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Sample records for efficient bulk heterojunction

  1. Efficiency of bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharber, M.C.; Sariciftci, N.S.

    2013-01-01

    During the last years the performance of bulk heterojunction solar cells has been improved significantly. For a large-scale application of this technology further improvements are required. This article reviews the basic working principles and the state of the art device design of bulk heterojunction solar cells. The importance of high power conversion efficiencies for the commercial exploitation is outlined and different efficiency models for bulk heterojunction solar cells are discussed. Assuming state of the art materials and device architectures several models predict power conversion efficiencies in the range of 10–15%. A more general approach assuming device operation close to the Shockley–Queisser-limit leads to even higher efficiencies. Bulk heterojunction devices exhibiting only radiative recombination of charge carriers could be as efficient as ideal inorganic photovoltaic devices. PMID:24302787

  2. Ultimate efficiency of polymer/fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, LJA; Mihailetchi, VD; Blom, PWM

    2006-01-01

    We present model calculations to explore the potential of polymer/fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells. As a starting point, devices based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) and 6,6-phenyl C-61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), reaching 3.5% efficiency, are modeled. Lowering the polymeric band gap will

  3. Design rules for donors in bulk-heterojunction solar cells - towards 10 % energy-conversion efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharber, M.C.; Muehlbacher, D.; Koppe, M.; Denk, P.; Waldauf, C.; Brabec, C.J. [Konarka Austria, Altenbergerstrasse 69, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Heeger, A.J. [Department of Materials Science, Broida Hall 6125, University of California at Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 3106-5090 (United States)

    2006-03-17

    For bulk-heterojunction photovoltaic cells fabricated from conjugated polymers and a fullerene derivative, the relation between the open-circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) and the oxidation potential for different conjugated polymers is studied. A linear relation between V{sub oc} and the oxidation potential is found (see figure). Based on this relation, the energy-conversion efficiency of a bulk-heterojunction solar cell is derived as a function of the bandgap and the energy levels of the conjugated polymer. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  4. The Physics of Small Molecule Acceptors for Efficient and Stable Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Gasparini, Nicola

    2018-01-29

    Organic bulk heterojunction solar cells based on small molecule acceptors have recently seen a rapid rise in the power conversion efficiency with values exceeding 13%. This impressive achievement has been obtained by simultaneous reduction of voltage and charge recombination losses within this class of materials as compared to fullerene-based solar cells. In this contribution, the authors review the current understanding of the relevant photophysical processes in highly efficient nonfullerene acceptor (NFA) small molecules. Charge generation, recombination, and charge transport is discussed in comparison to fullerene-based composites. Finally, the authors review the superior light and thermal stability of nonfullerene small molecule acceptor based solar cells, and highlight the importance of NFA-based composites that enable devices without early performance loss, thus resembling so-called burn-in free devices.

  5. Plasmon enhanced power conversion efficiency in inverted bulk heterojunction organic solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Minu; Ramkumar, S.; Namboothiry, Manoj A. G.

    2017-08-01

    P3HT:PCBM is one of the most studied polymer-fullerene system. However the reported power conversion efficiency (PCE) values falls within the range of 4% to 5%. The thin film architecture in OPVs exhibits low PCE compared to inorganic photovoltaic cells. This is mainly due to the low exciton diffusion length that limits the active layer thickness which in turn reduces the absorption of incident light. Several strategies are adapted in order to increase the absorption in the active layer without increasing the film thickness. Inclusion of metal nanoparticles into the polymer layer of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells is one of the promising methods. Incorporation of metal nanostructures increases the absorption of organic materials due to the high electromagnetic field strength in the vicinity of the excited surface plasmons. In this work, we used 60 nm Au plasmonic structures to improve the efficiency of organic solar cell. The prepared metal nano structures were characterized through scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and UV-Visible spectroscopy techniques. These prepared metallic nanoparticles can be incorporated either into the electron transport layer (ETL) or into the active P3HT:PC71BM layer. The effect of incorporation of plasmonic gold (Au) nanoparticle in the inverted bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) of P3HT:PC71BM fabricated in ambient air condition is in progress. Initial studies shows an 8.5% enhancement in the PCE with the incorporation of Au nanoparticles under AM1.5G light of intensity 1 Sun.

  6. Long-term efficient organic photovoltaics based on quaternary bulk heterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Minwoo; Cha, Minjeong; Lee, Hyun Hwi; Hur, Kahyun; Lee, Kyu-Tae; Yoo, Jaehong; Han, Il Ki; Kwon, S. Joon; Ko, Doo-Hyun

    2017-01-01

    A major impediment to the commercialization of organic photovoltaics (OPVs) is attaining long-term morphological stability of the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) layer. To secure the stability while pursuing optimized performance, multi-component BHJ-based OPVs have been strategically explored. Here we demonstrate the use of quaternary BHJs (q-BHJs) composed of two conjugated polymer donors and two fullerene acceptors as a novel platform to produce high-efficiency and long-term durable OPVs. A q-BHJ OPV (q-OPV) with an experimentally optimized composition exhibits an enhanced efficiency and extended operational lifetime than does the binary reference OPV. The q-OPV would retain more than 72% of its initial efficiency (for example, 8.42–6.06%) after a 1-year operation at an elevated temperature of 65 °C. This is superior to those of the state-of-the-art BHJ-based OPVs. We attribute the enhanced stability to the significant suppression of domain growth and phase separation between the components via kinetic trapping effect. PMID:28091606

  7. Structure–property relationships of oligothiophene–isoindigo polymers for efficient bulk-heterojunction solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Zaifei

    2014-01-01

    A series of alternating oligothiophene (nT)-isoindigo (I) copolymers (PnTI) were synthesized to investigate the influence of the oligothiophene block length on the photovoltaic (PV) properties of PnTI:PCBM bulk-heterojunction blends. Our study indicates that the number of thiophene rings (n) in the repeating unit alters both polymer crystallinity and polymer-fullerene interfacial energetics, which results in a decreasing open-circuit voltage (Voc) of the solar cells with increasing n. The short-circuit current density (Jsc) of P1TI:PCBM devices is limited by the absence of a significant driving force for electron transfer. Instead, blends based on P5TI and P6TI feature large polymer domains, which limit charge generation and thus Jsc. The best PV performance with a power conversion efficiency of up to 6.9% was achieved with devices based on P3TI, where a combination of a favorable morphology and an optimal interfacial energy level offset ensures efficient exciton separation and charge generation. The structure-property relationship demonstrated in this work would be a valuable guideline for the design of high performance polymers with small energy losses during the charge generation process, allowing for the fabrication of efficient solar cells that combine a minimal loss in Voc with a high Jsc. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  8. Barium: An Efficient Cathode Layer for Bulk-heterojunction Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vinay; Kyaw, Aung Ko Ko; Wang, Dong Hwan; Chand, Suresh; Bazan, Guillermo C.; Heeger, Alan J.

    2013-01-01

    We report Barium (Ba) cathode layer for bulk-heterojunction solar cells which enhanced the fill factor (FF) of p-DTS(FBTTh2)2/PC71BM BHJ solar cell up to 75.1%, one of the highest value reported for an organic solar cell. The external quantum efficiency exceeds 80%. Analysis of recombination mechanisms using the current-voltage (J–V) characteristics at various light intensities in the BHJ solar cell layer reveals that Ba prevents trap assisted Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) recombination at the interface and with different thicknesses of the Ba, the recombination shifts towards bimolecular from monomolecular. Moreover, Ba increases shunt resistance and decreases the series resistance significantly. This results in an increase in the charge collection probability leading to high FF. This work identifies a new cathode interlayer which outclasses the all the reported interlayers in increasing FF leading to high power conversion efficiency and have significant implications in improving the performance of BHJ solar cells. PMID:23752562

  9. Overcoming the efficiency limitations of SnS2 nanoparticle-based bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam Nguyen Truong, Nguyen; Kieu Trinh, Thanh; Thanh Hau Pham, Viet; Smith, Ryan P.; Park, Chinho

    2018-04-01

    This study examined the effects of heat treatment, the electron transport layer, and [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) incorporation on the performance of hybrid bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells composed of tin disulfide (SnS2) nanoparticles (NPs) and low band gap energy polymers poly[2,6-(4,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b3,4-b‧]dithiophene)-alt-4,7(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)] (PCPDTBT) or poly({4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b‧]dithiophene-2,6-diyl}{3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl}) (PBT7). Inserting an electron transport layer (ETL) (i.e., ZnO) on the top of the photoactive layer improved the surface morphology of the photoactive layer, which led to an improvement in charge transport. Moreover, adding a suitable amount of PCBM to the SnS2/polymer active layer enhanced the device performance, such as short circuit current density (J sc) and power conversion efficiency (PCE). In particular, adding 0.5 mg of PCBM to the composite solution led to a 25% and 1.5% improvement in the J sc value and PCE, respectively. The enhanced performance was due mainly to the improvements in the surface morphology of the photoactive layer, charge carrier mobility within the donor-acceptor interface, and carrier collection efficiency at the cathode.

  10. Development of Efficient and Stable Inverted Bulk Heterojunction (BHJ) Solar Cells Using Different Metal Oxide Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litzov, Ivan; Brabec, Christoph J

    2013-12-10

    Solution-processed inverted bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells have gained much more attention during the last decade, because of their significantly better environmental stability compared to the normal architecture BHJ solar cells. Transparent metal oxides (MeO x ) play an important role as the dominant class for solution-processed interface materials in this development, due to their excellent optical transparency, their relatively high electrical conductivity and their tunable work function. This article reviews the advantages and disadvantages of the most common synthesis methods used for the wet chemical preparation of the most relevant n -type- and p -type-like MeO x interface materials consisting of binary compounds A x B y . Their performance for applications as electron transport/extraction layers (ETL/EEL) and as hole transport/extraction layers (HTL/HEL) in inverted BHJ solar cells will be reviewed and discussed.

  11. Development of Efficient and Stable Inverted Bulk Heterojunction (BHJ Solar Cells Using Different Metal Oxide Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Litzov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Solution-processed inverted bulk heterojunction (BHJ solar cells have gained much more attention during the last decade, because of their significantly better environmental stability compared to the normal architecture BHJ solar cells. Transparent metal oxides (MeOx play an important role as the dominant class for solution-processed interface materials in this development, due to their excellent optical transparency, their relatively high electrical conductivity and their tunable work function. This article reviews the advantages and disadvantages of the most common synthesis methods used for the wet chemical preparation of the most relevant n-type- and p-type-like MeOx interface materials consisting of binary compounds AxBy. Their performance for applications as electron transport/extraction layers (ETL/EEL and as hole transport/extraction layers (HTL/HEL in inverted BHJ solar cells will be reviewed and discussed.

  12. Sputtered nickel oxide thin film for efficient hole transport layer in polymer–fullerene bulk-heterojunction organic solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widjonarko, N. Edwin [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Physics; National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ratcliff, Erin L. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry; Perkins, Craig L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sigdel, Ajaya K. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Univ. of Denver, CO (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Zakutayev, Andriy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ndione, Paul F. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gillaspie, Dane T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ginley, David S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Olson, Dana C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Berry, Joseph J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) organic photovoltaics (OPV) are promising thin-film renewable energy conversion options due to low production cost by high-throughput roll-to-roll manufacturing, an expansive list of compatible materials, and flexible device fabrication.

  13. Understanding the Effect of Unintentional Doping on Transport Optimization and Analysis in Efficient Organic Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent Deledalle

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we provide experimental evidence of the effects of unintentional p-type doping on the performance and the apparent recombination dynamics of bulk-heterojunction solar cells. By supporting these experimental observations with drift-diffusion simulations on two batches of the same efficient polymer-fullerene solar cells with substantially different doping levels and at different thicknesses, we investigate the way the presence of doping affects the interpretation of optoelectronic measurements of recombination and charge transport in organic solar cells. We also present experimental evidence on how unintentional doping can lead to excessively high apparent reaction orders. Our work suggests first that the knowledge of the level of dopants is essential in the studies of recombination dynamics and carrier transport and that unintentional doping levels need to be reduced below approximately 7×10^{15}  cm^{−3} for full optimization around the second interference maximum of highly efficient polymer-fullerene solar cells.

  14. Solution-Processed In2O3/ZnO Heterojunction Electron Transport Layers for Efficient Organic Bulk Heterojunction and Inorganic Colloidal Quantum-Dot Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Eisner, Flurin

    2018-04-25

    We report the development of a solution‐processed In2O3/ZnO heterojunction electron transport layer (ETL) and its application in high efficiency organic bulk‐heterojunction (BHJ) and inorganic colloidal quantum dot (CQD) solar cells. Study of the electrical properties of this low‐dimensional oxide heterostructure via field‐effect measurements reveals that electron transport along the heterointerface is enhanced by more than a tenfold when compared to the individual single‐layer oxides. Use of the heterojunction as the ETL in organic BHJ photovoltaics is found to consistently improve the cell\\'s performance due to the smoothening of the ZnO surface, increased electron mobility and a noticeable reduction in the cathode\\'s work function, leading to a decrease in the cells’ series resistance and a higher fill factor (FF). Specifically, non‐fullerene based organic BHJ solar cells based on In2O3/ZnO ETLs exhibit very high power conversion efficiencies (PCE) of up to 12.8%, and high FFs of over 70%. The bilayer ETL concept is further extended to inorganic lead‐sulphide CQD solar cells. Resulting devices exhibit excellent performance with a maximum PCE of 8.2% and a FF of 56.8%. The present results highlight the potential of multilayer oxides as novel ETL systems and lay the foundation for future developments.

  15. A mechanistic understanding of processing additive-induced efficiency enhancement in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Schmidt, Kristin

    2013-10-31

    The addition of processing additives is a widely used approach to increase power conversion efficiencies for many organic solar cells. We present how additives change the polymer conformation in the casting solution leading to a more intermixed phase-segregated network structure of the active layer which in turn results in a 5-fold enhancement in efficiency. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Efficient inverted bulk-heterojunction solar cells from low-temperature processing of amorphous ZnO buffer layers

    KAUST Repository

    Jagadamma, Lethy Krishnan

    2014-01-01

    In this report, we demonstrate that solution-processed amorphous zinc oxide (a-ZnO) interlayers prepared at low temperatures (∼100 °C) can yield inverted bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells that are as efficient as nanoparticle-based ZnO requiring comparably more complex synthesis or polycrystalline ZnO films prepared at substantially higher temperatures (150-400 °C). Low-temperature, facile solution-processing approaches are required in the fabrication of BHJ solar cells on flexible plastic substrates, such as PET. Here, we achieve efficient inverted solar cells with a-ZnO buffer layers by carefully examining the correlations between the thin film morphology and the figures of merit of optimized BHJ devices with various polymer donors and PCBM as the fullerene acceptor. We find that the most effective a-ZnO morphology consists of a compact, thin layer with continuous substrate coverage. In parallel, we emphasize the detrimental effect of forming rippled surface morphologies of a-ZnO, an observation which contrasts with results obtained in polycrystalline ZnO thin films, where rippled morphologies have been reported to improve efficiency. After optimizing the a-ZnO morphology at low processing temperature for inverted P3HT:PCBM devices, achieving a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of ca. 4.1%, we demonstrate inverted solar cells with low bandgap polymer donors on glass/flexible PET substrates: PTB7:PC71BM (PCE: 6.5% (glass)/5.6% (PET)) and PBDTTPD:PC71BM (PCE: 6.7% (glass)/5.9% (PET)). Finally, we show that a-ZnO based inverted P3HT:PCBM BHJ solar cells maintain ca. 90-95% of their initial PCE even after a full year without encapsulation in a nitrogen dry box, thus demonstrating excellent shelf stability. The insight we have gained into the importance of surface morphology in amorphous zinc oxide buffer layers should help in the development of other low-temperature solution-processed metal oxide interlayers for efficient flexible solar cells. This journal is

  17. Structure–property relationships of oligothiophene–isoindigo polymers for efficient bulk-heterojunction solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zaifei; Sun, Wenjun; Himmelberger, Scott

    2014-01-01

    ) in the repeating unit alters both polymer crystallinity and polymer–fullerene interfacial energetics, which results in a decreasing open-circuit voltage (Voc) of the solar cells with increasing n. The short-circuit current density (Jsc) of P1TI:PCBM devices is limited by the absence of a significant driving force...... for the fabrication of efficient solar cells that combine a minimal loss in Voc with a high Jsc....

  18. Interfacial Engineering for Highly Efficient-Conjugated Polymer-Based Bulk Heterojunction Photovoltaic Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alex Jen; David Ginger; Christine Luscombe; Hong Ma

    2012-04-02

    The aim of our proposal is to apply interface engineering approach to improve charge extraction, guide active layer morphology, improve materials compatibility, and ultimately allow the fabrication of high efficiency tandem cells. Specifically, we aim at developing: i. Interfacial engineering using small molecule self-assembled monolayers ii. Nanostructure engineering in OPVs using polymer brushes iii. Development of efficient light harvesting and high mobility materials for OPVs iv. Physical characterization of the nanostructured systems using electrostatic force microscopy, and conducting atomic force microscopy v. All-solution processed organic-based tandem cells using interfacial engineering to optimize the recombination layer currents vi. Theoretical modeling of charge transport in the active semiconducting layer The material development effort is guided by advanced computer modeling and surface/ interface engineering tools to allow us to obtain better understanding of the effect of electrode modifications on OPV performance for the investigation of more elaborate device structures. The materials and devices developed within this program represent a major conceptual advancement using an integrated approach combining rational molecular design, material, interface, process, and device engineering to achieve solar cells with high efficiency, stability, and the potential to be used for large-area roll-to-roll printing. This may create significant impact in lowering manufacturing cost of polymer solar cells for promoting clean renewable energy use and preventing the side effects from using fossil fuels to impact environment.

  19. Polymer-Polymer Förster Resonance Energy Transfer Significantly Boosts the Power Conversion Efficiency of Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vinay; Bharti, Vishal; Kumar, Mahesh; Chand, Suresh; Heeger, Alan J

    2015-06-24

    Optically resonant donor polymers can exploit a wider range of the solar spectrum effectively without a complicated tandem design in an organic solar cell. Ultrafast Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) in a polymer-polymer system that significantly improves the power conversion efficiency in bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells from 6.8% to 8.9% is demonstrated, thus paving the way to achieving 15% efficient solar cells. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Ambient Layer-by-Layer ZnO Assembly for Highly Efficient Polymer Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Eita, Mohamed Samir

    2015-02-04

    The use of metal oxide interlayers in polymer solar cells has great potential because metal oxides are abundant, thermally stable, and can be used in fl exible devices. Here, a layer-by-layer (LbL) protocol is reported as a facile, room-temperature, solution-processed method to prepare electron transport layers from commercial ZnO nanoparticles and polyacrylic acid (PAA) with a controlled and tunable porous structure, which provides large interfacial contacts with the active layer. Applying the LbL approach to bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells with an optimized ZnO layer thickness of H25 nm yields solar cell power-conversion effi ciencies (PCEs) of ≈6%, exceeding the effi ciency of amorphous ZnO interlayers formed by conventional sputtering methods. Interestingly, annealing the ZnO/PAA interlayers in nitrogen and air environments in the range of 60-300 ° C reduces the device PCEs by almost 20% to 50%, indicating the importance of conformational changes inherent to the PAA polymer in the LbL-deposited fi lms to solar cell performance. This protocol suggests a new fabrication method for solution-processed polymer solar cell devices that does not require postprocessing thermal annealing treatments and that is applicable to fl exible devices printed on plastic substrates.

  1. Depleted Bulk Heterojunction Colloidal Quantum Dot Photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Barkhouse, D. Aaron R.

    2011-05-26

    The first solution-processed depleted bulk heterojunction colloidal quantum dot solar cells are presented. The architecture allows for high absorption with full depletion, thereby breaking the photon absorption/carrier extraction compromise inherent in planar devices. A record power conversion of 5.5% under simulated AM 1.5 illumination conditions is reported. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Efficiency Enhancement in Bulk Heterojunction Polymer Photovoltaic Cells Using ZrTiO4/Bi2O3 Metal-Oxide Nanocomposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Jabbar, Mohammed Hussain; Neppolian, B.; Shim, Hee-Sang

    2010-01-01

    We report the effect of metal-oxide nanocomposites on the performance of bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells. A photoactive layer composed of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) was blended with a newly developed ZrTiO4/Bi2O3 (BITZ) metal......-oxide nanocomposite. We observed a short-circuit current density of 9.90 mA/cm2, an open-circuit voltage of 0.64 V, and a fill factor of 0.60. The overall power conversion efficiency increased from 3.20 to 3.72% with an external quantum efficiency improvement of 66%. The enhancement in performance was attributed...

  3. From Recombination Dynamics to Device Performance: Quantifying the Efficiency of Exciton Dissociation, Charge Separation, and Extraction in Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells with Fluorine-Substituted Polymer Donors

    KAUST Repository

    Gorenflot, Julien

    2017-09-28

    An original set of experimental and modeling tools is used to quantify the yield of each of the physical processes leading to photocurrent generation in organic bulk heterojunction solar cells, enabling evaluation of materials and processing condition beyond the trivial comparison of device performances. Transient absorption spectroscopy, “the” technique to monitor all intermediate states over the entire relevant timescale, is combined with time-delayed collection field experiments, transfer matrix simulations, spectral deconvolution, and parametrization of the charge carrier recombination by a two-pool model, allowing quantification of densities of excitons and charges and extrapolation of their kinetics to device-relevant conditions. Photon absorption, charge transfer, charge separation, and charge extraction are all quantified for two recently developed wide-bandgap donor polymers: poly(4,8-bis((2-ethylhexyl)oxy)benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene-3,4-difluorothiophene) (PBDT[2F]T) and its nonfluorinated counterpart poly(4,8-bis((2-ethylhexyl)oxy)benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene-3,4-thiophene) (PBDT[2H]T) combined with PC71BM in bulk heterojunctions. The product of these yields is shown to agree well with the devices\\' external quantum efficiency. This methodology elucidates in the specific case studied here the origin of improved photocurrents obtained when using PBDT[2F]T instead of PBDT[2H]T as well as upon using solvent additives. Furthermore, a higher charge transfer (CT)-state energy is shown to lead to significantly lower energy losses (resulting in higher VOC) during charge generation compared to P3HT:PCBM.

  4. Thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione-3,4-difluorothiophene Polymer Acceptors for Efficient All-Polymer Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Shengjian

    2016-09-16

    Branched-alkyl-substituted poly(thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione-alt-3,4-difluorothiophene) (PTPD[2F]T) can be used as a polymer acceptor in bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells with a low-band-gap polymer donor (PCE10) commonly used with fullerenes. The

  5. Structural determinants in the bulk heterojunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acocella, Angela; Höfinger, Siegfried; Haunschmid, Ernst; Pop, Sergiu C; Narumi, Tetsu; Yasuoka, Kenji; Yasui, Masato; Zerbetto, Francesco

    2018-02-21

    Photovoltaics is one of the key areas in renewable energy research with remarkable progress made every year. Here we consider the case of a photoactive material and study its structural composition and the resulting consequences for the fundamental processes driving solar energy conversion. A multiscale approach is used to characterize essential molecular properties of the light-absorbing layer. A selection of bulk-representative pairs of donor/acceptor molecules is extracted from the molecular dynamics simulation of the bulk heterojunction and analyzed at increasing levels of detail. Significantly increased ground state energies together with an array of additional structural characteristics are identified that all point towards an auxiliary role of the material's structural organization in mediating charge-transfer and -separation. Mechanistic studies of the type presented here can provide important insights into fundamental principles governing solar energy conversion in next-generation photovoltaic devices.

  6. Organic hybrid planar-nanocrystalline bulk heterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Stephen R [Ann Arbor, MI; Yang, Fan [Piscataway, NJ

    2011-03-01

    A photosensitive optoelectronic device having an improved hybrid planar bulk heterojunction includes a plurality of photoconductive materials disposed between the anode and the cathode. The photoconductive materials include a first continuous layer of donor material and a second continuous layer of acceptor material. A first network of donor material or materials extends from the first continuous layer toward the second continuous layer, providing continuous pathways for conduction of holes to the first continuous layer. A second network of acceptor material or materials extends from the second continuous layer toward the first continuous layer, providing continuous pathways for conduction of electrons to the second continuous layer. The first network and the second network are interlaced with each other. At least one other photoconductive material is interspersed between the interlaced networks. This other photoconductive material or materials has an absorption spectra different from the donor and acceptor materials.

  7. Ordered Nanopillar Structured Electrodes for Depleted Bulk Heterojunction Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Kramer, Illan J.

    2012-03-30

    A bulk heterojunction of ordered titania nanopillars and PbS colloidal quantum dots is developed. By using a pre-patterned template, an ordered titania nanopillar matrix with nearest neighbours 275 nm apart and height of 300 nm is fabricated and subsequently filled in with PbS colloidal quantum dots to form an ordered depleted bulk heterojunction exhibiting power conversion efficiency of 5.6%. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Hybrid tandem solar cells with depleted-heterojunction quantum dot and polymer bulk heterojunction subcells

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Taesoo

    2015-10-01

    We investigate hybrid tandem solar cells that rely on the combination of solution-processed depleted-heterojunction colloidal quantum dot (CQD) and bulk heterojunction polymer:fullerene subcells. The hybrid tandem solar cell is monolithically integrated and electrically connected in series with a suitable p-n recombination layer that includes metal oxides and a conjugated polyelectrolyte. We discuss the monolithic integration of the subcells, taking into account solvent interactions with underlayers and associated constraints on the tandem architecture, and show that an adequate device configuration consists of a low bandgap CQD bottom cell and a high bandgap polymer:fullerene top cell. Once we optimize the recombination layer and individual subcells, the hybrid tandem device reaches a VOC of 1.3V, approaching the sum of the individual subcell voltages. An impressive fill factor of 70% is achieved, further confirming that the subcells are efficiently connected via an appropriate recombination layer. © 2015.

  9. Studies of bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossel, Raquel; McIntyre, Max; Tzolov, Marian

    We are studying bulk heterojunction solar cells that were fabricated using a mixture of PCPDTBT and PCBM­C60. The impedance data of the cells in dark responded like a simple RC circuit. The value of the dielectric constant derived from these results is consistent with the values reported in the literature for these materials. We are showing that the parallel resistance in the equivalent circuit of linear lump elements can be interpreted using the DC current­voltage measurements. The impedance spectra under light illumination indicated the existence of additional polarization. This extra feature can be described by a model that includes a series RC circuit in parallel with the equivalent circuit for a device in dark. The physical interpretation of the additional polarization is based on photo­generated charges getting trapped in wells, which have a characteristic relaxation time corresponding to the observed break frequency in the impedance spectra. We have studied the influence of the anode and cathode interface on this phenomena, either by using different interface materials, or by depositing the metal electrode while the substate is heated.

  10. Efficient small molecule bulk heterojunction solar cells with high fill factors via pyrene-directed molecular self-assembly

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Olivia P.

    2011-10-21

    Efficient organic photovoltaic (OPV) materials are constructed by attaching completely planar, symmetric end-groups to donor-acceptor electroactive small molecules. Appending C2-pyrene as the small molecule end-group to a diketopyrrolopyrrole core leads to materials with a tight, aligned crystal packing and favorable morphology dictated by π-π interactions, resulting in high power conversion efficiencies and high fill factors. The use of end-groups to direct molecular self-assembly is an effective strategy for designing high-performance small molecule OPV devices. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Enhanced Power-Conversion Efficiency in Inverted Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells using Liquid-Crystal-Conjugated Polyelectrolyte Interlayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Tan, Yun; Li, Chunquan; Wu, Feiyan; Chen, Lie; Chen, Yiwang

    2015-09-02

    Two novel liquid-crystal-conjugated polyelectrolytes (LCCPEs) poly[9,9-bis[6-(4-cyanobiphenyloxy)-hexyl]-fluorene-alt-9,9-bis(6-(N,N-diethylamino)-hexyl)-fluorene] (PF6Ncbp) and poly[9,9-bis[6-(4-cyanobiphenyloxy)-hexyl]-fluorene-alt-9,9-bis(6-(N-methylimidazole)-hexyl]-fluorene] (PF6lmicbp) are obtained by covalent linkage of the cyanobiphenyl mesogen polar groups onto conjugated polyelectrolytes. After deposition a layer of LCCPEs on ZnO interlayer, the spontaneous orientation of liquid-crystal groups can induce a rearrangement of dipole moments at the interface, subsequently leading to the better energy-level alignment. Moreover, LCCPEs favors intimate interfacial contact between ZnO and the photon harvesting layer and induce active layer to form the nanofibers morphology for the enhancement of charge extraction, transportation and collection. The water/alcohol solubility of the LCCPEs also enables them to be environment-accepted solvent processability. On the basis of these advantages, the poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):[6,6]-phenyl-C60-butyric acid methyl ester (PC60BM)-based inverted polymer solar cells (PSCs) combined with ZnO/PF6Ncbp and ZnO/PF6lmicbp bilayers boost the power conversion efficiency (PCE) to 3.9% and 4.2%, respectively. Incorporation of the ZnO/PF6lmicbp into the devices based on a blend of a narrow band gap polymer thieno[3,4-b]thiophene/benzodithiophene (PTB7) with [6,6]-phenyl C70-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) affords a notable efficiency of 7.6%.

  12. Highly-efficient charge separation and polaron delocalization in polymer-fullerene bulk-heterojunctions: a comparative multi-frequency EPR and DFT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklas, Jens; Mardis, Kristy L; Banks, Brian P; Grooms, Gregory M; Sperlich, Andreas; Dyakonov, Vladimir; Beaupré, Serge; Leclerc, Mario; Xu, Tao; Yu, Luping; Poluektov, Oleg G

    2013-06-28

    . Strong delocalization of the positive polaron on the polymer donor is an important reason for the efficient charge separation in bulk heterojunction systems as it minimizes the wasteful process of charge recombination. The combination of advanced EPR spectroscopy and DFT is a powerful approach for investigation of light-induced charge dynamics in organic photovoltaic materials.

  13. Highly-Efficient Charge Separation and Polaron Delocalization in Polymer-Fullerene Bulk-Heterojunctions: A Comparative Multi-Frequency EPR & DFT Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklas, Jens; Mardis, Kristy L.; Banks, Brian P.; Grooms, Gregory M.; Sperlich, Andreas; Dyakonov, Vladimir; Beaupré, Serge; Leclerc, Mario; Xu, Tao; Yu, Luping; Poluektov, Oleg G.

    2016-01-01

    delocalization of the positive polaron on the polymer donor is an important reason for the efficient charge separation in bulk heterojunction systems as it minimizes the wasteful process of charge recombination. The combination of advanced EPR spectroscopy and DFT is a powerful approach for investigation of light-induced charge dynamics in organic photovoltaic materials. PMID:23670645

  14. Annealing effect in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells utilizing liquid crystalline phthalocyanine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmori, Masashi; Fukui, Hitoshi; Dao, Quang-Duy; Kumada, Taishi; Fujii, Akihiko; Shimizu, Yo; Ozaki, Masanori

    2014-01-01

    The effect of annealing on bulk heterojunction solar cells utilizing the liquid crystalline phthalocyanine, 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octahexylphthalocyanine (C6PcH2), fabricated using various solvents was studied. In the solar cells fabricated using chloroform, the power conversion efficiency was enhanced from 1.2 to 2.5% by thermal annealing at 75 °C, near the glass-transition temperature of the bulk heterojunction film. We discuss the effects of annealing on the photovoltaic properties by considering the exciton dissociation and carrier transport efficiencies obtained from photoluminescence spectra, X-ray diffraction measurement, and atomic force microscope observation.

  15. Charge Carrier Generation, Recombination, and Extraction in Polymer–Fullerene Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Laquai, Frederic

    2016-12-20

    In this chapter we review the basic principles of photocurrent generation in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells, discuss the loss channels limiting their efficiency, and present case studies of several polymer–fullerene blends. Using steady-state and transient, optical, and electrooptical techniques, we create a precise picture of the fundamental processes that ultimately govern solar cell efficiency.

  16. Bulk heterojunction morphology of polymer : fullerene blends revealed by ultrafast spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serbenta, Almis; Kozlov, Oleg V.; Portale, Giuseppe; van Loosdrecht, Paul H. M.; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.

    2016-01-01

    Morphology of organic photovoltaic bulk heterojunctions (BHJs) - a nanoscale texture of the donor and acceptor phases - is one of the key factors influencing efficiency of organic solar cells. Detailed knowledge of the morphology is hampered by the fact that it is notoriously difficult to

  17. Molecular bulk heterojunctions: an emerging approach to organic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncali, Jean

    2009-11-17

    The predicted exhaustion of fossil energy resources and the pressure of environmental constraints are stimulating an intensification of research on renewable energy sources, in particular, on the photovoltaic conversion of solar energy. In this context, organic solar cells are attracting increasing interest that is motivated by the possibility of fabricating large-area, lightweight, and flexible devices using simple techniques with low environmental impact. Organic solar cells are based on a heterojunction resulting from the contact of a donor (D) and an acceptor (A) material. Absorption of solar photons creates excitons, Coulombically bound electron-hole pairs, which diffuse to the D/A interface, where they are dissociated into free holes and electrons by the electric field. D/A heterojunctions can be created with two types of architectures, namely, bilayer heterojunction and bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. BHJ cells combine the advantages of easier fabrication and higher conversion efficiency due to the considerably extended D/A interface. Until now, the development of BHJ solar cells has been essentially based on the use of soluble pi-conjugated polymers as donor material. Intensive interdisciplinary research carried out in the past 10 years has led to an increase in the conversion efficiency of BHJ cells from 0.10 to more than 5.0%. These investigations have progressively established regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as the standard donor material for BHJ solar cells, owing to a useful combination of optical and charge-transport properties. However, besides the limit imposed to the maximum conversion efficiency by its intrinsic electronic properties, P3HT and more generally polymers pose several problems related to the control of their structure, molecular weight, polydispersity, and purification. In this context, recent years have seen the emergence of an alternative approach based on the replacement of polydisperse polymers by soluble

  18. How High Local Charge Carrier Mobility and an Energy Cascade in a Three-Phase Bulk Heterojunction Enable >90% Quantum Efficiency

    KAUST Repository

    Burke, Timothy M.

