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Sample records for efficient linear precoding

  1. Energy efficient downlink MIMO transmission with linear precoding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jie; LI ShiChao; QIU Ling; SLIMANE Ben S.; YU ChengWen

    2013-01-01

    Energy efficiency (EE) is becoming increasingly important for wireless cellular networks. This paper addresses EE optimization problems in downlink multiuser MIMO systems with linear precoding. Referring to different active transmit/receive antenna sets and transmission schemes as different modes, we propose a joint bandwidth/power optimization and mode switching scheme to maximize EE. With a specific mode, we prove that the optimal bandwidth and transmit power is either full transmit power or full bandwidth. After deriving the optimal bandwidth and transmit power, we further propose mode switching to select the mode with optimal EE. Since the optimal mode switching, i.e. exhaustive search, is too complex to implement, an alternative heuristic method is developed to decrease the complexity through reducing the search size and avoiding the EE calculation during each search. Through simulations, we demonstrate that the proposed methods can significantly improve EE and the performance is similar to the optimal exhaustive search.

  2. Efficient linear precoding for massive MIMO systems using truncated polynomial expansion

    KAUST Repository

    Müller, Axel

    2014-06-01

    Massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) techniques have been proposed as a solution to satisfy many requirements of next generation cellular systems. One downside of massive MIMO is the increased complexity of computing the precoding, especially since the relatively \\'antenna-efficient\\' regularized zero-forcing (RZF) is preferred to simple maximum ratio transmission. We develop in this paper a new class of precoders for single-cell massive MIMO systems. It is based on truncated polynomial expansion (TPE) and mimics the advantages of RZF, while offering reduced and scalable computational complexity that can be implemented in a convenient parallel fashion. Using random matrix theory we provide a closed-form expression of the signal-to-interference-and-noise ratio under TPE precoding and compare it to previous works on RZF. Furthermore, the sum rate maximizing polynomial coefficients in TPE precoding are calculated. By simulation, we find that to maintain a fixed peruser rate loss as compared to RZF, the polynomial degree does not need to scale with the system, but it should be increased with the quality of the channel knowledge and signal-to-noise ratio. © 2014 IEEE.

  3. Efficient linear precoding for massive MIMO systems using truncated polynomial expansion

    KAUST Repository

    Mü ller, Axel; Kammoun, Abla; Bjö rnson, Emil; Debbah, Mé roú ane

    2014-01-01

    Massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) techniques have been proposed as a solution to satisfy many requirements of next generation cellular systems. One downside of massive MIMO is the increased complexity of computing the precoding

  4. Optimal linear precoding for indoor visible light communication system

    KAUST Repository

    Sifaou, Houssem

    2017-07-31

    Visible light communication (VLC) is an emerging technique that uses light-emitting diodes (LED) to combine communication and illumination. It is considered as a promising scheme for indoor wireless communication that can be deployed at reduced costs while offering high data rate performance. In this paper, we focus on the design of the downlink of a multi-user VLC system. Inherent to multi-user systems is the interference caused by the broadcast nature of the medium. Linear precoding based schemes are among the most popular solutions that have recently been proposed to mitigate inter-user interference. This paper focuses on the design of the optimal linear precoding scheme that solves the max-min signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) problem. The performance of the proposed precoding scheme is studied under different working conditions and compared with the classical zero-forcing precoding. Simulations have been provided to illustrate the high gain of the proposed scheme.

  5. Universal Linear Precoding for NBI-Proof Widely Linear Equalization in MC Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Darsena

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In multicarrier (MC systems, transmitter redundancy, which is introduced by means of finite-impulse response (FIR linear precoders, allows for perfect or zero-forcing (ZF equalization of FIR channels (in the absence of noise. Recently, it has been shown that the noncircular or improper nature of some symbol constellations offers an intrinsic source of redundancy, which can be exploited to design efficient FIR widely-linear (WL receiving structures for MC systems operating in the presence of narrowband interference (NBI. With regard to both cyclic-prefixed and zero-padded transmission techniques, it is shown in this paper that, with appropriately designed precoders, it is possible to synthesize in both cases WL-ZF universal equalizers, which guarantee perfect symbol recovery for any FIR channel. Furthermore, it is theoretically shown that the intrinsic redundancy of the improper symbol sequence also enables WL-ZF equalization, based on the minimum mean output-energy criterion, with improved NBI suppression capabilities. Finally, results of numerical simulations are presented, which assess the merits of the proposed precoding designs and validate the theoretical analysis carried out.

  6. Downlink Linear Precoders Based on Statistical CSI for Multicell MIMO-OFDM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Baktash

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With 5G communication systems on the horizon, efficient interference management in heterogeneous multicell networks is more vital than ever. This paper investigates the linear precoder design for downlink multicell multiple-input multiple-output orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM systems, where base stations (BSs coordinate to reduce the interference across space and frequency. In order to minimize the overall feedback overhead in next-generation systems, we consider precoding schemes that require statistical channel state information (CSI only. We apply the random matrix theory to approximate the ergodic weighted sum rate of the system with a closed form expression. After formulating the approximation for general channels, we reduce the results to a more compact form using the Kronecker channel model for which several multicarrier concepts such as frequency selectivity, channel tap correlations, and intercarrier interference (ICI are rigorously represented. We find the local optimal solution for the maximization of the approximate rate using a gradient method that requires only the covariance structure of the MIMO-OFDM channels. Within this covariance structure are the channel tap correlations and ICI information, both of which are taken into consideration in the precoder design. Simulation results show that the rate approximation is very accurate even for very small MIMO-OFDM systems and the proposed method converges rapidly to a near-optimal solution that competes with networked MIMO and precoders based on instantaneous full CSI.

  7. Optimal linear precoding for indoor visible light communication system

    KAUST Repository

    Sifaou, Houssem; Park, Kihong; Kammoun, Abla; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    ) problem. The performance of the proposed precoding scheme is studied under different working conditions and compared with the classical zero-forcing precoding. Simulations have been provided to illustrate the high gain of the proposed scheme.

  8. Linear precoding based on polynomial expansion: reducing complexity in massive MIMO

    KAUST Repository

    Mueller, Axel

    2016-02-29

    Massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) techniques have the potential to bring tremendous improvements in spectral efficiency to future communication systems. Counterintuitively, the practical issues of having uncertain channel knowledge, high propagation losses, and implementing optimal non-linear precoding are solved more or less automatically by enlarging system dimensions. However, the computational precoding complexity grows with the system dimensions. For example, the close-to-optimal and relatively “antenna-efficient” regularized zero-forcing (RZF) precoding is very complicated to implement in practice, since it requires fast inversions of large matrices in every coherence period. Motivated by the high performance of RZF, we propose to replace the matrix inversion and multiplication by a truncated polynomial expansion (TPE), thereby obtaining the new TPE precoding scheme which is more suitable for real-time hardware implementation and significantly reduces the delay to the first transmitted symbol. The degree of the matrix polynomial can be adapted to the available hardware resources and enables smooth transition between simple maximum ratio transmission and more advanced RZF. By deriving new random matrix results, we obtain a deterministic expression for the asymptotic signal-to-interference-and-noise ratio (SINR) achieved by TPE precoding in massive MIMO systems. Furthermore, we provide a closed-form expression for the polynomial coefficients that maximizes this SINR. To maintain a fixed per-user rate loss as compared to RZF, the polynomial degree does not need to scale with the system, but it should be increased with the quality of the channel knowledge and the signal-to-noise ratio.

  9. Power Allocation Optimization: Linear Precoding Adapted to NB-LDPC Coded MIMO Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek Chehade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO transmission systems, the channel state information (CSI at the transmitter can be used to add linear precoding to the transmitted signals in order to improve the performance and the reliability of the transmission system. This paper investigates how to properly join precoded closed-loop MIMO systems and nonbinary low density parity check (NB-LDPC. The q elements in the Galois field, GF(q, are directly mapped to q transmit symbol vectors. This allows NB-LDPC codes to perfectly fit with a MIMO precoding scheme, unlike binary LDPC codes. The new transmission model is detailed and studied for several linear precoders and various designed LDPC codes. We show that NB-LDPC codes are particularly well suited to be jointly used with precoding schemes based on the maximization of the minimum Euclidean distance (max-dmin criterion. These results are theoretically supported by extrinsic information transfer (EXIT analysis and are confirmed by numerical simulations.

  10. Energy Efficient Precoding C-RAN Downlink with Compression at Fronthaul

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Kien-Giang; Vu, Quang-Doanh; Juntti, Markku; Tran, Le-Nam

    2017-01-01

    This paper considers a downlink transmission of cloud radio access network (C-RAN) in which precoded baseband signals at a common baseband unit are compressed before being forwarded to radio units (RUs) through limited fronthaul capacity links. We investigate the joint design of precoding, multivariate compression and RU-user selection which maximizes the energy efficiency of downlink C-RAN networks. The considered problem is inherently a rank-constrained mixed Boolean nonconvex program for w...

  11. Power efficient low complexity precoding for massive MIMO systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sifaou, Houssem

    2014-12-01

    This work aims at designing a low-complexity precoding technique in the downlink of a large-scale multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system in which the base station (BS) is equipped with M antennas to serve K single-antenna user equipments. This is motivated by the high computational complexity required by the widely used zero-forcing or regularized zero-forcing precoding techniques, especially when K grows large. To reduce the computational burden, we adopt a precoding technique based on truncated polynomial expansion (TPE) and make use of the asymptotic analysis to compute the deterministic equivalents of its corresponding signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratios (SINRs) and transmit power. The asymptotic analysis is conducted in the regime in which M and K tend to infinity with the same pace under the assumption that imperfect channel state information is available at the BS. The results are then used to compute the TPE weights that minimize the asymptotic transmit power while meeting a set of target SINR constraints. Numerical simulations are used to validate the theoretical analysis. © 2014 IEEE.

  12. Eigenstructures of MIMO Fading Channel Correlation Matrices and Optimum Linear Precoding Designs for Maximum Ergodic Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Bahrami

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The ergodic capacity of MIMO frequency-flat and -selective channels depends greatly on the eigenvalue distribution of spatial correlation matrices. Knowing the eigenstructure of correlation matrices at the transmitter is very important to enhance the capacity of the system. This fact becomes of great importance in MIMO wireless systems where because of the fast changing nature of the underlying channel, full channel knowledge is difficult to obtain at the transmitter. In this paper, we first investigate the effect of eigenvalues distribution of spatial correlation matrices on the capacity of frequency-flat and -selective channels. Next, we introduce a practical scheme known as linear precoding that can enhance the ergodic capacity of the channel by changing the eigenstructure of the channel by applying a linear transformation. We derive the structures of precoders using eigenvalue decomposition and linear algebra techniques in both cases and show their similarities from an algebraic point of view. Simulations show the ability of this technique to change the eigenstructure of the channel, and hence enhance the ergodic capacity considerably.

  13. Information Guided Precoding for OFDM

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Qiang; Wen, Miaowen; Poor, H. Vincent; Chen, Fangjiong

    2017-01-01

    precoding, called precoding aided (P-)OFDMIM, is proposed to improve the spectral efficiency (SE) of OFDMIM. In P-OFDM-IM, the information bits are jointly conveyed through the conventional M-ary modulated symbols and the indices of precoding matrices

  14. Linear precoding based on polynomial expansion: reducing complexity in massive MIMO

    KAUST Repository

    Mueller, Axel; Kammoun, Abla; Bjö rnson, Emil; Debbah, Mé rouane

    2016-01-01

    By deriving new random matrix results, we obtain a deterministic expression for the asymptotic signal-to-interference-and-noise ratio (SINR) achieved by TPE precoding in massive MIMO systems. Furthermore, we provide a closed-form expression for the polynomial coefficients that maximizes this SINR. To maintain a fixed per-user rate loss as compared to RZF, the polynomial degree does not need to scale with the system, but it should be increased with the quality of the channel knowledge and the signal-to-noise ratio.

  15. The advanced progress of precoding technology in 5g system

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Chenyi

    2017-09-01

    With the development of technology, people began to put forward higher requirements for the mobile system, the emergence of the 5G subvert the track of the development of mobile communication technology. In the research of the core technology of 5G mobile communication, large scale MIMO, and precoding technology is a research hotspot. At present, the research on precoding technology in 5G system analyzes the various methods of linear precoding, the maximum ratio transmission (MRT) precoding algorithm, zero forcing (ZF) precoding algorithm, minimum mean square error (MMSE) precoding algorithm based on maximum signal to leakage and noise ratio (SLNR). Precoding algorithms are analyzed and summarized in detail. At the same time, we also do some research on nonlinear precoding methods, such as dirty paper precoding, THP precoding algorithm and so on. Through these analysis, we can find the advantages and disadvantages of each algorithm, as well as the development trend of each algorithm, grasp the development of the current 5G system precoding technology. Therefore, the research results and data of this paper can be used as reference for the development of precoding technology in 5G system.

  16. A HYBRID TECHNIQUE FOR PAPR REDUCTION OF OFDM USING DHT PRECODING WITH PIECEWISE LINEAR COMPANDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thammana Ajay

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM is a fascinating approach for wireless communication applications which require huge amount of data rates. However, OFDM signal suffers from its large Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR, which results in significant distortion while passing through a nonlinear device, such as a transmitter high power amplifier (HPA. Due to this high PAPR, the complexity of HPA as well as DAC also increases. For the reduction of PAPR in OFDM many techniques are available. Among them companding is an attractive low complexity technique for the OFDM signal’s PAPR reduction. Recently, a piecewise linear companding technique is recommended aiming at minimizing companding distortion. In this paper, a collective piecewise linear companding approach with Discrete Hartley Transform (DHT method is expected to reduce peak-to-average of OFDM to a great extent. Simulation results shows that this new proposed method obtains significant PAPR reduction while maintaining improved performance in the Bit Error Rate (BER and Power Spectral Density (PSD compared to piecewise linear companding method.

  17. Information Guided Precoding for OFDM

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Qiang

    2017-08-09

    In the conventional orthogonal frequency division multiplexing with index modulation (OFDM-IM), the M-ary modulated symbols are transmitted on a subset of subcarriers under the guidance of information bits. In this paper, a novel information guided precoding, called precoding aided (P-)OFDMIM, is proposed to improve the spectral efficiency (SE) of OFDMIM. In P-OFDM-IM, the information bits are jointly conveyed through the conventional M-ary modulated symbols and the indices of precoding matrices and vectors. Then, the principle of P-OFDM-IM is embodied in two different implementation types, including P-OFDM-IM-I and P-OFDM-IM-II. Specifically, P-OFDM-IM-I divides all subcarriers into L groups and modulates them by L distinguishable constellations. P-OFDM-IM-II partitions the total subcarriers into L overlapped layers and performs IM layer by layer, where distinguishable constellations are employed across layers. A practical precoding strategy is designed for P-OFDM-IM under the phase shift keying/quadrature amplitude modulation constraint. A low-complexity log-likelihood ratio detector is proposed to ease the computational burden on the receiver. To evaluate the performance of P-OFDM-IM theoretically, an upper bound on the bit error rate and the achievable rate are studied. Computer simulation results show that P-OFDM-IM-I outperforms the existing OFDM-IM related schemes at high SE, while P-OFDM-IM-II performs the best at low SE.

  18. Efficient Non Linear Loudspeakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bo R.; Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2006-01-01

    Loudspeakers have traditionally been designed to be as linear as possible. However, as techniques for compensating non linearities are emerging, it becomes possible to use other design criteria. This paper present and examines a new idea for improving the efficiency of loudspeakers at high levels...... by changing the voice coil layout. This deliberate non-linear design has the benefit that a smaller amplifier can be used, which has the benefit of reducing system cost as well as reducing power consumption....

  19. A Precoded OFDMA System with User Cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Yao; Yatawatta, Sarod; Petropulu, Athina P.

    2010-01-01

    A new cooperative scheme for a two-user orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) uplink communication scenario is proposed. Each user is equipped with one transmit/receive antenna. Before transmission, inter-block linear precoding is introduced to pairs of blocks. The cooperative

  20. Spectrally-Precoded OFDM for 5G Wideband Operation in Fragmented sub-6GHz Spectrum

    OpenAIRE

    Pitaval, Renaud-Alexandre; Popović, Branislav M.; Mohamad, Medhat; Nilsson, Rickard; van de Beek, Jaap

    2016-01-01

    We consider spectrally-precoded OFDM waveforms for 5G wideband transmission in sub-6GHz band. In this densely packed spectrum, a low out-of-band (OOB) waveform is a critical 5G component to achieve the promised high spectral efficiency. By precoding data symbols before OFDM modulation, it is possible to achieve extremely low out-of-band emission with very sharp spectrum transition enabling an efficient and flexible usage of frequency resources. Spectrally-precoded OFDM shows promising results...

  1. Efficient Searching with Linear Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars Allan; Erickson, Jeff

    2000-01-01

    We show how to preprocess a set S of points in d into an external memory data structure that efficiently supports linear-constraint queries. Each query is in the form of a linear constraint xd a0+∑d−1i=1 aixi; the data structure must report all the points of S that satisfy the constraint. This pr...

  2. Over-Sampling Codebook-Based Hybrid Minimum Sum-Mean-Square-Error Precoding for Millimeter-Wave 3D-MIMO

    KAUST Repository

    Mao, Jiening; Gao, Zhen; Wu, Yongpeng; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2018-01-01

    Hybrid precoding design is challenging for millimeter-wave (mmWave) massive MIMO. Most prior hybrid precoding schemes are designed to maximize the sum spectral efficiency (SSE), while seldom investigate the bit-error-rate (BER). Therefore, this letter designs an over-sampling codebook (OSC)-based hybrid minimum sum-mean-square-error (min-SMSE) precoding to optimize the BER. Specifically, given the effective baseband channel consisting of the real channel and analog precoding, we first design the digital precoder/combiner based on min-SMSE criterion to optimize the BER. To further reduce the SMSE between the transmit and receive signals, we propose an OSC-based joint analog precoder/combiner (JAPC) design. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme can achieve the better performance than its conventional counterparts.

  3. Over-Sampling Codebook-Based Hybrid Minimum Sum-Mean-Square-Error Precoding for Millimeter-Wave 3D-MIMO

    KAUST Repository

    Mao, Jiening

    2018-05-23

    Abstract: Hybrid precoding design is challenging for millimeter-wave (mmWave) massive MIMO. Most prior hybrid precoding schemes are designed to maximize the sum spectral efficiency (SSE), while seldom investigate the bit-error-rate (BER). Therefore, this letter designs an over-sampling codebook (OSC)-based hybrid minimum sum-mean-square-error (min-SMSE) precoding to optimize the BER. Specifically, given the effective baseband channel consisting of the real channel and analog precoding, we first design the digital precoder/combiner based on min-SMSE criterion to optimize the BER. To further reduce the SMSE between the transmit and receive signals, we propose an OSC-based joint analog precoder/combiner (JAPC) design. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme can achieve the better performance than its conventional counterparts.

  4. Experimental research of adaptive OFDM and OCT precoding with a high SE for VLLC system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuang-ao; He, Jing; Chen, Qinghui; Deng, Rui; Zhou, Zhihua; Chen, Shenghai; Chen, Lin

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, an adaptive orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) modulation scheme with 128/64/32/16-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) and orthogonal circulant matrix transform (OCT) precoding is proposed and experimentally demonstrated for a visible laser light communication (VLLC) system with a cost-effective 450-nm blue-light laser diode (LD). The performance of OCT precoding is compared with conventional the adaptive Discrete Fourier Transform-spread (DFT-spread) OFDM scheme, 32 QAM OCT precoding OFDM scheme, 64 QAM OCT precoding OFDM scheme and adaptive OCT precoding OFDM scheme. The experimental results show that OCT precoding can achieve a relatively flat signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) curve, and it can provide performance improvement in bit error rate (BER). Furthermore, the BER of the proposed OFDM signal with a raw bit rate 5.04 Gb/s after 5-m free space transmission is less than 20% of soft-decision forward error correlation (SD-FEC) threshold of 2.4 × 10-2, and the spectral efficiency (SE) of 4.2 bit/s/Hz can be successfully achieved.

  5. Robust Tomlinson-Harashima precoding for non-regenerative multi-antenna relaying systems

    KAUST Repository

    Xing, Chengwen

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, we consider the robust transceiver design with Tomlinson-Harashima precoding (THP) for multi-hop amplify-and-forward (AF) multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) relaying systems. THP is adopted at the source to mitigate the spatial inter-symbol interference and then a joint Bayesian robust design of THP at source, linear forwarding matrices at relays and linear equalizer at destination is proposed. Based on the elegant characteristics of multiplicative convexity and matrix-monotone functions, the optimal structure of the nonlinear transceiver is first derived. Based on the derived structure, the optimization problem is greatly simplified and can be efficiently solved. Finally, the performance advantage of the proposed robust design is assessed by simulation results. © 2012 IEEE.

  6. Robust Transceiver with Tomlinson-Harashima Precoding for Amplify-and-Forward MIMO Relaying Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Xing, Chengwen

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, robust transceiver design with Tomlinson-Harashima precoding (THP) for multi-hop amplifyand-forward (AF) multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) relaying systems is investigated. At source node, THP is adopted to mitigate the spatial intersymbol interference. However, due to its nonlinear nature, THP is very sensitive to channel estimationerrors. In order to reduce the effects of channel estimation errors, a joint Bayesian robust design of THP at source, linear forwarding matrices at relays and linear equalizer at destination is proposed. With novel applications of elegant characteristics of multiplicative convexity and matrix-monotone functions, the optimal structure of the nonlinear transceiver is first derived. Based on the derived structure, the transceiver design problem reduces to a much simpler one with only scalar variables which can be efficiently solved. Finally, the performance advantage of the proposed robust design over non-robust design is demonstrated by simulation results.

  7. A SDP based design of relay precoding for the power minimization of MIMO AF-relay networks

    KAUST Repository

    Rao, Anlei; Park, Kihong; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    Relay precoding for multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) relay networks has been approached by either optimizing the efficiency performance with given power consumption constraints or minimizing the power consumption with quality-of-service (Qo

  8. Low Complexity Precoder and Receiver Design for Massive MIMO Systems: A Large System Analysis using Random Matrix Theory

    KAUST Repository

    Sifaou, Houssem

    2016-05-01

    Massive MIMO systems are shown to be a promising technology for next generations of wireless communication networks. The realization of the attractive merits promised by massive MIMO systems requires advanced linear precoding and receiving techniques in order to mitigate the interference in downlink and uplink transmissions. This work considers the precoder and receiver design in massive MIMO systems. We first consider the design of the linear precoder and receiver that maximize the minimum signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) subject to a given power constraint. The analysis is carried out under the asymptotic regime in which the number of the BS antennas and that of the users grow large with a bounded ratio. This allows us to leverage tools from random matrix theory in order to approximate the parameters of the optimal linear precoder and receiver by their deterministic approximations. Such a result is of valuable practical interest, as it provides a handier way to implement the optimal precoder and receiver. To reduce further the complexity, we propose to apply the truncated polynomial expansion (TPE) concept on a per-user basis to approximate the inverse of large matrices that appear on the expressions of the optimal linear transceivers. Using tools from random matrix theory, we determine deterministic approximations of the SINR and the transmit power in the asymptotic regime. Then, the optimal per-user weight coe cients that solve the max-min SINR problem are derived. The simulation results show that the proposed precoder and receiver provide very close to optimal performance while reducing signi cantly the computational complexity. As a second part of this work, the TPE technique in a per-user basis is applied to the optimal linear precoding that minimizes the transmit power while satisfying a set of target SINR constraints. Due to the emerging research eld of green cellular networks, such a problem is receiving increasing interest nowadays. Closed

  9. Precoding Design for Single-RF Massive MIMO Systems: A Large System Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Sifaou, Houssem

    2016-08-26

    This work revisits a recently proposed precoding design for massive multiple-input multiple output (MIMO) systems that is based on the use of an instantaneous total power constraint. The main advantages of this technique lie in its suitability to the recently proposed single radio frequency (RF) MIMO transmitter coupled with a very-high power efficiency. Such features have been proven using simulations for uncorrelated channels. Based on tools from random matrix theory, we propose in this work to analyze the performance of this precoder for more involved channels accounting for spatial correlation. The obtained expressions are then optimized in order to maximize the signalto- interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR). Simulation results are provided in order to illustrate the performance of the optimized precoder in terms of peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) and signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR). © 2012 IEEE.

  10. Leakage based precoding for multi-user MIMO-OFDM systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sadek, Mirette

    2011-08-01

    In downlink multi-user multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) transmissions, several precoding schemes have been proposed to decrease interference among users. Notable among these precoding schemes is one that uses the signal-to-leakage-plus-noise ratio (SLNR) as an optimization criterion. In this paper, leveraging the efficiency of the SLNR optimization, we generalize this precoding scheme to MIMO orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) multi-user systems where the OFDM is used to overcome the inter-symbol- interference (ISI) introduced by multipath channels. We also introduce a channel compensation technique that reconstructs the channel at the transmitter for every time instant given a significantly lower channel feedback rate by the receiver. © 2006 IEEE.

  11. Polynomial expansion of the precoder for power minimization in large-scale MIMO systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sifaou, Houssem

    2016-07-26

    This work focuses on the downlink of a single-cell large-scale MIMO system in which the base station equipped with M antennas serves K single-antenna users. In particular, we are interested in reducing the implementation complexity of the optimal linear precoder (OLP) that minimizes the total power consumption while ensuring target user rates. As most precoding schemes, a major difficulty towards the implementation of OLP is that it requires fast inversions of large matrices at every new channel realizations. To overcome this issue, we aim at designing a linear precoding scheme providing the same performance of OLP but with lower complexity. This is achieved by applying the truncated polynomial expansion (TPE) concept on a per-user basis. To get a further leap in complexity reduction and allow for closed-form expressions of the per-user weighting coefficients, we resort to the asymptotic regime in which M and K grow large with a bounded ratio. Numerical results are used to show that the proposed TPE precoding scheme achieves the same performance of OLP with a significantly lower implementation complexity. © 2016 IEEE.

  12. Chaotic reconfigurable ZCMT precoder for OFDM data encryption and PAPR reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Han; Yang, Xuelin; Hu, Weisheng

    2017-12-01

    A secure orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmission scheme precoded by chaotic Zadoff-Chu matrix transform (ZCMT) is proposed and demonstrated. It is proved that the reconfigurable ZCMT matrices after row/column permutations can be applied as an alternative precoder for peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) reduction. The permutations and the reconfigurable parameters in ZCMT matrix are generated by a hyper digital chaos, in which a huge key space of ∼ 10800 is created for physical-layer OFDM data encryption. An encrypted data transmission of 8.9 Gb/s optical OFDM signals is successfully demonstrated over 20 km standard single-mode fiber (SSMF) for 16-QAM. The BER performance of the encrypted signals is improved by ∼ 2 dB (BER@ 10-3), which is mainly attributed to the effective reduction of PAPR via chaotic ZCMT precoding. Moreover, the chaotic ZCMT precoding scheme requires no sideband information, thus the spectrum efficiency is enhanced during transmission.

  13. SDN Controlled mmWave Massive MIMO Hybrid Precoding for 5G Heterogeneous Mobile Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In 5G mobile network, millimeter wave (mmWave and heterogeneous networks (Hetnets are significant techniques to sustain coverage and spectral efficiency. In this paper, we utilize the hybrid precoding to overcome hardware constraints on the analog-only beamforming in mmWave systems. Particularly, we identify the complicated antenna coordination and vast spatial domain information as the outstanding challenges in mmWave Hetnets. In our work, we employ software defined network (SDN to accomplish radio resource management (RRM and achieve flexible spacial coordination in mmWave Hetnets. In our proposed scheme, SDN controller is responsible for collecting the user channel state information (CSI and applying hybrid precoding based on the calculated null-space of victim users. Simulation results show that our design can effectively reduce the interference to victim users and support high quality of service.

  14. Distributed coupling high efficiency linear accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantawi, Sami G.; Neilson, Jeffrey

    2016-07-19

    A microwave circuit for a linear accelerator includes multiple monolithic metallic cell plates stacked upon each other so that the beam axis passes vertically through a central acceleration cavity of each plate. Each plate has a directional coupler with coupling arms. A first coupling slot couples the directional coupler to an adjacent directional coupler of an adjacent cell plate, and a second coupling slot couples the directional coupler to the central acceleration cavity. Each directional coupler also has an iris protrusion spaced from corners joining the arms, a convex rounded corner at a first corner joining the arms, and a corner protrusion at a second corner joining the arms.

  15. Precoded generalized space shift keying for indoor visible light communications

    KAUST Repository

    Kadampot, Ishaque Ashar

    2014-09-01

    We consider a visible light communication system with 2 transmit light emitting diodes (LED) and nr receive photodiodes. An optical generalized space shift keying modulation scheme is considered for the transmission of bits where each LED can be either in ON state or OFF state at a given time. With this set-up, we design in this paper a precoder for this modulation scheme given the channel state information to improve the bit error rate performance of the system. As conventional precoding techniques for radio frequency at the transmitter cannot be applied to the optical intensity channel, we formulate an optimization problem with constraints for this specific channel. An analytical solution for the precoder is derived and the system performance is compared with and without precoder.

  16. Relay Precoder Optimization in MIMO-Relay Networks With Imperfect CSI

    KAUST Repository

    Pandarakkottilil, Ubaidulla

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, we consider robust joint designs of relay precoder and destination receive filters in a nonregenerative multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) relay network. The network consists of multiple source-destination node pairs assisted by a MIMO-relay node. The channel state information (CSI) available at the relay node is assumed to be imperfect. We consider robust designs for two models of CSI error. The first model is a stochastic error (SE) model, where the probability distribution of the CSI error is Gaussian. This model is applicable when the imperfect CSI is mainly due to errors in channel estimation. For this model, we propose robust minimum sum mean square error (SMSE), MSE-balancing, and relay transmit power minimizing precoder designs. The next model for the CSI error is a norm-bounded error (NBE) model, where the CSI error can be specified by an uncertainty set. This model is applicable when the CSI error is dominated by quantization errors. In this case, we adopt a worst-case design approach. For this model, we propose a robust precoder design that minimizes total relay transmit power under constraints on MSEs at the destination nodes. We show that the proposed robust design problems can be reformulated as convex optimization problems that can be solved efficiently using interior-point methods. We demonstrate the robust performance of the proposed design through simulations. © 2011 IEEE.

  17. Channelization Issues with Fairness Considerations for MU-MIMO Precoding Based UTRA-LTE/TDD Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahman, Muhammad Imadur; Wang, Yuanye; Das, Suvra

    2008-01-01

    resource allocation point of view, choice of any technique will require different fairness conditions among users. In this paper, we have studied these different fairness conditions when combined with basic or joint access schemes mentioned above, while applied in a MU-MIMO based UTRA-LTE system. We have...... evaluated the resource allocation fairness issue when two well-known linear MU-MIMO precoding is used on a UTRA-LTE system. User grouping issue is dealt with when SDMA component is considered in the system. The results in this work provides an indicative analysis of the usability of different channelization...

  18. Efficient decomposition and linearization methods for the stochastic transportation problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, K.

    1993-01-01

    The stochastic transportation problem can be formulated as a convex transportation problem with nonlinear objective function and linear constraints. We compare several different methods based on decomposition techniques and linearization techniques for this problem, trying to find the most efficient method or combination of methods. We discuss and test a separable programming approach, the Frank-Wolfe method with and without modifications, the new technique of mean value cross decomposition and the more well known Lagrangian relaxation with subgradient optimization, as well as combinations of these approaches. Computational tests are presented, indicating that some new combination methods are quite efficient for large scale problems. (authors) (27 refs.)

  19. Wireless coordinated multicell systems architectures and precoding designs

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Duy H N

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief discusses the current research on coordinated multipoint transmission/reception (CoMP) in wireless multi-cell systems. This book analyzes the structure of the CoMP precoders and the message exchange mechanism in the CoMP system in order to reveal the advantage of CoMP. Topics include interference management in wireless cellular networks, joint signal processing, interference coordination, uplink and downlink precoding and system models. After an exploration of the motivations and concepts of CoMP, the authors present the architectures of a CoMP system. Practical implementati

  20. A SDP based design of relay precoding for the power minimization of MIMO AF-relay networks

    KAUST Repository

    Rao, Anlei

    2015-09-11

    Relay precoding for multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) relay networks has been approached by either optimizing the efficiency performance with given power consumption constraints or minimizing the power consumption with quality-of-service (QoS) requirements. For the later type design, previous works has worked on minimizing the approximated power consumption. In this paper, exact power consumption for all relays is derived into a quadratic form by diagonalizing the minimum-square error (MSE) matrix, and the relay precoding matrix is designed by optimizing this quadratic form with the help of semidefinite programming (SDP) relaxation. Our simulation results show that such a design can achieve a gain of around 3 dB against the previous design, which optimized the approximated power consumption. © 2015 IEEE.

  1. An efficient formulation for linear and geometric non-linear membrane elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rezaiee-Pajand

    Full Text Available Utilizing the straingradient notation process and the free formulation, an efficient way of constructing membrane elements will be proposed. This strategy can be utilized for linear and geometric non-linear problems. In the suggested formulation, the optimization constraints of insensitivity to distortion, rotational invariance and not having parasitic shear error are employed. In addition, the equilibrium equations will be established based on some constraints among the strain states. The authors' technique can easily separate the rigid body motions, and those belong to deformational motions. In this article, a novel triangular element, named SST10, is formulated. This element will be used in several plane problems having irregular mesh and complicated geometry with linear and geometrically nonlinear behavior. The numerical outcomes clearly demonstrate the efficiency of the new formulation.

  2. A NEW DISCRETE HARTLEY TRANSFORM PRECODING BASED INTERLEAVED-OFDMA UPLINK SYSTEM WITH REDUCED PAPR FOR 4G CELLULAR NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VARUN JEOTI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available High peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR reduction is one of the major challenges in orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA systems since last decades. High PAPR increases the complexity of analogue-to-digital (A/D and digital-to-analogue (D/A convertors and also reduces the efficiency of RF high-power-amplifier (HPA. In this paper, we present a new Discrete- Hartley transform (DHT precoding based interleaved-OFDMA uplink system for PAPR reduction in the upcoming 4G cellular networks. Extensive computer simulations have been performed to analyze the PAPR of the proposed system with root-raised-cosine (RRC pulse shaping. We also compare simulation results of the proposed system with the conventional interleaved-OFDMA uplink systems and the Walsh-Hadamard transform (WHT precoding based interleaved-OFDMA uplink systems. It is concluded from the computer simulations that the proposed system has low PAPR as compared to the conventional interleaved-OFDMA uplink systems and the WHT precoded interleaved-OFDMA uplink systems.

  3. Thermoelectric efficiency of nanoscale devices in the linear regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevilacqua, G.; Grosso, G.; Menichetti, G.; Pastori Parravicini, G.

    2016-12-01

    We study quantum transport through two-terminal nanoscale devices in contact with two particle reservoirs at different temperatures and chemical potentials. We discuss the general expressions controlling the electric charge current, heat currents, and the efficiency of energy transmutation in steady conditions in the linear regime. With focus in the parameter domain where the electron system acts as a power generator, we elaborate workable expressions for optimal efficiency and thermoelectric parameters of nanoscale devices. The general concepts are set at work in the paradigmatic cases of Lorentzian resonances and antiresonances, and the encompassing Fano transmission function: the treatments are fully analytic, in terms of the trigamma functions and Bernoulli numbers. From the general curves here reported describing transport through the above model transmission functions, useful guidelines for optimal efficiency and thermopower can be inferred for engineering nanoscale devices in energy regions where they show similar transmission functions.

  4. Clique-Based Neural Associative Memories with Local Coding and Precoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mofrad, Asieh Abolpour; Parker, Matthew G; Ferdosi, Zahra; Tadayon, Mohammad H

    2016-08-01

    Techniques from coding theory are able to improve the efficiency of neuroinspired and neural associative memories by forcing some construction and constraints on the network. In this letter, the approach is to embed coding techniques into neural associative memory in order to increase their performance in the presence of partial erasures. The motivation comes from recent work by Gripon, Berrou, and coauthors, which revisited Willshaw networks and presented a neural network with interacting neurons that partitioned into clusters. The model introduced stores patterns as small-size cliques that can be retrieved in spite of partial error. We focus on improving the success of retrieval by applying two techniques: doing a local coding in each cluster and then applying a precoding step. We use a slightly different decoding scheme, which is appropriate for partial erasures and converges faster. Although the ideas of local coding and precoding are not new, the way we apply them is different. Simulations show an increase in the pattern retrieval capacity for both techniques. Moreover, we use self-dual additive codes over field [Formula: see text], which have very interesting properties and a simple-graph representation.

  5. Coordinated SLNR based Precoding in Large-Scale Heterogeneous Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Boukhedimi, Ikram; Kammoun, Abla; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    This work focuses on the downlink of large-scale two-tier heterogeneous networks composed of a macro-cell overlaid by micro-cell networks. Our interest is on the design of coordinated beamforming techniques that allow to mitigate the inter-cell interference. Particularly, we consider the case in which the coordinating base stations (BSs) have imperfect knowledge of the channel state information. Under this setting, we propose a regularized SLNR based precoding design in which the regularization factor is used to allow better resilience with respect to the channel estimation errors. Based on tools from random matrix theory, we provide an analytical analysis of the SINR and SLNR performances. These results are then exploited to propose a proper setting of the regularization factor. Simulation results are finally provided in order to validate our findings and to confirm the performance of the proposed precoding scheme.

  6. Coordinated SLNR based Precoding in Large-Scale Heterogeneous Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Boukhedimi, Ikram

    2017-03-06

    This work focuses on the downlink of large-scale two-tier heterogeneous networks composed of a macro-cell overlaid by micro-cell networks. Our interest is on the design of coordinated beamforming techniques that allow to mitigate the inter-cell interference. Particularly, we consider the case in which the coordinating base stations (BSs) have imperfect knowledge of the channel state information. Under this setting, we propose a regularized SLNR based precoding design in which the regularization factor is used to allow better resilience with respect to the channel estimation errors. Based on tools from random matrix theory, we provide an analytical analysis of the SINR and SLNR performances. These results are then exploited to propose a proper setting of the regularization factor. Simulation results are finally provided in order to validate our findings and to confirm the performance of the proposed precoding scheme.

  7. Interference Cancellation Using Space-Time Processing and Precoding Design

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Interference Cancellation Using Space-Time Processing and Precoding Design introduces original design methods to achieve interference cancellation, low-complexity decoding and full diversity for a series of multi-user systems. In multi-user environments, co-channel interference will diminish the performance of wireless communications systems. In this book, we investigate how to design robust space-time codes and pre-coders to suppress the co-channel interference when multiple antennas are available.   This book offers a valuable reference work for graduate students, academic researchers and engineers who are interested in interference cancellation in wireless communications. Rigorous performance analysis and various simulation illustrations are included for each design method.   Dr. Feng Li is a scientific researcher at Cornell University.

  8. Linearization and efficiency enhancement of power amplifiers using digital predistortion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safari, Nima

    2008-07-01

    Today, demand of higher spectral efficiency forces wireless communication systems to employ non-constant envelope modulation schemes such as Quadrature Amplitude Modulations (QAM), Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) and Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing (OFDM) schemes. These modulation techniques generate signals with wide range of envelope fluctuation. This property makes these schemes sensitive to nonlinear amplifications. Nonlinearities introduced by Power Amplifiers (PA) cause both a distortion of the signal and an increased out of band output spectrum, which leads to a rise in adjacent channel interference. Thus, in order to ensure a high spectral efficiency and to avoid spectral regrowth, a linearization technique is required. Among all the linearization techniques, basedband Digital Predistortion (DPD) is one of the commonly used linearization techniques, which is characterized by robust operation, low implementation cost and high accuracy. In the first chapter of this thesis, an introduction on the motivation and necessity of using PA linearization techniques is presented. Digital Predistortion as a popular linearization technique aims to improve the efficiency and linearity of RF power amplifiers. The scope of the thesis, the goals to be achieved and the contributions are also discussed in chapter one. Chapter two, mainly discusses sample-by-sample updating algorithm in Digital Predistorters to adaptively linearize the PA memoryless nonlinearities. Look-up Table (LUT) and polynomial approaches are studied and implemented in Hardware using a test-bed provided by Nera Research. The experimental results together with a discussion are then given. A new DPD algorithm based on block estimation is proposed in chapter three to avoid realtime signal processing, reduce the complexity and also avoid the bad performance during the slow adaptation of adaptive the Adjacent Channel Power Ratio (ACPR) and the Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) requirements. In

  9. MAX-SLNR Precoding Algorithm for Massive MIMO System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pilot Contamination obviously degrades the system performance of Massive MIMO systems. In this paper, a downlink precoding algorithm based on the Signal-to- Leakage-plus-Noise-Ratio (SLNR criterion is put forward. First, the impact of Pilot Contamination on SLNR is analyzed,then the precoding matrix is calculated with the eigenvalues decomposition of SLNR, which not only maximize the array gains of the target user, but also minimize the impact of Pilot Contamination and the leak to the users of other cells. Further, a simplified solution is derived, in which the impact of Pilot Contamination can be suppressed only with the large-scale fading coefficients. Simulation results reveal that: in the scenario of the serious pilot contamination, the proposed algorithm can avoid the performance loss caused by the pilot contamination compared with the conventional Massive MIMO precoding algorithm. Thus the proposed algorithm can acquire the perfect performance gains of Massive MIMO system and has better practical value since the large-scale fading coefficients are easy to measure and feedback.

  10. Low Complexity Tree Searching-Based Iterative Precoding Techniques for Multiuser MIMO Broadcast Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jongsub; Park, Kyungho; Kang, Joonhyuk; Park, Hyuncheol

    In this letter, we propose two computationally efficient precoding algorithms that achieve near-ML performance for multiuser MIMO downlink. The proposed algorithms perform tree expansion after lattice reduction. The first full expansion is tried by selecting the first level node with a minimum metric, constituting a reference metric. To find an optimal sequence, they iteratively visit each node and terminate the expansion by comparing node metrics with the calculated reference metric. By doing this, they significantly reduce the number of undesirable node visit. Monte-Carlo simulations show that both proposed algorithms yield near-ML performance with considerable reduction in complexity compared with that of the conventional schemes such as sphere encoding.

  11. Resource-efficient generation of linear cluster states by linear optics with postselection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uskov, D B; Alsing, P M; Fanto, M L; Szep, A; Smith, A M; Kaplan, L; Kim, R

    2015-01-01

    We report on theoretical research in photonic cluster-state computing. Finding optimal schemes of generating non-classical photonic states is of critical importance for this field as physically implementable photon–photon entangling operations are currently limited to measurement-assisted stochastic transformations. A critical parameter for assessing the efficiency of such transformations is the success probability of a desired measurement outcome. At present there are several experimental groups that are capable of generating multi-photon cluster states carrying more than eight qubits. Separate photonic qubits or small clusters can be fused into a single cluster state by a probabilistic optical CZ gate conditioned on simultaneous detection of all photons with 1/9 success probability for each gate. This design mechanically follows the original theoretical scheme of cluster state generation proposed more than a decade ago by Raussendorf, Browne and Briegel. The optimality of the destructive CZ gate in application to linear optical cluster state generation has not been analyzed previously. Our results reveal that this method is far from the optimal one. Employing numerical optimization we have identified that the maximal success probability of fusing n unentangled dual-rail optical qubits into a linear cluster state is equal to (1/2) n−1 ; an m-tuple of photonic Bell pair states, commonly generated via spontaneous parametric down-conversion, can be fused into a single cluster with the maximal success probability of (1/4) m−1 . (paper)

  12. Power efficient low complexity precoding for massive MIMO systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sifaou, Houssem; Kammoun, Abla; Sanguinetti, Luca; Debbah, Merouane; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    and K tend to infinity with the same pace under the assumption that imperfect channel state information is available at the BS. The results are then used to compute the TPE weights that minimize the asymptotic transmit power while meeting a set of target

  13. Analysis of the efficiency of the linearization techniques for solving multi-objective linear fractional programming problems by goal programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunjo Perić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and analyzes the applicability of three linearization techniques used for solving multi-objective linear fractional programming problems using the goal programming method. The three linearization techniques are: (1 Taylor’s polynomial linearization approximation, (2 the method of variable change, and (3 a modification of the method of variable change proposed in [20]. All three linearization techniques are presented and analyzed in two variants: (a using the optimal value of the objective functions as the decision makers’ aspirations, and (b the decision makers’ aspirations are given by the decision makers. As the criteria for the analysis we use the efficiency of the obtained solutions and the difficulties the analyst comes upon in preparing the linearization models. To analyze the applicability of the linearization techniques incorporated in the linear goal programming method we use an example of a financial structure optimization problem.

  14. An efficient linear power generator - Linear motor for oscillating piston machines; Effizienter Lineargenerator / Linearmotor fuer Kolbenmaschine - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindegger, M.

    2008-07-01

    When an oscillating piston interacts with an electrical generator or motor, it is obvious that the electrical machine should also have linear motion, eliminating the disadvantage of a crankshaft. This work has two parts: construction of an efficient linear generator for a Stirling engine with a free piston and a theoretical study of the efficiency of linear motors for driving compressors. The Stirling engine and the linear generator have a continuous power of 1.3 kW{sub el}. With thermal peak power the planned 1.5 kW{sub el} are attained. The Project 'Stirling Free Piston Generator' for cogeneration will continue. Smaller linear motors with permanent magnets function without electronic control from single-phase AC net. The theoretical study shows how linear motors can be led out by linking the electric vector diagram with the pressure-volume diagram of the compressor. At a power level exceeding a few kW, a three-phase system with power electronics is more suitable. The frequency of oscillation is variable and lower than 50 Hz. The efficiency of the simulated linear motors lies in the range of efficiency class EFF1 of standard motors. The very high efficiencies of rotating motors with permanent magnets are not attained. The combination of the linear motor with an optimised thermal process leads to advantages regarding the efficiency. If a heat pump with linear drive system can operate with hot lubricating oil the losses in the heat exchangers are reduced. The Competence Center for Thermal Machines at Lucerne University of Applied Sciences and Arts shows great interest to pursue the project of a linear heat pump for small temperature differences. (author)

  15. Mitigation of Linear and Nonlinear Impairments in Spectrally Efficient Superchannels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porto da Silva, Edson; Larsen, Knud J.; Zibar, Darko

    2015-01-01

    We assess numerically the performance of single-carrier digital backpropagation and maximum-likelihood sequence detection (MLSD) for DP-QPSK superchannel transmission. It is shown that MLSD is advantageous only against inter-carrier linear crosstalk....

  16. Relay Precoder Optimization in MIMO-Relay Networks With Imperfect CSI

    KAUST Repository

    Pandarakkottilil, Ubaidulla; Chockalingam, A.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we consider robust joint designs of relay precoder and destination receive filters in a nonregenerative multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) relay network. The network consists of multiple source-destination node pairs assisted by a

  17. Hybrid precoding based on matrix-adaptive method for multiuser large-scale antenna arrays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongpan Feng

    Full Text Available Massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO is envisioned to offer a considerable improvement in capacity, but it has a high cost and the radio frequency (RF chain components have a high power consumption at high frequency. To address this problem, a hybrid analog and digital precoding scheme has been studied recently, which restricts the number of RF chains to far less than the number of antenna elements. In this paper, we consider the downlink communication of a massive multiuser multiple-input single-output (MU-MISO system and propose an iterative hybrid precoding algorithm to approach the capacity performance of the traditional full digital precoding scheme. We aim to attain a large baseband gain by zero-forcing (ZF digital precoding on the equivalent channel and then minimize the total power to obtain the optimal RF precoder. Simulation results show that the proposed method can approach the performance of the conventional fully digital precoding with a low computational complexity.

