CT maintenance team.

  3. Ontology Supported Information Systems: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmavathi, T.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The exponential growth of information on the web far exceeds the capacity of present day information retrieval systems and search engines, making information integration on the web difficult. In order to overcome this, semantic web technologies were proposed by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C to achieve a higher degree of automation and precision in information retrieval systems. Semantic web, with its promise to deliver machine understanding to the traditional web, has attracted a significant amount of research from academia as well as from industries. Semantic web is an extension of the current web in which data can be shared and reused across the internet. RDF and ontology are two essential components of the semantic web architecture which support a common framework for data storage and representation of data semantics, respectively. Ontologies being the backbone of semantic web applications, it is more relevant to study various approaches in their application, usage, and integration into web services. In this article, an effort has been made to review the research work being undertaken in the area of design and development of ontology supported information systems. This paper also briefly explains the emerging semantic web technologies and standards.

  4. Ontological System for Context Artifacts and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, T.; Chung, N. T.; Mukherjee, R. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Adaptive Vehicle Make (AVM) program is a portfolio of programs, managed by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). It was established to revolutionize how DoD designs, verifies, and manufactures complex defense systems and vehicles. The Component, Context, and Manufacturing Model Library (C2M2L; pronounced "camel") seeks to develop domain-specific models needed to enable design, verification, and fabrication of the Fast Adaptable Next-Generation (FANG) infantry fighting vehicle using in its overall infrastructure. Terrain models are being developed to represent the surface/fluid that an amphibious infantry fighting vehicle would traverse, ranging from paved road surfaces to rocky, mountainous terrain, slope, discrete obstacles, mud, sand snow, and water fording. Context models are being developed to provide additional data for environmental factors, such as: humidity, wind speed, particulate presence and character, solar radiation, cloud cover, precipitation, and more. The Ontological System for Context Artifacts and Resources (OSCAR) designed and developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is semantic web data system that enables context artifacts to be registered and searched according to their meaning, rather than indexed according to their syntactic structure alone (as in the case for traditional search engines). The system leverages heavily on the Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology (SWEET) ontologies to model physical terrain environment and context model characteristics. In this talk, we focus on the application of the SWEET ontologies and the design of the OSCAR system architecture.

  5. A Systematic Analysis of Term Reuse and Term Overlap across Biomedical Ontologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamdar, Maulik R.; Tudorache, Tania; Musen, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Reusing ontologies and their terms is a principle and best practice that most ontology development methodologies strongly encourage. Reuse comes with the promise to support the semantic interoperability and to reduce engineering costs. In this paper, we present a descriptive study of the current extent of term reuse and overlap among biomedical ontologies. We use the corpus of biomedical ontologies stored in the BioPortal repository, and analyze different types of reuse and overlap constructs. While we find an approximate term overlap between 25–31%, the term reuse is only 90% semantic similarity, hinting that ontology developers tend to reuse terms that are sibling or parent–child nodes. We validate this finding by analysing the logs generated from a Protégé plugin that enables developers to reuse terms from BioPortal. We find most reuse constructs were 2-level subtrees on the higher levels of the class hierarchy. We developed a Web application that visualizes reuse dependencies and overlap among ontologies, and that proposes similar terms from BioPortal for a term of interest. We also identified a set of error patterns that indicate that ontology developers did intend to reuse terms from other ontologies, but that they were using different and sometimes incorrect representations. Our results stipulate the need for semi-automated tools that augment term reuse in the ontology engineering process through personalized recommendations. PMID:28819351

  6. Creating an Efficient Methanol-Stable Biocatalyst by Protein and Immobilization Engineering Steps towards Efficient Biosynthesis of Biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gihaz, Shalev; Weiser, Diána; Dror, Adi; Sátorhelyi, Péter; Jerabek-Willemsen, Moran; Poppe, László; Fishman, Ayelet

    2016-11-23

    Two ternary sol-gel matrices, an octyltriethoxysilane-based aliphatic matrix and a phenyltriethoxysilane (PTEOS)-based aromatic matrix, were used to immobilize a methanol-stable variant of lipase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus T6 for the synthesis of biodiesel from waste oil. Superior thermal stability of the mutant versus the wildtype in methanol was confirmed by intrinsic protein fluorescence measurements. The influence of skim milk and soluble E. coli lysate proteins as bulking and stabilizing agents in conjunction with sol-gel entrapment were investigated. E. coli lysate proteins were better stabilizing agents of the purified lipase mutant than skim milk, as evidenced by reverse engineering of the aromatic-based system. This was also shown for commercial Candida antarctica lipase B (CaLB) and Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase (TLL). Uniform, dense, and nonaggregated particles imaged by scanning electron microscopy and a small particle size of 13 μm pertaining to the system comprising PTEOS and E. coli lysate proteins correlated well with high esterification activity. Combining protein and immobilization engineering resulted in a durable biocatalyst with efficient recycling ability and high biodiesel conversion rates. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. The Law of Gravitation for Ontologies and Domains of Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Ermolayev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The idea of the presented approach is to borrow a plausible analogy of a ``system law''\\footnote{ As remarked in [2], a system law is a rule which generalizes the behavior of some observed phenomenon within a concrete system and its given spatiotemporal context. A system law tells what behavior is expected within the system. Thus a system's law can cause change or represent a barrier to change. It can be used to predict certain aspects of the system behavior, which are based on the force, or influence it exerts on the internal environment of the system. In contrast to a natural law, a system law is neither universal nor does it need to be true, correct, etc. } from the field of Dynamics in Mechanics -- the Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation. This analogy is exploited for building the law of gravitation in dynamic systems comprising a Domain of Discourse and knowledge representations (ontologies describing this domain. As ontology elements do not possess physical mass, this component of the gravitation law is substituted by the property of \\textit{fitness} of an ontology to the requirements of the knowledge stakeholders characteristic for the described domain. It is also argued that the implementation of the developed theoretical framework is feasible as the supporting techniques, including some software tools, already exist. As the examples of the relevant component methods and tools, the paper presents concisely the OntoElect methodology, Ontology Difference Visualizer, and Structural Difference Discovery Engine. These instruments help solve some practical problems in eliciting domain requirements, developing structural contexts for the requirements, generating the mappings between these structural contexts and the target ontology, computing increments and decrements of ontology fitness based on these mappings. It is concluded that the presented framework has prospects to be applied practically for visualization and analysis of ontology

  8. Gasoline compression ignition approach to efficient, clean and affordable future engines

    KAUST Repository

    Kalghatgi, Gautam

    2017-04-03

    The worldwide demand for transport fuels will increase significantly but will still be met substantially (a share of around 90%) from petroleum-based fuels. This increase in demand will be significantly skewed towards commercial vehicles and hence towards diesel and jet fuels, leading to a probable surplus of lighter low-octane fuels. Current diesel engines are efficient but expensive and complicated because they try to reduce the nitrogen oxide and soot emissions simultaneously while using conventional diesel fuels which ignite very easily. Gasoline compression ignition engines can be run on gasoline-like fuels with a long ignition delay to make low-nitrogen-oxide low-soot combustion very much easier. Moreover, the research octane number of the optimum fuel for gasoline compression ignition engines is likely to be around 70 and hence the surplus low-octane components could be used without much further processing. Also, the final boiling point can be higher than those of current gasolines. The potential advantages of gasoline compression ignition engines are as follows. First, the engine is at least as efficient and clean as current diesel engines but is less complicated and hence could be cheaper (lower injection pressure and after-treatment focus on control of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions rather than on soot and nitrogen oxide emissions). Second, the optimum fuel requires less processing and hence would be easier to make in comparison with current gasoline or diesel fuel and will have a lower greenhouse-gas footprint. Third, it provides a path to mitigate the global demand imbalance between heavier fuels and lighter fuels that is otherwise projected and improve the sustainability of refineries. The concept has been well demonstrated in research engines but development work is needed to make it feasible on practical vehicles, e.g. on cold start, adequate control of exhaust carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons and control of noise at medium to high loads

  9. Cosmological Ontology and Epistemology

    CERN Document Server

    Page, Don N

    2014-01-01

    In cosmology, we would like to explain our observations and predict future observations from theories of the entire universe. Such cosmological theories make ontological assumptions of what entities exist and what their properties and relationships are. One must also make epistemological assumptions or metatheories of how one can test cosmological theories. Here I shall propose a Bayesian analysis in which the likelihood of a complete theory is given by the normalized measure it assigns to the observation used to test the theory. In this context, a discussion is given of the trade-off between prior probabilities and likelihoods, of the measure problem of cosmology, of the death of Born's rule, of the Boltzmann brain problem, of whether there is a better principle for prior probabilities than mathematical simplicity, and of an Optimal Argument for the Existence of God.

  10. Ontology in association rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Inhaúma Neves; Garcia, Ana Cristina Bicharra

    2013-01-01

    Data mining has emerged to address the problem of transforming data into useful knowledge. Although most data mining techniques, such as the use of association rules, may substantially reduce the search effort over large data sets, often, the consequential outcomes surpass the amount of information humanly manageable. On the other hand, important association rules may be overlooked owing to the setting of the support threshold, which is a very subjective metric, but rooted in most data mining techniques. This paper presents a study on the effects, in terms of precision and recall, of using a data preparation technique, called SemPrune, which is built on domain ontology. SemPrune is intended for pre- and post-processing phases of data mining. Identifying generalization/specialization relations, as well as composition/decomposition relations, is the key to successfully applying SemPrune.

  11. Efficiency at maximum power output of linear irreversible Carnot-like heat engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Tu, Z C

    2012-01-01

    The efficiency at maximum power output of linear irreversible Carnot-like heat engines is investigated based on the assumption that the rate of irreversible entropy production of the working substance in each "isothermal" process is a quadratic form of the heat exchange rate between the working substance and the reservoir. It is found that the maximum power output corresponds to minimizing the irreversible entropy production in two isothermal processes of the Carnot-like cycle, and that the efficiency at maximum power output has the form η(mP)=η(C)/(2-γη(C)), where η(C) is the Carnot efficiency, while γ depends on the heat transfer coefficients between the working substance and two reservoirs. The value of η(mP) is bounded between η(-)≡η(C)/2 and η(+)≡η(C)/(2-η(C)). These results are consistent with those obtained by Chen and Yan [J. Chem. Phys. 90, 3740 (1989)] based on the endoreversible assumption, those obtained by Esposito et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 150603 (2010)] based on the low-dissipation assumption, and those obtained by Schmiedl and Seifert [Europhys. Lett. 81, 20003 (2008)] for stochastic heat engines which in fact also satisfy the low-dissipation assumption. Additionally, we find that the endoreversible assumption happens to hold for Carnot-like heat engines operating at the maximum power output based on our fundamental assumption, and that the Carnot-like heat engines that we focused on do not strictly satisfy the low-dissipation assumption, which implies that the low-dissipation assumption or our fundamental assumption is a sufficient but non-necessary condition for the validity of η(mP)=η(C)/(2-γη(C)) as well as the existence of two bounds, η(-)≡η(C)/2 and η(+)≡η(C)/(2-η(C)). © 2012 American Physical Society

  12. Engineering management technologies of increasing energy efficiency processes in the investment and construction projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisovich Zelentsov, Leonid; Dmitrievna Mailyan, Liya; Sultanovich Shogenov, Murat

    2017-10-01

    The article deals with the problems of using the energy-efficient materials and engineering technologies during the construction of buildings and structures. As the analysis showed, one of the most important problems in this sphere is the infringement of production technologies working with energy-efficient materials. To improve the given situation, it is offered to set a technological normal at the design stage by means of working out the technological maps studying the set and the succession of operations in details, taking in mind the properties of energy-efficient materials. At Don State Technical University (DSTU) the intelligent systems of management are being developed providing organizational and technological and also informational integration of design and production stages by means of creating the single database of technological maps, volumes of work and resources.

  13. Diffusion engineering of ions and charge carriers for stable efficient perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Enbing; Chen, Han; Xie, Fengxian; Wu, Yongzhen; Chen, Wei; Su, Yanjie; Islam, Ashraful; Grätzel, Michael; Yang, Xudong; Han, Liyuan

    2017-06-01

    Long-term stability is crucial for the future application of perovskite solar cells, a promising low-cost photovoltaic technology that has rapidly advanced in the recent years. Here, we designed a nanostructured carbon layer to suppress the diffusion of ions/molecules within perovskite solar cells, an important degradation process in the device. Furthermore, this nanocarbon layer benefited the diffusion of electron charge carriers to enable a high-energy conversion efficiency. Finally, the efficiency on a perovskite solar cell with an aperture area of 1.02 cm2, after a thermal aging test at 85 °C for over 500 h, or light soaking for 1,000 h, was stable of over 15% during the entire test. The present diffusion engineering of ions/molecules and photo generated charges paves a way to realizing long-term stable and highly efficient perovskite solar cells.

  14. Engineering vesicle trafficking improves the extracellular activity and surface display efficiency of cellulases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hongting; Song, Meihui; He, Yao; Wang, Jiajing; Wang, Shenghuan; Shen, Yu; Hou, Jin; Bao, Xiaoming

    2017-01-01

    Cellulase expression via extracellular secretion or surface display in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the most frequently used strategies for a consolidated bioprocess (CBP) of cellulosic ethanol production. However, the inefficiency of the yeast secretory pathway often results in low production of heterologous proteins, which largely limits cellulase secretion or display. In this study, the components of the vesicle trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi and from the Golgi to the plasma membrane, involved in vesicle budding, tethering and fusion, were over-expressed in Clostridium thermocellum endoglucanase (CelA)- and Sacchromycopsis fibuligera β-glucosidase (BGL1)-secreting or -displaying strains. Engineering the targeted components in the ER to Golgi vesicle trafficking, including Sec12p, Sec13p, Erv25p and Bos1p, enhanced the extracellular activity of CelA. However, only Sec13p over-expression increased BGL1 secretion. By contrast, over-expression of the components in the Golgi to plasma membrane vesicle trafficking, including Sso1p, Snc2p, Sec1p, Exo70p, Ypt32p and Sec4p, showed better performance in increasing BGL1 secretion compared to CelA secretion, and the over-expression of these components all increased BGL1 extracellular activity. These results revealed that various cellulases showed different limitations in protein transport, and engineering vesicle trafficking has protein-specific effects. Importantly, we found that engineering the above vesicle trafficking components, particularly from the ER to the Golgi, also improved the display efficiency of CelA and BGL1 when a-agglutinin was used as surface display system. Further analyses illustrated that the display efficiency of a-agglutinin was increased by engineering vesicle trafficking, and the trend was consistent with displayed CelA and BGL1. These results indicated that fusion with a-agglutinin may affect the proteins' properties and alter the rate-limiting step in the

  15. Excavator energy-saving efficiency based on diesel engine cylinder deactivation technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Quan, Long; Yang, Yang

    2012-09-01

    The hydraulic excavator energy-saving research mainly embodies the following three measures: to improve the performance of diesel engine and hydraulic component, to improve the hydraulic system, and to improve the power matching of diesel-hydraulic system-actuator. Although the above measures have certain energy-saving effect, but because the hydraulic excavator load changes frequently and fluctuates dramatically, so the diesel engine often works in high-speed and light load condition, and the fuel consumption is higher. Therefore, in order to improve the economy of diesel engine in light load, and reduce the fuel consumption of hydraulic excavator, energy management concept is proposed based on diesel engine cylinder deactivation technology. By comparing the universal characteristic under diesel normal and deactivated cylinder condition, the mechanism that fuel consumption can be reduced significantly by adopting cylinder deactivation technology under part of loads condition can be clarified. The simulation models for hydraulic system and diesel engine are established by using AMESim software, and fuel combustion consumption by using cylinder-deactivation-technology is studied through digital simulation approach. In this way, the zone of cylinder deactivation is specified. The testing system for the excavator with this technology is set up based on simulated results, and the results show that the diesel engine can still work at high efficiency with part of loads after adopting this technology; fuel consumption is dropped down to 11% and 13% under economic and heavy-load mode respectively under the condition of driving requirements. The research provides references to the energy-saving study of the hydraulic excavators.

  16. Co-Optimization of Fuels & Engines for Tomorrow's Energy-Efficient Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    A new U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiative is accelerating the introduction of affordable, scalable, and sustainable biofuels and high-efficiency, low-emission vehicle engines. The simultaneous fuels and vehicles research and development (R&D) is designed to deliver maximum energy savings, emissions reduction, and on-road vehicle performance. The initiative's integrated approach combines the previously independent areas of biofuels and combustion R&D, bringing together two DOE Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy research offices, nine national laboratories, and numerous industry and academic partners to more rapidly identify commercially viable solutions. This multi-year project will provide industry with the scientific underpinnings required to move new biofuels and advanced engine systems to market faster while identifying and addressing barriers to their commercialization. This project's ambitious, first-of-its-kind approach simultaneously tackles fuel and engine innovation to co-optimize performance of both elements and provide dramatic and rapid cuts in fuel use and emissions.

  17. Engine-integrated solid oxide fuel cells for efficient electrical power generation on aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Daniel F.; Cadou, Christopher P.

    2015-06-01

    This work investigates the use of engine-integrated catalytic partial oxidation (CPOx) reactors and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) to reduce fuel burn in vehicles with large electrical loads like sensor-laden unmanned air vehicles. Thermodynamic models of SOFCs, CPOx reactors, and three gas turbine (GT) engine types (turbojet, combined exhaust turbofan, separate exhaust turbofan) are developed and checked against relevant data and source material. Fuel efficiency is increased by 4% and 8% in the 50 kW and 90 kW separate exhaust turbofan systems respectively at only modest cost in specific power (8% and 13% reductions respectively). Similar results are achieved in other engine types. An additional benefit of hybridization is the ability to provide more electric power (factors of 3 or more in some cases) than generator-based systems before encountering turbine inlet temperature limits. A sensitivity analysis shows that the most important parameters affecting the system's performance are operating voltage, percent fuel oxidation, and SOFC assembly air flows. Taken together, this study shows that it is possible to create a GT-SOFC hybrid where the GT mitigates balance of plant losses and the SOFC raises overall system efficiency. The result is a synergistic system with better overall performance than stand-alone components.

  18. Phenex: ontological annotation of phenotypic diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P Balhoff

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Phenotypic differences among species have long been systematically itemized and described by biologists in the process of investigating phylogenetic relationships and trait evolution. Traditionally, these descriptions have been expressed in natural language within the context of individual journal publications or monographs. As such, this rich store of phenotype data has been largely unavailable for statistical and computational comparisons across studies or integration with other biological knowledge.Here we describe Phenex, a platform-independent desktop application designed to facilitate efficient and consistent annotation of phenotypic similarities and differences using Entity-Quality syntax, drawing on terms from community ontologies for anatomical entities, phenotypic qualities, and taxonomic names. Phenex can be configured to load only those ontologies pertinent to a taxonomic group of interest. The graphical user interface was optimized for evolutionary biologists accustomed to working with lists of taxa, characters, character states, and character-by-taxon matrices.Annotation of phenotypic data using ontologies and globally unique taxonomic identifiers will allow biologists to integrate phenotypic data from different organisms and studies, leveraging decades of work in systematics and comparative morphology.

  19. Cyber Forensics Ontology for Cyber Criminal Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Heum; Cho, Sunho; Kwon, Hyuk-Chul

    We developed Cyber Forensics Ontology for the criminal investigation in cyber space. Cyber crime is classified into cyber terror and general cyber crime, and those two classes are connected with each other. The investigation of cyber terror requires high technology, system environment and experts, and general cyber crime is connected with general crime by evidence from digital data and cyber space. Accordingly, it is difficult to determine relational crime types and collect evidence. Therefore, we considered the classifications of cyber crime, the collection of evidence in cyber space and the application of laws to cyber crime. In order to efficiently investigate cyber crime, it is necessary to integrate those concepts for each cyber crime-case. Thus, we constructed a cyber forensics domain ontology for criminal investigation in cyber space, according to the categories of cyber crime, laws, evidence and information of criminals. This ontology can be used in the process of investigating of cyber crime-cases, and for data mining of cyber crime; classification, clustering, association and detection of crime types, crime cases, evidences and criminals.

  20. Constitutive relation for nonlinear response and universality of efficiency at maximum power for tight-coupling heat engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Shiqi; Tu, Z C

    2015-02-01

    We present a unified perspective on nonequilibrium heat engines by generalizing nonlinear irreversible thermodynamics. For tight-coupling heat engines, a generic constitutive relation for nonlinear response accurate up to the quadratic order is derived from the stalling condition and the symmetry argument. By applying this generic nonlinear constitutive relation to finite-time thermodynamics, we obtain the necessary and sufficient condition for the universality of efficiency at maximum power, which states that a tight-coupling heat engine takes the universal efficiency at maximum power up to the quadratic order if and only if either the engine symmetrically interacts with two heat reservoirs or the elementary thermal energy flowing through the engine matches the characteristic energy of the engine. Hence we solve the following paradox: On the one hand, the quadratic term in the universal efficiency at maximum power for tight-coupling heat engines turned out to be a consequence of symmetry [Esposito, Lindenberg, and Van den Broeck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 130602 (2009); Sheng and Tu, Phys. Rev. E 89, 012129 (2014)]; On the other hand, typical heat engines such as the Curzon-Ahlborn endoreversible heat engine [Curzon and Ahlborn, Am. J. Phys. 43, 22 (1975)] and the Feynman ratchet [Tu, J. Phys. A 41, 312003 (2008)] recover the universal efficiency at maximum power regardless of any symmetry.

  1. Energy Efficient Engine (E3) combustion system component technology performance report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrus, D. L.; Chahrour, C. A.; Foltz, H. L.; Sabla, P. E.; Seto, S. P.; Taylor, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    The Energy Efficient Engine (E3) combustor effort was conducted as part of the overall NASA/GE E3 Program. This effort included the selection of an advanced double-annular combustion system design. The primary intent of this effort was to evolve a design that meets the stringent emissions and life goals of the E3, as well as all of the usual performance requirements of combustion systems for modern turbofan engines. Numerous detailed design studies were conducted to define the features of the combustion system design. Development test hardware was fabricated, and an extensive testing effort was undertaken to evaluate the combustion system subcomponents in order to verify and refine the design. Technology derived from this effort was incorporated into the engine combustion hardware design. The advanced engine combustion system was then evaluated in component testing to verify the design intent. What evolved from this effort was an advanced combustion system capable of satisfying all of the combustion system design objectives and requirements of the E3.

  2. Finding the best visualization of an ontology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabritius, Christina; Madsen, Nadia; Clausen, Jens

    2006-01-01

    An ontology is a classification model for a given domain.In information retrieval ontologies are used to perform broad searches.An ontology can be visualized as nodes and edges. Each node represents an element and each edge a relation between a parent and a child element. Working with an ontology...

  3. Conservation of quantum efficiency in quantum well intermixing by stress engineering with dielectric bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Seval; Demir, Abdullah; Şahin, Seval; Aydınlı, Atilla

    2018-02-01

    In semiconductor lasers, quantum well intermixing (QWI) with high selectivity using dielectrics often results in lower quantum efficiency. In this paper, we report on an investigation regarding the effect of thermally induced dielectric stress on the quantum efficiency of quantum well structures in impurity-free vacancy disordering (IFVD) process using photoluminescence and device characterization in conjunction with microscopy. SiO2 and Si x O2/SrF2 (versus SrF2) films were employed for the enhancement and suppression of QWI, respectively. Large intermixing selectivity of 75 nm (125 meV), consistent with the theoretical modeling results, with negligible effect on the suppression region characteristics, was obtained. Si x O2 layer compensates for the large thermal expansion coefficient mismatch of SrF2 with the semiconductor and mitigates the detrimental effects of SrF2 without sacrificing its QWI benefits. The bilayer dielectric approach dramatically improved the dielectric–semiconductor interface quality. Fabricated high power semiconductor lasers demonstrated high quantum efficiency in the lasing region using the bilayer dielectric film during the intermixing process. Our results reveal that stress engineering in IFVD is essential and the thermal stress can be controlled by engineering the dielectric strain opening new perspectives for QWI of photonic devices.

  4. Pulse Combustor Driven Pressure Gain Combustion for High Efficiency Gas Turbine Engines

    KAUST Repository

    Lisanti, Joel

    2017-02-01

    The gas turbine engine is an essential component of the global energy infrastructure which accounts for a significant portion of the total fossil fuel consumption in transportation and electric power generation sectors. For this reason there is significant interest in further increasing the efficiency and reducing the pollutant emissions of these devices. Conventional approaches to this goal, which include increasing the compression ratio, turbine inlet temperature, and turbine/compressor efficiency, have brought modern gas turbine engines near the limits of what may be achieved with the conventionally applied Brayton cycle. If a significant future step increase in gas turbine efficiency is to be realized some deviation from this convention is necessary. The pressure gain gas turbine concept is a well established new combustion technology that promises to provide a dramatic increase in gas turbine efficiency by replacing the isobaric heat addition process found in conventional technology with an isochoric process. The thermodynamic benefit of even a small increase in stagnation pressure across a gas turbine combustor translates to a significant increase in cycle efficiency. To date there have been a variety of methods proposed for achieving stagnation pressure gains across a gas turbine combustor and these concepts have seen a broad spectrum of levels of success. The following chapter provides an introduction to one of the proposed pressure gain methods that may be most easily realized in a practical application. This approach, known as pulse combustor driven pressure gain combustion, utilizes an acoustically resonant pulse combustor to approximate isochoric heat release and thus produce a rise in stagnation pressure.

  5. Genetic engineering of Ganoderma lucidum for the efficient production of ganoderic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun-Wei; Zhong, Jian-Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a well-known traditional medicinal mushroom that produces ganoderic acids with numerous interesting bioactivities. Genetic engineering is an efficient approach to improve ganoderic acid biosynthesis. However, reliable genetic transformation methods and appropriate genetic manipulation strategies remain underdeveloped and thus should be enhanced. We previously established a homologous genetic transformation method for G. lucidum; we also applied the established method to perform the deregulated overexpression of a homologous 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase gene in G. lucidum. Engineered strains accumulated more ganoderic acids than wild-type strains. In this report, the genetic transformation systems of G. lucidum are described; current trends are also presented to improve ganoderic acid production through the genetic manipulation of G. lucidum.