    2013-12-27

    Charge generation in champion organic solar cells is highly efficient in spite of low bulk charge-carrier mobilities and short geminate-pair lifetimes. In this work, kinetic Monte Carlo simulations are used to understand efficient charge generation in terms of experimentally measured high local charge-carrier mobilities and energy cascades due to molecular mixing. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Molecular Intercalation and Cohesion of Organic Bulk Heterojunction Photovoltaic Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Bruner, Christopher

    2013-01-17

    The phase separated bulk heterojunction (BHJ) layer in BHJ polymer:fullerene organic photovoltaic devices (OPV) are mechanically weak with low values of cohesion. Improved cohesion is important for OPV device thermomechanical reliability. BHJ devices are investigated and how fullerene intercalation within the active layer affects cohesive properties in the BHJ is shown. The intercalation of fullerenes between the side chains of the polymers poly(3,3″′-didocecyl quaterthiophene) (PQT-12) and poly(2,5-bis(3-hexadecylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (pBTTT) is shown to enhance BHJ layer cohesion. Cohesion values range from ≈1 to 5 J m -2, depending on the polymer:fullerene blend, processing conditions, and composition. Devices with non-intercalated BHJ layers are found to have significantly reduced values of cohesion. The resulting device power conversion efficiencies (PCE) are also investigated and correlated with the device cohesion. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Anomalous charge storage exponents of organic bulk heterojunction solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Pradeep; Dwivedi, Raaz; Kumar, Goutam; Dept of Electrical Engineering, IIT Bombay Team

    2013-03-01

    Organic bulk heterojunction (BHJ) devices are increasingly being researched for low cost solar energy conversion. The efficiency of such solar cells is dictated by various recombination processes involved. While it is well known that the ideality factor and hence the charge storage exponents of conventional PN junction diodes are influenced by the recombination processes, the same aspects are not so well understood for organic solar cells. While dark currents of such devices typically show an ideality factor of 1 (after correcting for shunt resistance effects, if any), surprisingly, a wide range of charge storage exponents for such devices are reported in literature alluding to apparent concentration dependence for bi-molecular recombination rates. In this manuscript we critically analyze the role of bi-molecular recombination processes on charge storage exponents of organic solar cells. Our results indicate that the charge storage exponents are fundamentally influenced by the electrostatics and recombination processes and can be correlated to the dark current ideality factors. We believe that our findings are novel, and advance the state-of the art understanding on various recombination processes that dictate the performance limits of organic solar cells. The authors would like to thank the Centre of Excellence in Nanoelectronics (CEN) and the National Centre for Photovoltaic Research and Education (NCPRE), IIT Bombay for computational and financial support

  1. Visible Light Communication System Using an Organic Bulk Heterojunction Photodetector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina de Dios

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A visible light communication (VLC system using an organic bulk heterojunction photodetector (OPD is presented. The system has been successfully proven indoors with an audio signal. The emitter consists of three commercial high-power white LEDs connected in parallel. The receiver is based on an organic photodetector having as active layer a blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT and phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM. The OPD is opto-electrically characterized, showing a responsivity of 0.18 A/W and a modulation response of 790 kHz at −6 V.

  2. Spin-cast bulk heterojunction solar cells: A dynamical investigation

    KAUST Repository

    Chou, Kang Wei

    2013-02-22

    Spin-coating is extensively used in the lab-based manufacture of organic solar cells, including most of the record-setting solution-processed cells. We report the first direct observation of photoactive layer formation as it occurs during spin-coating. The study provides new insight into mechanisms and kinetics of bulk heterojunction formation, which may be crucial for its successful transfer to scalable printing processes. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Visible light communication system using an organic bulk heterojunction photodetector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, Belén; Romero, Beatriz; Pena, José Manuel Sánchez; Fernández-Pacheco, Agustín; Alonso, Eduardo; Vergaz, Ricardo; de Dios, Cristina

    2013-09-12

    A visible light communication (VLC) system using an organic bulk heterojunction photodetector (OPD) is presented. The system has been successfully proven indoors with an audio signal. The emitter consists of three commercial high-power white LEDs connected in parallel. The receiver is based on an organic photodetector having as active layer a blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). The OPD is opto-electrically characterized, showing a responsivity of 0.18 A/W and a modulation response of 790 kHz at -6 V.

  4. Cohesion and device reliability in organic bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells

    KAUST Repository

    Brand, Vitali

    2012-04-01

    The fracture resistance of P3HT:PC 60BM-based photovoltaic devices are characterized using quantitative adhesion and cohesion metrologies that allow identification of the weakest layer or interface in the device structure. We demonstrate that the phase separated bulk heterojunction layer is the weakest layer and report quantitative cohesion values which ranged from ∼1 to 20 J m -2. The effects of layer thickness, composition, and annealing treatments on layer cohesion are investigated. Using depth profiling and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy on the resulting fracture surfaces, we examine the gradient of molecular components through the thickness of the bulk heterojunction layer. Finally, using atomic force microscopy we show how the topography of the failure path is related to buckling of the metal electrode and how it develops with annealing. The research provides new insights on how the molecular design, structure and composition affect the cohesive properties of organic photovoltaics. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. X-Ray Nanoscopy of a Bulk Heterojunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh Patil

    Full Text Available Optimizing the morphology of bulk heterojunctions is known to significantly improve the photovoltaic performance of organic solar cells, but available quantitative imaging techniques are few and have severe limitations. We demonstrate X-ray ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging applied to all-organic blends. Specifically, the phase-separated morphology in bulk heterojunction photoactive layers for organic solar cells, prepared from a 50:50 blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM and thermally treated for different annealing times is imaged to high resolution. Moreover, using a fast-scanning calorimetry chip setup, the nano-morphological changes caused by repeated thermal annealing applied to the same sample could be monitored. X-ray ptychography resolves to better than 100 nm the phase-segregated domains of electron donor and electron acceptor materials over a large field of view within the active layers. The quantitative phase contrast images further allow us to estimate the local volume fraction of PCBM across the photovoltaically active layers. The volume fraction gradient for different regions provides insight on the PCBM diffusion across the depletion zone surrounding PCBM aggregates. Phase contrast X-ray microscopy is under rapid development, and the results presented here are promising for future studies of organic-organic blends, also under in situ conditions, e.g., for monitoring the structural stability during UV-Vis irradiation.

  6. Enhanced bulk heterojunction devices prepared by thermal and solvent vapor annealing processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Stephen R.; Thompson, Mark E.; Wei, Guodan; Wang, Siyi

    2017-09-19

    A method of preparing a bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic cell through combinations of thermal and solvent vapor annealing are described. Bulk heterojunction films may prepared by known methods such as spin coating, and then exposed to one or more vaporized solvents and thermally annealed in an effort to enhance the crystalline nature of the photoactive materials.

  7. Synergetic Enhancement of Device Efficiency in Poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl/[6,6]-phenyl C61 Butyric Acid Methyl Ester Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells by Glycerol Addition in the Active Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobins Augustine

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl(P3HT:[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC60BM is the widely used active layer for the bulk heterojunction solar cells. Annealing is essential for P3HT:PC60BM active layer, since it facilitates the creation of better network for the transfer of the charge carriers. However, the PC60BM in the active layer can crystallize excessively during annealing treatments and disrupt the favorable morphology by forming crystallites in micrometer ranges, thus reducing device efficiency. In this paper we used glycerol as an additive in the active layer. Due to high boiling point of glycerol, it makes slow drying of the active layer possible during the annealing. It thus gives enough time to both electron donor (P3HT and electron acceptor (PC60BM components of the active layer to self-organize and also restrict the crystal overgrowth of PC60BM. Further, the glycerol additive makes the active layer smoother, which may also improve adhesion between the electrode and the active layer. The devices with the pristine active layer showed a power conversion efficiency (PCE of about 2.1% and, with the addition of 30 vol% of glycerol in the active layer, the PCE value increased to 3%.

  8. Impact of CH3NH3PbI3-PCBM bulk heterojunction active layer on the photovoltaic performance of perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Dhirendra K.; Kumar, Pankaj; Kumar, Lokendra

    2017-10-01

    We report here the impact of CH3NH3PbI3-PCBM bulk heterojunction (BHJ) active layer on the photovoltaic performance of perovskite solar cells. The solar cells were prepared in normal architecture on FTO coated glass substrates with compact TiO2 (c-TiO2) layer on FTO as electron transport layer (ETL) and poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as hole transport layer (HTL). For comparison, a few solar cells were also prepared in planar heterojunction structure using CH3NH3PbI3 only as the active layer. The bulk heterojunction CH3NH3PbI3-PCBM active layer exhibited very large crystalline grains of 2-3 μm compared to ∼150 nm only in CH3NH3PbI3 active layer. Larger grains in bulk-heterojunction solar cells resulted in enhanced power conversion efficiency (PCE) through enhancement in all the photovoltaic parameters compared to planar heterojunction solar cells. The bulk-heterojunction solar cells exhibited ∼9.25% PCE with short circuit current density (Jsc) of ∼18.649 mA/cm2, open circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.894 V and Fill Factor (FF) of 0.554. There was ∼36.9% enhancement in the PCE of bulk-heterojunction solar cells compared to that of planar heterojunction solar cells. The larger grains are formed as a result of incorporation on PCBM in the active layer.

  9. Different Device Architectures for Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getachew Adam

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We report different solar cell designs which allow a simple electrical connection of subsequent devices deposited on the same substrate. By arranging so-called standard and inverted solar-cell architectures next to each other, a serial connection of the two devices can easily be realized by a single compound electrode. In this work, we tested different interfacial layer materials like polyethylenimine (PEI and PEDOT:PSS, and silver as a non-transparent electrode material. We also built organic light emitting diodes applying the same device designs demonstrating the versatility of applied layer stacks. The proposed design should allow the preparation of organic bulk-heterojunction modules with minimized photovoltaically inactive regions at the interconnection of individual devices.

  10. Self-assembled, nanowire network electrodes for depleted bulk heterojunction solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Lan, Xinzheng

    2013-01-06

    Herein, a solution-processed, bottom-up-fabricated, nanowire network electrode is developed. This electrode features a ZnO template which is converted into locally connected, infiltratable, TiO2 nanowires. This new electrode is used to build a depleted bulk heterojunction solar cell employing hybrid-passivated colloidal quantum dots. The new electrode allows the application of a thicker, and thus more light-absorbing, colloidal quantum dot active layer, from which charge extraction of an efficiency comparable to that obtained from a thinner, planar device could be obtained. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Solvent additive effects on small molecule crystallization in bulk heterojunction solar cells probed during spin casting

    KAUST Repository

    Pérez, Louis A.

    2013-09-04

    Solvent additive processing can lead to drastic improvements in the power conversion efficiency (PCE) in solution processable small molecule (SPSM) bulk heterojunction solar cells. In situ grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering is used to investigate the kinetics of crystallite formation during and shortly after spin casting. The additive is shown to have a complex effect on structural evolution invoking polymorphism and enhanced crystalline quality of the donor SPSM. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Flexible Multiferroic Bulk Heterojunction with Giant Magnetoelectric Coupling via van der Waals Epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrillah, Tahta; Bitla, Yugandhar; Shin, Kwangwoo; Yang, Tiannan; Hsieh, Ying-Hui; Chiou, Yu-You; Liu, Heng-Jui; Do, Thi Hien; Su, Dong; Chen, Yi-Chun; Jen, Shien-Uang; Chen, Long-Qing; Kim, Kee Hoon; Juang, Jenh-Yih; Chu, Ying-Hao

    2017-06-27

    Magnetoelectric nanocomposites have been a topic of intense research due to their profound potential in the applications of electronic devices based on spintronic technology. Nevertheless, in spite of significant progress made in the growth of high-quality nanocomposite thin films, the substrate clamping effect still remains a major hurdle in realizing the ultimate magnetoelectric coupling. To overcome this obstacle, an alternative strategy of fabricating a self-assembled ferroelectric-ferrimagnetic bulk heterojunction on a flexible muscovite via van der Waals epitaxy is adopted. In this study, we investigated the magnetoelectric coupling in a self-assembled BiFeO 3 (BFO)-CoFe 2 O 4 (CFO) bulk heterojunction epitaxially grown on a flexible muscovite substrate. The obtained heterojunction is composed of vertically aligned multiferroic BFO nanopillars embedded in a ferrimagnetic CFO matrix. Moreover, due to the weak interaction between the flexible substrate and bulk heterojunction, the interface is incoherent and, hence, the substrate clamping effect is greatly reduced. The phase-field simulation model also complements our results. The magnetic and electrical characterizations highlight the improvement in magnetoelectric coupling of the BFO-CFO bulk heterojunction. A magnetoelectric coupling coefficient of 74 mV/cm·Oe of this bulk heterojunction is larger than the magnetoelectric coefficient reported earlier on flexible substrates. Therefore, this study delivers a viable route of fabricating a remarkable magnetoelectric heterojunction and yet flexible electronic devices that are robust against extreme conditions with optimized performance.

  13. Thermally Stable Bulk Heterojunction Prepared by Sequential Deposition of Nanostructured Polymer and Fullerene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heewon Hwang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A morphologically-stable polymer/fullerene heterojunction has been prepared by minimizing the intermixing between polymer and fullerene via sequential deposition (SqD of a polymer and a fullerene solution. A low crystalline conjugated polymer of PCPDTBT (poly[2,6-(4,4-bis-(2-ethylhexyl-4H-cyclopenta [2,1-b;3,4-b′]dithiophene-alt-4,7(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole] has been utilized for the polymer layer and PC71BM (phenyl-C71-butyric-acid-methyl ester for the fullerene layer, respectively. Firstly, a nanostructured PCPDTBT bottom layer was developed by utilizing various additives to increase the surface area of the polymer film. The PC71BM solution was prepared by dissolving it in the 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE, exhibiting a lower vapor pressure and slower diffusion into the polymer layer. The deposition of the PC71BM solution on the nanostructured PCPDTBT layer forms an inter-digitated bulk heterojunction (ID-BHJ with minimized intermixing. The organic photovoltaic (OPV device utilizing the ID-BHJ photoactive layer exhibits a highly reproducible solar cell performance. In spite of restricted intermixing between the PC71BM and the PCPDTBT, the efficiency of ID-BHJ OPVs (3.36% is comparable to that of OPVs (3.87% prepared by the conventional method (deposition of a blended solution of polymer:fullerene. The thermal stability of the ID-BHJ is superior to the bulk heterojunction (BHJ prepared by the conventional method. The ID-BHJ OPV maintains 70% of its initial efficiency after thermal stress application for twelve days at 80 °C, whereas the conventional BHJ OPV maintains only 40% of its initial efficiency.

  14. Efficiency enhancement of P3HT:PC{sub 61}BM bulk heterojunction solar cells by doping with a small molecule dye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuang, Hung-Yi; Lin, Shih-Wei; Hsu, Steve Lien-Chung, E-mail: lchsu@mail.ncku.edu.tw

    2016-03-31

    In this study, we have enhanced the power conversion efficiency of polymer solar cell by physically doping with an organic dye into the active layer of polymer solar cells. The organic dye has complementary absorption wavelength against the polymer active layer and energy transfer effect to increase the photovoltaic current of polymer solar cells. We chose 2,3,9,10,16,17,23,24-octakis(octyloxy)-29H,31H-phthalocyanine (OPc) as an organic dye and analyzed OPc's characteristics with cyclic voltammetry (CV), UV–vis spectrometry and thermogravimetry analysis (TGA). The polymer solar cells were fabricated by blending of the organic dye into the active layer (P3HT/PC{sub 61}BM) with different concentrations (1.63 wt%, 3.22 wt%, 4.76 wt%, 6.30 wt%). The doped devices showed 19% increase in the power conversion efficiency (PCE). It was proved that the increase of efficiency was due to the increase of photovoltaic current based on the measurement of external quantum efficiency (EQE). - Highlights: • We have enhanced the PCE by physically doping with an organic dye. • The J{sub sc} was enhanced from 7.38 mA/cm{sup 2} to 8.81 mA/cm{sup 2} by doping a 3.22 wt% OPc dye. • The doped devices showed 19% increase in the PCE from 2.75% to 3.28%.

  15. Fabrication of Organic Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells on Flexible Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, Gabriel; Merced-Sanabria, Milzaida; Carradero-Santiago, Carolyn; Vedrine-Pauléus, Josee

    2015-03-01

    The active layer for the organic solar cells fabricated is composed of P3HT:PCBM, poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as electron donor and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester(PCBM) as electron acceptor. These polymers were used due to their promising characteristics for devices such as bulk heterojunction solar devices. We used polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates, a highly flexible plastic, with indium tin oxide (ITO) as the transparent conducting anode for the device, and UV lithography technique to pattern the ITO; this is to facilitate multiple devices on a single substrate. The fabrication process for pattern transfer incorporates developing and etching processes. We diluted the HCl and DI water to etch out the ITO. PEDOT:PSS and active layer of P3HT:PCBM were deposited on (3.0 sq-cm) patterned of ITO/PET by spin coating method. The cathode was thermally evaporated with Al. We characterized the device using a sourcemeter. We also simulated portions of the device using PET on graphene as the substrate.

  16. Characterization of Inverted Polymer Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Tyler; Tzolov, Marian

    Inverted solar cells were proven to be an improvement over polymer solar cells in terms of durability and reliability. We have fabricated the solar cells using P3HT and PCPDTBT as the active polymer with PC60BM as the electron acceptor. The materials we deposited from solution by spin coating on glass substrates with ITO film. Molybdenum oxide was thermally evaporated overtop the spin coated polymer solar cell to realize the inverted design. The devices were finalized by thermally evaporated aluminum contacts which were then mechanically reinforced with silver paste. Current voltage characteristics were performed both in dark and under illumination to characterize the inverted solar cells and to verify the inverted solar cell design. Impedance spectroscopy in dark and under illumination were used to gain more information about the photoelectric processes in the devices and to build a realistic equivalent circuit model of the inverted solar cells. The inverted solar cells were then compared against standard polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells produced with the same active materials.

  17. Remarkably High Conversion Efficiency of Inverted Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells: From Ultrafast Laser Spectroscopy and Electron Microscopy to Device Fabrication and Optimization

    KAUST Repository

    Alsulami, Qana

    2016-04-10

    In organic donor-acceptor systems, ultrafast interfacial charge transfer (CT), charge separation (CS), and charge recombination (CR) are key determinants of the overall performance of photovoltaic devices. However, a profound understanding of these photophysical processes at device interfaces remains superficial, creating a major bottleneck that circumvents advancements and the optimization of these solar cells. Here, results from time-resolved laser spectroscopy and high-resolution electron microscopy are examined to provide the fundamental information necessary to fabricate and optimize organic solar cell devices. In real time, CT and CS are monitored at the interface between three fullerene acceptors (FAs) (PC71BM, PC61BM, and IC60BA) and the PTB7-Th donor polymer. Femtosecond transient absorption (fs-TA) data demonstrates that photoinduced electron transfer from the PTB7-Th polymer to each FA occurs on the sub-picosecond time scale, leading to the formation of long-lived radical ions. It is also found that the power conversion efficiency improves from 2% in IC60BA-based solar cells to >9% in PC71BM-based devices, in support of our time-resolved results. The insights reported in this manuscript provide a clear understanding of the key variables involved at the device interface, paving the way for the exploitation of efficient CS and subsequently improving the photoconversion efficiency. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Enhanced Power Conversion Efficiency of P3HT : PC71BM Bulk Heterojunction Polymer Solar Cells by Doping a High-Mobility Small Organic Molecule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanyu Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of molecular doping with TIPS-pentacene on the photovoltaic performance of polymer solar cells (PSCs with a structure of ITO/ZnO/poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl (P3HT : [6,6]-phenyl C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM : TIPS-pentacene/MoOx/Ag was systematically investigated by adjusting TIPS-pentacene doping ratios ranged from 0.3 to 1.2 wt%. The device with 0.6 wt% TIPS-pentacene exhibited the enhanced short-circuit current and fill factor by 1.23 mA/cm2 and 7.8%, respectively, resulting in a maximum power conversion efficiency of 4.13%, which is one-third higher than that of the undoped one. The photovoltaic performance improvement was mainly due to the balanced charge carrier mobility, enhanced crystallinity, and matched cascade energy level alignment in TIPS-pentacene doped active layer, resulting in the efficient charge separation, transport, and collection.

  19. Highly efficient and thickness-tolerable bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells based on P3HT donor and a low-bandgap non-fullerene acceptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaodong; Li, Yongxi; Huang, Peng; Zhou, Yi; Jiang, Zuo-Quan; Song, Bo; Li, Yongfang; Liao, Liang-Sheng; Zheng, Yonghao

    2017-10-01

    In order to fabricate highly efficient polymer solar cells (PSCs) in industrial scale, one of the key issues is to use thick active layer (>200 nm) in the device module without sacrificing the power conversion efficiency (PCE). In this article, we have studied the blend of the medium-bandgap polymeric donor P3HT and the low-bandgap acceptor IDTIDT-IC as the active layer in non-fullerene PSCs, and successfully maintained the device performance with the thickness of the active layer close to 250 nm. The P3HT:IDTIDT-IC based PSCs with simple thermal annealing exhibits a PCE of 3.49% at a thin active layer, 74 nm. More importantly, the PCE remains almost constant with increasing the thickness of the active layer, and reaches a peak value of 3.64% at 236 nm. This thickness-insensitive photovoltaic performance of the P3HT:IDTIDT-IC system makes them compatible with large-scale roll-to-roll processing. Furthermore, the P3HT:IDTIDT-IC devices show a very high tolerance to temperature, and the PCE keeps nearly unchanged after annealing the active layer at 150 °C for 75 min. All in all, our results show that thickness-tolerable and thermal-stable P3HT:IDTIDT-IC system is more suitable for large-scale industrial manufacturing than the classic P3HT:PCBM formula.

  20. Improved power conversion efficiency for bulk heterojunction solar cells incorporating CdTe-CdSe nanoheterostructure acceptors and a conjugated polymer donor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dayal, Smita; Zhong, Haizheng; Kopidakis, Nikos; Scholes, Gregory D.; Rumbles, Garry

    2015-03-24

    In this paper, we report photovoltaic devices based on composites of a branched nanoheterostructure containing a CdTe core and CdSe arms, CdTe(c)-CdSe(a), combined with either poly(3-hexylthiophene), P3HT, or poly[2,6-(4,4-bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b;3,4-b']dithiophene)-alt-4,7-(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)], PCPDTBT, with solar power conversion efficiencies of 1.2% and 1.8%, respectively. Finally, a comparison with previously reported composite devices of a related branched nanoheterostructure: CdSe(c)-CdTe(a) reveals an improved device performance that is attributed to a better electron percolation pathway provided by the dominant, higher electron affinity CdSe arms of the nanoheterostructures.

  1. Towards high efficiency air-processed near-infrared responsive photovoltaics: bulk heterojunction solar cells based on PbS/CdS core-shell quantum dots and TiO2 nanorod arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonfa, Belete Atomsa; Kim, Mee Rahn; Delegan, Nazar; Tavares, Ana C; Izquierdo, Ricardo; Wu, Nianqiang; El Khakani, My Ali; Ma, Dongling

    2015-06-14

    Near infrared (NIR) PbS quantum dots (QDs) have attracted significant research interest in solar cell applications as they offer several advantages, such as tunable band gaps, capability of absorbing NIR photons, low cost solution processability and high potential for multiple exciton generation. Nonetheless, reports on solar cells based on NIR PbS/CdS core-shell QDs, which are in general more stable and better passivated than PbS QDs and thus more promising for solar cell applications, remain very rare. Herein we report high efficiency bulk heterojunction QD solar cells involving hydrothermally grown TiO2 nanorod arrays and PbS/CdS core-shell QDs processed in air (except for a device thermal annealing step) with a photoresponse extended to wavelengths >1200 nm and with a power conversion efficiency (PCE) as high as 4.43%. This efficiency was achieved by introducing a thin, sputter-deposited, uniform TiO2 seed layer to improve the interface between the TiO2 nanorod arrays and the front electrode, by optimizing TiO2 nanorod length and by conducting QD annealing treatment to enhance charge carrier transport. It was found that the effect of the seed layer became more obvious when the TiO2 nanorods were longer. Although photocurrent did not change much, both open circuit voltage and fill factor clearly changed with TiO2 nanorod length. This was mainly attributed to the variation of charge transport and recombination processes, as evidenced by series and shunt resistance studies. The optimal PCE was obtained at the nanorod length of ∼450 nm. Annealing is shown to further increase the PCE by ∼18%, because of the improvement of charge carrier transport in the devices as evidenced by considerably increased photocurrent. Our results clearly demonstrate the potential of the PbS/CdS core-shell QDs for the achievement of high PCE, solution processable and NIR responsive QD solar cells.

  2. Improved performance of molecular bulk-heterojunction photovoltaic cells through predictable selection of solvent additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, Kenneth R.; Wieruszewski, Patrick M.; Stalder, Romain; Mei, Jianguo [The George and Josephine Butler, Polymer Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry and Center for Macromolecular Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-7200 (United States); Hartel, Michael J.; So, Franky [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Reynolds, John R. [The George and Josephine Butler, Polymer Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry and Center for Macromolecular Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-7200 (United States); School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, School of Materials Science and Engineering and Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0400 (United States)

    2012-11-21

    Solvent additives provide an effective means to alter the morphology and thereby improve the performance of organic bulk-heterojunction photovoltaics, although guidelines for selecting an appropriate solvent additive remain relatively unclear. Here, a family of solvent additives spanning a wide range of Hansen solubility parameters is applied to a molecular bulk-heterojunction system consisting of an isoindigo and thiophene containing oligomer as the electron donor and [6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester (PC{sub 61}BM) as the electron acceptor. Hansen solubility parameters are calculated using the group contribution method and compared with the measured solubilities for use as a screening method in solvent additive selection. The additives are shown to alter the morphologies in a semipredictable manner, with the poorer solvents generally resulting in decreased domain sizes, increased hole mobilities, and improved photovoltaic performance. The additives with larger hydrogen bonding parameters, namely triethylene glycol (TEG) and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), are demonstrated to increase the open circuit voltage by 0.2 V. Combining a solvent additive observed to increase short circuit current, poly(dimethylsiloxane), with TEG results in an increase in power conversion efficiency from 1.4 to 3.3%. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Organic bulk heterojunction photovoltaic devices based on polythiophene-graphene composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stylianakis, Minas M; Stratakis, Emmanuel; Koudoumas, Emmanuel; Kymakis, Emmanuel; Anastasiadis, Spiros H

    2012-09-26

    A solution-processed graphene content was synthesized by treatment of graphite oxide (GO) with phenyl isothiocyanate (PITC) by taking advantage of the functional carboxyl groups of graphene oxide. The GO was prepared by the oxidation of natural graphite powder and was expanded by ultrasonication in order to exfoliate single or/and few-layered graphene oxide sheets. The functionalized graphene oxide, GO-PITC, can be dispersed within poly-(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and can be utilized as the electron acceptor in bulk heterojunction polymer photovoltaic cells. When P3HT is doped with GO-PITC, a great quenching of the photoluminescence of the P3HT occurred, indicating a strong electron transfer from the P3HT to the GO-PITC. The utilization of GO-PITC as the electron acceptor material in poly-(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) bulk heterojunction photovoltaic devices was demonstrated, yielding in a power conversion efficiency enhancement of 2 orders of magnitude compared with that of pristine P3HT.

  4. Spectroscopic imaging of photopotentials and photoinduced potential fluctuations in a bulk heterojunction solar cell film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Justin L; Hoepker, Nikolas; Bruce, Robert; Jacobs, Andrew R; Groves, Chris; Marohn, John A

    2012-11-27

    We present spatially resolved photovoltage spectra of a bulk heterojunction solar cell film composed of phase-separated poly(9,9'-dioctylfluorene-co-benzothiadiazole) (F8BT) and poly(9,9'-dioctylfluorene-co-bis-N,N'-(4-butylphenyl)-bis-N,N'-phenyl-1,4-phenylenediamine) (PFB) polymers prepared on ITO/PEDOT:PSS and aluminum substrates. Over both PFB- and F8BT-rich domains, the photopotential spectra were found to be proportional to a linear combination of the polymers' absorption spectra. Charge trapping in the film was studied using photopotential fluctuation spectroscopy, in which low-frequency photoinduced electrostatic potential fluctuations were measured by observing noise in the oscillation frequency of a nearby charged atomic force microscope cantilever. Over both F8BT- and PFB-rich regions, the magnitude, distance dependence, frequency dependence, and illumination wavelength dependence of the observed cantilever frequency noise are consistent with photopotential fluctuations arising from stochastic light-driven trapping and detrapping of charges in F8BT. Taken together, our findings suggest a microscopic mechanism by which intermixing of phases leads to charge trapping and thereby to suppressed open-circuit voltage and decreased efficiency in this prototypical bulk heterojunction solar cell film.

  5. Self-assembly Columnar Structure in Active Layer of Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Cheng; Segui, Jennifer; Yu, Yingjie; Li, Hongfei; Akgun, Bulent; Satijia, Sushil. K.; Gersappe, Dilip; Nam, Chang-Yong; Rafailovich, Miriam

    2012-02-01

    Bulk Heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells are an area of intense interest due to their flexibility and relatively low cost. However, due to the disordered inner structure in active layer, the power conversion efficiency of BHJ solar cell is relatively low. Our research provides the method to produce ordered self-assembly columnar structure within active layer of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cell by introducing polystyrene (PS) into the active layer. The blend thin film of polystyrene, poly (3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) at different ratio are spin coated on substrate and annealed in vacuum oven for certain time. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images show uniform phase segregation on the surface of polymer blend thin film and highly ordered columnar structure is then proven by etching the film with ion sputtering. TEM cross-section technology is also used to investigate the column structure. Neutron reflectometry was taken to establish the confinement of PCBM at the interface of PS and P3HT. The different morphological structures formed via phase segregation will be correlated with the performance of the PEV cells to be fabricated at the BNL-CFN.

  6. Towards high efficiency air-processed near-infrared responsive photovoltaics: bulk heterojunction solar cells based on PbS/CdS core-shell quantum dots and TiO2 nanorod arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonfa, Belete Atomsa; Kim, Mee Rahn; Delegan, Nazar; Tavares, Ana C.; Izquierdo, Ricardo; Wu, Nianqiang; El Khakani, My Ali; Ma, Dongling

    2015-05-01

    Near infrared (NIR) PbS quantum dots (QDs) have attracted significant research interest in solar cell applications as they offer several advantages, such as tunable band gaps, capability of absorbing NIR photons, low cost solution processability and high potential for multiple exciton generation. Nonetheless, reports on solar cells based on NIR PbS/CdS core-shell QDs, which are in general more stable and better passivated than PbS QDs and thus more promising for solar cell applications, remain very rare. Herein we report high efficiency bulk heterojunction QD solar cells involving hydrothermally grown TiO2 nanorod arrays and PbS/CdS core-shell QDs processed in air (except for a device thermal annealing step) with a photoresponse extended to wavelengths >1200 nm and with a power conversion efficiency (PCE) as high as 4.43%. This efficiency was achieved by introducing a thin, sputter-deposited, uniform TiO2 seed layer to improve the interface between the TiO2 nanorod arrays and the front electrode, by optimizing TiO2 nanorod length and by conducting QD annealing treatment to enhance charge carrier transport. It was found that the effect of the seed layer became more obvious when the TiO2 nanorods were longer. Although photocurrent did not change much, both open circuit voltage and fill factor clearly changed with TiO2 nanorod length. This was mainly attributed to the variation of charge transport and recombination processes, as evidenced by series and shunt resistance studies. The optimal PCE was obtained at the nanorod length of ~450 nm. Annealing is shown to further increase the PCE by ~18%, because of the improvement of charge carrier transport in the devices as evidenced by considerably increased photocurrent. Our results clearly demonstrate the potential of the PbS/CdS core-shell QDs for the achievement of high PCE, solution processable and NIR responsive QD solar cells.Near infrared (NIR) PbS quantum dots (QDs) have attracted significant research interest in

  7. Bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic based on polythiophene-polyelectrolyte carbon nanotube composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes-Reyes, M. [Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Alvaro Obregon 64, San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Lopez-Sandoval, R. [Advanced Materials Department, IPICYT, Camino a la Presa San Jose 2055, Col. Lomas 4a. Seccion, San Luis Potosi 78216 (Mexico); Liu, J.; Carroll, D.L. [Center for Nanotechnology and Molecular Materials, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC (United States)

    2007-09-22

    It is shown that carbon nanotubes can be used to enhance carrier mobility for efficient removal of the charges in thin film polymer-conjugated/fullerene photovoltaic devices. The fabricated photovoltaic devices consist of poly(3-octylthiophene) (P3OT) polymer blended with undoped multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and carbon nanotubes doped with nitrogen (CNx-MWNTs). Nanophase formation and dispersion problems associated with the use of carbon nanotubes in polymer devices were addressed through the generation of functional groups and electrostatic attaching of the polyelectrolyte poly(dimethyldiallylamine) chloride (PDDA) in both MWNTs and CNx-MWNT systems. The resultant nanophase was highly dispersed allowing for excellent bulk heterojunction formation. Our results indicate that CNx-MWNTs enhance the efficiency of P3OT solar cells in comparison with MWNTs. (author)

  8. Recent Approaches to Controlling the Nanoscale Morphology of Polymer-Based Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulra'uf Lukman Bola

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The need for clean, inexpensive and renewable energy has increasingly turned research attention towards polymer photovoltaic cells. However, the performance efficiency of these devices is still low in comparison with silicon-based devices. The recent introduction of new materials and processing techniques has resulted in a remarkable increase in power-conversion efficiency, with a value above 10%. Controlling the interpenetrating network morphology is a key factor in obtaining devices with improved performance. This review focuses on the influence of controlled nanoscale morphology on the overall performance of bulk-heterojunction (BHJ photovoltaic cells. Strategies such as the use of solvents, solvent annealing, polymer nanowires (NWs, and donor–acceptor (D–A blend ratios employed to control the active-layer morphologies are all discussed.