  18. Entangling efficiency of linear-optical quantum gates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lemr, Karel; Černoch, Antonín; Soubusta, Jan; Dušek, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 3 (2012), "032321-1"-"032321-5" ISSN 1050-2947 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0382 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : linear-optical quantum gates * quantum physics Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 3.042, year: 2012 http://pra.aps.org/pdf/PRA/v86/i3/e032321

  19. Efficient Preconditioning of Sequences of Nonsymmetric Linear Systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Duintjer Tebbens, Jurjen; Tůma, Miroslav

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 5 (2007), s. 1918-1941 ISSN 1064-8275 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET400300415; GA AV ČR KJB100300703 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : preconditioned iterative methods * sparse matrices * sequences of linear algebraic systems * incomplete factorizations * factorization updates * Gauss–Jordan transformations * minimum spanning tree Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.784, year: 2007

  20. A Power Efficient Audio Amplifier Combining Switching and Linear Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, Ronan A.R.; van Tuijl, Adrianus Johannes Maria

    1998-01-01

    Integrated Class D audio amplifiers are very power efficient, but require an external filter which prevents further integration. Also due to this filter, large feedback factors are hard to realise, so that the load influences the distortion- and transfer characteristics. The amplifier presented in

  1. AN APPLICATION FOR EFFICIENT TELECOMMUNICATION NETWORKS PROVISIONING USING LINEAR PROGRAMMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Augusta Soares Machado

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a practical proposition for the application of the Linear Programming quantitative method in order to assist planning and control of customer circuit delivery activities in telecommunications companies working with the corporative market. Based upon data provided for by a telecom company operating in Brazil, the Linear Programming method was employed for one of the classical problems of determining the optimum mix of production quantities for a set of five products of that company: Private Telephone Network, Internet Network, Intranet Network, Low Speed Data Network, and High Speed Data Network, in face of several limitations of the productive resources, seeking to maximize the company’s monthly revenue. By fitting the production data available into a primary model, observation was made as to what number of monthly activations for each product would be mostly optimized in order to achieve maximum revenues in the company. The final delivery of a complete network was not observed but the delivery of the circuits that make it up, and this was a limiting factor for the study herein, which, however, brings an innovative proposition for the planning of private telecommunications network provisioning.

  2. Operator-based linearization for efficient modeling of geothermal processes

    OpenAIRE

    Khait, M.; Voskov, D.V.

    2018-01-01

    Numerical simulation is one of the most important tools required for financial and operational management of geothermal reservoirs. The modern geothermal industry is challenged to run large ensembles of numerical models for uncertainty analysis, causing simulation performance to become a critical issue. Geothermal reservoir modeling requires the solution of governing equations describing the conservation of mass and energy. The robust, accurate and computationally efficient implementation of ...

  3. Efficient Feedforward Linearization Technique Using Genetic Algorithms for OFDM Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Paloma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Feedforward is a linearization method that simultaneously offers wide bandwidth and good intermodulation distortion suppression; so it is a good choice for Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM systems. Feedforward structure consists of two loops, being necessary an accurate adjustment between them along the time, and when temperature, environmental, or operating changes are produced. Amplitude and phase imbalances of the circuit elements in both loops produce mismatched effects that lead to degrade its performance. A method is proposed to compensate these mismatches, introducing two complex coefficients calculated by means of a genetic algorithm. A full study is carried out to choose the optimal parameters of the genetic algorithm applied to wideband systems based on OFDM technologies, which are very sensitive to nonlinear distortions. The method functionality has been verified by means of simulation.

  4. Energy efficiency and choice of parameters for linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claus, J.

    1986-01-01

    Three possible ways of converting beam power into luminosity are investigated: two short bunches colliding with each other, two long ones doing so, and two pulses of bunch trains which interact. Some of the implications of linacs for very high frequencies are considered, emphasizing the factors that influence the efficiency of converting rf power into luminosity and assuming that suitable power sources are or will be available. Some characteristics of structures that seem feasible for very high frequency accelerators are described. 6 refs., 6 figs

  5. Performance enhanced DDO-OFDM system with adaptively partitioned precoding and single sideband modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Feng, Zhenhua; Tang, Ming; Fu, Songnian; Liu, Deming

    2017-09-18

    As a promising solution for short-to-medium transmission systems, direct detection optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (DDO-OFDM) or discrete multi-tone (DMT) has been intensively investigated in last decade. Benefitting from the advantages of peak-to-average power (PAPR) reduction and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) equalization, precoding techniques are widely applied to enhance the performance of DDO-OFDM systems. However, the conventional method of partitioning precoding sets limits the ability of precoding schemes to optimize the SNR variation and the allocation of modulation formats. Thus, the precoding transmission systems are hard to reach the capacity that traditional bit-power loading (BPL) techniques, like the Levin-Campello (LC) algorithm, can achieve. In this paper, we investigate the principle of SNR variation for precoded DDO-OFDM systems and theoretically demonstrate that the SNR equalization effect of precoding techniques is actually determined by the noise equalization process. Based on this fact, we propose an adaptively partitioned precoding (APP) algorithm to unlock the ability to control the SNR of each subcarrier. As demonstrated by the simulation and experimental results, the proposed APP algorithm achieves the transmission capacity as high as the LC algorithm and has nearly 1 dB PAPR reduction. Besides, the look-up table (LUT) operation ensures low complexity of the proposed APP algorithm compared with LC algorithm. To avoid severe chromatic dispersion (CD) induced spectral fading, single sideband (SSB) modulation is also implemented. We find that SSB modulation can reach the capacity of double sideband (DSB) modulation in optical back-to-back (OB2B) configuration by optimizing the modulation index. Therefore, the APP based SSB-DDO-OFDM scheme can sufficiently enhance the performance of cost-sensitive short-to-medium reach optical fiber communication systems.

  6. MULTIPLE LINEAR REGRESSION ANALYSIS FOR PREDICTION OF BOILER LOSSES AND BOILER EFFICIENCY

    OpenAIRE

    Chayalakshmi C.L

    2018-01-01

    MULTIPLE LINEAR REGRESSION ANALYSIS FOR PREDICTION OF BOILER LOSSES AND BOILER EFFICIENCY ABSTRACT Calculation of boiler efficiency is essential if its parameters need to be controlled for either maintaining or enhancing its efficiency. But determination of boiler efficiency using conventional method is time consuming and very expensive. Hence, it is not recommended to find boiler efficiency frequently. The work presented in this paper deals with establishing the statistical mo...

  7. Achievable rate of cognitive radio spectrum sharing MIMO channel with space alignment and interference temperature precoding

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate the spectral efficiency gain of an uplink Cognitive Radio (CR) Multi-Input MultiOutput (MIMO) system in which the Secondary/unlicensed User (SU) is allowed to share the spectrum with the Primary/licensed User (PU) using a specific precoding scheme to communicate with a common receiver. The proposed scheme exploits at the same time the free eigenmodes of the primary channel after a space alignment procedure and the interference threshold tolerated by the PU. In our work, we study the maximum achievable rate of the CR node after deriving an optimal power allocation with respect to an outage interference and an average power constraints. We, then, study a protection protocol that considers a fixed interference threshold. Applied to Rayleigh fading channels, we show, through numerical results, that our proposed scheme enhances considerably the cognitive achievable rate. For instance, in case of a perfect detection of the PU signal, after applying Successive Interference Cancellation (SIC), the CR rate remains non-zero for high Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) which is usually impossible when we only use space alignment technique. In addition, we show that the rate gain is proportional to the allowed interference threshold by providing a fixed rate even in the high SNR range. © 2013 IEEE.

  8. Energy Efficiency of an Intracavity Coupled, Laser-Driven Linear Accelerator Pumped by an External Laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neil Na, Y.C.; Siemann, R.H.; SLAC; Byer, R.L.; Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2005-01-01

    We calculate the optimum energy efficiency of a laser-driven linear accelerator by adopting a simple linear model. In the case of single bunch operation, the energy efficiency can be enhanced by incorporating the accelerator into a cavity that is pumped by an external laser. In the case of multiple bunch operation, the intracavity configuration is less advantageous because the strong wakefield generated by the electron beam is also recycled. Finally, the calculation indicates that the luminosity of a linear collider based on such a structure is comparably small if high efficiency is desired

  9. Relative validity of the pre-coded food diary used in the Danish National Survey of Diet and Physical Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Vibeke Kildegaard; Gille, Maj-Britt; Nielsen, Trine Holmgaard

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the relative validity of the pre-coded food diary applied in the Danish National Survey of Dietary Habits and Physical Activity. Design: A cross-over study among seventy-two adults (aged 20 to 69 years) recording diet by means of a pre-coded food diary over 4 d and a 4 d...

  10. Effect of linear and non-linear components in the temperature dependences of thermoelectric properties on the energy conversion efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Osamu

    2009-01-01

    The new thermal rate equations were built up by taking the linear and non-linear components in the temperature dependences of the Seebeck coefficient α, the electrical resistivity ρ and thermal conductivity κ of a thermoelectric (TE) material into the thermal rate equations on the assumption that their temperature dependences are expressed by a quadratic function of temperature T. The energy conversion efficiency η for a single TE element was formulated using the new thermal rate ones proposed here. By applying it to the high-performance half-Heusler compound, the non-linear component in the temperature dependence of α among those of the TE properties has the greatest effect on η, so that η/η 0 was increased by 11% under the condition of T = 510 K and ΔT = 440 K, where η 0 is a well-known conventional energy conversion efficiency. It was thus found that the temperature dependences of TE properties have a significant influence on η. When one evaluates the accurate achievement rate of η exp obtained experimentally for a TE generator, therefore, η exp should be compared with η the estimated from the theoretical expression proposed here, not with η 0 , particularly when there is a strong non-linearity in the temperature dependence of TE properties.

  11. Efficient semiparametric estimation in generalized partially linear additive models for longitudinal/clustered data

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Guang; Zhou, Lan; Huang, Jianhua Z.

    2014-01-01

    We consider efficient estimation of the Euclidean parameters in a generalized partially linear additive models for longitudinal/clustered data when multiple covariates need to be modeled nonparametrically, and propose an estimation procedure based

  12. Efficient linear algebra routines for symmetric matrices stored in packed form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlrichs, Reinhart; Tsereteli, Kakha

    2002-01-30

    Quantum chemistry methods require various linear algebra routines for symmetric matrices, for example, diagonalization or Cholesky decomposition for positive matrices. We present a small set of these basic routines that are efficient and minimize memory requirements.

  13. Efficient Implementation of Solvers for Linear Model Predictive Control on Embedded Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frison, Gianluca; Kwame Minde Kufoalor, D.; Imsland, Lars

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel approach for the efficient implementation of solvers for linear MPC on embedded devices. The main focus is to explain in detail the approach used to optimize the linear algebra for selected low-power embedded devices, and to show how the high-performance implementation...

  14. Cooperative joint precoding in a downlink cellular system with shared relay: Design and performance evaluation

    KAUST Repository

    Kwon, JaeWoo; Park, Kihong; Ko, Youngchai; Yang, Hongchuan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate a relay enhanced cellular system, where a relay station is located in the overlap area served by two base stations. We propose cooperative joint precoding schemes for the downlink transmission of such relay enhanced cellular system to maximize the system capacity while minimizing the interference at both the relay station and the mobile stations. We formulate the optimization problems to maximize the system capacity and design the multiuser precoding vectors at each base station and the relay station. We quantify the ergodic rate performance of the proposed multiuser precoding schemes through statistical analysis. The extensively derived ergodic expressions will facilitate the accurate performance evaluation of the proposed transmission schemes. Numerical results show that the proposed schemes can effectively cancel the interference and improve the sum rate and the outage performance for cell edge users. © 2002-2012 IEEE.

  15. ON THE PAPR REDUCTION IN OFDM SYSTEMS: A NOVEL ZCT PRECODING BASED SLM TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VARUN JEOTI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available High Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR reduction is still an important challenge in Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM systems. In this paper, we propose a novel Zadoff-Chu matrix Transform (ZCT precoding based Selected Mapping (SLM technique for PAPR reduction in OFDM systems. This technique is based on precoding the constellation symbols with ZCT precoder after the multiplication of phase rotation factor and before the Inverse Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT in the SLM based OFDM (SLM-OFDM Systems. Computer simulation results show that, the proposed technique can reduce PAPR up to 5.2 dB for N=64 (System subcarriers and V=16 (Dissimilar phase sequences, at clip rate of 10-3. Additionally, ZCT based SLM-OFDM (ZCT-SLM-OFDM systems also take advantage of frequency variations of the communication channel and can also offer substantial performance gain in fading multipath channels.

  16. Cooperative joint precoding in a downlink cellular system with shared relay: Design and performance evaluation

    KAUST Repository

    Kwon, JaeWoo

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we investigate a relay enhanced cellular system, where a relay station is located in the overlap area served by two base stations. We propose cooperative joint precoding schemes for the downlink transmission of such relay enhanced cellular system to maximize the system capacity while minimizing the interference at both the relay station and the mobile stations. We formulate the optimization problems to maximize the system capacity and design the multiuser precoding vectors at each base station and the relay station. We quantify the ergodic rate performance of the proposed multiuser precoding schemes through statistical analysis. The extensively derived ergodic expressions will facilitate the accurate performance evaluation of the proposed transmission schemes. Numerical results show that the proposed schemes can effectively cancel the interference and improve the sum rate and the outage performance for cell edge users. © 2002-2012 IEEE.

  17. Designs of precoding for LTE TDD using cell specific reference signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Fan; Lu, Lu; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard

    2010-01-01

    We design non-codebook-based Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) precoding schemes using multiple cell-specific reference signals patterns for the time division duplex (TDD) mode of LTE, where channel reciprocity can be exploited. Previously proposed non-codebookbased precoding schemes typically...... use UE specific reference signals for demodulation. Cell specific reference signals are however always allocated for the transmission of common control signalling, mobility measurements and downlink channel quality measurements. In order to save the resources occupied by UE specific reference signals...

  18. Framing car fuel efficiency : linearity heuristic for fuel consumption and fuel-efficiency ratings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, T.M.; Bolderdijk, J.W.; Steg, L.

    2014-01-01

    People are sensitive to the way information on fuel efficiency is conveyed. When the fuel efficiency of cars is framed in terms of fuel per distance (FPD; e.g. l/100 km), instead of distance per units of fuel (DPF; e.g. km/l), people have a more accurate perception of potential fuel savings. People

  19. Modeling of non-linear CHP efficiency curves in distributed energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milan, Christian; Stadler, Michael; Cardoso, Gonçalo

    2015-01-01

    Distributed energy resources gain an increased importance in commercial and industrial building design. Combined heat and power (CHP) units are considered as one of the key technologies for cost and emission reduction in buildings. In order to make optimal decisions on investment and operation...... for these technologies, detailed system models are needed. These models are often formulated as linear programming problems to keep computational costs and complexity in a reasonable range. However, CHP systems involve variations of the efficiency for large nameplate capacity ranges and in case of part load operation......, which can be even of non-linear nature. Since considering these characteristics would turn the models into non-linear problems, in most cases only constant efficiencies are assumed. This paper proposes possible solutions to address this issue. For a mixed integer linear programming problem two...

  20. Validation of a pre-coded food record for infants and young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gondolf, Ulla Holmboe; Tetens, Inge; Hills, A. P.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Objectives:To assess the validity of a 7-day pre-coded food record (PFR) method in 9-month-old infants against metabolizable energy intake (ME(DLW)) measured by doubly labeled water (DLW); additionally to compare PFR with a 7-day weighed food record (WFR) in 9-month-old infants and 36...

  1. Robust Tomlinson-Harashima precoding for non-regenerative multi-antenna relaying systems

    KAUST Repository

    Xing, Chengwen; Xia, Minghua; Gao, Feifei; Wu, Yikchung

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the robust transceiver design with Tomlinson-Harashima precoding (THP) for multi-hop amplify-and-forward (AF) multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) relaying systems. THP is adopted at the source to mitigate the spatial

  2. Improved quantum efficiency models of CZTSe: GE nanolayer solar cells with a linear electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sanghyun; Price, Kent J; Saucedo, Edgardo; Giraldo, Sergio

    2018-02-08

    We fabricated and characterized CZTSe:Ge nanolayer (quantum efficiency for Ge doped CZTSe devices. The linear electric field model is developed with the incomplete gamma function of the quantum efficiency as compared to the empirical data at forward bias conditions. This model is characterized with a consistent set of parameters from a series of measurements and the literature. Using the analytical modelling method, the carrier collection profile in the absorber is calculated and closely fitted by the developed mathematical expressions to identify the carrier dynamics during the quantum efficiency measurement of the device. The analytical calculation is compared with the measured quantum efficiency data at various bias conditions.

  3. An efficient method for generalized linear multiplicative programming problem with multiplicative constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yingfeng; Liu, Sanyang

    2016-01-01

    We present a practical branch and bound algorithm for globally solving generalized linear multiplicative programming problem with multiplicative constraints. To solve the problem, a relaxation programming problem which is equivalent to a linear programming is proposed by utilizing a new two-phase relaxation technique. In the algorithm, lower and upper bounds are simultaneously obtained by solving some linear relaxation programming problems. Global convergence has been proved and results of some sample examples and a small random experiment show that the proposed algorithm is feasible and efficient.

  4. Linearization and efficiency enhancement techniques for silicon power amplifiers from RF to mmW

    CERN Document Server

    Kerhervé, Eric

    2015-01-01

    This book provides an overview of current efficiency enhancement and linearization techniques for silicon power amplifier designs. It examines the latest state of the art technologies and design techniques to address challenges for RF cellular mobile, base stations, and RF and mmW WLAN applications. Coverage includes material on current silicon (CMOS, SiGe) RF and mmW power amplifier designs, focusing on advantages and disadvantages compared with traditional GaAs implementations. With this book you will learn: The principles of linearization and efficiency improvement techniquesThe arch

  5. On Energy Efficient Mobile Hydraulic Systems : with Focus on Linear Actuation

    OpenAIRE

    Heybroek, Kim

    2017-01-01

    In this dissertation, energy efficient hydraulic systems are studied. The research focuses on solutions for linear actuators in mobile applications, with emphasis on construction machines. Alongside the aspect of energy efficiency, the thesis deals with competing aspects in hydraulic system design found in the development of construction machines. Simulation models and controls for different concepts are developed, taking the whole machine into account. In line with this work, several proof o...

  6. Power efficiency optimization of disk-loaded waveguide traveling wave structure of electron linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jinghe; Li Jinhai; Li Chunguang

    2014-01-01

    Disk-loaded waveguide traveling wave structure (TWS), which is widely used in scientific research and industry, is a vital accelerating structure in electron linear accelerator. The power efficiency is an important parameter for designing TWS, which greatly effects the expenses for the fabrication and commercial running. The key parameters related with power efficiency were studied for TWS optimization. The result was proved by experiment result, and it shows some help for accelerator engineering. (authors)

  7. Teaching Linear Algebra: Proceeding More Efficiently by Staying Comfortably within Z

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, Scott

    2015-01-01

    For efficiency in a linear algebra course the instructor may wish to avoid the undue arithmetical distractions of rational arithmetic. In this paper we explore how to write fraction-free problems of various types including elimination, matrix inverses, orthogonality, and the (non-normalizing) Gram-Schmidt process.

  8. A linear polarization converter with near unity efficiency in microwave regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Wang, Shen-Yun; Geyi, Wen

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we present a linear polarization converter in the reflective mode with near unity conversion efficiency. The converter is designed in an array form on the basis of a pair of orthogonally arranged three-dimensional split-loop resonators sharing a common terminal coaxial port and a continuous metallic ground slab. It converts the linearly polarized incident electromagnetic wave at resonance to its orthogonal counterpart upon the reflection mode. The conversion mechanism is explained by an equivalent circuit model, and the conversion efficiency can be tuned by changing the impedance of the terminal port. Such a scheme of the linear polarization converter has potential applications in microwave communications, remote sensing, and imaging.

  9. High-efficiency FEL with Bragg resonator driven by linear induction accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginzburg, N S; Kaminskij, A A; Kaminskij, A K; Peskov, N Yu; Sedykh, S N; Sergeev, A P; Sergeev, A S [Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation). Inst. of Applied Physics

    1997-12-31

    A narrow-band high-efficiency FEL-oscillator with a Bragg resonator was constructed based on a linear induction accelerator which formed a 1 MeV, 200 A, 200 ns electron beam. At the frequency of 31 GHz, radiation with a power of 31 MW and efficiency of 25% was measured. A high efficiency and a narrow width of the spectrum were achieved owing to the selective properties of the Bragg resonator in combination with the high quality of the helical electron beam formed in the reversed guide field regime. (author). 3 figs., 3 refs.

  10. Pre-coding method and apparatus for multiple source or time-shifted single source data and corresponding inverse post-decoding method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Pen-Shu (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A pre-coding method and device for improving data compression performance by removing correlation between a first original data set and a second original data set, each having M members, respectively. The pre-coding method produces a compression-efficiency-enhancing double-difference data set. The method and device produce a double-difference data set, i.e., an adjacent-delta calculation performed on a cross-delta data set or a cross-delta calculation performed on two adjacent-delta data sets, from either one of (1) two adjacent spectral bands coming from two discrete sources, respectively, or (2) two time-shifted data sets coming from a single source. The resulting double-difference data set is then coded using either a distortionless data encoding scheme (entropy encoding) or a lossy data compression scheme. Also, a post-decoding method and device for recovering a second original data set having been represented by such a double-difference data set.

  11. A highly efficient targeted recombination system for engineering linear chromosomes of industrial bacteria Streptomyces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hung-Yin; Chen, Carton W; Huang, Chih-Hung

    2018-04-17

    Soil bacteria Streptomyces are the most important producers of secondary metabolites, including most known antibiotics. These bacteria and their close relatives are unique in possessing linear chromosomes, which typically harbor 20 to 30 biosynthetic gene clusters of tens to hundreds of kb in length. Many Streptomyces chromosomes are accompanied by linear plasmids with sizes ranging from several to several hundred kb. The large linear plasmids also often contain biosynthetic gene clusters. We have developed a targeted recombination procedure for arm exchanges between a linear plasmid and a linear chromosome. A chromosomal segment inserted in an artificially constructed plasmid allows homologous recombination between the two replicons at the homology. Depending on the design, the recombination may result in two recombinant replicons or a single recombinant chromosome with the loss of the recombinant plasmid that lacks a replication origin. The efficiency of such targeted recombination ranges from 9 to 83% depending on the locations of the homology (and thus the size of the chromosomal arm exchanged), essentially eliminating the necessity of selection. The targeted recombination is useful for the efficient engineering of the Streptomyces genome for large-scale deletion, addition, and shuffling.

  12. INFLUENCE OF ARMATURE PARAMETERS OF A LINEAR PULSE ELECTROMECHANICAL CONVERTER ON ITS EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Bolyukh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The evaluation of the effect of armature parameters on the efficiency of a linear pulsed electromechanical converter, taking into account the power, speed, constructive and environmental parameters. Methodology. First, the height of the electrically conductive, coil and ferromagnetic armature of a linear pulse electromechanical converter is determined, at which the highest velocity develops. An integral efficiency index is introduced, which takes into account, in a relative way, the power, speed, energy, electrical and field characteristics of the converter. Variants of the efficiency evaluation strategy are used that take into account the priority of each indicator of a linear pulse electromechanical converter using the appropriate weighting factor in the integral efficiency index. Results. A mathematical model of a linear pulsed electromechanical converter is developed. It is established that as the height of the electroconductive, coil and ferromagnetic armature increases, the force pulse increases. The greatest speed develops with the use of a coil armature, and the smallest with an electroconductive armature. In the converter with coil and ferromagnetic armature, practically the same values of the electrodynamic and electromagnetic force pulse are realized, while in the converter the electrodynamic force is 1.52 times smaller in the converter by the electrically conductive armature. It is established that with all efficiency evaluation strategies, the converter with a coil armature is the most effective, even in spite of its constructive complexity, and the converter with a ferromagnetic armature is the least effective, although it is constructively the simplest. Originality. For the first time, using the integral efficiency index, which takes into account the power, speed, energy, electrical and field indices in a relative way, it is established that with all efficiency evaluation strategies, the converter with a coil armature is

  13. An efficient parallel algorithm for the solution of a tridiagonal linear system of equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, H. S.

    1971-01-01

    Tridiagonal linear systems of equations are solved on conventional serial machines in a time proportional to N, where N is the number of equations. The conventional algorithms do not lend themselves directly to parallel computations on computers of the ILLIAC IV class, in the sense that they appear to be inherently serial. An efficient parallel algorithm is presented in which computation time grows as log sub 2 N. The algorithm is based on recursive doubling solutions of linear recurrence relations, and can be used to solve recurrence relations of all orders.

  14. Efficient Non-Linear Finite Element Implementation of Elasto-Plasticity for Geotechnical Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Johan

    -Coulomb yield criterion and the corresponding plastic potential possess corners and an apex, which causes numerical difficulties. A simple, elegant and efficient solution to these problems is presented in this thesis. The solution is based on a transformation into principal stress space and is valid for all...... linear isotropic plasticity models in which corners and apexes are encountered. The validity and merits of the proposed solution are examined in relation to the Mohr-Coulomb and the Modified Mohr-Coulomb material models. It is found that the proposed method compares well with existing methods......-Brown material. The efficiency and validity are demonstrated by comparing the finite-element results with well-known solutions for simple geometries. A common geotechnical problem is the assessment of slope stability. For slopes with simple geometries and consisting of a linear Mohr-Coulomb material, this can...

  15. Improving the energy efficiency of sparse linear system solvers on multicore and manycore systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzt, H; Quintana-Ortí, E S

    2014-06-28

    While most recent breakthroughs in scientific research rely on complex simulations carried out in large-scale supercomputers, the power draft and energy spent for this purpose is increasingly becoming a limiting factor to this trend. In this paper, we provide an overview of the current status in energy-efficient scientific computing by reviewing different technologies used to monitor power draft as well as power- and energy-saving mechanisms available in commodity hardware. For the particular domain of sparse linear algebra, we analyse the energy efficiency of a broad collection of hardware architectures and investigate how algorithmic and implementation modifications can improve the energy performance of sparse linear system solvers, without negatively impacting their performance. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  16. LDPC code decoding adapted to the precoded partial response magnetic recording channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jun; Kim, Kyuyong; Lee, Jaejin; Yang, Gijoo

    2004-01-01

    We propose a signal processing technique using LDPC (low-density parity-check) code instead of PRML (partial response maximum likelihood) system for the longitudinal magnetic recording channel. The scheme is designed by the precoder admitting level detection at the receiver-end and modifying the likelihood function for LDPC code decoding. The scheme can be collaborated with other decoder for turbo-like systems. The proposed algorithm can contribute to improve the performance of the conventional turbo-like systems

  17. Zero-Forcing Pre-coding for MIMO WiMAX Transceivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cattoni, Andrea Fabio; Le Moullec, Yannick; Sacchi, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    with the benefits of space division multiple access. In MU-MIMO systems, the base stations transmit signals to two or more users over the same channel, for this reason every user can experience inter-user interference. This paper provides a capacity analysis of an online, interference-based pre-coding algorithm...... of the analyzed technique in a possible FPGA-based software defined radio....

  18. LDPC code decoding adapted to the precoded partial response magnetic recording channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jun E-mail: leejun28@sait.samsung.co.kr; Kim, Kyuyong; Lee, Jaejin; Yang, Gijoo

    2004-05-01

    We propose a signal processing technique using LDPC (low-density parity-check) code instead of PRML (partial response maximum likelihood) system for the longitudinal magnetic recording channel. The scheme is designed by the precoder admitting level detection at the receiver-end and modifying the likelihood function for LDPC code decoding. The scheme can be collaborated with other decoder for turbo-like systems. The proposed algorithm can contribute to improve the performance of the conventional turbo-like systems.

  19. Radar Precoder Design for Spectral Coexistence with Coordinated Multi-point (CoMP) System

    OpenAIRE

    Mahal, Jasmin A.; Khawar, Awais; Abdelhadi, Ahmed; Clancy, T. Charles

    2015-01-01

    This paper details the design of precoders for a MIMO radar spectrally coexistent with a MIMO cellular network. We focus on a coordinated multi-point (CoMP) system where a cluster of base stations (BSs) coordinate their transmissions to the intended user. The radar operates in two modes, interference-mitigation mode when it avoids interference with the CoMP system and cooperation mode when it exchanges information with it. Using either the conventional Switched Null Space Projection (SNSP) or...

  20. Linear Distributed GaN MMIC Power Amplifier with Improved Power-added Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    QPSK LTE waveform, the ACPR1improved by ~10 dBc at average output power of 23 dBm, without digital pre-distortion. Keywords: GaN, linear amplifiers...wideband amplifier, OIP3, LTE Introduction RF communications with spectral efficiency utilizes complex modulation schemes that require amplifier...wideband amplifiers remain. In this paper, we report on the measured CW performance of a multi-octave (100 MHz ‒ 8 GHz) GaN MMIC NDPA fabricated with

  1. Efficient Market Hypothesis in South Africa: Evidence from Linear and Nonlinear Unit Root Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Phiri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the weak form efficient market hypothesis (EMH for five generalized stock indices in the Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE using weekly data collected from 31st January 2000 to 16th December 2014. In particular, we test for weak form market efficiency using a battery of linear and nonlinear unit root testing procedures comprising of the classical augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF tests, the two-regime threshold autoregressive (TAR unit root tests described in Enders and Granger (1998 as well as the three-regime unit root tests described in Bec, Salem, and Carrasco (2004. Based on our empirical analysis, we are able to demonstrate that whilst the linear unit root tests advocate for unit roots within the time series, the nonlinear unit root tests suggest that most stock indices are threshold stationary processes. These results bridge two opposing contentions obtained from previous studies by concluding that under a linear framework the JSE stock indices offer support in favour of weak form market efficiency whereas when nonlinearity is accounted for, a majority of the indices violate the weak form EMH.

  2. Precoding Design and Power Allocation in Two-User MU-MIMO Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haole Chen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the precoding design and power allocation problem for multi-user multiple-input multiple-output (MU-MIMO wireless ad hoc networks. In the first timeslot, the source node (SN transmits energy and information to a relay node (RN simultaneously within the simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT framework. Then, in the second timeslot, based on the decoder and the forwarding (DF protocol, after reassembling the received signal and its own signal, the RN forwards the information to the main user (U1 and simultaneously sends its own information to the secondary user (U2. In this paper, when the transmission rate of the U1 is restricted, the precoding, beamforming, and power splitting (PS transmission ratio are jointly considered to maximize the transmission rate of U2. To maximize the system rate, we design an optimal beamforming matrix and solve the optimization problem by semi-definite relaxation (SDR, considering the high complexity of implementing the optimal solution. Two sub-optimal precoding programs are also discussed: singular value decomposition and block diagonalization. Finally, the performance of the optimization and sub-optimization schemes are compared using a simulation.

  3. Time and Memory Efficient Online Piecewise Linear Approximation of Sensor Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grützmacher, Florian; Beichler, Benjamin; Hein, Albert; Kirste, Thomas; Haubelt, Christian

    2018-05-23

    Piecewise linear approximation of sensor signals is a well-known technique in the fields of Data Mining and Activity Recognition. In this context, several algorithms have been developed, some of them with the purpose to be performed on resource constrained microcontroller architectures of wireless sensor nodes. While microcontrollers are usually constrained in computational power and memory resources, all state-of-the-art piecewise linear approximation techniques either need to buffer sensor data or have an execution time depending on the segment’s length. In the paper at hand, we propose a novel piecewise linear approximation algorithm, with a constant computational complexity as well as a constant memory complexity. Our proposed algorithm’s worst-case execution time is one to three orders of magnitude smaller and its average execution time is three to seventy times smaller compared to the state-of-the-art Piecewise Linear Approximation (PLA) algorithms in our experiments. In our evaluations, we show that our algorithm is time and memory efficient without sacrificing the approximation quality compared to other state-of-the-art piecewise linear approximation techniques, while providing a maximum error guarantee per segment, a small parameter space of only one parameter, and a maximum latency of one sample period plus its worst-case execution time.

  4. Using the fuzzy linear regression method to benchmark the energy efficiency of commercial buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, William

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Fuzzy linear regression method is used for developing benchmarking systems. ► The systems can be used to benchmark energy efficiency of commercial buildings. ► The resulting benchmarking model can be used by public users. ► The resulting benchmarking model can capture the fuzzy nature of input–output data. -- Abstract: Benchmarking systems from a sample of reference buildings need to be developed to conduct benchmarking processes for the energy efficiency of commercial buildings. However, not all benchmarking systems can be adopted by public users (i.e., other non-reference building owners) because of the different methods in developing such systems. An approach for benchmarking the energy efficiency of commercial buildings using statistical regression analysis to normalize other factors, such as management performance, was developed in a previous work. However, the field data given by experts can be regarded as a distribution of possibility. Thus, the previous work may not be adequate to handle such fuzzy input–output data. Consequently, a number of fuzzy structures cannot be fully captured by statistical regression analysis. This present paper proposes the use of fuzzy linear regression analysis to develop a benchmarking process, the resulting model of which can be used by public users. An illustrative example is given as well.

  5. Improving throughput of single-relay DF channel using linear constellation precoding

    KAUST Repository

    Fareed, Muhammad Mehboob

    2014-08-01

    In this letter, we propose a transmission scheme to improve the overall throughput of a cooperative communication system with single decode-and-forward relay. Symbol error rate and throughput analysis of the new scheme are presented to facilitate the performance comparison with the existing decode-and-forward relaying schemes. Simulation results are further provided to corroborate the analytical results. © 2012 IEEE.

  6. Sum Rate Maximization using Linear Precoding and Decoding in the Multiuser MIMO Downlink

    OpenAIRE

    Tenenbaum, Adam J.; Adve, Raviraj S.

    2008-01-01

    We propose an algorithm to maximize the instantaneous sum data rate transmitted by a base station in the downlink of a multiuser multiple-input, multiple-output system. The transmitter and the receivers may each be equipped with multiple antennas and each user may receive more than one data stream. We show that maximizing the sum rate is closely linked to minimizing the product of mean squared errors (PMSE). The algorithm employs an uplink/downlink duality to iteratively design transmit-recei...

  7. Improving throughput of single-relay DF channel using linear constellation precoding

    KAUST Repository

    Fareed, Muhammad Mehboob; Yang, Hongchuan; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    In this letter, we propose a transmission scheme to improve the overall throughput of a cooperative communication system with single decode-and-forward relay. Symbol error rate and throughput analysis of the new scheme are presented to facilitate the performance comparison with the existing decode-and-forward relaying schemes. Simulation results are further provided to corroborate the analytical results. © 2012 IEEE.

  8. Efficient reconfigurable hardware architecture for accurately computing success probability and data complexity of linear attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogdanov, Andrey; Kavun, Elif Bilge; Tischhauser, Elmar

    2012-01-01

    An accurate estimation of the success probability and data complexity of linear cryptanalysis is a fundamental question in symmetric cryptography. In this paper, we propose an efficient reconfigurable hardware architecture to compute the success probability and data complexity of Matsui's Algorithm...... block lengths ensures that any empirical observations are not due to differences in statistical behavior for artificially small block lengths. Rather surprisingly, we observed in previous experiments a significant deviation between the theory and practice for Matsui's Algorithm 2 for larger block sizes...

  9. Efficient Estimation of Non-Linear Dynamic Panel Data Models with Application to Smooth Transition Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørgens, Tue; Skeels, Christopher L.; Wurtz, Allan

    This paper explores estimation of a class of non-linear dynamic panel data models with additive unobserved individual-specific effects. The models are specified by moment restrictions. The class includes the panel data AR(p) model and panel smooth transition models. We derive an efficient set...... of moment restrictions for estimation and apply the results to estimation of panel smooth transition models with fixed effects, where the transition may be determined endogenously. The performance of the GMM estimator, both in terms of estimation precision and forecasting performance, is examined in a Monte...

  10. Robust fault detection of linear systems using a computationally efficient set-membership method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabatabaeipour, Mojtaba; Bak, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a computationally efficient set-membership method for robust fault detection of linear systems is proposed. The method computes an interval outer-approximation of the output of the system that is consistent with the model, the bounds on noise and disturbance, and the past measureme...... is trivially parallelizable. The method is demonstrated for fault detection of a hydraulic pitch actuator of a wind turbine. We show the effectiveness of the proposed method by comparing our results with two zonotope-based set-membership methods....

  11. Performance of Linear and Nonlinear Two-Leaf Light Use Efficiency Models at Different Temporal Scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xiaocui; Ju, Weimin; Zhou, Yanlian

    2015-01-01

    The reliable simulation of gross primary productivity (GPP) at various spatial and temporal scales is of significance to quantifying the net exchange of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. This study aimed to verify the ability of a nonlinear two-leaf model (TL-LUEn), a linear...... two-leaf model (TL-LUE), and a big-leaf light use efficiency model (MOD17) to simulate GPP at half-hourly, daily and 8-day scales using GPP derived from 58 eddy-covariance flux sites in Asia, Europe and North America as benchmarks. Model evaluation showed that the overall performance of TL...

  12. High efficiency, low frequency linear compressor proposed for Gifford-McMahon and pulse tube cryocoolers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Höhne, Jens [Pressure Wave Systems GmbH, Häberlstr. 8, 80337 Munich (Germany)

    2014-01-29

    In order to reduce the amount of greenhouse gas emissions, which are most likely the cause of substantial global warming, a reduction of overall energy consumption is crucial. Low frequency Gifford-McMahon and pulse tube cryocoolers are usually powered by a scroll compressor together with a rotary valve. It has been theoretically shown that the efficiency losses within the rotary valve can be close to 50%{sup 1}. In order to eliminate these losses we propose to use a low frequency linear compressor, which directly generates the pressure wave without using a rotary valve. First results of this development will be presented.

  13. Profiling high performance dense linear algebra algorithms on multicore architectures for power and energy efficiency

    KAUST Repository

    Ltaief, Hatem

    2011-08-31

    This paper presents the power profile of two high performance dense linear algebra libraries i.e., LAPACK and PLASMA. The former is based on block algorithms that use the fork-join paradigm to achieve parallel performance. The latter uses fine-grained task parallelism that recasts the computation to operate on submatrices called tiles. In this way tile algorithms are formed. We show results from the power profiling of the most common routines, which permits us to clearly identify the different phases of the computations. This allows us to isolate the bottlenecks in terms of energy efficiency. Our results show that PLASMA surpasses LAPACK not only in terms of performance but also in terms of energy efficiency. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  14. Removal Efficiency of Linear Alkyl Benzene Sulfonate (LAS in Yazd Stabilization Pond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Ebrahimi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Surfactants are organic chemicals with wide applications as detergents. Linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS is an anionic surfactant most commonly used. Discharge of raw or treated wastewater containing this chemical into the environment causes major public health problems. In this study, 64 samples were taken from the effluent of Yazd Wastewater  Treatment Plant over a period of one year. The samples were analyzed according to standard methods. The results obtained from the samples taken in different seasons showed that the highest efficiency of anionic surfactant removal was achieved in the summer in the secondary facultative stabilization pond. The least efficiency was observed in the autumn in samples from the anaerobic stabilization pond. It was also found that treated wastewater discharged into surface waters, reused for agricultural irrigation, or discharged into absorbent wells had significant differences with Pvalue

  15. Efficient block preconditioned eigensolvers for linear response time-dependent density functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vecharynski, Eugene [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Computational Research Division; Brabec, Jiri [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Computational Research Division; Shao, Meiyue [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Computational Research Division; Govind, Niranjan [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Environmental Molecular Sciences Lab.; Yang, Chao [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Computational Research Division

    2017-12-01

    We present two efficient iterative algorithms for solving the linear response eigen- value problem arising from the time dependent density functional theory. Although the matrix to be diagonalized is nonsymmetric, it has a special structure that can be exploited to save both memory and floating point operations. In particular, the nonsymmetric eigenvalue problem can be transformed into a product eigenvalue problem that is self-adjoint with respect to a K-inner product. This product eigenvalue problem can be solved efficiently by a modified Davidson algorithm and a modified locally optimal block preconditioned conjugate gradient (LOBPCG) algorithm that make use of the K-inner product. The solution of the product eigenvalue problem yields one component of the eigenvector associated with the original eigenvalue problem. However, the other component of the eigenvector can be easily recovered in a postprocessing procedure. Therefore, the algorithms we present here are more efficient than existing algorithms that try to approximate both components of the eigenvectors simultaneously. The efficiency of the new algorithms is demonstrated by numerical examples.

  16. Non-linear effects and thermoelectric efficiency of quantum dot-based single-electron transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbo, Vincent; Saint-Martin, Jérôme; Retailleau, Sylvie; Dollfus, Philippe

    2017-11-01

    By means of advanced numerical simulation, the thermoelectric properties of a Si-quantum dot-based single-electron transistor operating in sequential tunneling regime are investigated in terms of figure of merit, efficiency and power. By taking into account the phonon-induced collisional broadening of energy levels in the quantum dot, both heat and electrical currents are computed in a voltage range beyond the linear response. Using our homemade code consisting in a 3D Poisson-Schrödinger solver and the resolution of the Master equation, the Seebeck coefficient at low bias voltage appears to be material independent and nearly independent on the level broadening, which makes this device promising for metrology applications as a nanoscale standard of Seebeck coefficient. Besides, at higher voltage bias, the non-linear characteristics of the heat current are shown to be related to the multi-level effects. Finally, when considering only the electronic contribution to the thermal conductance, the single-electron transistor operating in generator regime is shown to exhibit very good efficiency at maximum power.

  17. Accurate and Efficient Parallel Implementation of an Effective Linear-Scaling Direct Random Phase Approximation Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Daniel; Beuerle, Matthias; Schurkus, Henry F; Luenser, Arne; Savasci, Gökcen; Ochsenfeld, Christian

    2018-05-08

    An efficient algorithm for calculating the random phase approximation (RPA) correlation energy is presented that is as accurate as the canonical molecular orbital resolution-of-the-identity RPA (RI-RPA) with the important advantage of an effective linear-scaling behavior (instead of quartic) for large systems due to a formulation in the local atomic orbital space. The high accuracy is achieved by utilizing optimized minimax integration schemes and the local Coulomb metric attenuated by the complementary error function for the RI approximation. The memory bottleneck of former atomic orbital (AO)-RI-RPA implementations ( Schurkus, H. F.; Ochsenfeld, C. J. Chem. Phys. 2016 , 144 , 031101 and Luenser, A.; Schurkus, H. F.; Ochsenfeld, C. J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2017 , 13 , 1647 - 1655 ) is addressed by precontraction of the large 3-center integral matrix with the Cholesky factors of the ground state density reducing the memory requirements of that matrix by a factor of [Formula: see text]. Furthermore, we present a parallel implementation of our method, which not only leads to faster RPA correlation energy calculations but also to a scalable decrease in memory requirements, opening the door for investigations of large molecules even on small- to medium-sized computing clusters. Although it is known that AO methods are highly efficient for extended systems, where sparsity allows for reaching the linear-scaling regime, we show that our work also extends the applicability when considering highly delocalized systems for which no linear scaling can be achieved. As an example, the interlayer distance of two covalent organic framework pore fragments (comprising 384 atoms in total) is analyzed.

  18. Layered Downlink Precoding for C-RAN Systems with Full Dimensional MIMO

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Jinkyu; Simeone, Osvaldo; Kang, Joonhyuk; Shamai, Shlomo

    2015-01-01

    The implementation of a Cloud Radio Access Network (C-RAN) with Full Dimensional (FD)-MIMO is faced with the challenge of controlling the fronthaul overhead for the transmission of baseband signals as the number of horizontal and vertical antennas grows larger. This work proposes to leverage the special low-rank structure of FD-MIMO channel, which is characterized by a time-invariant elevation component and a time-varying azimuth component, by means of a layered precoding approach, so as to r...

  19. On the Impact of Precoding Errors on Ultra-Reliable Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerardino, Guillermo Andrés Pocovi; Pedersen, Klaus I.; Alvarez, Beatriz Soret

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the stringent reliability required by some of the future cellular use cases, we study the impact of precoding errors on the SINR outage performance for various spatial diversity techniques. The performance evaluation is carried out via system-level simulations, including the effects...... of multi-user and multicell interference, and following the 3GPP-defined simulation assumptions for a traditional macro case. It is shown that, except for feedback error probabilities larger than 1%, closed-loop microscopic diversity schemes are generally preferred over open-loop techniques as a way...

  20. Efficient semiparametric estimation in generalized partially linear additive models for longitudinal/clustered data

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Guang

    2014-02-01

    We consider efficient estimation of the Euclidean parameters in a generalized partially linear additive models for longitudinal/clustered data when multiple covariates need to be modeled nonparametrically, and propose an estimation procedure based on a spline approximation of the nonparametric part of the model and the generalized estimating equations (GEE). Although the model in consideration is natural and useful in many practical applications, the literature on this model is very limited because of challenges in dealing with dependent data for nonparametric additive models. We show that the proposed estimators are consistent and asymptotically normal even if the covariance structure is misspecified. An explicit consistent estimate of the asymptotic variance is also provided. Moreover, we derive the semiparametric efficiency score and information bound under general moment conditions. By showing that our estimators achieve the semiparametric information bound, we effectively establish their efficiency in a stronger sense than what is typically considered for GEE. The derivation of our asymptotic results relies heavily on the empirical processes tools that we develop for the longitudinal/clustered data. Numerical results are used to illustrate the finite sample performance of the proposed estimators. © 2014 ISI/BS.

  1. Allocation Fairness for MIMO Precoded UTRA-LTE TDD System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yuanye; Rahman, Muhammad Imadur; Das, Suvra

    2008-01-01

    In future Time Division Duplex (TDD)-based broadband wireless systems, it will be possible to exploit the channel reciprocity to implement Channel State Information (CSI)-based Multi User Multiple Input Multiple Output (MU-MIMO) techniques, which will ensure highly efficient spectrum usage...

  2. EFFICIENCY OF LINEAR PULSE ELECTROMECHANICAL CONVERTERS DESIGNED TO CREATE IMPACT LOADS AND HIGH SPEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.F. Bolyukh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Considered linear impulse electromechanical converters (LIEC are used to create a significant impact and high-acceleration actuators on a short active site. The most effective types of LIEC are induction-dynamic (IDC, electro-dynamic (EDC and electro-magnetic (EMC converters. In all these types of short-term excitement LIEC carried briefly of the inductor from a pulsed source. This occurs when the magnetic field of the inductor causes the electro-dynamic or electromagnetic forces, leading to a linear movement of the armature. However, the issue at evaluating the effects of IDC, EDC and EMC, for creating a shock simultaneously with high speed to the specified criteria in the presence of ferromagnetic core virtually unexplored. The paper presents the simulated computer-WIDE 2D model of LIEC of coaxial configuration with ferromagnetic core by using software package COMSOL Multiphysics 4.4, taking into account the related electro-magnetic, thermal, and magnetic fields. In addition a synthesis of high-performance IDC, EDC and EMC to ensure maximum impact and speed of the operating element, whereby the comparative analysis of the effectiveness of the IDC, EDC and EMC via an integral index, taking into account the maximum value and momentum of electro-dynamic or electromagnetic force acting on the armature, maximum and average speed armature, efficiency, mass and dimensions performance transducer stray field, the maximum current density in the inductor is carried out. On the basis of the eight selection policies set the most efficient types of power and speed LIEC. It is shown that any one of the strategies IDC selection is not the best. To ensure maximum impact force is the most effective EMC and to ensure the greatest speed – EDC.