  6. Graded band-gap engineering for increased efficiency in CZTS solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferhati, H.; Djeffal, F.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we propose a potential high efficiency Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4/CdS (CZTS) solar cell design based on graded band-gap engineering that can offer the benefits of improved absorption behavior and reduced recombination effects. Moreover, a new hybrid approach based on analytical modeling and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is proposed to determinate the optimal band-gap profile of the amended CZTS absorber layer to achieve further efficiency enhancement. It is found that the proposed design exhibits superior performance, where a high efficiency of 16.9% is recorded for the optimized solar cell with a relative improvement of 92%, compared with the reference cell efficiency of 8.8%. Likewise, the optimized CZTS solar cell with a graded band-gap enables achieving a higher open circuit voltage of 889 mV, a short-circuit current of 28.5 mA and a fill factor of 66%. Therefore, the optimized CZTS-based solar cell with graded-band gap paradigm pinpoints a new path toward recording high-efficiency thin-film solar cells through enhancing carrier collection and reducing the recombination rate.

  7. Root justifications for ontology repair

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moodley, K

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been significant progress in developing tools for debugging and repairing Description Logic (DL)-based ontologies with erroneous consequences. However, these tools place more emphasis on explaining why the consequences...

  8. A Mobile Army of Ontologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    for game and videogame research? The round table is designed to promote ludo-ontological dialogue in order to make these questions visible and debated. A series of short presentations (approximately 10 minutes each) will be followed by an intense debate through freeform dialogue. After the industrial......Presentation at the Ludo-ontologies panel. Do we need ludo-ontologies, and what are they? In this event several scholars of games and videogames discuss these questions from a variety of perspectives. What different game and videogame ontologies exist and could exist, and why they are important...... commercialization of games and videogames their study has shifted between approaches focused on players (ludic processes) and artifacts (ludic objects). Some attempts to analyze the relationship between the process and the object have occasionally been done in terms of ‘ontology’ (Zagal 2005; Leino 2010; Gualeni...

  9. Introducing defeasibility into OWL ontologies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Casini, G

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available comprehensively. A major barrier is the lack of naturally occurring ontologies with defeasible features - the ideal candidates for evaluation. Such data is unavailable due to absence of tool support for representing defeasible features. In the past, defeasible...

  10. Epistemology and ontology in core ontologies: FOLaw and LRI-Core, two core ontologies for law

    OpenAIRE

    Breukers, J.A.P.J.; Hoekstra, R.J.

    2004-01-01

    For more than a decade constructing ontologies for legal domains, we, at the Leibniz Center for Law, felt really the need to develop a core ontology for law that would enable us to re-use the common denominator of the various legal domains. In this paper we present two core ontologies for law. The first one was the result of a PhD thesis by [Valente, 1995], called FOLaw. FOLaw speci- fies functional dependencies between types of knowledge involved in legal reasoning. Despite the fact that FOL...

  11. Effects of dark energy on the efficiency of charged AdS black holes as heat engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hang; Meng, Xin-He

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we study the heat engine where a charged AdS black hole surrounded by dark energy is the working substance and the mechanical work is done via the PdV term in the first law of black hole thermodynamics in the extended phase space. We first investigate the effects of a kind of dark energy (quintessence field in this paper) on the efficiency of the RN-AdS black holes as the heat engine defined as a rectangular closed path in the P- V plane. We get the exact efficiency formula and find that the quintessence field can improve the heat engine efficiency, which will increase as the field density ρ _q grows. At some fixed parameters, we find that a larger volume difference between the smaller black holes(V_1) and the bigger black holes(V_2 ) will lead to a lower efficiency, while the bigger pressure difference P_1-P_4 will make the efficiency higher, but it is always smaller than 1 and will never be beyond the Carnot efficiency, which is the maximum value of the efficiency constrained by thermodynamics laws; this is consistent to the heat engine in traditional thermodynamics. After making some special choices for the thermodynamical quantities, we find that the increase of the electric charge Q and the normalization factor a can also promote the heat engine efficiency, which would infinitely approach the Carnot limit when Q or a goes to infinity.

  12. The National Center for Biomedical Ontology

    OpenAIRE

    Mark A. Musen; Natalya F. Noy; Shah, Nigam H.; Patricia L. Whetzel; Christopher G. Chute; Story, Margaret-Anne; Smith, Barry

    2011-01-01

    The National Center for Biomedical Ontology is now in its seventh year. The goals of this National Center for Biomedical Computing are to: create and maintain a repository of biomedical ontologies and terminologies; build tools and web services to enable the use of ontologies and terminologies in clinical and translational research; educate their trainees and the scientific community broadly about biomedical ontology and ontology-based technology and best practices; and collaborate with a var...

  13. Efficient genome engineering of Toxoplasma gondii using CRISPR/Cas9.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima M Sidik

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a parasite of humans and animals, and a model for other apicomplexans including Plasmodium spp., the causative agents of malaria. Despite many advances, manipulating the T. gondii genome remains labor intensive, and is often restricted to lab-adapted strains or lines carrying mutations that enable selection. Here, we use the RNA-guided Cas9 nuclease to efficiently generate knockouts without selection, and to introduce point mutations and epitope tags into the T. gondii genome. These methods will streamline the functional analysis of parasite genes and enable high-throughput engineering of their genomes.

  14. Semantics Web and Ontology Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Musumbu, Kaninda

    2013-01-01

    International audience; The Semantics Web is a vision for the future of the Web in which informati on is given explicit meaning, making it easier for machines to automatically pro cess and integrate information available on the Web. An ontology defines the terms used to describe and represent an area of knowledg e. Ontologies are used by people, databases, and applications that need to share domain information (a domain is just a specific subject area or area of knowled ge, like medicine, too...

  15. SWEET 2.1 Ontologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raskin, R. G.

    2010-12-01

    The Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology (SWEET) ontologies represent a mid- to upper-level concept space for all of Earth and Planetary Science and associated data and applications The latest version (2.1) has been reorganized to improve long-term maintainability. Accompanying the ontologies is a mapping to the CF Standard Name Table and the GCMD Science Keywords. As a higher level concept space, terms can be readily mapped across these vocabularies through the intermediate use of SWEET.

  16. Social ontologi og metodologisk individualisme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldursson, Einar Baldvin

    2013-01-01

    spørgsmålet om hvorvidt metode fordrer en bestemt ontologi, gives eksempler på social metodologi. Dermed etableres et afsæt for en konkret vurdering af, om der er - og i givet fald hvilken - sammenhæng mellem ontologi og metodologi (Red.).for at modellering og simulation åbner muligheden for at afprøvning og...

  17. Amphibious Worlds:Environments, Infrastructures, Ontologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CASPER BRUUN JENSEN

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Presently, we are witness to a global intensification of water-related disasters related to flooding, sinking erosion, and drought, reflecting changes in global water circulation, rising sea levels and changing weather patterns. Indeed, water is often the medium through which the message of climate change is delivered. Conventionally, water-related engineering projects have managed amphibious spaces through terrestrial approaches premised on removing or controlling water, for example by land reclamation and drainage. They can be contrasted with amphibious approaches that take water flows as a given and organize life around it––as exemplified by living in floating villages or houses on stilts, using water as a primary mode of transportation, or growing crops in water. Yet, the amphibious is gaining new life, as water seems to be increasingly flowing back into land, everywhere giving rise to emergencies that call for creative response. Thus, urban planners, engineers, and architects devise new infrastructures and models adaptive to environments that are becoming amphibious once again, or for the first time, and people living in watery environments everywhere find ways of adapting to increasingly amphibious circumstances. Doing so, they are contributing to the ongoing ontological transformation of amphibious worlds. This introduction to the thematic collection on “Amphibious Worlds: Environments, Infrastructures, Ontologies,” outlines some of the key issues facing STS and anthropological studies of such worlds, and introduces the papers that follow.

  18. Model Validation in Ontology Based Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús M. Almendros-Jiménez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Model Driven Engineering (MDE is an emerging approach of software engineering. MDE emphasizes the construction of models from which the implementation should be derived by applying model transformations. The Ontology Definition Meta-model (ODM has been proposed as a profile for UML models of the Web Ontology Language (OWL. In this context, transformations of UML models can be mapped into ODM/OWL transformations. On the other hand, model validation is a crucial task in model transformation. Meta-modeling permits to give a syntactic structure to source and target models. However, semantic requirements have to be imposed on source and target models. A given transformation will be sound when source and target models fulfill the syntactic and semantic requirements. In this paper, we present an approach for model validation in ODM based transformations. Adopting a logic programming based transformational approach we will show how it is possible to transform and validate models. Properties to be validated range from structural and semantic requirements of models (pre and post conditions to properties of the transformation (invariants. The approach has been applied to a well-known example of model transformation: the Entity-Relationship (ER to Relational Model (RM transformation.

  19. Ontology construction and application in practice case study of health tourism in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantrapornchai, Chantana; Choksuchat, Chidchanok

    2016-01-01

    Ontology is one of the key components in semantic webs. It contains the core knowledge for an effective search. However, building ontology requires the carefully-collected knowledge which is very domain-sensitive. In this work, we present the practice of ontology construction for a case study of health tourism in Thailand. The whole process follows the METHONTOLOGY approach, which consists of phases: information gathering, corpus study, ontology engineering, evaluation, publishing, and the application construction. Different sources of data such as structure web documents like HTML and other documents are acquired in the information gathering process. The tourism corpora from various tourism texts and standards are explored. The ontology is evaluated in two aspects: automatic reasoning using Pellet, and RacerPro, and the questionnaires, used to evaluate by experts of the domains: tourism domain experts and ontology experts. The ontology usability is demonstrated via the semantic web application and via example axioms. The developed ontology is actually the first health tourism ontology in Thailand with the published application.

  20. A Systematic Analysis of Term Reuse and Term Overlap across Biomedical Ontologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamdar, Maulik R; Tudorache, Tania; Musen, Mark A

    2017-01-01

    Reusing ontologies and their terms is a principle and best practice that most ontology development methodologies strongly encourage. Reuse comes with the promise to support the semantic interoperability and to reduce engineering costs. In this paper, we present a descriptive study of the current extent of term reuse and overlap among biomedical ontologies. We use the corpus of biomedical ontologies stored in the BioPortal repository, and analyze different types of reuse and overlap constructs. While we find an approximate term overlap between 25-31%, the term reuse is only reusing fewer than 5% of their terms from a small set of popular ontologies. Clustering analysis shows that the terms reused by a common set of ontologies have >90% semantic similarity, hinting that ontology developers tend to reuse terms that are sibling or parent-child nodes. We validate this finding by analysing the logs generated from a Protégé plugin that enables developers to reuse terms from BioPortal. We find most reuse constructs were 2-level subtrees on the higher levels of the class hierarchy. We developed a Web application that visualizes reuse dependencies and overlap among ontologies, and that proposes similar terms from BioPortal for a term of interest. We also identified a set of error patterns that indicate that ontology developers did intend to reuse terms from other ontologies, but that they were using different and sometimes incorrect representations. Our results stipulate the need for semi-automated tools that augment term reuse in the ontology engineering process through personalized recommendations.

  1. Pitfalls of Ontology in Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldosari, Bakheet; Alanazi, Abdullah; Househ, Mowafa

    2017-01-01

    Much research has been done in the last few decades in clinical research, medicine, life sciences, etc. leading to an exponential increase in the generation of data. Managing this vast information not only requires integration of the data, but also a means to analyze, relate, and retrieve it. Ontology, in the field of medicine, describes the concepts of medical terminologies and the relation between them, thus, enabling the sharing of medical knowledge. Ontology-based analyses are associated with a risk that errors in modeling may deteriorate the results' quality. Identifying flawed practices or anomalies in ontologies is a crucial issue to be addressed by researchers. In this paper, we review the negative sides of ontology in the field of medicine. Our study results show that ontologies are perceived as a mere tool to represent medical knowledge, thus relying more on the computer science-based understanding of medical terms. While this approach may be sufficient for data entry systems, in which the users merely need to browse the hierarchy and select relevant terms, it may not suffice the real-world scenario of dealing with complex patient records, which are not only grammatically complex, but also are sometimes documented in many native languages. In conclusion, more research is required in identifying poor practices and anomalies in the development of ontologies by computer scientists within the field of medicine.

  2. Semantic enrichment for medical ontologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yugyung; Geller, James

    2006-04-01

    The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) contains two separate but interconnected knowledge structures, the Semantic Network (upper level) and the Metathesaurus (lower level). In this paper, we have attempted to work out better how the use of such a two-level structure in the medical field has led to notable advances in terminologies and ontologies. However, most ontologies and terminologies do not have such a two-level structure. Therefore, we present a method, called semantic enrichment, which generates a two-level ontology from a given one-level terminology and an auxiliary two-level ontology. During semantic enrichment, concepts of the one-level terminology are assigned to semantic types, which are the building blocks of the upper level of the auxiliary two-level ontology. The result of this process is the desired new two-level ontology. We discuss semantic enrichment of two example terminologies and how we approach the implementation of semantic enrichment in the medical domain. This implementation performs a major part of the semantic enrichment process with the medical terminologies, with difficult cases left to a human expert.

  3. Musical Ontology: Critical, not Metaphysical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A. Neufeld

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ontology of musical works often sets the boundaries within which evaluation of musical works and performances takes place. Questions of ontology are therefore often taken to be prior to and apart from the evaluative questions considered by either performers as they present works to audiences or an audience’s critical reflection on a performance. In this paper I argue that, while the ontology of musical works may well set the boundaries of legitimate evaluation, ontological questions should not be considered as prior to or apart from critical evaluation. Rather, ontological claims are a type of critical evaluation made within musical practices. I argue that philosophers of music might learn from the debate in political philosophy about the difficulty of setting the limits of public reason in a way that remains open to a plurality of legitimate evaluative perspectives. Just as pre-political or metaphysical identification of the boundaries of public reason fail to accommodate the fact of pluralism in contemporary democratic politics, so too does a metaphysical identification of the boundaries of legitimate evaluation of musical works and performances fail to accommodate the fact of pluralism in contemporary musical practices. I apply John Rawls’s formulation of political liberalism, arguing that musical ontology should be critical, not metaphysical.

  4. Surface Engineering of ZnO Thin Film for High Efficiency Planar Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Zong-Liang; Chiang, Chien-Hung; Wu, Chun-Guey

    2015-09-28

    Sputtering made ZnO thin film was used as an electron-transport layer in a regular planar perovskite solar cell based on high quality CH3NH3PbI3 absorber prepared with a two-step spin-coating. An efficiency up to 15.9% under AM 1.5G irradiation is achieved for the cell based on ZnO film fabricated under Ar working gas. The atmosphere of the sputtering chamber can tune the surface electronic properties (band structure) of the resulting ZnO thin film and therefore the photovoltaic performance of the corresponding perovskite solar cell. Precise surface engineering of ZnO thin film was found to be one of the key steps to fabricate ZnO based regular planar perovskite solar cell with high power conversion efficiency. Sputtering method is proved to be one of the excellent techniques to prepare ZnO thin film with controllable properties.

  5. Solvent engineering for high-quality perovskite solar cell with an efficiency approaching 20%

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tongyue; Wu, Jihuai; Tu, Yongguang; He, Xin; Lan, Zhang; Huang, Miaoliang; Lin, Jianming

    2017-10-01

    The perovskite layer is the most crucial factor for the high performance perovskite solar cells. Based on solvent engineering, we develop a ternary-mixed-solvent method for the growth of high-quality [Cs0.05(MA0.17FA0.83)0.95Pb(I0.83Br0.17)3] cation-anion-mixed perovskite films by introducing N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) into the precursor mixed solution. By controlling rapid nucleation and retarding crystal growth via intermediate phase PbI2-NMP (Lewis acid-base adduct), a dense, large grain, pinhole-free and long charge carrier lifetime perovskite film is obtained. By optimizing the precursor solvent composition, the perovskite solar cell achieves an impressive power conversion efficiency of 19.61% under one-sun illumination. The research presented here provides a facile, low-cost and highly efficient way for the preparation of perovskite solar cells.

  6. ``Force,'' ontology, and language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, David T.; Etkina, Eugenia

    2009-06-01

    We introduce a linguistic framework through which one can interpret systematically students’ understanding of and reasoning about force and motion. Some researchers have suggested that students have robust misconceptions or alternative frameworks grounded in everyday experience. Others have pointed out the inconsistency of students’ responses and presented a phenomenological explanation for what is observed, namely, knowledge in pieces. We wish to present a view that builds on and unifies aspects of this prior research. Our argument is that many students’ difficulties with force and motion are primarily due to a combination of linguistic and ontological difficulties. It is possible that students are primarily engaged in trying to define and categorize the meaning of the term “force” as spoken about by physicists. We found that this process of negotiation of meaning is remarkably similar to that engaged in by physicists in history. In this paper we will describe a study of the historical record that reveals an analogous process of meaning negotiation, spanning multiple centuries. Using methods from cognitive linguistics and systemic functional grammar, we will present an analysis of the force and motion literature, focusing on prior studies with interview data. We will then discuss the implications of our findings for physics instruction.

  7. Computing an Ontological Semantics for a Natural Language Fragment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szymczak, Bartlomiej Antoni

    tried to establish a domain independent “ontological semantics” for relevant fragments of natural language. The purpose of this research is to develop methods and systems for taking advantage of formal ontologies for the purpose of extracting the meaning contents of texts. This functionality......The key objective of the research that has been carried out has been to establish theoretically sound connections between the following two areas: • Computational processing of texts in natural language by means of logical methods • Theories and methods for engineering of formal ontologies We have...... is desirable e.g. for future content–based search systems in contrast to today’s keyword based search systems (viz., Google) which rely chiefly on recognition of stated keywords in the targeted text. Logical methods were introduced into semantic theories for natural language already during the 60’s in what...

  8. A Lexical-Ontological Resource for Consumer Heathcare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardillo, Elena

    In Consumer Healthcare Informatics it is still difficult for laypersons to understand and act on health information, due to the persistent communication gap between specialized medical terminology and that used by healthcare consumers. Furthermore, existing clinically-oriented terminologies cannot provide sufficient support when integrated into consumer-oriented applications, so there is a need to create consumer-friendly terminologies reflecting the different ways healthcare consumers express and think about health topics. Following this direction, this work suggests a way to support the design of an ontology-based system that mitigates this gap, using knowledge engineering and Semantic Web technologies. The system is based on the development of a consumer-oriented medical terminology which will be integrated with other existing domain ontologies/terminologies into a medical ontology repository. This will support consumer-oriented healthcare systems by providing many knowledge services to help users in accessing and managing their healthcare data.

  9. A Lexical-Ontological Resource for Consumer Healthcare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardillo, Elena; Serafini, Luciano; Tamilin, Andrei

    In Consumer Healthcare Informatics it is still difficult for laypeople to find, understand and act on health information, due to the persistent communication gap between specialized medical terminology and that used by healthcare consumers. Furthermore, existing clinically-oriented terminologies cannot provide sufficient support when integrated into consumer-oriented applications, so there is a need to create consumer-friendly terminologies reflecting the different ways healthcare consumers express and think about health topics. Following this direction, this work suggests a way to support the design of an ontology-based system that mitigates this gap, using knowledge engineering and semantic web technologies. The system is based on the development of a consumer-oriented medical terminology that will be integrated with other medical domain ontologies and terminologies into a medical ontology repository. This will support consumer-oriented healthcare systems, such as Personal Health Records, by providing many knowledge services to help users in accessing and managing their healthcare data.

  10. Efficient homologous recombination-mediated genome engineering in zebrafish using TALE nucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jimann; Chen, Jiakun; Solnica-Krezel, Lilianna

    2014-10-01

    Custom-designed nucleases afford a powerful reverse genetic tool for direct gene disruption and genome modification in vivo. Among various applications of the nucleases, homologous recombination (HR)-mediated genome editing is particularly useful for inserting heterologous DNA fragments, such as GFP, into a specific genomic locus in a sequence-specific fashion. However, precise HR-mediated genome editing is still technically challenging in zebrafish. Here, we establish a GFP reporter system for measuring the frequency of HR events in live zebrafish embryos. By co-injecting a TALE nuclease and GFP reporter targeting constructs with homology arms of different size, we defined the length of homology arms that increases the recombination efficiency. In addition, we found that the configuration of the targeting construct can be a crucial parameter in determining the efficiency of HR-mediated genome engineering. Implementing these modifications improved the efficiency of zebrafish knock-in generation, with over 10% of the injected F0 animals transmitting gene-targeting events through their germline. We generated two HR-mediated insertion alleles of sox2 and gfap loci that express either superfolder GFP (sfGFP) or tandem dimeric Tomato (tdTomato) in a spatiotemporal pattern that mirrors the endogenous loci. This efficient strategy provides new opportunities not only to monitor expression of endogenous genes and proteins and follow specific cell types in vivo, but it also paves the way for other sophisticated genetic manipulations of the zebrafish genome. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Efficient engineering of chromosomal ribosome binding site libraries in mismatch repair proficient Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oesterle, Sabine; Gerngross, Daniel; Schmitt, Steven; Roberts, Tania Michelle; Panke, Sven

    2017-09-26

    Multiplexed gene expression optimization via modulation of gene translation efficiency through ribosome binding site (RBS) engineering is a valuable approach for optimizing artificial properties in bacteria, ranging from genetic circuits to production pathways. Established algorithms design smart RBS-libraries based on a single partially-degenerate sequence that efficiently samples the entire space of translation initiation rates. However, the sequence space that is accessible when integrating the library by CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing is severely restricted by DNA mismatch repair (MMR) systems. MMR efficiency depends on the type and length of the mismatch and thus effectively removes potential library members from the pool. Rather than working in MMR-deficient strains, which accumulate off-target mutations, or depending on temporary MMR inactivation, which requires additional steps, we eliminate this limitation by developing a pre-selection rule of genome-library-optimized-sequences (GLOS) that enables introducing large functional diversity into MMR-proficient strains with sequences that are no longer subject to MMR-processing. We implement several GLOS-libraries in Escherichia coli and show that GLOS-libraries indeed retain diversity during genome editing and that such libraries can be used in complex genome editing operations such as concomitant deletions. We argue that this approach allows for stable and efficient fine tuning of chromosomal functions with minimal effort.

  12. A molecularly engineered hole-transporting material for efficient perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliba, Michael; Orlandi, Simonetta; Matsui, Taisuke; Aghazada, Sadig; Cavazzini, Marco; Correa-Baena, Juan-Pablo; Gao, Peng; Scopelliti, Rosario; Mosconi, Edoardo; Dahmen, Klaus-Hermann; de Angelis, Filippo; Abate, Antonio; Hagfeldt, Anders; Pozzi, Gianluca; Graetzel, Michael; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja

    2016-02-01

    Solution-processable perovskite solar cells have recently achieved certified power conversion efficiencies of over 20%, challenging the long-standing perception that high efficiencies must come at high costs. One major bottleneck for increasing the efficiency even further is the lack of suitable hole-transporting materials, which extract positive charges from the active light absorber and transmit them to the electrode. In this work, we present a molecularly engineered hole-transport material with a simple dissymmetric fluorene-dithiophene (FDT) core substituted by N,N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine donor groups, which can be easily modified, providing the blueprint for a family of potentially low-cost hole-transport materials. We use FDT on state-of-the-art devices and achieve power conversion efficiencies of 20.2% which compare favourably with control devices with 2,2‧,7,7‧-tetrakis(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)-9,9‧-spirobifluorene (spiro-OMeTAD). Thus, this new hole transporter has the potential to replace spiro-OMeTAD.

  13. Derivation of Event-B Models from OWL Ontologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkhammash Eman H.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The derivation of formal specifications from large and complex requirements is a key challenge in systems engineering. In this paper we present an approach that aims to address this challenge by building formal models from OWL ontologies. An ontology is used in the field of knowledge representation to capture a clear view of the domain and to produce a concise and unambiguous set of domain requirements. We harness the power of ontologies to handle inconsistency of domain requirements and produce clear, concise and unambiguous set of domain requirements for Event-B modelling. The proposed approach works by generating Attempto Controlled English (ACE from the OWL ontology and then maps the ACE requirements to develop Event-B models. ACE is a subset of English that can be unambiguously translated into first-order logic. There is an injective mapping between OWL ontology and a subset of ACE. ACE is a suitable interlingua for producing the mapping between OWL and Event-B models for many reasons. Firstly, ACE is easy to learn and understand, it hides the math of OWL and would be natural to use by everybody. Secondly ACE has a parser that converts ACE texts into Discourse Representation Structures (DRS. Finally, ACE can be extended to target a richer syntactic subset of Event-B which ultimately would facilitate the translation of ACE requirements to Event-B.

  14. A MultiAir®/MultiFuel Approach to Enhancing Engine System Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reese, Ronald [Chrysler Group LLC., Auburn Hills, MI (United States)

    2015-05-20

    FCA US LLC (formally known as Chrysler Group LLC, and hereinafter “Chrysler”) was awarded an American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funded project by the Department of Energy (DOE) titled “A MultiAir®/MultiFuel Approach to Enhancing Engine System Efficiency” (hereinafter “project”). This award was issued after Chrysler submitted a proposal for Funding Opportunity Announcement DE-FOA- 0000079, “Systems Level Technology Development, Integration, and Demonstration for Efficient Class 8 Trucks (SuperTruck) and Advanced Technology Powertrains for Light-Duty Vehicles (ATP-LD).” Chrysler started work on this project on June 01, 2010 and completed testing activities on August 30, 2014. Overall objectives of this project were; Demonstrate a 25% improvement in combined Federal Test Procedure (FTP) City and Highway fuel economy over a 2009 Chrysler minivan; Accelerate the development of highly efficient engine and powertrain systems for light-duty vehicles, while meeting future emissions standards; and Create and retain jobs in accordance with the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

  15. Efficiency of Mergers of Mechanical Engineering Companies in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Režňáková Mária

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the research results in the field of the efficiency of mergers and acquisitions in the mechanical engineering industry of the Czech Republic. The aim of this paper is to determine whether mergers taking place in mechanical engineering are successful, or possibly to identify factors which may be deemed as synergies sources. In our research, the success rate of mergers is identified on the basis of the increasing revenues and operating profit. It has been established that out of mergers completed in 2004 - 2011, success has been achieved in approximately half of them. For this reason, we have focused on identifying the factors which may serve as the reasons for such a difference. The selected indicators of the cost-to-revenue ratio and utilization of fixed assets, investments, and net working capital we analysed before and after the mergers in both groups of successful and unsuccessful mergers. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to test the results. The research results have demonstrated that synergies are not achieved due to the change in the market power of the merged companied but owing to operational efficiency which is reflected in a drop in labour costs and depreciation to revenues ratios and increasing asset utilization.