  9. Solution Processable Organic Solar Cell Based on Bulk Heterojunction Utilizing Phthalocyanine Derivative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Tetsuro; Miyake, Yasuo; Yamasaki, Naoyuki; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Fujii, Akihiko; Shimizu, Yo; Ozaki, Masanori

    2010-10-01

    Organic thin-film solar cells based on a bulk heterojunction utilizing the phthalocyanine derivative 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octahexylphthalocyanine (C6PcH2) have been studied. C6PcH2 is soluble in common organic solvents such as chloroform, and the blend uniform thin film with the fullerene derivative 1-(3-methoxy-carbonyl)-propyl-1-1-phenyl-(6,6)C61 (PCBM) could be fabricated by a spin-coating method. Solar cells with an indium-tin-oxide/polymer hole transport layer/C6PcH2:PCBM/Al structure, the active layer of which was prepared by a wet process using a low-weighted molecular system, have demonstrated a high external quantum efficiency of more than 70% in the Q-band absorption region of C6PcH2 and a high energy conversion efficiency of 3.1%.

  10. Solvent Effects on Solution-Processable Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells Utilizing 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-Octahexylphthalocyanine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumura, Kaoru; Hori, Tetsuro; Masuda, Tetsuya; Quang Duy, Dao; Fujii, Akihiko; Shimizu, Yo; Ozaki, Masanori

    2013-05-01

    Bulk heterojunction organic solar cells utilizing soluble phthalocyanine derivative, 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octahexylphthalocyanine (C6PcH2), have been fabricated by solution process with various solvents, and their photovoltaic properties have been studied. It is found that the marked differences on the morphologies of the bulk heterojunction film, such as the surface roughness, crystallinity and crystallite size, exist and relate with the boiling points of the solvents. The solvent effects on the photovoltaic properties have been discussed by taking the exciton dissociation efficiency and carrier transport efficiency into consideration.

  11. Vacuum-free processed bulk heterojunction solar cells with E-GaIn cathode as an alternative to Al electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ongul, Fatih; Yuksel, Sureyya Aydın; Bozar, Sinem; Gunes, Serap; Cakmak, Gulbeden; Guney, Hasan Yuksel; Egbe, Daniel Ayuk Mbi

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the photovoltaic characteristics of bulk heterojunction solar cells employing an eutectic gallium–indium (EGaIn) alloy as a top metal contact which was coated by a simple and inexpensive brush-painting was investigated. The overall solar cell fabrication procedure was vacuum-free. As references, regular organic bulk heterojunction solar cells employing thermally evaporated Aluminum as a top metal contact were also fabricated. Inserting the ZnO layer between the active layer and the cathode electrodes (Al and EGaIn) improved the photovoltaic performance of the herein investigated devices. The power conversion efficiencies with and without EGaIn top electrodes were rather comparable. Hence, we have shown that the EGaIn, which is liquid at room temperature, can be used as a cathode. It allows an easy and rapid device fabrication that can be implemented through a vacuum free process. (paper)

  12. Sandwich-cell-type bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells utilizing liquid crystalline phthalocyanine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Yuya; Usui, Toshiki; Nishikawa, Yuki; Nekelson, Fabien; Shimizu, Yo; Fujii, Akihiko; Ozaki, Masanori

    2018-03-01

    Sandwich-cell-type bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells utilizing the liquid crystalline phthalocyanine, 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octahexylphthalocyanine (C6PcH2), have been fabricated and their photovoltaic properties have been studied. The short-circuit current (J SC) and power conversion efficiency (PCE) depended on the blend ratio of donor and acceptor molecules, and the maximum performance, such as J SC of 3.4 mA/cm2 and PCE of 0.67%, was demonstrated, when the blend ratio of the acceptor was 10 mol %. The photovoltaic properties were discussed by taking the relationship between the column axis direction of C6PcH2 and the carrier mobility in the active layer into consideration.

  13. Tailor-Made Additives for Morphology Control in Molecular Bulk-Heterojunction Photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Graham, Kenneth R.

    2013-01-09

    Tailor-made additives, which are molecules that share the same molecular structure as a parent molecule with only slight structural variations, have previously been demonstrated as a useful means to control crystallization dynamics in solution. For example, tailor-made additives can be added to solutions of a crystallizing parent molecule to alter the crystal growth rate, size, and shape. We apply this strategy as a means to predictably control morphology in molecular bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) photovoltaic cells. Through the use of an asymmetric oligomer substituted with a bulky triisobutylsilyl end group, the morphology of BHJ blends can be controlled resulting in a near doubling (from 1.3 to 2.2%) in power conversion efficiency. The use of tailor-made additives provides promising opportunities for controlling crystallization dynamics, and thereby film morphologies, for many organic electronic devices such as photovoltaics and field-effect transistors. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  14. Confinement effects of P3HT in nanochannels and their implications for bulk heterojunction solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Hye; Suh, Myungkoo; Gowrishankar, Vignesh; McGehee, Michael D; Kwon, Young-Uk

    2010-01-01

    We studied the properties of regioregular P3HT conducting polymers with three different molecular weights infiltrated into the pores of mesoporous titania thin films. The titania thin films, prepared by self-organization of titania species with a non-ionic triblock copolymer F127 followed by calcination to remove organics, have arrays of 7 nm vertical nanochannels. The UV-Vis spectra of the P3HT-titania nanocomposite films revealed that the interstrand interactions between P3HT chains were weakened by the infiltration. Such an effect increases as the molecular weight of P3HT increases and as the infiltration temperature increases. Consequently, the efficiency of the solar cells, assembled by using the P3HT infiltrated mesoporous titania thin films, was the highest with the smallest P3HT, contrary to the generally accepted practice of using high molecular weight P3HT for forming bulk heterojunction solar cells.

  15. Thermal annealing effects on non-peripheral octahexylphthalocyanine doped polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Romeo Banoukepa, Gilles; Masuda, Tetsuya; Fujii, Akihiko; Shimizu, Yo; Ozaki, Masanori

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the thermal annealing temperature dependence of the photovoltaic properties of organic thin film solar cells based on a bulk heterojunction of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and 1-(3-methoxy-carbonyl)-propyl-1-1-phenyl-(6,6)C61 (PCBM) doped with the soluble phthalocyanine derivative 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octahexylphthalocyanine (C6PcH2). The photocurrent density was increased by 45% and the power conversion efficiency was improved to 3.9% by annealing at 130 °C. The annealing temperature dependence of the photovoltaic properties is discussed by considering the result of X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence measurements.

  16. Ambipolar charge transport in polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunctions for different polymer side-chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, S.; Biniek, L.; Leclerc, N.; Lévêque, P.; Heiser, T.

    2012-09-01

    We use field-effect transistors to investigate electron and hole mobilities in polymer:fullerene blends. Low-band-gap polymers with a common conjugated backbone and differing side-chains are utilized in order to clarify the link between the side-chain molecular structure and grafting position, and the power-conversion efficiency of related bulk heterojunction solar cells. The results show that, at a fixed polymer:fullerene weight ratio, the electron mobility increases by more than four orders of magnitude when changing from linear to branched side-chains. As a consequence, the photovoltaic performances are highest at low fullerene contents for branched chains while the opposite is true for linear chains.

  17. Utilizing Energy Transfer in Binary and Ternary Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feron, Krishna; Cave, James M; Thameel, Mahir N; O'Sullivan, Connor; Kroon, Renee; Andersson, Mats R; Zhou, Xiaojing; Fell, Christopher J; Belcher, Warwick J; Walker, Alison B; Dastoor, Paul C

    2016-08-17

    Energy transfer has been identified as an important process in ternary organic solar cells. Here, we develop kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) models to assess the impact of energy transfer in ternary and binary bulk heterojunction systems. We used fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy to determine the energy disorder and Förster radii for poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl), [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester, 4-bis[4-(N,N-diisobutylamino)-2,6-dihydroxyphenyl]squaraine (DIBSq), and poly(2,5-thiophene-alt-4,9-bis(2-hexyldecyl)-4,9-dihydrodithieno[3,2-c:3',2'-h][1,5]naphthyridine-5,10-dione). Heterogeneous energy transfer is found to be crucial in the exciton dissociation process of both binary and ternary organic semiconductor systems. Circumstances favoring energy transfer across interfaces allow relaxation of the electronic energy level requirements, meaning that a cascade structure is not required for efficient ternary organic solar cells. We explain how energy transfer can be exploited to eliminate additional energy losses in ternary bulk heterojunction solar cells, thus increasing their open-circuit voltage without loss in short-circuit current. In particular, we show that it is important that the DIBSq is located at the electron donor-acceptor interface; otherwise charge carriers will be trapped in the DIBSq domain or excitons in the DIBSq domains will not be able to dissociate efficiently at an interface. KMC modeling shows that only small amounts of DIBSq (energy transfer.

  18. Tetrahydroquinoxaline Based Small Molecule: PCBM Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S. S.; Sharma, G. D.; Subodh,; Sharma, Sarla; Vijay, Y. K.

    2011-01-01

    We have fabricated solution processed bulk heterojuction (BHJ) solar cell from small molecule (SM) as donor blended with PCBM as an acceptor. The BHJ showed power conversion efficiency (PCE) up to 2.80%. The PCE has been further improved up to 3.80 % after thermal annealing of the SM: PCBM layer. The higher PCE of the photovoltaic devices based on the thermal annealed SM: PCBM blend as compared to SM: PCBM blend is attributed to the increase in the crystalline nature of the blend and hole mobility. The thermal annealing allows not only a broad absorption but also tuning of the inter energy level leading to a higher short circuit current (Jsc) and open circuit voltage (Voc).

  19. Charge transport and photocurrent generation in poly (3-hexylthiophene) : Methanofullerene bulk-heterojunction solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihailetchi, VD; Xie, HX; de Boer, B; Koster, LJA; Blom, PWM; Mihailetchi, Valentin D.; Xie, Hangxing

    2006-01-01

    The effect of controlled thermal annealing on charge transport and photogeneration in bulk-heterojunction solar cells made from blend films of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and methanofullerene (PCBM) has been studied. With respect to the charge transport, it is demonstrated that the

  20. Strategies for increasing the efficiency of heterojunction organic solar cells: material selection and device architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heremans, Paul; Cheyns, David; Rand, Barry P

    2009-11-17

    Thin-film blends or bilayers of donor- and acceptor-type organic semiconductors form the core of heterojunction organic photovoltaic cells. Researchers measure the quality of photovoltaic cells based on their power conversion efficiency, the ratio of the electrical power that can be generated versus the power of incident solar radiation. The efficiency of organic solar cells has increased steadily in the last decade, currently reaching up to 6%. Understanding and combating the various loss mechanisms that occur in processes from optical excitation to charge collection should lead to efficiencies on the order of 10% in the near future. In organic heterojunction solar cells, the generation of photocurrent is a cascade of four steps: generation of excitons (electrically neutral bound electron-hole pairs) by photon absorption, diffusion of excitons to the heterojunction, dissociation of the excitons into free charge carriers, and transport of these carriers to the contacts. In this Account, we review our recent contributions to the understanding of the mechanisms that govern these steps. Starting from archetype donor-acceptor systems of planar small-molecule heterojunctions and solution-processed bulk heterojunctions, we outline our search for alternative materials and device architectures. We show that non-planar phthalocynanines have appealing absorption characteristics but also have reduced charge carrier transport. As a result, the donor layer needs to be ultrathin, and all layers of the device have to be tuned to account for optical interference effects. Using these optimization techniques, we illustrate cells with 3.1% efficiency for the non-planar chloroboron subphthalocyanine donor. Molecules offering a better compromise between absorption and carrier mobility should allow for further improvements. We also propose a method for increasing the exciton diffusion length by converting singlet excitons into long-lived triplets. By doping a polymer with a

  1. Solution processable organic polymers and small molecules for bulk-heterojunction solar cells: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, G. D.

    2011-01-01

    Solution processed bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells (OSCs) have gained wide interest in past few years and are established as one of the leading next generation photovoltaic technologies for low cost power production. Power conversion efficiencies up to 6% and 6.5% have been reported in the literature for single layer and tandem solar cells, respectively using conjugated polymers. A recent record efficiency about 8.13% with active area of 1.13 cm 2 has been reported. However Solution processable small molecules have been widely applied for photovoltaic (PV) devices in recent years because they show strong absorption properties, and they can be easily purified and deposited onto flexible substrates at low cost. Introducing different donor and acceptor groups to construct donor--acceptor (D--A) structure small molecules has proved to be an efficient way to improve the properties of organic solar cells (OSCs). The power conversion efficiency about 4.4 % has been reported for OSCs based on the small molecules. This review deals with the recent progress of solution processable D--A structure small molecules and discusses the key factors affecting the properties of OSCs based on D--A structure small molecules: sunlight absorption, charge transport and the energy level of the molecules.

  2. Neat C₇₀-based bulk-heterojunction polymer solar cells with excellent acceptor dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, Nicola; Righi, Sara; Tinti, Francesca; Savoini, Alberto; Cominetti, Alessandra; Po, Riccardo; Camaioni, Nadia

    2014-12-10

    The replacement of common fullerene derivatives with neat-C70 could be an effective approach to restrain the costs of organic photovoltaics and increase their sustainability. In this study, bulk-heterojunction solar cells made of neat-C70 and low energy-gap conjugated polymers, PTB7 and PCDTBT, are thoroughly investigated and compared. Upon replacing PC70BM with C70, the mobility of positive carriers in the donor phase is roughly reduced by 1 order of magnitude, while that of electrons is only slightly modified. It is shown that the main loss mechanism of the investigated neat-C70 solar cells is a low mobility-lifetime product. Nevertheless, PCDTBT:C70 devices undergo a limited loss of 7.5%, compared to the reference PCDTBT:PC70BM cells, reaching a record efficiency (4.44%) for polymer solar cells with unfunctionalized fullerenes. The moderate efficiency loss of PCDTBT:C70 devices, due to an unexpected excellent miscibility of PCDTBT:C70 blends, demonstrates that efficient solar cells made of neat-fullerene are possible. The efficient dispersion of C70 in the PCDTBT matrix is attributed to an interaction between fullerene and the carbazole unit of the polymer.

  3. Charge transport and recombination dynamics in organic bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, Andreas

    2011-08-02

    The charge transport in disordered organic bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells is a crucial process affecting the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the solar cell. With the need of synthesizing new materials for improving the power conversion efficiency of those cells it is important to study not only the photophysical but also the electrical properties of the new material classes. Thereby, the experimental techniques need to be applicable to operating solar cells. In this work, the conventional methods of transient photoconductivity (also known as ''Time-of-Flight'' (TOF)), as well as the transient charge extraction technique of ''Charge Carrier Extraction by Linearly Increasing Voltage'' (CELIV) are performed on different organic blend compositions. Especially with the latter it is feasible to study the dynamics - i.e. charge transport and charge carrier recombination - in bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells with active layer thicknesses of 100-200 nm. For a well performing organic BHJ solar cells the morphology is the most crucial parameter finding a trade-off between an efficient photogeneration of charge carriers and the transport of the latter to the electrodes. Besides the morphology, the nature of energetic disorder of the active material blend and its influence on the dynamics are discussed extensively in this work. Thereby, the material system of poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}butyric acid methyl ester (PC{sub 61}BM) serves mainly as a reference material system. New promising donor or acceptor materials and their potential for application in organic photovoltaics are studied in view of charge dynamics and compared with the reference system. With the need for commercialization of organic solar cells the question of the impact of environmental conditions on the PCE of the solar cells raises. In this work, organic BHJ solar cells exposed to synthetic air for finite duration are

  4. Novel Terthiophene-Substituted Fullerene Derivatives as Easily Accessible Acceptor Molecules for Bulk-Heterojunction Polymer Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Nisic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Five fulleropyrrolidines and methanofullerenes, bearing one or two terthiophene moieties, have been prepared in a convenient way and well characterized. These novel fullerene derivatives are characterized by good solubility and by better harvesting of the solar radiation with respect to traditional PCBM. In addition, they have a relatively high LUMO level and a low band gap that can be easily tuned by an adequate design of the link between the fullerene and the terthiophene. Preliminary results show that they are potential acceptors for the creation of efficient bulk-heterojunction solar cells based on donor polymers containing thiophene units.

  5. Effect of Extended Extinction from Gold Nanopillar Arrays on the Absorbance Spectrum of a Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Ju Tsai

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We report on the effects of enhanced absorption/scattering from arrays of Au nanopillars of varied size and spacing on the spectral response of a P3HT:PCBM bulk heterojunction solar cell. Nanopillar array-patterned devices do show increased optical extinction within a narrow range of wavelengths compared to control samples without such arrays. The measured external quantum efficiency and calculated absorbance, however, both show a decrease near the corresponding wavelengths. Numerical simulations indicate that for relatively narrow nanopillars, the increased optical extinction is dominated by absorption within the nanopillars, rather than scattering, and is likely dissipated by Joule heating.

  6. Morphology-Dependent Trap Formation in High Performance Polymer Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Beiley, Zach M.

    2011-06-28

    Bulk heterojunction solar cells (BHJs) based on poly[N-9″-hepta- decanyl-2,7-carbazole- alt -5,5-(4′,7′-di-2-thienyl-2′, 1′,3′-benzothiadiazole)] (PCDTBT) can have internal quantum efficiencies approaching 100% but require active layers that are too thin to absorb more than ∼70% of the above band gap light. When the active layer thickness is increased so that the cell absorbs more light, the fi ll factor and open circuit voltage decrease rapidly, so that the overall power conversion efficiency decreases. We fi nd that hole-traps in the polymer, which we characterize using space-charge limited current measurements, play an important role in the performance of PCDTBT-based BHJs and may limit the active layer thickness. Recombination due to carrier trapping is not often considered in BHJs because it is not believed to be a dominant loss mechanism in the "fruit-fl y" P3HT system. Furthermore, we show that in contrast to P3HT, PCDTBT has only weak short-range molecular order, and that annealing at temperatures above the glass transition decreases the order in the π-π stacking. The decrease in structural order is matched by the movement of hole-traps deeper into the band gap, so that thermal annealing worsens hole transport in the polymer and reduces the efficiency of PCDTBTbased BHJs. These fi ndings suggest that P3HT is not prototypical of the new class of high efficiency polymers, and that further improvement of BHJ efficiencies will necessitate the study of high efficiency polymers with low structural order. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Thermal annealing study on P3HT: PCBM based bulk heterojunction organic solar cells using impedance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gollu, Sankara Rao; Sharma, Ramakant; G, Srinivas; Gupta, Dipti

    2014-01-01

    Recently, Thermal annealing is an important process for bulk heterojunction organic solar cells (BHJ OSCs) to improve the device efficiency and performance of the organic solar cells. Here in, we have examined the changes in the efficiency and morphology of P3HT: PCBM film according to the thermal annealing temperature to find the changes during the annealing process by measuring the optical absorption, atomic force microscope and X-ray diffraction. We also investigated the effect of different annealing process conditions (without, pre- and post-annealing) on the device performance of the inverted bulk heterojunction organic solar cells consist the structure of ITO/ ZnO / P3HT: PCBM / MoO 3 / Al by measuring AC impedance characteristics. Particularly, the power conversion efficiency (PCE), crystalline nature of the polymer, light absorption and the surface smoothness of P3HT: PCBM films are significantly improved after the annealing process. These results indicated the improvement in terms of PCE, interface smoothness between the P3HT: PCBM and MoO 3 layers of the post annealed device originated from the decrease of series resistance between P3HT: PCBM layer and Al electrodes, which could be due to decrease in the effective life time of charge carriers

  8. Ambipolar Organic Phototransistors with p-Type/n-Type Conjugated Polymer Bulk Heterojunction Light-Sensing Layers

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Sungho

    2016-11-18

    Ambipolar organic phototransistors with sensing channel layers, featuring p-type and n-type conjugated polymer bulk heterojunctions, exhibit outstanding light-sensing characteristics in both p-channel and n-channel sensing operation modes.

  9. Shelf life and outdoor degradation studies of organic bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergova, R.; Sendova-Vassileva, M.; Popkirov, G.; Gancheva, V.; Grancharov, G.

    2018-03-01

    We studied the degradation of different types of bulk heterojunction devices, in which the materials comprising the active layer and/or the materials used for the back electrode are varied. The devices are deposited on ITO covered glass and have the structure PEDOT:PSS/BHJ/Me, where PEDOT:PSS is the hole transport layer, BHJ (bulk heterojunction) is the active layer comprising a polymer donor (e.g. PTB7, PCDTBT) and a fullerene derivative acceptor (e.g. PC60BM, PC70BM) deposited by spin coating, Me is the metal back contact, which is either Ag or Al deposited by magnetron sputtering or thermal evaporation. The device performance was monitored after storage in the dark at ambient conditions by following the evolution of the J-V curve over time. Results of real conditions outdoor degradation studies are also presented. The stability of the different solar cell structures studied is compared.

  10. Polythiophene/fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cell fabricated via electrochemical co-deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Bin; Wang, Peng; Wang, Liduo; Shi, Gaoquan [Key Lab of Organic Optical Electronics and Molecular Engineering, Education Commission of China, Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2006-12-15

    We report a polythiophene/fullerene (C{sub 60}) bulk heterojunction solar cell fabricated via electrochemical co-deposition of polythiophene (PTh) and fullerene on an indium tin oxide (ITO) glass electrode modified with a thin layer of poly (3,4-ethylenedioxylthiophene) (PEDOT). Although the amount of C{sub 60} incorporated into the film was relatively low, the photovoltaic performance of the cell based on the polythiophene/fullerene (PTh/C{sub 60}) composite film was remarkably improved. (author)

  11. Electron and Hole Transport Layers: Their Use in Inverted Bulk Heterojunction Polymer Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Lattante

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells (BHJ PSCs are very promising organic-based devices for low-cost solar energy conversion, compatible with roll-to-roll or general printing methods for mass production. Nevertheless, to date, many issues should still be addressed, one of these being the poor stability in ambient conditions. One elegant way to overcome such an issue is the so-called “inverted” BHJ PSC, a device geometry in which the charge collection is reverted in comparison with the standard geometry device, i.e., the electrons are collected by the bottom electrode and the holes by the top electrode (in contact with air. This reverted geometry allows one to use a high work function top metal electrode, like silver or gold (thus avoiding its fast oxidation and degradation, and eliminates the need of a polymeric hole transport layer, typically of an acidic nature, on top of the transparent metal oxide bottom electrode. Moreover, this geometry is fully compatible with standard roll-to-roll manufacturing in air and is less demanding for a good post-production encapsulation process. To date, the external power conversion efficiencies of the inverted devices are generally comparable to their standard analogues, once both the electron transport layer and the hole transport layer are fully optimized for the particular device. Here, the most recent results on this particular optimization process will be reviewed, and a general outlook regarding the inverted BHJ PSC will be depicted.

  12. Polymer:Nonfullerene Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells with Exceptionally Low Recombination Rates

    KAUST Repository

    Gasparini, Nicola

    2017-09-01

    Organic semiconductors are in general known to have an inherently lower charge carrier mobility compared to their inorganic counterparts. Bimolecular recombination of holes and electrons is an important loss mechanism and can often be described by the Langevin recombination model. Here, the device physics of bulk heterojunction solar cells based on a nonfullerene acceptor (IDTBR) in combination with poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) are elucidated, showing an unprecedentedly low bimolecular recombination rate. The high fill factor observed (above 65%) is attributed to non-Langevin behavior with a Langevin prefactor (β/βL) of 1.9 × 10−4. The absence of parasitic recombination and high charge carrier lifetimes in P3HT:IDTBR solar cells inform an almost ideal bimolecular recombination behavior. This exceptional recombination behavior is explored to fabricate devices with layer thicknesses up to 450 nm without significant performance losses. The determination of the photoexcited carrier mobility by time-of-flight measurements reveals a long-lived and nonthermalized carrier transport as the origin for the exceptional transport physics. The crystalline microstructure arrangement of both components is suggested to be decisive for this slow recombination dynamics. Further, the thickness-independent power conversion efficiency is of utmost technological relevance for upscaling production and reiterates the importance of understanding material design in the context of low bimolecular recombination.

  13. Capacitance Voltage of P3HT:Graphene Nanocomposites Based Bulk-Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Shariff, Nur Shakina; Mohamad Saad, Puteri Sarah; Mahmood, Mohamad Rusop

    2015-01-01

    After the discovery of conjugated polymer and bulk-heterojunction concept, organic solar cell has gain many interest in the photovoltaic world. The main problem for organic solar cells is that the power conversion efficiency (PCE) is still considered low even though it is much more low cost compared to inorganic solar cell such as Silicon (Si). Therefore, the objective of this research is to investigate the effect of Poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) thickness and concentration towards the capacitance voltage of the P3HT:Graphene solar cells. A simulation software called SCAPS is used in this research to simulate the effect on the solar cells. SCAPS is specialized for photovoltaic simulation studies. The solar cell's structure will be drawn inside the simulation and the parameters for each layers is inserted. The voltage range will be fixed and the capacitance voltage will be calculated by the software and all the results will be put into one graph. For thickness results, P3HT's layer at a thickness of 100nm has the lowest value of capacitance and clearly shows a peak at 0.86V. Where for the concentration, 1×10 16 cm -3 is the only value that clearly shows there is the built-in voltage (V bi ) in the solar cells. Therefore, P3HT's thickness of 100 nm and concentration of 1×10 16 cm −3 has the best overall results. (paper)

  14. Capacitance Voltage of P3HT:Graphene Nanocomposites Based Bulk-Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakina Mohd Shariff, Nur; Mohamad Saad, Puteri Sarah; Rusop Mahmood, Mohamad

    2015-11-01

    After the discovery of conjugated polymer and bulk-heterojunction concept, organic solar cell has gain many interest in the photovoltaic world. The main problem for organic solar cells is that the power conversion efficiency (PCE) is still considered low even though it is much more low cost compared to inorganic solar cell such as Silicon (Si). Therefore, the objective of this research is to investigate the effect of Poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) thickness and concentration towards the capacitance voltage of the P3HT:Graphene solar cells. A simulation software called SCAPS is used in this research to simulate the effect on the solar cells. SCAPS is specialized for photovoltaic simulation studies. The solar cell's structure will be drawn inside the simulation and the parameters for each layers is inserted. The voltage range will be fixed and the capacitance voltage will be calculated by the software and all the results will be put into one graph. For thickness results, P3HT's layer at a thickness of 100nm has the lowest value of capacitance and clearly shows a peak at 0.86V. Where for the concentration, 1×1016 cm-3 is the only value that clearly shows there is the built-in voltage (Vbi) in the solar cells. Therefore, P3HT's thickness of 100 nm and concentration of 1×1016 cm-3 has the best overall results.

  15. Investigating charge generation in polymer:non-fullerene acceptor bulk heterojunction films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoltzfus, Dani M.; Larson, Bryon W.; Zarrabi, Nasim; Shaw, Paul E.; Clulow, Andrew J.; Jin, Hui; Burn, Paul L.; Gentle, Ian R.; Kopidakis, Nikos

    2018-04-01

    Non-fullerene acceptors are now capable of being used in high efficiency bulk heterojunction (BHJ) donor-acceptor organic solar cells. Acceptors comprising single or multiple linked chromophores have been used. We have developed a new non-fullerene molecular acceptor as well as two non-polymeric macromolecular materials that contain four equivalents of a similar chromophore, but can adopt different spatial arrangements of the chromophores. We compare the effect of having single and multiple chromophores within a macromolecule on the charge generation processes in P3HT:non-fullerene acceptor BHJ films using Transient Absorption Spectroscopy (TAS) and Time Resolved Microwave Conductivity (TRMC) measurements. It was found from the TAS measurements that at low weight percent (5 wt%) the single chromophore formed more polarons than the acceptors in which chromophores were linked, due to it having a more even distribution within the film. At higher concentrations (50 wt%) the trend was reversed due to the single chromophore forming crystalline domains, which reduced the interface area with the P3HT donor. The TRMC measurements showed that more mobile carriers were formed in the macromolecular acceptors when used at low concentrations in the blend and, independent of concentration, mobile carriers had a longer lifetime when compared to films containing the molecular material, which we ascribe to the charges being able to sample more than one chromophore and thus reduce recombination events.

  16. Efficient cascade multiple heterojunction organic solar cells with inverted structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tingting; Li, Mingtao; Qiao, Zhenfang; Yu, Leiming; Zhao, Jianhong; Feng, Nianjun; Shi, Peiguang; Wang, Xiaoyan; Pu, Xiaoyun; Wang, Hai

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we demonstrate an efficient cascade multiple heterojunction organic solar cell with inverted structure. By using two donor materials, poly(3-hexylthiosphene) (P3HT) and titanyl phthalocyanine (TiOPc), as well as two acceptor materials, [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and C60, the cascade multiple heterojunctions of P3HT:PCBM/TiOPc:C60/C60 have been constructed. Applying the optimized inverted configuration of FTO/Zinc Tin Oxide (ZTO)/C60 (30 nm)/TiOPc:C60 (1:1.5, 25 nm)/P3HT:PCBM (1:0.8, 100 nm)/MoO3 (4 nm)/Ag, the considerably enhanced open circuit voltage (VOC) and short circuit current (JSC) can be harvested together, and the power conversion efficiency (PCE) is three times higher than that of the control cell with conventional structure. The significant improvements of the inverted cell are mostly due to the broadened spectral absorption and high efficient multi-interface exciton dissociation in the cascade multiple heterojunctions, indicating that the optimized cascade heterojunctions match the inverted structure well.

  17. Incomplete Exciton Harvesting from Fullerenes in Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Burkhard, George F.

    2009-12-09

    We investigate the internal quantum efficiencies (IQEs) of high efficiency poly-3-hexylthiophene:[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) solar cells and find them to be lower at wavelengths where the PCBM absorbs. Because the exciton diffusion length in PCBM is too small, excitons generated in PCBM decay before reaching the donor-acceptor interface. This result has implications for most state of the art organic solar cells, since all of the most efficient devices use fullerenes as electron acceptors. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  18. Effects of modifying active-layer/cathode interface on P3HT/PCBM based bulk-heterojunction solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bom, Sidhant; Wagner, Veit [Jacobs University Bremen (Germany). School of Engineering and Science

    2009-07-01

    The compatibility of organic photovoltaics (OPVs) with large area printing using flexible substrates offers significant cost reduction and gives the field substantial ecological and economic advantages. However, low efficiencies and inferior environmental stability has been their major setbacks. Photo-generated excitons which dissociate at donor-acceptor interface in bulk-heterojunction OPV devices are collected at the electrodes. This work focuses on interface engineering between the active layer and cathode and on environmental stability. A series of bulk-heterojunction OPV cells were made on indium tin oxide coated glass with poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and[6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) composite as the active layer using different work-function metals: Ag, Al, Au and Ca as cathodes. Furthermore, the environment was changed for different production steps between ambient air and dry nitrogen. For the devices completely processed in air, the cells with Al electrodes showed the best performance which was however much lower than completely nitrogen processed samples. The photocurrent features on the air processed sample were strongly bias dependent and indicates degradation of PCBM.