  3. Statistical analysis of operating efficiency and failures of a medical linear accelerator for ten years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Sang Gyu; Huh, Seung Jae; Han, Young Yih

    2005-01-01

    To improve the management of a medical linear accelerator, the records of operational failures of a Varian CL2100C over a ten year period were retrospectively analyzed. The failures were classified according to the involved functional subunits, with each class rated into one of three levels depending on the operational conditions. The relationships between the failure rate and working ratio and between the failure rate and outside temperature were investigated. In addition, the average life time of the main part and the operating efficiency over the last 4 years were analyzed. Among the recorded failures (total 587 failures), the most frequent failure was observed in the parts related with the collimation system, including the monitor chamber, which accounted for 20% of all failures. With regard to the operational conditions, 2nd level of failures, which temporally interrupted treatments, were the most frequent. Third level of failures, which interrupted treatment for more than several hours, were mostly caused by the accelerating subunit. The number of failures was increased with number of treatments and operating time. The average life-times of the Klystron and Thyratron became shorter as the working ratio increased, and were 42 and 83% of the expected values, respectively. The operating efficiency was maintained at 95% or higher, but this value slightly decreased. There was no significant correlation between the number of failures and the outside temperature. The maintenance of detailed equipment problems and failures records over a long period of time can provide good knowledge of equipment function as well as the capability of predicting future failure. More rigorous equipment maintenance is required for old medical linear accelerators for the advanced avoidance of serious failure and to improve the quality of patient treatment

  4. Secured Communication over Frequency-Selective Fading Channels: A Practical Vandermonde Precoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Kobayashi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the frequency-selective broadcast channel with confidential messages (BCC where the transmitter sends a confidential message to receiver 1 and a common message to receivers 1 and 2. In the case of a block transmission of N symbols followed by a guard interval of L symbols, the frequency-selective channel can be modeled as a N×(N+L Toeplitz matrix. For this special type of multiple-input multiple-output channels, we propose a practical Vandermonde precoding that projects the confidential messages in the null space of the channel seen by receiver 2 while superposing the common message. For this scheme, we provide the achievable rate region and characterize the optimal covariance for some special cases of interest. Interestingly, the proposed scheme can be applied to other multiuser scenarios such as the K+1-user frequency-selective BCC with K confidential messages and the two-user frequency-selective BCC with two confidential messages. For each scenario, we provide the secrecy degree of freedom (s.d.o.f. region of the corresponding channel and prove the optimality of the Vandermonde precoding. One of the appealing features of the proposed scheme is that it does not require any specific secrecy encoding technique but can be applied on top of any existing powerful encoding schemes.

  5. Secured Communication over Frequency-Selective Fading Channels: A Practical Vandermonde Precoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbah Mérouane

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the frequency-selective broadcast channel with confidential messages (BCC where the transmitter sends a confidential message to receiver 1 and a common message to receivers 1 and 2. In the case of a block transmission of symbols followed by a guard interval of symbols, the frequency-selective channel can be modeled as a Toeplitz matrix. For this special type of multiple-input multiple-output channels, we propose a practical Vandermonde precoding that projects the confidential messages in the null space of the channel seen by receiver 2 while superposing the common message. For this scheme, we provide the achievable rate region and characterize the optimal covariance for some special cases of interest. Interestingly, the proposed scheme can be applied to other multiuser scenarios such as the -user frequency-selective BCC with confidential messages and the two-user frequency-selective BCC with two confidential messages. For each scenario, we provide the secrecy degree of freedom (s.d.o.f. region of the corresponding channel and prove the optimality of the Vandermonde precoding. One of the appealing features of the proposed scheme is that it does not require any specific secrecy encoding technique but can be applied on top of any existing powerful encoding schemes.

  6. An efficient linear approach in the reservoirs operation for electric power generation; Uma eficiente abordagem linear na operacao de reservatorios para geracao de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zambon, Katia Livia

    1997-07-01

    A new approach for the Scheduling of Hydrothermal Systems, with a formulation that allows the solution of the problem through the linear programming techniques, otherwise the original form, which is complex and difficult is presented. The models were developed through a linear form for the generation function of hydroelectric plants, successive of the linearization of the cost function of the problem. The linear techniques used were the Simplex Method, with some modification that is is efficient, fast and simple. The important physical aspects of the system were preserved, like the individual representation of the hydroelectric plant, the features of cost function with the exponential increase and the head effect. Besides, this formulation can lead to stochastic approaches. All the optimization methods were implemented for the solution of the problem. The performance obtained were compared with each other and with that obtained through the non linear techniques. The algorithms showed to be efficient, with good results and very near to the optimal behavior of the reservoir operation planning obtained by traditional methods. (author)

  7. Effect of linear temperature dependence of thermoelectric properties on energy conversion efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Osamu

    2008-01-01

    New thermal rate equations were developed by taking the temperature dependences of the electrical resistivity ρ and thermal conductivity κ of the thermoelectric (TE) materials into the thermal rate equations on the assumption that they vary linearly with temperature T. The relative energy conversion efficiency η/η 0 for a single TE element was formulated by approximate analysis, where η and η 0 are the energy conversion efficiencies derived from the new and conventional thermal rate equations, respectively. Applying it to Si-Ge alloys, the temperature dependence of ρ is stronger than that of κ, so the former has a more significant effect on η/η 0 than the latter. However, the degree of contribution from both of them to η/η 0 was a little lower than 1% at the temperature difference ΔT of 600 K. When the temperature dependence of κ was increased to become equal to that of ρ, however, it was found that η/η 0 is increased by about 10% at ΔT = 600 K. It is clarified here that the temperature dependences of ρ and κ are also important factors for an improvement in η

  8. Efficient Brownian Dynamics of rigid colloids in linear flow fields based on the grand mobility matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanisamy, Duraivelan; den Otter, Wouter K.

    2018-05-01

    We present an efficient general method to simulate in the Stokesian limit the coupled translational and rotational dynamics of arbitrarily shaped colloids subject to external potential forces and torques, linear flow fields, and Brownian motion. The colloid's surface is represented by a collection of spherical primary particles. The hydrodynamic interactions between these particles, here approximated at the Rotne-Prager-Yamakawa level, are evaluated only once to generate the body's (11 × 11) grand mobility matrix. The constancy of this matrix in the body frame, combined with the convenient properties of quaternions in rotational Brownian Dynamics, enables an efficient simulation of the body's motion. Simulations in quiescent fluids yield correct translational and rotational diffusion behaviour and sample Boltzmann's equilibrium distribution. Simulations of ellipsoids and spherical caps under shear, in the absence of thermal fluctuations, yield periodic orbits in excellent agreement with the theories by Jeffery and Dorrepaal. The time-varying stress tensors provide the Einstein coefficient and viscosity of dilute suspensions of these bodies.

  9. Survey on efficient linear solvers for porous media flow models on recent hardware architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anciaux-Sedrakian, Ani; Gratien, Jean-Marc; Guignon, Thomas; Gottschling, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In the past few years, High Performance Computing (HPC) technologies led to General Purpose Processing on Graphics Processing Units (GPGPU) and many-core architectures. These emerging technologies offer massive processing units and are interesting for porous media flow simulators may used for CO 2 geological sequestration or Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) simulation. However the crucial point is 'are current algorithms and software able to use these new technologies efficiently?' The resolution of large sparse linear systems, almost ill-conditioned, constitutes the most CPU-consuming part of such simulators. This paper proposes a survey on various solver and pre-conditioner algorithms, analyzes their efficiency and performance regarding these distinct architectures. Furthermore it proposes a novel approach based on a hybrid programming model for both GPU and many-core clusters. The proposed optimization techniques are validated through a Krylov subspace solver; BiCGStab and some pre-conditioners like ILU0 on GPU, multi-core and many-core architectures, on various large real study cases in EOR simulation. (authors)

  10. Characterization of sliders for efficient force generation of electrostatically controlled linear actuator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, T A; Konishi, S

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the characterization of sliders for efficient force generation of an electrostatically controlled linear actuator (ECLIA) is investigated. The ECLIA consists of a piezoactuator (PZT), driving and holding electrodes, multiple sliders and a guide structure. The stepping motion of the sliders is driven by the PZT actuator via an electrostatic clutch mechanism. Thus, multiple sliders can achieve parallel, independent, precise motion, and a large stroke. Previous studies have indicated that the Si bulk slider and Si electrode created an air gap owing to the deformation of the Si electrode. Thus, the Si slider generated a low pushing force. In this study, we propose a fishbone structure mounted on a flexible slider to enhance the pushing force of the slider. The flexible slider, that can deform and fit into the Si electrode to reduce the air gap, results in highly efficient electrostatic-force generation. The fishbone structure improves the longitudinal stiffness of the flexible slider for high pushing-force generation. The results show that the pushing force created by the fishbone slider was three times greater than that of the conventional Si slider. The fishbone and flexible sliders exhibited a high performance for the ECLIA. (paper)

  11. Efficient Linear and Non-Linear Finite Element Formulation using a New Local Enhancement of Displacement Fields for Triangular Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkilde, Lars; Pedersen, Ronnie

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a new triangular plane element which can be considered as a linear strain triangular element (LST) extended with incompatible displacement modes. The extended element will have a full cubic interpolation of strains and stresses. The extended LST-element is connected with other...... elements similar to the LST-element i.e. through three corner nodes and three mid-side nodes. The incompatible modes are associated with two displacement gradients at each mid-side node and displacements in the central node. The element passes the patch test and converges to the exact solution. The element...... often show a very slow convergence, and the numerical solutions will in general overestimate the bearing capacity and underestimate the displacements. The examples show that the extended incompatible element behaves much better than the corresponding compatible elements especially for coarse meshes....

  12. Performance Improvement of Space Shift Keying MIMO Systems with Orthogonal Codebook-Based Phase-Rotation Precoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al-Ansi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers codebook-based precoding for Space Shift Keying (SSK modulation MIMO system. Codebook-based precoding avoids the necessity for full knowledge of Channel State Information (CSI at the transmitter and alleviates the complexity of generating a CSI-optimized precoder. The receiver selects the codeword that maximizes the Minimum Euclidean Distance (MED of the received constellation and feeds back its index to the transmitter. In this paper, we first develop a new accurate closed-form Bit Error Rate (BER for SSK without precoding. Then, we investigate several phase-rotation codebooks with quantized set of phases and systematic structure. Namely, we investigate the Full-Combination, Walsh-Hadamard, Quasi-Orthogonal Sequences, and Orthogonal Array Testing codebooks. In addition, since the size of the Full-Combination codebook may be large, we develop an iterative search method for fast selection of its best codeword. The proposed codebooks significantly improve the BER performance in Rayleigh and Nakagami fading channels, even at high spatial correlation among transmit antennas and CSI estimation error. Moreover, we show that only four phases {+1,+j,-1,-j} are sufficient and further phase granularity does yield significant gain. This avoids hardware multiplication during searching the codebook and applying the codeword.

  13. Using a 2D detector array for meaningful and efficient linear accelerator beam property validations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Timothy A; Gallagher, Ian; Roberson, Peter L

    2014-11-08

    Following linear accelerator commissioning, the qualified medical physicist is responsible for monitoring the machine's ongoing performance, detecting and investigating any changes in beam properties, and assessing the impact of unscheduled repairs. In support of these responsibilities, the authors developed a method of using a 2D ionization chamber array to efficiently test and validate important linear accelerator photon beam properties. A team of three physicists identified critical properties of the accelerator and developed constancy tests that were sensitive to each of the properties. The result was a 14-field test plan. The test plan includes large and small fields at varying depths, a reduced SSD field at shallow depth for sensitivity to extra focal photon and electron components, and analysis of flatness, symmetry, dose, dose profiles, and dose ratios. Constancy tests were repeated five times over a period of six weeks and used to set upper and lower investigation levels at ± 3 SDs. Deliberate variations in output, penumbra, and energy were tested to determine the suitability of the proposed method. Measurements were also performed on a similar, but distinct, machine to assess test sensitivity. The results demonstrated upper and lower investigation levels significantly smaller than the comparable TG-142 annual recommendations, with the exception of the surrogate used for output calibration, which still fell within the TG-142 monthly recommendation. Subtle changes in output, beam energy, and penumbra were swiftly identified for further investigation. The test set identified the distinct nature of the second accelerator. The beam properties of two photon energies can be validated in approximately 1.5 hrs using this method. The test suite can be used to evaluate the impact of minor repairs, detect changes in machine performance over time, and supplement other machine quality assurance testing.

  14. Efficient coding schemes with power allocation using space-time-frequency spreading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Haining; Luo Hanwen; Tian Jifeng; Song Wentao; Liu Xingzhao

    2006-01-01

    An efficient space-time-frequency (STF) coding strategy for multi-input multi-output orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) systems is presented for high bit rate data transmission over frequency selective fading channels. The proposed scheme is a new approach to space-time-frequency coded OFDM (COFDM) that combines OFDM with space-time coding, linear precoding and adaptive power allocation to provide higher quality of transmission in terms of the bit error rate performance and power efficiency. In addition to exploiting the maximum diversity gain in frequency, time and space, the proposed scheme enjoys high coding advantages and low-complexity decoding. The significant performance improvement of our design is confirmed by corroborating numerical simulations.

  15. Efficient linear criterion for witnessing Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen nonlocality under many-setting local measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yu-Lin; Zhen, Yi-Zheng; Chen, Zeng-Bing; Liu, Nai-Le; Chen, Kai; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2017-01-01

    The striking and distinctive nonlocal features of quantum mechanics were discovered by Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen (EPR) beyond classical physics. At the core of the EPR argument, it was "steering" that Schrödinger proposed in 1935. Besides its fundamental significance, quantum steering opens up a novel application for quantum communication. Recent work has precisely characterized its properties; however, witnessing the EPR nonlocality remains a big challenge under arbitrary local measurements. Here we present an alternative linear criterion and complement existing results to efficiently testify steering for high-dimensional system in practice. By developing a novel and analytical method to tackle the maximization problem in deriving the bound of a steering criterion, we show how observed correlations can reveal powerfully the EPR nonlocality in an easily accessed manner. Although the criteria is not necessary and sufficient, it can recover some of the known results under a few settings of local measurements and is applicable even if the size of the system or the number of measurement settings are high. Remarkably, a deep connection is explicitly established between the steering and amount of entanglement. The results promise viable paths for secure communication with an untrusted source, providing optional loophole-free tests of the EPR nonlocality for high-dimensional states, as well as motivating solutions for other related problems in quantum information theory.

  16. Efficient method for time-domain simulation of the linear feedback systems containing fractional order controllers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrikh-Bayat, Farshad

    2011-04-01

    One main approach for time-domain simulation of the linear output-feedback systems containing fractional-order controllers is to approximate the transfer function of the controller with an integer-order transfer function and then perform the simulation. In general, this approach suffers from two main disadvantages: first, the internal stability of the resulting feedback system is not guaranteed, and second, the amount of error caused by this approximation is not exactly known. The aim of this paper is to propose an efficient method for time-domain simulation of such systems without facing the above mentioned drawbacks. For this purpose, the fractional-order controller is approximated with an integer-order transfer function (possibly in combination with the delay term) such that the internal stability of the closed-loop system is guaranteed, and then the simulation is performed. It is also shown that the resulting approximate controller can effectively be realized by using the proposed method. Some formulas for estimating and correcting the simulation error, when the feedback system under consideration is subjected to the unit step command or the unit step disturbance, are also presented. Finally, three numerical examples are studied and the results are compared with the Oustaloup continuous approximation method. Copyright © 2011 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Relations between the efficiency, power and dissipation for linear irreversible heat engine at maximum trade-off figure of merit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyyappan, I.; Ponmurugan, M.

    2018-03-01

    A trade of figure of merit (\\dotΩ ) criterion accounts the best compromise between the useful input energy and the lost input energy of the heat devices. When the heat engine is working at maximum \\dotΩ criterion its efficiency increases significantly from the efficiency at maximum power. We derive the general relations between the power, efficiency at maximum \\dotΩ criterion and minimum dissipation for the linear irreversible heat engine. The efficiency at maximum \\dotΩ criterion has the lower bound \

  18. Efficient Estimation of Extreme Non-linear Roll Motions using the First-order Reliability Method (FORM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2007-01-01

    In on-board decision support systems efficient procedures are needed for real-time estimation of the maximum ship responses to be expected within the next few hours, given on-line information on the sea state and user defined ranges of possible headings and speeds. For linear responses standard...... frequency domain methods can be applied. To non-linear responses like the roll motion, standard methods like direct time domain simulations are not feasible due to the required computational time. However, the statistical distribution of non-linear ship responses can be estimated very accurately using...... the first-order reliability method (FORM), well-known from structural reliability problems. To illustrate the proposed procedure, the roll motion is modelled by a simplified non-linear procedure taking into account non-linear hydrodynamic damping, time-varying restoring and wave excitation moments...

  19. PERFORMANCE OF THE ZERO FORCING PRECODING MIMO BROADCAST SYSTEMS WITH CHANNEL ESTIMATION ERRORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jing; Liu Zhanli; Wang Yan; You Xiaohu

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of channel estimation errors upon the Zero Forcing (ZF) precoding Multiple Input Multiple Output Broadcast (MIMO BC) systems was studied. Based on the two kinds of Gaussian estimation error models, the performance analysis is conducted under different power allocation strategies. Analysis and simulation show that if the covariance of channel estimation errors is independent of the received Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR), imperfect channel knowledge deteriorates the sum capacity and the Bit Error Rate (BER) performance severely. However, under the situation of orthogonal training and the Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE) channel estimation, the sum capacity and BER performance are consistent with those of the perfect Channel State Information (CSI)with only a performance degradation.

  20. Efficient solution of the non-linear Reynolds equation for compressible fluid using the finite element method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jon Steffen; Santos, Ilmar

    2015-01-01

    An efficient finite element scheme for solving the non-linear Reynolds equation for compressible fluid coupled to compliant structures is presented. The method is general and fast and can be used in the analysis of airfoil bearings with simplified or complex foil structure models. To illustrate...

  1. Characteristics and Sampling Efficiency of Eight-Unit Linear Slot Impactor (EULSI)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kesavan, Jana S

    2006-01-01

    ...%, respectively. The l-mum PSL and Bg particles yielded a sampling efficiency of 2l% + 3 and 17% + 12 respectively. The standard deviation for the measured sampling efficiency of the Bg particles was higher...

  2. Performance of Linear and Nonlinear Two-Leaf Light Use Efficiency Models at Different Temporal Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaocui Wu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The reliable simulation of gross primary productivity (GPP at various spatial and temporal scales is of significance to quantifying the net exchange of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. This study aimed to verify the ability of a nonlinear two-leaf model (TL-LUEn, a linear two-leaf model (TL-LUE, and a big-leaf light use efficiency model (MOD17 to simulate GPP at half-hourly, daily and 8-day scales using GPP derived from 58 eddy-covariance flux sites in Asia, Europe and North America as benchmarks. Model evaluation showed that the overall performance of TL-LUEn was slightly but not significantly better than TL-LUE at half-hourly and daily scale, while the overall performance of both TL-LUEn and TL-LUE were significantly better (p < 0.0001 than MOD17 at the two temporal scales. The improvement of TL-LUEn over TL-LUE was relatively small in comparison with the improvement of TL-LUE over MOD17. However, the differences between TL-LUEn and MOD17, and TL-LUE and MOD17 became less distinct at the 8-day scale. As for different vegetation types, TL-LUEn and TL-LUE performed better than MOD17 for all vegetation types except crops at the half-hourly scale. At the daily and 8-day scales, both TL-LUEn and TL-LUE outperformed MOD17 for forests. However, TL-LUEn had a mixed performance for the three non-forest types while TL-LUE outperformed MOD17 slightly for all these non-forest types at daily and 8-day scales. The better performance of TL-LUEn and TL-LUE for forests was mainly achieved by the correction of the underestimation/overestimation of GPP simulated by MOD17 under low/high solar radiation and sky clearness conditions. TL-LUEn is more applicable at individual sites at the half-hourly scale while TL-LUE could be regionally used at half-hourly, daily and 8-day scales. MOD17 is also an applicable option regionally at the 8-day scale.

  3. Zero-forcing pre-coding for MIMO WiMAX transceivers: Performance analysis and implementation issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattoni, A. F.; Le Moullec, Y.; Sacchi, C.

    Next generation wireless communication networks are expected to achieve ever increasing data rates. Multi-User Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MU-MIMO) is a key technique to obtain the expected performance, because such a technique combines the high capacity achievable using MIMO channel with the benefits of space division multiple access. In MU-MIMO systems, the base stations transmit signals to two or more users over the same channel, for this reason every user can experience inter-user interference. This paper provides a capacity analysis of an online, interference-based pre-coding algorithm able to mitigate the multi-user interference of the MU-MIMO systems in the context of a realistic WiMAX application scenario. Simulation results show that pre-coding can significantly increase the channel capacity. Furthermore, the paper presents several feasibility considerations for implementation of the analyzed technique in a possible FPGA-based software defined radio.

  4. W-band OFDM photonic vector signal generation employing a single Mach-Zehnder modulator and precoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jiangnan; Li, Xinying; Xu, Yuming; Zhang, Ziran; Chen, Long; Yu, Jianjun

    2015-09-07

    We present a simple radio-over-fiber (RoF) link architecture for millimeter-wave orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmission using only one Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) and precoding technique. In the transmission system, the amplitudes and the phase of the driving radio-frequency (RF) OFDM signal on each sub-carrier are precoded, to ensure that the OFDM signal after photodetector (PD) can be restored to original OFDM signal. The experimental results show that the bit-error ratios (BERs) of the transmission system are less than the forward-error-correction (FEC) threshold of 3.8 × 10(-3), which demonstrates that the generation of OFDM vector signal based on our proposed scheme can be employed in our system architecture.

  5. Functionalized linear poly(amidoamine)s are efficient vectors for intracellular protein delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coué, G.M.J.P.C.; Engbersen, Johannes F.J.

    2011-01-01

    An effective intracellular protein delivery system was developed based on functionalized linear poly(amidoamine)s (PAAs) that form self-assembled cationic nanocomplexes with oppositely charged proteins. Three differently functionalized PAAs were synthesized, two of these having repetitive disulfide

  6. A two layer chaotic encryption scheme of secure image transmission for DCT precoded OFDM-VLC transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongpeng; Chen, Fangni; Qiu, Weiwei; Chen, Shoufa; Ren, Dongxiao

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a two-layer image encryption scheme for a discrete cosine transform (DCT) precoded orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) visible light communication (VLC) system is proposed. Firstly, in the proposed scheme the transmitted image is first encrypted by a chaos scrambling sequence,which is generated from the hybrid 4-D hyper- and Arnold map in the upper-layer. After that, the encrypted image is converted into digital QAM modulation signal, which is re-encrypted by chaos scrambling sequence based on Arnold map in physical layer to further enhance the security of the transmitted image. Moreover, DCT precoding is employed to improve BER performance of the proposed system and reduce the PAPR of OFDM signal. The BER and PAPR performances of the proposed system are evaluated by simulation experiments. The experiment results show that the proposed two-layer chaos scrambling schemes achieve image secure transmission for image-based OFDM VLC. Furthermore, DCT precoding can reduce the PAPR and improve the BER performance of OFDM-based VLC.

  7. Efficient SAT engines for concise logics: Accelerating proof search for zero-one linear constraint systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fränzle, Martin; Herde, Christian

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the problem of generalizing acceleration techniques as found in recent satisfiability engines for conjunctive normal forms (CNFs) to linear constraint systems over the Booleans. The rationale behind this research is that rewriting the propositional formulae occurring in e.g. bounde...

  8. Efficiency Comparison of Various Parking Charge Schemes Considering Daily Travel Cost in a Linear City

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Van Wee, G.P.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new duration dependent parking fee regime based on the travel cost for an entire day, rather than a single commute trip. Commuters are assumed to reside at one end of a linear city and work in a business center at the other end. A two-stage differential method is used

  9. Profiling high performance dense linear algebra algorithms on multicore architectures for power and energy efficiency

    KAUST Repository

    Ltaief, Hatem; Luszczek, Piotr R.; Dongarra, Jack

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the power profile of two high performance dense linear algebra libraries i.e., LAPACK and PLASMA. The former is based on block algorithms that use the fork-join paradigm to achieve parallel performance. The latter uses fine

  10. Robust Transceiver with Tomlinson-Harashima Precoding for Amplify-and-Forward MIMO Relaying Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Xing, Chengwen; Xia, Minghua; Gao, Feifei; Wu, Yik-Chung

    2012-01-01

    forwarding matrices at relays and linear equalizer at destination is proposed. With novel applications of elegant characteristics of multiplicative convexity and matrix-monotone functions, the optimal structure of the nonlinear transceiver is first derived. Based on the derived structure, the transceiver design problem reduces to a much simpler one with only scalar variables which can be efficiently solved. Finally, the performance advantage of the proposed robust design over non-robust design is demonstrated by simulation results.

  11. Efficiency Improvement of a High Dynamic BLDC Linear Motor by Multiphase Control

    OpenAIRE

    Lemmens, Joris; Vanvlasselaer, Kris; Mulier, Kristof; Goossens, Stijn; Symens, Wim; Driesen, Johan

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a multiphase control strategy for a high dynamic brushless DC linear motor as an alternative for conventional three-phase field-oriented control. Analysis of the magnetic field waveforms shows that three-phase control is not optimal for the 6-slot 7-pole motor topology. Therefore, a multiphase control strategy is elaborated which injects currents proportional to the electromotive force into each of the nine stator coil groups. This results in a maximal alignment force ...

  12. Development of an efficient iterative solver for linear systems in FE structural analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint-Georges, P.; Warzee, G.; Beauwens, R.; Notay, Y.

    1993-01-01

    The preconditioned conjugate gradient is a well-known and powerful method to solve sparse symmetric positive definite systems of linear equations. Such systems are generated by the finite element discretization in structural analysis but users of finite element in this context generally still rely on direct methods. It is our purpose in the present paper to highlight the improvement brought forward by some new preconditioning techniques and show that the preconditioned conjugate gradient method is more performant than any direct method. (author)

  13. Joint Antenna Selection and Precoding Optimization for Small-Cell Network with Minimum Power Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We focus on the power consumption problem for a downlink multiuser small-cell network (SCN considering both the quality of service (QoS and power constraints. First based on a practical power consumption model taking into account both the dynamic transmit power and static circuit power, we formulate and then transform the power consumption optimization problem into a convex problem by using semidefinite relaxation (SDR technique and obtain the optimal solution by the CVX tool. We further note that the SDR-based solution becomes infeasible for realistic implementation due to its heavy backhaul burden and computational complexity. To this end, we propose an alternative suboptimal algorithm which has low implementation overhead and complexity, based on minimum mean square error (MMSE precoding. Furthermore, we propose a distributed correlation-based antenna selection (DCAS algorithm combining with our optimization algorithms to reduce the static circuit power consumption for the SCN. Finally, simulation results demonstrate that our proposed suboptimal algorithm is very effective on power consumption minimization, with significantly reduced backhaul burden and computational complexity. Moreover, we show that our optimization algorithms with DCAS have less power consumption than the other benchmark algorithms.

  14. Power Efficiency Improvements through Peak-to-Average Power Ratio Reduction and Power Amplifier Linearization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou G Tong

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Many modern communication signal formats, such as orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM and code-division multiple access (CDMA, have high peak-to-average power ratios (PARs. A signal with a high PAR not only is vulnerable in the presence of nonlinear components such as power amplifiers (PAs, but also leads to low transmission power efficiency. Selected mapping (SLM and clipping are well-known PAR reduction techniques. We propose to combine SLM with threshold clipping and digital baseband predistortion to improve the overall efficiency of the transmission system. Testbed experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  15. Component Energy Efficiencies in a Novel Linear to Rotary Motion Inter-conversion Hydro-mechanism Running a Solar Tracker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kant Eliab Kanyarusoke

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A new mechanism interconverting linear and rotary motion was investigated for energy transfers among its components. It employed a gear-rack set, a Hooke coupling and a specially designed bladder-valve system that regulated the motion. The purpose was to estimate individual component mechanical efficiencies as they existed in the prototype so that future reengineering of the mechanism could be properly targeted. Theoretical modelling of the mechanism was first done to obtain equations for efficiencies of the key components. Two-stage experimentation followed when running a solar tracker. The first stage produced data for inputting into the model to determine the efficiencies’ theoretical variation with the Hooke coupling shaft angle. The second one verified results of the Engineering Equation Solver (EES software solutions of the model. It was found that the energy transfer to focus on was that between the Hooke coupling and the output shaft because its efficiency was below 4%

  16. A power-efficient audio amplifier combining switching and linear techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, Ronan A.R.; van Tuijl, Adrianus Johannes Maria

    1999-01-01

    Integrated class-D audio amplifiers are very power efficient but require an external LC reconstruction filter, which prevents further integration. Also due to this filter, large feedback factors are hard to realize, so that the load influences the distortion and transfer characteristics. The 30 W

  17. WEAK EFFICIENCY AND LINEAR REGRESSION OF CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davtyan Azat

    2013-07-01

    Those findings can be used for deeper investigation of market efficiency by highlighting convergence processes of CEE countries with EU old member states. Also effective capital allocation channels, institutional foundations of markets and strengthening of corporate governance should be highlighted. Finally, the outcomes of my paper will be useful for researchers in the field of finance.

  18. Computationally Efficient Amplitude Modulated Sinusoidal Audio Coding using Frequency-Domain Linear Prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, M. G.; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2006-01-01

    A method for amplitude modulated sinusoidal audio coding is presented that has low complexity and low delay. This is based on a subband processing system, where, in each subband, the signal is modeled as an amplitude modulated sum of sinusoids. The envelopes are estimated using frequency......-domain linear prediction and the prediction coefficients are quantized. As a proof of concept, we evaluate different configurations in a subjective listening test, and this shows that the proposed method offers significant improvements in sinusoidal coding. Furthermore, the properties of the frequency...

  19. Efficient high-power narrow-linewidth all-fibred linearly polarized ytterbium laser source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Anthony; Liégeois, Flavien; Hernandez, Yves; Giannone, Domenico

    2012-06-01

    We report on experimental results on a high power, all-fibred, linearly polarized, mode-locked laser at 1.03 μm. The laser generates pulses of 40 ps wide at a repetition rate of 52 MHz, exhibiting 12 kW peak power. Dispersion in optical fibres is controlled to obtain both high power and narrow spectral linewidth. The average output power reached is 25 W with a spectral linewidth of 380 pm and a near diffraction limit beam (M2 < 1.2). This laser is an ideal candidate for applications like IR spectroscopy, where high peak power and narrow linewidth are required for subsequent wavelength conversion.

  20. Alternate MIMO AF relaying networks with interference alignment: Spectral efficient protocol and linear filter design

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Kihong

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, we study a two-hop relaying network consisting of one source, one destination, and three amplify-and-forward (AF) relays with multiple antennas. To compensate for the capacity prelog factor loss of 1/2$ due to the half-duplex relaying, alternate transmission is performed among three relays, and the inter-relay interference due to the alternate relaying is aligned to make additional degrees of freedom. In addition, suboptimal linear filter designs at the nodes are proposed to maximize the achievable sum rate for different fading scenarios when the destination utilizes a minimum mean-square error filter. © 1967-2012 IEEE.

  1. An Efficient Test for Gene-Environment Interaction in Generalized Linear Mixed Models with Family Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazo Lopera, Mauricio A; Coombes, Brandon J; de Andrade, Mariza

    2017-09-27

    Gene-environment (GE) interaction has important implications in the etiology of complex diseases that are caused by a combination of genetic factors and environment variables. Several authors have developed GE analysis in the context of independent subjects or longitudinal data using a gene-set. In this paper, we propose to analyze GE interaction for discrete and continuous phenotypes in family studies by incorporating the relatedness among the relatives for each family into a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) and by using a gene-based variance component test. In addition, we deal with collinearity problems arising from linkage disequilibrium among single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) by considering their coefficients as random effects under the null model estimation. We show that the best linear unbiased predictor (BLUP) of such random effects in the GLMM is equivalent to the ridge regression estimator. This equivalence provides a simple method to estimate the ridge penalty parameter in comparison to other computationally-demanding estimation approaches based on cross-validation schemes. We evaluated the proposed test using simulation studies and applied it to real data from the Baependi Heart Study consisting of 76 families. Using our approach, we identified an interaction between BMI and the Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Gamma ( PPARG ) gene associated with diabetes.

  2. Efficient Implementation of the Riccati Recursion for Solving Linear-Quadratic Control Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frison, Gianluca; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2013-01-01

    In both Active-Set (AS) and Interior-Point (IP) algorithms for Model Predictive Control (MPC), sub-problems in the form of linear-quadratic (LQ) control problems need to be solved at each iteration. The solution of these sub-problems is typically the main computational effort at each iteration....... In this paper, we compare a number of solvers for an extended formulation of the LQ control problem: a Riccati recursion based solver can be considered the best choice for the general problem with dense matrices. Furthermore, we present a novel version of the Riccati solver, that makes use of the Cholesky...... factorization of the Pn matrices to reduce the number of flops. When combined with regularization and mixed precision, this algorithm can solve large instances of the LQ control problem up to 3 times faster than the classical Riccati solver....

  3. Efficient non-linear two-photon effects from the Cesium 6D manifold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haluska, Nathan D.; Perram, Glen P.; Rice, Christopher A.

    2018-02-01

    We report several non-linear process that occur when two-photon pumping the cesium 6D states. Cesium vapor possess some of the largest two-photon pump cross sections in nature. Pumping these cross sections leads to strong amplified spontaneous emission that we observe on over 17 lasing lines. These new fields are strong enough to couple with the pump to create additional tunable lines. We use a heat pipe with cesium densities of 1014 to 1016 cm-3 and 0 to 5 Torr of helium buffer gas. The cesium 6D States are interrogated by both high energy pulses and low power CW sources. We observe four-wave mixing, six-wave mixing, potential two-photon lasing, other unknown nonlinear processes, and the persistence of some processes at low thresholds. This system is also uniquely qualified to support two-photon lasing under the proper conditions.

  4. Corrosion inhibition efficiency of linear alkyl benzene derivatives for carbon steel pipelines in 1M HCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Al-Sabagh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Linear alkyl benzene sulfonic acid (L and three of its ester derivatives (L1, L2, L3 were prepared, followed by quaternization of these esters (L1Q, L2Q, L3Q. The corrosion inhibition effect on carbon steel in 1 M HCl was studied using weight loss and potentiodynamic polarization measurements. The adsorption of the inhibitors on carbon steel surface obeyed the Langmuir’s adsorption isotherm. The associated activation energy of corrosion and other thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy (ΔH∗, entropy (ΔS∗ of activation, adsorption–desorption equilibrium constant (Kads, standard free energy of adsorption (ΔGoads, heat (ΔHoads, and entropy of adsorption (ΔSoads were calculated to elaborate the corrosion inhibition mechanism.

  5. Efficient Semiparametric Marginal Estimation for the Partially Linear Additive Model for Longitudinal/Clustered Data

    KAUST Repository

    Carroll, Raymond; Maity, Arnab; Mammen, Enno; Yu, Kyusang

    2009-01-01

    We consider the efficient estimation of a regression parameter in a partially linear additive nonparametric regression model from repeated measures data when the covariates are multivariate. To date, while there is some literature in the scalar covariate case, the problem has not been addressed in the multivariate additive model case. Ours represents a first contribution in this direction. As part of this work, we first describe the behavior of nonparametric estimators for additive models with repeated measures when the underlying model is not additive. These results are critical when one considers variants of the basic additive model. We apply them to the partially linear additive repeated-measures model, deriving an explicit consistent estimator of the parametric component; if the errors are in addition Gaussian, the estimator is semiparametric efficient. We also apply our basic methods to a unique testing problem that arises in genetic epidemiology; in combination with a projection argument we develop an efficient and easily computed testing scheme. Simulations and an empirical example from nutritional epidemiology illustrate our methods.

  6. Efficient Semiparametric Marginal Estimation for the Partially Linear Additive Model for Longitudinal/Clustered Data

    KAUST Repository

    Carroll, Raymond

    2009-04-23

    We consider the efficient estimation of a regression parameter in a partially linear additive nonparametric regression model from repeated measures data when the covariates are multivariate. To date, while there is some literature in the scalar covariate case, the problem has not been addressed in the multivariate additive model case. Ours represents a first contribution in this direction. As part of this work, we first describe the behavior of nonparametric estimators for additive models with repeated measures when the underlying model is not additive. These results are critical when one considers variants of the basic additive model. We apply them to the partially linear additive repeated-measures model, deriving an explicit consistent estimator of the parametric component; if the errors are in addition Gaussian, the estimator is semiparametric efficient. We also apply our basic methods to a unique testing problem that arises in genetic epidemiology; in combination with a projection argument we develop an efficient and easily computed testing scheme. Simulations and an empirical example from nutritional epidemiology illustrate our methods.

  7. Simple, Efficient Estimators of Treatment Effects in Randomized Trials Using Generalized Linear Models to Leverage Baseline Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Michael; van der Laan, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    Models, such as logistic regression and Poisson regression models, are often used to estimate treatment effects in randomized trials. These models leverage information in variables collected before randomization, in order to obtain more precise estimates of treatment effects. However, there is the danger that model misspecification will lead to bias. We show that certain easy to compute, model-based estimators are asymptotically unbiased even when the working model used is arbitrarily misspecified. Furthermore, these estimators are locally efficient. As a special case of our main result, we consider a simple Poisson working model containing only main terms; in this case, we prove the maximum likelihood estimate of the coefficient corresponding to the treatment variable is an asymptotically unbiased estimator of the marginal log rate ratio, even when the working model is arbitrarily misspecified. This is the log-linear analog of ANCOVA for linear models. Our results demonstrate one application of targeted maximum likelihood estimation. PMID:20628636

  8. Simple, efficient estimators of treatment effects in randomized trials using generalized linear models to leverage baseline variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Michael; van der Laan, Mark J

    2010-04-01

    Models, such as logistic regression and Poisson regression models, are often used to estimate treatment effects in randomized trials. These models leverage information in variables collected before randomization, in order to obtain more precise estimates of treatment effects. However, there is the danger that model misspecification will lead to bias. We show that certain easy to compute, model-based estimators are asymptotically unbiased even when the working model used is arbitrarily misspecified. Furthermore, these estimators are locally efficient. As a special case of our main result, we consider a simple Poisson working model containing only main terms; in this case, we prove the maximum likelihood estimate of the coefficient corresponding to the treatment variable is an asymptotically unbiased estimator of the marginal log rate ratio, even when the working model is arbitrarily misspecified. This is the log-linear analog of ANCOVA for linear models. Our results demonstrate one application of targeted maximum likelihood estimation.

  9. An Efficient Return Algorithm For Non-Associated Plasticity With Linear Yield Criteria In Principal Stress Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Johan Christian; Damkilde, Lars; Andersen, Lars

    2007-01-01

    . The stress return and the formation of the constitutive matrix is carried out in principal stress space. Here the manipulations simplify and rely on geometrical arguments. The singularities arising at the intersection of yield planes are dealt with in a straightforward way also based on geometrical......An efficient return algorithm for stress update in numerical plasticity computations is presented. The yield criterion must be linear in principal stress space and can be composed of any number of yield planes. Each of these yield planes may have an associated or non-associated flow rule...

  10. MSM, an Efficient Workflow for Metabolite Identification Using Hybrid Linear Ion Trap Orbitrap Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Robert; Huang, Yingying; Schwartz, Jae C.; Chen, Yan; Carlson, Timothy J.; Ma, Ji

    2012-05-01

    Identification of drug metabolites can often yield important information regarding clearance mechanism, pharmacologic activity, or toxicity for drug candidate molecules. Additionally, the identification of metabolites can provide beneficial structure-activity insight to help guide lead optimization efforts towards molecules with optimal metabolic profiles. There are challenges associated with detecting and identifying metabolites in the presence of complex biological matrices, and new LC-MS technologies have been developed to meet these challenges. In this report, we describe the development of an experimental approach that applies unique features of the hybrid linear ion trap Orbitrap mass spectrometer to streamline in vitro and in vivo metabolite identification experiments. The approach, referred to as MSM, utilizes multiple collision cells, dissociation methods, mass analyzers, and detectors. With multiple scan types and different dissociation modes built into one experimental method, along with flexible post-acquisition analysis options, the MSM workflow offers an attractive option to fast and reliable identification of metabolites in different kinds of in vitro and in vivo samples. The MSM workflow was successfully applied to metabolite identification analysis of verapamil in both in vitro rat hepatocyte incubations and in vivo rat bile samples.

  11. A Selective-Awakening MAC Protocol for Energy-Efficient Data Forwarding in Linear Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iclia Villordo-Jimenez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the Selective-Awakening MAC (SA-MAC protocol which is a synchronized duty-cycled protocol with pipelined scheduling for Linear Sensor Networks (LSNs. In the proposed protocol, nodes selectively awake depending on node density and traffic load conditions and on the state of the buffers of the receiving nodes. In order to characterize the performance of the proposed protocol, we present a Discrete-Time Markov Chain-based analysis that is validated through extensive discrete-event simulations. Our results show that SA-MAC significantly outperforms previous proposals in terms of energy consumption, throughput, and packet loss probability. This is particularly true under high node density and high traffic load conditions, which are expected to be common scenarios in the context of IoT applications. We also present an analysis by grade (i.e., the number of hops to the sink, which is located at one end of the LSN that reveals that LSNs exhibit heterogeneous performance depending on the nodes’ grade. Such results can be used as a design guideline for future LSN implementations.

  12. Efficient Determination of Free Energy Landscapes in Multiple Dimensions from Biased Umbrella Sampling Simulations Using Linear Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yilin; Roux, Benoît

    2015-08-11

    The weighted histogram analysis method (WHAM) is a standard protocol for postprocessing the information from biased umbrella sampling simulations to construct the potential of mean force with respect to a set of order parameters. By virtue of the WHAM equations, the unbiased density of state is determined by satisfying a self-consistent condition through an iterative procedure. While the method works very effectively when the number of order parameters is small, its computational cost grows rapidly in higher dimension. Here, we present a simple and efficient alternative strategy, which avoids solving the self-consistent WHAM equations iteratively. An efficient multivariate linear regression framework is utilized to link the biased probability densities of individual umbrella windows and yield an unbiased global free energy landscape in the space of order parameters. It is demonstrated with practical examples that free energy landscapes that are comparable in accuracy to WHAM can be generated at a small fraction of the cost.

  13. Efficient Data Gathering in 3D Linear Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks Using Sink Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Mariam; Javaid, Nadeem; Khan, Ayesha Hussain; Imran, Muhammad; Shoaib, Muhammad; Vasilakos, Athanasios

    2016-03-19

    Due to the unpleasant and unpredictable underwater environment, designing an energy-efficient routing protocol for underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) demands more accuracy and extra computations. In the proposed scheme, we introduce a mobile sink (MS), i.e., an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV), and also courier nodes (CNs), to minimize the energy consumption of nodes. MS and CNs stop at specific stops for data gathering; later on, CNs forward the received data to the MS for further transmission. By the mobility of CNs and MS, the overall energy consumption of nodes is minimized. We perform simulations to investigate the performance of the proposed scheme and compare it to preexisting techniques. Simulation results are compared in terms of network lifetime, throughput, path loss, transmission loss and packet drop ratio. The results show that the proposed technique performs better in terms of network lifetime, throughput, path loss and scalability.

  14. Efficient Data Gathering in 3D Linear Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks Using Sink Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam Akbar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the unpleasant and unpredictable underwater environment, designing an energy-efficient routing protocol for underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs demands more accuracy and extra computations. In the proposed scheme, we introduce a mobile sink (MS, i.e., an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV, and also courier nodes (CNs, to minimize the energy consumption of nodes. MS and CNs stop at specific stops for data gathering; later on, CNs forward the received data to the MS for further transmission. By the mobility of CNs and MS, the overall energy consumption of nodes is minimized. We perform simulations to investigate the performance of the proposed scheme and compare it to preexisting techniques. Simulation results are compared in terms of network lifetime, throughput, path loss, transmission loss and packet drop ratio. The results show that the proposed technique performs better in terms of network lifetime, throughput, path loss and scalability.

  15. Efficient Dual Domain Decoding of Linear Block Codes Using Genetic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Azouaoui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A computationally efficient algorithm for decoding block codes is developed using a genetic algorithm (GA. The proposed algorithm uses the dual code in contrast to the existing genetic decoders in the literature that use the code itself. Hence, this new approach reduces the complexity of decoding the codes of high rates. We simulated our algorithm in various transmission channels. The performance of this algorithm is investigated and compared with competitor decoding algorithms including Maini and Shakeel ones. The results show that the proposed algorithm gives large gains over the Chase-2 decoding algorithm and reach the performance of the OSD-3 for some quadratic residue (QR codes. Further, we define a new crossover operator that exploits the domain specific information and compare it with uniform and two point crossover. The complexity of this algorithm is also discussed and compared to other algorithms.

  16. Multileaf collimator-based linear accelerator radiosurgery: five-year efficiency analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Joshua D; Fox, Tim; Waller, Anthony F; Davis, Lawrence; Crocker, Ian

    2009-03-01

    In 1989, Emory University initiated a linear accelerator (linac) radiosurgery program using circular collimators. In 2001, the program converted to a multileaf collimator. Since then, the treatment parameters of each patient have been stored in the record-and-verify system. Three major changes have occurred in the radiosurgery program in the past 6 years: in 2002, treatment was changed from static conformal beams to dynamic conformal arc (DCA) therapy, and all patients were imaged before treatment. Beginning in 2005, a linac was used, with the opportunity to treat at higher dose rates (600-1,000 monitor units/min). The aim of this study was to analyze the time required to deliver radiosurgery and the factors affecting treatment delivery. Benchmark data are provided for centers contemplating initiating linac radiosurgery programs. Custom software was developed to mine the record-and-verify system database and automatically perform a chart review on patients who underwent stereotactic radiosurgery from March 2001 to October 2006. The software extracted 510 patients who underwent stereotactic radiosurgery, and the following information was recorded for each patient: treatment technique, treatment time (from initiation of imaging, if done, to completion of therapy), number of isocenters, number of fields, total monitor units, and dose rate. Of the 510 patients, 395 were treated with DCA therapy and 115 with static conformal beams. The average number of isocenters treated was 1.06 (range, 1-4). The average times to deliver treatment were 24.1 minutes for patients who underwent DCA therapy and 19.3 minutes for those treated with static conformal beams, reflecting the lack of imaging in the latter patients. Eighty percent of patients were treated in question the need for a dedicated radiosurgery unit for even busy treatment centers.

  17. On the predictability of extreme events in records with linear and nonlinear long-range memory: Efficiency and noise robustness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogachev, Mikhail I.; Bunde, Armin

    2011-06-01

    We study the predictability of extreme events in records with linear and nonlinear long-range memory in the presence of additive white noise using two different approaches: (i) the precursory pattern recognition technique (PRT) that exploits solely the information about short-term precursors, and (ii) the return interval approach (RIA) that exploits long-range memory incorporated in the elapsed time after the last extreme event. We find that the PRT always performs better when only linear memory is present. In the presence of nonlinear memory, both methods demonstrate comparable efficiency in the absence of white noise. When additional white noise is present in the record (which is the case in most observational records), the efficiency of the PRT decreases monotonously with increasing noise level. In contrast, the RIA shows an abrupt transition between a phase of low level noise where the prediction is as good as in the absence of noise, and a phase of high level noise where the prediction becomes poor. In the phase of low and intermediate noise the RIA predicts considerably better than the PRT, which explains our recent findings in physiological and financial records.

  18. Infrared reduction, an efficient method to control the non-linear optical property of graphene oxide in femtosecond regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, S.; Maiti, R.; Saha, S.; Das, A. C.; Mondal, S.; Ray, S. K.; Bhaktha, S. B. N.; Datta, P. K.