  16. Low Temperature Combustion with Thermo-Chemical Recuperation to Maximize In-Use Engine Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigel N. Clark; Francisco Posada; Clinton Bedick; John Pratapas; Aleksandr Kozlov; Martin Linck; Dmitri Boulanov

    2009-03-30

    The key to overcome Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) load range limitations in reciprocating engines is based on proper control over the thermo-chemical properties of the in-cylinder charge. The studied alternative to achieve the required control of LTC is the use of two separate fuel streams to regulate timing and heat release at specific operational points, where the secondary fuel is a reformed product of the primary fuel in the tank. It is proposed in this report that the secondary fuel can be produced using exhaust heat and Thermo-Chemical Recuperation (TCR). TCR for reciprocating engines is a system that employs high efficiency recovery of sensible heat from engine exhaust gas and uses this energy to transform fuel composition. The recuperated sensible heat is returned to the engine as chemical energy. Chemical conversions are accomplished through catalytic and endothermic reactions in a specially designed reforming reactor. An equilibrium model developed by Gas Technology Institute (GTI) for heptane steam reforming was applied to estimate reformed fuel composition at different reforming temperatures. Laboratory results, at a steam/heptane mole ratio less than 2:1, confirm that low temperature reforming reactions, in the range of 550 K to 650 K, can produce 10-30% hydrogen (by volume, wet) in the product stream. Also, the effect of trading low mean effective pressure for displacement to achieve power output and energy efficiency has been explored by WVU. A zerodimensional model of LTC using heptane as fuel and a diesel Compression Ignition (CI) combustion model were employed to estimate pressure, temperature and total heat release as inputs for a mechanical and thermal loss model. The model results show that the total cooling burden on an LTC engine with lower power density and higher displacement was 14.3% lower than the diesel engine for the same amount of energy addition in the case of high load (43.57mg fuel/cycle). These preliminary modeling and

  17. Efficient free fatty acid production in engineered Escherichia coli strains using soybean oligosaccharides as feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Wu, Hui; Thakker, Chandresh; Beyersdorf, Jared; Bennett, George N; San, Ka-Yiu

    2015-01-01

    To be competitive with current petrochemicals, microbial synthesis of free fatty acids can be made to rely on a variety of renewable resources rather than on food carbon sources, which increase its attraction for governments and companies. Industrial waste soybean meal is an inexpensive feedstock, which contains soluble sugars such as stachyose, raffinose, sucrose, glucose, galactose, and fructose. Free fatty acids were produced in this report by introducing an acyl-ACP carrier protein thioesterase and (3R)-hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydratase into E. coli. Plasmid pRU600 bearing genes involved in raffinose and sucrose metabolism was also transformed into engineered E. coli strains, which allowed more efficient utilization of these two kinds of specific oligosaccharide present in the soybean meal extract. Strain ML103 (pRU600, pXZ18Z) produced ~1.60 and 2.66 g/L of free fatty acids on sucrose and raffinose, respectively. A higher level of 2.92 g/L fatty acids was obtained on sugar mixture. The fatty acid production using hydrolysate obtained from acid or enzyme based hydrolysis was evaluated. Engineered strains just produced ~0.21 g/L of free fatty acids with soybean meal acid hydrolysate. However, a fatty acid production of 2.61 g/L with a high yield of 0.19 g/g total sugar was observed on an enzymatic hydrolysate. The results suggest that complex mixtures of oligosaccharides derived from soybean meal can serve as viable feedstock to produce free fatty acids. Enzymatic hydrolysis acts as a much more efficient treatment than acid hydrolysis to facilitate the transformation of industrial waste from soybean processing to high value added chemicals. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  18. The relationship between the thermoelectric generator efficiency and the device engineering figure of merit Zd,eng. The maximum efficiency 𝜼max

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapenciuc, C. L.; Borca-Tasciuc, T.; Mihailescu, I. N.

    2017-04-01

    Thermoelectric materials are used today in thermoelectric devices for heat to electricity(thermoelectric generators-TEG) or electricity to heat(heat pumps) conversion in a large range of applications. In the case of TEGs the final measure of their performance is given by a quantity named the maximum efficiency which shows how much from the heat input is converted into electrical power. Therefore it is of great interest to know correctly how much is the efficiency of a device to can make commercial assessments. The concept of engineering figure of merit, Zeng, and engineering power factor, Peng, were already introduced in the field to quantify the efficiency of a single material under temperature dependent thermoelectric properties, with the mention that the formulas derivation was limited to one leg of the thermoelectric generator. In this paper we propose to extend the concept of engineering figure of merit to a thermoelectric generator by introducing a more general concept of device engineering thermoelectric figure of merit, Zd,eng, which depends on the both TEG materials properties and which shall be the right quantity to be used when we are interested in the evaluation of the efficiency. Also, this work takes into account the electrical contact resistance between the electrodes and thermoelement legs in an attempt to quantify its influence upon the performance of a TEG. Finally, a new formula is proposed for the maximum efficiency of a TEG.

  19. The relationship between the thermoelectric generator efficiency and the device engineering figure of merit Zd,eng. The maximum efficiency max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Hapenciuc

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Thermoelectric materials are used today in thermoelectric devices for heat to electricity(thermoelectric generators-TEG or electricity to heat(heat pumps conversion in a large range of applications. In the case of TEGs the final measure of their performance is given by a quantity named the maximum efficiency which shows how much from the heat input is converted into electrical power. Therefore it is of great interest to know correctly how much is the efficiency of a device to can make commercial assessments. The concept of engineering figure of merit, Zeng, and engineering power factor, Peng, were already introduced in the field to quantify the efficiency of a single material under temperature dependent thermoelectric properties, with the mention that the formulas derivation was limited to one leg of the thermoelectric generator. In this paper we propose to extend the concept of engineering figure of merit to a thermoelectric generator by introducing a more general concept of device engineering thermoelectric figure of merit, Zd,eng, which depends on the both TEG materials properties and which shall be the right quantity to be used when we are interested in the evaluation of the efficiency. Also, this work takes into account the electrical contact resistance between the electrodes and thermoelement legs in an attempt to quantify its influence upon the performance of a TEG. Finally, a new formula is proposed for the maximum efficiency of a TEG.

  20. The Effect of Compression Ratio, Fuel Octane Rating, and Ethanol Content on Spark-Ignition Engine Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Thomas G; Anderson, James E; Davis, Richard S; Iqbal, Asim; Reese, Ronald A; Shelby, Michael H; Studzinski, William M

    2015-09-15

    Light-duty vehicles (LDVs) in the United States and elsewhere are required to meet increasingly challenging regulations on fuel economy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as well as criteria pollutant emissions. New vehicle trends to improve efficiency include higher compression ratio, downsizing, turbocharging, downspeeding, and hybridization, each involving greater operation of spark-ignited (SI) engines under higher-load, knock-limited conditions. Higher octane ratings for regular-grade gasoline (with greater knock resistance) are an enabler for these technologies. This literature review discusses both fuel and engine factors affecting knock resistance and their contribution to higher engine efficiency and lower tailpipe CO2 emissions. Increasing compression ratios for future SI engines would be the primary response to a significant increase in fuel octane ratings. Existing LDVs would see more advanced spark timing and more efficient combustion phasing. Higher ethanol content is one available option for increasing the octane ratings of gasoline and would provide additional engine efficiency benefits for part and full load operation. An empirical calculation method is provided that allows estimation of expected vehicle efficiency, volumetric fuel economy, and CO2 emission benefits for future LDVs through higher compression ratios for different assumptions on fuel properties and engine types. Accurate "tank-to-wheel" estimates of this type are necessary for "well-to-wheel" analyses of increased gasoline octane ratings in the context of light duty vehicle transportation.

  1. Dynamic sub-ontology evolution for traditional Chinese medicine web ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yuxin; Wu, Zhaohui; Tian, Wenya; Jiang, Xiaohong; Cheung, William K

    2008-10-01

    As a form of important domain knowledge, large-scale ontologies play a critical role in building a large variety of knowledge-based systems. To overcome the problem of semantic heterogeneity and encode domain knowledge in reusable format, a large-scale and well-defined ontology is also required in the traditional Chinese medicine discipline. We argue that to meet the on-demand and scalability requirement ontology-based systems should go beyond the use of static ontology and be able to self-evolve and specialize for the domain knowledge they possess. In particular, we refer to the context-specific portions from large-scale ontologies like the traditional Chinese medicine ontology as sub-ontologies. Ontology-based systems are able to reuse sub-ontologies in local repository called ontology cache. In order to improve the overall performance of ontology cache, we propose to evolve sub-ontologies in ontology cache to optimize the knowledge structure of sub-ontologies. Moreover, we present the sub-ontology evolution approach based on a genetic algorithm for reusing large-scale ontologies. We evaluate the proposed evolution approach with the traditional Chinese medicine ontology and obtain promising results.

  2. Inferring ontology graph structures using OWL reasoning

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez-Garcia, Miguel Angel

    2018-01-05

    Ontologies are representations of a conceptualization of a domain. Traditionally, ontologies in biology were represented as directed acyclic graphs (DAG) which represent the backbone taxonomy and additional relations between classes. These graphs are widely exploited for data analysis in the form of ontology enrichment or computation of semantic similarity. More recently, ontologies are developed in a formal language such as the Web Ontology Language (OWL) and consist of a set of axioms through which classes are defined or constrained. While the taxonomy of an ontology can be inferred directly from the axioms of an ontology as one of the standard OWL reasoning tasks, creating general graph structures from OWL ontologies that exploit the ontologies\\' semantic content remains a challenge.We developed a method to transform ontologies into graphs using an automated reasoner while taking into account all relations between classes. Searching for (existential) patterns in the deductive closure of ontologies, we can identify relations between classes that are implied but not asserted and generate graph structures that encode for a large part of the ontologies\\' semantic content. We demonstrate the advantages of our method by applying it to inference of protein-protein interactions through semantic similarity over the Gene Ontology and demonstrate that performance is increased when graph structures are inferred using deductive inference according to our method. Our software and experiment results are available at http://github.com/bio-ontology-research-group/Onto2Graph .Onto2Graph is a method to generate graph structures from OWL ontologies using automated reasoning. The resulting graphs can be used for improved ontology visualization and ontology-based data analysis.

  3. OPPL-Galaxy, a Galaxy tool for enhancing ontology exploitation as part of bioinformatics workflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Biomedical ontologies are key elements for building up the Life Sciences Semantic Web. Reusing and building biomedical ontologies requires flexible and versatile tools to manipulate them efficiently, in particular for enriching their axiomatic content. The Ontology Pre Processor Language (OPPL) is an OWL-based language for automating the changes to be performed in an ontology. OPPL augments the ontologists’ toolbox by providing a more efficient, and less error-prone, mechanism for enriching a biomedical ontology than that obtained by a manual treatment. Results We present OPPL-Galaxy, a wrapper for using OPPL within Galaxy. The functionality delivered by OPPL (i.e. automated ontology manipulation) can be combined with the tools and workflows devised within the Galaxy framework, resulting in an enhancement of OPPL. Use cases are provided in order to demonstrate OPPL-Galaxy’s capability for enriching, modifying and querying biomedical ontologies. Conclusions Coupling OPPL-Galaxy with other bioinformatics tools of the Galaxy framework results in a system that is more than the sum of its parts. OPPL-Galaxy opens a new dimension of analyses and exploitation of biomedical ontologies, including automated reasoning, paving the way towards advanced biological data analyses. PMID:23286517

  4. Complex Topographic Feature Ontology Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanka, Dalia E.; Jerris, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Semantic ontologies are examined as effective data models for the representation of complex topographic feature types. Complex feature types are viewed as integrated relations between basic features for a basic purpose. In the context of topographic science, such component assemblages are supported by resource systems and found on the local landscape. Ontologies are organized within six thematic modules of a domain ontology called Topography that includes within its sphere basic feature types, resource systems, and landscape types. Context is constructed not only as a spatial and temporal setting, but a setting also based on environmental processes. Types of spatial relations that exist between components include location, generative processes, and description. An example is offered in a complex feature type ‘mine.’ The identification and extraction of complex feature types are an area for future research.

  5. An ontology for sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Michael; Neuhaus, Holger; Bermudez, Luis; Cox, Simon

    2010-05-01

    Sensors and networks of sensors are important ways of monitoring and digitizing reality. As the number and size of sensor networks grows, so too does the amount of data collected. Users of such networks typically need to discover the sensors and data that fit their needs without necessarily understanding the complexities of the network itself. The burden on users is eased if the network and its data are expressed in terms of concepts familiar to the users and their job functions, rather than in terms of the network or how it was designed. Furthermore, the task of collecting and combining data from multiple sensor networks is made easier if metadata about the data and the networks is stored in a format and conceptual models that is amenable to machine reasoning and inference. While the OGC's (Open Geospatial Consortium) SWE (Sensor Web Enablement) standards provide for the description and access to data and metadata for sensors, they do not provide facilities for abstraction, categorization, and reasoning consistent with standard technologies. Once sensors and networks are described using rich semantics (that is, by using logic to describe the sensors, the domain of interest, and the measurements) then reasoning and classification can be used to analyse and categorise data, relate measurements with similar information content, and manage, query and task sensors. This will enable types of automated processing and logical assurance built on OGC standards. The W3C SSN-XG (Semantic Sensor Networks Incubator Group) is producing a generic ontology to describe sensors, their environment and the measurements they make. The ontology provides definitions for the structure of sensors and observations, leaving the details of the observed domain unspecified. This allows abstract representations of real world entities, which are not observed directly but through their observable qualities. Domain semantics, units of measurement, time and time series, and location and mobility

  6. Geographic Ontologies, Gazetteers and Multilingualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Laurini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Different languages imply different visions of space, so that terminologies are different in geographic ontologies. In addition to their geometric shapes, geographic features have names, sometimes different in diverse languages. In addition, the role of gazetteers, as dictionaries of place names (toponyms, is to maintain relations between place names and location. The scope of geographic information retrieval is to search for geographic information not against a database, but against the whole Internet: but the Internet stores information in different languages, and it is of paramount importance not to remain stuck to a unique language. In this paper, our first step is to clarify the links between geographic objects as computer representations of geographic features, ontologies and gazetteers designed in various languages. Then, we propose some inference rules for matching not only types, but also relations in geographic ontologies with the assistance of gazetteers.

  7. A formal ontology of subcellular neuroanatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen D Larson

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of the nervous system requires high-resolution microscopy to resolve the detailed 3D structure of nerve cells and supracellular domains. The analysis of such imaging data to extract cellular surfaces and cell components often requires the combination of expert human knowledge with carefully engineered software tools. In an effort to make better tools to assist humans in this endeavor, create a more accessible and permanent record of their data, and to aid the process of constructing complex and detailed computational models, we have created a core of formalized knowledge about the structure of the nervous system and have integrated that core into several software applications. In this paper, we describe the structure and content of a formal ontology whose scope is the subcellular anatomy of the nervous system (SAO, covering nerve cells, their parts, and interactions between these parts. Many applications of this ontology to image annotation, content-based retrieval of structural data, and integration of shared data across scales and researchers are also described.

  8. Surface and Interface Engineering of Noble-Metal-Free Electrocatalysts for Efficient Energy Conversion Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yun Pei; Guo, Chunxian; Zheng, Yao; Qiao, Shi-Zhang

    2017-04-18

    Developing cost-effective and high-performance electrocatalysts for renewable energy conversion and storage is motivated by increasing concerns regarding global energy security and creating sustainable technologies dependent on inexpensive and abundant resources. Recent achievements in the design and synthesis of efficient non-precious-metal and even non-metal electrocatalysts make the replacement of noble metal counterparts for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), oxygen evolution reaction (OER), and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) with earth-abundant elements, for example, C, N, Fe, Mn, and Co, a realistic possibility. It has been found that surface atomic engineering (e.g., heteroatom-doping) and interface atomic or molecular engineering (e.g., interfacial bonding) can induce novel physicochemical properties and strong synergistic effects for electrocatalysts, providing new and efficient strategies to greatly enhance the catalytic activities. In this Account, we discuss recent progress in the design and fabrication of efficient electrocatalysts based on carbon materials, graphitic carbon nitride, and transition metal oxides or hydroxides for efficient ORR, OER, and HER through surface and interfacial atomic and molecular engineering. Atomic and molecular engineering of carbon materials through heteroatom doping with one or more elements of noticeably different electronegativities can maximally tailor their electronic structures and induce a synergistic effect to increase electrochemical activity. Nonetheless, the electrocatalytic performance of chemically modified carbonaceous materials remains inferior to that of their metallic counterparts, which is mainly due to the relatively limited amount of electrocatalytic active sites induced by heteroatom doping. Accordingly, coupling carbon substrates with other active electrocatalysts to produce composite structures can impart novel physicochemical properties, thereby boosting the electroactivity even further

  9. An efficient approach to unstructured mesh hydrodynamics on the cell broadband engine (u)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferenbaugh, Charles R [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-14

    Unstructured mesh physics for the Cell Broadband Engine (CBE) has received little or no attention to date, largely because the CBE architecture poses particular challenges for unstructured mesh algorithms. SPU memory management strategies such as data preloading cannot be applied to the irregular memory storage patterns of unstructured meshes; and the SPU vector instruction set does not support the indirect addressing needed by connectivity arrays. This paper presents an approach to unstructured mesh physics that addresses these challenges, by creating a new mesh data structure and reorganizing code to give efficient CBE performance. The approach is demonstrated on the FLAG production hydrodynamics code using standard test problems, and results show an average speedup of more than 5x over the original code.

  10. An efficient approach to unstructured mesh hydrodynamics on the cell broadband engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferenbaugh, Charles R [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Unstructured mesh physics for the Cell Broadband Engine (CBE) has received little or no attention to date, largely because the CBE architecture poses particular challenges for unstructured mesh algorithms. The most common SPU memory management strategies cannot be applied to the irregular memory access patterns of unstructured meshes, and the SPU vector instruction set does not support the indirect addressing needed by connectivity arrays. This paper presents an approach to unstructured mesh physics that addresses these challenges, by creating a new mesh data structure and reorganizing code to give efficient CBE performance. The approach is demonstrated on the FLAG production hydrodynamics code using standard test problems, and results show an average speedup of more than 5x over the original code.

  11. Recombineering: highly efficient in vivo genetic engineering using single-strand oligos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawitzke, James A; Thomason, Lynn C; Bubunenko, Mikhail; Li, Xintian; Costantino, Nina; Court, Donald L

    2013-01-01

    Recombineering provides the ability to make rapid, precise, and inexpensive genetic alterations to any DNA sequence, either in the chromosome or cloned onto a vector that replicates in E. coli (or other recombineering-proficient bacteria), and to do so in a highly efficient manner. Complicated genetic constructs that are impossible to make with in vitro genetic engineering can be created in days with recombineering. Recombineering with single-strand DNA (ssDNA) can be used to create single or multiple clustered point mutations, small or large (up to 10kb) deletions, and small (10-20 base) insertions such as sequence tags. Using optimized conditions, point mutations can be made with such high frequencies that they can be found without selection. This technology excels at creating both directed and random mutations. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Efficient Dual siRNA and Drug Delivery Using Engineered Lipoproteoplexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Che Fu; Chen, Raymond; Frezzo, Joseph A; Katyal, Priya; Hill, Lindsay K; Yin, Liming; Srivastava, Nikita; More, Haresh T; Renfrew, P Douglas; Bonneau, Richard; Montclare, Jin Kim

    2017-09-11

    An engineered supercharged coiled-coil protein (CSP) and the cationic transfection reagent Lipofectamine 2000 are combined to form a lipoproteoplex for the purpose of dual delivery of siRNA and doxorubicin. CSP, bearing an external positive charge and axial hydrophobic pore, demonstrates the ability to condense siRNA and encapsulate the small-molecule chemotherapeutic, doxorubicin. The lipoproteoplex demonstrates improved doxorubicin loading relative to Lipofectamine 2000. Furthermore, it induces effective transfection of GAPDH (60% knockdown) in MCF-7 breast cancer cells with efficiencies comparing favorably to Lipofectamine 2000. When the lipoproteoplex is loaded with doxorubicin, the improved doxorubicin loading (∼40 μg Dox/mg CSP) results in a substantial decrease in MCF-7 cell viability.

  13. An Ontological Approach to Developing Information Operations Applications for use on the Semantic Web

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clarke, Timothy L

    2008-01-01

    .... By expressing IO capabilities in a formal ontology suitable for use on the Semantic Web, conditions are set such that computational power can more efficiently be leveraged to better define required...

  14. An Ontological Approach to Developing Information Operations Applications for Use on the Semantic Web

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clarke, Timothy L

    2008-01-01

    .... By expressing IO capabilities in a formal ontology suitable for use on the Semantic Web, conditions are set such that computational power can more efficiently be leveraged to better define required...

  15. Toward semantic interoperability with linked foundational ontologies in ROMULUS

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khan, ZC

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A purpose of a foundational ontology is to solve interoperability issues among ontologies. Many foundational ontologies have been developed, reintroducing the ontology interoperability problem. We address this with the new online foundational...

  16. Surface-Engineered Polydopamine Particles as an Efficient Support for Catalytic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanhong; Li, Guozhu; Qin, Runze; Chen, Danlei

    2016-12-27

    Mussel-inspired polydopamine (PDA) particles with the size of ∼270 nm are used as a support of palladium (Pd) nanoparticles (NPs) for catalyst preparation. The surface morphology of the PDA particle has been modified via corrosion of CF3COOH. Surface chemistry of the obtained PDA particle has been engineered by the formation of a carboxylic acid-terminated alkanethiol monolayer. The obtained self-assembled monolayer-modified PDA (SAM-PDA) particles are used to load Pd NPs by simply adding H2PdCl4 solution to a suspension of SAM-PDA particles at room temperature. Transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray mapping, dynamic light scattering, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-vis, and Fourier transform infrared are used to characterize the catalyst and to investigate the process. Uniform Pd NPs (2-3 nm) have been well-dispersed on the SAM-PDA particles via controllable surface engineering. Surface charges and interactions with a metal ion are regulated by the monolayer of carboxylic acids. The surface chemistry of PDA particles has been finely engineered for efficient loading of noble metal NPs. The obtained Pd/SAM-PDA catalyst has shown greatly increased activity and good reusability compared with Pd/PDA in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) by sodium borohydride or H2. The kinetic data of 4-NP hydrogenation catalyzed by Pd/SAM-PDA are fitted to a Langmuir-Hinshelwood (L-H) model, and the calculated apparent activation energy of this process is 40.77 kJ mol(-1).

  17. Visibiome: an efficient microbiome search engine based on a scalable, distributed architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azman, Syafiq Kamarul; Anwar, Muhammad Zohaib; Henschel, Andreas

    2017-07-24

    Given the current influx of 16S rRNA profiles of microbiota samples, it is conceivable that large amounts of them eventually are available for search, comparison and contextualization with respect to novel samples. This process facilitates the identification of similar compositional features in microbiota elsewhere and therefore can help to understand driving factors for microbial community assembly. We present Visibiome, a microbiome search engine that can perform exhaustive, phylogeny based similarity search and contextualization of user-provided samples against a comprehensive dataset of 16S rRNA profiles environments, while tackling several computational challenges. In order to scale to high demands, we developed a distributed system that combines web framework technology, task queueing and scheduling, cloud computing and a dedicated database server. To further ensure speed and efficiency, we have deployed Nearest Neighbor search algorithms, capable of sublinear searches in high-dimensional metric spaces in combination with an optimized Earth Mover Distance based implementation of weighted UniFrac. The search also incorporates pairwise (adaptive) rarefaction and optionally, 16S rRNA copy number correction. The result of a query microbiome sample is the contextualization against a comprehensive database of microbiome samples from a diverse range of environments, visualized through a rich set of interactive figures and diagrams, including barchart-based compositional comparisons and ranking of the closest matches in the database. Visibiome is a convenient, scalable and efficient framework to search microbiomes against a comprehensive database of environmental samples. The search engine leverages a popular but computationally expensive, phylogeny based distance metric, while providing numerous advantages over the current state of the art tool.

  18. The aerodynamic design and performance of the General Electric/NASA EEE fan. [Energy Efficient Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, T. J.; Hager, R. D.

    1983-01-01

    The aerodynamic design and test results of the fan and quarter-stage component for the GE/NASA Energy Efficient Engine (EEE) are presented. The fan is a high bypass ratio, single-stage design having 32 part-span shrouded rotor blades, coupled with a unique quarter-stage arrangement that provides additional core-stream pressure ratio and particle separation. The fan produces a bypass pressure ratio of 1.65 at the exit of the low aspect ratio vane/frame and a core-stream pressure ratio of 1.67 at the entrance to the core frame struts. The full-scale fan vehicle was instrumented, assembled and tested as a component in November 1981. Performance mapping was conducted over a range of speeds and bypass ratios using individually-controlled bypass and core-stream discharge valves. The fan bypass and core-stream test data showed excellent results, with the fan exceeding all performance goals at the important engine operating conditions.