  19. Ring substituents mediate the morphology of PBDTTPD-PCBM bulk-heterojunction solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Warnan, Julien

    2014-04-08

    Among π-conjugated polymer donors for efficient bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) solar cell applications, poly(benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene- thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione) (PBDTTPD) polymers yield some of the highest open-circuit voltages (VOC, ca. 0.9 V) and fill-factors (FF, ca. 70%) in conventional (single-cell) BHJ devices with PCBM acceptors. In PBDTTPD, side chains of varying size and branching affect polymer self-assembly, nanostructural order, and impact material performance. However, the role of the polymer side-chain pattern in the intimate mixing between polymer donors and PCBM acceptors, and on the development of the BHJ morphology is in general less understood. In this contribution, we show that ring substituents such as furan (F), thiophene (T) and selenophene (S)-incorporated into the side chains of PBDTTPD polymers-can induce significant and, of importance, very different morphological effects in BHJs with PCBM. A combination of experimental and theoretical (via density functional theory) characterizations sheds light on how varying the heteroatom of the ring substituents impacts (i) the preferred side-chain configurations and (ii) the ionization, electronic, and optical properties of the PBDTTPD polymers. In parallel, we find that the PBDT(X)TPD analogs (with X = F, T, or S) span a broad range of power conversion efficiencies (PCEs, 3-6.5%) in optimized devices with improved thin-film morphologies via the use of 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO), and discuss that persistent morphological impediments at the nanoscale can be at the origin of the spread in PCE across optimized PBDT(X)TPD-based devices. With their high VOC ∼1 V, PBDT(X)TPD polymers are promising candidates for use in the high-band gap cell of tandem solar cells. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  20. Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cell Area-Dependent Parameter Fluctuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Trindade

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic solar cell efficiency is known to be active area dependent and is usually a problem in the upscale factor for market applications. In this work, a detailed study of organic photovoltaic devices with active layer based on poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT and 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl-propyl-1-phenyl-(6,6C61 (PCBM is made, evaluating the effect of the change on the active area from 10−2 to 4 cm4. The device structure was kept simple in order to allow the understanding of the physical effects involved. Device figures of merit were extracted from the equivalent circuit using a genetic-based algorithm, and their relationship with the active area was compared. It is observed that the efficiency drops significantly with the active area increase (as the fill factor while the parallel and series resistance, adjusted to the active area, seems to be relatively constant and increases linearly, respectively. The short circuit current and the generated photocurrent also drop significantly with the active area increase. The open circuit voltage does not show major changes. These results are discussed considering the main influences for the observed efficiency data. Particularly, as the basic circuit model seems to fail to explain the macroscopic results, the behavior can be related with the enlargement of defect interaction.

  1. Nanocomposite-Based Bulk Heterojunction Hybrid Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bich Phuong Nguyen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic devices based on nanocomposites composed of conjugated polymers and inorganic nanocrystals show promise for the fabrication of low-cost third-generation thin film photovoltaics. In theory, hybrid solar cells can combine the advantages of the two classes of materials to potentially provide high power conversion efficiencies of up to 10%; however, certain limitations on the current within a hybrid solar cell must be overcome. Current limitations arise from incompatibilities among the various intradevice interfaces and the uncontrolled aggregation of nanocrystals during the step in which the nanocrystals are mixed into the polymer matrix. Both effects can lead to charge transfer and transport inefficiencies. This paper highlights potential strategies for resolving these obstacles and presents an outlook on the future directions of this field.

  2. Study of buffer layer thickness on bulk heterojunction solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Seunguk; Suman, C K; Lee, Donggu; Kim, Seohee; Lee, Changhee

    2010-10-01

    We studied the effect of the buffer layer (molybdenum-oxide (MoO3)) thickness on the performance of organic solar cell based on blends of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester fullerene derivative (PCBM). The thickness of MoO3 was varied from 1 nm to 30 nm for optimization of device performance. The photocurrent-voltage and impedance spectroscopy were measured under dark and AM1.5G solar simulated illumination of 100 mW/cm2 for exploring the role of the buffer layer thickness on carrier collection at an anode. The MoO3 thickness of the optimized device (efficiency approximately 3.7%) was found to be in the range of 5 approximately 10 nm. The short-circuit current and the shunt resistance decrease gradually for thicker MoO3 layer over 5 nm. The device can be modeled as the combination of three RC parallel circuits (each one for the active layer, buffer layer and interface between the buffer layer and the active layer) in series with contact resistance (Rs approximately 60 ohm).

  3. Nanofiber-based bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells using coaxial electrospinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedford, Nicholas M. [Nanoelectronics Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States); Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, 45221 (United States); Dickerson, Matthew B.; Drummy, Lawrence F.; Koerner, Hilmar; Singh, Kristi M.; Vasudev, Milana C.; Durstock, Michael F.; Naik, Rajesh R. [Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, OH, 45433 (United States); Steckl, Andrew J. [Nanoelectronics Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Nanofibers consisting of the bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic (BHJ-OPV) electron donor-electron acceptor pair poly(3-hexylthiophene):phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) are produced through a coaxial electrospinning process. While P3HT:PCBM blends are not directly electrospinnable, P3HT:PCBM-containing fibers are produced in a coaxial fashion by utilizing polycaprolactone (PCL) as an electrospinnable sheath material. Pure P3HT:PCBM fibers are easily obtained after electrospinning by selectively removing the PCL sheath with cyclopentanone (average diameter 120 {+-} 30 nm). These fibers are then incorporated into the active layer of a BHJ-OPV device, which results in improved short-circuit current densities, fill factors, and power-conversion efficiencies (PCE) as compared to thin-film devices of identical chemical composition. The best-performing fiber-based devices exhibit a PCE of 4.0%, while the best thin-film devices have a PCE of 3.2%. This increase in device performance is attributed to the increased in-plane alignment of P3HT polymer chains on the nanoscale, caused by the electrospun fibers, which leads to increased optical absorption and subsequent exciton generation. This methodology for improving device performance of BHJ-OPVs could also be implemented for other electron donor-electron acceptor systems, as nanofiber formation is largely independent of the PV material. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Raman study of bulk-heterojunction morphology in photoactive layers treated with solvent-vapor annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onojima, Norio; Ishima, Yasuhisa; Izumi, Daisuke; Takahashi, Kazuyuki

    2018-03-01

    The effect of solvent-vapor annealing (SVA) on bulk-heterojunction morphology in photoactive layers composed of poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) was analyzed using Raman spectroscopy. We prepared the photoactive layers by electrostatic spray deposition (ESD) and fabricated organic photovoltaic devices with a conventional cell structure. Although postdeposition annealing can be omitted when the photoactive layer is deposited using ESD under dry condition, the surface is relatively rough owing to the existence of a number of droplet traces. The SVA treatment can eliminate such droplet traces, while excessive SVA resulted in a significant decrease in open-circuit voltage. The Raman study of the bulk-heterojunction morphology demonstrated the accumulation of P3HT molecules on the surface during SVA, which induced the recombination of photogenerated charges at the interface of the cathode/photoactive layer and thereby decreased the open-circuit voltage.

  5. Formation of P3KHT:PCBM bulk-heterojunction using orthogonal solvents by ultrasonic spray method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Mrunal S.; Lonkar, Ganesh S.; Ghosh, Sanjay S.; Patil, Mahendra B.; Dalal, Dipak S.; Sali, Jaydeep V.

    2015-07-01

    Bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) morphologies with pure domains and sharp interfaces can lead to a more pronounced photovoltaic performance in organic solar cells. In this paper we report the formation of bulk-heterojunction of P3KHT (poly [3-(sodium-6 hexanoate) thiophene-2, 5-diyl]) and PCBM (phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester) using orthogonal solvents by the ultrasonic spray method, which can lead to pure phases and sharp interfaces. P3KHT and PCBM are soluble in water and chlorobenzene respectively, which are orthogonal solvents. The modelling and simulation of the ultrasonic spray method is reported, and shows the possibility of formation of interconnecting phases of the two components in P3KHT:PCBM BHJ, formed using orthogonal solvents, if specific process parameters are chosen. The modelling and simulation also presents a way to determine optimum parameter space in an intermittent spray deposition method using orthogonal solvents. P3KHT:PCBM BHJ has been prepared using three different approaches. Significant photoluminescence quenching, suggesting efficient excitons separation before recombination has been observed in BHJ prepared by the ‘emulsion of solutions’ method. The study of the optical properties of P3KHT:PCBM BHJ suggests that the BHJ may contain bilayer type structures embedded in the BHJ morphology, which is further confirmed by complementary experiments. This new approach to preparing BHJ with pure phase domains and sharp donor/acceptor interfaces may find applications in optoelectronic devices such as organic thin-film transistors, photodetectors, organic light emitting diodes and organic solar cells.

  6. "Plastic" solar cells: self-assembly of bulk heterojunction nanomaterials by spontaneous phase separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peet, Jeffrey; Heeger, Alan J; Bazan, Guillermo C

    2009-11-17

    As the global demand for low-cost renewable energy sources intensifies, interest in new routes for converting solar energy to electricity is rapidly increasing. Although photovoltaic cells have been commercially available for more than 50 years, only 0.1% of the total electricity generated in the United States comes directly from sunlight. The earliest commercial solar technology remains the basis for the most prevalent devices in current use, namely, highly-ordered crystalline, inorganic solar cells, commonly referred to as silicon cells. Another class of solar cells that has recently inspired significant academic and industrial excitement is the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) "plastic" solar cell. Research by a rapidly growing community of scientists across the globe is generating a steady stream of new insights into the fundamental physics, the materials design and synthesis, the film processing and morphology, and the device science and architecture of BHJ technology. Future progress in the fabrication of high-performance BHJ cells will depend on our ability to combine aspects of synthetic and physical chemistry, condensed matter physics, and materials science. In this Account, we use a combination of characterization tools to tie together recent advances in BHJ morphology characterization, device photophysics, and thin-film solution processing, illustrating how to identify the limiting factors in solar cell performance. We also highlight how new processing methods, which control both the BHJ phase separation and the internal order of the components, can be implemented to increase the power conversion efficiency (PCE). The failure of many innovative materials to achieve high performance in BHJ solar cell devices has been blamed on "poor morphology" without significant characterization of either the structure of the phase-separated morphology or the nature of the charge carrier recombination. We demonstrate how properly controlling the "nanomorphology", which is

  7. Fluorenone-based molecules for bulk-heterojunction solar cells: synthesis, characterization, and photovoltaic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lincker, Frederic; Delbosc, Nicolas; Billon, Martial; Pron, Adam [Laboratoire d' Electronique Moleculaire Organique et Hybride (LEMOH), UMR5819-SPrAM (CEA-CNRS-University Grenoble I) INAC CEA-Grenoble (France); Bailly, Severine; Bettignies, Remi de [Laboratoire Cellules Solaires, DRT-LITEN-GENEC-LCS, INES Savoie-Technolac Chambery (France); Demadrille, Renaud [Laboratoire d' Electronique Moleculaire Organique et Hybride (LEMOH), UMR5819-SPrAM (CEA-CNRS-University Grenoble I) INAC CEA-Grenoble (France); Laboratoire Cellules Solaires, DRT-LITEN-GENEC-LCS, INES Savoie-Technolac Chambery (France)

    2008-11-10

    A series of four conjugated molecules consisting of a fluorenone central unit symmetrically coupled to different oligothiophene segments are conceptually designed and synthesized to provide new electroactive materials for application in photovoltaic devices. The combination of electron-donating oligothiophene building blocks with an electron-accepting fluorenone unit results in the emergence of a new band assigned to an intramolecular charge transfer transition that gives rise to the extension of the absorption spectral range of the resulting molecules. Detailed spectroscopic and voltammetric investigations show that all studied molecules have highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) level positions, which make them good candidates for the application as electron-donors in bulk-heterojunction photovoltaic cells, with (6,6)-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM)-C{sub 60} as electron acceptor component. Moderate device performances, with power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) comprised between 0.3 and 0.6%, were obtained with rigid molecules, containing either the bridging units between the thiophene rings, i.e., (2,7-bis(4,4'-dioctyl)-cyclopenta[2,1-b:3,4-b']dithiophen-2-yl)-fluoren-9-one (SCPTF) and 2,7-bis(4-(dioctylmethylene)-cyclopenta[2,1-b:3,4-b']dithiophen-5-yl)-fluoren-9-one (MCPTF) or a vinylene unit 2,7-bis(5-[(E)-1,2-bis(3-octylthien-2-yl)ethylene])-fluoren-9-one (TVF), whereas with (2,7-bis-(3,3'''-dioctyl-[2,2';5',2'';5'',2'''])quaterthiophen-5-yl)-fluoren-9-one (QTF) PCE up to 1.2% (under AM 1.5 illumination, 100 mW cm{sup -2}, active area 0.28 cm{sup 2}) was obtained. The strong {pi}-stacking interactions in the solid state for this oligomer leading to improved morphology could explain the good performances of QTF-based devices, which rank among the highest recorded for non-polymeric materials. Consequently, fluorenone

  8. Photoconductance of Bulk Heterojunctions with Tunable Nanomorphology Consisting of P3HT and Naphtalene Diimide Siloxane Oligomers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grzegorczyk, W.J.; Ganesan, P.; Savenije, T.J.; Bavel, van S.; Loos, J.; Sudhölter, E.J.R.; Siebbeles, L.D.A.; Zuilhof, H.

    2009-01-01

    The relation between the morphology, optical, and photoconductive properties of thin-film bulk heterojunctions of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) with a series of electron-accepting siloxanes with a different number (x = 2, 4, 5) of pendant naphthalene diimide (NDIS) moieties is reported. All NDIS

  9. Carrier transport and charge transfer properties in coumarin-doped bulk-heterojunction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, T.; Maeda, T.; Yamashita, K.; Yanagi, H.

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated photovoltaic properties of organic solar cells using polymer-fullerene bulk-heterojunction films doped with coumarin dyes. Whereas the coumarin molecules used in this study had similar absorption bands, evident difference was observed in the open-circuit voltage as well as in the short-circuit current. In particular, the doping of coumarin 307 was found to cause a distinct enhancement in the open-circuit voltage. On the other hand, the doping of coumarin 30 gave a serious degradation in the device performance. These results were strongly associated with calculated molecular energies of the doped dyes, especially with the highest occupied molecular orbital energy. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Manipulating the Morphology of P3HT–PCBM Bulk Heterojunction Blends with Solvent Vapor Annealing

    KAUST Repository

    Verploegen, Eric

    2012-10-23

    Using grazing incidence X-ray scattering, we observe the effects of solvent vapors upon the morphology of poly(3-hexylthiophene)-phenyl-C 61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT-PCBM) bulk heterojunction thin film blends in real time; allowing us to observe morphological rearrangements that occur during this process as a function of solvent. We detail the swelling of the P3HT crystallites upon the introduction of solvent and the resulting changes in the P3HT crystallite morphology. We also demonstrate the ability for tetrahydrofuran vapor to induce crystallinity in PCBM domains. Additionally, we measure the nanoscale phase segregated domain size as a function of solvent vapor annealing and correlate this to the changes observed in the crystallite morphology of each component. Finally, we discuss the implications of the morphological changes induced by solvent vapor annealing on the device properties of BHJ solar cells. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  11. Effect of silicon-nanoparticle addition on the nanostructure of polythiophene: fullurene bulk heterojunction solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Joonhyeon; Nam, Sungho; Jeong, Jaehoon; Kim, Hwajeong; Kim, Youngkyoo

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the nanostructure change in bulk heterojunction films of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)-propyl-1-phenyl-(6,6)C 61 (PCBM) before and after adding silicon nanoparticles (SiNP) by employing synchrotron radiation grazing incidence-angle X-ray diffraction (GIXD) techniques. The GIXD results showed a gradual reduction of the P3HT (100) diffraction intensity in the out-of-plane (OOP) direction as the SiNP content was increased. Interestingly, a (100) intensity in the in-plane (IP) direction newly appeared when a small amount of SiNP was added, but it faded at higher SiNP contents. In particular, the addition of 2 wt.% SiNP increased the (100) intensity in both the OOP and the IP directions, leading to improved solar cell performance due to enhanced charge transport in the P3HT domains.

  12. Effect of annealing on bulk heterojunction organic solar cells based on copper phthalocyanine and perylene derivative

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Inho

    2012-02-01

    We investigated the effects of annealing on device performances of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells based on copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) and N,N′-3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic diimide (PTCDI-C6). Blended films of CuPc and PTCDI-C6 with annealing at elevated temperature were characterized by measuring optical absorption, photoluminescence, and X-ray diffraction. Enhanced molecular ordering and increments in domain sizes of donor and acceptor for the blended films were observed, and their influences on device performances were discussed. Annealing led to substantial improvements in photocurrent owing to enhanced molecular ordering and formation of percolation pathways. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Morphological Control of the Photoactive Layer in Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Su, Yisong

    2011-07-23

    For its inherent advantages, such as lightweight, low cost, flexibility, and opportunity to cover large surface areas, organic solar cells have attracted more and more attention in both academia and industry. However, the efficiency of organic solar cell is still much lower than silicon solar cells, but steadily rising as it now stands above 8%. The architecture of bulk heterojunction solar cells can improve the performance of organic solar cell a lot, but these improvements are highly dependent on the morphology of photoactive layer. Therefore, by controlling the morphology of photoactive layer, most commonly composed of a P3HT donor polymer and PCBM small molecule, the performance of organic solar cells could be optimized. The use of solvent additives in the solution formulation is particularly interesting, because it is a low cost method of controlling the phase separation of the photoactive layer and possibly removing the need for subsequent thermal and solvent vapor annealing. However, the role of the solvent additive remains not well understood and much debate remains on the mechanisms by which it impacts phase separation. In the first part of this thesis, we investigate the role of the solvent additive on the individual components (solvent, donor and acceptor) of the solution and the photoactive layer both in the bulk solution, during solution-processing and in the post-processing solid state of the film. In the second part of this thesis, we investigate the role of the additive on the blended solution state and resulting thin film phase separation. Finally, we propose a new method of controlling phase separation based on the insight into the role of the solvent additive. In the first part, we used an additive [octandiethiol (OT)] in the solvent to help the aggregation of P3HT in the solution. From the UV-vis experiments, the crystallinity of P3HT in the solutions increased while it decreased in thin films with steady increase of additive concentration. This

  14. Soluble P3HT-Grafted Graphene for Efficient Bilayer-Heterojunction Photovoltaic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    dimensional (2-D) single atomic carbon sheets of graphene show remarkable elec- tronic, thermal , and mechanical properties attractive for a variety of...Kim, K.; Liu, J.; Carroll, D. L. Thermal Diffusion Processes in Bulk Heterojunction Formation for Poly-3-hexylthiophene/ C60 Single Heterojunction...semiconducting materials of dif- ferent ionization potentials or electron af- finities. Soluble conjugated polymers and fullerene have been widely

  15. 2 and 3 µm passively Q-switched bulk pulse laser based on a MoS2/graphene heterojunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xihu; Xu, Jinlong; Sun, Yijian; Feng, Wendou; You, Zhenyu; Sun, Dunlu; Tu, Chaoyang

    2018-01-01

    We report for the first time that a MoS2/graphene heterojunction can behave as a saturable absorber to realize 2 and 3 µm passively Q-switched bulk lasers. This heterojunction is prepared through a facile hydrothermal method. For the 2 µm laser, a stable pulse is obtained with a pulse duration of 473 ns, output power of 553 mW, pulse energy of 5.267 µJ and repetition rate of 105 kHz. For the 3 µm laser, a pulse duration of 355 ns is observed with an average output power of 112 mW and pulse energy of 0.889 µJ. These results indicate the great potential of MoS2/graphene heterojunctions for realizing mid-infrared pulse lasers.

  16. Use of a commercially available nucleating agent to control the morphological development of solution-processed small molecule bulk heterojunction organic solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Sharenko, Alexander

    2014-08-12

    © the Partner Organisations 2014. The nucleating agent DMDBS is used to modulate the crystallization of solution-processed small molecule donor molecules in bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic (BHJ OPV) devices. This control over donor molecule crystallization leads to a reduction in optimized thermal annealing times as well as smaller donor molecule crystallites, and therefore more efficient devices, when using an excessive amount of solvent additive. We therefore demonstrate the use of nucleating agents as a powerful and versatile processing strategy for solution-processed, small molecule BHJ OPVs. This journal is

  17. Enhancement of photo/thermal stability of organic bulk heterojunction photovoltaic devices via gold nanoparticles doping of the active layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paci, Barbara; Generosi, Amanda; Albertini, Valerio Rossi; Spyropoulos, George D.; Stratakis, Emmanuel; Kymakis, Emmanuel

    2012-11-01

    This study focuses on the crucial problem of the stability of organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices, aiming to shed light on the photo and thermal degradation mechanisms during prolonged irradiation under ambient conditions. For this purpose, the stability enhancement of bulk heterojunction OPV devices upon embedding surfactant free Au nanoparticles (NPs) into the photoactive layer is investigated by in situ time-resolved energy dispersive X-ray reflectometry (EDXR), photoluminescence (PL) and Raman spectroscopy as well as device degradation electrical measurements. It is shown that besides the improved cell efficiency attributed to plasmon absorption and scattering effects, the embedded NPs act as performance stabilizers, giving rise to enhanced structural stability and, in turn, to reduced photodegradation rate of the respective OPV devices. It is particularly clarified that, in addition to further stabilization of the polymer-fullerene blend, the observed improvement can be ascribed to a NP-mediated mitigation of the photooxidation effect at the cathode-active layer interface. Our work suggests the exploitation of surfactant free NPs to be a successful approach to address aging effects in OPV devices.This study focuses on the crucial problem of the stability of organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices, aiming to shed light on the photo and thermal degradation mechanisms during prolonged irradiation under ambient conditions. For this purpose, the stability enhancement of bulk heterojunction OPV devices upon embedding surfactant free Au nanoparticles (NPs) into the photoactive layer is investigated by in situ time-resolved energy dispersive X-ray reflectometry (EDXR), photoluminescence (PL) and Raman spectroscopy as well as device degradation electrical measurements. It is shown that besides the improved cell efficiency attributed to plasmon absorption and scattering effects, the embedded NPs act as performance stabilizers, giving rise to enhanced structural stability and

  18. Role of additional PCBM layer between ZnO and photoactive layers in inverted bulk-heterojunction solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Shinuk; Kim, Kwang-Dae; Heo, Jinhee; Lee, Joo Yul; Cha, Gihoon; Seo, Bo Yeol; Kim, Young Dok; Kim, Yong Soo; Choi, Si-young; Lim, Dong Chan

    2014-03-07

    In order to induce greater light absorption, nano-patterning is often applied to the metal-oxide buffer layer in inverted bulk-heterojunction(BHJ) solar cells. However, current homogeneity was significantly disturbed at the interface, leading to an efficiency that was not fully optimized. In this work, an additional PC61BM layer was inserted between the ZnO ripple and the photoactive layer to enhance the electron extraction. The insertion of additional PC61BM layer provided substantial advantages in the operation of inverted BHJ solar cells; specifically, it enhanced current homogeneity and lowered accumulation and trapping of photogenerated charges at the ZnO interface. Inclusion of the additional PC61BM layer led to effective quenching of electron-hole recombination by a reduction in the number of accumulated charges at the surface of ZnO ripples. This resulted in a 16% increase in the efficiency of inverted BHJ solar cells to 7.7%, compared to solar cells without the additional PC61BM layer.

  19. Mixed Domains Enhance Charge Generation and Extraction in Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells with Small-Molecule Donors

    KAUST Repository

    Alqahtani, Obaid

    2018-03-25

    The interplay between nanomorphology and efficiency of polymer-fullerene bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells has been the subject of intense research, but the generality of these concepts for small-molecule (SM) BHJs remains unclear. Here, the relation between performance; charge generation, recombination, and extraction dynamics; and nanomorphology achievable with two SM donors benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b]dithiophene-pyrido[3,4-b]-pyrazine BDT(PPTh), namely SM1 and SM2, differing by their side-chains, are examined as a function of solution additive composition. The results show that the additive 1,8-diiodooctane acts as a plasticizer in the blends, increases domain size, and promotes ordering/crystallinity. Surprisingly, the system with high domain purity (SM1) exhibits both poor exciton harvesting and severe charge trapping, alleviated only slightly with increased crystallinity. In contrast, the system consisting of mixed domains and lower crystallinity (SM2) shows both excellent exciton harvesting and low charge recombination losses. Importantly, the onset of large, pure crystallites in the latter (SM2) system reduces efficiency, pointing to possible differences in the ideal morphologies for SM-based BHJ solar cells compared with polymer-fullerene devices. In polymer-based systems, tie chains between pure polymer crystals establish a continuous charge transport network, whereas SM-based active layers may in some cases require mixed domains that enable both aggregation and charge percolation to the electrodes.

  20. Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells Based on Blends of Conjugated Polymers with II–VI and IV–VI Inorganic Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Kisslinger

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bulk heterojunction solar cells based on blends of quantum dots and conjugated polymers are a promising configuration for obtaining high-efficiency, cheaply fabricated solution-processed photovoltaic devices. Such devices are of significant interest as they have the potential to leverage the advantages of both types of materials, such as the high mobility, band gap tunability and possibility of multiple exciton generation in quantum dots together with the high mechanical flexibility and large molar extinction coefficient of conjugated polymers. Despite these advantages, the power conversion efficiency (PCE of these hybrid devices has remained relatively low at around 6%, well behind that of all-organic or all-inorganic solar cells. This is attributed to major challenges that still need to be overcome before conjugated polymer–quantum dot blends can be considered viable for commercial application, such as controlling the film morphology and interfacial structure to ensure efficient charge transfer and charge transport. In this work, we present our findings with respect to the recent development of bulk heterojunctions made from conjugated polymer–quantum dot blends, list the ongoing strategies being attempted to improve performance, and highlight the key areas of research that need to be pursued to further develop this technology.

  1. Nanofibrillar self-organization of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) and [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester by dip-coating: a simple method to obtain efficient bulk heterojunction solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentini, L; Bagnis, D; Kenny, J M

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the dip-coating technique has been investigated as a method for the production of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (RR-P3HT):[6,6]-phenyl C 61 -butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM)-based solar cells. We found that the utilization of the dip-coating technique for the RR-P3HT:PCBM system can facilitate its self-assembly into a nanofibrillar lamellar structure after evaporation of the solvent. The condition for the formation of the nanofibrillar structures leads to a power conversion efficiency of 3.6% by using only this approach without thermal treatment.

  2. Characterization of the polymer energy landscape in polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunctions with pure and mixed phases

    KAUST Repository

    Sweetnam, Sean

    2014-10-08

    Theoretical and experimental studies suggest that energetic offsets between the charge transport energy levels in different morphological phases of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunctions may improve charge separation and reduce recombination in polymer solar cells (PSCs). In this work, we use cyclic voltammetry, UV-vis absorption, and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy to characterize hole energy levels in the polymer phases of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunctions. We observe an energetic offset of up to 150 meV between amorphous and crystalline polymer due to bandgap widening associated primarily with changes in polymer conjugation length. We also observe an energetic offset of up to 350 meV associated with polymer:fullerene intermolecular interactions. The first effect has been widely observed, but the second effect is not always considered despite being larger in magnitude for some systems. These energy level shifts may play a major role in PSC performance and must be thoroughly characterized for a complete understanding of PSC function.

  3. Extended interface layer concept for higher stability and improvement of life time in bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farman Ali

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Power conversion efficiency (PCE of bulk heterojunction (BHJ organic solar cells has reached above ∼10%. These BHJ cells have potential for flexible thin films at low processing temperatures using roll to roll printing on flexible substrates. Further, the basic materials properties can be tailored through organic synthetic routes. However, the issues related to its durability should be addressed before its commercialization. Hence, a conventional solar cell of the poly (3-hexylthiophene (P3HT :(6, 6-phenyl-C61butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM blend on ITO substrates was fabricated, and investigated, which shows improved life time by using a combinational Ca/Al cathode, wherein the deposition of calcium layer is extended beyond the aluminum layer. The extended deposition of calcium layer beyond aluminum prevents the edge degradation by its oxidation and hence protecting the active pixel area of the device, resulting in the improvement of life time of device from ∼80 hours to ∼ 400 hrs.

  4. Enhanced Photovoltaic Properties of Bulk Heterojunction Organic Photovoltaic Devices by an Addition of a Low Band Gap Conjugated Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eui Jin Lee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we fabricated organic photovoltaics (OPVs by introducing the polymer additive HTh6BT into the photoactive layer of a poly(3-hexylthiophene:phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM system. The HTh6BT had a relatively low band gap energy of 1.65 eV and a molecular and crystalline structure similar to that of P3HT. In the photoactive layer, the HTh6BT and P3HT can both act as donors. In such parallel-type bulk heterojunctions, each donor can form excitons and generate charges while being separated from the donor/acceptor interface. Changes in the photovoltaic property of the OPV device by the addition of HTh6BT were evaluated, and the optical characteristics of the photoactive layer, as well as the surface morphology, polymer ordering, and crystallinity of the P3HT:PCBM film were analyzed. Compared to a device without HTh6BT, all short-circuit current densities, open-circuit voltages, and fill factors were enhanced, leading to the enhancement of the power conversion efficiency by 36%.

  5. Photovoltaic Properties of 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-Octaalkylphthalocyanine Doped Polymer Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Tetsuya; Hori, Tetsuro; Fukumura, Kaoru; Miyake, Yasuo; Quang Duy, Dao; Hayashi, Takeshi; Kamikado, Toshiya; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Fujii, Akihiko; Shimizu, Yo; Ozaki, Masanori

    2012-02-01

    The effects of doping a liquid crystalline phthalocyanine derivative, 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octaalkylphthalocyanine (CnPcH2, n = 6, 7), into bulk heterojunction organic thin-film solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and 1-(3-methoxy-carbonyl)-propyl-1-1-phenyl-(6,6)C61 (PCBM) were studied. The absorbance spectra and external quantum efficiency spectra in the near-infrared region corresponding to the Q-band of CnPcH2 were improved by doping C6PcH2 or C7PcH2. On the basis of the characteristics of CnPcH2, obtained optical properties, and results of analysis of X-ray diffraction of the composite films of P3HT:CnPcH2:PCBM, we discussed the photovoltaic properties of solar cells with CnPcH2 by taking the micro phase separation in the active layers into consideration.

  6. The influence of microstructure on charge separation dynamics in organic bulk heterojunction materials for solar cell applications

    KAUST Repository

    Scarongella, Mariateresa

    2014-01-01

    Light-induced charge formation is essential for the generation of photocurrent in organic solar cells. In order to gain a better understanding of this complex process, we have investigated the femtosecond dynamics of charge separation upon selective excitation of either the fullerene or the polymer in different bulk heterojunction blends with well-characterized microstructure. Blends of the pBTTT and PBDTTPD polymers with PCBM gave us access to three different scenarios: either a single intermixed phase, an intermixed phase with additional pure PCBM clusters, or a three-phase microstructure of pure polymer aggregates, pure fullerene clusters and intermixed regions. We found that ultrafast charge separation (by electron or hole transfer) occurs predominantly in intermixed regions, while charges are generated more slowly from excitons in pure domains that require diffusion to a charge generation site. The pure domains are helpful to prevent geminate charge recombination, but they must be sufficiently small not to become exciton traps. By varying the polymer packing, backbone planarity and chain length, we have shown that exciton diffusion out of small polymer aggregates in the highly efficient PBDTTPD:PCBM blend occurs within the same chain and is helped by delocalization. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  7. Interplay Between Side Chain Pattern, Polymer Aggregation, and Charge Carrier Dynamics in PBDTTPD:PCBM Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Dyer-Smith, Clare

    2015-05-01

    Poly(benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene–alt–thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione) (PBDTTPD) polymer donors with linear side-chains yield bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) solar cell power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of about 4% with phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) as the acceptor, while a PBDTTPD polymer with a combination of branched and linear substituents yields a doubling of the PCE to 8%. Using transient optical spectroscopy it is shown that while the exciton dissociation and ultrafast charge generation steps are not strongly affected by the side chain modifications, the polymer with branched side chains exhibits a decreased rate of nongeminate recombination and a lower fraction of sub-nanosecond geminate recombination. In turn the yield of long-lived charge carriers increases, resulting in a 33% increase in short circuit current (J sc). In parallel, the two polymers show distinct grazing incidence X-ray scattering spectra indicative of the presence of stacks with different orientation patterns in optimized thin-film BHJ devices. Independent of the packing pattern the spectroscopic data also reveals the existence of polymer aggregates in the pristine polymer films as well as in both blends which trap excitons and hinder their dissociation.

  8. Study of the Contributions of Donor and Acceptor Photoexcitations to Open Circuit Voltage in Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Yeboah

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the key parameters in determining the power conversion efficiency (PCE of bulk heterojunction (BHJ organic solar cells (OSCs is the open circuit voltage . The processes of exciting the donor and acceptor materials individually in a BHJ OSC are investigated and are found to produce two different expressions for . Using the contributions of electron and hole quasi-Fermi levels and charge carrier concentrations, the two different expressions are derived as functions of the energetics of the donor and acceptor materials and the photo-generated charge carrier concentrations, and calculated for a set of donor-acceptor blends. The simultaneous excitation of both the donor and acceptor materials is also considered and the corresponding , which is different from the above two, is derived. The calculated from the photoexcitation of the donor is found to be somewhat comparable with that obtained from the photoexcitation of the acceptor in most combinations of the donor and acceptor materials considered here. It is also found that the calculated from the simultaneous excitations of donor and acceptor in BHJ OSCs is also comparable with the other two . All three thus derived produce similar results and agree reasonably well with the measured values. All three depend linearly on the concentration of the photoexcited charge carriers and hence incident light intensity, which agrees with experimental results. The outcomes of this study are expected to help in finding materials that may produce higher and hence enhanced PCE in BHJ OSCs.