    2016-04-01

    Graphene Oxide (GO) has been prepared by modified Hummers method and it has been reduced using an IR bulb (800-2000 nm). Both as grown GO and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) have been characterized using Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Raman spectra shows well documented Dband and G-band for both the samples while blue shift of G-band confirms chemical functionalization of graphene with different oxygen functional group. The XPS result shows that the as-prepared GO contains 52% of sp2 hybridized carbon due to the C=C bonds and 33% of carbon atoms due to the C-O bonds. As for RGO, increment of the atomic % of the sp2 hybridized carbon atom to 83% and rapid decrease in atomic % of C=O bonds confirm an efficient reduction with infrared radiation. UV-Visible absorption spectrum also confirms increment of conjugation with increased reduction. Non-linear optical properties of both GO and RGO are measured using single beam open aperture Z-Scan technique in femtosecond regime. Intensity dependent nonlinear phenomena are observed. Depending upon the intensity, both saturable absorption and two photon absorption contribute to the non-linearity of both the samples. Saturation dominates at low intensity (~ 127 GW/cm2) while two photon absorption become prominent at higher intensities (from 217 GW/cm2 to 302 GW/cm2). We have calculated the two-photon absorption co-efficient and saturation intensity for both the samples. The value of two photon absorption co-efficient (for GO~ 0.0022-0.0037 cm/GW and for RGO~ 0.0128-0.0143 cm/GW) and the saturation intensity (for GO~57 GW/cm2 and for RGO~ 194GW/cm2) is increased with reduction. Increase in two photon absorption coefficient with increasing intensity can also suggest that there may be multi-photon absorption is taking place.

  19. Dietary arginine and linear growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Vught, Anneke J A H; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Arts, Ilja C W

    2013-01-01

    Child Intervention Study during 2001-2 (baseline), and at 3-year and 7-year follow-up, were used. Arginine intake was estimated via a 7 d precoded food diary at baseline and 3-year follow-up. Data were analysed in a multilevel structure in which children were embedded within schools. Random intercept......The amino acid arginine is a well-known growth hormone (GH) stimulator and GH is an important modulator of linear growth. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of dietary arginine on growth velocity in children between 7 and 13 years of age. Data from the Copenhagen School...... and slopes were defined to estimate the association between arginine intake and growth velocity, including the following covariates: sex; age; baseline height; energy intake; puberty stage at 7-year follow-up and intervention/control group. The association between arginine intake and growth velocity...

  20. Metasurface integrated high energy efficient and high linearly polarized InGaN/GaN light emitting diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Miao; Xu, Fuyang; Lin, Yu; Cao, Bing; Chen, Linghua; Wang, Chinhua; Wang, Jianfeng; Xu, Ke

    2017-07-06

    We proposed and demonstrated an integrated high energy efficient and high linearly polarized InGaN/GaN green LED grown on (0001) oriented sapphire with combined metasurface polarizing converter and polarizer system. It is different from those conventional polarized light emissions generated with plasmonic metallic grating in which at least 50% high energy loss occurs inherently due to high reflection of the transverse electric (TE) component of an electric field. A reflecting metasurface, with a two dimensional elliptic metal cylinder array (EMCA) that functions as a half-wave plate, was integrated at the bottom of a LED such that the back-reflected TE component, that is otherwise lost by a dielectric/metal bi-layered wire grids (DMBiWG) polarizer on the top emitting surface of the LED, can be converted to desired transverse magnetic (TM) polarized emission after reflecting from the metasurface. This significantly enhances the polarized light emission efficiency. Experimental results show that extraction efficiency of the polarized emission can be increased by 40% on average in a wide angle of ±60° compared to that with the naked bottom of sapphire substrate, or 20% compared to reflecting Al film on the bottom of a sapphire substrate. An extinction ratio (ER) of average value 20 dB within an angle of ±60° can be simultaneously obtained directly from an InGaN/GaN LED. Our results show the possibility of simultaneously achieving a high degree of polarization and high polarization extraction efficiency at the integrated device level. This advances the field of GaN LED toward energy efficiency, multi-functional applications in illumination, display, medicine, and light manipulation.

  1. Experimental demonstration of an OFDM based visible light communication system using inter-block precoding and superimposed pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junwei; Hong, Xuezhi; Liu, Jie; Guo, Changjian

    2018-04-01

    In this work, we investigate and experimentally demonstrate an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) based high speed wavelength-division multiplexed (WDM) visible light communication (VLC) system using an inter-block data precoding and superimposed pilots (DP-SP) based channel estimation (CE) scheme. The residual signal-to-pilot interference (SPI) can be eliminated by using inter-block data precoding, resulting in a significant improvement in estimated accuracy and the overall system performance compared with uncoded SP based CE scheme. We also study the power allocation/overhead problem of the training for DP-SP, uncoded SP and conventional preamble based CE schemes, from which we obtain the optimum signal-to-pilot power ratio (SPR)/overhead percentage for all above cases. Intra-symbol frequency-domain averaging (ISFA) is also adopted to further enhance the accuracy of CE. By using the DP-SP based CE scheme, aggregate data rates of 1.87-Gbit/s and 1.57-Gbit/s are experimentally demonstrated over 0.8-m and 2-m indoor free space transmission, respectively, using a commercially available red, green and blue (RGB) light emitting diode (LED) with WDM. Experimental results show that the DP-SP based CE scheme is comparable to the conventional preamble based CE scheme in term of received Q factor and data rate while entailing a much smaller overhead-size.

  2. FRET two-hybrid assay by linearly fitting FRET efficiency to concentration ratio between acceptor and donor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Mengyan; Yang, Fangfang; Mai, Zihao; Qu, Wenfeng; Lin, Fangrui; Wei, Lichun; Chen, Tongsheng

    2018-04-01

    We here introduce a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) two-hybrid assay method to measure the maximal donor(D)- and acceptor(A)-centric FRET efficiency (ED,max and EA,max) of the D-A complex and its stoichiometry by linearly fitting the donor-centric FRET efficiency (ED) to the acceptor-to-donor concentration ratio (RC) and acceptor-centric FRET efficiency (EA) to 1/RC, respectively. We performed this method on a wide-field fluorescence microscope for living HepG2 cells co-expressing FRET tandem constructs and free donor/acceptor and obtained correct ED, EA, and stoichiometry values of those tandem constructs. Evaluation on the binding of Bad with Bcl-XL in Hela cells showed that Bad interacted strongly with Bcl-XL to form a Bad-Bcl-XL complex on mitochondria, and one Bad interacted mainly with one Bcl-XL molecule in healthy cells, while with multiple (maybe 2) Bcl-XL molecules in apoptotic cells.

  3. Ultra-wideband high-efficiency reflective linear-to-circular polarization converter based on metasurface at terahertz frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yannan; Wang, Lei; Wang, Jiao; Akwuruoha, Charles Nwakanma; Cao, Weiping

    2017-10-30

    The polarization conversion of electromagnetic (EM) waves, especially linear-to-circular (LTC) polarization conversion, is of great significance in practical applications. In this study, we propose an ultra-wideband high-efficiency reflective LTC polarization converter based on a metasurface in the terahertz regime. It consists of periodic unit cells, each cell of which is formed by a double split resonant square ring, dielectric layer, and fully reflective gold mirror. In the frequency range of 0.60 - 1.41 THz, the magnitudes of the reflection coefficients reach approximately 0.7, and the phase difference between the two orthogonal electric field components of the reflected wave is close to 90° or -270°. The results indicate that the relative bandwidth reaches 80% and the efficiency is greater than 88%, thus, ultra-wideband high-efficiency LTC polarization conversion has been realized. Finally, the physical mechanism of the polarization conversion is revealed. This converter has potential applications in antenna design, EM measurement, and stealth technology.

  4. Plateletpheresis efficiency and mathematical correction of software-derived platelet yield prediction: A linear regression and ROC modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime-Pérez, José Carlos; Jiménez-Castillo, Raúl Alberto; Vázquez-Hernández, Karina Elizabeth; Salazar-Riojas, Rosario; Méndez-Ramírez, Nereida; Gómez-Almaguer, David

    2017-10-01

    Advances in automated cell separators have improved the efficiency of plateletpheresis and the possibility of obtaining double products (DP). We assessed cell processor accuracy of predicted platelet (PLT) yields with the goal of a better prediction of DP collections. This retrospective proof-of-concept study included 302 plateletpheresis procedures performed on a Trima Accel v6.0 at the apheresis unit of a hematology department. Donor variables, software predicted yield and actual PLT yield were statistically evaluated. Software prediction was optimized by linear regression analysis and its optimal cut-off to obtain a DP assessed by receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) modeling. Three hundred and two plateletpheresis procedures were performed; in 271 (89.7%) occasions, donors were men and in 31 (10.3%) women. Pre-donation PLT count had the best direct correlation with actual PLT yield (r = 0.486. P Simple correction derived from linear regression analysis accurately corrected this underestimation and ROC analysis identified a precise cut-off to reliably predict a DP. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Towards Reliable, Scalable, and Energy Efficient Cognitive Radio Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman

    2017-11-01

    The cognitive radio (CR) concept is expected to be adopted along with many technologies to meet the requirements of the next generation of wireless and mobile systems, the 5G. Consequently, it is important to determine the performance of the CR systems with respect to these requirements. In this thesis, after briefly describing the 5G requirements, we present three main directions in which we aim to enhance the CR performance. The first direction is the reliability. We study the achievable rate of a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) relay-assisted CR under two scenarios; an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) one-way relaying (OWR) and a fixed two-way relaying (TWR). We propose special linear precoding schemes that enable the secondary user (SU) to take advantage of the primary-free channel eigenmodes. We study the SU rate sensitivity to the relay power, the relay gain, the UAV altitude, the number of antennas and the line of sight availability. The second direction is the scalability. We first study a multiple access channel (MAC) with multiple SUs scenario. We propose a particular linear precoding and SUs selection scheme maximizing their sum-rate. We show that the proposed scheme provides a significant sum-rate improvement as the number of SUs increases. Secondly, we expand our scalability study to cognitive cellular networks. We propose a low-complexity algorithm for base station activation/deactivation and dynamic spectrum management maximizing the profits of primary and secondary networks subject to green constraints. We show that our proposed algorithms achieve performance close to those obtained with the exhaustive search method. The third direction is the energy efficiency (EE). We present a novel power allocation scheme based on maximizing the EE of both single-input and single-output (SISO) and MIMO systems. We solve a non-convex problem and derive explicit expressions of the corresponding optimal power. When the instantaneous channel is not available, we

  6. The Infection Efficiency and Replication Ability of Circularized HBV DNA Optimized the Linear HBV DNA in Vitro and in Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaosong; Zhu, Junke; Lai, Guoqi; Yan, Lei; Hu, Jieli; Chen, Juan; Tang, Ni; Huang, Ailong

    2015-01-01

    Studies on molecular mechanisms of the persist infection of hepatitis B virus have been hampered by a lack of a robust animal model. We successfully established a simple, versatile, and reproducible HBV persist infection model in vitro and in vivo with the circularized HBV DNA. The cells and mice were transfected or injected with circularized HBV DNA and pAAV/HBV1.2, respectively. At the indicated time, the cells, supernatants, serum samples, and liver tissues were collected for virological and serological detection. Both in vitro and in vivo, the circularized HBV DNA and pAAV/HBV1.2 could replicate and transcribe efficiently, but the infection effect of the former was superior to the latter (p HBV genome DNA into the mice robustly supported HBV infection and approximately 80% of HBV infected mice established persistent infection for at least 10 weeks. This study demonstrated that the infection efficiency and replication ability of the circularized structure of HBV DNA overmatched that of the expression plasmid containing the linear structure of HBV DNA in vitro and in vivo. Meanwhile, this research results could provide useful tools and methodology for further study of pathogenic mechanisms and potential antiviral treatments of human chronic HBV infection in vitro and in vivo. PMID:25751726

  7. Efficient multiple-trait association and estimation of genetic correlation using the matrix-variate linear mixed model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlotte, Nicholas A; Eskin, Eleazar

    2015-05-01

    Multiple-trait association mapping, in which multiple traits are used simultaneously in the identification of genetic variants affecting those traits, has recently attracted interest. One class of approaches for this problem builds on classical variance component methodology, utilizing a multitrait version of a linear mixed model. These approaches both increase power and provide insights into the genetic architecture of multiple traits. In particular, it is possible to estimate the genetic correlation, which is a measure of the portion of the total correlation between traits that is due to additive genetic effects. Unfortunately, the practical utility of these methods is limited since they are computationally intractable for large sample sizes. In this article, we introduce a reformulation of the multiple-trait association mapping approach by defining the matrix-variate linear mixed model. Our approach reduces the computational time necessary to perform maximum-likelihood inference in a multiple-trait model by utilizing a data transformation. By utilizing a well-studied human cohort, we show that our approach provides more than a 10-fold speedup, making multiple-trait association feasible in a large population cohort on the genome-wide scale. We take advantage of the efficiency of our approach to analyze gene expression data. By decomposing gene coexpression into a genetic and environmental component, we show that our method provides fundamental insights into the nature of coexpressed genes. An implementation of this method is available at http://genetics.cs.ucla.edu/mvLMM. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

  8. Diomres (k,m): An efficient method based on Krylov subspaces to solve big, dispersed, unsymmetrical linear systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de la Torre Vega, E. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Cesar Suarez Arriaga, M. [Universidad Michoacana SNH, Michoacan (Mexico)

    1995-03-01

    In geothermal simulation processes, MULKOM uses Integrated Finite Differences to solve the corresponding partial differential equations. This method requires to resolve efficiently big linear dispersed systems of non-symmetrical nature on each temporal iteration. The order of the system is usually greater than one thousand its solution could represent around 80% of CPU total calculation time. If the elapsed time solving this class of linear systems is reduced, the duration of numerical simulation decreases notably. When the matrix is big (N{ge}500) and with holes, it is inefficient to handle all the system`s elements, because it is perfectly figured out by its elements distinct of zero, quantity greatly minor than N{sup 2}. In this area, iteration methods introduce advantages with respect to gaussian elimination methods, because these last replenish matrices not having any special distribution of their non-zero elements and because they do not make use of the available solution estimations. The iterating methods of the Conjugated Gradient family, based on the subspaces of Krylov, possess the advantage of improving the convergence speed by means of preconditioning techniques. The creation of DIOMRES(k,m) method guarantees the continuous descent of the residual norm, without incurring in division by zero. This technique converges at most in N iterations if the system`s matrix is symmetrical, it does not employ too much memory to converge and updates immediately the approximation by using incomplete orthogonalization and adequate restarting. A preconditioned version of DIOMRES was applied to problems related to unsymmetrical systems with 1000 unknowns and less than five terms per equation. We found that this technique could reduce notably the time needful to find the solution without requiring memory increment. The coupling of this method to geothermal versions of MULKOM is in process.

  9. UQlust: combining profile hashing with linear-time ranking for efficient clustering and analysis of big macromolecular data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczak, Rafal; Meller, Jarek

    2016-12-28

    Advances in computing have enabled current protein and RNA structure prediction and molecular simulation methods to dramatically increase their sampling of conformational spaces. The quickly growing number of experimentally resolved structures, and databases such as the Protein Data Bank, also implies large scale structural similarity analyses to retrieve and classify macromolecular data. Consequently, the computational cost of structure comparison and clustering for large sets of macromolecular structures has become a bottleneck that necessitates further algorithmic improvements and development of efficient software solutions. uQlust is a versatile and easy-to-use tool for ultrafast ranking and clustering of macromolecular structures. uQlust makes use of structural profiles of proteins and nucleic acids, while combining a linear-time algorithm for implicit comparison of all pairs of models with profile hashing to enable efficient clustering of large data sets with a low memory footprint. In addition to ranking and clustering of large sets of models of the same protein or RNA molecule, uQlust can also be used in conjunction with fragment-based profiles in order to cluster structures of arbitrary length. For example, hierarchical clustering of the entire PDB using profile hashing can be performed on a typical laptop, thus opening an avenue for structural explorations previously limited to dedicated resources. The uQlust package is freely available under the GNU General Public License at https://github.com/uQlust . uQlust represents a drastic reduction in the computational complexity and memory requirements with respect to existing clustering and model quality assessment methods for macromolecular structure analysis, while yielding results on par with traditional approaches for both proteins and RNAs.

  10. Growth, spectral, linear and nonlinear optical characteristics of an efficient semiorganic acentric crystal: L-valinium L-valine chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nageshwari, M.; Jayaprakash, P.; Kumari, C. Rathika Thaya [PG & Research Department of Physics, Arignar Anna Govt. Arts College, Cheyyar 604407, Tamil Nadu (India); Vinitha, G. [Department of Physics, School of Advanced Sciences, VIT Chennai, 600127 Tamil Nadu (India); Caroline, M. Lydia, E-mail: lydiacaroline2006@yahoo.co.in [PG & Research Department of Physics, Arignar Anna Govt. Arts College, Cheyyar 604407, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2017-04-15

    An efficient nonlinear optical semiorganic material L-valinium L-valine chloride (LVVCl) was synthesized and grown-up by means of slow evaporation process. Single crystal XRD evince that LVVCl corresponds to monoclinic system having acentric space group P2{sub 1}. The diverse functional groups existing in LVVCl were discovered with FTIR spectral investigation. The UV-Visible and photoluminescence spectrum discloses the optical and electronic properties respectively for the grown crystal. Several optical properties specifically extinction coefficient, reflectance, linear refractive index, electrical and optical conductivity were also determined. The SEM analysis was also carried out and it portrayed the surface morphology of LVVCl. The calculated value of laser damage threshold was 2.59 GW/cm{sup 2}. The mechanical and dielectric property of LVVCl was investigated employing microhardness and dielectric studies. The second and third order nonlinear optical characteristics of LVVCl was characterized utilizing Kurtz Perry and Z scan technique respectively clearly suggest its suitability in the domain of optics and photonics. - Graphical abstract: Good quality transparent single crystals of L-valinium L-valine chloride single crystal was grown by slow evaporation technique. The grown crystals were analyzed using different instrumentation methods to check its usefulness for the device fabrication. The determination of nonlinear refractive index (n{sub 2}), absorption coefficient (β) and third order nonlinear susceptibility was determined by Z scan technique, highlighted that LVVCl can serve as a promising candidate for opto electronic and nonlinear optical applications.

  11. SU-E-T-354: Efficient and Enhanced QA Testing of Linear Accelerators Using a Real-Time Beam Monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, J; Farrokhkish, M; Norrlinger, B; Wang, Y [Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Heaton, R; Jaffray, D; Islam, M [Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of performing routine QA tests of linear accelerators (Linac) using the Integral Quality Monitoring (IQM) system. The system, consisting of a 1-D sensitivity gradient large area ion-chamber mounted at the collimator, allows automatic collection and analysis of beam data. Methods: The IQM was investigated to perform several QA constancy tests, similar to those recommended by AAPM TG142, of a Linac including: beam output, MLC calibration, beam symmetry, relative dose factor (RDF), dose linearity, output as a function of gantry angle and dose rate. All measurements by the IQM system accompanied a reference measurement using a conventional dosimetry system and were performed on an Elekta Infinity Linac with Agility MLC. The MLC calibration check is done using a Picket-Fence type 2×10cm{sup 2} field positioned at different off-axis locations along the chamber gradient. Beam symmetry constancy values are established by signals from an 4×4cm{sup 2} aperture located at various off-axis positions; the sensitivity of the test was determined by the changes in the signals in response to a tilt in the beam. The data for various square field sizes were used to develop a functional relationship with RDF. Results: The IQM tracked the beam output well within 1% of the reference ion-chamber readings. The Picket-Fence type field test detected a 1mm shift error of one MLC bank. The system was able to detect 2.5% or greater beam asymmetry. The IQM results for all other QA tests were found to agree with the reference values to within 0.5%. Conclusion: It was demonstrated that the IQM system can effectively monitor the Linac performance parameters for the purpose of routine QA constancy tests. With minimum user interactions a comprehensive set of tests can be performed efficiently, allowing frequent monitoring of the Linac. The presenting author’s salary is funded by the manufacturer of the QA device. All the other authors have financial

  12. SU-E-T-354: Efficient and Enhanced QA Testing of Linear Accelerators Using a Real-Time Beam Monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, J; Farrokhkish, M; Norrlinger, B; Wang, Y; Heaton, R; Jaffray, D; Islam, M

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of performing routine QA tests of linear accelerators (Linac) using the Integral Quality Monitoring (IQM) system. The system, consisting of a 1-D sensitivity gradient large area ion-chamber mounted at the collimator, allows automatic collection and analysis of beam data. Methods: The IQM was investigated to perform several QA constancy tests, similar to those recommended by AAPM TG142, of a Linac including: beam output, MLC calibration, beam symmetry, relative dose factor (RDF), dose linearity, output as a function of gantry angle and dose rate. All measurements by the IQM system accompanied a reference measurement using a conventional dosimetry system and were performed on an Elekta Infinity Linac with Agility MLC. The MLC calibration check is done using a Picket-Fence type 2×10cm 2 field positioned at different off-axis locations along the chamber gradient. Beam symmetry constancy values are established by signals from an 4×4cm 2 aperture located at various off-axis positions; the sensitivity of the test was determined by the changes in the signals in response to a tilt in the beam. The data for various square field sizes were used to develop a functional relationship with RDF. Results: The IQM tracked the beam output well within 1% of the reference ion-chamber readings. The Picket-Fence type field test detected a 1mm shift error of one MLC bank. The system was able to detect 2.5% or greater beam asymmetry. The IQM results for all other QA tests were found to agree with the reference values to within 0.5%. Conclusion: It was demonstrated that the IQM system can effectively monitor the Linac performance parameters for the purpose of routine QA constancy tests. With minimum user interactions a comprehensive set of tests can be performed efficiently, allowing frequent monitoring of the Linac. The presenting author’s salary is funded by the manufacturer of the QA device. All the other authors have financial interests with

  13. Power efficient dynamic resource scheduling algorithms for LTE

    OpenAIRE

    Han, C; Beh, KC; Nicolaou, M; Armour, SMD; Doufexi, A

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a link level analysis of the rate and energy efficiency performance of the LTE downlink considering the unitary codebook based precoding scheme. In a multi-user environment, appropriate radio resource management strategies can be applied to the system to improve the performance gain by exploiting multi-user diversity in the time, frequency and space domains and the gains can be translated to energy reduction at the base station. Several existing and novel resource scheduli...

  14. Efficient parallel iterative solvers for the solution of large dense linear systems arising from the boundary element method in electromagnetism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alleon, G. [EADS-CCR, 31 - Blagnac (France); Carpentieri, B.; Du, I.S.; Giraud, L.; Langou, J.; Martin, E. [Cerfacs, 31 - Toulouse (France)

    2003-07-01

    The boundary element method has become a popular tool for the solution of Maxwell's equations in electromagnetism. It discretizes only the surface of the radiating object and gives rise to linear systems that are smaller in size compared to those arising from finite element or finite difference discretizations. However, these systems are prohibitively demanding in terms of memory for direct methods and challenging to solve by iterative methods. In this paper we address the iterative solution via preconditioned Krylov methods of electromagnetic scattering problems expressed in an integral formulation, with main focus on the design of the pre-conditioner. We consider an approximate inverse method based on the Frobenius-norm minimization with a pattern prescribed in advance. The pre-conditioner is constructed from a sparse approximation of the dense coefficient matrix, and the patterns both for the pre-conditioner and for the coefficient matrix are computed a priori using geometric information from the mesh. We describe the implementation of the approximate inverse in an out-of-core parallel code that uses multipole techniques for the matrix-vector products, and show results on the numerical scalability of our method on systems of size up to one million unknowns. We propose an embedded iterative scheme based on the GMRES method and combined with multipole techniques, aimed at improving the robustness of the approximate inverse for large problems. We prove by numerical experiments that the proposed scheme enables the solution of very large and difficult problems efficiently at reduced computational and memory cost. Finally we perform a preliminary study on a spectral two-level pre-conditioner to enhance the robustness of our method. This numerical technique exploits spectral information of the preconditioned systems to build a low rank-update of the pre-conditioner. (authors)

  15. Efficient parallel iterative solvers for the solution of large dense linear systems arising from the boundary element method in electromagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alleon, G.; Carpentieri, B.; Du, I.S.; Giraud, L.; Langou, J.; Martin, E.

    2003-01-01

    The boundary element method has become a popular tool for the solution of Maxwell's equations in electromagnetism. It discretizes only the surface of the radiating object and gives rise to linear systems that are smaller in size compared to those arising from finite element or finite difference discretizations. However, these systems are prohibitively demanding in terms of memory for direct methods and challenging to solve by iterative methods. In this paper we address the iterative solution via preconditioned Krylov methods of electromagnetic scattering problems expressed in an integral formulation, with main focus on the design of the pre-conditioner. We consider an approximate inverse method based on the Frobenius-norm minimization with a pattern prescribed in advance. The pre-conditioner is constructed from a sparse approximation of the dense coefficient matrix, and the patterns both for the pre-conditioner and for the coefficient matrix are computed a priori using geometric information from the mesh. We describe the implementation of the approximate inverse in an out-of-core parallel code that uses multipole techniques for the matrix-vector products, and show results on the numerical scalability of our method on systems of size up to one million unknowns. We propose an embedded iterative scheme based on the GMRES method and combined with multipole techniques, aimed at improving the robustness of the approximate inverse for large problems. We prove by numerical experiments that the proposed scheme enables the solution of very large and difficult problems efficiently at reduced computational and memory cost. Finally we perform a preliminary study on a spectral two-level pre-conditioner to enhance the robustness of our method. This numerical technique exploits spectral information of the preconditioned systems to build a low rank-update of the pre-conditioner. (authors)

  16. Linearity Analysis and Efficiency Testing of The Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter (CLASP) Science Cameras for Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Salma C.; Rachmeler, Laurel; Winebarger, Amy; Champey, Patrick; Bethge, Christian

    2018-01-01

    To unveil the complexity of the solar atmosphere, measurement of the magnetic field in the upper chromosphere and transition region is fundamentally important, as this is where the forces transition from plasma to magnetic field dominated. Measurements of the field are also needed to elucidate the energy transport from the lower atmospheric regions to the corona beyond. Such an advance in heliospheric knowledge became possible with the first flight of the international solar sounding rocket mission, CLASP. For the first time, linear polarization was measured in Hydrogen Lyman-Alpha at 121.60 nm in September 2015. For linear polarization measurements in this emission line, high sensitivity is required due to the relatively weak polarization signal compared to the intensity. To achieve this high sensitivity, a low-noise sensor is required with good knowledge of its characterization, including linearity. This work presents further refinement of the linearity characterization of the cameras flown in 2015. We compared the current from a photodiode in the light path to the digital response of the detectors. Pre-flight CCD linearity measurements were taken for all three flight cameras and calculations of the linear fits and residuals were performed. However, the previous calculations included a smearing pattern and a digital saturation region on the detectors which were not properly taken into account. The calculations have been adjusted and were repeated for manually chosen sub-regions on the detectors that were found not to be affected. We present a brief overview of the instrument, the calibration data and procedures, and a comparison of the old and new linearity results. The CLASP cameras will be reused for the successor mission, CLASP2, which will measure the Magnesium II h & k emission lines between 279.45 nm and 280.35 nm. The new approach will help to better prepare for and to improve the camera characterization for CLASP2.

  17. Linearity Analysis and Efficiency Testing of The Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter (CLASP) Science Cameras for Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, S. C.; Rachmeler, L.; Winebarger, A. R.; Champey, P. R.; Bethge, C.

    2017-12-01

    To unveil the complexity of the solar atmosphere, measurement of the magnetic field in the upper chromosphere and transition region is fundamentally important, as this is where the forces transition from plasma to magnetic field dominated. Measurements of the field are also needed to shed light on the energy transport from the lower atmospheric regions to the corona beyond. Such an advance in heliospheric knowledge became possible with the first flight of the international solar sounding rocket mission, CLASP. For the first time, linear polarization was measured in H Lyman-Alpha at 121.60 nm in September 2015. For linear polarization measurements in this line, high sensitivity is required due to the relatively weak polarization signal compared to the intensity. To achieve this high sensitivity, a low-noise sensor is required with good knowledge of its characterization, including linearity. This work presents further refinement of the linearity characterization of the cameras flown in 2015. We compared the current from a photodiode in the light path to the digital response of the detectors. Pre-flight CCD linearity measurements were taken for all three flight cameras and calculations of the linear fits and residuals were performed. However, the previous calculations included a smearing pattern and a digital saturation region on the detectors which were not properly taken into account. The calculations have been adjusted and were repeated for manually chosen sub-regions on the detectors that were found not to be affected. We present a brief overview of the instrument, the calibration data and procedures, and a comparison of the old and new linearity results. The CLASP cameras will be reused for the successor mission, CLASP2, which will measure the Mg II h & k lines between 279.45 nm and 280.35 nm. The new approach will help to better prepare for and to improve the camera characterization for CLASP2.

  18. Efficient non-linear model reduction via a least-squares Petrov-Galerkin projection and compressive tensor approximations

    KAUST Repository

    Carlberg, Kevin

    2010-10-28

    A Petrov-Galerkin projection method is proposed for reducing the dimension of a discrete non-linear static or dynamic computational model in view of enabling its processing in real time. The right reduced-order basis is chosen to be invariant and is constructed using the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition method. The left reduced-order basis is selected to minimize the two-norm of the residual arising at each Newton iteration. Thus, this basis is iteration-dependent, enables capturing of non-linearities, and leads to the globally convergent Gauss-Newton method. To avoid the significant computational cost of assembling the reduced-order operators, the residual and action of the Jacobian on the right reduced-order basis are each approximated by the product of an invariant, large-scale matrix, and an iteration-dependent, smaller one. The invariant matrix is computed using a data compression procedure that meets proposed consistency requirements. The iteration-dependent matrix is computed to enable the least-squares reconstruction of some entries of the approximated quantities. The results obtained for the solution of a turbulent flow problem and several non-linear structural dynamics problems highlight the merit of the proposed consistency requirements. They also demonstrate the potential of this method to significantly reduce the computational cost associated with high-dimensional non-linear models while retaining their accuracy. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Efficient EBE treatment of the dynamic far-field in non-linear FE soil-structure interaction analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crouch, R.S.; Bennett, T.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents results and observations from the use of a rigorous method of treating the dynamic far-field as part of a non-linear FE analysis. The technique de-veloped by Wolf and Song (referred to as the Scaled Boundary Finite-Element Method) is incorporated into a 3-D time-domain analysis

  20. An efficient synthesis of linear β-(1→6)-galactan oligosaccharides related to plant cell wall glycans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mathias Christian Franch; Arentoft, Camilla Anna Søholt; Boos, Irene

    2017-01-01

    Galactans are linear structures mainly found in arabinogalactan glycans and RG-I side chains. As a follow-up to our work on both β-(1→3)-linked and β-(1→4)-linked galactans, we herein report a convergent synthesis of β-(1→6)-galactan using our previously synthesized 4,6-benzylidene protected disa...

  1. Efficient non-linear model reduction via a least-squares Petrov-Galerkin projection and compressive tensor approximations

    KAUST Repository

    Carlberg, Kevin; Bou-Mosleh, Charbel; Farhat, Charbel

    2010-01-01

    A Petrov-Galerkin projection method is proposed for reducing the dimension of a discrete non-linear static or dynamic computational model in view of enabling its processing in real time. The right reduced-order basis is chosen to be invariant and is constructed using the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition method. The left reduced-order basis is selected to minimize the two-norm of the residual arising at each Newton iteration. Thus, this basis is iteration-dependent, enables capturing of non-linearities, and leads to the globally convergent Gauss-Newton method. To avoid the significant computational cost of assembling the reduced-order operators, the residual and action of the Jacobian on the right reduced-order basis are each approximated by the product of an invariant, large-scale matrix, and an iteration-dependent, smaller one. The invariant matrix is computed using a data compression procedure that meets proposed consistency requirements. The iteration-dependent matrix is computed to enable the least-squares reconstruction of some entries of the approximated quantities. The results obtained for the solution of a turbulent flow problem and several non-linear structural dynamics problems highlight the merit of the proposed consistency requirements. They also demonstrate the potential of this method to significantly reduce the computational cost associated with high-dimensional non-linear models while retaining their accuracy. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Third-order-accurate numerical methods for efficient, large time-step solutions of mixed linear and nonlinear problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, J.W.

    1995-02-01

    There is an increasing need for more accurate numerical methods for large-scale nonlinear magneto-fluid turbulence calculations. These methods should not only increase the current state of the art in terms of accuracy, but should also continue to optimize other desired properties such as simplicity, minimized computation, minimized memory requirements, and robust stability. This includes the ability to stably solve stiff problems with long time-steps. This work discusses a general methodology for deriving higher-order numerical methods. It also discusses how the selection of various choices can affect the desired properties. The explicit discussion focuses on third-order Runge-Kutta methods, including general solutions and five examples. The study investigates the linear numerical analysis of these methods, including their accuracy, general stability, and stiff stability. Additional appendices discuss linear multistep methods, discuss directions for further work, and exhibit numerical analysis results for some other commonly used lower-order methods.

  3. Linear mode conversion of Langmuir/z-mode waves to radiation: Scalings of conversion efficiencies and propagation angles with temperature and magnetic field orientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleyer, F.; Cairns, Iver H.; Kim, E.-H.

    2013-01-01

    Linear mode conversion (LMC) is the linear transfer of energy from one wave mode to another in an inhomogeneous plasma. It is relevant to laboratory plasmas and multiple solar system radio emissions, such as continuum radiation from planetary magnetospheres and type II and III radio bursts from the solar corona and solar wind. This paper simulates LMC of waves defined by warm, magnetized fluid theory, specifically the conversion of Langmuir/z-mode waves to electromagnetic (EM) radiation. The primary focus is the calculation of the energy and power conversion efficiencies for LMC as functions of the angle of incidence θ of the Langmuir/z-mode wave, temperature β=T e /m e c 2 , adiabatic index γ, and orientation angle φ between the ambient density gradient ∇N 0 and ambient magnetic field B 0 in a warm, unmagnetized plasma. The ratio of these efficiencies is found to agree well as a function of θ, γ, and β with an analytical relation that depends on the group speeds of the Langmuir/z and EM wave modes. The results demonstrate that the energy conversion efficiency ε is strongly dependent on γβ, φ and θ, with ε∝(γβ) 1/2 and θ∝(γβ) 1/2 . The power conversion efficiency ε p , on the other hand, is independent of γβ but does vary significantly with θ and φ. The efficiencies are shown to be maximum for approximately perpendicular density gradients (φ≈90°) and minimal for parallel orientation (φ=0°) and both the energy and power conversion efficiencies peak at the same θ.

  4. An efficient method for minimizing a convex separable logarithmic function subject to a convex inequality constraint or linear equality constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of minimizing a convex separable logarithmic function over a region defined by a convex inequality constraint or linear equality constraint, and two-sided bounds on the variables (box constraints. Such problems are interesting from both theoretical and practical point of view because they arise in some mathematical programming problems as well as in various practical problems such as problems of production planning and scheduling, allocation of resources, decision making, facility location problems, and so forth. Polynomial algorithms are proposed for solving problems of this form and their convergence is proved. Some examples and results of numerical experiments are also presented.

  5. 2D Unitary ESPRIT Based Super-Resolution Channel Estimation for Millimeter-Wave Massive MIMO with Hybrid Precoding

    KAUST Repository

    Liao, Anwen

    2017-11-01

    Millimeter-wave (mmWave) massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) with hybrid precoding is a promising technique for the future 5G wireless communications. Due to a large number of antennas but a much smaller number of radio frequency (RF) chains, estimating the high-dimensional mmWave massive MIMO channel will bring the large pilot overhead. To overcome this challenge, this paper proposes a super-resolution channel estimation scheme based on two-dimensional (2D) unitary ESPRIT algorithm. By exploiting the angular sparsity of mmWave channels, the continuously distributed angle of arrivals/departures (AoAs/AoDs) can be jointly estimated with high accuracy. Specifically, by designing the uplink training signals at both base station (BS) and mobile station (MS), we first use low pilot overhead to estimate a low-dimensional effective channel, which has the same shift-invariance of array response as the high-dimensional mmWave MIMO channel to be estimated. From the low-dimensional effective channel, the superresolution estimates of AoAs and AoDs can be jointly obtained by exploiting the 2D unitary ESPRIT channel estimation algorithm. Furthermore, the associated path gains can be acquired based on the least squares (LS) criterion. Finally, we can reconstruct the high-dimensional mmWave MIMO channel according to the obtained AoAs, AoDs, and path gains. Simulation results have confirmed that the proposed scheme is superior to conventional schemes with a much lower pilot overhead.

  6. Precoding Design of MIMO Amplify-and-Forward Communication System With an Energy Harvesting Relay and Possibly Imperfect CSI

    KAUST Repository

    Benkhelifa, Fatma

    2017-03-02

    In this paper, we investigate the simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) in a Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) Amplify-and-Forward (AF) relay communication system where the relay is an energy harvesting (EH) node and harvests the energy the signals transmitted from the source. The harvested energy is partially used to forward signals from the source to the destination, and the remaining energy is stored for other usages. The SWIPT in relay-assisted communication is interesting as long as the relay stores energy from the source and the destination receives successfully the data from the source. In this context, we propose to investigate the source and relay precoders that characterize the relationship between the achievable stored energy at the relay and the achievable sourceto- destination rate, namely the rate-stored energy (R-E) tradeo region. First, we consider the ideal scheme where there is the simultaneous operation of the EH and ID receivers at the relay. Then, we consider practical schemes such as the power splitting (PS) and the time switching (TS) that separate the operation of EH and information decoding (ID) receivers over power domain or time domain, respectively. Moreover, we study the case of imperfect channel state information (CSI) at the relay and the destination and characterize its impact on the achievable R-E region. Through the simulation results, we show the eect of the position of the relay and the channel uncertainty on the achievable R-E regions of all the schemes when the used energy at the relay is constant or variable. We also show that, although it provides an outer bound on the achievable rate-energy region in one-hop MIMO systems, the ideal scheme provides only an upper bound on the maximum achievable end-to-end rate and not an outer bound on the R-E region.

  7. 2D Unitary ESPRIT Based Super-Resolution Channel Estimation for Millimeter-Wave Massive MIMO with Hybrid Precoding

    KAUST Repository

    Liao, Anwen; Gao, Zhen; Wu, Yongpeng; Wang, Hua; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    Millimeter-wave (mmWave) massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) with hybrid precoding is a promising technique for the future 5G wireless communications. Due to a large number of antennas but a much smaller number of radio frequency (RF) chains, estimating the high-dimensional mmWave massive MIMO channel will bring the large pilot overhead. To overcome this challenge, this paper proposes a super-resolution channel estimation scheme based on two-dimensional (2D) unitary ESPRIT algorithm. By exploiting the angular sparsity of mmWave channels, the continuously distributed angle of arrivals/departures (AoAs/AoDs) can be jointly estimated with high accuracy. Specifically, by designing the uplink training signals at both base station (BS) and mobile station (MS), we first use low pilot overhead to estimate a low-dimensional effective channel, which has the same shift-invariance of array response as the high-dimensional mmWave MIMO channel to be estimated. From the low-dimensional effective channel, the superresolution estimates of AoAs and AoDs can be jointly obtained by exploiting the 2D unitary ESPRIT channel estimation algorithm. Furthermore, the associated path gains can be acquired based on the least squares (LS) criterion. Finally, we can reconstruct the high-dimensional mmWave MIMO channel according to the obtained AoAs, AoDs, and path gains. Simulation results have confirmed that the proposed scheme is superior to conventional schemes with a much lower pilot overhead.

  8. Efficient Computation of Multiscale Entropy over Short Biomedical Time Series Based on Linear State-Space Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Faes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common approach to assess the dynamical complexity of a time series across multiple temporal scales makes use of the multiscale entropy (MSE and refined MSE (RMSE measures. In spite of their popularity, MSE and RMSE lack an analytical framework allowing their calculation for known dynamic processes and cannot be reliably computed over short time series. To overcome these limitations, we propose a method to assess RMSE for autoregressive (AR stochastic processes. The method makes use of linear state-space (SS models to provide the multiscale parametric representation of an AR process observed at different time scales and exploits the SS parameters to quantify analytically the complexity of the process. The resulting linear MSE (LMSE measure is first tested in simulations, both theoretically to relate the multiscale complexity of AR processes to their dynamical properties and over short process realizations to assess its computational reliability in comparison with RMSE. Then, it is applied to the time series of heart period, arterial pressure, and respiration measured for healthy subjects monitored in resting conditions and during physiological stress. This application to short-term cardiovascular variability documents that LMSE can describe better than RMSE the activity of physiological mechanisms producing biological oscillations at different temporal scales.

  9. Efficient Narrowband Direction of Arrival Estimation Based on a Combination of Uniform Linear/Shirvani-Akbari Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriar Shirvani Moghaddam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Uniform linear array (ULA geometry does not perform well for direction of arrival (DOA estimation at directions close to the array endfires. Shirvani and Akbari solved this problem by displacing two elements from both ends of the ULA to the top and/or bottom of the array axis. Shirvani-Akbari array (SAA presents a considerable improvement in the DOA estimation of narrowband sources arriving at endfire directions in terms of DOA estimation accuracy and angular resolution. In this paper, all new proposed SAA configurations are modelled and also examined, numerically. In this paper, two well-known DOA estimation algorithms, multiple signal classification (MUSIC and minimum variance distortionless response (MVDR, are used to evaluate the effectiveness of proposed arrays using total root mean square error (RMSE criterion. In addition, two new scenarios are proposed which divide angular search to two parts, directions close to array endfires as well as middle angles. For middle angles, which belong to (−70∘≤≤70∘, ULA is considered, and for endfire angles, the angles which belong to (−90∘≤≤−70∘ and (70∘≤≤90∘, SAA is considered. Simulation results of new proposed scenarios for DOA estimation of narrowband signals show the better performance with lower computational load.

  10. Linear-scaling time-dependent density-functional theory beyond the Tamm-Dancoff approximation: Obtaining efficiency and accuracy with in situ optimised local orbitals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuehlsdorff, T. J., E-mail: tjz21@cam.ac.uk; Payne, M. C. [Cavendish Laboratory, J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Hine, N. D. M. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Haynes, P. D. [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Thomas Young Centre for Theory and Simulation of Materials, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-28

    We present a solution of the full time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) eigenvalue equation in the linear response formalism exhibiting a linear-scaling computational complexity with system size, without relying on the simplifying Tamm-Dancoff approximation (TDA). The implementation relies on representing the occupied and unoccupied subspaces with two different sets of in situ optimised localised functions, yielding a very compact and efficient representation of the transition density matrix of the excitation with the accuracy associated with a systematic basis set. The TDDFT eigenvalue equation is solved using a preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithm that is very memory-efficient. The algorithm is validated on a small test molecule and a good agreement with results obtained from standard quantum chemistry packages is found, with the preconditioner yielding a significant improvement in convergence rates. The method developed in this work is then used to reproduce experimental results of the absorption spectrum of bacteriochlorophyll in an organic solvent, where it is demonstrated that the TDA fails to reproduce the main features of the low energy spectrum, while the full TDDFT equation yields results in good qualitative agreement with experimental data. Furthermore, the need for explicitly including parts of the solvent into the TDDFT calculations is highlighted, making the treatment of large system sizes necessary that are well within reach of the capabilities of the algorithm introduced here. Finally, the linear-scaling properties of the algorithm are demonstrated by computing the lowest excitation energy of bacteriochlorophyll in solution. The largest systems considered in this work are of the same order of magnitude as a variety of widely studied pigment-protein complexes, opening up the possibility of studying their properties without having to resort to any semiclassical approximations to parts of the protein environment.

  11. Extending the precision and efficiency of the all-electron full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave density-functional theory method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalicek, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) is the most widely-used first-principles theory for analyzing, describing and predicting the properties of solids based on the fundamental laws of quantum mechanics. The success of the theory is a consequence of powerful approximations to the unknown exchange and correlation energy of the interacting electrons and of sophisticated electronic structure methods that enable the computation of the density functional equations on a computer. A widely used electronic structure method is the full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave (FLAPW) method, that is considered to be one of the most precise methods of its kind and often referred to as a standard. Challenged by the demand of treating chemically and structurally increasingly more complex solids, in this thesis this method is revisited and extended along two different directions: (i) precision and (ii) efficiency. In the full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave method the space of a solid is partitioned into nearly touching spheres, centered at each atom, and the remaining interstitial region between the spheres. The Kohn-Sham orbitals, which are used to construct the electron density, the essential quantity in DFT, are expanded into a linearized augmented plane-wave basis, which consists of plane waves in the interstitial region and angular momentum dependent radial functions in the spheres. In this thesis it is shown that for certain types of materials, e.g., materials with very broad electron bands or large band gaps, or materials that allow the usage of large space-filling spheres, the variational freedom of the basis in the spheres has to be extended in order to represent the Kohn-Sham orbitals with high precision over a large energy spread. Two kinds of additional radial functions confined to the spheres, so-called local orbitals, are evaluated and found to successfully eliminate this error. A new efficient basis set is developed, named linearized augmented lattice

  12. The Efficiency of OLS Estimators of Structural Parameters in a Simple Linear Regression Model in the Calibration of the Averages Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowal Robert

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A simple linear regression model is one of the pillars of classic econometrics. Multiple areas of research function within its scope. One of the many fundamental questions in the model concerns proving the efficiency of the most commonly used OLS estimators and examining their properties. In the literature of the subject one can find taking back to this scope and certain solutions in that regard. Methodically, they are borrowed from the multiple regression model or also from a boundary partial model. Not everything, however, is here complete and consistent. In the paper a completely new scheme is proposed, based on the implementation of the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality in the arrangement of the constraint aggregated from calibrated appropriately secondary constraints of unbiasedness which in a result of choice the appropriate calibrator for each variable directly leads to showing this property. A separate range-is a matter of choice of such a calibrator. These deliberations, on account of the volume and kinds of the calibration, were divided into a few parts. In the one the efficiency of OLS estimators is proven in a mixed scheme of the calibration by averages, that is preliminary, and in the most basic frames of the proposed methodology. In these frames the future outlines and general premises constituting the base of more distant generalizations are being created.

  13. Uranium, radium and thorium in soils with high-resolution gamma spectroscopy, MCNP-generated efficiencies, and VRF non-linear full-spectrum nuclide shape fitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metzger Robert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method for analysis of uranium and radium in soils by gamma spectroscopy has been developed using VRF (“Visual RobFit” which, unlike traditional peak-search techniques, fits full-spectrum nuclide shapes with non-linear least-squares minimization of the chi-squared statistic. Gamma efficiency curves were developed for a 500 mL Marinelli beaker geometry as a function of soil density using MCNP. Collected spectra were then analyzed using the MCNP-generated efficiency curves and VRF to deconvolute the 90 keV peak complex of uranium and obtain 238U and 235U activities. 226Ra activity was determined either from the radon daughters if the equilibrium status is known, or directly from the deconvoluted 186 keV line. 228Ra values were determined from the 228Ac daughter activity. The method was validated by analysis of radium, thorium and uranium soil standards and by inter-comparison with other methods for radium in soils. The method allows for a rapid determination of whether a sample has been impacted by a man-made activity by comparison of the uranium and radium concentrations to those that would be expected from a natural equilibrium state.

  14. Uranium, radium and thorium in soils with high-resolution gamma spectroscopy, MCNP-generated efficiencies, and VRF non-linear full-spectrum nuclide shape fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Robert; Riper, Kenneth Van; Lasche, George

    2017-09-01

    A new method for analysis of uranium and radium in soils by gamma spectroscopy has been developed using VRF ("Visual RobFit") which, unlike traditional peak-search techniques, fits full-spectrum nuclide shapes with non-linear least-squares minimization of the chi-squared statistic. Gamma efficiency curves were developed for a 500 mL Marinelli beaker geometry as a function of soil density using MCNP. Collected spectra were then analyzed using the MCNP-generated efficiency curves and VRF to deconvolute the 90 keV peak complex of uranium and obtain 238U and 235U activities. 226Ra activity was determined either from the radon daughters if the equilibrium status is known, or directly from the deconvoluted 186 keV line. 228Ra values were determined from the 228Ac daughter activity. The method was validated by analysis of radium, thorium and uranium soil standards and by inter-comparison with other methods for radium in soils. The method allows for a rapid determination of whether a sample has been impacted by a man-made activity by comparison of the uranium and radium concentrations to those that would be expected from a natural equilibrium state.