  19. OntoCAT -- simple ontology search and integration in Java, R and REST/JavaScript

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapushesky Misha

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ontologies have become an essential asset in the bioinformatics toolbox and a number of ontology access resources are now available, for example, the EBI Ontology Lookup Service (OLS and the NCBO BioPortal. However, these resources differ substantially in mode, ease of access, and ontology content. This makes it relatively difficult to access each ontology source separately, map their contents to research data, and much of this effort is being replicated across different research groups. Results OntoCAT provides a seamless programming interface to query heterogeneous ontology resources including OLS and BioPortal, as well as user-specified local OWL and OBO files. Each resource is wrapped behind easy to learn Java, Bioconductor/R and REST web service commands enabling reuse and integration of ontology software efforts despite variation in technologies. It is also available as a stand-alone MOLGENIS database and a Google App Engine application. Conclusions OntoCAT provides a robust, configurable solution for accessing ontology terms specified locally and from remote services, is available as a stand-alone tool and has been tested thoroughly in the ArrayExpress, MOLGENIS, EFO and Gen2Phen phenotype use cases. Availability http://www.ontocat.org

  20. OntoCAT--simple ontology search and integration in Java, R and REST/JavaScript.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamusiak, Tomasz; Burdett, Tony; Kurbatova, Natalja; Joeri van der Velde, K; Abeygunawardena, Niran; Antonakaki, Despoina; Kapushesky, Misha; Parkinson, Helen; Swertz, Morris A

    2011-05-29

    Ontologies have become an essential asset in the bioinformatics toolbox and a number of ontology access resources are now available, for example, the EBI Ontology Lookup Service (OLS) and the NCBO BioPortal. However, these resources differ substantially in mode, ease of access, and ontology content. This makes it relatively difficult to access each ontology source separately, map their contents to research data, and much of this effort is being replicated across different research groups. OntoCAT provides a seamless programming interface to query heterogeneous ontology resources including OLS and BioPortal, as well as user-specified local OWL and OBO files. Each resource is wrapped behind easy to learn Java, Bioconductor/R and REST web service commands enabling reuse and integration of ontology software efforts despite variation in technologies. It is also available as a stand-alone MOLGENIS database and a Google App Engine application. OntoCAT provides a robust, configurable solution for accessing ontology terms specified locally and from remote services, is available as a stand-alone tool and has been tested thoroughly in the ArrayExpress, MOLGENIS, EFO and Gen2Phen phenotype use cases. http://www.ontocat.org.

  1. Multimedia ontology representation and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhury, Santanu; Ghosh, Hiranmay

    2015-01-01

    The result of more than 15 years of collective research, Multimedia Ontology: Representation and Applications provides a theoretical foundation for understanding the nature of media data and the principles involved in its interpretation. The book presents a unified approach to recent advances in multimedia and explains how a multimedia ontology can fill the semantic gap between concepts and the media world. It relays real-life examples of implementations in different domains to illustrate how this gap can be filled.The book contains information that helps with building semantic, content-based

  2. Summarization by domain ontology navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Troels; Bulskov, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    A summary is a concise description that reflects the essence of a subject. A text, a collection of text documents, or a query answer can be summarized by simple means such as an automatically generated list of the most frequent words or “advanced” by a meaningful natural language description...... be a simple taxonomy or a generative domain ontology. A domain ontology can be provided by a preanalysis of a domain corpus and can be used to condense improved summaries that better reflects the conceptualization of a given domain....

  3. Platonic wholes and quantum ontology

    CERN Document Server

    Woszczek, Marek

    2015-01-01

    The subject of the book is a reconsideration of the internalistic model of composition of the Platonic type, more radical than traditional, post-Aristotelian externalistic compositionism, and its application in the field of the ontology of quantum theory. At the centre of quantum ontology is nonseparability. Quantum wholes are atemporal wholes governed by internalistic logic and they are primitive, global physical entities, requiring an extreme relativization of the fundamental notions of mechanics. That ensures quantum theory to be fully consistent with the relativistic causal structure, with

  4. A Bayesian Network Approach to Ontology Mapping

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pan, Rong; Ding, Zhongli; Yu, Yang; Peng, Yun

    2005-01-01

    .... In this approach, the source and target ontologies are first translated into Bayesian networks (BN); the concept mapping between the two ontologies are treated as evidential reasoning between the two translated BNs...

  5. Towards ontology based search and knowledgesharing using domain ontologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zambach, Sine

    verbs for relations in the ontology modeling. For this work we use frequency lists from a biomedical text corpus of different genres as well as a study of the relations used in other biomedical text mining tools. In addition, we discuss how these relations can be used in broarder perspective....

  6. How semantics can improve engineering processes: A case of units of measure and quantities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijgersberg, H.; Wigham, M.; Top, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Science and engineering heavily depend on the ability to share data and models. Ontologies provide such standards. We have found that existing ontologies only define subsets of the necessary concepts and relations. We therefore propose a new ontology, called OM (Ontology of units of Measure and

  7. Comparison of the rocket engines efficiency in the case of low thrust orbit-to-orbit transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiforenko, Boris M.; Pasechnik, Zoya V.; Vasil'ev, Igor Yu.

    2007-05-01

    The main task of this paper is to compare two types of low thrust rocket engines: constant thrust vs. variable-thrust engines. We will be concerned with efficiency, where efficiency is evaluated in the case of the orbit-to-orbit transfer with maximum payload mass in the central Newtonian gravity field. The launch mass of the space vehicle is supposed to be fixed. The traditional solution is the decomposition of the problem into parametric and dynamical parts. The corresponding variational problems differ for two rocket thruster types under consideration. We propose change of variables, which makes it possible to reduce averaged equations of optimal motion of a spacecraft with the mentioned engines to the unified form. Using this unified form comparison of the performance of constant- and variable-thrust engines is conducted.

  8. OntoPop: An Ontology Population System for the Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongkrau, Theerayut; Lalitrojwong, Pattarachai

    The development of ontology at the instance level requires the extraction of the terms defining the instances from various data sources. These instances then are linked to the concepts of the ontology, and relationships are created between these instances for the next step. However, before establishing links among data, ontology engineers must classify terms or instances from a web document into an ontology concept. The tool for help ontology engineer in this task is called ontology population. The present research is not suitable for ontology development applications, such as long time processing or analyzing large or noisy data sets. OntoPop system introduces a methodology to solve these problems, which comprises two parts. First, we select meaningful features from syntactic relations, which can produce more significant features than any other method. Second, we differentiate feature meaning and reduce noise based on latent semantic analysis. Experimental evaluation demonstrates that the OntoPop works well, significantly out-performing the accuracy of 49.64%, a learning accuracy of 76.93%, and executes time of 5.46 second/instance.

  9. Effects of dark energy on the efficiency of charged AdS black holes as heat engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hang [Nankai University, School of Physics, Tianjin (China); Meng, Xin-He [Nankai University, School of Physics, Tianjin (China); Chinese Academy of Science, State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China)

    2017-08-15

    In this paper, we study the heat engine where a charged AdS black hole surrounded by dark energy is the working substance and the mechanical work is done via the PdV term in the first law of black hole thermodynamics in the extended phase space. We first investigate the effects of a kind of dark energy (quintessence field in this paper) on the efficiency of the RN-AdS black holes as the heat engine defined as a rectangular closed path in the P-V plane. We get the exact efficiency formula and find that the quintessence field can improve the heat engine efficiency, which will increase as the field density ρ{sub q} grows. At some fixed parameters, we find that a larger volume difference between the smaller black holes(V{sub 1}) and the bigger black holes(V{sub 2}) will lead to a lower efficiency, while the bigger pressure difference P{sub 1} - P{sub 4} will make the efficiency higher, but it is always smaller than 1 and will never be beyond the Carnot efficiency, which is the maximum value of the efficiency constrained by thermodynamics laws; this is consistent to the heat engine in traditional thermodynamics. After making some special choices for the thermodynamical quantities, we find that the increase of the electric charge Q and the normalization factor a can also promote the heat engine efficiency, which would infinitely approach the Carnot limit when Q or a goes to infinity. (orig.)

  10. Advertisement for the ontology for medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Jeremy R

    2010-10-01

    The ontology of medicine--the question of whether disease entities are real or not--is an underdeveloped area of philosophical inquiry. This essay explains the primary question at issue in medical ontology, discusses why answering this question is important from both a philosophical and a practical perspective, and argues that the problem of medical ontology is unique, i.e., distinct, from the ontological problems raised by other sciences and therefore requires its own analysis.

  11. Engineering interfacial photo-induced charge transfer based on nanobamboo array architecture for efficient solar-to-chemical energy conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaotian; Liow, Chihao; Bisht, Ankit; Liu, Xinfeng; Sum, Tze Chien; Chen, Xiaodong; Li, Shuzhou

    2015-04-01

    Engineering interfacial photo-induced charge transfer for highly synergistic photocatalysis is successfully realized based on nanobamboo array architecture. Programmable assemblies of various components and heterogeneous interfaces, and, in turn, engineering of the energy band structure along the charge transport pathways, play a critical role in generating excellent synergistic effects of multiple components for promoting photocatalytic efficiency. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Building Efficiency Technologies by Tomorrow’s Engineers and Researchers (BETTER) Capstone. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, Shannon [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2017-09-30

    BETTER Capstone supported 29 student project teams consisting of 155 students over two years in developing transformative building energy efficiency technologies through a capstone design experience. Capstone is the culmination of an undergraduate student’s engineering education. Interdisciplinary teams of students spent a semester designing and prototyping a technological solution for a variety building energy efficiency problems. During this experience students utilized the full design process, including the manufacturing and testing of a prototype solution, as well as publically demonstrating the solution at the Capstone Design Expo. As part of this project, students explored modern manufacturing techniques and gained hands-on experience with these techniques to produce their prototype technologies. This research added to the understanding of the challenges within building technology education and engagement with industry. One goal of the project was to help break the chicken-and-egg problem with getting students to engage more deeply with the building technology industry. It was learned however that this industry is less interested in trying innovative new concept but rather interested in hiring graduates for existing conventional building efforts. While none of the projects yielded commercial success, much individual student growth and learning was accomplished, which is a long-term benefit to the public at large.

  13. Co-incident insertion enables high efficiency genome engineering in mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shy, Brian R; MacDougall, Matthew S; Clarke, Ryan; Merrill, Bradley J

    2016-09-19

    CRISPR/Cas9 nucleases have enabled powerful, new genome editing capabilities; however, the preponderance of non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) mediated repair events over homology directed repair (HDR) in most cell types limits the ability to engineer precise changes in mammalian genomes. Here, we increase the efficiency of isolating precise HDR-mediated events in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells by more than 20-fold through the use of co-incidental insertion (COIN) of independent donor DNA sequences. Analysis of on:off-target frequencies at the Lef1 gene revealed that bi-allelic insertion of a PGK-Neo cassette occurred more frequently than expected. Using various selection cassettes targeting multiple loci, we show that the insertion of a selectable marker at one control site frequently coincided with an insertion at an unlinked, independently targeted site, suggesting enrichment of a sub-population of HDR-proficient cells. When individual cell events were tracked using flow cytometry and fluorescent protein markers, individual cells frequently performed either a homology-dependent insertion event or a homology-independent event, but rarely both types of insertions in a single cell. Thus, when HDR-dependent selection donors are used, COIN enriches for HDR-proficient cells among heterogeneous cell populations. When combined with a self-excising selection cassette, COIN provides highly efficient and scarless genome editing. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  14. Pore engineering towards highly efficient electrospun nanofibrous membranes for aerosol particle removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Attabi, Riyadh; Dumée, Ludovic F; Schütz, Jürg A; Morsi, Yosry

    2018-01-03

    Electrospun nanofibrous membranes were engineered for aerosol particle removal by controlling the fiber density and alignment across electrospun mats. Electrospun nanofiber membranes were deposited on both, rotatory drum and stationary collectors, to investigate the effect of fiber alignment on filtration performance. Poly(acrylonitrile)/dimethyl formamide (PAN/DMF) solutions were used to produce membranes for applications in air purification. The air filtration performance of as-produced and hot-compacted membranes were systematically evaluated with regard to penetration, pressure drop, and quality factor when subjected to potassium chloride (KCl) aerosol particles in the size-range of 300nm to 12μm. The membranes offered air filtration efficiencies in the range of 77.7% to 99.616% and quality factors between 0.0026 and 0.0204 (1/Pa). The samples were benchmarked against commercial filters and were found to exhibit similar quality factors but higher air filtration efficiencies. These results were correlated to differences in pore morphologies and fiber orientation distributions generated from the different processing techniques, which revealed that the alteration of the fiber density is an effective method for enhancing air filtration performance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Enhancement of single guide RNA transcription for efficient CRISPR/Cas-based genomic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ui-Tei, Kumiko; Maruyama, Shohei; Nakano, Yuko

    2017-06-01

    Genomic engineering using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) protein is a promising approach for targeting the genomic DNA of virtually any organism in a sequence-specific manner. Recent remarkable advances in CRISPR/Cas technology have made it a feasible system for use in therapeutic applications and biotechnology. In the CRISPR/Cas system, a guide RNA (gRNA), interacting with the Cas protein, recognizes a genomic region with sequence complementarity, and the double-stranded DNA at the target site is cleaved by the Cas protein. A widely used gRNA is an RNA polymerase III (pol III)-driven single gRNA (sgRNA), which is produced by artificial fusion of CRISPR RNA (crRNA) and trans-activation crRNA (tracrRNA). However, we identified a TTTT stretch, known as a termination signal of RNA pol III, in the scaffold region of the sgRNA. Here, we revealed that sgRNA carrying a TTTT stretch reduces the efficiency of sgRNA transcription due to premature transcriptional termination, and decreases the efficiency of genome editing. Unexpectedly, it was also shown that the premature terminated sgRNA may have an adverse effect of inducing RNA interference. Such disadvantageous effects were avoided by substituting one base in the TTTT stretch.

  16. A Three-fold Outlook of the Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology Program Office (UEET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, La Quilia E.

    2004-01-01

    The Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Office at NASA Glenn Research Center is a part of the Aeronautics Directorate. Its vision is to develop and hand off revolutionary turbine engine propulsion technologies that will enable future generation vehicles over a wide range of flight speeds. There are seven different technology area projects of UEET. During my tenure at NASA Glenn Research Center, my assignment was to assist three different areas of UEET, simultaneously. I worked with Kathy Zona in Education Outreach, Lynn Boukalik in Knowledge Management, and Denise Busch with Financial Management. All of my tasks were related to the business side of UEET. As an intern with Education Outreach I created a word search to partner with an exhibit of a Turbine Engine developed out of the UEET office. This exhibit is a portable model that is presented to students of varying ages. The word search complies with National Standards for Education which are part of every science, engineering, and technology teachers curriculum. I also updated a Conference Planning/Workshop Excel Spreadsheet for the UEET Office. I collected and inputted facility overviews from various venues, both on and off site to determine where to hold upcoming conferences. I then documented which facilities were compliant with the Federal Emergency Management Agency's (FEMA) Hotel and Motel Fire Safety Act of 1990. The second area in which I worked was Knowledge Management. a large knowledge management system online which has extensive documentation that continually needs reviewing, updating, and archiving. Knowledge management is the ability to bring individual or team knowledge to an organizational level so that the information can be stored, shared, reviewed, archived. Livelink and a secure server are the Knowledge Management systems that UEET utilizes, Through these systems, I was able to obtain the documents needed for archiving. My assignment was to obtain intellectual property including reports

  17. A Gene Ontology Tutorial in Python.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesztrocy, Alex Warwick; Dessimoz, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    This chapter is a tutorial on using Gene Ontology resources in the Python programming language. This entails querying the Gene Ontology graph, retrieving Gene Ontology annotations, performing gene enrichment analyses, and computing basic semantic similarity between GO terms. An interactive version of the tutorial, including solutions, is available at http://gohandbook.org .

  18. Towards Ontological Foundations for UML Conceptual Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guizzardi, Giancarlo; Herre, Heinrich; Wagner, Gerd; Meerman, Robert; Tari, Zahir

    2002-01-01

    UML class diagrams can be used as a language for expressing a conceptual model of a domain. We use the General Ontological Language (GOL) and its underlying upper level ontology, proposed in [1], to evaluate the ontological correctness of a conceptual UML class model and to develop guidelines for

  19. Aspects of ontology visualization and integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dmitrieva, Joelia Borisovna

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis we will describe and discuss methodologies for ontology visualization and integration. Two visualization methods will be elaborated. In one method the ontology is visualized with the node-link technique, and with the other method the ontology is visualized with the containment

  20. Sample evaluation of ontology-matching systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hage, W.R. van; Isaac, A.; Aleksovski, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Ontology matching exists to solve practical problems. Hence, methodologies to find and evaluate solutions for ontology matching should be centered on practical problems. In this paper we propose two statistically-founded evaluation techniques to assess ontology-matching performance that are based on

  1. Application of multicriteria decision making methods to compression ignition engine efficiency and gaseous, particulate, and greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surawski, Nicholas C; Miljevic, Branka; Bodisco, Timothy A; Brown, Richard J; Ristovski, Zoran D; Ayoko, Godwin A

    2013-02-19

    Compression ignition (CI) engine design is subject to many constraints, which present a multicriteria optimization problem that the engine researcher must solve. In particular, the modern CI engine must not only be efficient but must also deliver low gaseous, particulate, and life cycle greenhouse gas emissions so that its impact on urban air quality, human health, and global warming is minimized. Consequently, this study undertakes a multicriteria analysis, which seeks to identify alternative fuels, injection technologies, and combustion strategies that could potentially satisfy these CI engine design constraints. Three data sets are analyzed with the Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluations and Geometrical Analysis for Interactive Aid (PROMETHEE-GAIA) algorithm to explore the impact of (1) an ethanol fumigation system, (2) alternative fuels (20% biodiesel and synthetic diesel) and alternative injection technologies (mechanical direct injection and common rail injection), and (3) various biodiesel fuels made from 3 feedstocks (i.e., soy, tallow, and canola) tested at several blend percentages (20-100%) on the resulting emissions and efficiency profile of the various test engines. The results show that moderate ethanol substitutions (~20% by energy) at moderate load, high percentage soy blends (60-100%), and alternative fuels (biodiesel and synthetic diesel) provide an efficiency and emissions profile that yields the most "preferred" solutions to this multicriteria engine design problem. Further research is, however, required to reduce reactive oxygen species (ROS) emissions with alternative fuels and to deliver technologies that do not significantly reduce the median diameter of particle emissions.

  2. Nano-engineered Multiwall Carbon Nanotube-copper Composite Thermal Interface Material for Efficient Heat Conduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Quoc; Cruden, Brett A.; Cassell, Alan M.; Sims, Gerard; Li, Jun; Meyyappa, M.; Yang, Cary Y.

    2005-01-01

    Efforts in integrated circuit (IC) packaging technologies have recently been focused on management of increasing heat density associated with high frequency and high density circuit designs. While current flip-chip package designs can accommodate relatively high amounts of heat density, new materials need to be developed to manage thermal effects of next-generation integrated circuits. Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNT) have been shown to significantly enhance thermal conduction in the axial direction and thus can be considered to be a candidate for future thermal interface materials by facilitating efficient thermal transport. This work focuses on fabrication and characterization of a robust MWNT-copper composite material as an element in IC package designs. We show that using vertically aligned MWNT arrays reduces interfacial thermal resistance by increasing conduction surface area, and furthermore, the embedded copper acts as a lateral heat spreader to efficiently disperse heat, a necessary function for packaging materials. In addition, we demonstrate reusability of the material, and the absence of residue on the contacting material, both novel features of the MWNT-copper composite that are not found in most state-of-the-art thermal interface materials. Electrochemical methods such as metal deposition and etch are discussed for the creation of the MWNT-Cu composite, detailing issues and observations with using such methods. We show that precise engineering of the composite surface affects the ability of this material to act as an efficient thermal interface material. A thermal contact resistance measurement has been designed to obtain a value of thermal contact resistance for a variety of different thermal contact materials.

  3. Ontological problems of contemporary linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А В Бондаренко

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The article studies linguistic ontology problems such as evolution of essential-existential views of language, interrelation within Being-Language-Man triad, linguistics gnosiological principles, language essence localization, and «expression» as language metalinguistic unit as well as architectonics of language personality et alia.

  4. Gene Ontology annotations and resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, J A; Dolan, M; Drabkin, H; Hill, D P; Li, Ni; Sitnikov, D; Bridges, S; Burgess, S; Buza, T; McCarthy, F; Peddinti, D; Pillai, L; Carbon, S; Dietze, H; Ireland, A; Lewis, S E; Mungall, C J; Gaudet, P; Chrisholm, R L; Fey, P; Kibbe, W A; Basu, S; Siegele, D A; McIntosh, B K; Renfro, D P; Zweifel, A E; Hu, J C; Brown, N H; Tweedie, S; Alam-Faruque, Y; Apweiler, R; Auchinchloss, A; Axelsen, K; Bely, B; Blatter, M -C; Bonilla, C; Bouguerleret, L; Boutet, E; Breuza, L; Bridge, A; Chan, W M; Chavali, G; Coudert, E; Dimmer, E; Estreicher, A; Famiglietti, L; Feuermann, M; Gos, A; Gruaz-Gumowski, N; Hieta, R; Hinz, C; Hulo, C; Huntley, R; James, J; Jungo, F; Keller, G; Laiho, K; Legge, D; Lemercier, P; Lieberherr, D; Magrane, M; Martin, M J; Masson, P; Mutowo-Muellenet, P; O'Donovan, C; Pedruzzi, I; Pichler, K; Poggioli, D; Porras Millán, P; Poux, S; Rivoire, C; Roechert, B; Sawford, T; Schneider, M; Stutz, A; Sundaram, S; Tognolli, M; Xenarios, I; Foulgar, R; Lomax, J; Roncaglia, P; Khodiyar, V K; Lovering, R C; Talmud, P J; Chibucos, M; Giglio, M Gwinn; Chang, H -Y; Hunter, S; McAnulla, C; Mitchell, A; Sangrador, A; Stephan, R; Harris, M A; Oliver, S G; Rutherford, K; Wood, V; Bahler, J; Lock, A; Kersey, P J; McDowall, D M; Staines, D M; Dwinell, M; Shimoyama, M; Laulederkind, S; Hayman, T; Wang, S -J; Petri, V; Lowry, T; D'Eustachio, P; Matthews, L; Balakrishnan, R; Binkley, G; Cherry, J M; Costanzo, M C; Dwight, S S; Engel, S R; Fisk, D G; Hitz, B C; Hong, E L; Karra, K; Miyasato, S R; Nash, R S; Park, J; Skrzypek, M S; Weng, S; Wong, E D; Berardini, T Z; Huala, E; Mi, H; Thomas, P D; Chan, J; Kishore, R; Sternberg, P; Van Auken, K; Howe, D; Westerfield, M

    2013-01-01

    The Gene Ontology (GO) Consortium (GOC, http://www.geneontology.org) is a community-based bioinformatics resource that classifies gene product function through the use of structured, controlled vocabularies. Over the past year, the GOC has implemented several processes to increase the quantity, quality and specificity of GO annotations. First, the number of manual, literature-based annotations has grown at an increasing rate. Second, as a result of a new 'phylogenetic annotation' process, manually reviewed, homology-based annotations are becoming available for a broad range of species. Third, the quality of GO annotations has been improved through a streamlined process for, and automated quality checks of, GO annotations deposited by different annotation groups. Fourth, the consistency and correctness of the ontology itself has increased by using automated reasoning tools. Finally, the GO has been expanded not only to cover new areas of biology through focused interaction with experts, but also to capture greater specificity in all areas of the ontology using tools for adding new combinatorial terms. The GOC works closely with other ontology developers to support integrated use of terminologies. The GOC supports its user community through the use of e-mail lists, social media and web-based resources.

  5. The SWAN biomedical discourse ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarese, Paolo; Wu, Elizabeth; Wong, Gwen; Ocana, Marco; Kinoshita, June; Ruttenberg, Alan; Clark, Tim

    2008-10-01

    Developing cures for highly complex diseases, such as neurodegenerative disorders, requires extensive interdisciplinary collaboration and exchange of biomedical information in context. Our ability to exchange such information across sub-specialties today is limited by the current scientific knowledge ecosystem's inability to properly contextualize and integrate data and discourse in machine-interpretable form. This inherently limits the productivity of research and the progress toward cures for devastating diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. SWAN (Semantic Web Applications in Neuromedicine) is an interdisciplinary project to develop a practical, common, semantically structured, framework for biomedical discourse initially applied, but not limited, to significant problems in Alzheimer Disease (AD) research. The SWAN ontology has been developed in the context of building a series of applications for biomedical researchers, as well as in extensive discussions and collaborations with the larger bio-ontologies community. In this paper, we present and discuss the SWAN ontology of biomedical discourse. We ground its development theoretically, present its design approach, explain its main classes and their application, and show its relationship to other ongoing activities in biomedicine and bio-ontologies.

  6. Constitutive rules, language, and ontology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hindriks, Frank

    It is a commonplace within philosophy that the ontology of institutions can be captured in terms of constitutive rules. What exactly such rules are, however, is not well understood. They are usually contrasted to regulative rules: constitutive rules (such as the rules of chess) make institutional

  7. Sistem Promosi Pariwisata Menggunakan Ontologi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Kurniawan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Pariwisata merupakan sektor yang penting di Indonesia. World Tourism Organization (WTO meramalkan pada tahun  2019,  bahwa  industri pariwisata Asia Pasifik akan mengalami perkembangan yang menjanjikan terutama dari segi pendapatan. Sistem  promosi pariwisata berbasis konteks yang ada hanya mengakomodasi pelancong yang sudah memiliki rencana dengan jelas (pelancong terencana, sedangkan pelancong yang sekedar ingin menjelajahi kota, berjalan-jalan  atau menghabiskan waktu luang (pelancong dadakan belum ada yang mengakomodasi. Salah satu solusi tersebut adalah dengan menggunakan teknologi piranti bergerak dan ontologi.  Piranti bergerak memudahkan pelancong untuk mendapatkan informasi kapanpun dan dimanapun. Sedangkan penggunaan ontologi akan mempermudah penyajian informasi yang lebih relevan kepada pelancong. Ontologi dalam konteks studi ini adalah ontologi probabilitas dengan pendekatan bayesian network. Pengujian sistem dibagi menjadi dua bagian yaitu uji validitas kebutuhan sistem dengan menggunakan perkaka Requirements Traceability Matrixs (RTM dan pengujian sistem purwarupa dengan pengujian kotak hitam. Secara umum, fungsionalitas sistem berjalan baik dan sesuai dengan rancangan sistem.

  8. Work output and efficiency at maximum power of linear irreversible heat engines operating with a finite-sized heat source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumida, Yuki; Okuda, Koji

    2014-05-09

    We formulate the work output and efficiency for linear irreversible heat engines working between a finite-sized hot heat source and an infinite-sized cold heat reservoir until the total system reaches the final thermal equilibrium state with a uniform temperature. We prove that when the heat engines operate at the maximum power under the tight-coupling condition without heat leakage the work output is just half of the exergy, which is known as the maximum available work extracted from a heat source. As a consequence, the corresponding efficiency is also half of its quasistatic counterpart.