  9. Near infrared organic semiconducting materials for bulk heterojunction and dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Surya Prakash; Sharma, G D

    2014-06-01

    Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells have been the subject of intensive academic interest over the past two decades, and significant commercial effort has been directed towards this area with the vison of developing the next generation of low cost solar cells. Materials development has played a vital role in the dramatic improvement of both DSSC and BHJ solar cell performance in the recent years. Organic conjugated polymers and small molecules that absorb solar light in the visible and near infrared (NIR) regions represent a class of emering materials and show a great potential for the use of different optoelectronic devices such as DSSCs and BHJ solar cells. This account describes the emering class of near infrared (NIR) organic polymers and small molecules having donor and acceptors units, and explores their potential applications in the DSSCs and BHJ solar cells. Copyright © 2014 The Chemical Society of Japan and Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Photovoltaic activity of a PolyProDOT derivative in a bulk heterojunction solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Luis M. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and Exotic Materials Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1569 (United States); Mozer, Attila J.; Guenes, Serap; Winder, Christoph; Neugebauer, Helmut; Sariciftci, N. Serdar [Linz Institute for Organic Solar Cells (LIOS) Physical Chemistry, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Altenbergerstrasse 69, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Thompson, Barry C.; Reeves, Benjamin D.; Grenier, Christophe R.G.; Reynolds, John R. [The George and Josephine Butler Polymer Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry and Center for Macromolecular Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-7200 (United States)

    2006-12-15

    We report the photophysical behavior and photovoltaic performance of a poly(3,4-propylenedioxythiophene) (PProDOT) derivative, namely poly-[3,3-dihexyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-thieno(3,4-b)(1,4)dioxepine] (PProDOT(Hx){sub 2}), as an electron donor in bulk heterojunction solar cells blended with the acceptor 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)propyl-1-phenyl-[6,6]-methanofullerene (PCBM). Devices composed of a 1:4 (w:w) ratio of PProDOT(Hx){sub 2}/PCBM and spin coated from chlorobenzene were characterized by measuring current-voltage characteristics under simulated Air Mass 1.5 (AM1.5) conditions as well as the spectrally resolved photocurrent (IPCE). The influence of different preparation parameters like various blend ratios, spin coating from different solvents, and changing the metal contacts was studied. It was found that the photoluminescence of the polymer is quenched by a factor greater than 100 using blends consisting of PProDOT(Hx){sub 2} and PCBM (3:2, w:w). Additionally, the photoactive blends were characterized by photoinduced absorption spectroscopy and the results suggest that charge transfer is occurring from PProDOT(Hx){sub 2} to PCBM. Results from atomic force microscopy reveal that a bicontinuous network, with domain sizes on the order of 100-200nm, results when a 1:4 blend of PProDOT(Hx){sub 2}/PCBM is spin coated from chlorobenzene. (author)

  11. Mechanism of Degradation and Improvement of Stability on Mesogenic-Phthalocyanine-Based Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duy Dao, Quang; Hori, Tetsuro; Masuda, Tetsuya; Fukumura, Kaoru; Kamikado, Toshiya; Nekelson, Fabien; Fujii, Akihiko; Shimizu, Yo; Ozaki, Masanori

    2013-01-01

    The stability of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells utilizing the phthalocyanine derivative 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octahexylphthalocyanine (C6PcH2) and the fullerene derivative 1-(3-methoxy-carbonyl)-propyl-1-1-phenyl-(6,6)C61 has been studied. In the same environment, C6PcH2-based cells have shown higher stability than the cells fabricated using the conventional donor material poly(3-hexylthiophene). Furthermore, the degradation mechanisms of these solar cells have been investigated. It was found that the chemical bonds of two pyrrole aza nitrogens as well as the four mesobridging aza nitrogens with neighboring carbons in the C6PcH2 molecule were broken after irradiation with a solar simulator, which affected the device lifetime. To improve the stability, various buffer layers have been deposited between the counterelectrode and the active layer. Obviously, the C60 thin film and the oxidized layer play an important role as blocking layers that prevent the diffusion of metal atoms into the active layer, resulting in the higher stability.

  12. Bulk-heterojunction polymers in optically-induced dielectrophoretic devices for the manipulation of microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Lin, Yen-Heng; Guan, Ruei-Syuan; Wen, Ten-Chin; Guo, Tzung-Fang; Lee, Gwo-Bin

    2009-09-28

    This paper presents a decent polymer material for fabricating optically-induced dielectrophoretic (ODEP) devices, which can manipulate microparticles or cells by using moving light patterns. A thin film of a bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) polymer, a mixture of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) and [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester, is used as a light-activated layer. When illuminated by a projected light beam, the photo-induced charge carriers created by the electron transfer of excitons at a donor/acceptor interface in the BHJ layer, disturbs the uniformly-distributed electric field applied on the ODEP devices. A negative DEP force is then generated by virtual electrodes defined by the optical images from a computer-programmable projector to manipulate microparticles, thus providing a functionalized platform for particle manipulation. The effect of the polymer thickness and composition on the magnitude of the generated DEP force has been extensively investigated. The maximum particle drag velocity and the force applied on 20.0 mum diameter polystyrene beads are measured to be approximately 202.2 mum/s and 38.2 pN, respectively, for a device with a 497.3-nm thick BHJ layer. The lifetime of the developed device is also explored (~5 hours), which is sufficient for applications of disposable ODEP devices. Therefore, the BHJ polymer may provide a promising candidate for future ODEP devices capable of nanoparticle and cell manipulation.

  13. Comparative Visual Analysis of Structure-Performance Relations in Complex Bulk-Heterojunction Morphologies

    KAUST Repository

    Aboulhassan, A.

    2017-07-04

    The structure of Bulk-Heterojunction (BHJ) materials, the main component of organic photovoltaic solar cells, is very complex, and the relationship between structure and performance is still largely an open question. Overall, there is a wide spectrum of fabrication configurations resulting in different BHJ morphologies and correspondingly different performances. Current state-of-the-art methods for assessing the performance of BHJ morphologies are either based on global quantification of morphological features or simply on visual inspection of the morphology based on experimental imaging. This makes finding optimal BHJ structures very challenging. Moreover, finding the optimal fabrication parameters to get an optimal structure is still an open question. In this paper, we propose a visual analysis framework to help answer these questions through comparative visualization and parameter space exploration for local morphology features. With our approach, we enable scientists to explore multivariate correlations between local features and performance indicators of BHJ morphologies. Our framework is built on shape-based clustering of local cubical regions of the morphology that we call patches. This enables correlating the features of clusters with intuition-based performance indicators computed from geometrical and topological features of charge paths.

  14. Efficient bulk-loading of gridfiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutenegger, Scott T.; Nicol, David M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of bulk-loading large data sets for the gridfile multiattribute indexing technique. We propose a rectilinear partitioning algorithm that heuristically seeks to minimize the size of the gridfile needed to ensure no bucket overflows. Empirical studies on both synthetic data sets and on data sets drawn from computational fluid dynamics applications demonstrate that our algorithm is very efficient, and is able to handle large data sets. In addition, we present an algorithm for bulk-loading data sets too large to fit in main memory. Utilizing a sort of the entire data set it creates a gridfile without incurring any overflows.

  15. Compositional dependence of the open-circuit voltage in ternary blend bulk heterojunction solar cells based on two donor polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlyabich, Petr P; Burkhart, Beate; Thompson, Barry C

    2012-06-06

    Ternary blend bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells containing as donor polymers two P3HT analogues, high-band-gap poly(3-hexylthiophene-co-3-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophene) (P3HT(75)-co-EHT(25)) and low-band-gap poly(3-hexylthiophene-thiophene-diketopyrrolopyrrole) (P3HTT-DPP-10%), with phenyl-C(61)-butyric acid methyl ester (PC(61)BM) as an acceptor were studied. When the ratio of the three components was varied, the open-circuit voltage (V(oc)) increased as the amount of P3HT(75)-co-EHT(25) increased. The dependence of V(oc) on the polymer composition for the ternary blend regime was linear when the overall polymer:fullerene ratio was optimized for each polymer:polymer ratio. Also, the short-circuit current densities (J(sc)) for the ternary blends were bettter than those of the binary blends because of complementary polymer absorption, as verified using external quantum efficiency measurements. High fill factors (FF) (>0.59) were achieved in all cases and are attributed to high charge-carrier mobilities in the ternary blends. As a result of the intermediate V(oc), increased J(sc) and high FF, the ternary blend BHJ solar cells showed power conversion efficiencies of up to 5.51%, exceeding those of the corresponding binary blends (3.16 and 5.07%). Importantly, this work shows that upon optimization of the overall polymer:fullerene ratio at each polymer:polymer ratio, high FF, regular variations in V(oc), and enhanced J(sc) are possible throughout the ternary blend composition regime. This adds to the growing evidence that the use of ternary blends is a general and effective strategy for producing efficient organic photovoltaics manufactured in a single active-layer processing step.

  16. Graphene nanoplatelets doping of P3HT:PCBM photoactive layer of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells for enhancing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aissa, Brahim; Nedil, Mourad; Kroeger, Jens; Ali, Adnan; Isaifan, Rima J; Essehli, Rachid; Mahmoud, Khaled

    2018-01-09

    Hybrid organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells based on conjugated polymers photoactive materials are promising candidates for flexible, high-performance and low-cost energy sources owing to their inexpensive materials, cost-effective processing, and ease of fabrication by simple solution processes. However, the modest PV performance obtained to date -in particular the low power conversion efficiency (PCE)- has impeded the large scale deployment of OPV cells. The low PCE in OPV solar cells has been mainly attributed to low carrier mobility, which is closely correlated to the transport diffusion length of the charge carriers within the photoactive layers. The 2D graphene material can be an excellent candidate for assisting the charge transport improvement in the active layer of OPV cells due to its huge carrier mobility, thermal and chemical stability, and its compatibility with the solution process. In this work, we report on the improvement of optoelectronic properties and photovoltaic performance of graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) doped P3HT:PCBM photoactive blended layers, integrated into a bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic photovoltaic based device, using PEDOT:PSS on ITO/glass substrate. First, the light absorption capacity was observed to increase with respect to the GNP contents while the photoluminescence showed a clear quenching, indicating electrons transfer between the graphene sheets and the polymeric matrix. Then, the incorporation of GNP into the BHJ active layer has resulted in enhanced PV performance with respect to a reference cell, and the best PV performances were obtained with 3 wt. % of GNP loading, with an open-circuit voltage of 1.24 V, a short-circuit current density value of 6.18 mA/cm2, a fill factor of 47.12 %, and a power conversion efficiency of about 3.61 %. We believe that the obtained results contribute to the development of organic photovoltaic devices and to the understanding of the impact of sp2-bonded carbon therein. © 2018 IOP Publishing

  17. Graphene nanoplatelet doping of P3HT:PCBM photoactive layer of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells for enhancing performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aïssa, Brahim; Nedil, Mourad; Kroeger, Jens; Ali, Adnan; Isaifan, Rima J.; Essehli, Rachid; Mahmoud, Khaled A.

    2018-03-01

    Hybrid organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells based on conjugated polymer photoactive materials are promising candidates for flexible, high-performance and low-cost energy sources owing to their inexpensive materials, cost-effective processing and ease of fabrication by simple solution processes. However, the modest PV performance obtained to date—in particular the low power conversion efficiency (PCE)—has impeded the large scale deployment of OPV cells. The low PCE in OPV solar cells is mainly attributed to the low carrier mobility, which is closely correlated to the transport diffusion length of the charge carriers within the photoactive layers. The 2D graphene material could be an excellent candidate for assisting charge transport improvement in the active layer of OPV cells, due to its huge carrier mobility, thermal and chemical stability, and its compatibility with the solution process. In this work, we report on the improvement of the optoelectronic properties and photovoltaic performance of graphene nanoplatelet (GNP)-doped P3HT:PCBM photoactive blended layers, integrated into a bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic-photovoltaic-based device, using PEDOT:PSS on an ITO/glass substrate. First, the light absorption capacity was observed to increase with respect to the GNP content, while the photoluminescence showed clear quenching, indicating electron transfer between the graphene sheets and the polymeric matrix. Then, the incorporation of GNP into the BHJ active layer resulted in enhanced PV performance with respect to the reference cell, and the best PV performance was obtained with 3 wt.% of GNP loading, with an open-circuit voltage of 1.24 V, a short-circuit current density value of 6.18 mA cm-2, a fill factor of 47.12%, and a power conversion efficiency of about 3.61%. We believe that the obtained results contribute to the development of organic photovoltaic devices and to the understanding of the impact of sp2-bonded carbon therein.

  18. Biomolecule-assisted synthesis of carbon nitride and sulfur-doped carbon nitride heterojunction nanosheets: An efficient heterojunction photocatalyst for photoelectrochemical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Bing Tao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A biomolecule-assisted pyrolysis method has been developed to synthesize sulfur-doped graphitic carbon nitride (CNS nanosheets. During the synthesis, sulfur could be introduced as a dopant into the lattice of carbon nitride (CN. Sulfur doping changed the texture as well as relative band positions of CN. By growing CN on preformed sulfur-doped CN nanosheets, composite CN/CNS heterojunction nanosheets were constructed, which significantly enhanced the photoelectrochemical performance as compared with various control counterparts including CN, CNS and physically mixed CN and CNS (CN+CNS. The enhanced photoelectrochemical performance of CN/CNS heterojunction nanosheets could be ascribed to the efficient separation of photoexcited charge carriers across the heterojunction interface. The strategy of designing and preparing CN/CNS heterojunction photocatalysts in this work can open up new directions for the construction of all CN-based heterojunction photocatalysts.

  19. Designing novel thin film polycrystalline solar cells for high efficiency: sandwich CIGS and heterojunction perovskite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianyue; Chen, Jiewei; Wu, Gaoxiang; Song, Dandan; Li, Meicheng

    2017-01-01

    Heterojunction and sandwich architectures are two new-type structures with great potential for solar cells. Specifically, the heterojunction structure possesses the advantages of efficient charge separation but suffers from band offset and large interface recombination; the sandwich configuration is favorable for transferring carriers but requires complex fabrication process. Here, we have designed two thin-film polycrystalline solar cells with novel structures: sandwich CIGS and heterojunction perovskite, referring to the advantages of the architectures of sandwich perovskite (standard) and heterojunction CIGS (standard) solar cells, respectively. A reliable simulation software wxAMPS is used to investigate their inherent characteristics with variation of the thickness and doping density of absorber layer. The results reveal that sandwich CIGS solar cell is able to exhibit an optimized efficiency of 20.7%, which is much higher than the standard heterojunction CIGS structure (18.48%). The heterojunction perovskite solar cell can be more efficient employing thick and doped perovskite films (16.9%) than these typically utilizing thin and weak-doping/intrinsic perovskite films (9.6%). This concept of structure modulation proves to be useful and can be applicable for other solar cells. Project supported by the National High-Tech R&D Program of China (No. 2015AA034601), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 91333122, 61204064, 51202067, 51372082, 51402106, 11504107), the Ph.D. Programs Foundation of Ministry of Education of China (Nos. 20120036120006, 20130036110012), the Par-Eu Scholars Program, and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities.

  20. Schottky diodes between Bi2S3 nanorods and metal nanoparticles in a polymer matrix as hybrid bulk-heterojunction solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, Sudip K.; Pal, Amlan J.

    2015-01-01

    We report the use of metal-semiconductor Schottky junctions in a conjugated polymer matrix as solar cells. The Schottky diodes, which were formed between Bi 2 S 3 nanorods and gold nanoparticles, efficiently dissociated photogenerated excitons. The bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) devices based on such metal-semiconductor Schottky diodes in a polymer matrix therefore acted as an efficient solar cell as compared to the devices based on only the semiconductor nanorods in the polymer matrix or when gold nanoparticles were added separately to the BHJs. In the latter device, gold nanoparticles offered plasmonic enhancement due to an increased cross-section of optical absorption. We report growth and characteristics of the Schottky junctions formed through an intimate contact between Bi 2 S 3 nanorods and gold nanoparticles. We also report fabrication and characterization of BHJ solar cells based on such heterojunctions. We highlight the benefit of using metal-semiconductor Schottky diodes over only inorganic semiconductor nanorods or quantum dots in a polymer matrix in forming hybrid BHJ solar cells

  1. Insights into the Morphological Instability of Bulk Heterojunction PTB7-Th/PCBM Solar Cells upon High-Temperature Aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Yen-Ju; Huang, Yu-Ching; Liu, Wei-Shin; Su, Yu-An; Tsao, Cheng-Si; Rwei, Syang-Peng; Wang, Leeyih

    2017-04-18

    The impact of the morphological stability of the donor/acceptor mixture under thermal stress on the photovoltaic properties of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells based on the poly[4,8-bis(5-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophen-2-yl)benzo[1,2-b;4,5-b']-di-thiophene-2,6-diyl-alt-(4-(2 ethylhexyl)-3-fluorothieno[3,4-b]-thiophene)-2-carboxylate-2,6-diyl]/phenyl-C61-butyric acid methylester (PTB7-Th/PC61BM) blend is extensively investigated. Both optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy micrographs show that long-term high-temperature aging stimulates the formation of microscale clusters, the size of which, however, is about 1 order of magnitude smaller than those observed in thermally annealed poly(3hexylthiophene)/PC61BM composite film. The multilength-scale evolution of the morphology of PTB7-Th/PC61BM film from the scattering profiles of grazing incidence small-angle and wide-angle X-ray scattering indicates the PC61BM molecules spatially confine the self-organization of polymer chains into large domains during cast drying and upon thermal activation. Moreover, some PC61BM molecules accumulate into ~30-40 nm clusters, the number of which increases with heating time. Therefore, the hole mobility in the active layer decays much more rapidly than the electron mobility, leading to unbalanced charge transport and degraded cell performance. Importantly, the three-component blend that is formed by replacing a small amount of PC61BM in the active layer with the bis-adduct of PC61BM (bis-P61M) exhibits robust morphology against thermal stress. Accordingly, the PTB7-Th/PC61BM:bis-PC61BM (8 wt %) device has an extremely stable power conversion efficiency.

  2. Influence of polymer compatibility on the open-circuit voltage in ternary blend bulk heterojunction solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlyabich, Petr P; Rudenko, Andrey E; Street, Robert A; Thompson, Barry C

    2014-07-09

    The evolution of the open-circuit voltage (Voc) with composition in ternary blend bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells is correlated with the miscibility of the polymers. Ternary blends based on poly[N-9'-heptadecanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4',7'-di-2-thienyl-2',1',3'-benzothiadiazole)] (PCDTBT) and poly(3-hexylthiophene-thiophene-diketopyrrolopyrrole) (P3HTT-DPP-10%) with phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) acceptor were investigated. The Voc is pinned to the lower value of the P3HTT-DPP-10%:PC61BM binary blend even up to 95% PCDTBT in the polymer fraction. This is in stark contrast to the previously investigated system based on P3HTT-DPP-10%, poly(3-hexylthiophene-co-3-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophene) (P3HT75-co-EHT25), and PC61BM, where the Voc varied regularly across the full composition range, as explained by an organic alloy model, implying strong physical and electronic interaction between the polymers. Photocurrent spectral response (PSR) and external quantum efficiency (EQE) measurements indicate that the present system does not exhibit the hallmarks of alloy formation. Measured values of the surface energies of the polymers support miscibility of P3HTT-DPP-10% with P3HT75-co-EHT25 but not with PCDTBT. Surface energy is proposed as a figure of merit for predicting alloy formation and compositional dependence of the Voc in ternary blend solar cells and miscibility between polymers is proposed as a necessary attribute for polymer pairs that will display alloy behavior.

  3. In situ morphology studies of the mechanism for solution additive effects on the formation of bulk heterojunction films

    KAUST Repository

    Richter, Lee J.

    2014-09-29

    The most successful active film morphology in organic photovoltaics is the bulk heterojunction (BHJ). The performance of a BHJ arises from a complex interplay of the spatial organization of the segregated donor and acceptor phases and the local order/quality of the respective phases. These critical morphological features develop dynamically during film formation, and it has become common practice to control them by the introduction of processing additives. Here, in situ grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) and grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) studies of the development of order in BHJ films formed from the donor polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) and acceptor phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester under the influence of two common additives, 1,8-octanedithiol and 1-chloronaphthalene, are reported. By comparing optical aggregation to crystallization and using GISAXS to determine the number and nature of phases present during drying, two common mechanisms by which the additives increase P3HT crystallinity are identified. Additives accelerate the appearance of pre-crystalline nuclei by controlling solvent quality and allow for extended crystal growth by delaying the onset of PCBM-induced vitrification. The glass transition effects vary system-to-system and may be correlated to the number and composition of phases present during drying. Synchrotron X-ray scattering measurements of nanoscale structure evolution during the drying of polymer-fullerene photovoltaic films are described. Changes in the number and nature of phases, as well as the order within them, reveals the mechanisms by which formulation additives promote structural characteristics leading to higher power conversion efficiencies.

  4. Self-Organization Schemes towards Thermodynamic Stable Bulk Heterojunction Morphologies: A Perspective on Future Fabrication Strategies of Polymer Photovoltaic Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Benmouna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Research efforts to improve our understanding of electronic polymers are developing fast because of their promising advantages over silicon in photovoltaic solar cells. A major challenge in the development of polymer photovoltaic devices is the viable fabrication strategies of stable bulk heterojunction architecture that will retain functionality during the expected lifetime of the device. Block copolymer self-assembly strategies have attracted particular attention as a scalable means toward thermodynamically stable microstructures that combine the ideal geometrical characteristics of a bulk heterojunction with the fortuitous combination of properties of the constituent blocks. Two primary routes that have been proposed in the literature involve the coassembly of block copolymers in which one domain is a hole conductor with the electron-conducting filler (such as fullerene derivatives or the self-assembly of block copolymers in which the respective blocks function as hole and electron conductor. Either way has proven difficult because of the combination of synthetic challenges as well as the missing understanding of the complex governing parameters that control structure formation in semiconducting block copolymer blends. This paper summarizes important findings relating to structure formation of block copolymer and block copolymer/nanoparticle blend assembly that should provide a foundation for the future design of block copolymer-based photovoltaic systems.

  5. Laterally Ordered Bulk Heterojunction of Conjugated Polymers : Nanoskiving a Jelly Roll

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lipomi, Darren J.; Chiechi, Ryan C.; Reus, William F.; Whitesides, George M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the fabrication of a nanostructured heterojunction of two conjugated polymers by a three-step process: i) spin-coating a multilayered film of the two polymers, ii) rolling the film into a cylinder (a ‘‘jelly roll’’) and iii) sectioning the film perpendicular to the axis of the

  6. Bulk heterojunction PCPDTBT:PC71BM organic solar cells deposited by emulsion-based, resonant infrared matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Wangyao; McCormick, Ryan D.; Nyikayaramba, Gift; Stiff-Roberts, Adrienne D.

    2014-06-01

    Organic solar cells based on poly[2,6-(4,4-bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b;3,4-b']dithiophene)-alt-4,7-(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)] (PCPDTBT) and [6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) were fabricated by emulsion-based, resonant infrared matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (RIR-MAPLE). Two different deposition modes, namely simultaneous deposition and sequential deposition, were investigated for fabricating bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells. This work demonstrates that the RIR-MAPLE sequential deposition mode provides precise ratio control for the fabrication of bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells.

  7. Solution-processed all-oxide bulk heterojunction solar cells based on CuO nanaorod array and TiO2nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fan; Qiao, Qiquan; Bahrami, Behzad; Chen, Ke; Pathak, Rajesh; Tong, Yanhua; Li, Xiaoyi; Zhang, Tiansheng; Jian, Ronghua

    2018-05-25

    We present a method to synthesize CuO nanorod array/TiO 2 nanocrystals bulk heterojunction (BHJ) on fluorine-tin-oxide (FTO) glass, in which single-crystalline p-type semiconductor of the CuO nanorod array is grown on the FTO glass by hydrothermal reaction and the n-type semiconductor of the TiO 2 precursor is filled into the CuO nanorods to form well-organized nano-interpenetrating BHJ after air annealing. The interface charge transfer in CuO nanorod array/TiO 2 heterojunction is studied by Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). KPFM results demonstrate that the CuO nanorod array/TiO 2 heterojunction can realize the transfer of photo-generated electrons from the CuO nanorod array to TiO 2 . In this work, a solar cell with the structure FTO/CuO nanoarray/TiO 2 /Al is successfully fabricated, which exhibits an open-circuit voltage (V oc ) of 0.20 V and short-circuit current density (J sc ) of 0.026 mA cm -2 under AM 1.5 illumination. KPFM studies indicate that the very low performance is caused by an undesirable interface charge transfer. The interfacial surface potential (SP) shows that the electron concentration in the CuO nanorod array changes considerably after illumination due to increased photo-generated electrons, but the change in the electron concentration in TiO 2 is much less than in CuO, which indicates that the injection efficiency of the photo-generated electrons from CuO to TiO 2 is not satisfactory, resulting in an undesirable J sc in the solar cell. The interface photovoltage from the KPFM measurement shows that the low V oc results from the small interfacial SP difference between CuO and TiO 2 because the low injected electron concentration cannot raise the Fermi level significantly in TiO 2 . This conclusion agrees with the measured work function results under illumination. Hence, improvement of the interfacial electron injection is primary for the CuO nanorod array/TiO 2 heterojunction solar cells.

  8. Solution-processed all-oxide bulk heterojunction solar cells based on CuO nanaorod array and TiO2 nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fan; Qiao, Qiquan; Bahrami, Behzad; Chen, Ke; Pathak, Rajesh; Tong, Yanhua; Li, Xiaoyi; Zhang, Tiansheng; Jian, Ronghua

    2018-05-01

    We present a method to synthesize CuO nanorod array/TiO2 nanocrystals bulk heterojunction (BHJ) on fluorine-tin-oxide (FTO) glass, in which single-crystalline p-type semiconductor of the CuO nanorod array is grown on the FTO glass by hydrothermal reaction and the n-type semiconductor of the TiO2 precursor is filled into the CuO nanorods to form well-organized nano-interpenetrating BHJ after air annealing. The interface charge transfer in CuO nanorod array/TiO2 heterojunction is studied by Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). KPFM results demonstrate that the CuO nanorod array/TiO2 heterojunction can realize the transfer of photo-generated electrons from the CuO nanorod array to TiO2. In this work, a solar cell with the structure FTO/CuO nanoarray/TiO2/Al is successfully fabricated, which exhibits an open-circuit voltage (V oc) of 0.20 V and short-circuit current density (J sc) of 0.026 mA cm‑2 under AM 1.5 illumination. KPFM studies indicate that the very low performance is caused by an undesirable interface charge transfer. The interfacial surface potential (SP) shows that the electron concentration in the CuO nanorod array changes considerably after illumination due to increased photo-generated electrons, but the change in the electron concentration in TiO2 is much less than in CuO, which indicates that the injection efficiency of the photo-generated electrons from CuO to TiO2 is not satisfactory, resulting in an undesirable J sc in the solar cell. The interface photovoltage from the KPFM measurement shows that the low V oc results from the small interfacial SP difference between CuO and TiO2 because the low injected electron concentration cannot raise the Fermi level significantly in TiO2. This conclusion agrees with the measured work function results under illumination. Hence, improvement of the interfacial electron injection is primary for the CuO nanorod array/TiO2 heterojunction solar cells.

  9. Synergistic Impact of Solvent and Polymer Additives on the Film Formation of Small Molecule Blend Films for Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    McDowell, Caitlin

    2015-07-14

    The addition of polystyrene (PS), a typical insulator, is empirically shown to increase the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of a solution-deposited bulk heterojunction (BHJ) molecular blend film used in solar cell fabrication: p-DTS(FBTTh2)2/PC71BM. The performance is further improved by small quantities of diiodooctane (DIO), an established solvent additive. In this study, how the addition of PS and DIO affects the film formation of this bulk heterojunction blend film are probed via in situ monitoring of absorbance, thickness, and crystallinity. PS and DIO additives are shown to promote donor crystallite formation on different time scales and through different mechanisms. PS-containing films retain chlorobenzene solvent, extending evaporation time and promoting phase separation earlier in the casting process. This extended time is insufficient to attain the morphology for optimal PCE results before the film sets. Here is where the presence of DIO comes into play: its low vapor pressure further extends the time scale of film evolution and allows for crystalline rearrangement of the donor phase long after casting, ultimately leading to the best BHJ organization. In situ measurement shows that polystyrene (PS) and diiodooctane (DIO) additives promote donor crystallite formation synergistically, on different time scales, and through different mechanisms. PS-rich films retain solvent, promoting phase separation early in the casting process. Meanwhile, the low vapor pressure of DIO extends the time scale of film evolution and allows for crystalline rearrangement of the donor phase after casting. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Influence of the isomeric composition of the acceptor on the performance of organic bulk heterojunction P3HT:bis-PCBM solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwer, R.K.M.; Wetzelaer, G.-J.A.H.; Blom, P.W.M.; Hummelen, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    We synthesized three isomeric subpopulations of bisadduct analogues of [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (bis-PCBM) via tether-directed control. Bulk heterojunction solar cells prepared using these isomers together with poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) resulted in an increase of Jsc from 72.4

  11. Electronic properties of Mn-phthalocyanine–C60 bulk heterojunctions: Combining photoemission and electron energy-loss spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, Friedrich; Herzig, Melanie; Knupfer, Martin; Lupulescu, Cosmin; Darlatt, Erik; Gottwald, Alexander; Eberhardt, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    The electronic properties of co-evaporated mixtures (blends) of manganese phthalocyanine and the fullerene C 60 (MnPc:C 60 ) have been studied as a function of the concentration of the two constituents using two supplementary electron spectroscopic methods, photoemission spectroscopy (PES) and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) in transmission. Our PES measurements provide a detailed picture of the electronic structure measured with different excitation energies as well as different mixing ratios between MnPc and C 60 . Besides a relative energy shift, the occupied electronic states of the two materials remain essentially unchanged. The observed energy level alignment is different compared to that of the related CuPc:C 60 bulk heterojunction. Moreover, the results from our EELS investigations show that, despite the rather small interface interaction, the MnPc related electronic excitation spectrum changes significantly by admixing C 60 to MnPc thin films

  12. A new terthiophene-thienopyrrolodione copolymer-based bulk heterojunction solar cell with high open-circuit voltage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Jang; Leong, Wei Lin; Yuen, Jonathan D.; Moon, Ji Sun; Heeger, Alan J. [Center for Polymers and Organic Solids, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-5090 (United States); Pron, Agnieszka; Berrouard, Philippe; Leclerc, Mario [Department of Chemistry, Universite Laval, Quebec City, QC, G1V 0A6 (Canada)

    2012-11-15

    A new semiconducting polymer based on terthiophene-thienopyrrolodione alternating building blocks with a deep HOMO energy level (5.66 eV) is presented. The polymer is prepared by a direct heteroarylation polycondensation reaction, which is a low-cost and green alternative to the standard Stille coupling reaction and thus avoids any use of toxic stannyl derivatives. Integrating the polymer into bulk heterojunction solar cells with [6,6]-phenyl C71-butyric acid methyl ester ([70]PCBM) leads to a PCE of over 6% and a high open-circuit voltage of up to 0.94 V. To obtain these results a unique processing additive, 1-chloronaphthalene, is used, and a relatively low concentration of [70]PCBM is used in the blend solution. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Thickness and concentration effect of P3HT in P3HT:graphene nanocomposites based bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, Nur Shakina Mohd; Saad, Puteri Sarah Mohamad; Affendi, Irma Hidayanti Halim; Mahmood, Mohamad Rusop; Shariffudin, Shafinaz Sobihana

    2016-07-01

    There has been an increasing interest towards organic solar cells after the discovery of conjugated polymer and bulk-heterojunction concept. Eventhough organic solar cells are less expensive than inorganic solar cells but the power conversion energy is still considered low. The main objective of this research is to investigate the effect of the P3HT's thickness and concentration towards the efficiency of the P3HT:Graphene solar cells. A simulation software that is specialize for photovoltaic called SCAPS is used in this research to simulate the effect on the solar cells. The solar cell's structure will be drawn inside the simulation and the parameters for each layers is inserted. The result such as the open circuit voltage (Voc), short circuit current density (Jsc), fill factor (FF) and efficiency (η) will be calculated by the software and all the results will be put into one graph. P3HT's thickness of 100 nm and concentration of 1×1016 cm-3 has the best overall results with an open circuit voltage (Voc) of 4.55 V, short circuit current density (Jsc) of 16.76 mA/cm2, fill factor (FF) of 19.70 % and efficiency (η) about 15.03 %. The conclusions from the results is that the thicker the active layer and the more higher the concentration, the higher the efficiency of the solar cells.