  15. Determination of the Removal Efficiency of Linear Alkyl Benzene Sulphonate Acids (LAS in Fixed Bed Aeration Tank and Conventional Activated Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Ebrahimi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Linear Alkyl Benzene Sulphonate Acids (LAS are one of the anionic surfactants that are produced and used in large quantities in different countries and find their way into the natural environment through sewer systems. These compounds may potentially cause environmental hazards in such surface waters as rivers. It is, therefore, necessary to remove as much of these compounds as possible by biological processes in wastewater treatment plants. For this purpose, four parallel biological reactors were constructed that used the conventional activated sludge and aeration tanks with fixed bed on the bench scale in order to evaluate the removal efficiency of LAS. The reactors were operated under conditions similar to domestic wastewater treatment plants. Parameters of interest were measured according to standard methods and ANOVA and T-test were used for the statistical analysis of the data. The results showed that aeration tanks with fixed beds yielded higher values of LAS and COD removal and air consumption compared to the conventional activated sludge system. It was shown that the two systems studied achieved LAS removal efficiencies of 96% and 94% for an influent LAS concentration of 5 mg/L. Further, it was found that the effluents from both systems satisfied water quality standards for discharge into surface waters (

  16. Linear transceiver design for nonorthogonal amplify-and-forward protocol using a bit error rate criterion

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Qasim Zeeshan

    2014-04-01

    The ever growing demand of higher data rates can now be addressed by exploiting cooperative diversity. This form of diversity has become a fundamental technique for achieving spatial diversity by exploiting the presence of idle users in the network. This has led to new challenges in terms of designing new protocols and detectors for cooperative communications. Among various amplify-and-forward (AF) protocols, the half duplex non-orthogonal amplify-and-forward (NAF) protocol is superior to other AF schemes in terms of error performance and capacity. However, this superiority is achieved at the cost of higher receiver complexity. Furthermore, in order to exploit the full diversity of the system an optimal precoder is required. In this paper, an optimal joint linear transceiver is proposed for the NAF protocol. This transceiver operates on the principles of minimum bit error rate (BER), and is referred as joint bit error rate (JBER) detector. The BER performance of JBER detector is superior to all the proposed linear detectors such as channel inversion, the maximal ratio combining, the biased maximum likelihood detectors, and the minimum mean square error. The proposed transceiver also outperforms previous precoders designed for the NAF protocol. © 2002-2012 IEEE.

  17. Linear-Algebra Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, C. L.; Krogh, F. T.; Gold, S. S.; Kincaid, D. R.; Sullivan, J.; Williams, E.; Hanson, R. J.; Haskell, K.; Dongarra, J.; Moler, C. B.

    1982-01-01

    The Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS) library is a collection of 38 FORTRAN-callable routines for performing basic operations of numerical linear algebra. BLAS library is portable and efficient source of basic operations for designers of programs involving linear algebriac computations. BLAS library is supplied in portable FORTRAN and Assembler code versions for IBM 370, UNIVAC 1100 and CDC 6000 series computers.

  18. Enhanced Energy-Storage Density and High Efficiency of Lead-Free CaTiO3-BiScO3 Linear Dielectric Ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Bingcheng; Wang, Xiaohui; Tian, Enke; Song, Hongzhou; Wang, Hongxian; Li, Longtu

    2017-06-14

    A novel lead-free (1 - x)CaTiO 3 -xBiScO 3 linear dielectric ceramic with enhanced energy-storage density was fabricated. With the composition of BiScO 3 increasing, the dielectric constant of (1 - x)CaTiO 3 -xBiScO 3 ceramics first increased and then decreased after the composition x > 0.1, while the dielectric loss decreased first and increased. For the composition x = 0.1, the polarization was increased into 12.36 μC/cm 2 , 4.6 times higher than that of the pure CaTiO 3 . The energy density of 0.9CaTiO 3 -0.1BiScO 3 ceramic was 1.55 J/cm 3 with the energy-storage efficiency of 90.4% at the breakdown strength of 270 kV/cm, and the power density was 1.79 MW/cm 3 . Comparison with other lead-free dielectric ceramics confirmed the superior potential of CaTiO 3 -BiScO 3 ceramics for the design of ceramics capacitors for energy-storage applications. First-principles calculations revealed that Sc subsitution of Ti-site induced the atomic displacement of Ti ions in the whole crystal lattice, and lattice expansion was caused by variation of the bond angles and lenghths. Strong hybridization between O 2p and Ti 3d was observed in both valence band and conduction band; the hybridization between O 2p and Sc 3d at high conduction band was found to enlarge the band gap, and the static dielectric tensors were increased, which was the essential for the enhancement of polarization and dielectric properties.

  19. Validation of the Danish 7-day pre-coded food diary among adults: energy intake v. energy expenditure and recording length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Matthiessen, Jeppe; Rasmussen, Lone Banke

    2009-01-01

    Under-reporting of energy intake (EI) is a well-known problem when measuring dietary intake in free-living populations. The present study aimed at quantifying misreporting by comparing EI estimated from the Danish pre-coded food diary against energy expenditure (EE) measured with a validated...... position-and-motion instrument (ActiReg®). Further, the influence of recording length on EI:BMR, percentage consumers, the number of meal occasions and recorded food items per meal was examined. A total of 138 Danish volunteers aged 20–59 years wore the ActiReg® and recorded their food intake for 7...... for EI and EE were − 6·29 and 3·09 MJ/d. Of the participants, 73 % were classified as acceptable reporters, 26 % as under-reporters and 1 % as over-reporters. EI:BMR was significantly lower on 1–3 consecutive recording days compared with 4–7 recording days (P food...

  20. Interference Alignment-based Precoding and User Selection with Limited Feedback in Two-cell Downlink Multi-user MIMO Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Zhu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Interference alignment (IA is a new approach to address interference in modern multiple-input multiple-out (MIMO cellular networks in which interference is an important factor that limits the system throughput. System throughput in most IA implementation schemes is significantly improved only with perfect channel state information and in a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR region. Designing a simple IA scheme for the system with limited feedback and investigating system performance at a low-to-medium SNR region is important and practical. This paper proposed a precoding and user selection scheme based on partial interference alignment in two-cell downlink multi-user MIMO systems under limited feedback. This scheme aligned inter-cell interference to a predefined direction by designing user’s receive antenna combining vectors. A modified singular value decomposition (SVD-based beamforming method and a corresponding user-selection algorithm were proposed for the system with low rate limited feedback to improve sum rate performance. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme achieves a higher sum rate than traditional schemes without IA. The modified SVD-based beamforming scheme is also superior to the traditional zero-forcing beamforming scheme in low-rate limited feedback systems. The proposed partial IA scheme does not need to collaborate between transmitters and joint design between the transmitter and the users. The scheme can be implemented with low feedback overhead in current MIMO cellular networks.

  1. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Shilov, Georgi E

    1977-01-01

    Covers determinants, linear spaces, systems of linear equations, linear functions of a vector argument, coordinate transformations, the canonical form of the matrix of a linear operator, bilinear and quadratic forms, Euclidean spaces, unitary spaces, quadratic forms in Euclidean and unitary spaces, finite-dimensional space. Problems with hints and answers.

  2. Construction of Protograph LDPC Codes with Linear Minimum Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Jones, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    A construction method for protograph-based LDPC codes that simultaneously achieve low iterative decoding threshold and linear minimum distance is proposed. We start with a high-rate protograph LDPC code with variable node degrees of at least 3. Lower rate codes are obtained by splitting check nodes and connecting them by degree-2 nodes. This guarantees the linear minimum distance property for the lower-rate codes. Excluding checks connected to degree-1 nodes, we show that the number of degree-2 nodes should be at most one less than the number of checks for the protograph LDPC code to have linear minimum distance. Iterative decoding thresholds are obtained by using the reciprocal channel approximation. Thresholds are lowered by using either precoding or at least one very high-degree node in the base protograph. A family of high- to low-rate codes with minimum distance linearly increasing in block size and with capacity-approaching performance thresholds is presented. FPGA simulation results for a few example codes show that the proposed codes perform as predicted.

  3. Linear gate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwono.

    1978-01-01

    A linear gate providing a variable gate duration from 0,40μsec to 4μsec was developed. The electronic circuity consists of a linear circuit and an enable circuit. The input signal can be either unipolar or bipolar. If the input signal is bipolar, the negative portion will be filtered. The operation of the linear gate is controlled by the application of a positive enable pulse. (author)

  4. Linear Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vretenar, M

    2014-01-01

    The main features of radio-frequency linear accelerators are introduced, reviewing the different types of accelerating structures and presenting the main characteristics aspects of linac beam dynamics

  5. Linear and exponential TAIL-PCR: a method for efficient and quick amplification of flanking sequences adjacent to Tn5 transposon insertion sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xianbo; Lin, Xinjian; Chen, Jichen

    2017-11-02

    Current genome walking methods are very time consuming, and many produce non-specific amplification products. To amplify the flanking sequences that are adjacent to Tn5 transposon insertion sites in Serratia marcescens FZSF02, we developed a genome walking method based on TAIL-PCR. This PCR method added a 20-cycle linear amplification step before the exponential amplification step to increase the concentration of the target sequences. Products of the linear amplification and the exponential amplification were diluted 100-fold to decrease the concentration of the templates that cause non-specific amplification. Fast DNA polymerase with a high extension speed was used in this method, and an amplification program was used to rapidly amplify long specific sequences. With this linear and exponential TAIL-PCR (LETAIL-PCR), we successfully obtained products larger than 2 kb from Tn5 transposon insertion mutant strains within 3 h. This method can be widely used in genome walking studies to amplify unknown sequences that are adjacent to known sequences.

  6. Linearization Method and Linear Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hidema

    We focus on the relationship between the linearization method and linear complexity and show that the linearization method is another effective technique for calculating linear complexity. We analyze its effectiveness by comparing with the logic circuit method. We compare the relevant conditions and necessary computational cost with those of the Berlekamp-Massey algorithm and the Games-Chan algorithm. The significant property of a linearization method is that it needs no output sequence from a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) because it calculates linear complexity using the algebraic expression of its algorithm. When a PRNG has n [bit] stages (registers or internal states), the necessary computational cost is smaller than O(2n). On the other hand, the Berlekamp-Massey algorithm needs O(N2) where N(≅2n) denotes period. Since existing methods calculate using the output sequence, an initial value of PRNG influences a resultant value of linear complexity. Therefore, a linear complexity is generally given as an estimate value. On the other hand, a linearization method calculates from an algorithm of PRNG, it can determine the lower bound of linear complexity.

  7. Joint Linear Processing for an Amplify-and-Forward MIMO Relay Channel with Imperfect Channel State Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandendorpe Luc

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of jointly optimizing the source precoder, relay transceiver, and destination equalizer has been considered in this paper for a multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO amplify-and-forward (AF relay channel, where the channel estimates of all links are assumed to be imperfect. The considered joint optimization problem is nonconvex and does not offer closed-form solutions. However, it has been shown that the optimization of one variable when others are fixed is a convex optimization problem which can be efficiently solved using interior-point algorithms. In this context, an iterative technique with the guaranteed convergence has been proposed for the AF MIMO relay channel that includes the direct link. It has been also shown that, for the double-hop relay case without the receive-side antenna correlations in each hop, the global optimality can be confirmed since the structures of the source precoder, relay transceiver, and destination equalizer have closed forms and the remaining joint power allocation can be solved using Geometric Programming (GP technique under high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR approximation. In the latter case, the performance of the iterative technique and the GP method has been compared with simulations to ensure that the iterative approach gives reasonably good solutions with an acceptable complexity. Moreover, simulation results verify the robustness of the proposed design when compared to the nonrobust design that assumes estimated channels as actual channels.

  8. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Said-Houari, Belkacem

    2017-01-01

    This self-contained, clearly written textbook on linear algebra is easily accessible for students. It begins with the simple linear equation and generalizes several notions from this equation for the system of linear equations and introduces the main ideas using matrices. It then offers a detailed chapter on determinants and introduces the main ideas with detailed proofs. The third chapter introduces the Euclidean spaces using very simple geometric ideas and discusses various major inequalities and identities. These ideas offer a solid basis for understanding general Hilbert spaces in functional analysis. The following two chapters address general vector spaces, including some rigorous proofs to all the main results, and linear transformation: areas that are ignored or are poorly explained in many textbooks. Chapter 6 introduces the idea of matrices using linear transformation, which is easier to understand than the usual theory of matrices approach. The final two chapters are more advanced, introducing t...

  9. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Stoll, R R

    1968-01-01

    Linear Algebra is intended to be used as a text for a one-semester course in linear algebra at the undergraduate level. The treatment of the subject will be both useful to students of mathematics and those interested primarily in applications of the theory. The major prerequisite for mastering the material is the readiness of the student to reason abstractly. Specifically, this calls for an understanding of the fact that axioms are assumptions and that theorems are logical consequences of one or more axioms. Familiarity with calculus and linear differential equations is required for understand

  10. SU-F-T-459: ArcCHECK Machine QA : Highly Efficient Quality Assurance Tool for VMAT, SRS & SBRT Linear Accelerator Delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mhatre, V; Patwe, P; Dandekar, P

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Quality assurance (QA) of complex linear accelerators is critical and highly time consuming. ArcCHECK Machine QA tool is used to test geometric and delivery aspects of linear accelerator. In this study we evaluated the performance of this tool. Methods: Machine QA feature allows user to perform quality assurance tests using ArcCHECK phantom. Following tests were performed 1) Gantry Speed 2) Gantry Rotation 3) Gantry Angle 4)MLC/Collimator QA 5)Beam Profile Flatness & Symmetry. Data was collected on trueBEAM stX machine for 6 MV for a period of one year. The Gantry QA test allows to view errors in gantry angle, rotation & assess how accurately the gantry moves around the isocentre. The MLC/Collimator QA tool is used to analyze & locate the differences between leaf bank & jaw position of linac. The flatness & Symmetry test quantifies beam flatness & symmetry in IEC-y & x direction. The Gantry & Flatness/Symmetry test can be performed for static & dynamic delivery. Results: The Gantry speed was 3.9 deg/sec with speed maximum deviation around 0.3 deg/sec. The Gantry Isocentre for arc delivery was 0.9mm & static delivery was 0.4mm. The maximum percent positive & negative difference was found to be 1.9 % & – 0.25 % & maximum distance positive & negative diff was 0.4mm & – 0.3 mm for MLC/Collimator QA. The Flatness for Arc delivery was 1.8 % & Symmetry for Y was 0.8 % & X was 1.8 %. The Flatness for gantry 0°,270°,90° & 180° was 1.75,1.9,1.8 & 1.6% respectively & Symmetry for X & Y was 0.8,0.6% for 0°, 0.6,0.7% for 270°, 0.6,1% for 90° & 0.6,0.7% for 180°. Conclusion: ArcCHECK Machine QA is an useful tool for QA of Modern linear accelerators as it tests both geometric & delivery aspects. This is very important for VMAT, SRS & SBRT treatments.

  11. SU-F-T-459: ArcCHECK Machine QA : Highly Efficient Quality Assurance Tool for VMAT, SRS & SBRT Linear Accelerator Delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mhatre, V; Patwe, P; Dandekar, P [Sir HN RF Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra (India)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Quality assurance (QA) of complex linear accelerators is critical and highly time consuming. ArcCHECK Machine QA tool is used to test geometric and delivery aspects of linear accelerator. In this study we evaluated the performance of this tool. Methods: Machine QA feature allows user to perform quality assurance tests using ArcCHECK phantom. Following tests were performed 1) Gantry Speed 2) Gantry Rotation 3) Gantry Angle 4)MLC/Collimator QA 5)Beam Profile Flatness & Symmetry. Data was collected on trueBEAM stX machine for 6 MV for a period of one year. The Gantry QA test allows to view errors in gantry angle, rotation & assess how accurately the gantry moves around the isocentre. The MLC/Collimator QA tool is used to analyze & locate the differences between leaf bank & jaw position of linac. The flatness & Symmetry test quantifies beam flatness & symmetry in IEC-y & x direction. The Gantry & Flatness/Symmetry test can be performed for static & dynamic delivery. Results: The Gantry speed was 3.9 deg/sec with speed maximum deviation around 0.3 deg/sec. The Gantry Isocentre for arc delivery was 0.9mm & static delivery was 0.4mm. The maximum percent positive & negative difference was found to be 1.9 % & – 0.25 % & maximum distance positive & negative diff was 0.4mm & – 0.3 mm for MLC/Collimator QA. The Flatness for Arc delivery was 1.8 % & Symmetry for Y was 0.8 % & X was 1.8 %. The Flatness for gantry 0°,270°,90° & 180° was 1.75,1.9,1.8 & 1.6% respectively & Symmetry for X & Y was 0.8,0.6% for 0°, 0.6,0.7% for 270°, 0.6,1% for 90° & 0.6,0.7% for 180°. Conclusion: ArcCHECK Machine QA is an useful tool for QA of Modern linear accelerators as it tests both geometric & delivery aspects. This is very important for VMAT, SRS & SBRT treatments.

  12. Linear programming

    CERN Document Server

    Solow, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This text covers the basic theory and computation for a first course in linear programming, including substantial material on mathematical proof techniques and sophisticated computation methods. Includes Appendix on using Excel. 1984 edition.

  13. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Liesen, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    This self-contained textbook takes a matrix-oriented approach to linear algebra and presents a complete theory, including all details and proofs, culminating in the Jordan canonical form and its proof. Throughout the development, the applicability of the results is highlighted. Additionally, the book presents special topics from applied linear algebra including matrix functions, the singular value decomposition, the Kronecker product and linear matrix equations. The matrix-oriented approach to linear algebra leads to a better intuition and a deeper understanding of the abstract concepts, and therefore simplifies their use in real world applications. Some of these applications are presented in detailed examples. In several ‘MATLAB-Minutes’ students can comprehend the concepts and results using computational experiments. Necessary basics for the use of MATLAB are presented in a short introduction. Students can also actively work with the material and practice their mathematical skills in more than 300 exerc...

  14. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Berberian, Sterling K

    2014-01-01

    Introductory treatment covers basic theory of vector spaces and linear maps - dimension, determinants, eigenvalues, and eigenvectors - plus more advanced topics such as the study of canonical forms for matrices. 1992 edition.

  15. Linear Models

    CERN Document Server

    Searle, Shayle R

    2012-01-01

    This 1971 classic on linear models is once again available--as a Wiley Classics Library Edition. It features material that can be understood by any statistician who understands matrix algebra and basic statistical methods.

  16. LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofilos, N.C.; Polk, I.J.

    1959-02-17

    Improvements in linear particle accelerators are described. A drift tube system for a linear ion accelerator reduces gap capacity between adjacent drift tube ends. This is accomplished by reducing the ratio of the diameter of the drift tube to the diameter of the resonant cavity. Concentration of magnetic field intensity at the longitudinal midpoint of the external sunface of each drift tube is reduced by increasing the external drift tube diameter at the longitudinal center region.

  17. A TLBO based gradient descent learning-functional link higher order ANN: An efficient model for learning from non-linear data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bighnaraj Naik

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available All the higher order ANNs (HONNs including functional link ANN (FLANN are sensitive to random initialization of weight and rely on the learning algorithms adopted. Although a selection of efficient learning algorithms for HONNs helps to improve the performance, on the other hand, initialization of weights with optimized weights rather than random weights also play important roles on its efficiency. In this paper, the problem solving approach of the teaching learning based optimization (TLBO along with learning ability of the gradient descent learning (GDL is used to obtain the optimal set of weight of FLANN learning model. TLBO does not require any specific parameters rather it requires only some of the common independent parameters like number of populations, number of iterations and stopping criteria, thereby eliminating the intricacy in selection of algorithmic parameters for adjusting the set of weights of FLANN model. The proposed TLBO-FLANN is implemented in MATLAB and compared with GA-FLANN, PSO-FLANN and HS-FLANN. The TLBO-FLANN is tested on various 5-fold cross validated benchmark data sets from UCI machine learning repository and analyzed under the null-hypothesis by using Friedman test, Holm’s procedure and post hoc ANOVA statistical analysis (Tukey test & Dunnett test.

  18. Topics in computational linear optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hultberg, Tim Helge

    2000-01-01

    Linear optimization has been an active area of research ever since the pioneering work of G. Dantzig more than 50 years ago. This research has produced a long sequence of practical as well as theoretical improvements of the solution techniques avilable for solving linear optimization problems...... of high quality solvers and the use of algebraic modelling systems to handle the communication between the modeller and the solver. This dissertation features four topics in computational linear optimization: A) automatic reformulation of mixed 0/1 linear programs, B) direct solution of sparse unsymmetric...... systems of linear equations, C) reduction of linear programs and D) integration of algebraic modelling of linear optimization problems in C++. Each of these topics is treated in a separate paper included in this dissertation. The efficiency of solving mixed 0-1 linear programs by linear programming based...

  19. Linear regression

    CERN Document Server

    Olive, David J

    2017-01-01

    This text covers both multiple linear regression and some experimental design models. The text uses the response plot to visualize the model and to detect outliers, does not assume that the error distribution has a known parametric distribution, develops prediction intervals that work when the error distribution is unknown, suggests bootstrap hypothesis tests that may be useful for inference after variable selection, and develops prediction regions and large sample theory for the multivariate linear regression model that has m response variables. A relationship between multivariate prediction regions and confidence regions provides a simple way to bootstrap confidence regions. These confidence regions often provide a practical method for testing hypotheses. There is also a chapter on generalized linear models and generalized additive models. There are many R functions to produce response and residual plots, to simulate prediction intervals and hypothesis tests, to detect outliers, and to choose response trans...

  20. Linear Colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaraz, J.

    2001-01-01

    After several years of study e''+ e''- linear colliders in the TeV range have emerged as the major and optimal high-energy physics projects for the post-LHC era. These notes summarize the present status form the main accelerator and detector features to their physics potential. The LHC era. These notes summarize the present status, from the main accelerator and detector features to their physics potential. The LHC is expected to provide first discoveries in the new energy domain, whereas an e''+ e''- linear collider in the 500 GeV-1 TeV will be able to complement it to an unprecedented level of precision in any possible areas: Higgs, signals beyond the SM and electroweak measurements. It is evident that the Linear Collider program will constitute a major step in the understanding of the nature of the new physics beyond the Standard Model. (Author) 22 refs

  1. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Edwards, Harold M

    1995-01-01

    In his new undergraduate textbook, Harold M Edwards proposes a radically new and thoroughly algorithmic approach to linear algebra Originally inspired by the constructive philosophy of mathematics championed in the 19th century by Leopold Kronecker, the approach is well suited to students in the computer-dominated late 20th century Each proof is an algorithm described in English that can be translated into the computer language the class is using and put to work solving problems and generating new examples, making the study of linear algebra a truly interactive experience Designed for a one-semester course, this text adopts an algorithmic approach to linear algebra giving the student many examples to work through and copious exercises to test their skills and extend their knowledge of the subject Students at all levels will find much interactive instruction in this text while teachers will find stimulating examples and methods of approach to the subject

  2. On the linear programming bound for linear Lee codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astola, Helena; Tabus, Ioan

    2016-01-01

    Based on an invariance-type property of the Lee-compositions of a linear Lee code, additional equality constraints can be introduced to the linear programming problem of linear Lee codes. In this paper, we formulate this property in terms of an action of the multiplicative group of the field [Formula: see text] on the set of Lee-compositions. We show some useful properties of certain sums of Lee-numbers, which are the eigenvalues of the Lee association scheme, appearing in the linear programming problem of linear Lee codes. Using the additional equality constraints, we formulate the linear programming problem of linear Lee codes in a very compact form, leading to a fast execution, which allows to efficiently compute the bounds for large parameter values of the linear codes.

  3. Linear programming

    CERN Document Server

    Karloff, Howard

    1991-01-01

    To this reviewer’s knowledge, this is the first book accessible to the upper division undergraduate or beginning graduate student that surveys linear programming from the Simplex Method…via the Ellipsoid algorithm to Karmarkar’s algorithm. Moreover, its point of view is algorithmic and thus it provides both a history and a case history of work in complexity theory. The presentation is admirable; Karloff's style is informal (even humorous at times) without sacrificing anything necessary for understanding. Diagrams (including horizontal brackets that group terms) aid in providing clarity. The end-of-chapter notes are helpful...Recommended highly for acquisition, since it is not only a textbook, but can also be used for independent reading and study. —Choice Reviews The reader will be well served by reading the monograph from cover to cover. The author succeeds in providing a concise, readable, understandable introduction to modern linear programming. —Mathematics of Computing This is a textbook intend...

  4. Sparse maps—A systematic infrastructure for reduced-scaling electronic structure methods. I. An efficient and simple linear scaling local MP2 method that uses an intermediate basis of pair natural orbitals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinski, Peter; Riplinger, Christoph; Neese, Frank, E-mail: evaleev@vt.edu, E-mail: frank.neese@cec.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Energy Conversion, Stiftstr. 34-36, D-45470 Mülheim an der Ruhr (Germany); Valeev, Edward F., E-mail: evaleev@vt.edu, E-mail: frank.neese@cec.mpg.de [Department of Chemistry, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)

    2015-07-21

    In this work, a systematic infrastructure is described that formalizes concepts implicit in previous work and greatly simplifies computer implementation of reduced-scaling electronic structure methods. The key concept is sparse representation of tensors using chains of sparse maps between two index sets. Sparse map representation can be viewed as a generalization of compressed sparse row, a common representation of a sparse matrix, to tensor data. By combining few elementary operations on sparse maps (inversion, chaining, intersection, etc.), complex algorithms can be developed, illustrated here by a linear-scaling transformation of three-center Coulomb integrals based on our compact code library that implements sparse maps and operations on them. The sparsity of the three-center integrals arises from spatial locality of the basis functions and domain density fitting approximation. A novel feature of our approach is the use of differential overlap integrals computed in linear-scaling fashion for screening products of basis functions. Finally, a robust linear scaling domain based local pair natural orbital second-order Möller-Plesset (DLPNO-MP2) method is described based on the sparse map infrastructure that only depends on a minimal number of cutoff parameters that can be systematically tightened to approach 100% of the canonical MP2 correlation energy. With default truncation thresholds, DLPNO-MP2 recovers more than 99.9% of the canonical resolution of the identity MP2 (RI-MP2) energy while still showing a very early crossover with respect to the computational effort. Based on extensive benchmark calculations, relative energies are reproduced with an error of typically <0.2 kcal/mol. The efficiency of the local MP2 (LMP2) method can be drastically improved by carrying out the LMP2 iterations in a basis of pair natural orbitals. While the present work focuses on local electron correlation, it is of much broader applicability to computation with sparse tensors in

  5. Reduction of Linear Programming to Linear Approximation

    OpenAIRE

    Vaserstein, Leonid N.

    2006-01-01

    It is well known that every Chebyshev linear approximation problem can be reduced to a linear program. In this paper we show that conversely every linear program can be reduced to a Chebyshev linear approximation problem.

  6. Protograph based LDPC codes with minimum distance linearly growing with block size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Jones, Christopher; Dolinar, Sam; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2005-01-01

    We propose several LDPC code constructions that simultaneously achieve good threshold and error floor performance. Minimum distance is shown to grow linearly with block size (similar to regular codes of variable degree at least 3) by considering ensemble average weight enumerators. Our constructions are based on projected graph, or protograph, structures that support high-speed decoder implementations. As with irregular ensembles, our constructions are sensitive to the proportion of degree-2 variable nodes. A code with too few such nodes tends to have an iterative decoding threshold that is far from the capacity threshold. A code with too many such nodes tends to not exhibit a minimum distance that grows linearly in block length. In this paper we also show that precoding can be used to lower the threshold of regular LDPC codes. The decoding thresholds of the proposed codes, which have linearly increasing minimum distance in block size, outperform that of regular LDPC codes. Furthermore, a family of low to high rate codes, with thresholds that adhere closely to their respective channel capacity thresholds, is presented. Simulation results for a few example codes show that the proposed codes have low error floors as well as good threshold SNFt performance.

  7. linear-quadratic-linear model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanwiwat Jaikuna

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To develop an in-house software program that is able to calculate and generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram by physical dose conversion using the linear-quadratic-linear (LQL model. Material and methods : The Isobio software was developed using MATLAB version 2014b to calculate and generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histograms. The physical dose from each voxel in treatment planning was extracted through Computational Environment for Radiotherapy Research (CERR, and the accuracy was verified by the differentiation between the dose volume histogram from CERR and the treatment planning system. An equivalent dose in 2 Gy fraction (EQD2 was calculated using biological effective dose (BED based on the LQL model. The software calculation and the manual calculation were compared for EQD2 verification with pair t-test statistical analysis using IBM SPSS Statistics version 22 (64-bit. Results: Two and three-dimensional biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram were displayed correctly by the Isobio software. Different physical doses were found between CERR and treatment planning system (TPS in Oncentra, with 3.33% in high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV determined by D90%, 0.56% in the bladder, 1.74% in the rectum when determined by D2cc, and less than 1% in Pinnacle. The difference in the EQD2 between the software calculation and the manual calculation was not significantly different with 0.00% at p-values 0.820, 0.095, and 0.593 for external beam radiation therapy (EBRT and 0.240, 0.320, and 0.849 for brachytherapy (BT in HR-CTV, bladder, and rectum, respectively. Conclusions : The Isobio software is a feasible tool to generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram for treatment plan evaluation in both EBRT and BT.

  8. A review of linear compressors for refrigeration

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Kun

    2017-01-01

    Linear compressor has no crank mechanism compared with conventional reciprocating compressor. This allows higher efficiency, oil-free operation, lower cost and smaller size when linear compressors are used for vapour compression refrigeration (VCR) system. Typically, a linear compressor consists of a linear motor (connected to a piston) and suspension springs, operated at resonant frequency. This paper presents a review of linear compressors for refrigeration system. Different designs and mod...

  9. Linear Algebra and Smarandache Linear Algebra

    OpenAIRE

    Vasantha, Kandasamy

    2003-01-01

    The present book, on Smarandache linear algebra, not only studies the Smarandache analogues of linear algebra and its applications, it also aims to bridge the need for new research topics pertaining to linear algebra, purely in the algebraic sense. We have introduced Smarandache semilinear algebra, Smarandache bilinear algebra and Smarandache anti-linear algebra and their fuzzy equivalents. Moreover, in this book, we have brought out the study of linear algebra and vector spaces over finite p...

  10. Linear algebraic groups

    CERN Document Server

    Springer, T A

    1998-01-01

    "[The first] ten chapters...are an efficient, accessible, and self-contained introduction to affine algebraic groups over an algebraically closed field. The author includes exercises and the book is certainly usable by graduate students as a text or for self-study...the author [has a] student-friendly style… [The following] seven chapters... would also be a good introduction to rationality issues for algebraic groups. A number of results from the literature…appear for the first time in a text." –Mathematical Reviews (Review of the Second Edition) "This book is a completely new version of the first edition. The aim of the old book was to present the theory of linear algebraic groups over an algebraically closed field. Reading that book, many people entered the research field of linear algebraic groups. The present book has a wider scope. Its aim is to treat the theory of linear algebraic groups over arbitrary fields. Again, the author keeps the treatment of prerequisites self-contained. The material of t...

  11. Efficient {pi} electrons delocalization in prospective push-pull non-linear optical chromophore 4-[N,N-dimethylamino]-4'-nitro stilbene (DANS): A vibrational spectroscopic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijayakumar, T.; Hubert Joe, I. [Centre for Molecular and Biophysics Research, Department of Physics, Mar Ivanios College, Thiruvananthapuram 695 015, Kerala (India); Reghunadhan Nair, C.P. [Polymers and Special Chemicals Division, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Thiruvananthapuram 695 022, Kerala (India); Jayakumar, V.S. [Centre for Molecular and Biophysics Research, Department of Physics, Mar Ivanios College, Thiruvananthapuram 695 015, Kerala (India)], E-mail: vsjk@vsnl.net

    2008-01-22

    A comprehensive investigation on the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) of an efficient {pi}-conjugated potential push-pull NLO chromophore, 4-[N,N-dimethylamino]-4'-nitro stilbene (DANS), from a strong electron-donor group (dimethylamino-N(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}) to a strong electron-acceptor group (nitro-NO{sub 2}) through the {pi}-conjugated bridge (trans-stilbene) has been carried out from their vibrational spectra. The NIR FT-Raman and FT-IR spectra supported by the density functional theory (DFT) quantum chemical computations have been employed to analyze the effects of intramolecular charge transfer on the geometries and the vibrational modes contributing to the linear electro-optic effect of the organic NLO material. It has been observed that the changes in the endocyclic and exocyclic angles result from the charge-transfer interaction of the phenyl ring and the amino group in the electron-donor side of the NLO chromophore. The strongest vibrational modes contributing to the electro-optic effect have been identified and examined from the concurrent IR and Raman activation of {nu}(C=C/C-C) mode, ring C=C stretching modes, in-plane deformation modes, nitro modes and the umbrella mode of methyl groups. Furthermore, the splitting of the vinyl stretching modes and the electronic effects such as hyperconjugation and backdonation on the methyl hydrogen atoms causing the decrease of stretching frequencies and infrared intensities have also been analyzed in detail. The effect of frontier orbitals transition of electron density transfer and the influence of planarity between the phenyl rings of the stilbene moiety on the first hyperpolarizability have also been discussed.

  12. Vanilla Technicolor at Linear Colliders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    T. Frandsen, Mads; Jarvinen, Matti; Sannino, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the reach of Linear Colliders (LC)s for models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We show that LCs can efficiently test the compositeness scale, identified with the mass of the new spin-one resonances, till the maximum energy in the center-of-mass of the colliding leptons. In ...

  13. Performance test of 100 W linear compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, J; Ko, D. Y.; Park, S. J.; Kim, H. B.; Hong, Y. J.; Yeom, H. K. [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon(Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    In this paper, we present test results of developed 100 W class linear compressor for Stirling-type pulse tube refrigerator. The fabricated linear compressor has dual-opposed configuration, free piston and moving magnet type linear motor. Power transfer, efficiency and required pressure waveform are predicted with designed and measured specifications. In experiments, room temperature test with flow impedance is conducted to evaluate performance of developed linear compressor. Flow impedance is loaded to compressor with metering valve for flow resistance, inertance tube for flow inertance and buffer volumes for flow compliance. Several operating parameters such as input voltage, current, piston displacement and pressure wave are measured for various operating frequency and fixed input current level. Behaviors of dynamics and performance of linear compressor as varying flow impedance are discussed with measured experimental results. The developed linear compressor shows 124 W of input power, 86 % of motor efficiency and 60 % of compressor efficiency at its resonant operating condition.

  14. Linearly constrained minimax optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kaj; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans

    1978-01-01

    We present an algorithm for nonlinear minimax optimization subject to linear equality and inequality constraints which requires first order partial derivatives. The algorithm is based on successive linear approximations to the functions defining the problem. The resulting linear subproblems...

  15. A Linear Electromagnetic Piston Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Paul H.

    Advancements in mobile hydraulics for human-scale applications have increased demand for a compact hydraulic power supply. Conventional designs couple a rotating electric motor to a hydraulic pump, which increases the package volume and requires several energy conversions. This thesis investigates the use of a free piston as the moving element in a linear motor to eliminate multiple energy conversions and decrease the overall package volume. A coupled model used a quasi-static magnetic equivalent circuit to calculate the motor inductance and the electromagnetic force acting on the piston. The force was an input to a time domain model to evaluate the mechanical and pressure dynamics. The magnetic circuit model was validated with finite element analysis and an experimental prototype linear motor. The coupled model was optimized using a multi-objective genetic algorithm to explore the parameter space and maximize power density and efficiency. An experimental prototype linear pump coupled pistons to an off-the-shelf linear motor to validate the mechanical and pressure dynamics models. The magnetic circuit force calculation agreed within 3% of finite element analysis, and within 8% of experimental data from the unoptimized prototype linear motor. The optimized motor geometry also had good agreement with FEA; at zero piston displacement, the magnetic circuit calculates optimized motor force within 10% of FEA in less than 1/1000 the computational time. This makes it well suited to genetic optimization algorithms. The mechanical model agrees very well with the experimental piston pump position data when tuned for additional unmodeled mechanical friction. Optimized results suggest that an improvement of 400% of the state of the art power density is attainable with as high as 85% net efficiency. This demonstrates that a linear electromagnetic piston pump has potential to serve as a more compact and efficient supply of fluid power for the human scale.

  16. Foundations of linear and generalized linear models

    CERN Document Server

    Agresti, Alan

    2015-01-01

    A valuable overview of the most important ideas and results in statistical analysis Written by a highly-experienced author, Foundations of Linear and Generalized Linear Models is a clear and comprehensive guide to the key concepts and results of linear statistical models. The book presents a broad, in-depth overview of the most commonly used statistical models by discussing the theory underlying the models, R software applications, and examples with crafted models to elucidate key ideas and promote practical model building. The book begins by illustrating the fundamentals of linear models,

  17. Sparse Linear Identifiable Multivariate Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henao, Ricardo; Winther, Ole

    2011-01-01

    and bench-marked on artificial and real biological data sets. SLIM is closest in spirit to LiNGAM (Shimizu et al., 2006), but differs substantially in inference, Bayesian network structure learning and model comparison. Experimentally, SLIM performs equally well or better than LiNGAM with comparable......In this paper we consider sparse and identifiable linear latent variable (factor) and linear Bayesian network models for parsimonious analysis of multivariate data. We propose a computationally efficient method for joint parameter and model inference, and model comparison. It consists of a fully...

  18. Multiperiodic accelerator structures for linear particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, D.T.

    1975-01-01

    High efficiency linear accelerator structures, comprised of a succession of cylindrical resonant cavities for acceleration, are described. Coupling annular cavities are located at the periphery, each being coupled to two adjacent cylindrical cavities. (auth)

  19. Interference alignment for degrees of freedom improvement in 3-relay half-duplex systems

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Seongho; Ko, Youngchai; Park, Kihong; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2011-01-01

    In a half-duplex relaying, the capacity pre-log factor is a major drawback in spectral efficiency. This paper proposes a linear precoding scheme and an alternate relaying protocol in a dual-hop half-duplex system where three relays help

  20. Linear programming foundations and extensions

    CERN Document Server

    Vanderbei, Robert J

    2001-01-01

    Linear Programming: Foundations and Extensions is an introduction to the field of optimization. The book emphasizes constrained optimization, beginning with a substantial treatment of linear programming, and proceeding to convex analysis, network flows, integer programming, quadratic programming, and convex optimization. The book is carefully written. Specific examples and concrete algorithms precede more abstract topics. Topics are clearly developed with a large number of numerical examples worked out in detail. Moreover, Linear Programming: Foundations and Extensions underscores the purpose of optimization: to solve practical problems on a computer. Accordingly, the book is coordinated with free efficient C programs that implement the major algorithms studied: -The two-phase simplex method; -The primal-dual simplex method; -The path-following interior-point method; -The homogeneous self-dual methods. In addition, there are online JAVA applets that illustrate various pivot rules and variants of the simplex m...

  1. Bayes linear statistics, theory & methods

    CERN Document Server

    Goldstein, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Bayesian methods combine information available from data with any prior information available from expert knowledge. The Bayes linear approach follows this path, offering a quantitative structure for expressing beliefs, and systematic methods for adjusting these beliefs, given observational data. The methodology differs from the full Bayesian methodology in that it establishes simpler approaches to belief specification and analysis based around expectation judgements. Bayes Linear Statistics presents an authoritative account of this approach, explaining the foundations, theory, methodology, and practicalities of this important field. The text provides a thorough coverage of Bayes linear analysis, from the development of the basic language to the collection of algebraic results needed for efficient implementation, with detailed practical examples. The book covers:The importance of partial prior specifications for complex problems where it is difficult to supply a meaningful full prior probability specification...

  2. A linear programming manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuey, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    Computer solutions of linear programming problems are outlined. Information covers vector spaces, convex sets, and matrix algebra elements for solving simultaneous linear equations. Dual problems, reduced cost analysis, ranges, and error analysis are illustrated.

  3. Linear shaped charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, David; Stofleth, Jerome H.; Saul, Venner W.

    2017-07-11

    Linear shaped charges are described herein. In a general embodiment, the linear shaped charge has an explosive with an elongated arrowhead-shaped profile. The linear shaped charge also has and an elongated v-shaped liner that is inset into a recess of the explosive. Another linear shaped charge includes an explosive that is shaped as a star-shaped prism. Liners are inset into crevices of the explosive, where the explosive acts as a tamper.

  4. Classifying Linear Canonical Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Lorand, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    In this Master's thesis, we consider the problem of classifying, up to conjugation by linear symplectomorphisms, linear canonical relations (lagrangian correspondences) from a finite-dimensional symplectic vector space to itself. We give an elementary introduction to the theory of linear canonical relations and present partial results toward the classification problem. This exposition should be accessible to undergraduate students with a basic familiarity with linear algebra.

  5. Optimal Multiuser Zero Forcing with Per-Antenna Power Constraints for Network MIMO Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaviani Saeed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a multicell multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO coordinated downlink transmission, also known as network MIMO, under per-antenna power constraints. We investigate a simple multiuser zero-forcing (ZF linear precoding technique known as block diagonalization (BD for network MIMO. The optimal form of BD with per-antenna power constraints is proposed. It involves a novel approach of optimizing the precoding matrices over the entire null space of other users' transmissions. An iterative gradient descent method is derived by solving the dual of the throughput maximization problem, which finds the optimal precoding matrices globally and efficiently. The comprehensive simulations illustrate several network MIMO coordination advantages when the optimal BD scheme is used. Its achievable throughput is compared with the capacity region obtained through the recently established duality concept under per-antenna power constraints.

  6. Linear collider RF: Introduction and summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    The relation of acceleration gradient with RF frequency is examined, and approximate general RF power requirements are derived. Considerations of efficiency and cost are discussed. RF Sources, presented at the conference, are reviewed. Overall efficiencies of the linear collider proposals are compared. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  7. JET VELOCITY OF LINEAR SHAPED CHARGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vječislav Bohanek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Shaped explosive charges with one dimension significantly larger than the other are called linear shaped charges. Linear shaped charges are used in various industries and are applied within specific technologies for metal cutting, such as demolition of steel structures, separating spent rocket fuel tanks, demining, cutting holes in the barriers for fire service, etc. According to existing theories and models efficiency of linear shaped charges depends on the kinetic energy of the jet which is proportional to square of jet velocity. The original method for measuring velocity of linear shaped charge jet is applied in the aforementioned research. Measurements were carried out for two different linear materials, and the results are graphically presented, analysed and compared. Measurement results show a discrepancy in the measured velocity of the jet for different materials with the same ratio between linear and explosive mass (M/C per unit of surface, which is not described by presented models (the paper is published in Croatian.

  8. A linear maglev guide for machine tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tieste, K D [Inst. of Mechanics, Univ. of Hannover (Germany); Popp, K [Inst. of Mechanics, Univ. of Hannover (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Machine tools require linear guides with high slide velocity and very high position accuracy. The three tasks of a linear guide - supporting, guiding and driving - shall be realised by means of active magnetic bearings (AMB). The resulting linear magnetically levitated (maglev) guide has to accomplish the following characteristics: High stiffness, good damping and low noise as well as low heat production. First research on a one degree-of-freedom (DOF) support magnet unit aimed at the development of components and efficient control strategies for the linear maglev guide. The actual research is directed to realise a five DOF linear maglev guide for machine tools without drive to answer the question whether the maglev principle can be used for a linear axis in a machine tool. (orig.)

  9. Ultrasonic Linear Motor with Two Independent Vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muneishi, Takeshi; Tomikawa, Yoshiro

    2004-09-01

    We propose a new structure of an ultrasonic linear motor in order to solve the problems of high-power ultrasonic linear motors that drive the XY-stage for electron beam equipment and to expand the application fields of the motor. We pay special attention to the following three points: (1) the vibration in two directions of the ultrasonic linear motor should not influence mutually each other, (2) the vibration in two directions should be divided into the stage traveling direction and the pressing direction of the ultrasonic linear motor, and (3) the rigidity of the stage traveling direction of the ultrasonic linear motor should be increased. As a result, the supporting method of ultrasonic linear motors is simplified. The efficiency of the motor is improved and temperature rise is reduced. The stage position drift is also improved.

  10. Non linear system become linear system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre Bucur

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper refers to the theory and the practice of the systems regarding non-linear systems and their applications. We aimed the integration of these systems to elaborate their response as well as to highlight some outstanding features.

  11. Linear motor coil assembly and linear motor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    An ironless linear motor (5) comprising a magnet track (53) and a coil assembly (50) operating in cooperation with said magnet track (53) and having a plurality of concentrated multi-turn coils (31 a-f, 41 a-d, 51 a-k), wherein the end windings (31E) of the coils (31 a-f, 41 a-e) are substantially

  12. From linear to generalized linear mixed models: A case study in repeated measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compared to traditional linear mixed models, generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) can offer better correspondence between response variables and explanatory models, yielding more efficient estimates and tests in the analysis of data from designed experiments. Using proportion data from a designed...

  13. Linear collider: a preview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedemann, H.

    1981-11-01

    Since no linear colliders have been built yet it is difficult to know at what energy the linear cost scaling of linear colliders drops below the quadratic scaling of storage rings. There is, however, no doubt that a linear collider facility for a center of mass energy above say 500 GeV is significantly cheaper than an equivalent storage ring. In order to make the linear collider principle feasible at very high energies a number of problems have to be solved. There are two kinds of problems: one which is related to the feasibility of the principle and the other kind of problems is associated with minimizing the cost of constructing and operating such a facility. This lecture series describes the problems and possible solutions. Since the real test of a principle requires the construction of a prototype I will in the last chapter describe the SLC project at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center.

  14. Basic linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Blyth, T S

    2002-01-01

    Basic Linear Algebra is a text for first year students leading from concrete examples to abstract theorems, via tutorial-type exercises. More exercises (of the kind a student may expect in examination papers) are grouped at the end of each section. The book covers the most important basics of any first course on linear algebra, explaining the algebra of matrices with applications to analytic geometry, systems of linear equations, difference equations and complex numbers. Linear equations are treated via Hermite normal forms which provides a successful and concrete explanation of the notion of linear independence. Another important highlight is the connection between linear mappings and matrices leading to the change of basis theorem which opens the door to the notion of similarity. This new and revised edition features additional exercises and coverage of Cramer's rule (omitted from the first edition). However, it is the new, extra chapter on computer assistance that will be of particular interest to readers:...

  15. Linear collider: a preview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedemann, H.

    1981-11-01

    Since no linear colliders have been built yet it is difficult to know at what energy the linear cost scaling of linear colliders drops below the quadratic scaling of storage rings. There is, however, no doubt that a linear collider facility for a center of mass energy above say 500 GeV is significantly cheaper than an equivalent storage ring. In order to make the linear collider principle feasible at very high energies a number of problems have to be solved. There are two kinds of problems: one which is related to the feasibility of the principle and the other kind of problems is associated with minimizing the cost of constructing and operating such a facility. This lecture series describes the problems and possible solutions. Since the real test of a principle requires the construction of a prototype I will in the last chapter describe the SLC project at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center

  16. Matrices and linear transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Cullen, Charles G

    1990-01-01

    ""Comprehensive . . . an excellent introduction to the subject."" - Electronic Engineer's Design Magazine.This introductory textbook, aimed at sophomore- and junior-level undergraduates in mathematics, engineering, and the physical sciences, offers a smooth, in-depth treatment of linear algebra and matrix theory. The major objects of study are matrices over an arbitrary field. Contents include Matrices and Linear Systems; Vector Spaces; Determinants; Linear Transformations; Similarity: Part I and Part II; Polynomials and Polynomial Matrices; Matrix Analysis; and Numerical Methods. The first

  17. Multivariate covariance generalized linear models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonat, W. H.; Jørgensen, Bent

    2016-01-01

    are fitted by using an efficient Newton scoring algorithm based on quasi-likelihood and Pearson estimating functions, using only second-moment assumptions. This provides a unified approach to a wide variety of types of response variables and covariance structures, including multivariate extensions......We propose a general framework for non-normal multivariate data analysis called multivariate covariance generalized linear models, designed to handle multivariate response variables, along with a wide range of temporal and spatial correlation structures defined in terms of a covariance link...... function combined with a matrix linear predictor involving known matrices. The method is motivated by three data examples that are not easily handled by existing methods. The first example concerns multivariate count data, the second involves response variables of mixed types, combined with repeated...