  9. Materials Ontology: An Infrastructure for Exchanging Materials Information and Knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Toshihiro Ashino

    2010-01-01

    We have rich information resources for materials science and engineering - raw measurement data, computational simulation methods, digitized handbooks, and digital libraries. However, these resources have a wide variety of formats, terminologies, and concepts, which makes it difficult to find appropriate information for materials design, development, and evaluation. One solution to this problem is to integrate these resources into a computer readable concept map, called a domain ontology, whi...

  10. Ontology-based Query Expansion for Arabic Text Retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Waseem Alromima; Moawad, Ibrahim F.; Rania Elgohary; Mostafa Aref

    2016-01-01

    The semantic resources are important parts in the Information Retrieval (IR) such as search engines, Question Answering (QA), etc., these resources should be available, readable and understandable. In semantic web, the ontology plays a central role for the information retrieval, which use to retrieves more relevant information from unstructured information. This paper presents a semantic-based retrieval system for the Arabic text, which expands the input query semantically using Arabic domain...

  11. Evaluation of economic and technical efficiency of diesel engines operation on the basis of volume combustion rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. О. Берестовой

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with a new approach to evaluation of complex efficiency of diesel engines. Traditionally, cylinder’s capacity, rotation frequency, average efficient pressure inside cylinder, piston’s stroke, average piston’s velocity, fuel specific consumption and other indices are used as generalizing criteria, characterizing diesel engine’s efficiency, but they do not reflect interrelation between engine’s complex efficiency and a set of economic, mass-dimensional, operational and ecological efficiency. The approach applied in the article makes it possible to reveal the existing and modify the existing methods of solving the problem of improving diesel engine’s efficiency with due regard to interrelation of the parameters, characterizing efficiency of their operation. Statistic analyses were carried out, on the basis of which an assumption regarding the existence of interrelation between specific fuel consumption and the analyzed engine’s parameters was made. Processing of statistical data for various analyzed functions of diesel engines helped offer a function, illustrating the link between volume combustion rate, piston’s area and nominal theoretical specific fuel consumption. Interrelation between volume combustion rate, nominal parameters of diesel operation and efficiency indices, obtained by processing statistical data of more than 500 models of diesels of different series was evaluated, the main feature of it being a mathematical trend. The analysis of the obtained function makes it possible to establish an interrelation between economic efficiency of a diesel, its main index being specific fuel consumption and volume combustion rate and design peculiarities

  12. Towards a processual microbial ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bapteste, Eric; Dupré, John

    2013-03-01

    Standard microbial evolutionary ontology is organized according to a nested hierarchy of entities at various levels of biological organization. It typically detects and defines these entities in relation to the most stable aspects of evolutionary processes, by identifying lineages evolving by a process of vertical inheritance from an ancestral entity. However, recent advances in microbiology indicate that such an ontology has important limitations. The various dynamics detected within microbiological systems reveal that a focus on the most stable entities (or features of entities) over time inevitably underestimates the extent and nature of microbial diversity. These dynamics are not the outcome of the process of vertical descent alone. Other processes, often involving causal interactions between entities from distinct levels of biological organisation, or operating at different time scales, are responsible not only for the destabilisation of pre-existing entities, but also for the emergence and stabilisation of novel entities in the microbial world. In this article we consider microbial entities as more or less stabilised functional wholes, and sketch a network-based ontology that can represent a diverse set of processes including, for example, as well as phylogenetic relations, interactions that stabilise or destabilise the interacting entities, spatial relations, ecological connections, and genetic exchanges. We use this pluralistic framework for evaluating (i) the existing ontological assumptions in evolution (e.g. whether currently recognized entities are adequate for understanding the causes of change and stabilisation in the microbial world), and (ii) for identifying hidden ontological kinds, essentially invisible from within a more limited perspective. We propose to recognize additional classes of entities that provide new insights into the structure of the microbial world, namely "processually equivalent" entities, "processually versatile" entities, and

  13. Advances onto the Internet of Things how ontologies make the Internet of Things meaningful

    CERN Document Server

    Re, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The title of this book is a pun on the use of the preposition “onto” with the aim of recalling “Ontology”, the term commonly adopted in the computer science community to indicate the study of the formal specification for organizing knowledge. In the field of knowledge engineering, Ontologies are used for modeling concepts and relationships on some domain. The year 2013 celebrates the twentieth anniversary of the World Wide Web. The simple network of hypermedia has transformed the world of communications with enormous implications on the social relationships.  However, traditional World Wide Web is currently experiencing a challenging evolution toward the Internet of Things (IoT), today feasible thanks to the integration of pervasive technologies capable of sensing the environment.  The most important contribution of IoT regards the possibility of enabling more efficient machine-to-machine cooperation. To such aim, ontologies represent the most suitable tool to enable transfer and comprehension of in...

  14. Constructing Ontology for Knowledge Sharing of Materials Failure Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Shi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Materials failure indicates the fault with materials or components during their performance. To avoid the reoccurrence of similar failures, materials failure analysis is executed to investigate the reasons for the failure and to propose improved strategies. The whole procedure needs sufficient domain knowledge and also produces valuable new knowledge. However, the information about the materials failure analysis is usually retained by the domain expert, and its sharing is technically difficult. This phenomenon may seriously reduce the efficiency and decrease the veracity of the failure analysis. To solve this problem, this paper adopts ontology, a novel technology from the Semantic Web, as a tool for knowledge representation and sharing and describes the construction of the ontology to obtain information concerning the failure analysis, application area, materials, and failure cases. The ontology represented information is machine-understandable and can be easily shared through the Internet. At the same time, failure case intelligent retrieval, advanced statistics, and even automatic reasoning can be accomplished based on ontology represented knowledge. Obviously this can promote the knowledge sharing of materials service safety and improve the efficiency of failure analysis. The case of a nuclear power plant area is presented to show the details and benefits of this method.

  15. Data Mining Applications Using Ontologies in Biomedicine

    CERN Document Server

    Popescu, Mihail

    2009-01-01

    Presently, a growing number of ontologies are being built and used for annotating data in biomedical research. Thanks to the tremendous amount of data being generated, ontologies are now being used in numerous ways, including connecting different databases, refining search capabilities, interpreting experimental/clinical data, and inferring knowledge. This cutting-edge resource introduces you to latest developments in bio-ontologies. The book provides you with the theoretical foundations and examples of ontologies, as well as applications of ontologies in biomedicine, from molecular levels to

  16. Charge Stratification and Fuel/Air Ratio Effect on theEfficiency of (ICADE) I. C. Engine Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Hayder Abed Dhahad

    2011-01-01

    The Isolated Combustion and Diluted Expansion (ICADE) internal combustion engine cycle combines the advantages of constant volume combustion of the Otto cycle with the high compression ratio of the Diesel cycle. This work studies the effect of isolated air mass (charge stratification) on the efficiency of the cycle; the analysis shows that the decrease of isolated air mass will increase the efficiency of the cycle and the large dilution air mass will quench all NOx forming reactions and reduc...

  17. Thermodynamic efficiency analysis and cycle optimization of deeply precooled combined cycle engine in the air-breathing mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianqiang; Wang, Zhenguo; Li, Qinglian

    2017-09-01

    The efficiency calculation and cycle optimization were carried out for the Synergistic Air-Breathing Rocket Engine (SABRE) with deeply precooled combined cycle. A component-level model was developed for the engine, and exergy efficiency analysis based on the model was carried out. The methods to improve cycle efficiency have been proposed. The results indicate cycle efficiency of SABRE is between 29.7% and 41.7% along the flight trajectory, and most of the wasted exergy is occupied by the unburned hydrogen in exit gas. Exergy loss exists in each engine component, and the sum losses of main combustion chamber(CC), pre-burner(PB), precooler(PC) and 3# heat exchanger(HX3) are greater than 71.3% of the total loss. Equivalence ratio is the main influencing factor of cycle, and it can be regulated by adjusting parameters of helium loop. Increase the maximum helium outlet temperature of PC by 50 K, the total assumption of hydrogen will be saved by 4.8%, and the cycle efficiency is advanced by 3% averagely in the trajectory. Helium recirculation scheme introduces a helium recirculation loop to increase local helium flow rate of PC. It turns out the total assumption of hydrogen will be saved by 9%, that's about 1740 kg, and the cycle efficiency is advanced by 5.6% averagely.

  18. Ontologies as integrative tools for plant science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Ramona L.; Athreya, Balaji; Cooper, Laurel; Elser, Justin; Gandolfo, Maria A.; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Mungall, Christopher J.; Preece, Justin; Rensing, Stefan; Smith, Barry; Stevenson, Dennis W.

    2012-01-01

    Premise of the study Bio-ontologies are essential tools for accessing and analyzing the rapidly growing pool of plant genomic and phenomic data. Ontologies provide structured vocabularies to support consistent aggregation of data and a semantic framework for automated analyses and reasoning. They are a key component of the semantic web. Methods This paper provides background on what bio-ontologies are, why they are relevant to botany, and the principles of ontology development. It includes an overview of ontologies and related resources that are relevant to plant science, with a detailed description of the Plant Ontology (PO). We discuss the challenges of building an ontology that covers all green plants (Viridiplantae). Key results Ontologies can advance plant science in four keys areas: (1) comparative genetics, genomics, phenomics, and development; (2) taxonomy and systematics; (3) semantic applications; and (4) education. Conclusions Bio-ontologies offer a flexible framework for comparative plant biology, based on common botanical understanding. As genomic and phenomic data become available for more species, we anticipate that the annotation of data with ontology terms will become less centralized, while at the same time, the need for cross-species queries will become more common, causing more researchers in plant science to turn to ontologies. PMID:22847540

  19. CLASSIFYING PROCESSES: AN ESSAY IN APPLIED ONTOLOGY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Barry

    2012-12-01

    We begin by describing recent developments in the burgeoning discipline of applied ontology, focusing especially on the ways ontologies are providing a means for the consistent representation of scientific data. We then introduce Basic Formal Ontology (BFO), a top-level ontology that is serving as domain-neutral framework for the development of lower level ontologies in many specialist disciplines, above all in biology and medicine. BFO is a bicategorial ontology, embracing both three-dimensionalist (continuant) and four-dimensionalist (occurrent) perspectives within a single framework. We examine how BFO-conformant domain ontologies can deal with the consistent representation of scientific data deriving from the measurement of processes of different types, and we outline on this basis the first steps of an approach to the classification of such processes within the BFO framework.1.

  20. Knowledge Representation and Management. From Ontology to Annotation. Findings from the Yearbook 2015 Section on Knowledge Representation and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlet, J; Darmoni, S J

    2015-08-13

    To summarize the best papers in the field of Knowledge Representation and Management (KRM). A comprehensive review of medical informatics literature was performed to select some of the most interesting papers of KRM published in 2014. Four articles were selected, two focused on annotation and information retrieval using an ontology. The two others focused mainly on ontologies, one dealing with the usage of a temporal ontology in order to analyze the content of narrative document, one describing a methodology for building multilingual ontologies. Semantic models began to show their efficiency, coupled with annotation tools.

  1. Efficient design of multituned transmission line NMR probes: the electrical engineering approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydel, J A; Krzystyniak, M; Pienkowski, D; Pietrzak, M; de Sousa Amadeu, N; Ratajczyk, T; Idzik, K; Gutmann, T; Tietze, D; Voigt, S; Fenn, A; Limbach, H H; Buntkowsky, G

    2011-01-01

    Transmission line-based multi-channel solid state NMR probes have many advantages regarding the cost of construction, number of RF-channels, and achievable RF-power levels. Nevertheless, these probes are only rarely employed in solid state-NMR-labs, mainly owing to the difficult experimental determination of the necessary RF-parameters. Here, the efficient design of multi-channel solid state MAS-NMR probes employing transmission line theory and modern techniques of electrical engineering is presented. As technical realization a five-channel ((1)H, (31)P, (13)C, (2)H and (15)N) probe for operation at 7 Tesla is described. This very cost efficient design goal is a multi port single coil transmission line probe based on the design developed by Schaefer and McKay. The electrical performance of the probe is determined by measuring of Scattering matrix parameters (S-parameters) in particular input/output ports. These parameters are compared to the calculated parameters of the design employing the S-matrix formalism. It is shown that the S-matrix formalism provides an excellent tool for examination of transmission line probes and thus the tool for a rational design of these probes. On the other hand, the resulting design provides excellent electrical performance. From a point of view of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), calibration spectra of particular ports (channels) are of great importance. The estimation of the π/2 pulses length for all five NMR channels is presented. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Rational engineering of plasticity residues of sesquiterpene synthases from Artemisia annua: product specificity and catalytic efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Xu; Fang, Xin; Zhao, Qin; Ruan, Ju-Xin; Yang, Chang-Qing; Wang, Ling-Jian; Miller, David J; Faraldos, Juan A; Allemann, Rudolf K; Chen, Xiao-Ya; Zhang, Peng

    2013-05-01

    Most TPSs (terpene synthases) contain plasticity residues that are responsible for diversified terpene products and functional evolution, which provide a potential for improving catalytic efficiency. Artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone from Artemisia annua L., is widely used for malaria treatment and progress has been made in engineering the production of artemisinin or its precursors. In the present paper, we report a new sesquiterpene synthase from A. annua, AaBOS (A. annua α-bisabolol synthase), which has high sequence identity with AaADS (A. annua amorpha-4,11-diene synthase), a key enzyme in artemisinin biosynthesis. Comparative analysis of the two enzymes by domain-swapping and structure-based mutagenesis led to the identification of several plasticity residues, whose alteration changed the product profile of AaBOS to include γ-humulene as the major product. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms, we solved the crystal structures of AaBOS and a γ-humulene-producing AaBOS mutant (termed AaBOS-M2). Among the plasticity residues, position 399, located in the substrate-binding pocket, is crucial for both enzymes. In AaBOS, substitution of threonine for leucine (AaBOSL339T) is required for γ-humulene production; whereas in AaADS, replacing the threonine residue with serine (AaADST399S) resulted in a substantial increase in the activity of amorpha-4,11-diene production, probably as a result of accelerated product release. The present study demonstrates that substitution of plasticity residues has potential for improving catalytic efficiency of the enzyme.

  3. Building a biomedical ontology recommender web service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonquet, Clement; Musen, Mark A; Shah, Nigam H

    2010-06-22

    Researchers in biomedical informatics use ontologies and terminologies to annotate their data in order to facilitate data integration and translational discoveries. As the use of ontologies for annotation of biomedical datasets has risen, a common challenge is to identify ontologies that are best suited to annotating specific datasets. The number and variety of biomedical ontologies is large, and it is cumbersome for a researcher to figure out which ontology to use. We present the Biomedical Ontology Recommender web service. The system uses textual metadata or a set of keywords describing a domain of interest and suggests appropriate ontologies for annotating or representing the data. The service makes a decision based on three criteria. The first one is coverage, or the ontologies that provide most terms covering the input text. The second is connectivity, or the ontologies that are most often mapped to by other ontologies. The final criterion is size, or the number of concepts in the ontologies. The service scores the ontologies as a function of scores of the annotations created using the National Center for Biomedical Ontology (NCBO) Annotator web service. We used all the ontologies from the UMLS Metathesaurus and the NCBO BioPortal. We compare and contrast our Recommender by an exhaustive functional comparison to previously published efforts. We evaluate and discuss the results of several recommendation heuristics in the context of three real world use cases. The best recommendations heuristics, rated 'very relevant' by expert evaluators, are the ones based on coverage and connectivity criteria. The Recommender service (alpha version) is available to the community and is embedded into BioPortal.

  4. Building a biomedical ontology recommender web service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonquet Clement

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Researchers in biomedical informatics use ontologies and terminologies to annotate their data in order to facilitate data integration and translational discoveries. As the use of ontologies for annotation of biomedical datasets has risen, a common challenge is to identify ontologies that are best suited to annotating specific datasets. The number and variety of biomedical ontologies is large, and it is cumbersome for a researcher to figure out which ontology to use. Methods We present the Biomedical Ontology Recommender web service. The system uses textual metadata or a set of keywords describing a domain of interest and suggests appropriate ontologies for annotating or representing the data. The service makes a decision based on three criteria. The first one is coverage, or the ontologies that provide most terms covering the input text. The second is connectivity, or the ontologies that are most often mapped to by other ontologies. The final criterion is size, or the number of concepts in the ontologies. The service scores the ontologies as a function of scores of the annotations created using the National Center for Biomedical Ontology (NCBO Annotator web service. We used all the ontologies from the UMLS Metathesaurus and the NCBO BioPortal. Results We compare and contrast our Recommender by an exhaustive functional comparison to previously published efforts. We evaluate and discuss the results of several recommendation heuristics in the context of three real world use cases. The best recommendations heuristics, rated ‘very relevant’ by expert evaluators, are the ones based on coverage and connectivity criteria. The Recommender service (alpha version is available to the community and is embedded into BioPortal.

  5. A systems engineering perspective on eHealth implementations 'efficiency and effectiveness: a case study involving suppliers'

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fanta, GB

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of eHealth systems in South Africa did not generate the expected output. This paper investigates the impact of system engineering management (SEM) practices on the efficiency and effectiveness of eHealth system in two South...

  6. Ontological realism: A methodology for coordinated evolution of scientific ontologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Barry; Ceusters, Werner

    2010-11-15

    Since 2002 we have been testing and refining a methodology for ontology development that is now being used by multiple groups of researchers in different life science domains. Gary Merrill, in a recent paper in this journal, describes some of the reasons why this methodology has been found attractive by researchers in the biological and biomedical sciences. At the same time he assails the methodology on philosophical grounds, focusing specifically on our recommendation that ontologies developed for scientific purposes should be constructed in such a way that their terms are seen as referring to what we call universals or types in reality. As we show, Merrill's critique is of little relevance to the success of our realist project, since it not only reveals no actual errors in our work but also criticizes views on universals that we do not in fact hold. However, it nonetheless provides us with a valuable opportunity to clarify the realist methodology, and to show how some of its principles are being applied, especially within the framework of the OBO (Open Biomedical Ontologies) Foundry initiative.

  7. Ontological realism: A methodology for coordinated evolution of scientific ontologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Barry; Ceusters, Werner

    2011-01-01

    Since 2002 we have been testing and refining a methodology for ontology development that is now being used by multiple groups of researchers in different life science domains. Gary Merrill, in a recent paper in this journal, describes some of the reasons why this methodology has been found attractive by researchers in the biological and biomedical sciences. At the same time he assails the methodology on philosophical grounds, focusing specifically on our recommendation that ontologies developed for scientific purposes should be constructed in such a way that their terms are seen as referring to what we call universals or types in reality. As we show, Merrill’s critique is of little relevance to the success of our realist project, since it not only reveals no actual errors in our work but also criticizes views on universals that we do not in fact hold. However, it nonetheless provides us with a valuable opportunity to clarify the realist methodology, and to show how some of its principles are being applied, especially within the framework of the OBO (Open Biomedical Ontologies) Foundry initiative. PMID:21637730

  8. The ontology life cycle: Integrated tools for editing, publishing, peer review, and evolution of ontologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noy, Natalya; Tudorache, Tania; Nyulas, Csongor; Musen, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Ontologies have become a critical component of many applications in biomedical informatics. However, the landscape of the ontology tools today is largely fragmented, with independent tools for ontology editing, publishing, and peer review: users develop an ontology in an ontology editor, such as Protégé; and publish it on a Web server or in an ontology library, such as BioPortal, in order to share it with the community; they use the tools provided by the library or mailing lists and bug trackers to collect feedback from users. In this paper, we present a set of tools that bring the ontology editing and publishing closer together, in an integrated platform for the entire ontology lifecycle. This integration streamlines the workflow for collaborative development and increases integration between the ontologies themselves through the reuse of terms. PMID:21347039

  9. Divided Combustion Chamber Gasoline Engines - A Review for Emissions and Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bascunana, Jose L.

    1974-01-01

    Describes characteristic designs of the engine. Data for fuel economy and emission are presented. Data show that automobiles equipped with one of the engines described have passed the 1975 Federal Emissions Standards. (SLH)

  10. Bioreaction Engineering Leading to Efficient Synthesis of L-Glyceraldehyd-3-Phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molla, Getachew S; Kinfu, Birhanu M; Chow, Jennifer; Streit, Wolfgang; Wohlgemuth, Roland; Liese, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    Enantiopure L-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (L-GAP) is a useful building block in natural biological and synthetic processes. A biocatalytic process using glycerol kinase from Cellulomonas sp. (EC 2.7.1.30) catalyzed phosphorylation of L-glyceraldehyde (L-GA) by ATP is used for the synthesis of L-GAP. L-GAP has a half-life of 6.86 h under reaction conditions. The activity of this enzyme depends on the Mg2+ to ATP molar ratio showing maximum activity at the optimum molar ratio of 0.7. A kinetic model is developed and validated showing a 2D correlation of 99.9% between experimental and numerical data matrices. The enzyme exhibits inhibition by ADP, AMP, methylglyoxal and Ca2+ , but not by L-GAP and inorganic orthophosphate. Moreover, equal amount of Ca2+ exerts a different degree of inhibition relative to the activity without the addition of Ca2+ depending on the Mg2+ to ATP molar ratio. If the Mg2+ to ATP molar ratio is set to be at the optimum value or less, inorganic hexametaphosphate (PPi6) suppresses the enzyme activity; otherwise PPi6 enhances the enzyme activity. Based on reaction engineering parameters such as conversion, selectivity and specific productivity, evaluation of different reactor types reveals that batchwise operation via stirred-tank reactor is the most efficient process for the synthesis of L-GAP. Copyright © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Promoting wired links in wireless mesh networks: an efficient engineering solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barekatain, Behrang; Raahemifar, Kaamran; Ariza Quintana, Alfonso; Triviño Cabrera, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) cannot completely guarantee good performance of traffic sources such as video streaming. To improve the network performance, this study proposes an efficient engineering solution named Wireless-to-Ethernet-Mesh-Portal-Passageway (WEMPP) that allows effective use of wired communication in WMNs. WEMPP permits transmitting data through wired and stable paths even when the destination is in the same network as the source (Intra-traffic). Tested with four popular routing protocols (Optimized Link State Routing or OLSR as a proactive protocol, Dynamic MANET On-demand or DYMO as a reactive protocol, DYMO with spanning tree ability and HWMP), WEMPP considerably decreases the end-to-end delay, jitter, contentions and interferences on nodes, even when the network size or density varies. WEMPP is also cost-effective and increases the network throughput. Moreover, in contrast to solutions proposed by previous studies, WEMPP is easily implemented by modifying the firmware of the actual Ethernet hardware without altering the routing protocols and/or the functionality of the IP/MAC/Upper layers. In fact, there is no need for modifying the functionalities of other mesh components in order to work with WEMPPs. The results of this study show that WEMPP significantly increases the performance of all routing protocols, thus leading to better video quality on nodes.

  12. Engineered isopeptide bond stabilized fibrin inspired nanoscale peptide based sealants for efficient blood clotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Snehasish; Mukherjee, Sanchita; Dutta, Chiranjit; Chakraborty, Kasturee; Gayen, Paramita; Jan, Somnath; Bhattacharyya, Dhananjay; Roy, Rituparna Sinha

    2017-07-26

    Designing biologically inspired nanoscale molecular assembly with desired functionality is a challenging endeavour. Here we report the designing of fibrin-inspired nanostructured peptide based sealants which facilitate remarkably fast entrapping of blood corpuscles (~28 seconds) in contrast to fibrin (~56 seconds). Our engineered sealants are stabilized by lysine-aspartate ionic interactions and also by N(ε)(γ-glutamyl) lysine isopeptide bond mediated covalent interaction. Each sealant is formed by two peptides having complementary charges to promote lysine-aspartate ionic interactions and designed isopeptide bond mediated interactions. Computational analysis reveals the isopeptide bond mediated energetically favourable peptide assemblies in sealants 1-3. Our designed sealants 2 and 3 mimic fibrin-mediated clot formation mechanism in presence of transglutaminase enzyme and blood corpuscles. These fibrin-inspired peptides assemble to form sealants having superior hemostatic activities than fibrin. Designed sealants feature mechanical properties, biocompatibility, biodegradability and high adhesive strength. Such nature-inspired robust sealants might be potentially translated into clinics for facilitating efficient blood clotting to handle traumatic coagulopathy and impaired blood clotting.

  13. Metabolic engineering and adaptive evolution for efficient production of D-lactic acid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Seung-Ho; Kwon, Eunice Y; Kim, Yong Hwan; Hahn, Ji-Sook

    2016-03-01

    There is an increasing demand for microbial production of lactic acid (LA) as a monomer of biodegradable poly lactic acid (PLA). Both optical isomers, D-LA and L-LA, are required to produce stereocomplex PLA with improved properties. In this study, we developed Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for efficient production of D-LA. D-LA production was achieved by expressing highly stereospecific D-lactate dehydrogenase gene (ldhA, LEUM_1756) from Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides ATCC 8293 in S. cerevisiae lacking natural LA production activity. D-LA consumption after glucose depletion was inhibited by deleting DLD1 encoding D-lactate dehydrogenase and JEN1 encoding monocarboxylate transporter. In addition, ethanol production was reduced by deleting PDC1 and ADH1 genes encoding major pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase, respectively, and glycerol production was eliminated by deleting GPD1 and GPD2 genes encoding glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. LA tolerance of the engineered D-LA-producing strain was enhanced by adaptive evolution and overexpression of HAA1 encoding a transcriptional activator involved in weak acid stress response, resulting in effective D-LA production up to 48.9 g/L without neutralization. In a flask fed-batch fermentation under neutralizing condition, our evolved strain produced 112.0 g/L D-LA with a yield of 0.80 g/g glucose and a productivity of 2.2 g/(L · h).