  14. Electrical and optical modeling of poly(3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester P3HT-PCBM bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brioua, Fathi; Remram, Mohamed; Nechache, Riad; Bourouina, Hicham

    2017-11-01

    In this work, we investigate a two-dimensional theoretical model for the photon conversion through an integration of the optical and electrical part of multilayer system in a bulk heterojunction solar cell based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)/6,6-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) blend. The optical properties of the studied structure ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM/Ca/Al, such as the exciton generation rate and the electrical field distribution, are predicted at vicinity of the active layer and have been used to solve Poisson and continuity, drift-diffusion equations of the electrical model which characterize the electrical behavior of semiconductor device using finite element method (FEM). The electrical parameters such as power conversion efficiency (PCE), open voltage circuit ( V oc), short-circuit current density ( J sc) and fill factor (FF) are extracted from the current-voltage (J-V) characteristics under illumination and in dark conditions. Highest external quantum efficiency (IPCE), up to 60%, is obtained around 520 nm, while a power conversion efficiency (PCE) value of 3.62% is found to be in good agreement with the literature results. Integration of such theoretical approach into technological applications dealing with optoelectrical material performance will rapidly provide to the user accurate data outputs required for efficient validation of proof-of-concepts.

  15. Additive-Morphology Interplay and Loss Channels in “All-Small-Molecule” Bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) Solar Cells with the Nonfullerene Acceptor IDTTBM

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Ru-Ze

    2017-12-16

    Achieving efficient bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells from blends of solution-processable small-molecule (SM) donors and acceptors is proved particularly challenging due to the complexity in obtaining a favorable donor–acceptor morphology. In this report, the BHJ device performance pattern of a set of analogous, well-defined SM donors—DR3TBDTT (DR3), SMPV1, and BTR—used in conjunction with the SM acceptor IDTTBM is examined. Examinations show that the nonfullerene “All-SM” BHJ solar cells made with DR3 and IDTTBM can achieve power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of up to ≈4.5% (avg. 4.0%) when the solution-processing additive 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO, 0.8% v/v) is used in the blend solutions. The figures of merit of optimized DR3:IDTTBM solar cells contrast with those of “as-cast” BHJ devices from which only modest PCEs <1% can be achieved. Combining electron energy loss spectrum analyses in scanning transmission electron microscopy mode, carrier transport measurements via “metal-insulator-semiconductor carrier extraction” methods, and systematic recombination examinations by light-dependence and transient photocurrent analyses, it is shown that DIO plays a determining role—establishing a favorable lengthscale for the phase-separated SM donor–acceptor network and, in turn, improving the balance in hole/electron mobilities and the carrier collection efficiencies overall.

  16. A new strategy to engineer polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells with thick active layers via self-assembly of the tertiary columnar phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongfei; Yang, Zhenhua; Pan, Cheng; Jiang, Naisheng; Satija, Sushil K; Xu, Di; Gersappe, Dilip; Nam, Chang-Yong; Rafailovich, Miriam H

    2017-08-17

    We report that the addition of a non-photoactive tertiary polymer phase in the binary bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cell leads to a self-assembled columnar nanostructure, enhancing the charge mobilities and photovoltaic efficiency with surprisingly increased optimal active blend thicknesses over 300 nm, 3-4 times larger than that of the binary counterpart. Using the prototypical poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):fullerene blend as a model BHJ system, we discover that the inert poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) added in the binary BHJ blend self-assembles into vertical columns, which not only template the phase segregation of electron acceptor fullerenes but also induce the out-of-plane rotation of the edge-on-orientated crystalline P3HT phase. Using complementary interrogation methods including neutron reflectivity, X-ray scattering, atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and molecular dynamics simulations, we show that the enhanced charge transport originates from the more randomized molecular stacking of the P3HT phase and the spontaneous segregation of fullerenes at the P3HT/PMMA interface, driven by the high surface tension between the two polymeric components. The results demonstrate a potential method for increasing the thicknesses of high-performance polymer BHJ solar cells with improved photovoltaic efficiency, alleviating the burden of stringently controlling the ultrathin blend thickness during the roll-to-roll-type large-area manufacturing environment.

  17. Enhanced planar perovskite solar cell efficiency and stability using a perovskite/PCBM heterojunction formed in one step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Long; Chang, Jingjing; Liu, Ziye; Sun, Xu; Lin, Zhenhua; Chen, Dazheng; Zhang, Chunfu; Zhang, Jincheng; Hao, Yue

    2018-02-08

    Perovskite/PCBM heterojunctions are efficient for fabricating perovskite solar cells with high performance and long-term stability. In this study, an efficient perovskite/PCBM heterojunction was formed via conventional sequential deposition and one-step formation processes. Compared with conventional deposition, the one-step process was more facile, and produced a perovskite thin film of substantially improved quality due to fullerene passivation. Moreover, the resulting perovskite/PCBM heterojunction exhibited more efficient carrier transfer and extraction, and reduced carrier recombination. The perovskite solar cell device based on one-step perovskite/PCBM heterojunction formation exhibited a higher maximum PCE of 17.8% compared with that from the conventional method (13.7%). The device also showed exceptional stability, retaining 83% of initial PCE after 60 days of storage under ambient conditions.

  18. Investigation of donor-acceptor copolymer films and their blends with fullerene in the active layers of bulk heterojunction solar cells by Raman microspectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cimrová, Věra; Morávková, Zuzana; Pokorná, Veronika; Výprachtický, Drahomír

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 47, August (2017), s. 194-199 ISSN 1566-1199 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-26542S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : conjugated polymers * low-band gap * bulk heterojunction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 3.399, year: 2016

  19. Hybrid bulk heterojunction solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) and ZnO nanoparticles modified by side-chain functional polythiophenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Fan; Du, Yanhui; Chen, Yiwang

    2012-01-01

    We report the investigation of the hybrid bulk heterojunction solar cells based on the blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and ZnO nanoparticles modified by side-chain thiol functional poly(3-thiophenehexanethiol) (P3HT-SH). Grafting of P3HT-SH onto ZnO nanoparticles can promote the dispersion of ZnO nanoparticles within P3HT matrix and facilitate electron injection process into ZnO nanoparticles, resulting in a more efficient photoinduced charge transfer than that in simple physical mixture of P3HT and non-modified ZnO nanoparticles (P3HT/ZnO). Furthermore, the performance of hybrid photovoltaic device based on P3HT/P3HT-SH-modified ZnO blend exhibits an improved device efficiency compared with P3HT/ZnO even before thermal treatment. After being annealed at 80 °C, the P3HT/P3HT-SH-modified ZnO device shows the power conversion efficiency as high as 0.68%, with the short-circuit current density of 1.89 mA/cm 2 , the open-circuit voltage of 0.599 V and a fill factor of 60.5% under AM 1.5 G illumination with 100 mW/cm 2 light intensity. - Highlights: ► Hybrid solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) and modified ZnO nanoparticles ► ZnO nanoparticles modified by side-chain functional polythiophenes ► Uniform dispersion and intimate contact between polymers and nanoparticles ► Efficient charge transfer leading to the improvement of device efficiency

  20. Pronounced Cosolvent Effects in Polymer:Polymer Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells with Sulfur-Rich Electron-Donating and Imide-Containing Electron-Accepting Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Sungho; Woo, Sungho; Seo, Jooyeok; Kim, Wook Hyun; Kim, Hwajeong; McNeill, Christopher R; Shin, Tae Joo; Bradley, Donal D C; Kim, Youngkyoo

    2015-07-29

    The performance of solar cells with a polymer:polymer bulk heterojunction (BHJ) structure, consisting of poly[4,8-bis(5-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophen-2-yl)benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-alt-3-fluorothieno[3,4-b]thiophene-2-carboxylate] (PTB7-Th) donor and poly[[N,N'-bis(2-octyldodecyl)-naphthalene-1,4,5,8-bis(dicarboximide)-2,6-diyl]-alt-5,5'-(2,2'-bithiophene)] (P(NDI2OD-T2)) acceptor polymers, was investigated as a function of cosolvent (p-xylene:chlorobenzene (pXL:CB)) composition ratio. A remarkable efficiency improvement (∼38%) was achieved by spin-coating the photoactive blend layer from pXL:CB = 80:20 (volume) rather than pXL alone, but the efficiency then decreased when the CB content increased further to pXL:CB = 60:40. The improved efficiency was correlated with a particular PTB7-Th:P(NDI2OD-T2) donor-acceptor blend nanostructure, evidenced by a fiber-like surface morphology, a red-shifted optical absorption, and enhanced PL quenching. Further device optimization for pXL:CB = 80:20 films yielded a power conversion efficiency of ∼5.4%. However, these devices showed very poor stability (∼15 min for a 50% reduction in initial efficiency), owing specifically to degradation of the PTB7-Th donor-component. Replacing PTB7-Th with a more stable donor polymer will be essential for any application potential to be realized.

  1. Optimization of the bulk heterojunction composition for enhanced photovoltaic properties: correlation between the molecular weight of the semiconducting polymer and device performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolet, Célia; Deribew, Dargie; Renaud, Cedric; Fleury, Guillaume; Brochon, Cyril; Cloutet, Eric; Vignau, Laurence; Wantz, Guillaume; Cramail, Henri; Geoghegan, Mark; Hadziioannou, Georges

    2011-11-10

    Herein we propose an approach toward the optimization of the photovoltaic performance of bulk heterojunctions by tuning the composition of the active layer with respect to the molecular weight of the semiconducting polymer. We used a poly(3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) blend as a typical system and varied the molecular weight of the P3HT semiconducting polymer in order to determine its influence on the bulk heterojunction morphology as well as on the optoelectronic characteristics of the device. We have systematically mapped out the phase diagram for different molecular weight P3HTs blended with PCBM and observed the presence of a eutectic composition, which shifts to higher content of P3HT for lower molecular weight P3HTs. This shift inherent to the P3HT molecular weight is also apparent in the photovoltaic performance as the eutectic composition corresponds to the best of the photovoltaic properties. The P3HT molecular weight dependence of the eutectic composition is due to the molecular weight dependence of the P3HT crystallization behavior, which leads to dramatic morphological changes of the bulk heterojunction.

  2. Exploitation of inimitable properties of CuInS2 quantum dots for energy conversion in bulk heterojunction hybrid solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindal, Shikha; Giripunje, Sushama M.

    2017-11-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) are the suitable material for solar cell devices owing to its distinctive optical, electrical and electronic properties. Currently, the most efficient devices have employed the toxic QDs which cause destructive impact on environment. In the present article, we have used environment benign CuInS2 QDs as an acceptor material in bulk heterojunction device of P3HT and QDs. The energy level positions corroborated from UPS spectra substantiates the acceptor property of CuInS2. We scrutinized the hybrid solar cell by tailoring the acceptor content in active layer. The increased acceptor content intensifies the performance of device. The enhancement in photovoltaic parameters is mainly due to the fast dissociation and extraction of photogenerated excitons which occurs with the larger wt% of acceptor QDs. Current density-voltage characteristics describes the greater V oc and I sc in the 60 wt% CuInS2 QDs based solar cell as compared to the low wt% of QDs in the active layer.

  3. Development of the morphology during functional stack build-up of P3HT:PCBM bulk heterojunction solar cells with inverted geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weijia; Pröller, Stephan; Niedermeier, Martin A; Körstgens, Volker; Philipp, Martine; Su, Bo; Moseguí González, Daniel; Yu, Shun; Roth, Stephan V; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter

    2015-01-14

    Highly efficient poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) bulk heterojunction solar cells are achieved by using an inverted geometry. The development of the morphology is investigated as a function of the multilayer stack assembling during the inverted solar cell preparation. Atomic force microscopy is used to reveal the surface morphology of each stack, and the inner structure is probed with grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering. It is found that the smallest domain size of P3HT is introduced by replicating the fluorine-doped tin oxide structure underneath. The structure sizes of the P3HT:PCBM active layer are further optimized after thermal annealing. Compared to devices with standard geometry, the P3HT:PCBM layer in the inverted solar cells shows smaller domain sizes, which are much closer to the exciton diffusion length in the polymer. The decrease in domain sizes is identified as the main reason for the improvement of the device performance.

  4. Optical and morphological studies of transition metal doped ZnO nanorods and their applications in hybrid bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Mujtaba Shah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the challenges in improving the efficiency of hybrid solar cells is to remove crystal defects from the semiconducting nanoparticles. Here we report the synthesis, characterization and applications of transition metal doped ZnO nanorods in hybrid bulk heterojunction solar cells. MnxZn1−xO and NixZn1−xO with dopant concentrations ranging from x = 0.01–0.10 were successfully synthesized by a novel facile solution-processed wet chemical method, which gave better yield at low cost and temperature. The morphological and optical properties of the material were investigated by Transmission electron microscopy (TEM, UV–Visible and Fluorescence spectroscopies. TEM measurements confirmed the reduction in size of nanorods upon doping. UV–Visible spectra of doped nanorods showed blue shift with respect to the reference undoped ZnO. The defect emissions were completely disappeared from the fluorescence spectra upon doping at high concentrations. These doped nanorods in combination with P3HT were employed in the hybrid solar cells which gave better current densities than their corresponding undoped counterparts.

  5. Significantly improved photovoltaic performance in polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells with graphene oxide /PEDOT:PSS double decked hole transport layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafique, Saqib; Abdullah, Shahino Mah; Shahid, Muhammad Mehmood; Ansari, Mohammad Omaish; Sulaiman, Khaulah

    2017-01-01

    This work demonstrates the high performance graphene oxide (GO)/PEDOT:PSS doubled decked hole transport layer (HTL) in the PCDTBT:PC71BM based bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic device. The devices were tested on merits of their power conversion efficiency (PCE), reproducibility, stability and further compared with the devices with individual GO or PEDOT:PSS HTLs. Solar cells employing GO/PEDOT:PSS HTL yielded a PCE of 4.28% as compared to either of individual GO or PEDOT:PSS HTLs where they demonstrated PCEs of 2.77 and 3.57%, respectively. In case of single GO HTL, an inhomogeneous coating of ITO caused the poor performance whereas PEDOT:PSS is known to be hygroscopic and acidic which upon direct contact with ITO reduced the device performance. The improvement in the photovoltaic performance is mainly ascribed to the increased charge carriers mobility, short circuit current, open circuit voltage, fill factor, and decreased series resistance. The well matched work function of GO and PEDOT:PSS is likely to facilitate the charge transportation and an overall reduction in the series resistance. Moreover, GO could effectively block the electrons due to its large band-gap of ~3.6 eV, leading to an increased shunt resistance. In addition, we also observed the improvement in the reproducibility and stability.

  6. Correlation between polymer architecture, mesoscale structure and photovoltaic performance in side-chain-modified PAE-PAV:fullerene bulk-heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathgeber, S.; Kuehnlenz, F.; Hoppe, H.; Egbe, D. A. M.; Tuerk, S.; Perlich, J.; Gehrke, R.

    2012-02-01

    A poly(arylene-ethynylene)-alt-poly(arylene-vinylene) statistical copolymer carrying linear and branched alkoxy side chains along the conjugated backbone in a random manner, yields, compared to its regular substituted counterparts, an improved performance in polymer:fullerene bulk-heterojunction solar cells. Results obtained from GiWAXS experiments show that the improved performance of the statistical copolymer may be attributed to the following structural characteristics: 1) Well, ordered stacked domains that promote backbone planarization and thus improve the ππ-overlap. 2) Partly face-on alignment of domains relative to the electrodes for an improved active layer electrode charge transfer. Branched side chains seem to promote face-on domain orientation. Most likely they can minimize their unfavorable contact with the interface by just bringing the CH3 groups of the branches into direct contact with the surface so that favorable phenylene-substrate interaction can promote face-on orientation. 3) A more isotropic domain orientation throughout the active layer to ensure that the backbone alignment direction has components perpendicular and parallel to the electrodes in order to compromise between light absorption and efficient intra-chain charge transport.

  7. Impact of Resonant Infrared Matrix-Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (RIR-MAPLE) on Morphology and Charge Conduction in Conjugated Polymer and Bulk Heterojunction Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiff-Roberts, Adrienne; McCormick, Ryan; Atewologun, Ayomide

    2014-03-01

    An approach to improve organic photovoltaic efficiency is to increase vertical charge conduction by promoting out-of-plane π- π stacking in conjugated polymers. Resonant infrared matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (RIR-MAPLE) features multiple growth parameters that can be varied to achieve a desired organic thin film property. In addition, RIR-MAPLE enables nanoscale domains in blended polymeric films and multi-layer polymeric films regardless of constituent solubility. Thus, RIR-MAPLE deposition is compared to solution-cast films as a possible approach to increase out-of-plane charge transport in polymers and bulk heterojunctions. Two common, solar cell polymers are investigated: P3HT and PCPDTBT. Materials characterization includes grazing-incidence, wide angle x-ray scattering (GIWAXS) for structural information and two techniques to determine hole mobility: organic field effect transistors to measure in-plane mobility and charge extraction by linearly increasing voltage to measure out-of-plane mobility. Initial indications are that the RIR-MAPLE films have a fundamentally different morphology compared to solution-cast films. In the case of P3HT, an enhancement in out-of-plane π- π stacking was observed by GIWAXS in RIR-MAPLE films compared to solution-cast films. A portion of this research was conducted at CNMS at ORNL.

  8. Effect of the Side Chains and Anode Material on Thermal Stability and Performance of Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells Using DPP(TBFu2 Derivatives as Donor Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Kovalenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimized fabrication of bulk-heterojunction solar cells (BHJ SCs based on previously reported diketopyrrolopyrrole donor, ethyl-hexylated DPP(TBFu2, as well as two new DPP(TBFu2 derivatives with ethyl-hexyl acetate and diethyl acetal solubilizing side-chains and PC60BM as an acceptor is demonstrated. Slow gradual annealing of the solar cell causing the effective donor-acceptor reorganization, and as a result higher power conversion efficiency (PCE, is described. By replacing a hole transporting layer PEDOT:PSS with MoO3 we obtained higher PCE values as well as higher thermal stability of the anode contact interface. DPP(TBFu2 derivative containing ethyl-hexyl acetate solubilizing side-chains possessed the best as-cast self-assembly and high crystallinity. However, the presence of ethyl-hexyl acetate and diethyl acetal electrophilic side-chains stabilizes HOMO energy of isolated DPP(TBFu2 donors with respect to the ethyl-hexylated one, according to cyclic voltammetry.

  9. Significantly improved photovoltaic performance in polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells with graphene oxide /PEDOT:PSS double decked hole transport layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafique, Saqib; Abdullah, Shahino Mah; Shahid, Muhammad Mehmood; Ansari, Mohammad Omaish; Sulaiman, Khaulah

    2017-01-13

    This work demonstrates the high performance graphene oxide (GO)/PEDOT:PSS doubled decked hole transport layer (HTL) in the PCDTBT:PC 71 BM based bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic device. The devices were tested on merits of their power conversion efficiency (PCE), reproducibility, stability and further compared with the devices with individual GO or PEDOT:PSS HTLs. Solar cells employing GO/PEDOT:PSS HTL yielded a PCE of 4.28% as compared to either of individual GO or PEDOT:PSS HTLs where they demonstrated PCEs of 2.77 and 3.57%, respectively. In case of single GO HTL, an inhomogeneous coating of ITO caused the poor performance whereas PEDOT:PSS is known to be hygroscopic and acidic which upon direct contact with ITO reduced the device performance. The improvement in the photovoltaic performance is mainly ascribed to the increased charge carriers mobility, short circuit current, open circuit voltage, fill factor, and decreased series resistance. The well matched work function of GO and PEDOT:PSS is likely to facilitate the charge transportation and an overall reduction in the series resistance. Moreover, GO could effectively block the electrons due to its large band-gap of ~3.6 eV, leading to an increased shunt resistance. In addition, we also observed the improvement in the reproducibility and stability.

  10. Improving the stability of bulk heterojunction solar cells by incorporating pH-neutral PEDOT:PSS as the hole transport layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yanhong; Hu, Zhanhao; Ai, Na; Jiang, Zhixiong; Wang, Jian; Peng, Junbiao; Cao, Yong

    2014-04-09

    In the application of traditional bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells, to prevent the etching of ITO by the acidic poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and thereby improve the device stability, pH-neutral PEDOT:PSS is introduced as the hole transport layer (HTL). After treating the neutral PEDOT:PSS with UV-ozone and with an oxygen plasma, the average power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the device increases from 3.44% to 6.60%. Such surface treatments reduce the energy level offset between the HTL and the active layer, which increases the open circuit voltage and enhances hole transportation, leading to the PCE improvement. Moreover, the devices with the neutral PEDOT:PSS HTL are more stable in air than those with the acidic PEDOT:PSS HTL. The PCE of the devices with the acidic PEDOT:PSS HTL decreases by 20% after 7 days and 45% after 50 days under ambient conditions, whereas the PCE of the devices with the pH-neutral PEDOT:PSS HTL decreases by only 9 and 20% after 7 and 50 days, respectively. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows that the acidic PEDOT:PSS etches the indium from the indium-tin-oxide (ITO) electrode, which is responsible for the degradation of the device. In comparison, the diffusion of the indium is much slower in the devices with the pH-neutral PEDOT:PSS HTL.

  11. Light-induced EPR study of charge transfer in P3HT/bis-PCBM bulk heterojunctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor I. Krinichnyi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Radical pairs, polarons and fullerene anion radicals photoinduced by photons with energy of 1.98 – 2.73 eV in bulk heterojunctions formed by poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT with bis(1-[3-(methoxycarbonylpropyl]-1-phenyl-[6.6]C62 (bis-PCBM fullerene derivative have been studied by direct light-induced EPR (LEPR method in a wide temperature range. A part of photoinduced polarons are pinned in trap sites which number and depth are governed by an ordering of the polymer/fullerene system and energy of initiating photons. It was shown that dynamics and recombination of mobile polarons and counter fullerene anion radicals are governed by their exchange- and multi-trap assisted diffusion. Relaxation and dynamics parameters of both the charge carriers were determined separately by the steady-state saturation method. These parameters are governed by structure and conformation of the carriers’ microenvironment as well as by the energy of irradiating photons. Longitudinal diffusion of polarons was shown to depend on lattice phonons of crystalline domains embedded into an amorphous polymer matrix. The energy barrier required for polaron interchain hopping is higher than that its intrachain diffusion. Pseudorotation of fullerene derivatives in a polymer matrix was shown to follow the activation Pike model.

  12. Synergetic scattering of SiO2 and Ag nanoparticles for light-trapping enhancement in organic bulk heterojunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Ding, Qiuyu; Li, Ben Q.; Jiang, Xinbing; Zhang, Manman

    2018-02-01

    Though noble metal nanoparticles have been explored to enhance the performance of the organic solar cell, effect of dielectric nanoparticles, and coupled effect of dielectric and metal nanoparticles, have rarely been reported, if at all, on organic solar cell. This work reports an experimental study on synergetic scattering of SiO2 and Ag nanoparticles in a bulk organic heterojunction for the broadband light absorption enhancement. The wavelength scale SiO2 particles were arranged as a monolayer on the surface of the solar cell to guide incident light into the active layer and prolong the effective optical length of the entered energy. This is achieved by the excitation of whispering gallery modes in SiO2 nanoparticles and by leaky mode radiation. When small size Ag particles were incorporated into the transport layer of the solar cell, synergetic scattering of SiO2 and Ag nanoparticles is formed by coupling of the whispering gallery mode of closely arranged SiO2 particles atop and collaborative localized surface plasma resonance scattering of Ag nanoparticles dispersed in the transport layer. As a result, the performance of the organic solar cell is greatly enhanced and the short-circuit current density has an improvement of 42.47%. Therefore, the organic solar cell incorporated with SiO2 and Ag particles presents a meaningful strategy to achieve high energy-harvesting performance. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  13. Enhancing the photovoltaic performance of bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells by adding Rhodamine B laser dye as co-sensitizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemifard, Sholeh; Naji, Leila; Afshar Taromi, Faramarz

    2018-04-01

    Ternary blend (TB) strategy has been considered as an effective method to enhance the photovoltaic performance of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells (PSCs). Here, we report on TB-based PSCs containing two donor materials; poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) and Rhodamine B (RhB) laser organic dye, and [6,6]-phenyl C 61 butyric acid methyl ester (PC 61 BM) as an acceptor. The influence of RhB weight percentage and injection volume was extensively studied. To gain insight into the influences of RhB on the photovoltaic performance of PSCs, physicochemical and optical properties of TBs were compared with those of BHJ binary blend as a standard. RhB broadened the light absorption properties of the active layer and played a bridging role between P3HT and PC 61 BM. The PCE and short-circuit current density (Jsc) of the optimized TB-based PSCs comprising of 0.5 wt% RhB reached 5% and 12.12 mA/cm 2 , respectively. Compared to BHJ standard cell, the PCE and the generated current was improved by two orders of magnitude due to higher photon harvest of the active layer, cascade energy level structure of TB components and a considerable decrease in the charge carrier recombination. The results suggest that RhB can be considered as an effective material for application in PSCs to attain high photovoltaic performance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Difluorobenzothiadiazole based two-dimensional conjugated polymers with triphenylamine substituted moieties as pendants for bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. H. Lee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Three donor/acceptor (D/A-type two-dimensional polythiophenes (PTs; PBTFA13, PBTFA12, PBTFA11 featuring difluorobenzothiadiazole (DFBT derivatives as the conjugated (acceptor units in the polymer backbone and tertbutyl–substituted triphenylamine (tTPA-containing moieties as (donor pendants have been synthesized and characterized. These PTs exhibited good thermal stabilities, broad absorption spectra, and narrow optical band gaps. The cutoff wavelength of the UV–Vis absorption band was red-shifted upon increasing the content of the DFBT units in the PTs. Bulk heterojunction solar cells having an active layer comprising blends of the PTs and fullerene derivatives [6,6] phenyl-C61/71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM/PC71BM were fabricated; their photovoltaic performance was strongly dependent on the content of the DFBT derivative in the PT. Incorporating a suitable content of the DFBT derivative in the polymer backbone enhanced the solar absorption ability and conjugation length of the PTs. The photovoltaic properties of the PBTFA13-based solar cells were superior to those of the PBTFA11- and PBTFA12-based solar cells.

  15. Modification of heterojunction surface/interfacial to optimize the hybrid solar cells efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan PEI

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the compatibility between inorganic semiconductor and organic polymer semiconductor, and optimize the photoelectric performance of the battery, a hybrid solar cell of TiO2/PCPDTBT based on one dimensional inorganic TiO2 nanorods ordered arrays and organic polymer PCPDTBT is constructed. The heterojunction interface properties between the inorganic and organic materials are controlled by amphiphilic organic triphenylamine-type molecules. The properties of the hybrid films are characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM, transmission electron microscope (TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS, UV-vis spectra (UV-vis, photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL, etc.. The battery performance tests demonstrate that the photovoltaic performance of the modified cell is improved, and the power conversion efficiency η is of 0.81%. Open circuit voltage decay tests demonstrate that the electron lifetime is increased after heterojunction surface/interfacial modification. These results indicate that the amelioration of morphology and structure of the active layer plays an important role on solar cell performance, by means of modification of the heterojunction surface/interface.

  16. Analysis of InAs-Si heterojunction nanowire tunnel FETs: Extreme confinement vs. bulk

    OpenAIRE

    Carrillo-Nuñez Hamilton; Luisier Mathieu; Schenk Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Extremely narrow and bulk like p type InAs–Si nanowire \\{TFETs\\} are studied using (i) a full band and atomistic quantum transport simulator based on the sp 3 d 5 s * tight binding model and (ii) a drift–diffusion \\{TCAD\\} tool. As (iii) option a two band model and the \\{WKB\\} approximation have been adapted to work in heterostructures through a careful choice of the imaginary dispersion. It is found that for ultra scaled InAs–Si nanowire TFETs the \\{WKB\\} approximation and the quant...

  17. Sequentially Different AB Diblock and ABA Triblock Copolymers as P3HT:PCBM Interfacial Compatibilizers for Bulk-Heterojunction Photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Hiroyuki; Michinobu, Tsuyoshi; Fukuta, Seijiro; Koganezawa, Tomoyuki; Higashihara, Tomoya

    2016-03-02

    The P3HT:PCBM (P3HT = poly(3-hexylthiophene, PCBM = phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester) bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells using the AB diblock and ABA triblock copolymers (A = polystyrene derivative with donor-acceptor units (PTCNE) and B = P3HT) as compatibilizers were fabricated. Under the optimized blend ratio of the block copolymer, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) was enhanced. This PCE enhancement was clearly related to the increased short-circuit current (J(sc)) and fill factor (FF). The incident photon to current efficiency (IPCE) measurement suggested that the P3HT crystallinity was improved upon addition of the block copolymers. The increased P3HT crystallinity was consistent with the increased photovoltaic parameters, such as J(sc), FF, and consequently the PCE. The surface energies of these block copolymers suggested their thermodynamically stable location at the interface of P3HT:PCBM, showing the efficient compatibilizing performance, resulting in enlarging and fixing the interfacial area and suppressing the recombination of the generated carriers. Grazing incidence X-ray scattering (GIXS) results confirmed the superior compatibilizing performance of the ABA triblock copolymer when compared to the AB diblock copolymer by the fact that, after blending the ABA triblock copolymer in the P3HT:PCBM system, the enhanced crystallinity of matrix P3HT was observed in the excluded areas of the less-aggregated PCBM domains, changing the P3HT crystalline domain orientation from "edge-on" to "isotropic". This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first sequential effect (AB vs ABA) of the block copolymers on the compatibilizing performances based on BHJ OPV device systems.

  18. Bulk heterojunctions based on a low band gap copolymer of thiophene and benzothiadiazole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Eva; Shaheen, S.E.; Krebs, Frederik C

    2007-01-01

    , polymer concentration and annealing temperature, on the photovoltaic device performance. The devices show spectral response down to the absorption edge of 1.65 eV and exhibit an efficiency of 1% under AM 1.5 illumination and a peak external quantum efficiency of 18 % at 600 nm. (c) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All...

  19. Analysis of InAs-Si heterojunction nanowire tunnel FETs: Extreme confinement vs. bulk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Nuñez, Hamilton; Luisier, Mathieu; Schenk, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    Extremely narrow and bulk-like p-type InAs-Si nanowire TFETs are studied using (i) a full-band and atomistic quantum transport simulator based on the sp3d5s∗ tight-binding model and (ii) a drift-diffusion TCAD tool. As (iii) option, a two-band model and the WKB approximation have been adapted to work in heterostructures through a careful choice of the imaginary dispersion. It is found that for ultra-scaled InAs-Si nanowire TFETs, the WKB approximation and the quantum transport results agree very well, suggesting that the former could be applied to larger hetero-TFET structures and considerably reduce the simulation time while keeping a high accuracy.

  20. Structure-Processing Relationships in Solution Processable Polymer Thin Film Transistors and Small Molecule Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Louis A.

    A regio-regular (RR) conjugated copolymer based on cyclopenta[2,1-b:3,4- b]dithiophene (CDT) and pyridal[2,1,3]thiadiazole (PT) structural units was prepared by using polymerization reactions involving reactants specifically designed to avoid random orientation of the asymmetric PT heterocycle. Compared to its regio-irregular (RI) counterpart, the RR polymer exhibits a two orders of magnitude increase in hole mobility from 0.005 to 0.6 cm2V -1s-1. To probe the reason for this difference in mobility, we examined the crystalline structure and its orientation in thin films of both copolymers as a function of depth via grazing incidence wide angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS). In the RI film, the pi-pi stacking direction of the crystallites is mainly perpendicular to the substrate normal (edge-on orientation) while in the RR film the crystallites adopt a mixed pi-pi stacking orientation in the center of the film as well as near the interface between the polymer and the dielectric layer. These results demonstrate that control of backbone regularity is another important design criterion to consider in the synthesis and optimization of new conjugated copolymers with asymmetric structural units. Solution processed organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs) have emerged as a promising sustainable energy technology due to their ease of fabrication, potential to enable low-cost manufacturing, and ability to be incorporated onto light-weight flexible substrates. To date, the most efficacious OPV device architecture, the bulk heterojunction (BHJ), consists of a blend of a light-harvesting conjugated organic electron donating molecule and a strong electron-accepting compound (usually a soluble fullerene derivative e.g. [6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM). BHJ layer morphology, which has been shown to be highly dependent on processing, has a significant effect on OPV performance. It is postulated that optimal BHJ morphologies consist of discrete bicontinuous nanoscale

  1. High efficiency solid-state sensitized heterojunction photovoltaic device

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Mingkui

    2010-06-01

    The high molar extinction coefficient heteroleptic ruthenium dye, NaRu(4,4′-bis(5-(hexylthio)thiophen-2-yl)-2,2′-bipyridine) (4-carboxylic acid-4′-carboxylate-2,2′-bipyridine) (NCS) 2, exhibits certified 5% electric power conversion efficiency at AM 1.5 solar irradiation (100 mW cm-2) in a solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell using 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis-(N,N-di-pmethoxyphenylamine)-9, 9′-spirobifluorene (spiro-MeOTAD) as the organic hole-transporting material. This demonstration elucidates a class of photovoltaic devices with potential for low-cost power generation. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Nano-pathways: Bridging the divide between water-processable nanoparticulate and bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, Natalie P. [Univ. of Newcastle, NSW (Australia); Marks, Melissa [Univ. of Newcastle, NSW (Australia); Kumar, Pankaj [Univ. of Newcastle, NSW (Australia); CSIR-National Physical Lab., New Delhi (India); Kroon, Renee [Univ. of South Australia, Adelaide, SA (Australia); Barr, Matthew G. [Univ. of Newcastle, NSW (Australia); Nicolaidis, Nicolas [Univ. of Newcastle, NSW (Australia); Feron, Krishna [Univ. of Newcastle, NSW (Australia); CSIRO Energy Flagship, Newcastle, NSW (Australia); Pivrikas, Almantas [Univ. of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Murdoch Univ., Perth, WA (Australia); Fahy, Adam [Univ. of Newcastle, NSW (Australia); Mendaza, Amaia Diaz de Zerio [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Kilcoyne, A. L. David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Müller, Christian [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Zhou, Xiaojing [Univ. of Newcastle, NSW (Australia); Andersson, Mats R. [Univ. of South Australia, Adelaide, SA (Australia); Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Dastoor, Paul C. [Univ. of Newcastle, NSW (Australia); Belcher, Warwick J. [Univ. of Newcastle, NSW (Australia)

    2015-11-26

    In this paper, we report the application of a conjugated copolymer based on thiophene and quinoxaline units, namely poly[2,3-bis-(3-octyloxyphenyl)quinoxaline-5,8-diyl-alt-thiophene-2,5-diyl] (TQ1), to nanoparticle organic photovoltaics (NP-OPVs). TQ1 exhibits more desirable material properties for NP-OPV fabrication and operation, particularly a high glass transition temperature (Tg) and amorphous nature, compared to the commonly applied semicrystalline polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). This study reports the optimisation of TQ1:PC71BM (phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester) NP-OPV device performance by the application of mild thermal annealing treatments in the range of the Tg (sub-Tg and post-Tg), both in the active layer drying stage and post-cathode deposition annealing stage of device fabrication, and an in-depth study of the effect of these treatments on nanoparticle film morphology. Finally and in addition, we report a type of morphological evolution in nanoparticle films for OPV active layers that has not previously been observed, that of PC71BM nano-pathway formation between dispersed PC71BM-rich nanoparticle cores, which have the benefit of making the bulk film more conducive to charge percolation and extraction.