  18. Systems of Inhomogeneous Linear Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Philipp O. J.

    Many problems in physics and especially computational physics involve systems of linear equations which arise e.g. from linearization of a general nonlinear problem or from discretization of differential equations. If the dimension of the system is not too large standard methods like Gaussian elimination or QR decomposition are sufficient. Systems with a tridiagonal matrix are important for cubic spline interpolation and numerical second derivatives. They can be solved very efficiently with a specialized Gaussian elimination method. Practical applications often involve very large dimensions and require iterative methods. Convergence of Jacobi and Gauss-Seidel methods is slow and can be improved by relaxation or over-relaxation. An alternative for large systems is the method of conjugate gradients.

  19. Linear models with R

    CERN Document Server

    Faraway, Julian J

    2014-01-01

    A Hands-On Way to Learning Data AnalysisPart of the core of statistics, linear models are used to make predictions and explain the relationship between the response and the predictors. Understanding linear models is crucial to a broader competence in the practice of statistics. Linear Models with R, Second Edition explains how to use linear models in physical science, engineering, social science, and business applications. The book incorporates several improvements that reflect how the world of R has greatly expanded since the publication of the first edition.New to the Second EditionReorganiz

  20. Linear integrated circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Carr, Joseph

    1996-01-01

    The linear IC market is large and growing, as is the demand for well trained technicians and engineers who understand how these devices work and how to apply them. Linear Integrated Circuits provides in-depth coverage of the devices and their operation, but not at the expense of practical applications in which linear devices figure prominently. This book is written for a wide readership from FE and first degree students, to hobbyists and professionals.Chapter 1 offers a general introduction that will provide students with the foundations of linear IC technology. From chapter 2 onwa

  1. Fault tolerant linear actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesar, Delbert

    2004-09-14

    In varying embodiments, the fault tolerant linear actuator of the present invention is a new and improved linear actuator with fault tolerance and positional control that may incorporate velocity summing, force summing, or a combination of the two. In one embodiment, the invention offers a velocity summing arrangement with a differential gear between two prime movers driving a cage, which then drives a linear spindle screw transmission. Other embodiments feature two prime movers driving separate linear spindle screw transmissions, one internal and one external, in a totally concentric and compact integrated module.

  2. Superconducting linear accelerator cryostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Elkonin, B.V.; Sokolowski, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    A large vertical cryostat for a superconducting linear accelerator using quarter wave resonators has been developed. The essential technical details, operational experience and performance are described. (author)

  3. Linearity enigmas in ecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patten, B.C.

    1983-04-01

    Two issues concerning linearity or nonlinearity of natural systems are considered. Each is related to one of the two alternative defining properties of linear systems, superposition and decomposition. Superposition exists when a linear combination of inputs to a system results in the same linear combination of outputs that individually correspond to the original inputs. To demonstrate this property it is necessary that all initial states and inputs of the system which impinge on the output in question be included in the linear combination manipulation. As this is difficult or impossible to do with real systems of any complexity, nature appears nonlinear even though it may be linear. A linear system that displays nonlinear behavior for this reason is termed pseudononlinear. The decomposition property exists when the dynamic response of a system can be partitioned into an input-free portion due to state plus a state-free portion due to input. This is a characteristic of all linear systems, but not of nonlinear systems. Without the decomposition property, it is not possible to distinguish which portions of a system's behavior are due to innate characteristics (self) vs. outside conditions (environment), which is an important class of questions in biology and ecology. Some philosophical aspects of these findings are then considered. It is suggested that those ecologists who hold to the view that organisms and their environments are separate entities are in effect embracing a linear view of nature, even though their belief systems and mathematical models tend to be nonlinear. On the other hand, those who consider that organism-environment complex forms a single inseparable unit are implictly involved in non-linear thought, which may be in conflict with the linear modes and models that some of them use. The need to rectify these ambivalences on the part of both groups is indicated.

  4. Linear colliders - prospects 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, J.

    1985-06-01

    We discuss the scaling laws of linear colliders and their consequences for accelerator design. We then report on the SLAC Linear Collider project and comment on experience gained on that project and its application to future colliders. 9 refs., 2 figs

  5. The SLAC linear collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.

    1985-01-01

    A report is given on the goals and progress of the SLAC Linear Collider. The author discusses the status of the machine and the detectors and give an overview of the physics which can be done at this new facility. He also gives some ideas on how (and why) large linear colliders of the future should be built

  6. Linear Programming (LP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogner, H.H.

    1989-01-01

    The submitted sections on linear programming are extracted from 'Theorie und Technik der Planung' (1978) by W. Blaas and P. Henseler and reformulated for presentation at the Workshop. They consider a brief introduction to the theory of linear programming and to some essential aspects of the SIMPLEX solution algorithm for the purposes of economic planning processes. 1 fig

  7. Racetrack linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, C.H.; Wilton, M.S. de.

    1979-01-01

    An improved recirculating electron beam linear accelerator of the racetrack type is described. The system comprises a beam path of four straight legs with four Pretzel bending magnets at the end of each leg to direct the beam into the next leg of the beam path. At least one of the beam path legs includes a linear accelerator. (UK)

  8. Semidefinite linear complementarity problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckhardt, U.

    1978-04-01

    Semidefinite linear complementarity problems arise by discretization of variational inequalities describing e.g. elastic contact problems, free boundary value problems etc. In the present paper linear complementarity problems are introduced and the theory as well as the numerical treatment of them are described. In the special case of semidefinite linear complementarity problems a numerical method is presented which combines the advantages of elimination and iteration methods without suffering from their drawbacks. This new method has very attractive properties since it has a high degree of invariance with respect to the representation of the set of all feasible solutions of a linear complementarity problem by linear inequalities. By means of some practical applications the properties of the new method are demonstrated. (orig.) [de

  9. Linear algebra done right

    CERN Document Server

    Axler, Sheldon

    2015-01-01

    This best-selling textbook for a second course in linear algebra is aimed at undergrad math majors and graduate students. The novel approach taken here banishes determinants to the end of the book. The text focuses on the central goal of linear algebra: understanding the structure of linear operators on finite-dimensional vector spaces. The author has taken unusual care to motivate concepts and to simplify proofs. A variety of interesting exercises in each chapter helps students understand and manipulate the objects of linear algebra. The third edition contains major improvements and revisions throughout the book. More than 300 new exercises have been added since the previous edition. Many new examples have been added to illustrate the key ideas of linear algebra. New topics covered in the book include product spaces, quotient spaces, and dual spaces. Beautiful new formatting creates pages with an unusually pleasant appearance in both print and electronic versions. No prerequisites are assumed other than the ...

  10. An Ordering Linear Unification Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡运发

    1989-01-01

    In this paper,we present an ordering linear unification algorithm(OLU).A new idea on substituteion of the binding terms is introduced to the algorithm,which is able to overcome some drawbacks of other algorithms,e.g.,MM algorithm[1],RG1 and RG2 algorithms[2],Particularly,if we use the directed eyclie graphs,the algoritm needs not check the binding order,then the OLU algorithm can also be aplied to the infinite tree data struceture,and a higher efficiency can be expected.The paper focuses upon the discussion of OLU algorithm and a partial order structure with respect to the unification algorithm.This algorithm has been implemented in the GKD-PROLOG/VAX 780 interpreting system.Experimental results have shown that the algorithm is very simple and efficient.

  11. Handbook on linear motor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-10-01

    This book guides the application for Linear motor. It lists classification and speciality of Linear Motor, terms of linear-induction motor, principle of the Motor, types on one-side linear-induction motor, bilateral linear-induction motor, linear-DC Motor on basic of the motor, linear-DC Motor for moving-coil type, linear-DC motor for permanent-magnet moving type, linear-DC motor for electricity non-utility type, linear-pulse motor for variable motor, linear-pulse motor for permanent magneto type, linear-vibration actuator, linear-vibration actuator for moving-coil type, linear synchronous motor, linear electromagnetic motor, linear electromagnetic solenoid, technical organization and magnetic levitation and linear motor and sensor.

  12. Linear fixed-field multipass arcs for recirculating linear accelerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Morozov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Recirculating linear accelerators (RLA’s provide a compact and efficient way of accelerating particle beams to medium and high energies by reusing the same linac for multiple passes. In the conventional scheme, after each pass, the different energy beams coming out of the linac are separated and directed into appropriate arcs for recirculation, with each pass requiring a separate fixed-energy arc. In this paper we present a concept of an RLA return arc based on linear combined-function magnets, in which two and potentially more consecutive passes with very different energies are transported through the same string of magnets. By adjusting the dipole and quadrupole components of the constituting linear combined-function magnets, the arc is designed to be achromatic and to have zero initial and final reference orbit offsets for all transported beam energies. We demonstrate the concept by developing a design for a droplet-shaped return arc for a dogbone RLA capable of transporting two beam passes with momenta different by a factor of 2. We present the results of tracking simulations of the two passes and lay out the path to end-to-end design and simulation of a complete dogbone RLA.

  13. Dynamics of unsymmetric piecewise-linear/non-linear systems using finite elements in time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu

    1995-08-01

    The dynamic response and stability of a single-degree-of-freedom system with unsymmetric piecewise-linear/non-linear stiffness are analyzed using the finite element method in the time domain. Based on a Hamilton's weak principle, this method provides a simple and efficient approach for predicting all possible fundamental and sub-periodic responses. The stability of the steady state response is determined by using Floquet's theory without any special effort for calculating transition matrices. This method is applied to a number of examples, demonstrating its effectiveness even for a strongly non-linear problem involving both clearance and continuous stiffness non-linearities. Close agreement is found between available published findings and the predictions of the finite element in time approach, which appears to be an efficient and reliable alternative technique for non-linear dynamic response and stability analysis of periodic systems.

  14. Linear ubiquitination in immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yutaka; Taraborrelli, Lucia; Walczak, Henning

    2015-07-01

    Linear ubiquitination is a post-translational protein modification recently discovered to be crucial for innate and adaptive immune signaling. The function of linear ubiquitin chains is regulated at multiple levels: generation, recognition, and removal. These chains are generated by the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC), the only known ubiquitin E3 capable of forming the linear ubiquitin linkage de novo. LUBAC is not only relevant for activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in various signaling pathways, but importantly, it also regulates cell death downstream of immune receptors capable of inducing this response. Recognition of the linear ubiquitin linkage is specifically mediated by certain ubiquitin receptors, which is crucial for translation into the intended signaling outputs. LUBAC deficiency results in attenuated gene activation and increased cell death, causing pathologic conditions in both, mice, and humans. Removal of ubiquitin chains is mediated by deubiquitinases (DUBs). Two of them, OTULIN and CYLD, are constitutively associated with LUBAC. Here, we review the current knowledge on linear ubiquitination in immune signaling pathways and the biochemical mechanisms as to how linear polyubiquitin exerts its functions distinctly from those of other ubiquitin linkage types. © 2015 The Authors. Immunological Reviews Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Linearizing W-algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivonos, S.O.; Sorin, A.S.

    1994-06-01

    We show that the Zamolodchikov's and Polyakov-Bershadsky nonlinear algebras W 3 and W (2) 3 can be embedded as subalgebras into some linear algebras with finite set of currents. Using these linear algebras we find new field realizations of W (2) 3 and W 3 which could be a starting point for constructing new versions of W-string theories. We also reveal a number of hidden relationships between W 3 and W (2) 3 . We conjecture that similar linear algebras can exist for other W-algebra as well. (author). 10 refs

  16. Matrices and linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Hans

    1989-01-01

    Linear algebra is one of the central disciplines in mathematics. A student of pure mathematics must know linear algebra if he is to continue with modern algebra or functional analysis. Much of the mathematics now taught to engineers and physicists requires it.This well-known and highly regarded text makes the subject accessible to undergraduates with little mathematical experience. Written mainly for students in physics, engineering, economics, and other fields outside mathematics, the book gives the theory of matrices and applications to systems of linear equations, as well as many related t

  17. Linearity in Process Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Mikkel; Winskel, Glynn

    2002-01-01

    The meaning and mathematical consequences of linearity (managing without a presumed ability to copy) are studied for a path-based model of processes which is also a model of affine-linear logic. This connection yields an affine-linear language for processes, automatically respecting open......-map bisimulation, in which a range of process operations can be expressed. An operational semantics is provided for the tensor fragment of the language. Different ways to make assemblies of processes lead to different choices of exponential, some of which respect bisimulation....

  18. Elements of linear space

    CERN Document Server

    Amir-Moez, A R; Sneddon, I N

    1962-01-01

    Elements of Linear Space is a detailed treatment of the elements of linear spaces, including real spaces with no more than three dimensions and complex n-dimensional spaces. The geometry of conic sections and quadric surfaces is considered, along with algebraic structures, especially vector spaces and transformations. Problems drawn from various branches of geometry are given.Comprised of 12 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to real Euclidean space, followed by a discussion on linear transformations and matrices. The addition and multiplication of transformations and matrices a

  19. Applied linear regression

    CERN Document Server

    Weisberg, Sanford

    2013-01-01

    Praise for the Third Edition ""...this is an excellent book which could easily be used as a course text...""-International Statistical Institute The Fourth Edition of Applied Linear Regression provides a thorough update of the basic theory and methodology of linear regression modeling. Demonstrating the practical applications of linear regression analysis techniques, the Fourth Edition uses interesting, real-world exercises and examples. Stressing central concepts such as model building, understanding parameters, assessing fit and reliability, and drawing conclusions, the new edition illus

  20. BLAS- BASIC LINEAR ALGEBRA SUBPROGRAMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh, F. T.

    1994-01-01

    The Basic Linear Algebra Subprogram (BLAS) library is a collection of FORTRAN callable routines for employing standard techniques in performing the basic operations of numerical linear algebra. The BLAS library was developed to provide a portable and efficient source of basic operations for designers of programs involving linear algebraic computations. The subprograms available in the library cover the operations of dot product, multiplication of a scalar and a vector, vector plus a scalar times a vector, Givens transformation, modified Givens transformation, copy, swap, Euclidean norm, sum of magnitudes, and location of the largest magnitude element. Since these subprograms are to be used in an ANSI FORTRAN context, the cases of single precision, double precision, and complex data are provided for. All of the subprograms have been thoroughly tested and produce consistent results even when transported from machine to machine. BLAS contains Assembler versions and FORTRAN test code for any of the following compilers: Lahey F77L, Microsoft FORTRAN, or IBM Professional FORTRAN. It requires the Microsoft Macro Assembler and a math co-processor. The PC implementation allows individual arrays of over 64K. The BLAS library was developed in 1979. The PC version was made available in 1986 and updated in 1988.

  1. Linear system theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callier, Frank M.; Desoer, Charles A.

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this book is to provide a systematic and rigorous access to the main topics of linear state-space system theory in both the continuous-time case and the discrete-time case; and the I/O description of linear systems. The main thrusts of the work are the analysis of system descriptions and derivations of their properties, LQ-optimal control, state feedback and state estimation, and MIMO unity-feedback systems.

  2. Menu-Driven Solver Of Linear-Programming Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, L. A.; Ferencz, D.

    1992-01-01

    Program assists inexperienced user in formulating linear-programming problems. A Linear Program Solver (ALPS) computer program is full-featured LP analysis program. Solves plain linear-programming problems as well as more-complicated mixed-integer and pure-integer programs. Also contains efficient technique for solution of purely binary linear-programming problems. Written entirely in IBM's APL2/PC software, Version 1.01. Packed program contains licensed material, property of IBM (copyright 1988, all rights reserved).

  3. A Primal-Dual Interior Point-Linear Programming Algorithm for MPC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edlund, Kristian; Sokoler, Leo Emil; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2009-01-01

    Constrained optimal control problems for linear systems with linear constraints and an objective function consisting of linear and l1-norm terms can be expressed as linear programs. We develop an efficient primal-dual interior point algorithm for solution of such linear programs. The algorithm...

  4. Further linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Blyth, T S

    2002-01-01

    Most of the introductory courses on linear algebra develop the basic theory of finite­ dimensional vector spaces, and in so doing relate the notion of a linear mapping to that of a matrix. Generally speaking, such courses culminate in the diagonalisation of certain matrices and the application of this process to various situations. Such is the case, for example, in our previous SUMS volume Basic Linear Algebra. The present text is a continuation of that volume, and has the objective of introducing the reader to more advanced properties of vector spaces and linear mappings, and consequently of matrices. For readers who are not familiar with the contents of Basic Linear Algebra we provide an introductory chapter that consists of a compact summary of the prerequisites for the present volume. In order to consolidate the student's understanding we have included a large num­ ber of illustrative and worked examples, as well as many exercises that are strategi­ cally placed throughout the text. Solutions to the ex...

  5. LINEARLY POLARIZED PROBES OF SURFACE CHIRALITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VERBIEST, T; KAURANEN, M; MAKI, JJ; TEERENSTRA, MN; SCHOUTEN, AJ; NOLTE, RJM; PERSOONS, A

    1995-01-01

    We present a new nonlinear optical technique to study surface chirality. We demonstrate experimentally that the efficiency of second-harmonic generation from isotropic chiral surfaces is different for excitation with fundamental light that is +45 degrees and -45 degrees linearly polarized with

  6. Finite Algorithms for Robust Linear Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kaj; Nielsen, Hans Bruun

    1990-01-01

    The Huber M-estimator for robust linear regression is analyzed. Newton type methods for solution of the problem are defined and analyzed, and finite convergence is proved. Numerical experiments with a large number of test problems demonstrate efficiency and indicate that this kind of approach may...

  7. Possible limits of plasma linear colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, F.

    2017-07-01

    Plasma linear colliders have been proposed as next or next-next generation energy-frontier machines for high-energy physics. I investigate possible fundamental limits on energy and luminosity of such type of colliders, considering acceleration, multiple scattering off plasma ions, intrabeam scattering, bremsstrahlung, and betatron radiation. The question of energy efficiency is also addressed.

  8. Uzawa method for fuzzy linear system

    OpenAIRE

    Ke Wang

    2013-01-01

    An Uzawa method is presented for solving fuzzy linear systems whose coefficient matrix is crisp and the right-hand side column is arbitrary fuzzy number vector. The explicit iterative scheme is given. The convergence is analyzed with convergence theorems and the optimal parameter is obtained. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the procedure and show the effectiveness and efficiency of the method.

  9. Non-linear Capital Taxation Without Commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel Farhi; Christopher Sleet; Iván Werning; Sevin Yeltekin

    2012-01-01

    We study efficient non-linear taxation of labour and capital in a dynamic Mirrleesian model incorporating political economy constraints. Policies are chosen sequentially over time, without commitment. Our main result is that the marginal tax on capital income is progressive, in the sense that richer agents face higher marginal tax rates. Copyright , Oxford University Press.

  10. Linear mass reflectron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamyrin, B.A.; Shmikk, D.V.

    1979-01-01

    A description and operating principle of a linear mass reflectron with V-form trajectory of ion motion -a new non-magnetic time-of-flight mass spectrometer with high resolution are presented. The ion-optical system of the device consists of an ion source with ionization by electron shock, of accelerating gaps, reflector gaps, a drift space and ion detector. Ions move in the linear mass refraction along the trajectories parallel to the axis of the analyzer chamber. The results of investigations into the experimental device are given. With an ion drift length of 0.6 m the device resolution is 1200 with respect to the peak width at half-height. Small-sized mass spectrometric transducers with high resolution and sensitivity may be designed on the base of the linear mass reflectron principle

  11. Applied linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Olver, Peter J

    2018-01-01

    This textbook develops the essential tools of linear algebra, with the goal of imparting technique alongside contextual understanding. Applications go hand-in-hand with theory, each reinforcing and explaining the other. This approach encourages students to develop not only the technical proficiency needed to go on to further study, but an appreciation for when, why, and how the tools of linear algebra can be used across modern applied mathematics. Providing an extensive treatment of essential topics such as Gaussian elimination, inner products and norms, and eigenvalues and singular values, this text can be used for an in-depth first course, or an application-driven second course in linear algebra. In this second edition, applications have been updated and expanded to include numerical methods, dynamical systems, data analysis, and signal processing, while the pedagogical flow of the core material has been improved. Throughout, the text emphasizes the conceptual connections between each application and the un...

  12. Theory of linear operations

    CERN Document Server

    Banach, S

    1987-01-01

    This classic work by the late Stefan Banach has been translated into English so as to reach a yet wider audience. It contains the basics of the algebra of operators, concentrating on the study of linear operators, which corresponds to that of the linear forms a1x1 + a2x2 + ... + anxn of algebra.The book gathers results concerning linear operators defined in general spaces of a certain kind, principally in Banach spaces, examples of which are: the space of continuous functions, that of the pth-power-summable functions, Hilbert space, etc. The general theorems are interpreted in various mathematical areas, such as group theory, differential equations, integral equations, equations with infinitely many unknowns, functions of a real variable, summation methods and orthogonal series.A new fifty-page section (``Some Aspects of the Present Theory of Banach Spaces'''') complements this important monograph.

  13. Dimension of linear models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høskuldsson, Agnar

    1996-01-01

    Determination of the proper dimension of a given linear model is one of the most important tasks in the applied modeling work. We consider here eight criteria that can be used to determine the dimension of the model, or equivalently, the number of components to use in the model. Four of these cri......Determination of the proper dimension of a given linear model is one of the most important tasks in the applied modeling work. We consider here eight criteria that can be used to determine the dimension of the model, or equivalently, the number of components to use in the model. Four...... the basic problems in determining the dimension of linear models. Then each of the eight measures are treated. The results are illustrated by examples....

  14. Linear programming using Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Ploskas, Nikolaos

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a theoretical and computational presentation of a variety of linear programming algorithms and methods with an emphasis on the revised simplex method and its components. A theoretical background and mathematical formulation is included for each algorithm as well as comprehensive numerical examples and corresponding MATLAB® code. The MATLAB® implementations presented in this book  are sophisticated and allow users to find solutions to large-scale benchmark linear programs. Each algorithm is followed by a computational study on benchmark problems that analyze the computational behavior of the presented algorithms. As a solid companion to existing algorithmic-specific literature, this book will be useful to researchers, scientists, mathematical programmers, and students with a basic knowledge of linear algebra and calculus.  The clear presentation enables the reader to understand and utilize all components of simplex-type methods, such as presolve techniques, scaling techniques, pivoting ru...

  15. Linear Colliders TESLA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of the TESLA (TeV Superconducting Linear Accelerator) collaboration (at present 19 institutions from seven countries) is to establish the technology for a high energy electron-positron linear collider using superconducting radiofrequency cavities to accelerate its beams. Another basic goal is to demonstrate that such a collider can meet its performance goals in a cost effective manner. For this the TESLA collaboration is preparing a 500 MeV superconducting linear test accelerator at the DESY Laboratory in Hamburg. This TTF (TESLA Test Facility) consists of four cryomodules, each approximately 12 m long and containing eight 9-cell solid niobium cavities operating at a frequency of 1.3 GHz

  16. Linearly Adjustable International Portfolios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, R. J.; Kuhn, D.; Rustem, B.

    2010-09-01

    We present an approach to multi-stage international portfolio optimization based on the imposition of a linear structure on the recourse decisions. Multiperiod decision problems are traditionally formulated as stochastic programs. Scenario tree based solutions however can become intractable as the number of stages increases. By restricting the space of decision policies to linear rules, we obtain a conservative tractable approximation to the original problem. Local asset prices and foreign exchange rates are modelled separately, which allows for a direct measure of their impact on the final portfolio value.

  17. Linearly Adjustable International Portfolios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, R. J.; Kuhn, D.; Rustem, B.

    2010-01-01

    We present an approach to multi-stage international portfolio optimization based on the imposition of a linear structure on the recourse decisions. Multiperiod decision problems are traditionally formulated as stochastic programs. Scenario tree based solutions however can become intractable as the number of stages increases. By restricting the space of decision policies to linear rules, we obtain a conservative tractable approximation to the original problem. Local asset prices and foreign exchange rates are modelled separately, which allows for a direct measure of their impact on the final portfolio value.

  18. Linear induction motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkman, W.E.; Adams, W.Q.; Berrier, B.R.

    1978-01-01

    A linear induction motor has been operated on a test bed with a feedback pulse resolution of 5 nm (0.2 μin). Slewing tests with this slide drive have shown positioning errors less than or equal to 33 nm (1.3 μin) at feedrates between 0 and 25.4 mm/min (0-1 ipm). A 0.86-m (34-in)-stroke linear motor is being investigated, using the SPACO machine as a test bed. Initial results were encouraging, and work is continuing to optimize the servosystem compensation

  19. Handbook of linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Hogben, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    With a substantial amount of new material, the Handbook of Linear Algebra, Second Edition provides comprehensive coverage of linear algebra concepts, applications, and computational software packages in an easy-to-use format. It guides you from the very elementary aspects of the subject to the frontiers of current research. Along with revisions and updates throughout, the second edition of this bestseller includes 20 new chapters.New to the Second EditionSeparate chapters on Schur complements, additional types of canonical forms, tensors, matrix polynomials, matrix equations, special types of

  20. Linear Algebra Thoroughly Explained

    CERN Document Server

    Vujičić, Milan

    2008-01-01

    Linear Algebra Thoroughly Explained provides a comprehensive introduction to the subject suitable for adoption as a self-contained text for courses at undergraduate and postgraduate level. The clear and comprehensive presentation of the basic theory is illustrated throughout with an abundance of worked examples. The book is written for teachers and students of linear algebra at all levels and across mathematics and the applied sciences, particularly physics and engineering. It will also be an invaluable addition to research libraries as a comprehensive resource book for the subject.

  1. Macroscopic and non-linear quantum games

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerts, D.; D'Hooghe, A.; Posiewnik, A.; Pykacz, J.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: We consider two models of quantum games. The first one is Marinatto and Weber's 'restricted' quantum game in which only the identity and the spin-flip operators are used. We show that this quantum game allows macroscopic mechanistic realization with the use of a version of the 'macroscopic quantum machine' described by Aerts already in 1980s. In the second model we use non-linear quantum state transformations which operate on points of spin-1/2 on the Bloch sphere and which can be used to distinguish optimally between two non-orthogonal states. We show that efficiency of these non-linear strategies out-perform any linear ones. Some hints on the possible theory of non-linear quantum games are given. (author)

  2. Efficient convolutional sparse coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlberg, Brendt

    2017-06-20

    Computationally efficient algorithms may be applied for fast dictionary learning solving the convolutional sparse coding problem in the Fourier domain. More specifically, efficient convolutional sparse coding may be derived within an alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) framework that utilizes fast Fourier transforms (FFT) to solve the main linear system in the frequency domain. Such algorithms may enable a significant reduction in computational cost over conventional approaches by implementing a linear solver for the most critical and computationally expensive component of the conventional iterative algorithm. The theoretical computational cost of the algorithm may be reduced from O(M.sup.3N) to O(MN log N), where N is the dimensionality of the data and M is the number of elements in the dictionary. This significant improvement in efficiency may greatly increase the range of problems that can practically be addressed via convolutional sparse representations.

  3. America, Linearly Cyclical

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    AND VICTIM- ~ vAP BLAMING 4. AMERICA, LINEARLY CYCUCAL AF IMT 1768, 19840901, V5 PREVIOUS EDITION WILL BE USED. C2C Jessica Adams Dr. Brissett...his desires, his failings, and his aspirations follow the same general trend throughout history and throughout cultures. The founding fathers sought

  4. Stanford's linear collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southworth, B.

    1985-01-01

    The peak of the construction phase of the Stanford Linear Collider, SLC, to achieve 50 GeV electron-positron collisions has now been passed. The work remains on schedule to attempt colliding beams, initially at comparatively low luminosity, early in 1987. (orig./HSI).

  5. Dosimetry of linear sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mafra Neto, F.

    1992-01-01

    The dose of gamma radiation from a linear source of cesium 137 is obtained, presenting two difficulties: oblique filtration of radiation when cross the platinum wall, in different directions, and dose connection due to the scattering by the material mean of propagation. (C.G.C.)

  6. Resistors Improve Ramp Linearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinberg, L. L.

    1982-01-01

    Simple modification to bootstrap ramp generator gives more linear output over longer sweep times. New circuit adds just two resistors, one of which is adjustable. Modification cancels nonlinearities due to variations in load on charging capacitor and due to changes in charging current as the voltage across capacitor increases.

  7. LINEAR COLLIDERS: 1992 workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Settles, Ron; Coignet, Guy

    1992-01-01

    As work on designs for future electron-positron linear colliders pushes ahead at major Laboratories throughout the world in a major international collaboration framework, the LC92 workshop held in Garmisch Partenkirchen this summer, attended by 200 machine and particle physicists, provided a timely focus

  8. Linear genetic programming

    CERN Document Server

    Brameier, Markus

    2007-01-01

    Presents a variant of Genetic Programming that evolves imperative computer programs as linear sequences of instructions, in contrast to the more traditional functional expressions or syntax trees. This book serves as a reference for researchers, but also contains sufficient introduction for students and those who are new to the field

  9. On Solving Linear Recurrences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, David E.

    2013-01-01

    A direct method is given for solving first-order linear recurrences with constant coefficients. The limiting value of that solution is studied as "n to infinity." This classroom note could serve as enrichment material for the typical introductory course on discrete mathematics that follows a calculus course.

  10. Review of linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Seishi

    1992-01-01

    The status of R and D of future e + e - linear colliders proposed by the institutions throughout the world is described including the JLC, NLC, VLEPP, CLIC, DESY/THD and TESLA projects. The parameters and RF sources are discussed. (G.P.) 36 refs.; 1 tab

  11. Finite-dimensional linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Gockenbach, Mark S

    2010-01-01

    Some Problems Posed on Vector SpacesLinear equationsBest approximationDiagonalizationSummaryFields and Vector SpacesFields Vector spaces Subspaces Linear combinations and spanning sets Linear independence Basis and dimension Properties of bases Polynomial interpolation and the Lagrange basis Continuous piecewise polynomial functionsLinear OperatorsLinear operatorsMore properties of linear operatorsIsomorphic vector spaces Linear operator equations Existence and uniqueness of solutions The fundamental theorem; inverse operatorsGaussian elimination Newton's method Linear ordinary differential eq

  12. Operator-based linearization for efficient modeling of geothermal processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khait, M.; Voskov, D.V.

    2018-01-01

    Numerical simulation is one of the most important tools required for financial and operational management of geothermal reservoirs. The modern geothermal industry is challenged to run large ensembles of numerical models for uncertainty analysis, causing simulation performance to become a critical

  13. Efficient Collimation and Machine Protection for the Compact Linear Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Assmann, R W

    2006-01-01

    We present a new approach to machine protection and collimation in CLIC, separating these two functions: If emergency dumps in the linac protect the downstream beam line against drive-beam failures, the energy collimation only needs to clean the beam tails and can be compact. Overall, the length of the beam-delivery system (BDS) is significantly reduced.

  14. Resource-efficient linear-optical quantum router

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lemr, K.; Bartkiewicz, K.; Černoch, A.; Soubusta, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 6 (2013), "062333-1"-"062333-7" ISSN 1050-2947 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : quantum router * signal qubit * quantum communications Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.991, year: 2013

  15. Linearity and Non-linearity of Photorefractive effect in Materials ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper we have studied the Linearity and Non-linearity of Photorefractive effect in materials using the band transport model. For low light beam intensities the change in the refractive index is proportional to the electric field for linear optics while for non- linear optics the change in refractive index is directly proportional ...

  16. Linearly Refined Session Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Baltazar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Session types capture precise protocol structure in concurrent programming, but do not specify properties of the exchanged values beyond their basic type. Refinement types are a form of dependent types that can address this limitation, combining types with logical formulae that may refer to program values and can constrain types using arbitrary predicates. We present a pi calculus with assume and assert operations, typed using a session discipline that incorporates refinement formulae written in a fragment of Multiplicative Linear Logic. Our original combination of session and refinement types, together with the well established benefits of linearity, allows very fine-grained specifications of communication protocols in which refinement formulae are treated as logical resources rather than persistent truths.

  17. Linear Water Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, N.; Maz'ya, V.; Vainberg, B.

    2002-08-01

    This book gives a self-contained and up-to-date account of mathematical results in the linear theory of water waves. The study of waves has many applications, including the prediction of behavior of floating bodies (ships, submarines, tension-leg platforms etc.), the calculation of wave-making resistance in naval architecture, and the description of wave patterns over bottom topography in geophysical hydrodynamics. The first section deals with time-harmonic waves. Three linear boundary value problems serve as the approximate mathematical models for these types of water waves. The next section uses a plethora of mathematical techniques in the investigation of these three problems. The techniques used in the book include integral equations based on Green's functions, various inequalities between the kinetic and potential energy and integral identities which are indispensable for proving the uniqueness theorems. The so-called inverse procedure is applied to constructing examples of non-uniqueness, usually referred to as 'trapped nodes.'

  18. The International Linear Collider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    List Benno

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The International Linear Collider (ILC is a proposed e+e− linear collider with a centre-of-mass energy of 200–500 GeV, based on superconducting RF cavities. The ILC would be an ideal machine for precision studies of a light Higgs boson and the top quark, and would have a discovery potential for new particles that is complementary to that of LHC. The clean experimental conditions would allow the operation of detectors with extremely good performance; two such detectors, ILD and SiD, are currently being designed. Both make use of novel concepts for tracking and calorimetry. The Japanese High Energy Physics community has recently recommended to build the ILC in Japan.

  19. The International Linear Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, Benno

    2014-04-01

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) is a proposed e+e- linear collider with a centre-of-mass energy of 200-500 GeV, based on superconducting RF cavities. The ILC would be an ideal machine for precision studies of a light Higgs boson and the top quark, and would have a discovery potential for new particles that is complementary to that of LHC. The clean experimental conditions would allow the operation of detectors with extremely good performance; two such detectors, ILD and SiD, are currently being designed. Both make use of novel concepts for tracking and calorimetry. The Japanese High Energy Physics community has recently recommended to build the ILC in Japan.

  20. Dimension of linear models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høskuldsson, Agnar

    1996-01-01

    Determination of the proper dimension of a given linear model is one of the most important tasks in the applied modeling work. We consider here eight criteria that can be used to determine the dimension of the model, or equivalently, the number of components to use in the model. Four...... the basic problems in determining the dimension of linear models. Then each of the eight measures are treated. The results are illustrated by examples....... of these criteria are widely used ones, while the remaining four are ones derived from the H-principle of mathematical modeling. Many examples from practice show that the criteria derived from the H-principle function better than the known and popular criteria for the number of components. We shall briefly review...

  1. Reciprocating linear motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldowsky, Michael P. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A reciprocating linear motor is formed with a pair of ring-shaped permanent magnets having opposite radial polarizations, held axially apart by a nonmagnetic yoke, which serves as an axially displaceable armature assembly. A pair of annularly wound coils having axial lengths which differ from the axial lengths of the permanent magnets are serially coupled together in mutual opposition and positioned with an outer cylindrical core in axial symmetry about the armature assembly. One embodiment includes a second pair of annularly wound coils serially coupled together in mutual opposition and an inner cylindrical core positioned in axial symmetry inside the armature radially opposite to the first pair of coils. Application of a potential difference across a serial connection of the two pairs of coils creates a current flow perpendicular to the magnetic field created by the armature magnets, thereby causing limited linear displacement of the magnets relative to the coils.

  2. Duality in linearized gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henneaux, Marc; Teitelboim, Claudio

    2005-01-01

    We show that duality transformations of linearized gravity in four dimensions, i.e., rotations of the linearized Riemann tensor and its dual into each other, can be extended to the dynamical fields of the theory so as to be symmetries of the action and not just symmetries of the equations of motion. Our approach relies on the introduction of two superpotentials, one for the spatial components of the spin-2 field and the other for their canonically conjugate momenta. These superpotentials are two-index, symmetric tensors. They can be taken to be the basic dynamical fields and appear locally in the action. They are simply rotated into each other under duality. In terms of the superpotentials, the canonical generator of duality rotations is found to have a Chern-Simons-like structure, as in the Maxwell case

  3. The SLAC linear collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phinney, N.

    1992-01-01

    The SLAC Linear Collider has begun a new era of operation with the SLD detector. During 1991 there was a first engineering run for the SLD in parallel with machine improvements to increase luminosity and reliability. For the 1992 run, a polarized electron source was added and more than 10,000 Zs with an average of 23% polarization have been logged by the SLD. This paper discusses the performance of the SLC in 1991 and 1992 and the technical advances that have produced higher luminosity. Emphasis will be placed on issues relevant to future linear colliders such as producing and maintaining high current, low emittance beams and focusing the beams to the micron scale for collisions. (Author) tab., 2 figs., 18 refs

  4. Linear waves and instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bers, A.

    1975-01-01

    The electrodynamic equations for small-amplitude waves and their dispersion relation in a homogeneous plasma are outlined. For such waves, energy and momentum, and their flow and transformation, are described. Perturbation theory of waves is treated and applied to linear coupling of waves, and the resulting instabilities from such interactions between active and passive waves. Linear stability analysis in time and space is described where the time-asymptotic, time-space Green's function for an arbitrary dispersion relation is developed. The perturbation theory of waves is applied to nonlinear coupling, with particular emphasis on pump-driven interactions of waves. Details of the time--space evolution of instabilities due to coupling are given. (U.S.)

  5. Extended linear chain compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Linear chain substances span a large cross section of contemporary chemistry ranging from covalent polymers, to organic charge transfer com­ plexes to nonstoichiometric transition metal coordination complexes. Their commonality, which coalesced intense interest in the theoretical and exper­ imental solid state physics/chemistry communities, was based on the obser­ vation that these inorganic and organic polymeric substrates exhibit striking metal-like electrical and optical properties. Exploitation and extension of these systems has led to the systematic study of both the chemistry and physics of highly and poorly conducting linear chain substances. To gain a salient understanding of these complex materials rich in anomalous aniso­ tropic electrical, optical, magnetic, and mechanical properties, the conver­ gence of diverse skills and talents was required. The constructive blending of traditionally segregated disciplines such as synthetic and physical organic, inorganic, and polymer chemistry, crystallog...

  6. Non-linear osmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Jared M.

    1966-01-01

    1. The relation between osmotic gradient and rate of osmotic water flow has been measured in rabbit gall-bladder by a gravimetric procedure and by a rapid method based on streaming potentials. Streaming potentials were directly proportional to gravimetrically measured water fluxes. 2. As in many other tissues, water flow was found to vary with gradient in a markedly non-linear fashion. There was no consistent relation between the water permeability and either the direction or the rate of water flow. 3. Water flow in response to a given gradient decreased at higher osmolarities. The resistance to water flow increased linearly with osmolarity over the range 186-825 m-osM. 4. The resistance to water flow was the same when the gall-bladder separated any two bathing solutions with the same average osmolarity, regardless of the magnitude of the gradient. In other words, the rate of water flow is given by the expression (Om — Os)/[Ro′ + ½k′ (Om + Os)], where Ro′ and k′ are constants and Om and Os are the bathing solution osmolarities. 5. Of the theories advanced to explain non-linear osmosis in other tissues, flow-induced membrane deformations, unstirred layers, asymmetrical series-membrane effects, and non-osmotic effects of solutes could not explain the results. However, experimental measurements of water permeability as a function of osmolarity permitted quantitative reconstruction of the observed water flow—osmotic gradient curves. Hence non-linear osmosis in rabbit gall-bladder is due to a decrease in water permeability with increasing osmolarity. 6. The results suggest that aqueous channels in the cell membrane behave as osmometers, shrinking in concentrated solutions of impermeant molecules and thereby increasing membrane resistance to water flow. A mathematical formulation of such a membrane structure is offered. PMID:5945254

  7. Fundamentals of linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Dash, Rajani Ballav

    2008-01-01

    FUNDAMENTALS OF LINEAR ALGEBRA is a comprehensive Text Book, which can be used by students and teachers of All Indian Universities. The Text has easy, understandable form and covers all topics of UGC Curriculum. There are lots of worked out examples which helps the students in solving the problems without anybody's help. The Problem sets have been designed keeping in view of the questions asked in different examinations.

  8. Linear network theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sander, K F

    1964-01-01

    Linear Network Theory covers the significant algebraic aspect of network theory, with minimal reference to practical circuits. The book begins the presentation of network analysis with the exposition of networks containing resistances only, and follows it up with a discussion of networks involving inductance and capacity by way of the differential equations. Classification and description of certain networks, equivalent networks, filter circuits, and network functions are also covered. Electrical engineers, technicians, electronics engineers, electricians, and students learning the intricacies

  9. Non linear viscoelastic models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2011-01-01

    Viscoelastic eects are often present in loudspeaker suspensions, this can be seen in the displacement transfer function which often shows a frequency dependent value below the resonance frequency. In this paper nonlinear versions of the standard linear solid model (SLS) are investigated....... The simulations show that the nonlinear version of the Maxwell SLS model can result in a time dependent small signal stiness while the Kelvin Voight version does not....

  10. Relativistic Linear Restoring Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.; Franklin, J.; Mann, N.

    2012-01-01

    We consider two different forms for a relativistic version of a linear restoring force. The pair comes from taking Hooke's law to be the force appearing on the right-hand side of the relativistic expressions: d"p"/d"t" or d"p"/d["tau"]. Either formulation recovers Hooke's law in the non-relativistic limit. In addition to these two forces, we…

  11. Superconducting linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The advantages of superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) for particle accelerators have been demonstrated by successful operation of systems in the TRISTAN and LEP electron-positron collider rings respectively at the Japanese KEK Laboratory and at CERN. If performance continues to improve and costs can be lowered, this would open an attractive option for a high luminosity TeV (1000 GeV) linear collider

  12. Perturbed asymptotically linear problems

    OpenAIRE

    Bartolo, R.; Candela, A. M.; Salvatore, A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is investigating the existence of solutions of some semilinear elliptic problems on open bounded domains when the nonlinearity is subcritical and asymptotically linear at infinity and there is a perturbation term which is just continuous. Also in the case when the problem has not a variational structure, suitable procedures and estimates allow us to prove that the number of distinct crtitical levels of the functional associated to the unperturbed problem is "stable" unde...

  13. Miniature linear cooler development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruitt, G.R.

    1993-01-01

    An overview is presented of the status of a family of miniature linear coolers currently under development by Hughes Aircraft Co. for use in hand held, volume limited or power limited infrared applications. These coolers, representing the latest additions to the Hughes family of TOP trademark [twin-opposed piston] linear coolers, have been fabricated and tested in three different configurations. Each configuration is designed to utilize a common compressor assembly resulting in reduced manufacturing costs. The baseline compressor has been integrated with two different expander configurations and has been operated with two different levels of input power. These various configuration combinations offer a wide range of performance and interface characteristics which may be tailored to applications requiring limited power and size without significantly compromising cooler capacity or cooldown characteristics. Key cooler characteristics and test data are summarized for three combinations of cooler configurations which are representative of the versatility of this linear cooler design. Configurations reviewed include the shortened coldfinger [1.50 to 1.75 inches long], limited input power [less than 17 Watts] for low power availability applications; the shortened coldfinger with higher input power for lightweight, higher performance applications; and coldfingers compatible with DoD 0.4 Watt Common Module coolers for wider range retrofit capability. Typical weight of these miniature linear coolers is less than 500 grams for the compressor, expander and interconnecting transfer line. Cooling capacity at 80K at room ambient conditions ranges from 400 mW to greater than 550 mW. Steady state power requirements for maintaining a heat load of 150 mW at 80K has been shown to be less than 8 Watts. Ongoing reliability growth testing is summarized including a review of the latest test article results

  14. Linear pneumatic actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avram Mihai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a linear pneumatic actuator with short working stroke. It consists of a pneumatic motor (a simple stroke cylinder or a membrane chamber, two 2/2 pneumatic distributors “all or nothing” electrically commanded for controlling the intake/outtake flow to/from the active chamber of the motor, a position transducer and a microcontroller. There is also presented the theoretical analysis (mathematical modelling and numerical simulation accomplished.

  15. Linear pneumatic actuator

    OpenAIRE

    Avram Mihai; Niţu Constantin; Bucşan Constantin; Grămescu Bogdan

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents a linear pneumatic actuator with short working stroke. It consists of a pneumatic motor (a simple stroke cylinder or a membrane chamber), two 2/2 pneumatic distributors “all or nothing” electrically commanded for controlling the intake/outtake flow to/from the active chamber of the motor, a position transducer and a microcontroller. There is also presented the theoretical analysis (mathematical modelling and numerical simulation) accomplished.

  16. Linear MHD equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheffel, J.

    1984-03-01

    The linear Grad-Shafranov equation for a toroidal, axisymmetric plasma is solved analytically. Exact solutions are given in terms of confluent hyper-geometric functions. As an alternative, simple and accurate WKBJ solutions are presented. With parabolic pressure profiles, both hollow and peaked toroidal current density profiles are obtained. As an example the equilibrium of a z-pinch with a square-shaped cross section is derived.(author)

  17. Linear induction accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttram, M.T.; Ginn, J.W.

    1988-06-21

    A linear induction accelerator includes a plurality of adder cavities arranged in a series and provided in a structure which is evacuated so that a vacuum inductance is provided between each adder cavity and the structure. An energy storage system for the adder cavities includes a pulsed current source and a respective plurality of bipolar converting networks connected thereto. The bipolar high-voltage, high-repetition-rate square pulse train sets and resets the cavities. 4 figs.

  18. ALPS - A LINEAR PROGRAM SOLVER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, L. A.

    1994-01-01

    Linear programming is a widely-used engineering and management tool. Scheduling, resource allocation, and production planning are all well-known applications of linear programs (LP's). Most LP's are too large to be solved by hand, so over the decades many computer codes for solving LP's have been developed. ALPS, A Linear Program Solver, is a full-featured LP analysis program. ALPS can solve plain linear programs as well as more complicated mixed integer and pure integer programs. ALPS also contains an efficient solution technique for pure binary (0-1 integer) programs. One of the many weaknesses of LP solvers is the lack of interaction with the user. ALPS is a menu-driven program with no special commands or keywords to learn. In addition, ALPS contains a full-screen editor to enter and maintain the LP formulation. These formulations can be written to and read from plain ASCII files for portability. For those less experienced in LP formulation, ALPS contains a problem "parser" which checks the formulation for errors. ALPS creates fully formatted, readable reports that can be sent to a printer or output file. ALPS is written entirely in IBM's APL2/PC product, Version 1.01. The APL2 workspace containing all the ALPS code can be run on any APL2/PC system (AT or 386). On a 32-bit system, this configuration can take advantage of all extended memory. The user can also examine and modify the ALPS code. The APL2 workspace has also been "packed" to be run on any DOS system (without APL2) as a stand-alone "EXE" file, but has limited memory capacity on a 640K system. A numeric coprocessor (80X87) is optional but recommended. The standard distribution medium for ALPS is a 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskette. IBM, IBM PC and IBM APL2 are registered trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation. MS-DOS is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation.