  14. Promoting wired links in wireless mesh networks: an efficient engineering solution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrang Barekatain

    Full Text Available Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs cannot completely guarantee good performance of traffic sources such as video streaming. To improve the network performance, this study proposes an efficient engineering solution named Wireless-to-Ethernet-Mesh-Portal-Passageway (WEMPP that allows effective use of wired communication in WMNs. WEMPP permits transmitting data through wired and stable paths even when the destination is in the same network as the source (Intra-traffic. Tested with four popular routing protocols (Optimized Link State Routing or OLSR as a proactive protocol, Dynamic MANET On-demand or DYMO as a reactive protocol, DYMO with spanning tree ability and HWMP, WEMPP considerably decreases the end-to-end delay, jitter, contentions and interferences on nodes, even when the network size or density varies. WEMPP is also cost-effective and increases the network throughput. Moreover, in contrast to solutions proposed by previous studies, WEMPP is easily implemented by modifying the firmware of the actual Ethernet hardware without altering the routing protocols and/or the functionality of the IP/MAC/Upper layers. In fact, there is no need for modifying the functionalities of other mesh components in order to work with WEMPPs. The results of this study show that WEMPP significantly increases the performance of all routing protocols, thus leading to better video quality on nodes.

  15. Selection of Ecologically Efficient and Energetically Economic Engineering-Ecological System for Municipal Solid Wastes Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bespalov Vadim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sanitary city cleaning is one of the most important sanitary and hygiene events, promoting protection of human health and environment. Sanitary cleaning includes a complex of works on solid municipal wastes (SMW collection, transportation, deactivation, processing and burial and urban territory cleaning. In order to improve the works on SMW handling and the ecological state of urban territories, enterprises of public and utility sphere operate, organizing all types of works listed above. However, processes of waste creation and accumulation are dynamic in their essence. Process of waste transportation depends on various factors. Management of this process often demands urgent correcting of earlier taken decisions or even cancellation of those decisions. Reasons of such changes could be of the most unpredictable nature, for example, traffic jams on motorways, vehicles breakage, repair works on the roads, etc. Thus, the enterprise (or, more precisely, the facilities serviced by it, the transport acting with the purpose of providing ecological safety to urban territories, is the source of E pollution by itself. One of the main stages of SMW handling is waste transportation, where sources of E pollution with wastes (accumulation points and enterprises on handling SMW are involved. That is why the solution of the pressing issue of increasing ecological safety of urban territories on the basis of ecologically efficient and energetically economic selection of engineering-ecological system of SMW transportation is represented in the article.

  16. Selection of ecologically efficient and energetically economic engineering-ecological system for municipal solid wastes collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramonova Oksana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of handling of solid municipal wastes (SMW is becoming more and more difficult every year, which is caused by the growth of waste mass, changes in their structures and characteristics, absence of economic conditions for processing of the majority of wastes in many countries, financial losses due to burial of precious components of wastes and other reasons. In major cities the most intensive creation and accumulation of SMW is happening in the sources of their creation (residential and public buildings of various public services and amenities and purpose, enterprises, cities, yard territories, which in case of unduly disposal and deactivation could substantially pollute the environment (E. With the purpose of improvement of the activity on handling of SMW and improvement of ecological state of urban territories public utility services enterprises are functioning. Their activity lies in the provision of collection, transportation and utilization of all wastes created in the city. One of the major stages of SMW handling, where both E pollution sources and enterprises on their disposal are involved, is the collection of wastes. That is why in this article the solution of the pressing problem on increase of ecological safety of urban territories based on the selection of ecologically efficient and energetically economic engineering-ecological system for SMW is represented.

  17. Engineering a 70-percent efficient, indirect-fired fuel-cell bottomed turbine cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, M.C.; Micheli, P.L.; Parson, E.L. Jr. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1995-08-01

    We introduce the natural gas, indirect-fired fuel-cell bottomed turbine cycle (NG-IFFC) as a novel power plant system for the distributed power and on-site markets in the 20 to 200 megawatt (MW) size range. The NG-IFFC system is a new METC-patented system. This power-plant system links the ambient pressure, carbonate fuel cell in tandem with a gas turbine, air compressor, combustor, and ceramic heat exchanger. Performance calculations based on Advanced System for Process Engineering (ASPEN) simulations show material and energy balances with expected power output. Early results indicated efficiencies and heat rates for the NG-EFFC are comparable to conventionally bottomed, carbonate fuel-cell steam-bottomed cycles, but with smaller and less expensive components. More recent calculations extended the in-tandem concept to produce near-stoichiometric usage of the oxygen. This is made possible by reforming the anode stream to completion and using all hydrogen fuel in what will need to be a special combustor. The performance increases dramatically to greater than 70 percent.

  18. Hydraulic Performance and Mass Transfer Efficiency of Engineering Scale Centrifugal Contactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Meikrantz; Troy Garn; Nick Mann; Jack Law; Terry Todd

    2007-09-01

    Annular centrifugal contactors (ACCs) are being evaluated for process-scale solvent extraction operations in support of Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) separations goals. Process-scale annular centrifugal contactors have the potential for high stage efficiency if properly employed and optimized for the application. Hydraulic performance issues related to flow instability and classical flooding are likely unimportant, especially for units with high throughputs. However, annular mixing increases rapidly with increasing rotor diameter while maintaining a fixed g force at the rotor wall. In addition, for engineering/process-scale contactors, elevated rotor speeds and/or throughput rates, can lead to organic phase foaming at the rotor discharge collector area. Foam buildup in the upper rotor head area can aspirate additional vapor from the contactor housing resulting in a complete loss of separation equilibrium. Variable speed drives are thus desirable to optimize and balance the operating parameters to help ensure acceptable performance. Proper venting of larger contactors is required to balance pressures across individual stages and prevent vapor lock due to foam aspiration.

  19. Thermodynamic efficiency of present types of internal combustion engines for aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucke, Charles E

    1917-01-01

    Report presents requirements of internal combustion engines suitable for aircraft. Topics include: (1) service requirements for aeronautic engines - power versus weight, reliability, and adaptability factors, (2) general characteristics of present aero engines, (3) aero engine processes and functions of parts versus power-weight ratio, reliability, and adaptability factors, and (4) general arrangement, form, proportions, and materials of aero parts - power-weight ratio, reliability, and adaptability.

  20. INFLUENCE OF THE MIXING METHOD ON THE INDICATOR AND EFFECTIVE EFFICIENCY OF THE TWO-STROKE ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Korohodskyi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dependences on the definition of the indicator and effective efficiency of the ICE, taking into account the fuel that is not involved in the combustion process are offered. The transition from the external to the internal mixture formation in the two-stroke engine with spark ignition has allowed at modes of load characteristic when n = 3,000 min-1 to increase the effective efficiency by 45–58 % due to the increase of the indicator efficiency by 28–52 %, and by eliminating the losses of fuel during cylinder purging (14–26 %.

  1. Semantic Cooperation and Knowledge Reuse by Using Autonomous Ontologies

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yuting; Wang, Kewen; Topor, Rodney; Pan, Jeff Z.; Giunchiglia, Fausto

    2007-01-01

    Several proposals have been put forward to support distributed agent cooperation in the SemanticWeb, by allowing concepts and roles in one ontology be reused in another ontology. In general, these proposals reduce the autonomy of each ontology by defining the semantics of the ontology to depend on the semantics of the other ontologies. We propose a new framework for managing autonomy in a set of cooperating ontologies (or ontology space). In this framework, each language entity concept/role/i...

  2. The Usability-Error Ontology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkin, Peter L.; Beuscart-zephir, Marie-Catherine; Pelayo, Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    in patients coming to harm. Often the root cause analysis of these adverse events can be traced back to Usability Errors in the Health Information Technology (HIT) or its interaction with users. Interoperability of the documentation of HIT related Usability Errors in a consistent fashion can improve our...... ability to do systematic reviews and meta-analyses. In an effort to support improved and more interoperable data capture regarding Usability Errors, we have created the Usability Error Ontology (UEO) as a classification method for representing knowledge regarding Usability Errors. We expect the UEO...... will grow over time to support an increasing number of HIT system types. In this manuscript, we present this Ontology of Usability Error Types and specifically address Computerized Physician Order Entry (CPOE), Electronic Health Records (EHR) and Revenue Cycle HIT systems....

  3. Jacob's Ladder and Scientific Ontologies

    CERN Document Server

    Stern, Julio Michael

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this article is to use the epistemological framework of a specific version of Cognitive Constructivism to address Piaget's central problem of knowledge construction, namely, the re-equilibration of cognitive structures. The distinctive objective character of this constructivist framework is based on Heinz von Foerster's fundamental metaphor of - objects as tokens for eigen-solutions, and is also supported by formal inference methods of Bayesian statistics. This epistemological perspective is illustrated using some episodes in the history of chemistry concerning the definition or identification of chemical elements. Some of von Foerster's epistemological imperatives provide general guidelines of development and argumentation. Keywords: Chemical elements; Cognitive constructivism; Development of cognitive structures; Eigen-solutions; External symbol grounding; Objective knowledge; Ontology alignments; Scientific ontologies.

  4. Ontology development for provenance tracing in National Climate Assessment of the US Global Change Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Linyun; Ma, Xiaogang; Zheng, Jin; Goldstein, Justin; Duggan, Brian; West, Patrick; Aulenbach, Steve; Tilmes, Curt; Fox, Peter

    2014-05-01

    This poster will show how we used a case-driven iterative methodology to develop an ontology to represent the content structure and the associated provenance information in a National Climate Assessment (NCA) report of the US Global Change Research Program (USGCRP). We applied the W3C PROV-O ontology to implement a formal representation of provenance. We argue that the use case-driven, iterative development process and the application of a formal provenance ontology help efficiently incorporate domain knowledge from earth and environmental scientists in a well-structured model interoperable in the context of the Web of Data.

  5. The Christological Ontology of Reason

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Ulrik Becker

    2006-01-01

    Taking the startingpoint in an assertion of an ambiguity in the Lutheran tradition’s assessment of reason, the essay argues that the Kantian unreserved confidence in reason is criticised in Bonhoeffer. Based upon a Christological understanding of reason, Bonhoeffer endorses a view of reason which...... is treated in the essay. Here it is argued that Bonhoeffer may be appropriated in attempting to outline a Christological ontology of reason holding essential implications for the sources and conditions of public discourse....

  6. Building an ontology for cyberterrorism

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Veerasamy, N

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available prescribes to the principles of Islam. Therefore, while ordinary criminals or attackers may not have political, religious or social motivations, cyberterrorists do have these types of driving forces. Additional sub-classes that were added... to the Cyberterrorism ontology included Political, Social and Religious. A summary of the motivation class is given in Figure 3. For example, an actor may have a more specific objection that stems from the high-level motivation. The different types of objectives...

  7. Evaluation of research in biomedical ontologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehndorf, Robert; Dumontier, Michel; Gkoutos, Georgios V

    2013-11-01

    Ontologies are now pervasive in biomedicine, where they serve as a means to standardize terminology, to enable access to domain knowledge, to verify data consistency and to facilitate integrative analyses over heterogeneous biomedical data. For this purpose, research on biomedical ontologies applies theories and methods from diverse disciplines such as information management, knowledge representation, cognitive science, linguistics and philosophy. Depending on the desired applications in which ontologies are being applied, the evaluation of research in biomedical ontologies must follow different strategies. Here, we provide a classification of research problems in which ontologies are being applied, focusing on the use of ontologies in basic and translational research, and we demonstrate how research results in biomedical ontologies can be evaluated. The evaluation strategies depend on the desired application and measure the success of using an ontology for a particular biomedical problem. For many applications, the success can be quantified, thereby facilitating the objective evaluation and comparison of research in biomedical ontology. The objective, quantifiable comparison of research results based on scientific applications opens up the possibility for systematically improving the utility of ontologies in biomedical research.

  8. Desiderata for domain reference ontologies in biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgun, Anita

    2006-06-01

    Domain reference ontologies represent knowledge about a particular part of the world in a way that is independent from specific objectives, through a theory of the domain. An example of reference ontology in biomedical informatics is the Foundational Model of Anatomy (FMA), an ontology of anatomy that covers the entire range of macroscopic, microscopic, and subcellular anatomy. The purpose of this paper is to explore how two domain reference ontologies--the FMA and the Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) ontology, can be used (i) to align existing terminologies, (ii) to infer new knowledge in ontologies of more complex entities, and (iii) to manage and help reasoning about individual data. We analyze those kinds of usages of these two domain reference ontologies and suggest desiderata for reference ontologies in biomedicine. While a number of groups and communities have investigated general requirements for ontology design and desiderata for controlled medical vocabularies, we are focusing on application purposes. We suggest five desirable characteristics for reference ontologies: good lexical coverage, good coverage in terms of relations, compatibility with standards, modularity, and ability to represent variation in reality.

  9. Formal Ontologies and Uncertainty. In Geographical Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Caglioni

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Formal ontologies have proved to be a very useful tool to manage interoperability among data, systems and knowledge. In this paper we will show how formal ontologies can evolve from a crisp, deterministic framework (ontologies of hard knowledge to new probabilistic, fuzzy or possibilistic frameworks (ontologies of soft knowledge. This can considerably enlarge the application potential of formal ontologies in geographic analysis and planning, where soft knowledge is intrinsically linked to the complexity of the phenomena under study.  The paper briefly presents these new uncertainty-based formal ontologies. It then highlights how ontologies are formal tools to define both concepts and relations among concepts. An example from the domain of urban geography finally shows how the cause-to-effect relation between household preferences and urban sprawl can be encoded within a crisp, a probabilistic and a possibilistic ontology, respectively. The ontology formalism will also determine the kind of reasoning that can be developed from available knowledge. Uncertain ontologies can be seen as the preliminary phase of more complex uncertainty-based models. The advantages of moving to uncertainty-based models is evident: whether it is in the analysis of geographic space or in decision support for planning, reasoning on geographic space is almost always reasoning with uncertain knowledge of geographic phenomena.

  10. MASALAH ONTOLOGI DALAM KAJIAN KEISLAMAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabbar Sabil

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Some muslim scholars offer the project of Islamization of Knowledge in order to undertake the development of Islamic studies. However, this offer was rejected by some others on the grounds that it is closely related problem of the ontological foundation of science, which is the basic assumption of the material object. As a result of Islamization science project is considered insignificant by Islamic parties offering Islamization of science. This problem might have been solved by answering the problems on the ontology in Islamic studies in order to obtain a moderate perspective. This paper discuses it by using the philosophical approach of critical rationalism (metaphysical realism, and use deductive method to do falsification test. This study found that ontology is the reality of Islamic studies in the form of text: 1 the physical reality of the text of the Quran; 2 the metaphysical reality of the Quranic texts. The value of both texts reality applied into the pure science so it is integrated with Islamic studies. Then the findings of pure intellect sciences are accepted as a source of knowledge to understand the text, so that the study of Islamic sciences will be connected to pure science.

  11. Ontology Maintenance using Textual Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassine Gargouri

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Ontologies are continuously confronted to evolution problem. Due to the complexity of the changes to be made, a maintenance process, at least a semi-automatic one, is more and more necessary to facilitate this task and to ensure its reliability. In this paper, we propose a maintenance ontology model for a domain, whose originality is to be language independent and based on a sequence of text processing in order to extract highly related terms from corpus. Initially, we deploy the document classification technique using GRAMEXCO to generate classes of texts segments having a similar information type and identify their shared lexicon, agreed as highly related to a unique topic. This technique allows a first general and robust exploration of the corpus. Further, we apply the Latent Semantic Indexing method to extract from this shared lexicon, the most associated terms that has to be seriously considered by an expert to eventually confirm their relevance and thus updating the current ontology. Finally, we show how the complementarity between these two techniques, based on cognitive foundation, constitutes a powerful refinement process.

  12. Metabolic engineering of Aspergillus oryzae for efficient production of l-malate directly from corn starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingjing; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian; Liu, Long

    2017-11-20

    l-Malate, an important chemical building block, has been widely applied in the food, pharmaceutical, and bio-based materials industries. In previous work, we engineered Aspergillus oryzae by rewiring the reductive tricarboxylic acid pathway to produce l-malate from glucose. To decrease the production cost, here, we further engineered A. oryzae to efficiently produce l-malate directly from corn starch with simultaneous liquefaction-saccharification and fermentation. First, a promoter PN5 was constructed by quintuple tandem of the 97-bp fragment containing the cis-element of the glucoamylase gene promoter (PglaA), and with the promoter PN5, the transcriptional level of glaA gene increased by 25-45%. Then, by co-overexpression of glaA, a-amylase (amyB) and a-glucosidase (agdA) genes with the promoter PN5, the l-malate titer increased from 55.5g/L to 72.0g/L with 100g/L corn starch in shake flask. In addition, to reduce the concentration of byproducts succinate and fumarate, a fumarase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which facilitated the transformation of fumarate to l-malate, was overexpressed. As a result, the concentration of succinate and fumarate decreased from 12.6 and 1.29g/L to 7.8 and 0.59g/L, and the l-malate titer increased from 72.0g/L to 78.5g/L. Finally, we found that the addition of glucose at the initial fermentation stage facilitated the cell growth and l-malate synthesis, and the l-malate titer further increased to 82.3g/L by co-fermentation of 30g/L glucose and 70g/L corn starch, with a productivity of 1.18g/L/h and a yield of 0.82g/g total carbon sources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A versatile two-step CRISPR- and RMCE-based strategy for efficient genome engineering in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Koolhaas, Wouter H; Schnorrer, Frank

    2014-10-15

    The development of clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) technologies promises a quantum leap in genome engineering of model organisms. However, CRISPR-mediated gene targeting reports in Drosophila melanogaster are still restricted to a few genes, use variable experimental conditions, and vary in efficiency, questioning the universal applicability of the method. Here, we developed an efficient two-step strategy to flexibly engineer the fly genome by combining CRISPR with recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE). In the first step, two sgRNAs, whose activity had been tested in cell culture, were co-injected together with a donor plasmid into transgenic Act5C-Cas9, Ligase4 mutant embryos and the homologous integration events were identified by eye fluorescence. In the second step, the eye marker was replaced with DNA sequences of choice using RMCE enabling flexible gene modification. We applied this strategy to engineer four different locations in the genome, including a gene on the fourth chromosome, at comparably high efficiencies. Our data suggest that any fly laboratory can engineer their favorite gene for a broad range of applications within approximately 3 months. Copyright © 2014 Zhang et al.

  14. A PRACTICAL ONTOLOGY FOR THE LARGE-SCALE MODELING OF SCHOLARLY ARTIFACTS AND THEIR USAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RODRIGUEZ, MARKO A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; BOLLEN, JOHAN [Los Alamos National Laboratory; VAN DE SOMPEL, HERBERT [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-30

    The large-scale analysis of scholarly artifact usage is constrained primarily by current practices in usage data archiving, privacy issues concerned with the dissemination of usage data, and the lack of a practical ontology for modeling the usage domain. As a remedy to the third constraint, this article presents a scholarly ontology that was engineered to represent those classes for which large-scale bibliographic and usage data exists, supports usage research, and whose instantiation is scalable to the order of 50 million articles along with their associated artifacts (e.g. authors and journals) and an accompanying 1 billion usage events. The real world instantiation of the presented abstract ontology is a semantic network model of the scholarly community which lends the scholarly process to statistical analysis and computational support. They present the ontology, discuss its instantiation, and provide some example inference rules for calculating various scholarly artifact metrics.

  15. An Evolutionary Ontology Approach for Community-Based Competency Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Baer, Peter; Meersman, Robert; Zhao, Gang

    In this article we describe an evolutionary ontology approach that distinguishes between major ontology changes and minor ontology changes. We divide the community in three (possibly overlapping) groups, i.e. facilitators, contributors, and users. Facilitators are a selected group of domain experts who represent the intended community. These facilitators define the intended goals of the ontology and will be responsible for major ontology and ontology platform changes. A larger group of contributors consists of all participating domain experts. The contributors will carry out minor ontology changes, like instantiation of concepts and description of concept instances. Users of the ontology may explore the ontology content via the ontology platform and/or make use of the published ontology content in XML or HTML format. The approach makes use of goal and group specific user interfaces to guide the ontology evolution process. For the minor ontology changes, the approach relies on the wisdom of crowds.

  16. The Hybrid Sterling Engine: boosting photovoltaic efficiency and deriving mechanical work from fluid expansion and heat capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beets, Nathan; Wake Forest CenterNanotechnology; Molecular Materials Team; Fraunhofer Institute Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    Two major problems with many third generation photovoltaics is their complex structure and greater expense for increased efficiency. Spectral splitting devices have been used by many with varying degrees of success to collect more and more of the spectrum, but simple, efficient, and cost-effective setups that employ spectral splitting remain elusive. This study explores this problem, presenting a solar engine that employs stokes shifting via laser dyes to convert incident light to the wavelength bandgap of the solar cell and collects the resultant infrared radiation unused by the photovoltaic cell as heat in ethylene glycol or glycerin. When used in conjunction with micro turbines, fluid expansion creates mechanical work, and the temperature difference between the cell and the environment is made available for use. The effect of focusing is also observed as a means to boost efficiency via concentration. Experimental results from spectral scans, vibrational voltage analysis of the PV itself and temperature measurements from a thermocouple are all compared to theoretical results using a program in Mathematica written to model refraction and lensing in the devices used, a quantum efficiency test of the cells, the absorption and emission curves of the dues used to determine the spectrum shift, and the various equations for fill factor, efficiency, and current in different setups. An efficiency increase well over 50% from the control devices is observed, and a new solar engine proposed.

  17. Geometry and Simulation Results for a Gas Turbine Representative of the Energy Efficient Engine (EEE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus, Russell W.; Beach, Tim; Turner, Mark; Hendricks, Eric S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the geometry and simulation results of a gas-turbine engine based on the original EEE engine developed in the 1980s. While the EEE engine was never in production, the technology developed during the program underpins many of the current generation of gas turbine engines. This geometry is being explored as a potential multi-stage turbomachinery test case that may be used to develop technology for virtual full-engine simulation. Simulation results were used to test the validity of each component geometry representation. Results are compared to a zero-dimensional engine model developed from experimental data. The geometry is captured in a series of Initial Graphical Exchange Specification (IGES) files and is available on a supplemental DVD to this report.

  18. A novel algorithm for fully automated mapping of geospatial ontologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaabane, Sana; Jaziri, Wassim

    2017-09-01

    Geospatial information is collected from different sources thus making spatial ontologies, built for the same geographic domain, heterogeneous; therefore, different and heterogeneous conceptualizations may coexist. Ontology integrating helps creating a common repository of the geospatial ontology and allows removing the heterogeneities between the existing ontologies. Ontology mapping is a process used in ontologies integrating and consists in finding correspondences between the source ontologies. This paper deals with the "mapping" process of geospatial ontologies which consist in applying an automated algorithm in finding the correspondences between concepts referring to the definitions of matching relationships. The proposed algorithm called "geographic ontologies mapping algorithm" defines three types of mapping: semantic, topological and spatial.

  19. Thick Thermal Barrier Coatings (TTBCs) for Low Emission, High Efficiency Diesel Engine Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Brad Beardsley, Caterpillar Inc.; Dr. Darrell Socie, University of Illinois; Dr. Ed Redja, University of Illinois; Dr. Christopher Berndt, State University of New York at Stony Brook

    2006-03-02

    The objective of this program was to advance the fundamental understanding of thick thermal barrier coating (TTBC) systems for application to low heat rejection diesel engine combustion chambers. Previous reviews of thermal barrier coating technology concluded that the current level of understanding of coating system behavior is inadequate and the lack of fundamental understanding may impede the application of thermal barrier coating to diesel engines.(1) Areas of TTBC technology examined in this program include powder characteristics and chemistry; bond coating composition, coating design, microstructure and thickness as they affect properties, durability, and reliability; and TTBC "aging" effects (microstructural and property changes) under diesel engine operating conditions. Fifteen TTBC ceramic powders were evaluated. These powders were selected to investigate the effects of different chemistries, different manufacturing methods, lot-to-lot variations, different suppliers and varying impurity levels. Each of the fifteen materials has been sprayed using 36 parameters selected by a design of experiments (DOE) to determine the effects of primary gas (Ar and N2), primary gas flow rate, voltage, arc current, powder feed rate, carrier gas flow rate, and spraying distance. The deposition efficiency, density, and thermal conductivity of the resulting coatings were measured. A coating with a high deposition efficiency and low thermal conductivity is desired from an economic standpoint. An optimum combination of thermal conductivity and disposition efficiency was found for each lot of powder in follow-on experiments and disposition parameters were chosen for full characterization.(2) Strengths of the optimized coatings were determined using 4-point bending specimens. The tensile strength was determined using free-standing coatings made by spraying onto mild steel substrates which were subsequently removed by chemical etching. The compressive strengths of the coatings

  20. Improving the Efficiency of an Ideal Heat Engine: The Quantum Afterburner

    OpenAIRE

    Scully, Marlan O.

    2001-01-01

    By using a laser and maser in tandem, it is possible to obtain laser action in the hot exhaust gases involved in heat engine operation. Such a "quantum afterburner" involves the internal quantum states of working gas atoms or molecules as well as the techniques of cavity quantum electrodynamics and is therefore in the domain of quantum thermodynamics. As an example, it is shown that Otto cycle engine performance can be improved beyond that of the "ideal" Otto heat engine.

  1. Efficiency at maximum power of a heat engine working with a two-level atomic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Wang, Jianhui; He, Jizhou; Ma, Yongli

    2013-04-01

    We consider the finite-time operation of a quantum heat engine whose working substance is composed of a two-level atomic system. The engine cycle, consisting of two quantum adiabatic and two quantum isochoric (constant-frequency) processes and working between two heat reservoirs at temperatures T(h) and T(c)(engine model based on a mesoscopic or macroscopic system. If the internal friction is included, we find that the EMP decreases as the friction coefficient increases.

  2. Anatomy Ontology Matching Using Markov Logic Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunhua; Zhao, Pengpeng; Wu, Jian; Cui, Zhiming

    2016-01-01

    The anatomy of model species is described in ontologies, which are used to standardize the annotations of experimental data, such as gene expression patterns. To compare such data between species, we need to establish relationships between ontologies describing different species. Ontology matching is a kind of solutions to find semantic correspondences between entities of different ontologies. Markov logic networks which unify probabilistic graphical model and first-order logic provide an excellent framework for ontology matching. We combine several different matching strategies through first-order logic formulas according to the structure of anatomy ontologies. Experiments on the adult mouse anatomy and the human anatomy have demonstrated the effectiveness of proposed approach in terms of the quality of result alignment.