  3. The importance of fullerene percolation in the mixed regions of polymer-fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Bartelt, Jonathan A.

    2012-10-26

    Most optimized donor-acceptor (D-A) polymer bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells have active layers too thin to absorb greater than - 80% of incident photons with energies above the polymer\\'s band gap. If the thickness of these devices could be increased without sacrifi cing internal quantum effi ciency, the device power conversion effi ciency (PCE) could be signifi cantly enhanced. We examine the device characteristics of BHJ solar cells based on poly(di(2- ethylhexyloxy)benzo[1,2- b :4,5- b \\' ]dithiophene- co -octylthieno[3,4- c ]pyrrole-4,6- dione) (PBDTTPD) and [6,6]-phenyl-C 61 -butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) with 7.3% PCE and fi nd that bimolecular recombination limits the active layer thickness of these devices. Thermal annealing does not mitigate these bimolecular recombination losses and drastically decreases the PCE of PBDTTPD BHJ solar cells. We characterize the morphology of these BHJs before and after thermal annealing and determine that thermal annealing drastically reduces the concentration of PCBM in the mixed regions, which consist of PCBM dispersed in the amorphous portions of PBDTTPD. Decreasing the concentration of PCBM may reduce the number of percolating electron transport pathways within these mixed regions and create morphological electron traps that enhance charge-carrier recombination and limit device quantum effi ciency. These fi ndings suggest that (i) the concentration of PCBM in the mixed regions of polymer BHJs must be above the PCBM percolation threshold in order to attain high solar cell internal quantum effi ciency, and (ii) novel processing techniques, which improve polymer hole mobility while maintaining PCBM percolation within the mixed regions, should be developed in order to limit bimolecular recombination losses in optically thick devices and maximize the PCE of polymer BHJ solar cells. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.

  4. Effect of Aggregation on Squaraine Fullerene Bulk-Heterojunction Organic Photovoltaic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalan, Ishita

    Organic photovoltaics (OPV) offer great promise as a low-cost renewable energy source, the relative low efficiency still challenges its commercialization potential. Small conjugated molecules like Squaraine (SQ) molecules show promising advancement in organic photovoltaics (OPV). Advantages of SQ over other materials is that it has a high extinction coefficient (>105), decent photo-stability, good synthetic reproducibility, and tunable molecular structure. With small chemical modifications, the squaraines can have substantial impact on photophysical properties and aggregation pattern, and thus on operational OPV efficiency. The squaraine molecule that will be studied in this work is a symmetric aniline-based squaraine with n-hexyl chain on the molecular arm with di hydroxyl substituents on the aniline, this will be referred to DHSQ(OH) 2. In this work, the assignment of the monomer and aggregate peak is discussed. It is known that crystallinity is important for efficient charge transport and exciton diffusion in the BHJ, this thesis focuses on thermal and solvent vapor annealing the as-cast films to reduce the amorphous regions. It is observed that crystallinity is improved but often at the expense of larger crystal size. Therefore, to achieve optimal OPV efficiency, this tradeoff is controlled to improve the crystallinity while maintaining a small, highly mixed BHJ morphology.

  5. Basic aspects for improving the energy conversion efficiency of hetero-junction organic photovoltaic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sou Ryuzaki

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Hetero-junction organic photovoltaic (OPV cells consisting of donor (D and acceptor (A layers have been regarded as next-generation PV cells, because of their fascinating advantages, such as lightweight, low fabrication cost, resource free, and flexibility, when compared to those of conventional PV cells based on silicon and semiconductor compounds. However, the power conversion efficiency (η of the OPV cells has been still around 8%, though more than 10% efficiency has been required for their practical use. To fully optimize these OPV cells, it is necessary that the low mobility of carriers/excitons in the OPV cells and the open circuit voltage (VOC, of which origin has not been understood well, should be improved. In this review, we address an improvement of the mobility of carriers/excitons by controlling the crystal structure of a donor layer and address how to increase the VOC for zinc octaethylporphyrin [Zn(OEP]/C60 hetero-junction OPV cells [ITO/Zn(OEP/C60/Al]. It was found that crystallization of Zn(OEP films increases the number of inter-molecular charge transfer (IMCT excitons and enlarges the mobility of carriers and IMCT excitons, thus significantly improving the external quantum efficiency (EQE under illumination of the photoabsorption band due to the IMCT excitons. Conversely, charge accumulation of photo-generated carriers in the vicinity of the donor/acceptor (D/A interface was found to play a key role in determining the VOC for the OPV cells.

  6. Basic aspects for improving the energy conversion efficiency of hetero-junction organic photovoltaic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryuzaki, Sou; Onoe, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Hetero-junction organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells consisting of donor (D) and acceptor (A) layers have been regarded as next-generation PV cells, because of their fascinating advantages, such as lightweight, low fabrication cost, resource free, and flexibility, when compared to those of conventional PV cells based on silicon and semiconductor compounds. However, the power conversion efficiency (η) of the OPV cells has been still around 8%, though more than 10% efficiency has been required for their practical use. To fully optimize these OPV cells, it is necessary that the low mobility of carriers/excitons in the OPV cells and the open circuit voltage (V OC), of which origin has not been understood well, should be improved. In this review, we address an improvement of the mobility of carriers/excitons by controlling the crystal structure of a donor layer and address how to increase the V OC for zinc octaethylporphyrin [Zn(OEP)]/C60 hetero-junction OPV cells [ITO/Zn(OEP)/C60/Al]. It was found that crystallization of Zn(OEP) films increases the number of inter-molecular charge transfer (IMCT) excitons and enlarges the mobility of carriers and IMCT excitons, thus significantly improving the external quantum efficiency (EQE) under illumination of the photoabsorption band due to the IMCT excitons. Conversely, charge accumulation of photo-generated carriers in the vicinity of the donor/acceptor (D/A) interface was found to play a key role in determining the V OC for the OPV cells.

  7. Structural Factors That Affect the Performance of Organic Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Vandewal, Koen

    2013-08-27

    The performance of polymer:fullerene solar cells is strongly affected by the active layer morphology and polymer microstructure. In this Perspective, we review ongoing research on how structural factors influence the photogeneration and collection of charge carriers as well as charge carrier recombination and the related open-circuit voltage. We aim to highlight unexplored research opportunities and provide some guidelines for the synthesis of new conjugated polymers for high-efficiency solar cells. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  8. Enhanced performance of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells upon graphene addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robaeys, Pieter; Bonaccorso, Francesco; Bourgeois, Emilie; D'Haen, Jan; Dierckx, Wouter; Dexters, Wim; Spoltore, Donato; Drijkoningen, Jeroen; Liesenborgs, Jori; Lombardo, Antonio; Ferrari, Andrea C.; Van Reeth, Frank; Haenen, Ken; Manca, Jean V.; Nesladek, Milos

    2014-08-01

    Graphene has potential for applications in solar cells. We show that the short circuit current density of P3HT (Poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl):PCBM((6,6)-Phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester) solar cells is enhanced by 10% upon the addition of graphene, with a 15% increase in the photon to electric conversion efficiency. We discuss the performance enhancement by studying the crystallization of P3HT, as well as the electrical transport properties. We show that graphene improves the balance between electron and hole mobilities with respect to a standard P3HT:PCBM solar cell.

  9. Printing Fabrication of Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells and In Situ Morphology Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Ferdous, Sunzida; Wan, Xianjian; Zhu, Chenhui; Schaible, Eric; Hexemer, Alexander; Wang, Cheng; Russell, Thomas P

    2017-01-29

    Polymer-based materials hold promise as low-cost, flexible efficient photovoltaic devices. Most laboratory efforts to achieve high performance devices have used devices prepared by spin coating, a process that is not amenable to large-scale fabrication. This mismatch in device fabrication makes it difficult to translate quantitative results obtained in the laboratory to the commercial level, making optimization difficult. Using a mini-slot die coater, this mismatch can be resolved by translating the commercial process to the laboratory and characterizing the structure formation in the active layer of the device in real time and in situ as films are coated onto a substrate. The evolution of the morphology was characterized under different conditions, allowing us to propose a mechanism by which the structures form and grow. This mini-slot die coater offers a simple, convenient, material efficient route by which the morphology in the active layer can be optimized under industrially relevant conditions. The goal of this protocol is to show experimental details of how a solar cell device is fabricated using a mini-slot die coater and technical details of running in situ structure characterization using the mini-slot die coater.

  10. WO3/Conducting Polymer Heterojunction Photoanodes for Efficient and Stable Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Dasom; Kim, Nayeong; Bae, Sanghyun; Han, Yujin; Ryu, Jungki

    2018-02-26

    An efficient and stable heterojunction photoanode for solar water oxidation was fabricated by hybridization of WO 3 and conducting polymers (CPs). Organic/inorganic hybrid photoanodes were readily prepared by the electropolymerization of various CPs and the codeposition of tetraruthenium polyoxometalate (Ru 4 POM) water-oxidation catalysts (WOCs) on the surface of WO 3 . The deposition of CPs, especially polypyrrole (PPy) doped with Ru 4 POM (PPy:Ru 4 POM), resulted in a remarkably improved photoelectrochemical performance by the formation of a WO 3 /PPy p-n heterojunction and the incorporation of efficient Ru 4 POM WOCs. In addition, there was also a significant improvement in the photostability of the WO 3 -based photoanode after the deposition of the PPy:Ru 4 POM layer due to the suppression of the formation of hydrogen peroxide, which was responsible for corrosion. This study provides insight into the design and fabrication of novel photosynthetic and photocatalytic systems with excellent performance and stability through the hybridization of organic and inorganic materials.

  11. Efficiency Enhancement of Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells via Photon Management Using Graphene Quantum Dot as Downconverters

    KAUST Repository

    Tsai, Meng-Lin

    2015-12-16

    By employing graphene quantum dots (GQDs), we have achieved a high efficiency of 16.55% in n-type Si heterojunction solar cells. The efficiency enhancement is based on the photon downconversion phenomenon of GQDs to make more photons absorbed in the depletion region for effective carrier separation, leading to the enhanced photovoltaic effect. The short circuit current and the fill factor are increased from 35.31 to 37.47 mA/cm2 and 70.29% to 72.51%, respectively. The work demonstrated here holds the promise for incorporating graphene-based materials in commercially available solar devices for developing ultra-high efficiency photovoltaic cells in the future.

  12. Efficiency Enhancement of Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells via Photon Management Using Graphene Quantum Dot as Downconverters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Meng-Lin; Tu, Wei-Chen; Tang, Libin; Wei, Tzu-Chiao; Wei, Wan-Rou; Lau, Shu Ping; Chen, Lih-Juann; He, Jr-Hau

    2016-01-13

    By employing graphene quantum dots (GQDs), we have achieved a high efficiency of 16.55% in n-type Si heterojunction solar cells. The efficiency enhancement is based on the photon downconversion phenomenon of GQDs to make more photons absorbed in the depletion region for effective carrier separation, leading to the enhanced photovoltaic effect. The short circuit current and the fill factor are increased from 35.31 to 37.47 mA/cm(2) and 70.29% to 72.51%, respectively. The work demonstrated here holds the promise for incorporating graphene-based materials in commercially available solar devices for developing ultrahigh efficiency photovoltaic cells in the future.

  13. Efficient Bulk Operations on Dynamic R-Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars Allan; Hinrichs, Klaus; Vahrenhold, Jan

    2002-01-01

    intensively in the database community. The continuous arrival of massive amounts of new data makes it important to update existing indexes (bulk updating ) efficiently. In this paper we present a simple, yet efficient, technique for performing bulk update and query operations on multidimensional indexes. We...... present our technique in terms of the so-called R-tree and its variants, as they have emerged as practically efficient indexing methods for spatial data. Our method uses ideas from the buffer tree lazy buffering technique and fully utilizes the available internal memory and the page size of the operating...... best known bulk update methods with respect to update time, and that it produces a better quality index in terms of query performance. One important novel feature of our technique is that in most cases it allows us to perform a batch of updates and queries simultaneously. To be able to do so...

  14. Photoinduced Dynamics of Charge Separation: From Photosynthesis to Polymer–Fullerene Bulk Heterojunctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niklas, Jens; Beaupré, Serge; Leclerc, Mario; Xu, Tao; Yu, Luping; Sperlich, Andreas; Dyakonov, Vladimir; Poluektov, Oleg G.

    2015-06-18

    Understanding charge separation and charge transport is crucial for improving the efficiency of organic solar cells. Their active media are based on organic molecules and polymers, serving as both light-absorbing and transport layers. The charge-transfer (CT) states play an important role, being intermediate for free carrier generation and charge recombination. Here, we use light-induced electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy to study the CT dynamics in blends of the polymers P3HT, PCDTBT, and PTB7 with the fullerene derivative C-60-PCBM. Time-resolved EPR measurements show strong spin-polarization patterns for all polymer-fullerene blends, confirming predominant generation of singlet CT states and partial orientation ordering near the donor-acceptor interface. These observations allow a comparison with charge separation processes in molecular donor-acceptor systems and in natural and artificial photosynthetic assemblies, and thus the elucidation of the initial steps of sequential CT in organic photovoltaic materials.

  15. Charge separation dynamics at bulk heterojunctions between poly(3-hexylthiophene) and PbS quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firdaus, Yuliar; Fron, Eduard; Khetubol, Adis; Van der Auweraer, Mark, E-mail: mark.vanderauweraer@chem.kuleuven.be [Laboratory of Photochemistry and Spectroscopy, Division of Molecular Imaging and Photonics, Chemistry Department, KULeuven, Celestijnenlaan 200F, B2404, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Miranti, Rany; Borchert, Holger; Parisi, Jürgen [Department of Physics, Energy and Semiconductor Research Laboratory, University of Oldenburg, Carl-von-Ossietzky-Str. 9-11, 26129 Oldenburg (Germany); Vandenplas, Erwin; Cheyns, David [Imec vzw, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2015-08-07

    Photo-induced electron transfer between poly-(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and small (2.4 nm) PbS quantum dots (QDs), capped by different ligands, was studied by picosecond and femtosecond time-resolved fluorescence and by photo-induced absorption (PIA) measurements. In line with previous experiments, we observed that the efficiency of the quenching of P3HT by PbS QDs increased upon decreasing the average thickness of the ligand shell. This trend was also observed in the PIA spectra and in prior work on the performance of photovoltaic devices where the active layer was a blend of P3HT with PbS QDs capped by different ligands. Combining the pico- and femtosecond fluorescence decays showed that the quenching in blend films of P3HT and PbS QDs treated with 1,4-benzenedithiol occurred over a broad time scale ranging from tens of femtoseconds to hundreds of picoseconds. This complex kinetics was attributed to exciton hopping followed by electron transfer to the conduction band of the QDs. We also compared the wavelength dependence of the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) in the hybrid photovoltaic devices to those devices where the photoactive layer consists of PbS QDs only. Although excitation in the first excitonic transition of the PbS QDs yielded a similar IQE in both devices, the IQE of the hybrid devices tripled at wavelengths where also P3HT started to absorb. This suggests that upon excitation of P3HT in the latter devices, charge generation occurs by photo-induced electron transfer from P3HT to the QDs rather than by energy transfer to the QDs followed by exciton dissociation in the QDs.

  16. In-depth analysis of solvent effects on bulk heterojunction solar cell performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohourian Aboutorabi, Reihaneh; Joodaki, Mojtaba; Shahbazi, Kowsar

    2014-05-01

    Efficiency of an organic solar cell is very sensitive to fabrication procedure. One of the most important parameters is active layer morphology which radically influences several cell properties such as generation rate, layer resistance, charge carrier motilities etc. Meantime, in P3HT:fullerene based solar cells, using PCBM would improve the morphology and increase the cost simultaneously. On the other hand, C60 is way less expensive, but its limited solubility in common solvents would influence cell performance. To benefit from its cost and as the formation of C60 aggregates and P3HT crystallinity significantly depend on the solvent which would influence several cell properties, one should find a proper solvent. To make an in-depth investigation of solvent effects, experimental investigations will not suffice and using a precise model to fit the data and extract hidden parameters would help us to have a deep understanding of the cells physical basis. In this work, an optimization algorithm is employed to fit a numerical model simulation results with experiments and the model benefits from a field dependent series resistance. Simulation results indicate that a suitable solvent mainly improves the cell performance by changing 3 basic parameters which are G, μn and μp. Additionally, although parameters such as Eg and DC dielectric constant are very crucial in determining power conversion efficiency, they cannot be effectively improved changing the solvent. It is reported that the cell prepared by Cl-naph:CB performs better than the other cells. Considering our results, it can be attributed to its larger G, μn and μp. It also has the least Rs and the largest Rsh among all other P3HT:C60 based cells (which is caused by its higher mobility-carrier density product). This work gives experimentalists an idea of how they should choose a solvent. The results can also be generalized to find a proper solvent for other active layer materials.

  17. Enhanced photovoltaic performance of inverted hybrid bulk-heterojunction solar cells using TiO2/reduced graphene oxide films as electron transport layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Andreia; Alves, João Paulo C.; Lima, Francisco Anderson S.; Lira-Cantu, Monica; Nogueira, Ana Flavia

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated inverted hybrid bulk-heterojunction solar cells with the following configuration: fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) |TiO2/RGO|P3HT:PC61BM|V2O5 or PEDOT:PSS|Ag. The TiO2/GO dispersions were prepared by sol-gel method, employing titanium isopropoxide and graphene oxide (GO) as starting materials. The GO concentration was varied from 0.1 to 4.0 wt%. The corresponding dispersions were spin-coated onto FTO substrates and a thermal treatment was performed to remove organic materials and to reduce GO to reduced graphene oxide (RGO). The TiO2/RGO films were characterized by x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and microscopy techniques. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images showed that the addition of RGO significantly changes the morphology of the TiO2 films, with loss of uniformity and increase in surface roughness. Independent of the use of V2O5 or PEDOT: PSS films as the hole transport layer, the incorporation of 2.0 wt% of RGO into TiO2 films was the optimal concentration for the best organic photovoltaic performance. The solar cells based on TiO2/RGO (2.0 wt%) electrode exhibited a ˜22.3% and ˜28.9% short circuit current density (Jsc) and a power conversion efficiency enhancement, respectively, if compared with the devices based on pure TiO2 films. Kelvin probe force microscopy images suggest that the incorporation of RGO into TiO2 films can promote the appearance of regions with different charge dissipation capacities.

  18. Functionalized methanofullerenes used as n-type materials in bulk-heterojunction polymer solar cells and in field-effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Changduk; Kim, Jin Young; Cho, Shinuk; Lee, Jae Kwan; Heeger, Alan J; Wudl, Fred

    2008-05-21

    The synthesis of two well-solubilized [60]methanofullerene derivatives ( p- EHO-PCBM and p- EHO-PCBA) is presented for usage in organic solar cells and in field-effect transistors. The para position of the PCBM's phenyl ring was substituted with a branched alkoxy side chain, which contributes to higher solubility, facilitating synthesis, purification, and processing. We find a small change of the open-circuit voltage ( V oc) as a slight improvement in performance upon application in P3HT/[60]methanofullerene bulk-heterojunction-photovoltaic cells, when compared to PCBM, because of the electron donation of the alkoxy group. In the case of the devices with a TiO x layer, the best power conversion efficiencies (PCE, eta e) is observed in a layered structure of P3HT/ p- EHO-PCBA/TiO x (eta e = 2.6%), which slightly exceeds that of P3HT/PCBM/TiO x (eta e = 2.3%) under conditions reported here. This can be attributed, in part, to the carboxylic acid group in p- EHO-PCBA that leads to an effective interface interaction between the active layer and TiO x phase. In addition, n-channel organic field-effect transistor (OFET) devices were fabricated with thin films of p- EHO-PCBM and p- EHO-PCBA, respectively cast from solution on SiO 2/Si substrates. The values of field-effect mobility (mu) for p- EHO-PCBM and p- EHO-PCBA are 1 x 10 (-2) and 1.6 x 10 (-3) cm (2)/V.s, respectively. The results in this paper demonstrate the effects of a carboxylic acid group and an electron-donating substituent in [60]methanofullerenes as n-type materials with respect to organic solar cells and OFET applications.

  19. Effect of regioregularity on recombination dynamics in inverted bulk heterojunction organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Naresh; Liu, Amelia C. Y.; Kumar, Anil; McNeill, Christopher R.; Kabra, Dinesh

    2018-01-01

    The effect of polymer regioregularity on the charge transport properties and bimolecular recombination rates of polymer-based solar cells is studied in detail using transient photovoltaic techniques. We compare organic solar cells fabricated with an ITO/ZnO/PEIE/P3HT:PCBM/MoO3/Ag structure using either 100% regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (DF-P3HT) yielding an average power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.8  ±  0.3% or 92% regioregular P3HT (rr-P3HT) that yields an average PCE of 3.28  ±  0.4%. Transient photocurrent measurements reveal the presence of less mobile photoinduced charges in rr-P3HT:PCBM cells when compared to DF-P3HT:PCBM solar cells. Transient photovoltage measurements are used to establish the relationship between regioregularity and bimolecular recombination rate constant (k) finding that under 1 Sun, devices with high regioregularity have a longer τ despite having a higher k. The high value of k for the DF-P3HT:PCBM system as compared to the rr-P3HT:PCBM system is attributed to enhanced mobility and better charge transport of mobile charges in the DF-P3HT:PCBM system, consistent with enhanced fibrillar order in DF-P3HT films observed with transmission electron microscopy. We also note a slight decrease in cell open circuit voltage with increase in polymer regioregularity, which is due to the increase in k. Other recombination mechanisms such as trap-assisted recombination are found to be important in the lower regioregular P3HT device compounded by the reduced mobility and poor inter-chain ordering.

  20. Controlling solution-phase polymer aggregation with molecular weight and solvent additives to optimize polymer-fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Bartelt, Jonathan A.

    2014-03-20

    The bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cell performance of many polymers depends on the polymer molecular weight (M n) and the solvent additive(s) used for solution processing. However, the mechanism that causes these dependencies is not well understood. This work determines how M n and solvent additives affect the performance of BHJ solar cells made with the polymer poly(di(2-ethylhexyloxy)benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b\\']dithiophene-co- octylthieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione) (PBDTTPD). Low M n PBDTTPD devices have exceedingly large fullerene-rich domains, which cause extensive charge-carrier recombination. Increasing the M n of PBDTTPD decreases the size of these domains and significantly improves device performance. PBDTTPD aggregation in solution affects the size of the fullerene-rich domains and this effect is linked to the dependency of PBDTTPD solubility on M n. Due to its poor solubility high M n PBDTTPD quickly forms a fibrillar polymer network during spin-casting and this network acts as a template that prevents large-scale phase separation. Furthermore, processing low M n PBDTTPD devices with a solvent additive improves device performance by inducing polymer aggregation in solution and preventing large fullerene-rich domains from forming. These findings highlight that polymer aggregation in solution plays a significant role in determining the morphology and performance of BHJ solar cells. The performance of poly(di(2-ethylhexyloxy) benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b\\']dithiophene-co-octylthieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione) (PBDTTPD) bulk heterojunction solar cells strongly depends on the polymer molecular weight, and processing these bulk heterojunctions with a solvent additive preferentially improves the performance of low molecular weight devices. It is demonstrated that polymer aggregation in solution significantly impacts the thin-film bulk heterojunction morphology and is vital for high device performance. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Absence of Structural Impact of Noble Nanoparticles on P3HT:PCBM Blends for Plasmon-Enhanced Bulk-Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells Probed by Synchrotron GI-XRD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilliu, Samuele; Alsari, Mejd; Bikondoa, Oier; Emyr Macdonald, J; Dahlem, Marcus S

    2015-06-01

    The incorporation of noble metal nanoparticles, displaying localized surface plasmon resonance, in the active area of donor-acceptor bulk-heterojunction organic photovoltaic devices is an industrially compatible light trapping strategy, able to guarantee better absorption of the incident photons and give an efficiency improvement between 12% and 38%. In the present work, we investigate the effect of Au and Ag nanoparticles blended with P3HT: PCBM on the P3HT crystallization dynamics by synchrotron grazing incidence X-ray diffraction. We conclude that the presence of (1) 80 nm Au, (2) mix of 5 nm, 50 nm, 80 nm Au, (3) 40 nm Ag, and (4) 10 nm, 40 nm, 60 nm Ag colloidal nanoparticles, at different concentrations below 0.3 wt% for Au and below 0.1% for Ag in P3HT: PCBM blends, does not affect the behaviour of the blends themselves.

  2. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy reveals energy-band dispersion for π-stacked 7,8,15,16-tetraazaterrylene thin films in a donor–acceptor bulk heterojunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghdassi, Nabi; Wang, Qi; Ji, Ru-Ru; Wang, Bin; Fan, Jian; Duhm, Steffen

    2018-05-01

    7,8,15,16-tetraazaterrylene (TAT) thin films grown on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) substrates were studied extensively with regard to their intrinsic and interfacial electronic properties by means of ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). Merely weak substrate–adsorbate interaction occurs at the TAT/HOPG interface, with interface energetics being only little affected by the nominal film thickness. Photon energy-dependent UPS performed perpendicular to the molecular planes of TAT multilayer films at room temperature clearly reveals band-like intermolecular dispersion of the TAT highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy. Based on a comparison with a tight-binding model, a relatively narrow bandwidth of 54 meV is derived, which points to the presence of an intermediate regime between hopping and band-like hole transport. Upon additional deposition of 2,2‧:5‧,2″:5″,2″‧-quaterthiophene (4T), a 4T:TAT donor–acceptor bulk heterojunction with a considerable HOMO-level offset at the donor–acceptor interface is formed. The 4T:TAT bulk heterojunction likewise exhibits intermolecular dispersion of the TAT HOMO energy, yet with a significant decreased bandwidth.

  3. Piezoelectric two-dimensional nanosheets/anionic layer heterojunction for efficient direct current power generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwon-Ho; Kumar, Brijesh; Lee, Keun Young; Park, Hyun-Kyu; Lee, Ju-Hyuck; Lee, Hyun Hwi; Jun, Hoin; Lee, Dongyun; Kim, Sang-Woo

    2013-01-01

    Direct current (DC) piezoelectric power generator is promising for the miniaturization of a power package and self-powering of nanorobots and body-implanted devices. Hence, we report the first use of two-dimensional (2D) zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructure and an anionic nanoclay layer to generate piezoelectric DC output power. The device, made from 2D nanosheets and an anionic nanoclay layer heterojunction, has potential to be the smallest size power package, and could be used to charge wireless nano/micro scale systems without the use of rectifier circuits to convert alternating current into DC to store the generated power. The combined effect of buckling behaviour of the ZnO nanosheets, a self-formed anionic nanoclay layer, and coupled semiconducting and piezoelectric properties of ZnO nanosheets contributes to efficient DC power generation. The networked ZnO nanosheets proved to be structurally stable under huge external mechanical loads.

  4. Semiconductor heterojunctions

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, B L

    1974-01-01

    Semiconductor Heterojunctions investigates various aspects of semiconductor heterojunctions. Topics covered include the theory of heterojunctions and their energy band profiles, electrical and optoelectronic properties, and methods of preparation. A number of heterojunction devices are also considered, from photovoltaic converters to photodiodes, transistors, and injection lasers.Comprised of eight chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the theory of heterojunctions and a discussion on abrupt isotype and anisotype heterojunctions, along with graded heterojunctions. The reader is then

  5. High-Efficiency Silicon/Organic Heterojunction Solar Cells with Improved Junction Quality and Interface Passivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jian; Gao, Pingqi; Ling, Zhaoheng; Ding, Li; Yang, Zhenhai; Ye, Jichun; Cui, Yi

    2016-12-27

    Silicon/organic heterojunction solar cells (HSCs) based on conjugated polymers, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), and n-type silicon (n-Si) have attracted wide attention due to their potential advantages of high efficiency and low cost. However, the state-of-the-art efficiencies are still far from satisfactory due to the inferior junction quality. Here, facile treatments were applied by pretreating the n-Si wafer in tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) solution and using a capping copper iodide (CuI) layer on the PEDOT:PSS layer to achieve a high-quality Schottky junction. Detailed photoelectric characteristics indicated that the surface recombination was greatly suppressed after TMAH pretreatment, which increased the thickness of the interfacial oxide layer. Furthermore, the CuI capping layer induced a strong inversion layer near the n-Si surface, resulting in an excellent field effect passivation. With the collaborative improvements in the interface chemical and electrical passivation, a competitive open-circuit voltage of 0.656 V and a high fill factor of 78.1% were achieved, leading to a stable efficiency of over 14.3% for the planar n-Si/PEDOT:PSS HSCs. Our findings suggest promising strategies to further exploit the full voltage as well as efficiency potentials for Si/organic solar cells.

  6. Surface preparation effects on efficient indium-tin-oxide-CdTe and CdS-CdTe heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werthen, J. G.; Fahrenbruch, A. L.; Bube, R. H.; Zesch, J. C.

    1983-05-01

    The effects of CdTe surface preparation and subsequent junction formation have been investigated through characterization of ITO/CdTe and CdS/CdTe heterojunction solar cells formed by electron beam evaporation of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) and CdS onto single crystal p-type CdTe. Surfaces investigated include air-cleaved (110) surfaces, bromine-in-methanol etched (110) and (111) surfaces, and teh latter surfaces subjected to a hydrogen heat treatment. Both air-cleaved and hydrogen heat treated surfaces have a stoichiometric Cd to Te ratio. The ITO/CdTe junction formation process involves an air heat treatment, which ahs serious effects on the behavior of junctions formed on these surfaces. Etched surfaces which have a large excesss of Te, are less affected by the junction formation process and result in ITO/CdTe heterojunctions with solar efficiencies of 9% (Vsc =20 mA/cm2). Use of low-doped CdTe results in junctions characterized by considerably larger open-circuit votages (Voc =0.81 V) which are attributable to increasing diode factors caused by a shift from interfacial recombination to recombination in the depletion region. Resulting solar efficiencies reach 10.5% which is the highest value reported to date for a genuine CdTe heterojunction, CdS/CdTe heterojunctions show a strong dependence on CdTe surface condition, but less influence on the junction formation process. Solar efficiencies of 7.5% on an etched and heat treated surface are observed. All of these ITO/CdTe and CdS/CdTe heterojunctions have been stable for at least 10 months.

  7. Highly Efficient and Visible Light Responsive Heterojunction Composites as Dual Photoelectrodes for Photocatalytic Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honghui Pan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, a novel photocatalytic fuel cell (PFC system involving a dual heterojunction photoelectrodes, viz. polyaniline/TiO2 nanotubes (PANI/TiO2 NTs photoanode and CuO/Co3O4 nanorods (CuO/Co3O4 NRs photocathode, has been designed. Compared to TiO2 NTs electrode of PFC, the present heterojunction design not only enhances the visible light absorption but also offers the higher efficiency in degrading Rhodamine B–a model organic pollutant. The study includes an evaluation of the dual performance of the photoelectrodes as well. Under visible-light irradiation of 3 mW cm−2, the cell composed of the photoanode PANI/TiO2 NTs and CuO/Co3O4 NRs photocathode forms an interior bias of +0.24 V within the PFC system. This interior bias facilitated the transfer of electrons from the photoanode to photocathode across the external circuit and combined with the holes generated therein along with a simultaneous power production. In this manner, the separation of electron/hole pair was achieved in the photoelectrodes by releasing the holes and electrons of PANI/TiO2 NTs photoanode and CuO/Co3O4 NRs photocathode, respectively. Using this PFC system, the degradation of Rhodamine B in aqueous media was achieved to an extent of 68.5% within a reaction duration of a four-hour period besides a simultaneous power generation of 85 μA cm−2.