  19. Parametric Linear Dynamic Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Faymonville

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We introduce Parametric Linear Dynamic Logic (PLDL, which extends Linear Dynamic Logic (LDL by temporal operators equipped with parameters that bound their scope. LDL was proposed as an extension of Linear Temporal Logic (LTL that is able to express all ω-regular specifications while still maintaining many of LTL's desirable properties like an intuitive syntax and a translation into non-deterministic Büchi automata of exponential size. But LDL lacks capabilities to express timing constraints. By adding parameterized operators to LDL, we obtain a logic that is able to express all ω-regular properties and that subsumes parameterized extensions of LTL like Parametric LTL and PROMPT-LTL. Our main technical contribution is a translation of PLDL formulas into non-deterministic Büchi word automata of exponential size via alternating automata. This yields a PSPACE model checking algorithm and a realizability algorithm with doubly-exponential running time. Furthermore, we give tight upper and lower bounds on optimal parameter values for both problems. These results show that PLDL model checking and realizability are not harder than LTL model checking and realizability.

  20. Quantum linear Boltzmann equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacchini, Bassano; Hornberger, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    We review the quantum version of the linear Boltzmann equation, which describes in a non-perturbative fashion, by means of scattering theory, how the quantum motion of a single test particle is affected by collisions with an ideal background gas. A heuristic derivation of this Lindblad master equation is presented, based on the requirement of translation-covariance and on the relation to the classical linear Boltzmann equation. After analyzing its general symmetry properties and the associated relaxation dynamics, we discuss a quantum Monte Carlo method for its numerical solution. We then review important limiting forms of the quantum linear Boltzmann equation, such as the case of quantum Brownian motion and pure collisional decoherence, as well as the application to matter wave optics. Finally, we point to the incorporation of quantum degeneracies and self-interactions in the gas by relating the equation to the dynamic structure factor of the ambient medium, and we provide an extension of the equation to include internal degrees of freedom.

  1. The Stanford Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emma, P.

    1995-01-01

    The Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) is the first and only high-energy e + e - linear collider in the world. Its most remarkable features are high intensity, submicron sized, polarized (e - ) beams at a single interaction point. The main challenges posed by these unique characteristics include machine-wide emittance preservation, consistent high intensity operation, polarized electron production and transport, and the achievement of a high degree of beam stability on all time scales. In addition to serving as an important machine for the study of Z 0 boson production and decay using polarized beams, the SLC is also an indispensable source of hands-on experience for future linear colliders. Each new year of operation has been highlighted with a marked improvement in performance. The most significant improvements for the 1994-95 run include new low impedance vacuum chambers for the damping rings, an upgrade to the optics and diagnostics of the final focus systems, and a higher degree of polarization from the electron source. As a result, the average luminosity has nearly doubled over the previous year with peaks approaching 10 30 cm -2 s -1 and an 80% electron polarization at the interaction point. These developments as well as the remaining identifiable performance limitations will be discussed

  2. Two linearization methods for atmospheric remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doicu, A.; Trautmann, T.

    2009-01-01

    We present two linearization methods for a pseudo-spherical atmosphere and general viewing geometries. The first approach is based on an analytical linearization of the discrete ordinate method with matrix exponential and incorporates two models for matrix exponential calculation: the matrix eigenvalue method and the Pade approximation. The second method referred to as the forward-adjoint approach is based on the adjoint radiative transfer for a pseudo-spherical atmosphere. We provide a compact description of the proposed methods as well as a numerical analysis of their accuracy and efficiency.

  3. Annular linear induction pump with an externally supported duct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    An annular linear induction pump of increased efficiency is described, capable of being readily disassembled for repair or replacement of parts, and having one pass flow of the liquid metal through the pump. (U.K.)

  4. Study of linear induction motor characteristics : the Mosebach model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-05-31

    This report covers the Mosebach theory of the double-sided linear induction motor, starting with the ideallized model and accompanying assumptions, and ending with relations for thrust, airgap power, and motor efficiency. Solutions of the magnetic in...

  5. Study of linear induction motor characteristics : the Oberretl model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-05-30

    The Oberretl theory of the double-sided linear induction motor (LIM) is examined, starting with the idealized model and accompanying assumptions, and ending with relations for predicted thrust, airgap power, and motor efficiency. The effect of varyin...

  6. Near-Regular Structure Discovery Using Linear Programming

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Qixing; Guibas, Leonidas J.; Mitra, Niloy J.

    2014-01-01

    as an optimization and efficiently solve it using linear programming techniques. Our optimization has a discrete aspect, that is, the connectivity relationships among the elements, as well as a continuous aspect, namely the locations of the elements of interest. Both

  7. Energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    After a speech of the CEA's (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique) general administrator about energy efficiency as a first rank challenge for the planet and for France, this publications proposes several contributions: a discussion of the efficiency of nuclear energy, an economic analysis of R and D's value in the field of fourth generation fast reactors, discussions about biofuels and the relationship between energy efficiency and economic competitiveness, and a discussion about solar photovoltaic efficiency

  8. Non linear microtearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbet, X.; Mourgues, F.; Samain, A.

    1987-01-01

    Among the various instabilities which could explain the anomalous electron heat transport observed in tokamaks during additional heating, a microtearing turbulence is a reasonable candidate since it affects directly the magnetic topology. This turbulence may be described in a proper frame rotating around the majors axis by a static potential vector. In strong non linear regimes, the flow of electrons along the stochastic field lines induces a current. The point is to know whether this current can sustain the turbulence. The mechanisms of this self-consistency, involving the combined effects of the thermal diamagnetism and of the electric drift are presented here

  9. RF linear accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Wangler, Thomas P

    2008-01-01

    Thomas P. Wangler received his B.S. degree in physics from Michigan State University, and his Ph.D. degree in physics and astronomy from the University of Wisconsin. After postdoctoral appointments at the University of Wisconsin and Brookhaven National Laboratory, he joined the staff of Argonne National Laboratory in 1966, working in the fields of experimental high-energy physics and accelerator physics. He joined the Accelerator Technology Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1979, where he specialized in high-current beam physics and linear accelerator design and technology. In 2007

  10. SLAC linear collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.; Bell, R.A.; Brown, K.L.

    1980-06-01

    The SLAC LINEAR COLLIDER is designed to achieve an energy of 100 GeV in the electron-positron center-of-mass system by accelerating intense bunches of particles in the SLAC linac and transporting the electron and positron bunches in a special magnet system to a point where they are focused to a radius of about 2 microns and made to collide head on. The rationale for this new type of colliding beam system is discussed, the project is described, some of the novel accelerator physics issues involved are discussed, and some of the critical technical components are described

  11. Matlab linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez, Cesar

    2014-01-01

    MATLAB is a high-level language and environment for numerical computation, visualization, and programming. Using MATLAB, you can analyze data, develop algorithms, and create models and applications. The language, tools, and built-in math functions enable you to explore multiple approaches and reach a solution faster than with spreadsheets or traditional programming languages, such as C/C++ or Java. MATLAB Linear Algebra introduces you to the MATLAB language with practical hands-on instructions and results, allowing you to quickly achieve your goals. In addition to giving an introduction to

  12. Efficient Closed-Loop Schemes for MIMO-OFDM-Based WLANs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Yi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The single-input single-output (SISO orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM systems for wireless local area networks (WLAN defined by the IEEE 802.11a standard can support data rates up to 54 Mbps. In this paper, we consider deploying two transmit and two receive antennas to increase the data rate up to 108 Mbps. Applying our recent multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO transceiver designs, that is, the geometric mean decomposition (GMD and the uniform channel decomposition (UCD schemes, we propose simple and efficient closed-loop MIMO-OFDM designs for much improved performance, compared to the standard singular value decomposition (SVD based schemes as well as the open-loop V-BLAST (vertical Bell Labs layered space-time based counterparts. In the explicit feedback mode, precoder feedback is needed for the proposed schemes. We show that the overhead of feedback can be made very moderate by using a vector quantization method. In the time-division duplex (TDD mode where the channel reciprocity is exploited, our schemes turn out to be robust against the mismatch between the uplink and downlink channels. The advantages of our schemes are demonstrated via extensive numerical examples.

  13. Vectorized Matlab Codes for Linear Two-Dimensional Elasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Koko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A vectorized Matlab implementation for the linear finite element is provided for the two-dimensional linear elasticity with mixed boundary conditions. Vectorization means that there is no loop over triangles. Numerical experiments show that our implementation is more efficient than the standard implementation with a loop over all triangles.

  14. Lithographic linear motor, lithographic apparatus, and device manufacturing method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2006-01-01

    A linear motor having a high driving force, high efficiency and low normal force comprises two opposed magnet tracks and an armature comprising three open coil sets. The linear motor may be used to drive a stage, such as, for example, a mask or wafer stage, in a lithographic apparatus.

  15. Special set linear algebra and special set fuzzy linear algebra

    OpenAIRE

    Kandasamy, W. B. Vasantha; Smarandache, Florentin; Ilanthenral, K.

    2009-01-01

    The authors in this book introduce the notion of special set linear algebra and special set fuzzy Linear algebra, which is an extension of the notion set linear algebra and set fuzzy linear algebra. These concepts are best suited in the application of multi expert models and cryptology. This book has five chapters. In chapter one the basic concepts about set linear algebra is given in order to make this book a self contained one. The notion of special set linear algebra and their fuzzy analog...

  16. Optical surfacing via linear ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Lixiang; Wei, Chaoyang; Shao, Jianda

    2017-01-01

    We present a concept of surface decomposition extended from double Fourier series to nonnegative sinusoidal wave surfaces, on the basis of which linear ion sources apply to the ultra-precision fabrication of complex surfaces and diffractive optics. The modified Fourier series, or sinusoidal wave surfaces, build a relationship between the fabrication process of optical surfaces and the surface characterization based on power spectral density (PSD) analysis. Also, we demonstrate that the one-dimensional scanning of linear ion source is applicable to the removal of mid-spatial frequency (MSF) errors caused by small-tool polishing in raster scan mode as well as the fabrication of beam sampling grating of high diffractive uniformity without a post-processing procedure. The simulation results show that optical fabrication with linear ion source is feasible and even of higher output efficiency compared with the conventional approach.

  17. Optical surfacing via linear ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Lixiang, E-mail: wulx@hdu.edu.cn [Key Lab of RF Circuits and Systems of Ministry of Education, Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab of LSI Design, Microelectronics CAD Center, College of Electronics and Information, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou (China); Wei, Chaoyang, E-mail: siomwei@siom.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials for High Power Laser, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Shao, Jianda, E-mail: jdshao@siom.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials for High Power Laser, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2017-04-15

    We present a concept of surface decomposition extended from double Fourier series to nonnegative sinusoidal wave surfaces, on the basis of which linear ion sources apply to the ultra-precision fabrication of complex surfaces and diffractive optics. The modified Fourier series, or sinusoidal wave surfaces, build a relationship between the fabrication process of optical surfaces and the surface characterization based on power spectral density (PSD) analysis. Also, we demonstrate that the one-dimensional scanning of linear ion source is applicable to the removal of mid-spatial frequency (MSF) errors caused by small-tool polishing in raster scan mode as well as the fabrication of beam sampling grating of high diffractive uniformity without a post-processing procedure. The simulation results show that optical fabrication with linear ion source is feasible and even of higher output efficiency compared with the conventional approach.

  18. Optimal non-linear health insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomqvist, A

    1997-06-01

    Most theoretical and empirical work on efficient health insurance has been based on models with linear insurance schedules (a constant co-insurance parameter). In this paper, dynamic optimization techniques are used to analyse the properties of optimal non-linear insurance schedules in a model similar to one originally considered by Spence and Zeckhauser (American Economic Review, 1971, 61, 380-387) and reminiscent of those that have been used in the literature on optimal income taxation. The results of a preliminary numerical example suggest that the welfare losses from the implicit subsidy to employer-financed health insurance under US tax law may be a good deal smaller than previously estimated using linear models.

  19. Electrodynamic linear motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munehiro, H

    1980-05-29

    When driving the carriage of a printer through a rotating motor, there are problems regarding the limited accuracy of the carriage position due to rotation or contraction and ageing of the cable. In order to solve the problem, a direct drive system was proposed, in which the printer carriage is driven by a linear motor. If one wants to keep the motor circuit of such a motor compact, then the magnetic flux density in the air gap must be reduced or the motor travel must be reduced. It is the purpose of this invention to create an electrodynamic linear motor, which on the one hand is compact and light and on the other hand has a relatively high constant force over a large travel. The invention is characterised by the fact that magnetic fields of alternating polarity are generated at equal intervals in the magnetic field, and that the coil arrangement has 2 adjacent coils, whose size corresponds to half the length of each magnetic pole. A logic circuit is provided to select one of the two coils and to determine the direction of the current depending on the signals of a magnetic field sensor on the coil arrangement.

  20. Linear wind generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozarov, A.; Petrov, O.; Antonov, J.; Sotirova, S.; Petrova, B.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the linear wind-power generator described in this article is to decrease the following disadvantages of the common wind-powered turbine: 1) large bending and twisting moments to the blades and the shaft, especially when strong winds and turbulence exist; 2) significant values of the natural oscillation period of the construction result in the possibility of occurrence of destroying resonance oscillations; 3) high velocity of the peripheral parts of the rotor creating a danger for birds; 4) difficulties, connected with the installation and the operation on the mountain ridges and passages where the wind energy potential is the largest. The working surfaces of the generator in questions driven by the wind are not connected with a joint shaft but each moves along a railway track with few oscillations. So the sizes of each component are small and their number can be rather large. The mechanical trajectory is not a circle but a closed outline in a vertical plain, which consists of two rectilinear sectors, one above the other, connected in their ends by semi-circumferences. The mechanical energy of each component turns into electrical on the principle of the linear electrical generator. A regulation is provided when the direction of the wind is perpendicular to the route. A possibility of effectiveness is shown through aiming of additional quantities of air to the movable components by static barriers

  1. Linear parallel processing machines I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von Kunze, M

    1984-01-01

    As is well-known, non-context-free grammars for generating formal languages happen to be of a certain intrinsic computational power that presents serious difficulties to efficient parsing algorithms as well as for the development of an algebraic theory of contextsensitive languages. In this paper a framework is given for the investigation of the computational power of formal grammars, in order to start a thorough analysis of grammars consisting of derivation rules of the form aB ..-->.. A/sub 1/ ... A /sub n/ b/sub 1/...b /sub m/ . These grammars may be thought of as automata by means of parallel processing, if one considers the variables as operators acting on the terminals while reading them right-to-left. This kind of automata and their 2-dimensional programming language prove to be useful by allowing a concise linear-time algorithm for integer multiplication. Linear parallel processing machines (LP-machines) which are, in their general form, equivalent to Turing machines, include finite automata and pushdown automata (with states encoded) as special cases. Bounded LP-machines yield deterministic accepting automata for nondeterministic contextfree languages, and they define an interesting class of contextsensitive languages. A characterization of this class in terms of generating grammars is established by using derivation trees with crossings as a helpful tool. From the algebraic point of view, deterministic LP-machines are effectively represented semigroups with distinguished subsets. Concerning the dualism between generating and accepting devices of formal languages within the algebraic setting, the concept of accepting automata turns out to reduce essentially to embeddability in an effectively represented extension monoid, even in the classical cases.

  2. A non-linear, finite element, heat conduction code to calculate temperatures in solids of arbitrary geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tayal, M.

    1987-01-01

    Structures often operate at elevated temperatures. Temperature calculations are needed so that the design can accommodate thermally induced stresses and material changes. A finite element computer called FEAT has been developed to calculate temperatures in solids of arbitrary shapes. FEAT solves the classical equation for steady state conduction of heat. The solution is obtained for two-dimensional (plane or axisymmetric) or for three-dimensional problems. Gap elements are use to simulate interfaces between neighbouring surfaces. The code can model: conduction; internal generation of heat; prescribed convection to a heat sink; prescribed temperatures at boundaries; prescribed heat fluxes on some surfaces; and temperature-dependence of material properties like thermal conductivity. The user has a option of specifying the detailed variation of thermal conductivity with temperature. For convenience to the nuclear fuel industry, the user can also opt for pre-coded values of thermal conductivity, which are obtained from the MATPRO data base (sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission). The finite element method makes FEAT versatile, and enables it to accurately accommodate complex geometries. The optional link to MATPRO makes it convenient for the nuclear fuel industry to use FEAT, without loss of generality. Special numerical techniques make the code inexpensive to run, for the type of material non-linearities often encounter in the analysis of nuclear fuel. The code, however, is general, and can be used for other components of the reactor, or even for non-nuclear systems. The predictions of FEAT have been compared against several analytical solutions. The agreement is usually better than 5%. Thermocouple measurements show that the FEAT predictions are consistent with measured changes in temperatures in simulated pressure tubes. FEAT was also found to predict well, the axial variations in temperatures in the end-pellets(UO 2 ) of two fuel elements irradiated

  3. Indirect synthesis of multi-degree of freedom transient systems. [linear programming for a kinematically linear system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkey, W. D.; Chen, Y. H.

    1974-01-01

    An indirect synthesis method is used in the efficient optimal design of multi-degree of freedom, multi-design element, nonlinear, transient systems. A limiting performance analysis which requires linear programming for a kinematically linear system is presented. The system is selected using system identification methods such that the designed system responds as closely as possible to the limiting performance. The efficiency is a result of the method avoiding the repetitive systems analyses accompanying other numerical optimization methods.

  4. Two-Beam Linear Colliders - Special Issues

    CERN Document Server

    Corsini, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    The path towards a multi-TeV e+e- linear collider proposed by the CLIC study is based on the Two-Beam Acceleration (TBA) scheme. Such a scheme is promising in term of efficiency, reliability and cost. The rationale behind the two-beam scheme is discussed in the paper, together with the special issues related to this technology and the R&D needed to demonstrate its feasibility.

  5. Linearization of the Lorenz system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chunbiao; Sprott, Julien Clinton; Thio, Wesley

    2015-01-01

    A partial and complete piecewise linearized version of the Lorenz system is proposed. The linearized versions have an independent total amplitude control parameter. Additional further linearization leads naturally to a piecewise linear version of the diffusionless Lorenz system. A chaotic circuit with a single amplitude controller is then implemented using a new switch element, producing a chaotic oscillation that agrees with the numerical calculation for the piecewise linear diffusionless Lorenz system. - Highlights: • A partial and complete piecewise linearized version of the Lorenz system are addressed. • The linearized versions have an independent total amplitude control parameter. • A piecewise linear version of the diffusionless Lorenz system is derived by further linearization. • A corresponding chaotic circuit without any multiplier is implemented for the chaotic oscillation

  6. Linearization of the Lorenz system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chunbiao, E-mail: goontry@126.com [School of Electronic & Information Engineering, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Engineering Technology Research and Development Center of Jiangsu Circulation Modernization Sensor Network, Jiangsu Institute of Commerce, Nanjing 211168 (China); Sprott, Julien Clinton [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Thio, Wesley [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2015-05-08

    A partial and complete piecewise linearized version of the Lorenz system is proposed. The linearized versions have an independent total amplitude control parameter. Additional further linearization leads naturally to a piecewise linear version of the diffusionless Lorenz system. A chaotic circuit with a single amplitude controller is then implemented using a new switch element, producing a chaotic oscillation that agrees with the numerical calculation for the piecewise linear diffusionless Lorenz system. - Highlights: • A partial and complete piecewise linearized version of the Lorenz system are addressed. • The linearized versions have an independent total amplitude control parameter. • A piecewise linear version of the diffusionless Lorenz system is derived by further linearization. • A corresponding chaotic circuit without any multiplier is implemented for the chaotic oscillation.

  7. Analysis of Nonlinear Dynamics in Linear Compressors Driven by Linear Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liangyuan

    2018-03-01

    The analysis of dynamic characteristics of the mechatronics system is of great significance for the linear motor design and control. Steady-state nonlinear response characteristics of a linear compressor are investigated theoretically based on the linearized and nonlinear models. First, the influence factors considering the nonlinear gas force load were analyzed. Then, a simple linearized model was set up to analyze the influence on the stroke and resonance frequency. Finally, the nonlinear model was set up to analyze the effects of piston mass, spring stiffness, driving force as an example of design parameter variation. The simulating results show that the stroke can be obtained by adjusting the excitation amplitude, frequency and other adjustments, the equilibrium position can be adjusted by adjusting the DC input, and to make the more efficient operation, the operating frequency must always equal to the resonance frequency.

  8. Introduction to linear elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Gould, Phillip L

    2013-01-01

    Introduction to Linear Elasticity, 3rd Edition, provides an applications-oriented grounding in the tensor-based theory of elasticity for students in mechanical, civil, aeronautical, and biomedical engineering, as well as materials and earth science. The book is distinct from the traditional text aimed at graduate students in solid mechanics by introducing the subject at a level appropriate for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students. The author's presentation allows students to apply the basic notions of stress analysis and move on to advanced work in continuum mechanics, plasticity, plate and shell theory, composite materials, viscoelasticity and finite method analysis. This book also:  Emphasizes tensor-based approach while still distilling down to explicit notation Provides introduction to theory of plates, theory of shells, wave propagation, viscoelasticity and plasticity accessible to advanced undergraduate students Appropriate for courses following emerging trend of teaching solid mechan...

  9. Linear step drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haniger, L.; Elger, R.; Kocandrle, L.; Zdebor, J.

    1986-01-01

    A linear step drive is described developed in Czechoslovak-Soviet cooperation and intended for driving WWER-1000 control rods. The functional principle is explained of the motor and the mechanical and electrical parts of the drive, power control, and the indicator of position are described. The motor has latches situated in the reactor at a distance of 3 m from magnetic armatures, it has a low structural height above the reactor cover, which suggests its suitability for seismic localities. Its magnetic circuits use counterpoles; the mechanical shocks at the completion of each step are damped using special design features. The position indicator is of a special design and evaluates motor position within ±1% of total travel. A drive diagram and the flow chart of both the control electronics and the position indicator are presented. (author) 4 figs

  10. Linear pulse amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjutju, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    Pulse amplifier is standard significant part of spectrometer. Apart from other type of amplification, it's a combination of amplification and pulse shaping. Because of its special purpose the device should fulfill the following : High resolution is desired to gain a high yield comparable to its actual state of condition. High signal to noise is desired to nhν resolution. High linearity to facilitate calibration. A good overload recovery, in order to the device will capable of analizing a low energy radiation which appear joinly on the high energy fields. Other expections of the device are its economical and practical use its extentive application. For that reason it's built on a standard NIM principle. Taking also into account the above mentioned considerations. High quality component parts are used throughout, while its availability in the domestic market is secured. (author)

  11. Linear Accelerator Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This report covers the activity of the Linear Accelerator Laboratory during the period June 1974-June 1976. The activity of the Laboratory is essentially centered on high energy physics. The main activities were: experiments performed with the colliding rings (ACO), construction of the new colliding rings and beginning of the work at higher energy (DCI), bubble chamber experiments with the CERN PS neutrino beam, counter experiments with CERN's PS and setting-up of equipment for new experiments with CERN's SPS. During this period a project has also been prepared for an experiment with the new PETRA colliding ring at Hamburg. On the other hand, intense collaboration with the LURE Laboratory, using the electron synchrotron radiation emitted by ACO and DCI, has been developed [fr

  12. HEAVY ION LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Atta, C.M.; Beringer, R.; Smith, L.

    1959-01-01

    A linear accelerator of heavy ions is described. The basic contributions of the invention consist of a method and apparatus for obtaining high energy particles of an element with an increased charge-to-mass ratio. The method comprises the steps of ionizing the atoms of an element, accelerating the resultant ions to an energy substantially equal to one Mev per nucleon, stripping orbital electrons from the accelerated ions by passing the ions through a curtain of elemental vapor disposed transversely of the path of the ions to provide a second charge-to-mass ratio, and finally accelerating the resultant stripped ions to a final energy of at least ten Mev per nucleon.

  13. Linear absorptive dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tip, A.

    1998-06-01

    Starting from Maxwell's equations for a linear, nonconducting, absorptive, and dispersive medium, characterized by the constitutive equations D(x,t)=ɛ1(x)E(x,t)+∫t-∞dsχ(x,t-s)E(x,s) and H(x,t)=B(x,t), a unitary time evolution and canonical formalism is obtained. Given the complex, coordinate, and frequency-dependent, electric permeability ɛ(x,ω), no further assumptions are made. The procedure leads to a proper definition of band gaps in the periodic case and a new continuity equation for energy flow. An S-matrix formalism for scattering from lossy objects is presented in full detail. A quantized version of the formalism is derived and applied to the generation of Čerenkov and transition radiation as well as atomic decay. The last case suggests a useful generalization of the density of states to the absorptive situation.

  14. Computer Program For Linear Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh, F. T.; Hanson, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    Collection of routines provided for basic vector operations. Basic Linear Algebra Subprogram (BLAS) library is collection from FORTRAN-callable routines for employing standard techniques to perform basic operations of numerical linear algebra.

  15. Quaternion Linear Canonical Transform Application

    OpenAIRE

    Bahri, Mawardi

    2015-01-01

    Quaternion linear canonical transform (QLCT) is a generalization of the classical linear canonical transfom (LCT) using quaternion algebra. The focus of this paper is to introduce an application of the QLCT to study of generalized swept-frequency filter

  16. Recursive Algorithm For Linear Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanasi, S. V.

    1988-01-01

    Order of model determined easily. Linear-regression algorithhm includes recursive equations for coefficients of model of increased order. Algorithm eliminates duplicative calculations, facilitates search for minimum order of linear-regression model fitting set of data satisfactory.

  17. Dynamical systems and linear algebra

    OpenAIRE

    Colonius, Fritz (Prof.)

    2007-01-01

    Dynamical systems and linear algebra / F. Colonius, W. Kliemann. - In: Handbook of linear algebra / ed. by Leslie Hogben. - Boca Raton : Chapman & Hall/CRC, 2007. - S. 56,1-56,22. - (Discrete mathematics and its applications)

  18. Linear spaces: history and theory

    OpenAIRE

    Albrecht Beutelspracher

    1990-01-01

    Linear spaces belong to the most fundamental geometric and combinatorial structures. In this paper I would like to give an onerview about the theory of embedding finite linear spaces in finite projective planes.

  19. Linear versus non-linear supersymmetry, in general

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrara, Sergio [Theoretical Physics Department, CERN,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); INFN - Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati,Via Enrico Fermi 40, I-00044 Frascati (Italy); Department of Physics and Astronomy, UniversityC.L.A.,Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Kallosh, Renata [SITP and Department of Physics, Stanford University,Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Proeyen, Antoine Van [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven,Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Wrase, Timm [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Technische Universität Wien,Wiedner Hauptstr. 8-10, A-1040 Vienna (Austria)

    2016-04-12

    We study superconformal and supergravity models with constrained superfields. The underlying version of such models with all unconstrained superfields and linearly realized supersymmetry is presented here, in addition to the physical multiplets there are Lagrange multiplier (LM) superfields. Once the equations of motion for the LM superfields are solved, some of the physical superfields become constrained. The linear supersymmetry of the original models becomes non-linearly realized, its exact form can be deduced from the original linear supersymmetry. Known examples of constrained superfields are shown to require the following LM’s: chiral superfields, linear superfields, general complex superfields, some of them are multiplets with a spin.

  20. Linear versus non-linear supersymmetry, in general

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrara, Sergio; Kallosh, Renata; Proeyen, Antoine Van; Wrase, Timm

    2016-01-01

    We study superconformal and supergravity models with constrained superfields. The underlying version of such models with all unconstrained superfields and linearly realized supersymmetry is presented here, in addition to the physical multiplets there are Lagrange multiplier (LM) superfields. Once the equations of motion for the LM superfields are solved, some of the physical superfields become constrained. The linear supersymmetry of the original models becomes non-linearly realized, its exact form can be deduced from the original linear supersymmetry. Known examples of constrained superfields are shown to require the following LM’s: chiral superfields, linear superfields, general complex superfields, some of them are multiplets with a spin.

  1. An adjustable linear Halbach array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilton, J.E., E-mail: James.Hilton@csiro.au [CSIRO Mathematics, Informatics and Statistics, Clayton South, VIC 3169 (Australia); McMurry, S.M. [School of Physics, Trinity College, Dublin (Ireland)

    2012-07-15

    The linear Halbach array is a well-known planar magnetic structure capable, in the idealized case, of generating a one-sided magnetic field. We show that such a field can be created from an array of uniformly magnetized rods, and rotating these rods in an alternating fashion can smoothly transfer the resultant magnetic field through the plane of the device. We examine an idealized model composed of infinite line dipoles and carry out computational simulations on a realizable device using a magnetic boundary element method. Such an arrangement can be used for an efficient latching device, or to produce a highly tunable field in the space above the device. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We model an adjustable 'one-sided' flux sheet made up of a series of dipolar magnetic field sources. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show that magnetic field can be switched from one side of sheet to other by a swap rotation of each of magnetic sources. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Investigations show that such an arrangement is practical and can easily be fabricated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The design has a wide range of potential applications.

  2. An adjustable linear Halbach array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilton, J.E.; McMurry, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    The linear Halbach array is a well-known planar magnetic structure capable, in the idealized case, of generating a one-sided magnetic field. We show that such a field can be created from an array of uniformly magnetized rods, and rotating these rods in an alternating fashion can smoothly transfer the resultant magnetic field through the plane of the device. We examine an idealized model composed of infinite line dipoles and carry out computational simulations on a realizable device using a magnetic boundary element method. Such an arrangement can be used for an efficient latching device, or to produce a highly tunable field in the space above the device. - Highlights: ► We model an adjustable ‘one-sided’ flux sheet made up of a series of dipolar magnetic field sources. ► We show that magnetic field can be switched from one side of sheet to other by a swap rotation of each of magnetic sources. ► Investigations show that such an arrangement is practical and can easily be fabricated. ► The design has a wide range of potential applications.

  3. A primer on linear models

    CERN Document Server

    Monahan, John F

    2008-01-01

    Preface Examples of the General Linear Model Introduction One-Sample Problem Simple Linear Regression Multiple Regression One-Way ANOVA First Discussion The Two-Way Nested Model Two-Way Crossed Model Analysis of Covariance Autoregression Discussion The Linear Least Squares Problem The Normal Equations The Geometry of Least Squares Reparameterization Gram-Schmidt Orthonormalization Estimability and Least Squares Estimators Assumptions for the Linear Mean Model Confounding, Identifiability, and Estimability Estimability and Least Squares Estimators F

  4. Optimization of insulation of a linear Fresnel collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardekani, Mohammad Moghimi; Craig, Ken J.; Meyer, Josua P.

    2017-06-01

    This study presents a simulation based optimization study of insulation around the cavity receiver of a Linear Fresnel Collector. This optimization study focuses on minimizing heat losses from a cavity receiver (maximizing plant thermal efficiency), while minimizing insulation cross-sectional area (minimizing material cost and cavity dead load), which leads to a cheaper and thermally more efficient LFC cavity receiver.

  5. Probabilistic quantum cloning of a subset of linearly dependent states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Pinshu; Zhang, Wen; Liao, Yanlin; Zhang, Ziyun

    2018-02-01

    It is well known that a quantum state, secretly chosen from a certain set, can be probabilistically cloned with positive cloning efficiencies if and only if all the states in the set are linearly independent. In this paper, we focus on probabilistic quantum cloning of a subset of linearly dependent states. We show that a linearly-independent subset of linearly-dependent quantum states {| Ψ 1⟩,| Ψ 2⟩,…,| Ψ n ⟩} can be probabilistically cloned if and only if any state in the subset cannot be expressed as a linear superposition of the other states in the set {| Ψ 1⟩,| Ψ 2⟩,…,| Ψ n ⟩}. The optimal cloning efficiencies are also investigated.

  6. Templates for Linear Algebra Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bai, Z.; Day, D.; Demmel, J.; Dongarra, J.; Gu, M.; Ruhe, A.; Vorst, H.A. van der

    1995-01-01

    The increasing availability of advanced-architecture computers is having a very signicant eect on all spheres of scientic computation, including algorithm research and software development in numerical linear algebra. Linear algebra {in particular, the solution of linear systems of equations and

  7. Linearization of CIF through SOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nadales Agut, D.E.; Reniers, M.A.; Luttik, B.; Valencia, F.

    2011-01-01

    Linearization is the procedure of rewriting a process term into a linear form, which consist only of basic operators of the process language. This procedure is interesting both from a theoretical and a practical point of view. In particular, a linearization algorithm is needed for the Compositional

  8. Linear Logic on Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Uffe Henrik; Winskel, Glynn

    This article shows how individual Petri nets form models of Girard's intuitionistic linear logic. It explores questions of expressiveness and completeness of linear logic with respect to this interpretation. An aim is to use Petri nets to give an understanding of linear logic and give some apprai...

  9. Free-piston engine linear generator for hybrid vehicles modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, T. J.; Ingram, S. K.

    1995-05-01

    Development of a free piston engine linear generator was investigated for use as an auxiliary power unit for a hybrid electric vehicle. The main focus of the program was to develop an efficient linear generator concept to convert the piston motion directly into electrical power. Computer modeling techniques were used to evaluate five different designs for linear generators. These designs included permanent magnet generators, reluctance generators, linear DC generators, and two and three-coil induction generators. The efficiency of the linear generator was highly dependent on the design concept. The two-coil induction generator was determined to be the best design, with an efficiency of approximately 90 percent.

  10. Linear particle accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    A linear particle accelerator which provides a pulsed beam of charged particles of uniform energy is described. The accelerator is in the form of an evacuated dielectric tube, inside of which a particle source is located at one end of the tube, with a target or window located at the other end of the dielectric tube. Along the length of the tube are externally located pairs of metal plates, each insulated from each other in an insulated housing. Each of the plates of a pair are connected to an electrical source of voltage of opposed polarity, with the polarity of the voltage of the plates oriented so that the plate of a pair, nearer to the particle source, is of the opposed polarity to the charge of the particle emitted by the source. Thus, a first plate about the tube located nearest the particle source, attracts a particle which as it passes through the tube past the first plate is then repelled by the reverse polarity of the second plate of the pair to continue moving towards the target

  11. Generalized Linear Covariance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, James R.; Markley, F. Landis

    2014-01-01

    This talk presents a comprehensive approach to filter modeling for generalized covariance analysis of both batch least-squares and sequential estimators. We review and extend in two directions the results of prior work that allowed for partitioning of the state space into solve-for'' and consider'' parameters, accounted for differences between the formal values and the true values of the measurement noise, process noise, and textita priori solve-for and consider covariances, and explicitly partitioned the errors into subspaces containing only the influence of the measurement noise, process noise, and solve-for and consider covariances. In this work, we explicitly add sensitivity analysis to this prior work, and relax an implicit assumption that the batch estimator's epoch time occurs prior to the definitive span. We also apply the method to an integrated orbit and attitude problem, in which gyro and accelerometer errors, though not estimated, influence the orbit determination performance. We illustrate our results using two graphical presentations, which we call the variance sandpile'' and the sensitivity mosaic,'' and we compare the linear covariance results to confidence intervals associated with ensemble statistics from a Monte Carlo analysis.

  12. Equipartitioning in linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameson, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    Emittance growth has long been a concern in linear accelerators, as has the idea that some kind of energy balance, or equipartitioning, between the degrees of freedom, would ameliorate the growth. M. Prome observed that the average transverse and longitudinal velocity spreads tend to equalize as current in the channel is increased, while the sum of the energy in the system stays nearly constant. However, only recently have we shown that an equipartitioning requirement on a bunched injected beam can indeed produce remarkably small emittance growth. The simple set of equations leading to this condition are outlined. At the same time, Hofmann has investigated collective instabilities in transported beams and has identified thresholds and regions in parameter space where instabilities occur. Evidence is presented that shows transport system boundaries to be quite accurate in computer simulations of accelerating systems. Discussed are preliminary results of efforts to design accelerators that avoid parameter regions where emittance is affected by the instabilities identified by Hofmann. These efforts suggest that other mechanisms are present. The complicated behavior of the RFQ linac in this framework also is shown

  13. Equipartitioning in linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameson, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    Emittance growth has long been a concern in linear accelerators, as has the idea that some kind of energy balance, or equipartitioning, between the degrees of freedom, would ameliorate the growth. M. Prome observed that the average transverse and longitudinal velocity spreads tend to equalize as current in the channel is increased, while the sum of the energy in the system stays nearly constant. However, only recently have we shown that an equipartitioning requirement on a bunched injected beam can indeed produce remarkably small emittance growth. The simple set of equations leading to this condition are outlined below. At the same time, Hofmann, using powerful analytical and computational methods, has investigated collective instabilities in transported beams and has identified thresholds and regions in parameter space where instabilities occur. This is an important generalization. Work that he will present at this conference shows that the results are essentially the same in r-z coordinates for transport systems, and evidence is presented that shows transport system boundaries to be quite accurate in computer simulations of accelerating systems also. Discussed are preliminary results of efforts to design accelerators that avoid parameter regions where emittance is affected by the instabilities identified by Hofmann. These efforts suggest that other mechanisms are present. The complicated behavior of the RFQ linac in this framework also is shown

  14. Linear induction accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, R.J.

    1986-06-01

    The development of linear induction accelerators has been motivated by applications requiring high-pulsed currents of charged particles at voltages exceeding the capability of single-stage, diode-type accelerators and at currents too high for rf accelerators. In principle, one can accelerate charged particles to arbitrarily high voltages using a multi-stage induction machine, but the 50-MeV, 10-kA Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) at LLNL is the highest voltage machine in existence at this time. The advent of magnetic pulse power systems makes sustained operation at high-repetition rates practical, and this capability for high-average power is very likely to open up many new applications of induction machines in the future. This paper surveys the US induction linac technology with primary emphasis on electron machines. A simplified description of how induction machines couple energy to the electron beam is given, to illustrate many of the general issues that bound the design space of induction linacs

  15. Berkeley Proton Linear Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, L. W.; Bradner, H.; Franck, J.; Gordon, H.; Gow, J. D.; Marshall, L. C.; Oppenheimer, F. F.; Panofsky, W. K. H.; Richman, C.; Woodyard, J. R.

    1953-10-13

    A linear accelerator, which increases the energy of protons from a 4 Mev Van de Graaff injector, to a final energy of 31.5 Mev, has been constructed. The accelerator consists of a cavity 40 feet long and 39 inches in diameter, excited at resonance in a longitudinal electric mode with a radio-frequency power of about 2.2 x 10{sup 6} watts peak at 202.5 mc. Acceleration is made possible by the introduction of 46 axial "drift tubes" into the cavity, which is designed such that the particles traverse the distance between the centers of successive tubes in one cycle of the r.f. power. The protons are longitudinally stable as in the synchrotron, and are stabilized transversely by the action of converging fields produced by focusing grids. The electrical cavity is constructed like an inverted airplane fuselage and is supported in a vacuum tank. Power is supplied by 9 high powered oscillators fed from a pulse generator of the artificial transmission line type.

  16. Random linear codes in steganography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Kaczyński

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Syndrome coding using linear codes is a technique that allows improvement in the steganographic algorithms parameters. The use of random linear codes gives a great flexibility in choosing the parameters of the linear code. In parallel, it offers easy generation of parity check matrix. In this paper, the modification of LSB algorithm is presented. A random linear code [8, 2] was used as a base for algorithm modification. The implementation of the proposed algorithm, along with practical evaluation of algorithms’ parameters based on the test images was made.[b]Keywords:[/b] steganography, random linear codes, RLC, LSB

  17. Linear programming computation

    CERN Document Server

    PAN, Ping-Qi

    2014-01-01

    With emphasis on computation, this book is a real breakthrough in the field of LP. In addition to conventional topics, such as the simplex method, duality, and interior-point methods, all deduced in a fresh and clear manner, it introduces the state of the art by highlighting brand-new and advanced results, including efficient pivot rules, Phase-I approaches, reduced simplex methods, deficient-basis methods, face methods, and pivotal interior-point methods. In particular, it covers the determination of the optimal solution set, feasible-point simplex method, decomposition principle for solving large-scale problems, controlled-branch method based on generalized reduced simplex framework for solving integer LP problems.

  18. Solving Fully Fuzzy Linear System of Equations in General Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yousefzadeh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we propose an approach for computing the positive solution of a fully fuzzy linear system where the coefficient matrix is a fuzzy $nimes n$ matrix. To do this, we use arithmetic operations on fuzzy numbers that introduced by Kaffman in and convert the fully fuzzy linear system into two $nimes n$ and $2nimes 2n$ crisp linear systems. If the solutions of these linear systems don't satisfy in positive fuzzy solution condition, we introduce the constrained least squares problem to obtain optimal fuzzy vector solution by applying the ranking function in given fully fuzzy linear system. Using our proposed method, the fully fuzzy linear system of equations always has a solution. Finally, we illustrate the efficiency of proposed method by solving some numerical examples.

  19. Discriminative Elastic-Net Regularized Linear Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zheng; Lai, Zhihui; Xu, Yong; Shao, Ling; Wu, Jian; Xie, Guo-Sen

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we aim at learning compact and discriminative linear regression models. Linear regression has been widely used in different problems. However, most of the existing linear regression methods exploit the conventional zero-one matrix as the regression targets, which greatly narrows the flexibility of the regression model. Another major limitation of these methods is that the learned projection matrix fails to precisely project the image features to the target space due to their weak discriminative capability. To this end, we present an elastic-net regularized linear regression (ENLR) framework, and develop two robust linear regression models which possess the following special characteristics. First, our methods exploit two particular strategies to enlarge the margins of different classes by relaxing the strict binary targets into a more feasible variable matrix. Second, a robust elastic-net regularization of singular values is introduced to enhance the compactness and effectiveness of the learned projection matrix. Third, the resulting optimization problem of ENLR has a closed-form solution in each iteration, which can be solved efficiently. Finally, rather than directly exploiting the projection matrix for recognition, our methods employ the transformed features as the new discriminate representations to make final image classification. Compared with the traditional linear regression model and some of its variants, our method is much more accurate in image classification. Extensive experiments conducted on publicly available data sets well demonstrate that the proposed framework can outperform the state-of-the-art methods. The MATLAB codes of our methods can be available at http://www.yongxu.org/lunwen.html.

  20. Linear Algebraic Method for Non-Linear Map Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, L.; Nash, B.

    2009-01-01

    We present a newly developed method to analyze some non-linear dynamics problems such as the Henon map using a matrix analysis method from linear algebra. Choosing the Henon map as an example, we analyze the spectral structure, the tune-amplitude dependence, the variation of tune and amplitude during the particle motion, etc., using the method of Jordan decomposition which is widely used in conventional linear algebra.

  1. Juggling Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke Sand; Vedsted, Peter

    2015-01-01

    on institutional logics, we illustrate how a logic of efficiency organise and give shape to healthcare seeking practices as they manifest in local clinical settings. Overall, patient concerns are reconfigured to fit the local clinical setting and healthcare professionals and patients are required to juggle...... efficiency in order to deal with uncertainties and meet more complex or unpredictable needs. Lastly, building on the empirical case of cancer diagnostics, we discuss the implications of the pervasiveness of the logic of efficiency in the clinical setting and argue that provision of medical care in today......'s primary care settings requires careful balancing of increasing demands of efficiency, greater complexity of biomedical knowledge and consideration for individual patient needs....

  2. Linear scaling of density functional algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stechel, E.B.; Feibelman, P.J.; Williams, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    An efficient density functional algorithm (DFA) that scales linearly with system size will revolutionize electronic structure calculations. Density functional calculations are reliable and accurate in determining many condensed matter and molecular ground-state properties. However, because current DFA's, including methods related to that of Car and Parrinello, scale with the cube of the system size, density functional studies are not routinely applied to large systems. Linear scaling is achieved by constructing functions that are both localized and fully occupied, thereby eliminating the need to calculate global eigenfunctions. It is, however, widely believed that exponential localization requires the existence of an energy gap between the occupied and unoccupied states. Despite this, the authors demonstrate that linear scaling can still be achieved for metals. Using a linear scaling algorithm, they have explicitly constructed localized, almost fully occupied orbitals for the quintessential metallic system, jellium. The algorithm is readily generalizable to any system geometry and Hamiltonian. They will discuss the conceptual issues involved, convergence properties and scaling for their new algorithm

  3. Linear Programming and Network Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Bazaraa, Mokhtar S; Sherali, Hanif D

    2011-01-01

    The authoritative guide to modeling and solving complex problems with linear programming-extensively revised, expanded, and updated The only book to treat both linear programming techniques and network flows under one cover, Linear Programming and Network Flows, Fourth Edition has been completely updated with the latest developments on the topic. This new edition continues to successfully emphasize modeling concepts, the design and analysis of algorithms, and implementation strategies for problems in a variety of fields, including industrial engineering, management science, operations research

  4. LINEAR2007, Linear-Linear Interpolation of ENDF Format Cross-Sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: LINEAR converts evaluated cross sections in the ENDF/B format into a tabular form that is subject to linear-linear interpolation in energy and cross section. The code also thins tables of cross sections already in that form. Codes used subsequently need thus to consider only linear-linear data. IAEA1311/15: This version include the updates up to January 30, 2007. Changes in ENDF/B-VII Format and procedures, as well as the evaluations themselves, make it impossible for versions of the ENDF/B pre-processing codes earlier than PREPRO 2007 (2007 Version) to accurately process current ENDF/B-VII evaluations. The present code can handle all existing ENDF/B-VI evaluations through release 8, which will be the last release of ENDF/B-VI. Modifications from previous versions: - Linear VERS. 2007-1 (JAN. 2007): checked against all ENDF/B-VII; increased page size from 60,000 to 600,000 points 2 - Method of solution: Each section of data is considered separately. Each section of File 3, 23, and 27 data consists of a table of cross section versus energy with any of five interpolation laws. LINEAR will replace each section with a new table of energy versus cross section data in which the interpolation law is always linear in energy and cross section. The histogram (constant cross section between two energies) interpolation law is converted to linear-linear by substituting two points for each initial point. The linear-linear is not altered. For the log-linear, linear-log and log- log laws, the cross section data are converted to linear by an interval halving algorithm. Each interval is divided in half until the value at the middle of the interval can be approximated by linear-linear interpolation to within a given accuracy. The LINEAR program uses a multipoint fractional error thinning algorithm to minimize the size of each cross section table

  5. Elementary linear programming with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kolman, Bernard

    1995-01-01

    Linear programming finds the least expensive way to meet given needs with available resources. Its results are used in every area of engineering and commerce: agriculture, oil refining, banking, and air transport. Authors Kolman and Beck present the basic notions of linear programming and illustrate how they are used to solve important common problems. The software on the included disk leads students step-by-step through the calculations. The Second Edition is completely revised and provides additional review material on linear algebra as well as complete coverage of elementary linear program

  6. The art of linear electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Hood, John Linsley

    2013-01-01

    The Art of Linear Electronics presents the principal aspects of linear electronics and techniques in linear electronic circuit design. The book provides a wide range of information on the elucidation of the methods and techniques in the design of linear electronic circuits. The text discusses such topics as electronic component symbols and circuit drawing; passive and active semiconductor components; DC and low frequency amplifiers; and the basic effects of feedback. Subjects on frequency response modifying circuits and filters; audio amplifiers; low frequency oscillators and waveform generato

  7. Linearity and Non-linearity of Photorefractive effect in Materials ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Linearity and Non-linearity of Photorefractive effect in Materials using the Band transport ... For low light beam intensities the change in the refractive index is ... field is spatially phase shifted by /2 relative to the interference fringe pattern, which ...

  8. The linear programming bound for binary linear codes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A.E.

    1993-01-01

    Combining Delsarte's (1973) linear programming bound with the information that certain weights cannot occur, new upper bounds for dmin (n,k), the maximum possible minimum distance of a binary linear code with given word length n and dimension k, are derived.