  3. Anatomy Ontology Matching Using Markov Logic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhua Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The anatomy of model species is described in ontologies, which are used to standardize the annotations of experimental data, such as gene expression patterns. To compare such data between species, we need to establish relationships between ontologies describing different species. Ontology matching is a kind of solutions to find semantic correspondences between entities of different ontologies. Markov logic networks which unify probabilistic graphical model and first-order logic provide an excellent framework for ontology matching. We combine several different matching strategies through first-order logic formulas according to the structure of anatomy ontologies. Experiments on the adult mouse anatomy and the human anatomy have demonstrated the effectiveness of proposed approach in terms of the quality of result alignment.

  4. Text Mining to inform construction of Earth and Environmental Science Ontologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schildhauer, M.; Adams, B.; Rebich Hespanha, S.

    2013-12-01

    There is a clear need for better semantic representation of Earth and environmental concepts, to facilitate more effective discovery and re-use of information resources relevant to scientists doing integrative research. In order to develop general-purpose Earth and environmental science ontologies, however, it is necessary to represent concepts and relationships that span usage across multiple disciplines and scientific specialties. Traditional knowledge modeling through ontologies utilizes expert knowledge but inevitably favors the particular perspectives of the ontology engineers, as well as the domain experts who interacted with them. This often leads to ontologies that lack robust coverage of synonymy, while also missing important relationships among concepts that can be extremely useful for working scientists to be aware of. In this presentation we will discuss methods we have developed that utilize statistical topic modeling on a large corpus of Earth and environmental science articles, to expand coverage and disclose relationships among concepts in the Earth sciences. For our work we collected a corpus of over 121,000 abstracts from many of the top Earth and environmental science journals. We performed latent Dirichlet allocation topic modeling on this corpus to discover a set of latent topics, which consist of terms that commonly co-occur in abstracts. We match terms in the topics to concept labels in existing ontologies to reveal gaps, and we examine which terms are commonly associated in natural language discourse, to identify relationships that are important to formally model in ontologies. Our text mining methodology uncovers significant gaps in the content of some popular existing ontologies, and we show how, through a workflow involving human interpretation of topic models, we can bootstrap ontologies to have much better coverage and richer semantics. Because we base our methods directly on what working scientists are communicating about their

  5. Semantic Cooperation and Knowledge Reuse by Using Autonomous Ontologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuting; Wang, Kewen; Topor, Rodney; Pan, Jeff Z.; Giunchiglia, Fausto

    Several proposals have been put forward to support distributed agent cooperation in the Semantic Web, by allowing concepts and roles in one ontology be reused in another ontology. In general, these proposals reduce the autonomy of each ontology by defining the semantics of the ontology to depend on the semantics of the other ontologies.

  6. Cohesion Metrics for Ontology Design and Application

    OpenAIRE

    Haining Yao; Anthony M. Orme; Letha Etzkorn

    2005-01-01

    Recently, domain specific ontology development has been driven by research on the Semantic Web. Ontologies have been suggested for use in many application areas targeted by the Semantic Web, such as dynamic web service composition and general web service matching. Fundamental characteristics of these ontologies must be determined in order to effectively make use of them: for example, Sirin, Hendler and Parsia have suggested that determining fundamental characteristics...

  7. Towards Scalable Instance Retrieval over Ontologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplunova, Alissa; Möller, Ralf; Wandelt, Sebastian; Wessel, Michael

    In this paper, we consider the problem of query answering over large multimedia ontologies. Traditional reasoning systems may have problems to deal with large amounts of expressive ontological data (terminological as well as assertional data) that usually must be kept in main memory. We propose to overcome this problem with a new so-called filter and refine paradigm for ontology-based query answering.

  8. Versioning System for Distributed Ontology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-15

    ontology development approaches assume an open environment for sharing of information across the Internet, or the “ semantic web .” However, we observe that...describe the modular structure for CCER Ontology based on the concept of Topic. Section 2.3 defines the close alignment between the file system structure...guidelines that answers these kinds of questions . Figure 4 illustrates how CCER ontology developers determine the version number for a new CCER Topic when

  9. Data-driven Ontology Development: A Case Study at NASA's Atmospheric Science Data Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, J.; Huffer, E.; Kusterer, J.

    2012-12-01

    Well-founded ontologies are key to enabling transformative semantic technologies and accelerating scientific research. One example is semantically enabled search and discovery, making scientific data accessible and more understandable by accurately modeling a complex domain. The ontology creation process remains a challenge for many anxious to pursue semantic technologies. The key may be that the creation process -- whether formal, community-based, automated or semi-automated -- should encompass not only a foundational core and supplemental resources but also a focus on the purpose or mission the ontology is created to support. Are there tools or processes to de-mystify, assess or enhance the resulting ontology? We suggest that comparison and analysis of a domain-focused ontology can be made using text engineering tools for information extraction, tokenizers, named entity transducers and others. The results are analyzed to ensure the ontology reflects the core purpose of the domain's mission and that the ontology integrates and describes the supporting data in the language of the domain - how the science is analyzed and discussed among all users of the data. Commonalities and relationships among domain resources describing the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy (CERES) Bi-Directional Scan (BDS) datasets from NASA's Atmospheric Science Data Center are compared. The domain resources include: a formal ontology created for CERES; scientific works such as papers, conference proceedings and notes; information extracted from the datasets (i.e., header metadata); and BDS scientific documentation (Algorithm Theoretical Basis Documents, collection guides, data quality summaries and others). These resources are analyzed using the open source software General Architecture for Text Engineering, a mature framework for computational tasks involving human language.

  10. A Marketplace for Ontologies and Ontology-Based Tools and Applications in the Life Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEntire, R; Goble, C; Stevens, R; Neumann, E; Matuszek, P; Critchlow, T; Tarczy-Hornoch, P

    2005-06-30

    This paper describes a strategy for the development of ontologies in the life sciences, tools to support the creation and use of those ontologies, and a framework whereby these ontologies can support the development of commercial applications within the field. At the core of these efforts is the need for an organization that will provide a focus for ontology work that will engage researchers as well as drive forward the commercial aspects of this effort.

  11. Engineering plants to reflect light: strategies for engineering water-efficient plants to adapt to a changing climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamft, Bradley M; Conrado, Robert J

    2015-09-01

    Population growth and globally increasing standards of living have put a significant strain on the energy-food-water nexus. Limited water availability particularly affects agriculture, as it accounts for over 70% of global freshwater withdrawals (Aquastat). This study outlines the fundamental nature of plant water consumption and suggests a >50% reduction in renewable freshwater demand is possible by engineering more reflective crops. Furthermore, the decreased radiative forcing resulting from the greater reflectivity of crops would be equivalent to removing 10-50 ppm CO2 from the atmosphere. Recent advances in engineering optical devices and a greater understanding of the mechanisms of biological reflectance suggest such a strategy may now be viable. Here we outline the challenges involved in such an effort and suggest three potential approaches that could enable its implementation. While the local benefits may be straightforward, determining the global externalities will require careful modelling efforts and gradually scaled field trials. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  12. The National Center for Biomedical Ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noy, Natalya F; Shah, Nigam H; Whetzel, Patricia L; Chute, Christopher G; Story, Margaret-Anne; Smith, Barry

    2011-01-01

    The National Center for Biomedical Ontology is now in its seventh year. The goals of this National Center for Biomedical Computing are to: create and maintain a repository of biomedical ontologies and terminologies; build tools and web services to enable the use of ontologies and terminologies in clinical and translational research; educate their trainees and the scientific community broadly about biomedical ontology and ontology-based technology and best practices; and collaborate with a variety of groups who develop and use ontologies and terminologies in biomedicine. The centerpiece of the National Center for Biomedical Ontology is a web-based resource known as BioPortal. BioPortal makes available for research in computationally useful forms more than 270 of the world's biomedical ontologies and terminologies, and supports a wide range of web services that enable investigators to use the ontologies to annotate and retrieve data, to generate value sets and special-purpose lexicons, and to perform advanced analytics on a wide range of biomedical data. PMID:22081220

  13. Vaccine and Drug Ontology Studies (VDOS 2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Cui; He, Yongqun; Arabandi, Sivaram

    2016-01-01

    The "Vaccine and Drug Ontology Studies" (VDOS) international workshop series focuses on vaccine- and drug-related ontology modeling and applications. Drugs and vaccines have been critical to prevent and treat human and animal diseases. Work in both (drugs and vaccines) areas is closely related - from preclinical research and development to manufacturing, clinical trials, government approval and regulation, and post-licensure usage surveillance and monitoring. Over the last decade, tremendous efforts have been made in the biomedical ontology community to ontologically represent various areas associated with vaccines and drugs - extending existing clinical terminology systems such as SNOMED, RxNorm, NDF-RT, and MedDRA, developing new models such as the Vaccine Ontology (VO) and Ontology of Adverse Events (OAE), vernacular medical terminologies such as the Consumer Health Vocabulary (CHV). The VDOS workshop series provides a platform for discussing innovative solutions as well as the challenges in the development and applications of biomedical ontologies for representing and analyzing drugs and vaccines, their administration, host immune responses, adverse events, and other related topics. The five full-length papers included in this 2014 thematic issue focus on two main themes: (i) General vaccine/drug-related ontology development and exploration, and (ii) Interaction and network-related ontology studies.

  14. The National Center for Biomedical Ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musen, Mark A; Noy, Natalya F; Shah, Nigam H; Whetzel, Patricia L; Chute, Christopher G; Story, Margaret-Anne; Smith, Barry

    2012-01-01

    The National Center for Biomedical Ontology is now in its seventh year. The goals of this National Center for Biomedical Computing are to: create and maintain a repository of biomedical ontologies and terminologies; build tools and web services to enable the use of ontologies and terminologies in clinical and translational research; educate their trainees and the scientific community broadly about biomedical ontology and ontology-based technology and best practices; and collaborate with a variety of groups who develop and use ontologies and terminologies in biomedicine. The centerpiece of the National Center for Biomedical Ontology is a web-based resource known as BioPortal. BioPortal makes available for research in computationally useful forms more than 270 of the world's biomedical ontologies and terminologies, and supports a wide range of web services that enable investigators to use the ontologies to annotate and retrieve data, to generate value sets and special-purpose lexicons, and to perform advanced analytics on a wide range of biomedical data.

  15. Scientific Digital Libraries, Interoperability, and Ontologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J. Steven; Crichton, Daniel J.; Mattmann, Chris A.

    2009-01-01

    Scientific digital libraries serve complex and evolving research communities. Justifications for the development of scientific digital libraries include the desire to preserve science data and the promises of information interconnectedness, correlative science, and system interoperability. Shared ontologies are fundamental to fulfilling these promises. We present a tool framework, some informal principles, and several case studies where shared ontologies are used to guide the implementation of scientific digital libraries. The tool framework, based on an ontology modeling tool, was configured to develop, manage, and keep shared ontologies relevant within changing domains and to promote the interoperability, interconnectedness, and correlation desired by scientists.

  16. Logical development of the cell ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Terrence F; Masci, Anna Maria; Abdulla, Amina; Cowell, Lindsay G; Blake, Judith A; Mungall, Christopher J; Diehl, Alexander D

    2011-01-05

    The Cell Ontology (CL) is an ontology for the representation of in vivo cell types. As biological ontologies such as the CL grow in complexity, they become increasingly difficult to use and maintain. By making the information in the ontology computable, we can use automated reasoners to detect errors and assist with classification. Here we report on the generation of computable definitions for the hematopoietic cell types in the CL. Computable definitions for over 340 CL classes have been created using a genus-differentia approach. These define cell types according to multiple axes of classification such as the protein complexes found on the surface of a cell type, the biological processes participated in by a cell type, or the phenotypic characteristics associated with a cell type. We employed automated reasoners to verify the ontology and to reveal mistakes in manual curation. The implementation of this process exposed areas in the ontology where new cell type classes were needed to accommodate species-specific expression of cellular markers. Our use of reasoners also inferred new relationships within the CL, and between the CL and the contributing ontologies. This restructured ontology can be used to identify immune cells by flow cytometry, supports sophisticated biological queries involving cells, and helps generate new hypotheses about cell function based on similarities to other cell types. Use of computable definitions enhances the development of the CL and supports the interoperability of OBO ontologies.

  17. EVALUATION OF OPERATIONAL EFFICIENCY OF DIFFUSION COATINGS FOR TURBINE BLADES OF CONTEMPORARY GAS TURBINE ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Ivanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the comparative evaluation of the heat resistant diffusion coatings durability in their further work as part of the engine based on the results of laboratory tests. For the purpose of comparative evaluation of the operational life the criterion of durability is introduced to allow estimate characteristics of various protective coatings without testing as part of the engine.

  18. Index Compression and Efficient Query Processing in Large Web Search Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Shuai

    2013-01-01

    The inverted index is the main data structure used by all the major search engines. Search engines build an inverted index on their collection to speed up query processing. As the size of the web grows, the length of the inverted list structures, which can easily grow to hundreds of MBs or even GBs for common terms (roughly linear in the size of…

  19. Emission Constrained Multiple-Pulse Fuel Injection Optimisation and Control for Fuel-Efficient Diesel Engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, X.; Jager, B. de; Willems, F.P.T.

    2015-01-01

    With the application of multiple-pulse fuel injection profiles, the performance of diesel engines is enhanced in terms of low fuel consumption and low engine-out emission levels. However, the calibration effort increases due to a larger number of injection timing parameters. The difficulty of

  20. Influence of narrow fuel spray angle and split injection strategies on combustion efficiency and engine performance in a common rail direct injection diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raouf Mobasheri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Direct injection diesel engines have been widely used in transportation and stationary power systems because of their inherent high thermal efficiency. On the other hand, emission regulations such as NOx and particulates have become more stringent from the standpoint of preserving the environment in recent years. In this study, previous results of multiple injection strategies have been further investigated to analyze the effects of narrow fuel spray angle on optimum multiple injection schemes in a heavy duty common rail direct injection diesel engine. An advanced computational fluid dynamics simulation has been carried out on a Caterpillar 3401 diesel engine for a conventional part load condition in 1600 r/min at two exhaust gas recirculation rates. A good agreement of calculated and measured in-cylinder pressure, heat release rate and pollutant formation trends was obtained under various operating points. Three different included spray angles have been studied in comparison with the traditional spray injection angle. The results show that spray targeting is very effective for controlling the in-cylinder mixture distributions especially when it accompanied with various injection strategies. It was found that the optimum engine performance for simultaneous reduction of soot and NOx emissions was achieved with 105° included spray angle along with an optimized split injection strategy. The results show, in this case, the fuel spray impinges at the edge of the piston bowl and a counterclockwise flow motion is generated that pushes mixture toward the center of the piston bowl.

  1. Towards Ontology-Driven Information Systems: Guidelines to the Creation of New Methodologies to Build Ontologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Andrey

    2009-01-01

    This research targeted the area of Ontology-Driven Information Systems, where ontology plays a central role both at development time and at run time of Information Systems (IS). In particular, the research focused on the process of building domain ontologies for IS modeling. The motivation behind the research was the fact that researchers have…

  2. Where to Publish and Find Ontologies? A Survey of Ontology Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Aquin, Mathieu; Noy, Natalya F.

    2011-01-01

    One of the key promises of the Semantic Web is its potential to enable and facilitate data interoperability. The ability of data providers and application developers to share and reuse ontologies is a critical component of this data interoperability: if different applications and data sources use the same set of well defined terms for describing their domain and data, it will be much easier for them to “talk” to one another. Ontology libraries are the systems that collect ontologies from different sources and facilitate the tasks of finding, exploring, and using these ontologies. Thus ontology libraries can serve as a link in enabling diverse users and applications to discover, evaluate, use, and publish ontologies. In this paper, we provide a survey of the growing—and surprisingly diverse—landscape of ontology libraries. We highlight how the varying scope and intended use of the libraries a ects their features, content, and potential exploitation in applications. From reviewing eleven ontology libraries, we identify a core set of questions that ontology practitioners and users should consider in choosing an ontology library for finding ontologies or publishing their own. We also discuss the research challenges that emerge from this survey, for the developers of ontology libraries to address. PMID:22408576

  3. Ontobee: A linked ontology data server to support ontology term dereferencing, linkage, query and integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Edison; Xiang, Zuoshuang; Zhao, Bin; Liu, Yue; Lin, Yu; Zheng, Jie; Mungall, Chris; Courtot, Mélanie; Ruttenberg, Alan; He, Yongqun

    2017-01-04

    Linked Data (LD) aims to achieve interconnected data by representing entities using Unified Resource Identifiers (URIs), and sharing information using Resource Description Frameworks (RDFs) and HTTP. Ontologies, which logically represent entities and relations in specific domains, are the basis of LD. Ontobee (http://www.ontobee.org/) is a linked ontology data server that stores ontology information using RDF triple store technology and supports query, visualization and linkage of ontology terms. Ontobee is also the default linked data server for publishing and browsing biomedical ontologies in the Open Biological Ontology (OBO) Foundry (http://obofoundry.org) library. Ontobee currently hosts more than 180 ontologies (including 131 OBO Foundry Library ontologies) with over four million terms. Ontobee provides a user-friendly web interface for querying and visualizing the details and hierarchy of a specific ontology term. Using the eXtensible Stylesheet Language Transformation (XSLT) technology, Ontobee is able to dereference a single ontology term URI, and then output RDF/eXtensible Markup Language (XML) for computer processing or display the HTML information on a web browser for human users. Statistics and detailed information are generated and displayed for each ontology listed in Ontobee. In addition, a SPARQL web interface is provided for custom advanced SPARQL queries of one or multiple ontologies. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  4. Summary Report on the Transportation Combustion Engine Efficiency Colloquium Held at USCAR, March 3 and 4, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Graves, Ronald L [ORNL; Caton, Jerald A [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL

    2010-11-01

    This report summarizes results from an invited two-day colloquium of twenty-nine combustion engine experts from academia, industry, and national labs that was convened March 3rd and 4th, 2010, at the headquarters of the United States Council for Automotive Research (USCAR) in Southfield, Michigan. The colloquium was held at the request of The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Freedom Car and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT) to review and assess the current state of transportation combustion engine technology from theoretical and practical perspectives. In the ensuing discussions, the experts were able to reach a broad consensus on some important questions regarding current fuel efficiency limits. They also identified technology barriers and recommended specific near and longer-term R&D priorities for DOE's consideration. Internal combustion engines currently play a dominant role in U.S. transportation and are expected to continue to do so well beyond 2020 [1]. Because of this, the Department of Energy (DOE) has placed high priority on promoting technologies that maximize combustion engine fuel efficiency while minimizing greenhouse gas emissions. Identification of the most promising paths to achieve these goals has recently become more complicated as non-traditional transportation fuels and hybrid electric vehicles become widely available. To reassess the state of combustion engine science and identify new opportunities for technology breakthroughs, an invited colloquium of combustion engine experts was convened on March 3rd and 4th, 2010, at the headquarters of the United States Council for Automotive Research (USCAR) in Southfield, Michigan. The colloquium objectives were: (1) Review and assess the current state of transportation combustion engine technology from both theoretical and practical perspectives; (2) Arrive at a consensus on the theoretical and practical fuel efficiencies that can be achieved; and (3) Recommend near and longer-term R&D priorities

  5. Evaluation of Energy Saving Characteristics of a High-Efficient Cogeneration System Utilizing Gas Engine Exhaust Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Pyong Sik

    A high efficiency cogeneration system (CGS) utilizing high temperature exhaust gas from a gas engine is proposed. In the proposed CGS, saturated steam produced in the gas engine is superheated with a super heater utilizing regenerative burner and used to drive a steam turbine generator. The heat energy is supplied by extracting steam from the steam turbine and turbine outlet low-temperature steam. Both of the energy saving characteristics of the proposed CGS and a CGS constructed by using the original gas engine (GE-CGS) were investigated and compared, by taking a case where energy for office buildings was supplied by the conventional energy systems. It was shown that the proposed CGS has energy saving rate of 24.5%, higher than 1.83 times, compared with that of the original GE-CGS.

  6. Experimental study on Rankine cycle evaporator efficiency intended for exhaust waste heat recovery of a diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milkov Nikolay

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper pressents an experimental study of Rankine cycle evaporator efficiency. Water was chosen as the working fluid in the system. The experimental test was conducted on a test bench equipped with a burner charged by compressed fresh air. Generated exhaust gases parameters were previously determined over the diesel engine operating range (28 engine operating points were studied. For each test point the working fluid parameters (flow rate and evaporating pressure were varied. Thus, the enthalpy flow through the heat exchanger was determined. Heat exchanger was designed as 23 helical tubes are inserted. On the basis of the results, it was found out that efficiency varies from 25 % to 51,9 %. The optimal working fluid pressure is 20 bar at most of the operating points while the optimum fluid mass flow rate varies from 2 g/s to 10 g/s.

  7. Logical Gene Ontology Annotations (GOAL): exploring gene ontology annotations with OWL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jupp, Simon; Stevens, Robert; Hoehndorf, Robert

    2012-04-24

    Ontologies such as the Gene Ontology (GO) and their use in annotations make cross species comparisons of genes possible, along with a wide range of other analytical activities. The bio-ontologies community, in particular the Open Biomedical Ontologies (OBO) community, have provided many other ontologies and an increasingly large volume of annotations of gene products that can be exploited in query and analysis. As many annotations with different ontologies centre upon gene products, there is a possibility to explore gene products through multiple ontological perspectives at the same time. Questions could be asked that link a gene product's function, process, cellular location, phenotype and disease. Current tools, such as AmiGO, allow exploration of genes based on their GO annotations, but not through multiple ontological perspectives. In addition, the semantics of these ontology's representations should be able to, through automated reasoning, afford richer query opportunities of the gene product annotations than is currently possible. To do this multi-perspective, richer querying of gene product annotations, we have created the Logical Gene Ontology, or GOAL ontology, in OWL that combines the Gene Ontology, Human Disease Ontology and the Mammalian Phenotype Ontology, together with classes that represent the annotations with these ontologies for mouse gene products. Each mouse gene product is represented as a class, with the appropriate relationships to the GO aspects, phenotype and disease with which it has been annotated. We then use defined classes to query these protein classes through automated reasoning, and to build a complex hierarchy of gene products. We have presented this through a Web interface that allows arbitrary queries to be constructed and the results displayed. This standard use of OWL affords a rich interaction with Gene Ontology, Human Disease Ontology and Mammalian Phenotype Ontology annotations for the mouse, to give a fine partitioning of

  8. NCBO Ontology Recommender 2.0: an enhanced approach for biomedical ontology recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Romero, Marcos; Jonquet, Clement; O'Connor, Martin J; Graybeal, John; Pazos, Alejandro; Musen, Mark A

    2017-06-07

    Ontologies and controlled terminologies have become increasingly important in biomedical research. Researchers use ontologies to annotate their data with ontology terms, enabling better data integration and interoperability across disparate datasets. However, the number, variety and complexity of current biomedical ontologies make it cumbersome for researchers to determine which ones to reuse for their specific needs. To overcome this problem, in 2010 the National Center for Biomedical Ontology (NCBO) released the Ontology Recommender, which is a service that receives a biomedical text corpus or a list of keywords and suggests ontologies appropriate for referencing the indicated terms. We developed a new version of the NCBO Ontology Recommender. Called Ontology Recommender 2.0, it uses a novel recommendation approach that evaluates the relevance of an ontology to biomedical text data according to four different criteria: (1) the extent to which the ontology covers the input data; (2) the acceptance of the ontology in the biomedical community; (3) the level of detail of the ontology classes that cover the input data; and (4) the specialization of the ontology to the domain of the input data. Our evaluation shows that the enhanced recommender provides higher quality suggestions than the original approach, providing better coverage of the input data, more detailed information about their concepts, increased specialization for the domain of the input data, and greater acceptance and use in the community. In addition, it provides users with more explanatory information, along with suggestions of not only individual ontologies but also groups of ontologies to use together. It also can be customized to fit the needs of different ontology recommendation scenarios. Ontology Recommender 2.0 suggests relevant ontologies for annotating biomedical text data. It combines the strengths of its predecessor with a range of adjustments and new features that improve its reliability

  9. Performance, Efficiency, and Emissions Characterization of Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines Fueled with Hydrogen/Natural Gas Blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby S. Chapman; Amar Patil

    2007-06-30

    Hydrogen is an attractive fuel source not only because it is abundant and renewable but also because it produces almost zero regulated emissions. Internal combustion engines fueled by compressed natural gas (CNG) are operated throughout a variety of industries in a number of mobile and stationary applications. While CNG engines offer many advantages over conventional gasoline and diesel combustion engines, CNG engine performance can be substantially improved in the lean operating region. Lean operation has a number of benefits, the most notable of which is reduced emissions. However, the extremely low flame propagation velocities of CNG greatly restrict the lean operating limits of CNG engines. Hydrogen, however, has a high flame speed and a wide operating limit that extends into the lean region. The addition of hydrogen to a CNG engine makes it a viable and economical method to significantly extend the lean operating limit and thereby improve performance and reduce emissions. Drawbacks of hydrogen as a fuel source, however, include lower power density due to a lower heating value per unit volume as compared to CNG, and susceptibility to pre-ignition and engine knock due to wide flammability limits and low minimum ignition energy. Combining hydrogen with CNG, however, overcomes the drawbacks inherent in each fuel type. Objectives of the current study were to evaluate the feasibility of using blends of hydrogen and natural gas as a fuel for conventional natural gas engines. The experiment and data analysis included evaluation of engine performance, efficiency, and emissions along with detailed in-cylinder measurements of key physical parameters. This provided a detailed knowledge base of the impact of using hydrogen/natural gas blends. A four-stroke, 4.2 L, V-6 naturally aspirated natural gas engine coupled to an eddy current dynamometer was used to measure the impact of hydrogen/natural gas blends on performance, thermodynamic efficiency and exhaust gas emissions

  10. Efficient myogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells by the transduction of engineered MyoD protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Min Sun [Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), 125 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Biosystems and Bioengineering Program, University of Science and Technology (UST), Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Mun, Ji-Young [Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), 125 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Ohsuk [Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), 125 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Biosystems and Bioengineering Program, University of Science and Technology (UST), Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Ki-Sun [Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), 125 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Doo-Byoung, E-mail: dboh@kribb.re.kr [Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), 125 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Biosystems and Bioengineering Program, University of Science and Technology (UST), Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-19

    Highlights: •MyoD was engineered to contain protein transduction domain and endosome-disruptive INF7 peptide. •The engineered MyoD-IT showed efficient nuclear targeting through an endosomal escape by INF7 peptide. •By applying MyoD-IT, human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) were differentiated into myogenic cells. •hASCs differentiated by applying MyoD-IT fused to myotubes through co-culturing with mouse myoblasts. •Myogenic differentiation using MyoD-IT is a safe method without the concern of altering the genome. -- Abstract: Human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) have great potential as cell sources for the treatment of muscle disorders. To provide a safe method for the myogenic differentiation of hASCs, we engineered the MyoD protein, a key transcription factor for myogenesis. The engineered MyoD (MyoD-IT) was designed to contain the TAT protein transduction domain for cell penetration and the membrane-disrupting INF7 peptide, which is an improved version of the HA2 peptide derived from influenza. MyoD-IT showed greatly improved nuclear targeting ability through an efficient endosomal escape induced by the pH-sensitive membrane disruption of the INF7 peptide. By applying MyoD-IT to a culture, hASCs were efficiently differentiated into long spindle-shaped myogenic cells expressing myosin heavy chains. Moreover, these cells differentiated by an application of MyoD-IT fused to myotubes with high efficiency through co-culturing with mouse C2C12 myoblasts. Because internalized proteins can be degraded in cells without altering the genome, the myogenic differentiation of hASCs using MyoD-IT would be a safe and clinically applicable method.

  11. Concepts, ontologies, and knowledge representation

    CERN Document Server

    Jakus, Grega; Omerovic, Sanida; Tomažic, Sašo

    2013-01-01

    Recording knowledge in a common framework that would make it possible to seamlessly share global knowledge remains an important challenge for researchers. This brief examines several ideas about the representation of knowledge addressing this challenge. A widespread general agreement is followed that states uniform knowledge representation should be achievable by using ontologies populated with concepts. A separate chapter is dedicated to each of the three introduced topics, following a uniform outline: definition, organization, and use. This brief is intended for those who want to get to know

  12. Nosology, ontology and promiscuous realism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binney, Nicholas

    2015-06-01

    Medics may consider worrying about their metaphysics and ontology to be a waste of time. I will argue here that this is not the case. Promiscuous realism is a metaphysical position which holds that multiple, equally valid, classification schemes should be applied to objects (such as patients) to capture different aspects of their complex and heterogeneous nature. As medics at the bedside may need to capture different aspects of their patients' problems, they may need to use multiple classification schemes (multiple nosologies), and thus consider adopting a different metaphysics to the one commonly in use. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Engineering Interface Structure to Improve Efficiency and Stability of Organometal Halide Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Longbin; Ono, Luis K; Jiang, Yan; Leyden, Matthew R; Raga, Sonia R; Wang, Shenghao; Qi, Yabing

    2017-05-25

    The rapid rise of power conversion efficiency (PCE) of low cost organometal halide perovskite solar cells suggests that these cells are a promising alternative to conventional photovoltaic technology. However, anomalous hysteresis and unsatisfactory stability hinder the industrialization of perovskite solar cells. Interface engineering is of importance for the fabrication of highly stable and hysteresis free perovskite solar cells. Here we report that a surface modification of the widely used TiO2 compact layer can give insight into interface interaction in perovskite solar cells. A highest PCE of 18.5% is obtained using anatase TiO2, but the device is not stable and degrades rapidly. With an amorphous TiO2 compact layer, the devices show a prolonged lifetime but a lower PCE and more pronounced hysteresis. To achieve a high PCE and long lifetime simultaneously, an insulating polymer interface layer is deposited on top of TiO2. Three polymers, each with a different functional group (hydroxyl, amino, or aromatic group), are investigated to further understand the relation of interface structure and device PCE as well as stability. We show that it is necessary to consider not only the band alignment at the interface, but also interface chemical interactions between the thin interface layer and the perovskite film. The hydroxyl and amino groups interact with CH3NH3PbI3 leading to poor PCEs. In contrast, deposition of a thin layer of polymer consisting of an aromatic group to prevent the direct contact of TiO2 and CH3NH3PbI3 can significantly enhance the device stability, while the same time maintaining a high PCE. The fact that a polymer interface layer on top of TiO2 can enhance device stability, strongly suggests that the interface interaction between TiO2 and CH3NH3PbI3 plays a crucial role. Our work highlights the importance of interface structure and paves the way for further optimization of PCEs and stability of perovskite solar cells.

  14. Efficient Techniques of Sparse Signal Analysis for Enhanced Recovery of Information in Biomedical Engineering and Geosciences

    KAUST Repository

    Sana, Furrukh

    2016-11-01

    Sparse signals are abundant among both natural and man-made signals. Sparsity implies that the signal essentially resides in a small dimensional subspace. The sparsity of the signal can be exploited to improve its recovery from limited and noisy observations. Traditional estimation algorithms generally lack the ability to take advantage of signal sparsity. This dissertation considers several problems in the areas of biomedical engineering and geosciences with the aim of enhancing the recovery of information by exploiting the underlying sparsity in the problem. The objective is to overcome the fundamental bottlenecks, both in terms of estimation accuracies and required computational resources. In the first part of dissertation, we present a high precision technique for the monitoring of human respiratory movements by exploiting the sparsity of wireless ultra-wideband signals. The proposed technique provides a novel methodology of overcoming the Nyquist sampling constraint and enables robust performance in the presence of noise and interferences. We also present a comprehensive framework for the important problem of extracting the fetal electrocardiogram (ECG) signals from abdominal ECG recordings of pregnant women. The multiple measurement vectors approach utilized for this purpose provides an efficient mechanism of exploiting the common structure of ECG signals, when represented in sparse transform domains, and allows leveraging information from multiple ECG electrodes under a joint estimation formulation. In the second part of dissertation, we adopt sparse signal processing principles for improved information recovery in large-scale subsurface reservoir characterization problems. We propose multiple new algorithms for sparse representation of the subsurface geological structures, incorporation of useful prior information in the estimation process, and for reducing computational complexities of the problem. The techniques presented here enable significantly

  15. Ontology-Driven Information Extraction with OntoSyphon

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McDowell, Luke K; Cafarella, Michael

    2006-01-01

    .... OntoSyphon operates in an "ontology-driven" manner: taking any ontology as input, OntoSyphon uses the ontology to specify web searches that identify possible semantic instances, relations, and taxonomic information...

  16. COBrA: a bio-ontology editor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aitken, Stuart; Korf, Roman; Webber, Bonnie; Bard, Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    COBrA is a Java-based ontology editor for bio-ontologies that distinguishes itself from other editors by supporting the linking of concepts between two ontologies, and providing sophisticated analysis...

  17. Research on geo-ontology construction based on spatial affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Liu, Jiping; Shi, Lihong

    2008-12-01

    and change about flood with different scales and ranges in the city, can be distilled intellectively and on its own initiative from the geo-ontology database. Besides, correlative statistical information can also be provided to the governmental departments at all levels to help them to carry out timely measures of fighting back disaster and rescue. Compared with the past manners, the efficiency of dealing with flood information has been improved to some extent than ever because plenty of information irrespective and interferential to flood in different websites can be sieved in advance based on the retrieve method oriented to Geo-ontology. In a word, it will take the pursuers long time to study geo-ontology due to actual limited resource. But then, geo-ontology will be sure to further perfect correspondingly especially in the field of Geographic Information System owing to its more and more factual applications.

  18. Erosion-Resistant Nanocoatings for Improved Energy Efficiency in Gas Turbine Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-06-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to test and substantiate erosion-resistant (ER) nanocoatings for application on compressor airfoils for gas turbine engines in both industrial gas turbines and commercial aviation.

  19. Efficient engineering of a bacteriophage genome using the type I-E CRISPR-Cas system

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kiro, Ruth; Shitrit, Dror; Qimron, Udi

    2014-01-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated (Cas) system has recently been used to engineer genomes of various organisms, but surprisingly, not those of bacteriophages...

  20. Semantics and metaphysics in informatics: toward an ontology of tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figdor, Carrie

    2011-04-01

    This article clarifies three principles that should guide the development of any cognitive ontology. First, that an adequate cognitive ontology depends essentially on an adequate task ontology; second, that the goal of developing a cognitive ontology is independent of the goal of finding neural implementations of the processes referred to in the ontology; and third, that cognitive ontologies are neutral regarding the metaphysical relationship between cognitive and neural processes. Copyright © 2011 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  1. Efficient Retrieval of Images for Search Engine by Visual Similarity and Re Ranking

    OpenAIRE

    Viswa S S

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, web scale image search engines (e.g. Google Image Search, Microsoft Live Image Search) rely almost purely on surrounding text features. Users type keywords in hope of finding a certain type of images. The search engine returns thousands of images ranked by the text keywords extracted from the surrounding text. However, many of returned images are noisy, disorganized, or irrelevant. Even Google and Microsoft have no Visual Information for searching of images. Using visual information...

  2. Low-cost high-efficiency GDCI engines for low octane fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolodziej, Christopher P.; Sellnau, Mark C.

    2018-01-09

    A GDCI engine has a piston arranged within a cylinder to provide a combustion chamber. According to one embodiment, the GDCI engine operates using a method that includes the steps of supplying a hydrocarbon fuel to the combustion chamber with a research octane number in the range of about 30-65. The hydrocarbon fuel is injected in completely stratified, multiple fuel injections before a start of combustion and supplying a naturally aspirated air charge to the combustion chamber.

  3. Federated ontology-based queries over cancer data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Beltrán, Alejandra; Tagger, Ben; Finkelstein, Anthony

    2012-01-25

    Personalised medicine provides patients with treatments that are specific to their genetic profiles. It requires efficient data sharing of disparate data types across a variety of scientific disciplines, such as molecular biology, pathology, radiology and clinical practice. Personalised medicine aims to offer the safest and most effective therapeutic strategy based on the gene variations of each subject. In particular, this is valid in oncology, where knowledge about genetic mutations has already led to new therapies. Current molecular biology techniques (microarrays, proteomics, epigenetic technology and improved DNA sequencing technology) enable better characterisation of cancer tumours. The vast amounts of data, however, coupled with the use of different terms - or semantic heterogeneity - in each discipline makes the retrieval and integration of information difficult. Existing software infrastructures for data-sharing in the cancer domain, such as caGrid, support access to distributed information. caGrid follows a service-oriented model-driven architecture. Each data source in caGrid is associated with metadata at increasing levels of abstraction, including syntactic, structural, reference and domain metadata. The domain metadata consists of ontology-based annotations associated with the structural information of each data source. However, caGrid's current querying functionality is given at the structural metadata level, without capitalising on the ontology-based annotations. This paper presents the design of and theoretical foundations for distributed ontology-based queries over cancer research data. Concept-based queries are reformulated to the target query language, where join conditions between multiple data sources are found by exploiting the semantic annotations. The system has been implemented, as a proof of concept, over the caGrid infrastructure. The approach is applicable to other model-driven architectures. A graphical user interface has been

  4. Knowledge Management Framework for Emerging Infectious Diseases Preparedness and Response: Design and Development of Public Health Document Ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhizun; Gonzalez, Mila C; Morse, Stephen S; Venkatasubramanian, Venkat

    2017-10-11

    There are increasing concerns about our preparedness and timely coordinated response across the globe to cope with emerging infectious diseases (EIDs). This poses practical challenges that require exploiting novel knowledge management approaches effectively. This work aims to develop an ontology-driven knowledge management framework that addresses the existing challenges in sharing and reusing public health knowledge. We propose a systems engineering-inspired ontology-driven knowledge management approach. It decomposes public health knowledge into concepts and relations and organizes the elements of knowledge based on the teleological functions. Both knowledge and semantic rules are stored in an ontology and retrieved to answer queries regarding EID preparedness and response. A hybrid concept extraction was implemented in this work. The quality of the ontology was evaluated using the formal evaluation method Ontology Quality Evaluation Framework. Our approach is a potentially effective methodology for managing public health knowledge. Accuracy and comprehensiveness of the ontology can be improved as more knowledge is stored. In the future, a survey will be conducted to collect queries from public health practitioners. The reasoning capacity of the ontology will be evaluated using the queries and hypothetical outbreaks. We suggest the importance of developing a knowledge sharing standard like the Gene Ontology for the public health domain.

  5. The use of concept maps during knowledge elicitation in ontology development processes – the nutrigenomics use case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Chris

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Incorporation of ontologies into annotations has enabled 'semantic integration' of complex data, making explicit the knowledge within a certain field. One of the major bottlenecks in developing bio-ontologies is the lack of a unified methodology. Different methodologies have been proposed for different scenarios, but there is no agreed-upon standard methodology for building ontologies. The involvement of geographically distributed domain experts, the need for domain experts to lead the design process, the application of the ontologies and the life cycles of bio-ontologies are amongst the features not considered by previously proposed methodologies. Results Here, we present a methodology for developing ontologies within the biological domain. We describe our scenario, competency questions, results and milestones for each methodological stage. We introduce the use of concept maps during knowledge acquisition phases as a feasible transition between domain expert and knowledge engineer. Conclusion The contributions of this paper are the thorough description of the steps we suggest when building an ontology, example use of concept maps, consideration of applicability to the development of lower-level ontologies and application to decentralised environments. We have found that within our scenario conceptual maps played an important role in the development process.

  6. A University Consortium on Low Temperature Combustion for High Efficiency, Ultra-Low Emission Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assanis, Dennis N. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Atreya, Arvind [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Chen, Jyh-Yuan [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Cheng, Wai K. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Dibble, Robert W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Edwards, Chris [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Filipi, Zoran S. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Gerdes, Christian [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Im, Hong [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Lavoie, George A. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Wooldridge, Margaret S. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2009-12-31

    The objective of the University consortium was to investigate the fundamental processes that determine the practical boundaries of Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) engines and develop methods to extend those boundaries to improve the fuel economy of these engines, while operating with ultra low emissions. This work involved studies of thermal effects, thermal transients and engine management, internal mixing and stratification, and direct injection strategies for affecting combustion stability. This work also examined spark-assisted Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) and exhaust after-treatment so as to extend the range and maximize the benefit of Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI)/ Partially Premixed Compression Ignition (PPCI) operation. In summary the overall goals were; Investigate the fundamental processes that determine the practical boundaries of Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) engines; Develop methods to extend LTC boundaries to improve the fuel economy of HCCI engines fueled on gasoline and alternative blends, while operating with ultra low emissions; and Investigate alternate fuels, ignition and after-treatment for LTC and Partially Premixed compression Ignition (PPCI) engines.

  7. Social Groups, Explanation and Ontological Holism | Sheehy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ontological holism is the thesis that social groups are best understood as composite material particulars. At a high level of taxonomic classification groups such as mobs, tribes and nations are the same kind of thing as organisms and artefacts. This holism is opposed by ontological individualism, which maintains that in our ...

  8. An ontology evolution method based on folksonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shufeng Wang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Folksonomies are increasingly adopted in web systems. These “social taxonomies”, which emerge from collaborative tagging, contrast with the formalism and the systematic creation process applied to ontologies. However, they can play complementary roles, as the knowledge systematically formalized in ontologies by a restricted group can be enriched by the implicit knowledge collaboratively produced by a much wider group. Existing initiatives that involve folksonomies and ontologies are often unidirectional, i.e., ontologies improve tag operations or tags are used to automatically create ontologies. We propose a new fusion approach in which the semantics travels in both directions from folksonomies to ontologies and vice versa. The result of this fusion is our Folksonomized Ontology (FO. In this paper, we present our 3E Steps technique (Extraction, Enrichment, and Evolution, which explores the latent semantics of a given folksonomy (expressed in a FO to support ontology review and enhancement. It was implemented and tested in a visual review/enhancement tool.

  9. Automating Ontological Annotation with WordNet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Chappell, Alan R.; Whitney, Paul D.; Posse, Christian; Paulson, Patrick R.; Baddeley, Bob L.; Hohimer, Ryan E.; White, Amanda M.

    2006-01-22

    Semantic Web applications require robust and accurate annotation tools that are capable of automating the assignment of ontological classes to words in naturally occurring text (ontological annotation). Most current ontologies do not include rich lexical databases and are therefore not easily integrated with word sense disambiguation algorithms that are needed to automate ontological annotation. WordNet provides a potentially ideal solution to this problem as it offers a highly structured lexical conceptual representation that has been extensively used to develop word sense disambiguation algorithms. However, WordNet has not been designed as an ontology, and while it can be easily turned into one, the result of doing this would present users with serious practical limitations due to the great number of concepts (synonym sets) it contains. Moreover, mapping WordNet to an existing ontology may be difficult and requires substantial labor. We propose to overcome these limitations by developing an analytical platform that (1) provides a WordNet-based ontology offering a manageable and yet comprehensive set of concept classes, (2) leverages the lexical richness of WordNet to give an extensive characterization of concept class in terms of lexical instances, and (3) integrates a class recognition algorithm that automates the assignment of concept classes to words in naturally occurring text. The ensuing framework makes available an ontological annotation platform that can be effectively integrated with intelligence analysis systems to facilitate evidence marshaling and sustain the creation and validation of inference models.

  10. Ontological Annotation with WordNet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Chappell, Alan R.; Whitney, Paul D.; Posse, Christian; Paulson, Patrick R.; Baddeley, Bob; Hohimer, Ryan E.; White, Amanda M.

    2006-06-06

    Semantic Web applications require robust and accurate annotation tools that are capable of automating the assignment of ontological classes to words in naturally occurring text (ontological annotation). Most current ontologies do not include rich lexical databases and are therefore not easily integrated with word sense disambiguation algorithms that are needed to automate ontological annotation. WordNet provides a potentially ideal solution to this problem as it offers a highly structured lexical conceptual representation that has been extensively used to develop word sense disambiguation algorithms. However, WordNet has not been designed as an ontology, and while it can be easily turned into one, the result of doing this would present users with serious practical limitations due to the great number of concepts (synonym sets) it contains. Moreover, mapping WordNet to an existing ontology may be difficult and requires substantial labor. We propose to overcome these limitations by developing an analytical platform that (1) provides a WordNet-based ontology offering a manageable and yet comprehensive set of concept classes, (2) leverages the lexical richness of WordNet to give an extensive characterization of concept class in terms of lexical instances, and (3) integrates a class recognition algorithm that automates the assignment of concept classes to words in naturally occurring text. The ensuing framework makes available an ontological annotation platform that can be effectively integrated with intelligence analysis systems to facilitate evidence marshaling and sustain the creation and validation of inference models.

  11. Development of ontological knowledge representation: learning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the development of an ontological knowledge organization and representation, and explains how application of appropriate methods for its visualization can lead to meaningful learning. We have applied systemic diagrams (SD) as a method of visualizing ontological knowledge organization.

  12. A computer network attack taxonomy and ontology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Heerden, RP

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available of attacks, means that an attack could be mitigated accordingly. The authors extend a previous, initial taxonomy of computer network attacks which forms the basis of a proposed network attack ontology in this paper. The objective of this ontology...

  13. Recent changes in the Building Topology Ontology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mads Holten; Pauwels, Pieter; Lefrancois, Maxime

    The Building Topology Ontology (BOT) was in early 2017 suggested to the W3C community group for Linked Building Data as a simple ontology covering the core concepts of a building. Since it was first announced it has been extended to cover a building site, elements hosted by other elements, zones...

  14. Ontology Assisted Formal Specification Extraction from Text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Mihis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the field of knowledge processing, the ontologies are the most important mean. They make possible for the computer to understand better the natural language and to make judgments. In this paper, a method which use ontologies in the semi-automatic extraction of formal specifications from a natural language text is proposed.

  15. PERKEMBANGAN ONTOLOGI DALAM FILSAFAT ISLAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathul Mufid

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available THE ONTOLOGY DEVELOPMENTS IN ISLAMIC PHILOSOPHY. The primary basis in the study of ontology is what it is, where it exists and, what the truth is. The fundamental and profound of these issues, so that people are faced with different answers. The first question, “what is there”, gives different answers according to their beliefs. Monism, which is only one and that one was spirit and ideas, then gave the flow of spiritualism and idealism. But if that one is full of material, then gave materialism. Dualism, that is round two, for example, body and soul, it gives the existentialism flow. Pluralism, that is composed of  many elements, there is something that cannot be known, then gave the flow of agnosticism. The second problem, “where it exists”, the answer is that dwells in the world of  ideas, abstract, fixed and immutable. That is living in the world of  ideas that are concrete and individual, so that the truth is limited and changeable. The third issue, “what the truth is”, if  the truth is eternal and immortal, then it is God. However, if the truth is capricious, then the problem is how to change it and what determines the change. Keywords: Ontology, Philosophy, Existence, Essence, Metaphysics. Dasar  utama  dalam  kajian  ontologi  adalah  apa  yang  ada,  di mana yang ada dan, apa itu kebenaran. Sedemikian mendasar dan mendalamnya persoalan-persoalan ini, sehingga manusia dihadapkan pada  jawaban-jawaban  yang  berbeda.  Persoalan  pertama,  “apa yang ada”, memberikan jawaban yang berbeda-beda sesuai dengan keyakinan mereka. Monisme, yang ada hanya satu dan yang satu itu serba spirit dan ide, maka melahirkan aliran spiritualisme dan idealisme. Tetapi jika yang satu itu serba materi, maka melahirkan materialisme.  Dualisme,  yang  ada  serba  dua,  misalnya  jiwa  dan raga, maka lahirlah aliran eksistensialisme. Pluralisme, yang ada terdiri atas banyak unsur, yang ada adalah sesuatu yang tidak dapat

  16. The eXtensible ontology development (XOD) principles and tool implementation to support ontology interoperability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yongqun; Xiang, Zuoshuang; Zheng, Jie; Lin, Yu; Overton, James A; Ong, Edison

    2018-01-12

    Ontologies are critical to data/metadata and knowledge standardization, sharing, and analysis. With hundreds of biological and biomedical ontologies developed, it has become critical to ensure ontology interoperability and the usage of interoperable ontologies for standardized data representation and integration. The suite of web-based Ontoanimal tools (e.g., Ontofox, Ontorat, and Ontobee) support different aspects of extensible ontology development. By summarizing the common features of Ontoanimal and other similar tools, we identified and proposed an "eXtensible Ontology Development" (XOD) strategy and its associated four principles. These XOD principles reuse existing terms and semantic relations from reliable ontologies, develop and apply well-established ontology design patterns (ODPs), and involve community efforts to support new ontology development, promoting standardized and interoperable data and knowledge representation and integration. The adoption of the XOD strategy, together with robust XOD tool development, will greatly support ontology interoperability and robust ontology applications to support data to be Findable, Accessible, Interoperable and Reusable (i.e., FAIR).

  17. TermGenie - a web-application for pattern-based ontology class generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietze, Heiko; Berardini, Tanya Z; Foulger, Rebecca E; Hill, David P; Lomax, Jane; Osumi-Sutherland, David; Roncaglia, Paola; Mungall, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    Biological ontologies are continually growing and improving from requests for new classes (terms) by biocurators. These ontology requests can frequently create bottlenecks in the biocuration process, as ontology developers struggle to keep up, while manually processing these requests and create classes. TermGenie allows biocurators to generate new classes based on formally specified design patterns or templates. The system is web-based and can be accessed by any authorized curator through a web browser. Automated rules and reasoning engines are used to ensure validity, uniqueness and relationship to pre-existing classes. In the last 4 years the Gene Ontology TermGenie generated 4715 new classes, about 51.4% of all new classes created. The immediate generation of permanent identifiers proved not to be an issue with only 70 (1.4%) obsoleted classes. TermGenie is a web-based class-generation system that complements traditional ontology development tools. All classes added through pre-defined templates are guaranteed to have OWL equivalence axioms that are used for automatic classification and in some cases inter-ontology linkage. At the same time, the system is simple and intuitive and can be used by most biocurators without extensive training.

  18. XML, Ontologies, and Their Clinical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chunjiang; Shen, Bairong

    2016-01-01

    The development of information technology has resulted in its penetration into every area of clinical research. Various clinical systems have been developed, which produce increasing volumes of clinical data. However, saving, exchanging, querying, and exploiting these data are challenging issues. The development of Extensible Markup Language (XML) has allowed the generation of flexible information formats to facilitate the electronic sharing of structured data via networks, and it has been used widely for clinical data processing. In particular, XML is very useful in the fields of data standardization, data exchange, and data integration. Moreover, ontologies have been attracting increased attention in various clinical fields in recent years. An ontology is the basic level of a knowledge representation scheme, and various ontology repositories have been developed, such as Gene Ontology and BioPortal. The creation of these standardized repositories greatly facilitates clinical research in related fields. In this chapter, we discuss the basic concepts of XML and ontologies, as well as their clinical applications.

  19. An Ontology Based Approach to Information Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Teresa; Santos, Henrique

    The semantically structure of knowledge, based on ontology approaches have been increasingly adopted by several expertise from diverse domains. Recently ontologies have been moved from the philosophical and metaphysics disciplines to be used in the construction of models to describe a specific theory of a domain. The development and the use of ontologies promote the creation of a unique standard to represent concepts within a specific knowledge domain. In the scope of information security systems the use of an ontology to formalize and represent the concepts of security information challenge the mechanisms and techniques currently used. This paper intends to present a conceptual implementation model of an ontology defined in the security domain. The model presented contains the semantic concepts based on the information security standard ISO/IEC_JTC1, and their relationships to other concepts, defined in a subset of the information security domain.

  20. Ontology-Based Information Behaviour to Improve Web Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Calegari

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Web Search Engines provide a huge number of answers in response to a user query, many of which are not relevant, whereas some of the most relevant ones may not be found. In the literature several approaches have been proposed in order to help a user to find the information relevant to his/her real needs on the Web. To achieve this goal the individual Information Behavior can been analyzed to ’keep’ track of the user’s interests. Keeping information is a type of Information Behavior, and in several works researchers have referred to it as the study on what people do during a search on the Web. Generally, the user’s actions (e.g., how the user moves from one Web page to another, or her/his download of a document, etc. are recorded in Web logs. This paper reports on research activities which aim to exploit the information extracted from Web logs (or query logs in personalized user ontologies, with the objective to support the user in the process of discovering Web information relevant to her/his information needs. Personalized ontologies are used to improve the quality of Web search by applying two main techniques: query reformulation and re-ranking of query evaluation results. In this paper we analyze various methodologies presented in the literature aimed at using personalized ontologies, defined on the basis of the observation of Information Behaviour to help the user in finding relevant information.