  9. Linear operator inequalities for strongly stable weakly regular linear systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curtain, RF

    2001-01-01

    We consider the question of the existence of solutions to certain linear operator inequalities (Lur'e equations) for strongly stable, weakly regular linear systems with generating operators A, B, C, 0. These operator inequalities are related to the spectral factorization of an associated Popov

  10. Linear and non-linear optics of condensed matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, T.P.

    1977-01-01

    Part I - Linear optics: 1. General introduction. 2. Frequency dependence of epsilon(ω, k vector). 3. Wave-vector dependence of epsilon(ω, k vector). 4. Tensor character of epsilon(ω, k vector). Part II - Non-linear optics: 5. Introduction. 6. A classical theory of non-linear response in one dimension. 7. The generalization to three dimensions. 8. General properties of the polarizability tensors. 9. The phase-matching condition. 10. Propagation in a non-linear dielectric. 11. Second harmonic generation. 12. Coupling of three waves. 13. Materials and their non-linearities. 14. Processes involving energy exchange with the medium. 15. Two-photon absorption. 16. Stimulated Raman effect. 17. Electro-optic effects. 18. Limitations of the approach presented here. (author)

  11. Advanced statistics: linear regression, part I: simple linear regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marill, Keith A

    2004-01-01

    Simple linear regression is a mathematical technique used to model the relationship between a single independent predictor variable and a single dependent outcome variable. In this, the first of a two-part series exploring concepts in linear regression analysis, the four fundamental assumptions and the mechanics of simple linear regression are reviewed. The most common technique used to derive the regression line, the method of least squares, is described. The reader will be acquainted with other important concepts in simple linear regression, including: variable transformations, dummy variables, relationship to inference testing, and leverage. Simplified clinical examples with small datasets and graphic models are used to illustrate the points. This will provide a foundation for the second article in this series: a discussion of multiple linear regression, in which there are multiple predictor variables.

  12. Batch efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwickerath, Ulrich; Silva, Ricardo; Uria, Christian, E-mail: Ulrich.Schwickerath@cern.c, E-mail: Ricardo.Silva@cern.c [CERN IT, 1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland)

    2010-04-01

    A frequent source of concern for resource providers is the efficient use of computing resources in their centers. This has a direct impact on requests for new resources. There are two different but strongly correlated aspects to be considered: while users are mostly interested in a good turn-around time for their jobs, resource providers are mostly interested in a high and efficient usage of their available resources. Both things, the box usage and the efficiency of individual user jobs, need to be closely monitored so that the sources of the inefficiencies can be identified. At CERN, the Lemon monitoring system is used for both purposes. Examples of such sources are poorly written user code, inefficient access to mass storage systems, and dedication of resources to specific user groups. As a first step for improvements CERN has launched a project to develop a scheduler add-on that allows careful overloading of worker nodes that run idle jobs.

  13. Vectorization of linear discrete filtering algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiess, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    Linear filters, including the conventional Kalman filter and versions of square root filters devised by Potter and Carlson, are studied for potential application on streaming computers. The square root filters are known to maintain a positive definite covariance matrix in cases in which the Kalman filter diverges due to ill-conditioning of the matrix. Vectorization of the filters is discussed, and comparisons are made of the number of operations and storage locations required by each filter. The Carlson filter is shown to be the most efficient of the filters on the Control Data STAR-100 computer.

  14. Decoding Algorithms for Random Linear Network Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide, Janus; Pedersen, Morten Videbæk; Fitzek, Frank

    2011-01-01

    We consider the problem of efficient decoding of a random linear code over a finite field. In particular we are interested in the case where the code is random, relatively sparse, and use the binary finite field as an example. The goal is to decode the data using fewer operations to potentially...... achieve a high coding throughput, and reduce energy consumption.We use an on-the-fly version of the Gauss-Jordan algorithm as a baseline, and provide several simple improvements to reduce the number of operations needed to perform decoding. Our tests show that the improvements can reduce the number...

  15. Quantum Illumination with Noiseless Linear Amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Sheng-Li; Wang -Kun; Guo Jian-Sheng; Shi Jian-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Quantum illumination, that is, quantum target detection, is to detect the potential target with two-mode quantum entangled state. For a given transmitted energy, the quantum illumination can achieve a target-detection probability of error much lower than the illumination scheme without entanglement. We investigate the usefulness of noiseless linear amplification (NLA) for quantum illumination. Our result shows that NLA can help to substantially reduce the number of quantum entangled states collected for joint measurement of multi-copy quantum state. Our analysis on the NLA-assisted scheme could help to develop more efficient schemes for quantum illumination. (paper)

  16. [New technology for linear colliders.] Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntyre, P.M.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the contract is to devise and analyze new technologies appropriate for future linear colliders. The focus of our research during 1986 has been the coaxial pulse line (CPL) accelerating structure. It is similar to a wake field structure, except that it replaces the annular ring beam driver by an annular TEM wave. The driver wave can be launched using a capacitor discharge arrangement similar to induction linacs. The structure has the combined advantages of high gradient (∼200 MeV/m) and high efficiency (perhaps ∼50%). A high-power lasertron based on a ribbon electron beam is proposed

  17. Para-mixed linear spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crasmareanu Mircea

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We consider the paracomplex version of the notion of mixed linear spaces introduced by M. Jurchescu in [4] by replacing the complex unit i with the paracomplex unit j, j2 = 1. The linear algebra of these spaces is studied with a special view towards their morphisms.

  18. Linear Algebra and Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allali, Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    We use the computing technology digital image processing (DIP) to enhance the teaching of linear algebra so as to make the course more visual and interesting. Certainly, this visual approach by using technology to link linear algebra to DIP is interesting and unexpected to both students as well as many faculty. (Contains 2 tables and 11 figures.)

  19. Linear Motor With Air Slide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bruce G.; Gerver, Michael J.; Hawkey, Timothy J.; Fenn, Ralph C.

    1993-01-01

    Improved linear actuator comprises air slide and linear electric motor. Unit exhibits low friction, low backlash, and more nearly even acceleration. Used in machinery in which positions, velocities, and accelerations must be carefully controlled and/or vibrations must be suppressed.

  20. Linear morphoea follows Blaschko's lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weibel, L; Harper, J I

    2008-07-01

    The aetiology of morphoea (or localized scleroderma) remains unknown. It has previously been suggested that lesions of linear morphoea may follow Blaschko's lines and thus reflect an embryological development. However, the distribution of linear morphoea has never been accurately evaluated. We aimed to identify common patterns of clinical presentation in children with linear morphoea and to establish whether linear morphoea follows the lines of Blaschko. A retrospective chart review of 65 children with linear morphoea was performed. According to clinical photographs the skin lesions of these patients were plotted on to standardized head and body charts. With the aid of Adobe Illustrator a final figure was produced including an overlay of all individual lesions which was used for comparison with the published lines of Blaschko. Thirty-four (53%) patients had the en coup de sabre subtype, 27 (41%) presented with linear morphoea on the trunk and/or limbs and four (6%) children had a combination of the two. In 55 (85%) children the skin lesions were confined to one side of the body, showing no preference for either left or right side. On comparing the overlays of all body and head lesions with the original lines of Blaschko there was an excellent correlation. Our data indicate that linear morphoea follows the lines of Blaschko. We hypothesize that in patients with linear morphoea susceptible cells are present in a mosaic state and that exposure to some trigger factor may result in the development of this condition.

  1. Dynamic Linear Models with R

    CERN Document Server

    Campagnoli, Patrizia; Petris, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    State space models have gained tremendous popularity in as disparate fields as engineering, economics, genetics and ecology. Introducing general state space models, this book focuses on dynamic linear models, emphasizing their Bayesian analysis. It illustrates the fundamental steps needed to use dynamic linear models in practice, using R package.

  2. Linear Programming across the Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, S. Elizabeth; Kurz, M. Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Linear programming (LP) is taught in different departments across college campuses with engineering and management curricula. Modeling an LP problem is taught in every linear programming class. As faculty teaching in Engineering and Management departments, the depth to which teachers should expect students to master this particular type of…

  3. Introduction to RF linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, M.

    1994-01-01

    The basic features of RF linear accelerators are described. The concept of the 'loaded cavity', essential for the synchronism wave-particle, is introduced, and formulae describing the action of electromagnetic fields on the beam are given. The treatment of intense beams is mentioned, and various existing linear accelerators are presented as examples. (orig.)

  4. Spatial Processes in Linear Ordering

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hecker, Ulrich; Klauer, Karl Christoph; Wolf, Lukas; Fazilat-Pour, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Memory performance in linear order reasoning tasks (A > B, B > C, C > D, etc.) shows quicker, and more accurate responses to queries on wider (AD) than narrower (AB) pairs on a hypothetical linear mental model (A -- B -- C -- D). While indicative of an analogue representation, research so far did not provide positive evidence for spatial…

  5. Linear methods in band theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O. Krogh

    1975-01-01

    of Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker, linear-combination-of-atomic-orbitals, and cellular methods; the secular matrix is linear in energy, the overlap integrals factorize as potential parameters and structure constants, the latter are canonical in the sense that they neither depend on the energy nor the cell volume...

  6. Endoreversible quantum heat engines in the linear response regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Honghui; He, Jizhou; Wang, Jianhui

    2017-07-01

    We analyze general models of quantum heat engines operating a cycle of two adiabatic and two isothermal processes. We use the quantum master equation for a system to describe heat transfer current during a thermodynamic process in contact with a heat reservoir, with no use of phenomenological thermal conduction. We apply the endoreversibility description to such engine models working in the linear response regime and derive expressions of the efficiency and the power. By analyzing the entropy production rate along a single cycle, we identify the thermodynamic flux and force that a linear relation connects. From maximizing the power output, we find that such heat engines satisfy the tight-coupling condition and the efficiency at maximum power agrees with the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency known as the upper bound in the linear response regime.

  7. Approximate Method for Solving the Linear Fuzzy Delay Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Narayanamoorthy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an algorithm of the approximate method to solve linear fuzzy delay differential equations using Adomian decomposition method. The detailed algorithm of the approach is provided. The approximate solution is compared with the exact solution to confirm the validity and efficiency of the method to handle linear fuzzy delay differential equation. To show this proper features of this proposed method, numerical example is illustrated.

  8. Introduction to generalized linear models

    CERN Document Server

    Dobson, Annette J

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Background Scope Notation Distributions Related to the Normal Distribution Quadratic Forms Estimation Model Fitting Introduction Examples Some Principles of Statistical Modeling Notation and Coding for Explanatory Variables Exponential Family and Generalized Linear Models Introduction Exponential Family of Distributions Properties of Distributions in the Exponential Family Generalized Linear Models Examples Estimation Introduction Example: Failure Times for Pressure Vessels Maximum Likelihood Estimation Poisson Regression Example Inference Introduction Sampling Distribution for Score Statistics Taylor Series Approximations Sampling Distribution for MLEs Log-Likelihood Ratio Statistic Sampling Distribution for the Deviance Hypothesis Testing Normal Linear Models Introduction Basic Results Multiple Linear Regression Analysis of Variance Analysis of Covariance General Linear Models Binary Variables and Logistic Regression Probability Distributions ...

  9. Acoustic emission linear pulse holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, H.D.; Busse, L.J.; Lemon, D.K.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the emission linear pulse holography which produces a chronological linear holographic image of a flaw by utilizing the acoustic energy emitted during crack growth. A thirty two point sampling array is used to construct phase-only linear holograms of simulated acoustic emission sources on large metal plates. The concept behind the AE linear pulse holography is illustrated, and a block diagram of a data acquisition system to implement the concept is given. Array element spacing, synthetic frequency criteria, and lateral depth resolution are specified. A reference timing transducer positioned between the array and the inspection zone and which inititates the time-of-flight measurements is described. The results graphically illustrate the technique using a one-dimensional FFT computer algorithm (ie. linear backward wave) for an AE image reconstruction

  10. A highly linear power amplifier for WLAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Jie; Shi Jia; Ai Baoli; Zhang Xuguang

    2016-01-01

    A three-stage power amplifier (PA) for WLAN application in 2.4-2.5 GHz is presented. The proposed PA employs an adaptive bias circuit to adjust the operating point of the PA to improve the linearity of the PA. Two methods to short the 2nd harmonic circuit are compared in the area of efficiency and gain of the PA. The PA is taped out in the process of 2 μm InGaP/GaAs HBT and is tested by the evaluation board. The measured results show that 31.5 dB power gain and 29.3 dBm P 1dB with an associated 40.4% power added efficiency (PAE) under the single tone stimulus. Up to 26.5 dBm output power can be achieved with an error vector magnitude (EVM) of lower than 3% under the 64QAM/OFDM WLAN stimulus. (paper)

  11. Linear and Generalized Linear Mixed Models and Their Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Jiming

    2007-01-01

    This book covers two major classes of mixed effects models, linear mixed models and generalized linear mixed models, and it presents an up-to-date account of theory and methods in analysis of these models as well as their applications in various fields. The book offers a systematic approach to inference about non-Gaussian linear mixed models. Furthermore, it has included recently developed methods, such as mixed model diagnostics, mixed model selection, and jackknife method in the context of mixed models. The book is aimed at students, researchers and other practitioners who are interested

  12. A Reduced Dantzig-Wolfe Decomposition for a Suboptimal Linear MPC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Standardi, Laura; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2014-01-01

    Linear Model Predictive Control (MPC) is an efficient control technique that repeatedly solves online constrained linear programs. In this work we propose an economic linear MPC strategy for operation of energy systems consisting of multiple and independent power units. These systems cooperate...

  13. Nonlinear vs. linear biasing in Trp-cage folding simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiwok, Vojtěch, E-mail: spiwokv@vscht.cz; Oborský, Pavel; Králová, Blanka [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Chemistry and Technology, Prague, Technická 3, Prague 6 166 28 (Czech Republic); Pazúriková, Jana [Institute of Computer Science, Masaryk University, Botanická 554/68a, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Křenek, Aleš [Institute of Computer Science, Masaryk University, Botanická 554/68a, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Center CERIT-SC, Masaryk Univerzity, Šumavská 416/15, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2015-03-21

    Biased simulations have great potential for the study of slow processes, including protein folding. Atomic motions in molecules are nonlinear, which suggests that simulations with enhanced sampling of collective motions traced by nonlinear dimensionality reduction methods may perform better than linear ones. In this study, we compare an unbiased folding simulation of the Trp-cage miniprotein with metadynamics simulations using both linear (principle component analysis) and nonlinear (Isomap) low dimensional embeddings as collective variables. Folding of the mini-protein was successfully simulated in 200 ns simulation with linear biasing and non-linear motion biasing. The folded state was correctly predicted as the free energy minimum in both simulations. We found that the advantage of linear motion biasing is that it can sample a larger conformational space, whereas the advantage of nonlinear motion biasing lies in slightly better resolution of the resulting free energy surface. In terms of sampling efficiency, both methods are comparable.

  14. A Linearized Relaxing Algorithm for the Specific Nonlinear Optimization Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mio Horai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new method for the specific nonlinear and nonconvex global optimization problem by using a linear relaxation technique. To simplify the specific nonlinear and nonconvex optimization problem, we transform the problem to the lower linear relaxation form, and we solve the linear relaxation optimization problem by the Branch and Bound Algorithm. Under some reasonable assumptions, the global convergence of the algorithm is certified for the problem. Numerical results show that this method is more efficient than the previous methods.

  15. A feasible DY conjugate gradient method for linear equality constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, Can

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a feasible conjugate gradient method for solving linear equality constrained optimization problem. The method is an extension of the Dai-Yuan conjugate gradient method proposed by Dai and Yuan to linear equality constrained optimization problem. It can be applied to solve large linear equality constrained problem due to lower storage requirement. An attractive property of the method is that the generated direction is always feasible and descent direction. Under mild conditions, the global convergence of the proposed method with exact line search is established. Numerical experiments are also given which show the efficiency of the method.

  16. Implementation of neural network based non-linear predictive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Paul Haase; Nørgård, Peter Magnus; Ravn, Ole

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes a control method for non-linear systems based on generalized predictive control. Generalized predictive control (GPC) was developed to control linear systems including open loop unstable and non-minimum phase systems, but has also been proposed extended for the control of non......-linear systems. GPC is model-based and in this paper we propose the use of a neural network for the modeling of the system. Based on the neural network model a controller with extended control horizon is developed and the implementation issues are discussed, with particular emphasis on an efficient Quasi......-Newton optimization algorithm. The performance is demonstrated on a pneumatic servo system....

  17. ALPS: A Linear Program Solver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferencz, Donald C.; Viterna, Larry A.

    1991-01-01

    ALPS is a computer program which can be used to solve general linear program (optimization) problems. ALPS was designed for those who have minimal linear programming (LP) knowledge and features a menu-driven scheme to guide the user through the process of creating and solving LP formulations. Once created, the problems can be edited and stored in standard DOS ASCII files to provide portability to various word processors or even other linear programming packages. Unlike many math-oriented LP solvers, ALPS contains an LP parser that reads through the LP formulation and reports several types of errors to the user. ALPS provides a large amount of solution data which is often useful in problem solving. In addition to pure linear programs, ALPS can solve for integer, mixed integer, and binary type problems. Pure linear programs are solved with the revised simplex method. Integer or mixed integer programs are solved initially with the revised simplex, and the completed using the branch-and-bound technique. Binary programs are solved with the method of implicit enumeration. This manual describes how to use ALPS to create, edit, and solve linear programming problems. Instructions for installing ALPS on a PC compatible computer are included in the appendices along with a general introduction to linear programming. A programmers guide is also included for assistance in modifying and maintaining the program.

  18. Linear and quasi-linear equations of parabolic type

    CERN Document Server

    Ladyženskaja, O A; Ural′ceva, N N; Uralceva, N N

    1968-01-01

    Equations of parabolic type are encountered in many areas of mathematics and mathematical physics, and those encountered most frequently are linear and quasi-linear parabolic equations of the second order. In this volume, boundary value problems for such equations are studied from two points of view: solvability, unique or otherwise, and the effect of smoothness properties of the functions entering the initial and boundary conditions on the smoothness of the solutions.

  19. The Theory of Linear Prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Vaidyanathan, PP

    2007-01-01

    Linear prediction theory has had a profound impact in the field of digital signal processing. Although the theory dates back to the early 1940s, its influence can still be seen in applications today. The theory is based on very elegant mathematics and leads to many beautiful insights into statistical signal processing. Although prediction is only a part of the more general topics of linear estimation, filtering, and smoothing, this book focuses on linear prediction. This has enabled detailed discussion of a number of issues that are normally not found in texts. For example, the theory of vecto

  20. Correlation and simple linear regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Kelly H; Tuncali, Kemal; Silverman, Stuart G

    2003-06-01

    In this tutorial article, the concepts of correlation and regression are reviewed and demonstrated. The authors review and compare two correlation coefficients, the Pearson correlation coefficient and the Spearman rho, for measuring linear and nonlinear relationships between two continuous variables. In the case of measuring the linear relationship between a predictor and an outcome variable, simple linear regression analysis is conducted. These statistical concepts are illustrated by using a data set from published literature to assess a computed tomography-guided interventional technique. These statistical methods are important for exploring the relationships between variables and can be applied to many radiologic studies.

  1. Non-linear optical materials

    CERN Document Server

    Saravanan, R

    2018-01-01

    Non-linear optical materials have widespread and promising applications, but the efforts to understand the local structure, electron density distribution and bonding is still lacking. The present work explores the structural details, the electron density distribution and the local bond length distribution of some non-linear optical materials. It also gives estimation of the optical band gap, the particle size, crystallite size, and the elemental composition from UV-Visible analysis, SEM, XRD and EDS of some non-linear optical materials respectively.

  2. Optimal control linear quadratic methods

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Brian D O

    2007-01-01

    This augmented edition of a respected text teaches the reader how to use linear quadratic Gaussian methods effectively for the design of control systems. It explores linear optimal control theory from an engineering viewpoint, with step-by-step explanations that show clearly how to make practical use of the material.The three-part treatment begins with the basic theory of the linear regulator/tracker for time-invariant and time-varying systems. The Hamilton-Jacobi equation is introduced using the Principle of Optimality, and the infinite-time problem is considered. The second part outlines the

  3. Integrability and Linear Stability of Nonlinear Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degasperis, Antonio; Lombardo, Sara; Sommacal, Matteo

    2018-03-01

    It is well known that the linear stability of solutions of 1+1 partial differential equations which are integrable can be very efficiently investigated by means of spectral methods. We present here a direct construction of the eigenmodes of the linearized equation which makes use only of the associated Lax pair with no reference to spectral data and boundary conditions. This local construction is given in the general N× N matrix scheme so as to be applicable to a large class of integrable equations, including the multicomponent nonlinear Schrödinger system and the multiwave resonant interaction system. The analytical and numerical computations involved in this general approach are detailed as an example for N=3 for the particular system of two coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations in the defocusing, focusing and mixed regimes. The instabilities of the continuous wave solutions are fully discussed in the entire parameter space of their amplitudes and wave numbers. By defining and computing the spectrum in the complex plane of the spectral variable, the eigenfrequencies are explicitly expressed. According to their topological properties, the complete classification of these spectra in the parameter space is presented and graphically displayed. The continuous wave solutions are linearly unstable for a generic choice of the coupling constants.

  4. Linear collider applications of superconducting RF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    The most promising technology for producing interactions of electrons and positrons in TeV energy range is the linear collider. In the linear collider each and every collision of charged particles depends on the production of the charges at rest and then the acceleration of those charges to full energy. The particles that exit the interaction region are discharded. A consequence of this mode of operation is that the luminosity of the machine is ultimately determined by the efficiency with which AC power can be converted into beam power. The consideration of superconducting cavities is motivated by the need for high efficiency. Thus, the high emittance around a beam collider and low emittance around beams are discussed first in the present report. Flat beams are then addressed focusing on the characteristics of the source, final focus, and beam stability. The beam stability, in particular, is discussed in detail in relation to the multiple bunch transverse stability, wake field induced energy spread, trapped modes, pulse width, duty cycle, RF power, and refrigerator power. (N.K.)

  5. Treatment planning optimization for linear accelerator radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meeks, Sanford L.; Buatti, John M.; Bova, Francis J.; Friedman, William A.; Mendenhall, William M.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: Linear accelerator radiosurgery uses multiple arcs delivered through circular collimators to produce a nominally spherical dose distribution. Production of dose distributions that conform to irregular lesions or conformally avoid critical neural structures requires a detailed understanding of the available treatment planning parameters. Methods and Materials: Treatment planning parameters that may be manipulated within a single isocenter to provide conformal avoidance and dose conformation to ellipsoidal lesions include differential arc weighting and gantry start/stop angles. More irregular lesions require the use of multiple isocenters. Iterative manipulation of treatment planning variables can be difficult and computationally expensive, especially if the effects of these manipulations are not well defined. Effects of treatment parameter manipulation are explained and illustrated. This is followed by description of the University of Florida Stereotactic Radiosurgery Treatment Planning Algorithm. This algorithm organizes the manipulations into a practical approach for radiosurgery treatment planning. Results: Iterative treatment planning parameters may be efficiently manipulated to achieve optimal treatment plans by following the University of Florida Treatment Planning Algorithm. The ability to produce conformal stereotactic treatment plans using the algorithm is demonstrated for a variety of clinical presentations. Conclusion: The standard dose distribution produced in linear accelerator radiosurgery is spherical, but manipulation of available treatment planning parameters may result in optimal dose conformation. The University of Florida Treatment Planning Algorithm organizes available treatment parameters to efficiently produce conformal radiosurgery treatment plans

  6. MIDAS: Regionally linear multivariate discriminative statistical mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varol, Erdem; Sotiras, Aristeidis; Davatzikos, Christos

    2018-07-01

    Statistical parametric maps formed via voxel-wise mass-univariate tests, such as the general linear model, are commonly used to test hypotheses about regionally specific effects in neuroimaging cross-sectional studies where each subject is represented by a single image. Despite being informative, these techniques remain limited as they ignore multivariate relationships in the data. Most importantly, the commonly employed local Gaussian smoothing, which is important for accounting for registration errors and making the data follow Gaussian distributions, is usually chosen in an ad hoc fashion. Thus, it is often suboptimal for the task of detecting group differences and correlations with non-imaging variables. Information mapping techniques, such as searchlight, which use pattern classifiers to exploit multivariate information and obtain more powerful statistical maps, have become increasingly popular in recent years. However, existing methods may lead to important interpretation errors in practice (i.e., misidentifying a cluster as informative, or failing to detect truly informative voxels), while often being computationally expensive. To address these issues, we introduce a novel efficient multivariate statistical framework for cross-sectional studies, termed MIDAS, seeking highly sensitive and specific voxel-wise brain maps, while leveraging the power of regional discriminant analysis. In MIDAS, locally linear discriminative learning is applied to estimate the pattern that best discriminates between two groups, or predicts a variable of interest. This pattern is equivalent to local filtering by an optimal kernel whose coefficients are the weights of the linear discriminant. By composing information from all neighborhoods that contain a given voxel, MIDAS produces a statistic that collectively reflects the contribution of the voxel to the regional classifiers as well as the discriminative power of the classifiers. Critically, MIDAS efficiently assesses the

  7. Tip-tilt disturbance model identification based on non-linear least squares fitting for Linear Quadratic Gaussian control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kangjian; Yang, Ping; Wang, Shuai; Dong, Lizhi; Xu, Bing

    2018-05-01

    We propose a method to identify tip-tilt disturbance model for Linear Quadratic Gaussian control. This identification method based on Levenberg-Marquardt method conducts with a little prior information and no auxiliary system and it is convenient to identify the tip-tilt disturbance model on-line for real-time control. This identification method makes it easy that Linear Quadratic Gaussian control runs efficiently in different adaptive optics systems for vibration mitigation. The validity of the Linear Quadratic Gaussian control associated with this tip-tilt disturbance model identification method is verified by experimental data, which is conducted in replay mode by simulation.

  8. Preface: Introductory Remarks: Linear Scaling Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, D. R.; Fattebert, J.-L.; Gillan, M. J.; Haynes, P. D.; Skylaris, C.-K.

    2008-07-01

    It has been just over twenty years since the publication of the seminal paper on molecular dynamics with ab initio methods by Car and Parrinello [1], and the contribution of density functional theory (DFT) and the related techniques to physics, chemistry, materials science, earth science and biochemistry has been huge. Nevertheless, significant improvements are still being made to the performance of these standard techniques; recent work suggests that speed improvements of one or even two orders of magnitude are possible [2]. One of the areas where major progress has long been expected is in O(N), or linear scaling, DFT, in which the computer effort is proportional to the number of atoms. Linear scaling DFT methods have been in development for over ten years [3] but we are now in an exciting period where more and more research groups are working on these methods. Naturally there is a strong and continuing effort to improve the efficiency of the methods and to make them more robust. But there is also a growing ambition to apply them to challenging real-life problems. This special issue contains papers submitted following the CECAM Workshop 'Linear-scaling ab initio calculations: applications and future directions', held in Lyon from 3-6 September 2007. A noteworthy feature of the workshop is that it included a significant number of presentations involving real applications of O(N) methods, as well as work to extend O(N) methods into areas of greater accuracy (correlated wavefunction methods, quantum Monte Carlo, TDDFT) and large scale computer architectures. As well as explicitly linear scaling methods, the conference included presentations on techniques designed to accelerate and improve the efficiency of standard (that is non-linear-scaling) methods; this highlights the important question of crossover—that is, at what size of system does it become more efficient to use a linear-scaling method? As well as fundamental algorithmic questions, this brings up

  9. A non-linear programming approach to the computer-aided design of regulators using a linear-quadratic formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, P.

    1985-01-01

    A design technique is proposed for linear regulators in which a feedback controller of fixed structure is chosen to minimize an integral quadratic objective function subject to the satisfaction of integral quadratic constraint functions. Application of a non-linear programming algorithm to this mathematically tractable formulation results in an efficient and useful computer-aided design tool. Particular attention is paid to computational efficiency and various recommendations are made. Two design examples illustrate the flexibility of the approach and highlight the special insight afforded to the designer.

  10. Cellular Automata Rules and Linear Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Nayak, Birendra Kumar; Sahoo, Sudhakar; Biswal, Sagarika

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, linear Cellular Automta (CA) rules are recursively generated using a binary tree rooted at "0". Some mathematical results on linear as well as non-linear CA rules are derived. Integers associated with linear CA rules are defined as linear numbers and the properties of these linear numbers are studied.

  11. Feedback systems for linear colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Hendrickson, L; Himel, Thomas M; Minty, Michiko G; Phinney, N; Raimondi, Pantaleo; Raubenheimer, T O; Shoaee, H; Tenenbaum, P G

    1999-01-01

    Feedback systems are essential for stable operation of a linear collider, providing a cost-effective method for relaxing tight tolerances. In the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC), feedback controls beam parameters such as trajectory, energy, and intensity throughout the accelerator. A novel dithering optimization system which adjusts final focus parameters to maximize luminosity contributed to achieving record performance in the 1997-98 run. Performance limitations of the steering feedback have been investigated, and improvements have been made. For the Next Linear Collider (NLC), extensive feedback systems are planned as an intregal part of the design. Feedback requiremetns for JLC (the Japanese Linear Collider) are essentially identical to NLC; some of the TESLA requirements are similar but there are significant differences. For NLC, algorithms which incorporate improvements upon the SLC implementation are being prototyped. Specialized systems for the damping rings, rf and interaction point will operate at hi...

  12. An introduction to linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Mirsky, L

    2003-01-01

    Rigorous, self-contained coverage of determinants, vectors, matrices and linear equations, quadratic forms, more. Elementary, easily readable account with numerous examples and problems at the end of each chapter.

  13. CLIC: developing a linear collider

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1999-01-01

    Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is a CERN project to provide high-energy electron-positron collisions. Instead of conventional radio-frequency klystrons, CLIC will use a low-energy, high-intensity primary beam to produce acceleration.

  14. 1988 linear accelerator conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    This report contains papers presented at the 1988 Linear Accelerator Conference. A few topics covered are beam dynamics; beam transport; superconducting components; free electron lasers; ion sources; and klystron research

  15. CERN balances linear collider studies

    CERN Multimedia

    ILC Newsline

    2011-01-01

    The forces behind the two most mature proposals for a next-generation collider, the International Linear Collider (ILC) and the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) study, have been steadily coming together, with scientists from both communities sharing ideas and information across the technology divide. In a support of cooperation between the two, CERN in Switzerland, where most CLIC research takes place, recently converted the project-specific position of CLIC Study Leader to the concept-based Linear Collider Study Leader.   The scientist who now holds this position, Steinar Stapnes, is charged with making the linear collider a viable option for CERN’s future, one that could include either CLIC or the ILC. The transition to more involve the ILC must be gradual, he said, and the redefinition of his post is a good start. Though not very much involved with superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) technology, where ILC researchers have made significant advances, CERN participates in many aspect...

  16. Linear Methods for Image Interpolation

    OpenAIRE

    Pascal Getreuer

    2011-01-01

    We discuss linear methods for interpolation, including nearest neighbor, bilinear, bicubic, splines, and sinc interpolation. We focus on separable interpolation, so most of what is said applies to one-dimensional interpolation as well as N-dimensional separable interpolation.

  17. Ada Linear-Algebra Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpp, A. R.; Lawson, C. L.

    1988-01-01

    Routines provided for common scalar, vector, matrix, and quaternion operations. Computer program extends Ada programming language to include linear-algebra capabilities similar to HAS/S programming language. Designed for such avionics applications as software for Space Station.

  18. Acoustic emission linear pulse holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, H.D.; Busse, L.J.; Lemon, D.K.

    1983-10-25

    This device relates to the concept of and means for performing Acoustic Emission Linear Pulse Holography, which combines the advantages of linear holographic imaging and Acoustic Emission into a single non-destructive inspection system. This unique system produces a chronological, linear holographic image of a flaw by utilizing the acoustic energy emitted during crack growth. The innovation is the concept of utilizing the crack-generated acoustic emission energy to generate a chronological series of images of a growing crack by applying linear, pulse holographic processing to the acoustic emission data. The process is implemented by placing on a structure an array of piezoelectric sensors (typically 16 or 32 of them) near the defect location. A reference sensor is placed between the defect and the array.

  19. Functionalized linear and cyclic polyolefins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuba, Robert; Grubbs, Robert H.

    2018-02-13

    This invention relates to methods and compositions for preparing linear and cyclic polyolefins. More particularly, the invention relates to methods and compositions for preparing functionalized linear and cyclic polyolefins via olefin metathesis reactions. Polymer products produced via the olefin metathesis reactions of the invention may be utilized for a wide range of materials applications. The invention has utility in the fields of polymer and materials chemistry and manufacture.

  20. Some new ternary linear codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumen Daskalov

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Let an $[n,k,d]_q$ code be a linear code of length $n$, dimension $k$ and minimum Hamming distance $d$ over $GF(q$. One of the most important problems in coding theory is to construct codes with optimal minimum distances. In this paper 22 new ternary linear codes are presented. Two of them are optimal. All new codes improve the respective lower bounds in [11].

  1. Explorative methods in linear models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høskuldsson, Agnar

    2004-01-01

    The author has developed the H-method of mathematical modeling that builds up the model by parts, where each part is optimized with respect to prediction. Besides providing with better predictions than traditional methods, these methods provide with graphic procedures for analyzing different feat...... features in data. These graphic methods extend the well-known methods and results of Principal Component Analysis to any linear model. Here the graphic procedures are applied to linear regression and Ridge Regression....

  2. Polarized Electrons for Linear Colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clendenin, J.

    2004-01-01

    Future electron-positron linear colliders require a highly polarized electron beam with a pulse structure that depends primarily on whether the acceleration utilizes warm or superconducting rf structures. The International Linear Collider (ILC) will use cold structures for the main linac. It is shown that a dc-biased polarized photoelectron source such as successfully used for the SLC can meet the charge requirements for the ILC micropulse with a polarization approaching 90%

  3. Design considerations of a linear generator for a range extender application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seo Un-Jae

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The free piston linear generator is a new range extender concept for the application in a full electric vehicle. The free piston engine driven linear generators can achieve high efficiency at part and full load which is suitable for the range extender application. This paper presents requirements for designing a linear generator deduced from a basic analysis of a free piston linear generator.

  4. Improvement of the thermal behavior of linear motors through insulation layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eun, I. U.; Lee, C. M.; Chung, W. J.; Choi, Y. H.

    2001-01-01

    Linear motors can drive a linear motion without intermediate gears, screws or crank shafts. Linear motors can successfully replace ball lead screw in machine tools, because they have a high velocity, acceleration and good positioning accuracy. On the other hand, linear motors emit large amounts of heat and have low efficiency. In this paper, heat sources of a synchronous linear motor with high velocity and force are measured and analyzed. To improve the thermal stiffness of the linear motor, an insulation layer with low thermal conductivity is inserted between cooler and machine table. Some effects of the insulation layer are presented

  5. Energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marvillet, Ch.; Tochon, P.; Mercier, P.

    2004-01-01

    World energy demand is constantly rising. This is a legitimate trend, insofar as access to energy enables enhanced quality of life and sanitation levels for populations. On the other hand, such increased consumption generates effects that may be catastrophic for the future of the planet (climate change, environmental imbalance), should this growth conform to the patterns followed, up to recent times, by most industrialized countries. Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, development of new energy sources and energy efficiency are seen as the major challenges to be taken up for the world of tomorrow. In France, the National Energy Debate indeed emphasized, in 2003, the requirement to control both demand for, and offer of, energy, through a strategic orientation law for energy. The French position corresponds to a slightly singular situation - and a privileged one, compared to other countries - owing to massive use of nuclear power for electricity generation. This option allows France to be responsible for a mere 2% of worldwide greenhouse gas emissions. Real advances can nonetheless still be achieved as regards improved energy efficiency, particularly in the transportation and residential-tertiary sectors, following the lead, in this respect, shown by industry. These two sectors indeed account for over half of the country CO 2 emissions (26% and 25% respectively). With respect to transportation, the work carried out by CEA on the hydrogen pathway, energy converters, and electricity storage has been covered by the preceding chapters. As regards housing, a topic addressed by one of the papers in this chapter, investigations at CEA concern integration of the various devices enabling value-added use of renewable energies. At the same time, the organization is carrying through its activity in the extensive area of heat exchangers, allowing industry to benefit from improved understanding in the modeling of flows. An activity evidenced by advances in energy efficiency for

  6. Offsetting efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, M.

    1995-01-01

    Whichever way the local distribution company (LDC) tries to convert residential customers to gas or expand their use of it, the process itself has become essential for the natural gas industry. The amount of gas used by each residential customer has been decreasing for 25 years -- since the energy crisis of the early 1970s. It's a direct result of better-insulated homes and more-efficient gas appliances, and that trend is continuing. So, LDCs have a choice of either finding new users and uses for gas, or recognizing that their throughput per customer is going to continue declining. The paper discusses strategies that several gas utilities are using to increase the number of gas appliances in the customer's homes. These and other strategies keep the gas industry optimistic about the future of the residential market: A.G.A. has projected that by 2010 demand will expand, from 1994's 5.1 quadrillion Btu (quads) to 5.7 quads, even with continued improvements in appliance efficiency. That estimate, however, will depend on the industry-s utilities and whether they keep converting, proselytizing, persuading and influencing customers to use more natural gas

  7. Primordial black holes in linear and non-linear regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allahyari, Alireza; Abolhasani, Ali Akbar [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Firouzjaee, Javad T., E-mail: allahyari@physics.sharif.edu, E-mail: j.taghizadeh.f@ipm.ir [School of Astronomy, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-06-01

    We revisit the formation of primordial black holes (PBHs) in the radiation-dominated era for both linear and non-linear regimes, elaborating on the concept of an apparent horizon. Contrary to the expectation from vacuum models, we argue that in a cosmological setting a density fluctuation with a high density does not always collapse to a black hole. To this end, we first elaborate on the perturbation theory for spherically symmetric space times in the linear regime. Thereby, we introduce two gauges. This allows to introduce a well defined gauge-invariant quantity for the expansion of null geodesics. Using this quantity, we argue that PBHs do not form in the linear regime irrespective of the density of the background. Finally, we consider the formation of PBHs in non-linear regimes, adopting the spherical collapse picture. In this picture, over-densities are modeled by closed FRW models in the radiation-dominated era. The difference of our approach is that we start by finding an exact solution for a closed radiation-dominated universe. This yields exact results for turn-around time and radius. It is important that we take the initial conditions from the linear perturbation theory. Additionally, instead of using uniform Hubble gauge condition, both density and velocity perturbations are admitted in this approach. Thereby, the matching condition will impose an important constraint on the initial velocity perturbations δ {sup h} {sub 0} = −δ{sub 0}/2. This can be extended to higher orders. Using this constraint, we find that the apparent horizon of a PBH forms when δ > 3 at turn-around time. The corrections also appear from the third order. Moreover, a PBH forms when its apparent horizon is outside the sound horizon at the re-entry time. Applying this condition, we infer that the threshold value of the density perturbations at horizon re-entry should be larger than δ {sub th} > 0.7.

  8. Optimal choice of basis functions in the linear regression analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khotinskij, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    Problem of optimal choice of basis functions in the linear regression analysis is investigated. Step algorithm with estimation of its efficiency, which holds true at finite number of measurements, is suggested. Conditions, providing the probability of correct choice close to 1 are formulated. Application of the step algorithm to analysis of decay curves is substantiated. 8 refs

  9. Linear Estimation of Standard Deviation of Logistic Distribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper presents a theoretical method based on order statistics and a FORTRAN program for computing the variance and relative efficiencies of the standard deviation of the logistic population with respect to the Cramer-Rao lower variance bound and the best linear unbiased estimators (BLUE\\'s) when the mean is ...

  10. Linearly Ordered Attribute Grammar Scheduling Using SAT-Solving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bransen, Jeroen; van Binsbergen, L.Thomas; Claessen, Koen; Dijkstra, Atze

    2015-01-01

    Many computations over trees can be specified using attribute grammars. Compilers for attribute grammars need to find an evaluation order (or schedule) in order to generate efficient code. For the class of linearly ordered attribute grammars such a schedule can be found statically, but this problem

  11. Linear response at the 4-component relativistic level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saue, T.; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aagaard

    2003-01-01

    The theory, implementation, and application of linear response at the 4-component relativistic closed-shell Hartree-Fock level based on the concept of quasienergy and time averaging are reported. As such, an efficient AO-driven algorithm is obtained by assigning specific Hermiticity and time...

  12. Random linear network coding for streams with unequally sized packets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taghouti, Maroua; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Pedersen, Morten Videbæk

    2016-01-01

    State of the art Random Linear Network Coding (RLNC) schemes assume that data streams generate packets with equal sizes. This is an assumption that results in the highest efficiency gains for RLNC. A typical solution for managing unequal packet sizes is to zero-pad the smallest packets. However, ...

  13. Linearized propulsion theory of flapping airfoils revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Feria, Ramon

    2016-11-01

    A vortical impulse theory is used to compute the thrust of a plunging and pitching airfoil in forward flight within the framework of linear potential flow theory. The result is significantly different from the classical one of Garrick that considered the leading-edge suction and the projection in the flight direction of the pressure force. By taking into account the complete vorticity distribution on the airfoil and the wake the mean thrust coefficient contains a new term that generalizes the leading-edge suction term and depends on Theodorsen function C (k) and on a new complex function C1 (k) of the reduced frequency k. The main qualitative difference with Garrick's theory is that the propulsive efficiency tends to zero as the reduced frequency increases to infinity (as 1 / k), in contrast to Garrick's efficiency that tends to a constant (1 / 2). Consequently, for pure pitching and combined pitching and plunging motions, the maximum of the propulsive efficiency is not reached as k -> ∞ like in Garrick's theory, but at a finite value of the reduced frequency that depends on the remaining non-dimensional parameters. The present analytical results are in good agreement with experimental data and numerical results for small amplitude oscillations. Supported by the Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad of Spain Grant No. DPI2013-40479-P.

  14. Computation of Optimal Monotonicity Preserving General Linear Methods

    KAUST Repository

    Ketcheson, David I.

    2009-07-01

    Monotonicity preserving numerical methods for ordinary differential equations prevent the growth of propagated errors and preserve convex boundedness properties of the solution. We formulate the problem of finding optimal monotonicity preserving general linear methods for linear autonomous equations, and propose an efficient algorithm for its solution. This algorithm reliably finds optimal methods even among classes involving very high order accuracy and that use many steps and/or stages. The optimality of some recently proposed methods is verified, and many more efficient methods are found. We use similar algorithms to find optimal strong stability preserving linear multistep methods of both explicit and implicit type, including methods for hyperbolic PDEs that use downwind-biased operators.

  15. APPLICATION OF NEURAL NETWORK ALGORITHMS FOR BPM LINEARIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musson, John C. [JLAB; Seaton, Chad [JLAB; Spata, Mike F. [JLAB; Yan, Jianxun [JLAB

    2012-11-01

    Stripline BPM sensors contain inherent non-linearities, as a result of field distortions from the pickup elements. Many methods have been devised to facilitate corrections, often employing polynomial fitting. The cost of computation makes real-time correction difficult, particulalry when integer math is utilized. The application of neural-network technology, particularly the multi-layer perceptron algorithm, is proposed as an efficient alternative for electrode linearization. A process of supervised learning is initially used to determine the weighting coefficients, which are subsequently applied to the incoming electrode data. A non-linear layer, known as an activation layer, is responsible for the removal of saturation effects. Implementation of a perceptron in an FPGA-based software-defined radio (SDR) is presented, along with performance comparisons. In addition, efficient calculation of the sigmoidal activation function via the CORDIC algorithm is presented.

  16. The linear-non-linear frontier for the Goldstone Higgs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavela, M.B.; Saa, S.; Kanshin, K.; Machado, P.A.N.

    2016-01-01

    The minimal SO(5)/SO(4) σ-model is used as a template for the ultraviolet completion of scenarios in which the Higgs particle is a low-energy remnant of some high-energy dynamics, enjoying a (pseudo) Nambu-Goldstone-boson ancestry. Varying the σ mass allows one to sweep from the perturbative regime to the customary non-linear implementations. The low-energy benchmark effective non-linear Lagrangian for bosons and fermions is obtained, determining as well the operator coefficients including linear corrections. At first order in the latter, three effective bosonic operators emerge which are independent of the explicit soft breaking assumed. The Higgs couplings to vector bosons and fermions turn out to be quite universal: the linear corrections are proportional to the explicit symmetry-breaking parameters. Furthermore, we define an effective Yukawa operator which allows a simple parametrization and comparison of different heavy-fermion ultraviolet completions. In addition, one particular fermionic completion is explored in detail, obtaining the corresponding leading low-energy fermionic operators. (orig.)

  17. Advanced statistics: linear regression, part II: multiple linear regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marill, Keith A

    2004-01-01

    The applications of simple linear regression in medical research are limited, because in most situations, there are multiple relevant predictor variables. Univariate statistical techniques such as simple linear regression use a single predictor variable, and they often may be mathematically correct but clinically misleading. Multiple linear regression is a mathematical technique used to model the relationship between multiple independent predictor variables and a single dependent outcome variable. It is used in medical research to model observational data, as well as in diagnostic and therapeutic studies in which the outcome is dependent on more than one factor. Although the technique generally is limited to data that can be expressed with a linear function, it benefits from a well-developed mathematical framework that yields unique solutions and exact confidence intervals for regression coefficients. Building on Part I of this series, this article acquaints the reader with some of the important concepts in multiple regression analysis. These include multicollinearity, interaction effects, and an expansion of the discussion of inference testing, leverage, and variable transformations to multivariate models. Examples from the first article in this series are expanded on using a primarily graphic, rather than mathematical, approach. The importance of the relationships among the predictor variables and the dependence of the multivariate model coefficients on the choice of these variables are stressed. Finally, concepts in regression model building are discussed.

  18. The linear-non-linear frontier for the Goldstone Higgs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavela, M.B.; Saa, S. [IFT-UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Departamento de Fisica Teorica y Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Madrid (Spain); Kanshin, K. [Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia ' G. Galilei' , Padua (Italy); INFN, Padova (Italy); Machado, P.A.N. [IFT-UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Departamento de Fisica Teorica y Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Madrid (Spain); Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Theoretical Physics Department, Batavia, IL (United States)

    2016-12-15

    The minimal SO(5)/SO(4) σ-model is used as a template for the ultraviolet completion of scenarios in which the Higgs particle is a low-energy remnant of some high-energy dynamics, enjoying a (pseudo) Nambu-Goldstone-boson ancestry. Varying the σ mass allows one to sweep from the perturbative regime to the customary non-linear implementations. The low-energy benchmark effective non-linear Lagrangian for bosons and fermions is obtained, determining as well the operator coefficients including linear corrections. At first order in the latter, three effective bosonic operators emerge which are independent of the explicit soft breaking assumed. The Higgs couplings to vector bosons and fermions turn out to be quite universal: the linear corrections are proportional to the explicit symmetry-breaking parameters. Furthermore, we define an effective Yukawa operator which allows a simple parametrization and comparison of different heavy-fermion ultraviolet completions. In addition, one particular fermionic completion is explored in detail, obtaining the corresponding leading low-energy fermionic operators. (orig.)

  19. Linearization: Geometric, Complex, and Conditional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Qadir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lie symmetry analysis provides a systematic method of obtaining exact solutions of nonlinear (systems of differential equations, whether partial or ordinary. Of special interest is the procedure that Lie developed to transform scalar nonlinear second-order ordinary differential equations to linear form. Not much work was done in this direction to start with, but recently there have been various developments. Here, first the original work of Lie (and the early developments on it, and then more recent developments based on geometry and complex analysis, apart from Lie’s own method of algebra (namely, Lie group theory, are reviewed. It is relevant to mention that much of the work is not linearization but uses the base of linearization.

  20. Window observers for linear systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utkin Vadim

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Given a linear system x ˙ = A x + B u with output y = C x and a window function ω ( t , i.e., ∀ t , ω ( t ∈ {0,1 }, and assuming that the window function is Lebesgue measurable, we refer to the following observer, x ˆ = A x + B u + ω ( t L C ( x − x ˆ as a window observer. The stability issue is treated in this paper. It is proven that for linear time-invariant systems, the window observer can be stabilized by an appropriate design under a very mild condition on the window functions, albeit for linear time-varying system, some regularity of the window functions is required to achieve observer designs with the asymptotic stability. The corresponding design methods are developed. An example is included to illustrate the possible applications