  8. Unsymmetrical donor–acceptor–donor–acceptor type indoline based organic semiconductors with benzothiadiazole cores for solution-processed bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqin Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Bulk heterojunction (BHJ solar cells based on small molecules have attracted potential attention due to their promise of conveniently defined structures, high absorption coefficients, solution process-ability and easy fabrication. Three D–A–D–A type organic semiconductors (WS-31, WS-32 and WS-52 are synthesized, based on the indoline donor and benzotriazole auxiliary acceptor core, along with either bare thiophene or rigid cyclopentadithiophene as π bridge, rhodanine or carbonocyanidate as end-group. Their HOMO orbitals are delocalized throughout the whole molecules. Whereas the LUMOs are mainly localized on the acceptor part of structure, which reach up to benzothiadiazole, but no distribution on indoline donor. The first excitations for WS-31 and WS-32 are mainly originated by electron transition from HOMO to LUMO level, while for WS-52, partly related to transition between HOMO and LUMO+1 level. The small organic molecules are applied as donor components in bulk heterojunction (BHJ organic solar cells, using PC61BM as acceptor material to check their photovoltaic performances. The BHJ solar cells based on blended layer of WS-31:PC61BM and WS-32:PC61BM processed with chloroform show overall photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE of 0.56% and 1.02%, respectively. WS-32 based BHJ solar cells show a higher current density originated by its relatively larger driving force of photo-induced carrier in photo-active layer to LUMO of PC61BM. Keywords: Indoline donor, Unsymmetrical organic semiconductors, BHJ solar cells, Photovoltaic performances

  9. Solution-Processable Low-Molecular Weight Extended Arylacetylenes: Versatile p-Type Semiconductors for Field-Effect Transistors and Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvestri, Fabio [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Marrocchi, Assunta [Univ. of Perugia (Italy); Seri, Mirko [Univ. of Perugia (Italy); Kim, Choongik [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Marks, Tobin J. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Facchetti, Antonio [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Taticchi, Aldo [Univ. of Perugia (Italy)

    2010-04-08

    We report the synthesis and characterization of a series of five extended arylacetylenes, 9,10-bis-{[m,p-bis(hexyloxy)phenyl]ethynyl}-anthracene (A-P6t, 1), 9,10-bis-[(p-{[m,p-bis(hexyloxy) phenyl]ethynyl}phenyl)ethynyl]-anthracene (PA-P6t, 2), 4,7-bis-{[m,p-bis(hexyloxy)phenyl]ethynyl}-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (BTZ-P6t, 5), 4,7-bis(5-{[m,p-bis(hexyloxy)phenyl]ethynyl}thien-2-yl)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (TBTZ-P6t, 6), and 7,7'-({[m,p-bis(hexyloxy)phenyl]ethynyl}-2,1,3-benzothiadiazol-4,4'-ethynyl)-2,5-thiophene (BTZT-P6t, 7), and two arylvinylenes, 9,10-bis-{(E)-[m,p-bis(hexyloxy)phenyl]vinyl}-anthracene (A-P6d, 3), 9,10-bis-[(E)-(p-{(E)-[m,p-bis(hexyloxy)phenyl]vinyl}phenyl)vinyl]-anthracene (PA-P6d, 4). Trends in optical absorption spectra and electrochemical redox processes are first described. Next, the thin-film microstructures and morphologies of films deposited from solution under various conditions are investigated, and organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) and bulk heterojunction photovoltaic (OPV) cells fabricated. We find that substituting acetylenic for olefinic linkers on the molecular cores significantly enhances device performance. OFET measurements reveal that all seven of the semiconductors are FET-active and, depending on the backbone architecture, the arylacetylenes exhibit good p-type mobilities (μ up to ~0.1 cm2 V-1 s-1) when optimum film microstructural order is achieved. OPV cells using [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) as the electron acceptor exhibit power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) up to 1.3% under a simulated AM 1.5 solar irradiation of 100 mW/cm2. These results demonstrate that arylacetylenes are promising hole-transport materials for p-channel OFETs and promising donors for organic solar cells applications. A direct correlation between OFET arylacetylene hole mobility and OPV performance is identified and analyzed.

  10. Efficient Bulk Data Replication for the Earth System Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Alex [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gunter, Dan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Natarajan, Vijaya [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shoshani, Arie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Williams, Dean [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Long, Jeff [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hick, Jason [National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lee, Jason [National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, Berkeley, CA (United States); Dart, Eli [Energy Sciences Network, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2010-03-10

    The Earth System Grid (ESG) community faces the difficult challenge of managing the distribution of massive data sets to thousands of scientists around the world. To move data replicas efficiently, the ESG has developed a data transfer management tool called the Bulk Data Mover (BDM). We describe the performance results of the current system and plans towards extending the techniques developed so far for the up- coming project, in which the ESG will employ advanced networks to move multi-TB datasets with the ulti- mate goal of helping researchers understand climate change and its potential impacts on world ecology and society.

  11. Cadmium sulfide quantum dots sensitized tin dioxide-titanium dioxide heterojunction for efficient photoelectrochemical hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaodong; Zhang, Zemin; Chen, Lulu; Liu, Zhongping; Cheng, Jianli; Ni, Wei; Xie, Erqing; Wang, Bin

    2014-12-01

    CdS quantum dots (QDs)-sensitized branched TiO2/SnO2 heterojunction (B-SnO2 NF-CdS) with suitable combination of band gap and band alignment constitutes a promising architecture for photoanode for H2 generation. This novel structure combines the conflicting advantageous features of slow interfacial electron recombination, long electron life time, fast electron transport and visible light absorption. Remarkable photocurrent density of 3.40 mA cm-2 at zero bias (vs. standard calomel electrode) has been obtained in a three electrode configuration, more than two times as large as that of TiO2-CdS photoanode. The B-SnO2 NF-CdS yields a high maximum applied bias photon-to-current efficiency (ABPE) of 2.18% at an applied bias of ∼0.316 V vs. reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE), indicating excellent hydrogen generation performance at low bias. Moreover, on the basis of experimental results, we ascribe the remarkable "dark current/voltage" to the effect of primary cell. The influence of the primary cell on PEC hydrogen production is discussed.

  12. Increasing the efficiency of silicon heterojunction solar cells and modules by light soaking

    KAUST Repository

    Kobayashi, Eiji

    2017-06-24

    Silicon heterojunction solar cells use crystalline silicon (c-Si) wafers as optical absorbers and employ bilayers of doped/intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) to form passivating contacts. Recently, we demonstrated that such solar cells increase their operating voltages and thus their conversion efficiencies during light exposure. We found that this performance increase is due to improved passivation of the a-Si:H/c-Si interface and is induced by injected charge carriers (either by light soaking or forward-voltage biasing of the device). Here, we discuss this counterintuitive behavior and establish that: (i) the performance increase is observed in solar cells as well as modules; (ii) this phenomenon requires the presence of doped a-Si:H films, but is independent from whether light is incident from the a-Si:H(p) or the a-Si:H(n) side; (iii) UV and blue photons do not play a role in this effect; (iv) the performance increase can be observed under illumination intensities as low as 20Wm (0.02-sun) and appears to be almost identical in strength when under 1-sun (1000Wm); (v) the underlying physical mechanism likely differs from annealing-induced surface passivation.

  13. Energy level and thickness control on PEDOT:PSS layer for efficient planar heterojunction perovskite cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunhua; Zhang, Chujun; Tong, Sichao; Xia, Huayan; Wang, Lijuan; Xie, Haipeng; Gao, Yongli; Yang, Junliang

    2018-01-01

    Efficient planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells (PHJ-PSCs) with an architecture of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/CH3NH3PbI3/PCBM/Al were fabricated by controlling the energy level and thickness of the PEDOT:PSS layer, where the PEDOT:PSS precursor was diluted with deionized water (H2O) and isopropyl alcohol (IPA), i.e. W-PEDOT:PSS and I-PEDOT:PSS. The performance parameters of the PHJ-PSCs showed soaring enhancement after employing W-PEDOT:PSS or I-PEDOT:PSS instead of pristine PEDOT:PSS (P-PEDOT:PSS), resulting in an increase of the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of W-PEDOT:PSS-based PHJ-PSCs to 15.60% from 11.95% for P-PEDOT:PSS-based PHJ-PSCs. The performance improvement results from two aspects. On the one hand, as compared to P-PEDOT:PSS, the occupied molecular orbital energy (HOMO) level of dilute PEDOT:PSS showed an impressive decrease and can well match the valence band of CH3NH3PbI3 film, resulting in less energy loss and a significant improvement in the open-circuit voltage (V oc). On the other hand, the dilute PEDOT:PSS could produce a thinner film as compared with the P-PEDOT:PSS, which also played an important role in the performance of the PHJ-PSCs. Furthermore, the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) results indicated that the interface between perovskite and PEDOT:PSS was greatly improved by employing W-PEDOT:PSS or I-PEDOT:PSS, leading to an obvious decrease in the series resistance (R s) and an increase in the recombination resistance (R rec). The research demonstrated that diluting PEDOT:PSS with a common solvent, such as H2O and IPA, is a feasible low-temperature way of achieving efficient PHJ-PSCs.

  14. Bulk- and layer-heterojunction phototransistors based on poly [2-methoxy-5-(2′-ethylhexyloxy-p-phenylenevinylene)] and PbS quantum dot hybrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Xiaoxian; Zhang, Yating, E-mail: yating@tju.edu.cn; Wang, Ran; Cao, Mingxuan; Che, Yongli; Wang, Jianlong; Wang, Haiyan; Jin, Lufan; Ding, Xin; Zhang, Guizhong; Yao, Jianquan [Institute of Laser and Opto-Electronics, College of Precision Instruments and Opto-Electronics Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Key Laboratory of Opto-Electronics Information Technology (Tianjin University), Ministry of Education, Tianjin 300072 (China); Dai, Haitao [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials Physics and Preparing Technology, School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2015-06-22

    The responsivity (R) of a thin film photodetector is proportional to the product of its photo-induced carrier density (n) and mobility (μ). However, when choosing between layer heterojunction (LH) and bulk heterojunction (BH) field-effect phototransistors (FEpTs), it is still unclear which of the two device structures is more conducive to photodetection. A comparison study is performed on the two structures based on polymer and PbS quantum dot hybrids. Both devices exhibit ambipolar behavior, with μ{sub E} ≈ μ{sub H} = 3.7 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} for BH-FEpTs and μ{sub H} = 36 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} and μ{sub E} = 52 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} for LH-FEpTs. Because of the improvements in μ and the channel order degree (α), the responsivity of LH-FEpTs is as high as 10{sup 1 }A/W, which is as much as two orders of magnitude higher than that of BH-FEpTs (10{sup −1}A/W) under the same conditions. Although the large area of the BH improves both the exciton separation degree (β) and n in the BH-FEpT, the lack of an effective transport mechanism becomes the main constraint on high device responsivity. Therefore, LH-FEpTs are better candidates for use as photo detectors, and a “three-high” principle of high α, β, and μ is found to be required for high responsivity.

  15. Low-temperature processed ultrathin TiO_2 for efficient planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Xiaokun; Hu, Ziyang; Xu, Jie; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Jing; Zhu, Yuejin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An ultrathin and discrete TiO_2 (u-TiO_2) was fabricated at low temperature. • High-performance perovskite solar cells based u-TiO_2was realized. • u-TiO_2 between perovskite and FTO functions as a bridge for electron transport. • u-TiO_2 accelerates electron transfer and alleviates charge recombination. - Abstract: A compact TiO_2 (c-TiO_2) layer fabricated by spin coating or spray pyrolysis following a high-temperature sintering is a routine in high-performance planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells. Here, we demonstrate an effective low-temperature approach to fabricate an ultrathin and discrete TiO_2 (u-TiO_2) for enhancing photovoltaic performance of perovskite solar cells. Via hydrolysis of low-concentration TiCl_4 solution at 70 °C, u-TiO_2 was grown on a fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate, forming the electron selective contact with the photoactive CH_3NH_3PbI_3 film. The perovskite solar cell using u-TiO_2 achieves an efficiency of 13.42%, which is compared to 13.56% of the device using c-TiO_2 prepared by high-temperature sintering. Cyclic voltammetry, steady-state photoluminescence spectroscopy and electrical impedance spectroscopy were conducted to study interface engineering and charge carrier dynamics. Our results suggest that u-TiO_2 functions as a bridge for electron transport between perovskite and FTO, which accelerates electron transfer and alleviates charge recombination.

  16. High-efficiency omnidirectional photoresponses based on monolayer lateral p–n heterojunctions

    KAUST Repository

    Tsai, Meng-Lin

    2016-10-28

    Electrical and optical properties of lateral monolayer WSe2–MoS2 p–n heterojunctions were characterized to demonstrate a high responsivity of 0.26 A W−1 with an excellent omnidirectional photodetection capability. The heterojunction functioning as a diode exhibits a prominent gate-tuning behavior with an ideality factor of 1.25. In addition, ultrafast photoresponse, low-light detectability, and high-temperature operation have been achieved. These unique characteristics pave a way for the future development of sub-nano semiconductor devices.

  17. How the charge-neutrality level of interface states controls energy level alignment in cathode contacts of organic bulk-heterojunction solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Antonio; Marchesi, Luís F; Boix, Pablo P; Ruiz-Raga, Sonia; Ripolles-Sanchis, Teresa; Garcia-Belmonte, Germà; Bisquert, Juan

    2012-04-24

    Electronic equilibration at the metal-organic interface, leading to equalization of the Fermi levels, is a key process in organic optoelectronic devices. How the energy levels are set across the interface determines carrier extraction at the contact and also limits the achievable open-circuit voltage under illumination. Here, we report an extensive investigation of the cathode energy equilibration of organic bulk-heterojunction solar cells. We show that the potential to balance the mismatch between the cathode metal and the organic layer Fermi levels is divided into two contributions: spatially extended band bending in the organic bulk and voltage drop at the interface dipole layer caused by a net charge transfer. We scan the operation of the cathode under a varied set of conditions, using metals of different work functions in the range of ∼2 eV, different fullerene acceptors, and several cathode interlayers. The measurements allow us to locate the charge-neutrality level within the interface density of sates and calculate the corresponding dipole layer strength. The dipole layer withstands a large part of the total Fermi level mismatch when the polymer:fullerene blend ratio approaches ∼1:1, producing the practical alignment between the metal Fermi level and the charge-neutrality level. Origin of the interface states is linked with fullerene reduced molecules covering the metal contact. The dipole contribution, and consequently the band bending, is highly sensitive to the nature and amount of fullerene molecules forming the interface density of states. Our analysis provides a detailed picture of the evolution of the potentials in the bulk and the interface of the solar cell when forward voltage is applied or when photogeneration takes place.

  18. Fullerene-Grafted Graphene for Efficient Bulk Heterojunction Polymer Photovoltaic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    in recent years. Owing to its unique electrical, thermal , and mechanical properties , graphene and its derivatives (e.g., gra- phene oxide, GO) have...decorated gra- phene electrodes for glucose biosensors with high sensitivity and fast response.15 Another allotropic carbon nanostructure, fullerene C60 ...charge transport properties associated with graphene. Indeed, previous studies have shown that C60 -decorated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are promising

  19. Diphenylmethanofullerenes: New and efficient acceptors in bulk-heterojunction solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riedel, I; von Hauff, E; Parisi, H; Martin, N.; Giacalone, F; Dyakonov, Vladimir

    2005-01-01

    A novel fullerene derivative, 1,1-bis(4,4′-dodecyloxyphenyl)-(5,6) C61, diphenylmethanofullerene (DPM-12), has been investigated as a possible electron acceptor in photovoltaic devices, in combination with two different conjugated polymers poly[2-methoxy-5-(3′,7′-dimethyloctyloxy)-para-phenylene

  20. An Organic D-π-A Dye for Record Efficiency Solid-State Sensitized Heterojunction Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Cai, Ning

    2011-04-13

    The high molar absorption coefficient organic D-π-A dye C220 exhibits more than 6% certified electric power conversion efficiency at AM 1.5G solar irradiation (100 mW cm-2) in a solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell using 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis(N,N-dimethoxyphenylamine)-9,9′- spirobifluorene (spiro-MeOTAD) as the organic hole-transporting material. This contributes to a new record (6.08% by NREL) for this type of sensitized heterojunction photovoltaic device. Efficient charge generation is proved by incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency spectra. Transient photovoltage and photocurrent decay measurements showed that the enhanced performance achieved with C220 partially stems from the high charge collection efficiency over a wide potential range. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  1. Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cell with Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotubes in the Active Layer: Effect of Nanocomposite Synthesis Technique on Photovoltaic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Keru

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposites of poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT and nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (N-CNTs have been synthesized by two methods; specifically, direct solution mixing and in situ polymerization. The nanocomposites were characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray dispersive spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectrophotometry, photoluminescence spectrophotometry (PL, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and dispersive surface energy analysis. The nanocomposites were used in the active layer of a bulk heterojunction organic solar cell with the composition ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:N-CNTS:PCBM/LiF/Al. TEM and SEM analysis showed that the polymer successfully wrapped the N-CNTs. FTIR results indicated good π-π interaction within the nanocomposite synthesized by in situ polymerization as opposed to samples made by direct solution mixing. Dispersive surface energies of the N-CNTs and nanocomposites supported the fact that polymer covered the N-CNTs well. J-V analysis show that good devices were formed from the two nanocomposites, however, the in situ polymerization nanocomposite showed better photovoltaic characteristics.

  2. Cross Kelvin force microscopy and conductive atomic force microscopy studies of organic bulk heterojunction blends for local morphology and electrical behavior analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villeneuve-Faure, C., E-mail: Christina.villeneuve@laplace.unvi-tlse.fr [LAPLACE, Université Paul Sabatier, 118 Route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse (France); UPS, INPT, Université de Toulouse, LCC 31077 Toulouse (France); Le Borgne, D. [LAPLACE, Université Paul Sabatier, 118 Route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse (France); UPS, INPT, Université de Toulouse, LCC 31077 Toulouse (France); LCC-CNRS, 205 route de Narbonne, F-31077 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Bedel-Pereira, E.; Séguy, I. [UPS, INPT, Université de Toulouse, LCC 31077 Toulouse (France); LAAS-CNRS, 7 Avenue du Colonel Roche, 31077 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Moineau Chane-Ching, K. I.; Hernandez-Maldonado, D. [UPS, INPT, Université de Toulouse, LCC 31077 Toulouse (France); LCC-CNRS, 205 route de Narbonne, F-31077 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France)

    2015-02-07

    Bulk Heterojunction (BHJ) organic photovoltaic devices performances depend on the relative organization and physical properties of the electron-donor and -acceptor materials. In this paper, BHJs of poly(3-hexyl-thiophene) (P3HT) associated with an electron acceptor material, 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)-propyl-1-phenyl[6,6]C6 (PCBM) or [Ni(4dodpedt){sub 2}], are studied in terms of morphology, ordering, and electrical properties. First, comparison between the two BHJs performed by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Raman characterizations shows that P3HT structuration is improved by blending with [Ni(4dodpedt){sub 2}]. Then, the relationship between charges trapping, electrical properties, and film morphology is investigated using conductive AFM and Kelvin Force Microscopy. Measurements in dark condition and under solar cell simulator provide complementary information on electrical phenomena in these organic nanostructures. Finally, time dependent measurement highlights the influence of charges stacking on conduction. Specifically, we demonstrate that charge accumulation initiated by illumination remains valid after switching off the light, and induces the modification in current versus voltage characteristic of P3HT: PCBM blend. Finally, we observe a current increasing which can be attributed to the energy barrier decreasing due to charges trapping in PCBM.

  3. Single Atomically Sharp Lateral Monolayer p-n Heterojunction Solar Cells with Extraordinarily High Power Conversion Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Meng-Lin; Li, Ming-Yang; Retamal, José Ramón Durán; Lam, Kai-Tak; Lin, Yung-Chang; Suenaga, Kazu; Chen, Lih-Juann; Liang, Gengchiau; Li, Lain-Jong; He, Jr-Hau

    2017-08-01

    The recent development of 2D monolayer lateral semiconductor has created new paradigm to develop p-n heterojunctions. Albeit, the growth methods of these heterostructures typically result in alloy structures at the interface, limiting the development for high-efficiency photovoltaic (PV) devices. Here, the PV properties of sequentially grown alloy-free 2D monolayer WSe 2 -MoS 2 lateral p-n heterojunction are explores. The PV devices show an extraordinary power conversion efficiency of 2.56% under AM 1.5G illumination. The large surface active area enables the full exposure of the depletion region, leading to excellent omnidirectional light harvesting characteristic with only 5% reduction of efficiency at incident angles up to 75°. Modeling studies demonstrate the PV devices comply with typical principles, increasing the feasibility for further development. Furthermore, the appropriate electrode-spacing design can lead to environment-independent PV properties. These robust PV properties deriving from the atomically sharp lateral p-n interface can help develop the next-generation photovoltaics. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Single Atomically Sharp Lateral Monolayer p-n Heterojunction Solar Cells with Extraordinarily High Power Conversion Efficiency

    KAUST Repository

    Tsai, Meng-Lin

    2017-06-26

    The recent development of 2D monolayer lateral semiconductor has created new paradigm to develop p-n heterojunctions. Albeit, the growth methods of these heterostructures typically result in alloy structures at the interface, limiting the development for high-efficiency photovoltaic (PV) devices. Here, the PV properties of sequentially grown alloy-free 2D monolayer WSe-MoS lateral p-n heterojunction are explores. The PV devices show an extraordinary power conversion efficiency of 2.56% under AM 1.5G illumination. The large surface active area enables the full exposure of the depletion region, leading to excellent omnidirectional light harvesting characteristic with only 5% reduction of efficiency at incident angles up to 75°. Modeling studies demonstrate the PV devices comply with typical principles, increasing the feasibility for further development. Furthermore, the appropriate electrode-spacing design can lead to environment-independent PV properties. These robust PV properties deriving from the atomically sharp lateral p-n interface can help develop the next-generation photovoltaics.

  5. Self-assembly graphitic carbon nitride quantum dots anchored on TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays: An efficient heterojunction for pollutants degradation under solar light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Jingyang [Environmental Engineering Program, School of Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Zhu, Lin [Fok Ying Tung Graduate School, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Geng, Ping [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Chen, Guohua, E-mail: kechengh@ust.hk [Environmental Engineering Program, School of Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Fok Ying Tung Graduate School, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2016-10-05

    Highlights: • Carbon nitride quantum dots (CNQDs) were decorated onto TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays (NTAs). • The CNQDs/TiO{sub 2} NTAs exhibits much improved photoelectrochemical activity. • The heterojunction displays efficient removal efficiencies for RhB and phenol. • Pollutants degradation mechanism over CNQDs/TiO{sub 2} NTAs was clarified. - Abstract: In this study, an efficient heterojunction was constructed by anchoring graphitic carbon nitride quantum dots onto TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays through hydrothermal reaction strategy. The prepared graphitic carbon nitride quantum dots, which were prepared by solid-thermal reaction and sequential dialysis process, act as a sensitizer to enhance light absorption. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the charge transfer and separation in the formed heterojunction were significantly improved compared with pristine TiO{sub 2}. The prepared heterojunction was used as a photoanode, exhibiting much improved photoelectrochemical capability and excellent photo-stability under solar light illumination. The photoelectrocatalytic activities of prepared heterojunction were demonstrated by degradation of RhB and phenol in aqueous solution. The kinetic constants of RhB and phenol degradation using prepared photoelectrode are 2.4 times and 4.9 times higher than those of pristine TiO{sub 2}, respectively. Moreover, hydroxyl radicals are demonstrated to be dominant active radicals during the pollutants degradation.

  6. Optimalization activity of ZnO NR/TiO2 NR-P3HT as an active layer based on hybrid bulk heterojunction on dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saputri, Liya Nikmatul Maula Zulfa; Ramelan, Ari Handono; Hanif, Qonita Awliya; Hasanah, Yesi Ihdina Fityatal; Prajanira, Lau Bekti; Wahyuningsih, Sayekti

    2016-01-01

    Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) with metal inorganic and conjugated organic polymer mixture, ZnO NR/TiO 2 NR-P3HT as an active layer based on hybrid bulk heterojunction has been studied. The hybrid material was used to optimize DSSC performs for better efficiency than only TiO 2 as an electrode. Synthesis of TiO 2 nanorods (NR) was conducted by ball milling 1000 rpm for 4 hours and strong base reaction by hydrothermal process at 120 °C overnight. And the ZnO NR was synthesized from Zn(NO 3 ) 2 .4H 2 O precusor by hydrotermal process at 90 °C for 5 hours and calcined on various temperature s of 400, 600, and 800 °C. ZnO NR was coated into an Tndium Tin Oxide (TTO) glass to collecting electron s effectively, where TiO 2 NR were incorporated with poly(3 -hexylthiophene) (P3HT) on various concentration s of 5, 10, 15 mg/mL to obtain a larger surface area. Material characterization were performed by X -Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Uv-Vis spectrophotometer. For an application of DSSC were measured by T-V Keithley Multimeter and the efficiency of DSSC at various P3HT’s concentrations of 5, 10, 15 mg/mL were 7.44 × 10 −3 , 0.0114, 0.0104, respectively. The maximum efficiency of DSSC was showed when TiO 2 NR-P3HT’s concentration was 10 mg/mL.

  7. Optimalization activity of ZnO NR/TiO2 NR-P3HT as an active layer based on hybrid bulk heterojunction on dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saputri, Liya Nikmatul Maula Zulfa; Ramelan, Ari Handono; Hanif, Qonita Awliya; Hasanah, Yesi Ihdina Fityatal; Prajanira, Lau Bekti; Wahyuningsih, Sayekti, E-mail: sayektiw@mipa.uns.ac.id [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Sebelas Maret University, Ir.Sutami 36A Kentingan Surakarta 57/26, Central Java (Indonesia)

    2016-04-19

    Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) with metal inorganic and conjugated organic polymer mixture, ZnO NR/TiO{sub 2} NR-P3HT as an active layer based on hybrid bulk heterojunction has been studied. The hybrid material was used to optimize DSSC performs for better efficiency than only TiO{sub 2} as an electrode. Synthesis of TiO{sub 2} nanorods (NR) was conducted by ball milling 1000 rpm for 4 hours and strong base reaction by hydrothermal process at 120 °C overnight. And the ZnO NR was synthesized from Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}.4H{sub 2}O precusor by hydrotermal process at 90 °C for 5 hours and calcined on various temperature s of 400, 600, and 800 °C. ZnO NR was coated into an Tndium Tin Oxide (TTO) glass to collecting electron s effectively, where TiO{sup 2} NR were incorporated with poly(3 -hexylthiophene) (P3HT) on various concentration s of 5, 10, 15 mg/mL to obtain a larger surface area. Material characterization were performed by X -Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Uv-Vis spectrophotometer. For an application of DSSC were measured by T-V Keithley Multimeter and the efficiency of DSSC at various P3HT’s concentrations of 5, 10, 15 mg/mL were 7.44 × 10{sup −3}, 0.0114, 0.0104, respectively. The maximum efficiency of DSSC was showed when TiO{sup 2} NR-P3HT’s concentration was 10 mg/mL.

  8. High efficiency heterojunction solar cells on n-type kerfless mono crystalline silicon wafers by epitaxial growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Eiji; Watabe, Yoshimi; Hao, Ruiying; Ravi, T. S.

    2015-06-01

    We present a heterojunction (HJ) solar cell on n-type epitaxially grown kerfless crystalline-silicon (c-Si) with a conversion efficiency of 22.5%. The total cell area is 243.4 cm2. The cell has a short-circuit current density of 38.6 mA/cm2, an open-circuit voltage of 735 mV, and a fill factor of 0.791. The key advantages and technological tasks of epitaxial wafers for HJ solar cells are discussed, in comparison with conventional n-type Czockralski c-Si wafers. The combination of HJ and kerfless technology can lead to high conversion efficiency with a potential at low cost.

  9. Efficient Crystalline Si/Poly(ethylene dioxythiophene):Poly(styrene sulfonate):Graphene Oxide Composite Heterojunction Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Masahiro; Tang, Zeguo; Ishikawa, Ryo; Gotou, Takuya; Ueno, Keiji; Shirai, Hajime

    2012-03-01

    Efficient crystalline silicon (c-Si) heterojunction solar cells with conductive poly(ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and graphene oxide (GO) composite are demonstrated using a structure of Ag/PEDOT:PSS/PEDOT:PSS:GO composite/c-Si (100)(ρ: 3-5 Ω.cm)/Al. The power-conversion efficiency η increased to 10.7% under illumination of AM1.5 100 mW/cm2 simulated solar light by adjusting the PEDOT:PSS and GO mixing concentration ratio. The GO addition to conductive PEDOT:PSS suppressed electron recombination and/or promoted the hole current at the anode. The soluble PEDOT:PSS:GO composite is promising as a hole-transporting transparent conducting layer for c-Si photovoltaic applications.

  10. Enhancement of short-circuit current density in polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells comprising plasmonic silver nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yuzhao; Lin, Xiaofeng; Ou, Jiemei; Chen, Xudong, E-mail: cescxd@mail.sysu.edu.cn, E-mail: stszx@mail.sysu.edu.cn, E-mail: chenyj69@mail.sysu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Polymeric Composite and Functional Materials of Ministry of Education of China, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Qing, Jian; Zhong, Zhenfeng; Zhou, Xiang, E-mail: cescxd@mail.sysu.edu.cn, E-mail: stszx@mail.sysu.edu.cn, E-mail: chenyj69@mail.sysu.edu.cn; Chen, Yujie, E-mail: cescxd@mail.sysu.edu.cn, E-mail: stszx@mail.sysu.edu.cn, E-mail: chenyj69@mail.sysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Hu, Chenglong [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Chemical Materials and Devices of Ministry of Education, Jianghan University, Wuhan 430056 (China)

    2014-03-24

    We demonstrate that the influence of plasmonic effects based on silver nanowires (Ag NWs) on the characteristics of polymer solar cells (PSCs). The solution-processed Ag NWs are situated at the interface of anode buffer layer and active layer, which could enhance the performance especially the photocurrent of PSCs by scattering, localized surface plasmon resonance, and surface plasmon polaritons. Plasmonic effects are confirmed by the enhancement of extinction spectra, external quantum efficiency, and steady state photoluminescence. Consequently, the short-circuit current density (J{sub sc}) and power conversion efficiency enhance about 24% and 18%, respectively, under AM1.5 illumination when Ag NWs plasmonic nanostructure incorporated into PSCs.

  11. Probing the Energy Level Alignment and the Correlation with Open-Circuit Voltage in Solution-Processed Polymeric Bulk Heterojunction Photovoltaic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qing-Dan; Li, Ho-Wa; Cheng, Yuanhang; Guan, Zhiqiang; Liu, Taili; Ng, Tsz-Wai; Lee, Chun-Sing; Tsang, Sai-Wing

    2016-03-23

    Energy level alignment at the organic donor and acceptor interface is a key to determine the photovoltaic performance in organic solar cells, but direct probing of such energy alignment is still challenging especially for solution-processed bulk heterojunction (BHJ) thin films. Here we report a systematic investigation on probing the energy level alignment with different approaches in five commonly used polymer:[6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) BHJ systems. We find that by tuning the weight ratio of polymer to PCBM the electronic features from both polymer and PCBM can be obtained by photoemission spectroscopy. Using this approach, we find that some of the BHJ blends simply follow vacuum level alignment, but others show strong energy level shifting as a result of Fermi level pinning. Independently, by measuring the temperature-dependent open-circuit voltage (VOC), we find that the effective energy gap (Eeff), the energy difference between the highest occupied molecular orbital of the polymer donor (EHOMO-D) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of the PCBM acceptor (ELUMO-A), obtained by photoemission spectroscopy in all polymer:PCBM blends has an excellent agreement with the extrapolated VOC at 0 K. Consequently, the photovoltage loss of various organic BHJ photovoltaic devices at room temperature is in a range of 0.3-0.6 V. It is believed that the demonstrated direct measurement approach of the energy level alignment in solution-processed organic BHJ will bring deeper insight into the origin of the VOC and the corresponding photovoltage loss mechanism in organic photovoltaic cells.

  12. Temperature dependent charge transport studies across thermodynamic glass transition in P3HT:PCBM bulk heterojunction: insight from J-V and impedance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Atri; Rahaman, Abdulla Bin; Banerjee, Debamalya

    2018-03-01

    Temperature dependent charge transport properties of P3HT:PCBM bulk heterojunction are analysed by dc and ac measurements under dark conditions across a wide temperature range of 110-473 K, which includes the thermodynamic glass transition temperature (Tg ˜320 K) of the system. A change from Ohmic conduction to space charge limited current conduction at higher (⩾1.2 V) applied bias voltages above  ⩾200 K is observed from J-V characteristics. From capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurement at room temperature, the occurrence of a peak near the built-in voltage is observed below the dielectric relaxation frequency, originating from the competition between drift and diffusion driven motions of charges. Carrier concentration (N) is calculated from C-V measurements taken at different temperatures. Room temperature mobility values at various applied bias voltages are in accordance with that obtained from transient charge extraction by linearly increasing voltage measurement. Sample impedance is measured over five decades of frequency across temperature range by using lock-in detection. This data is used to extract temperature dependence of carrier mobility (μ), and dc conductivity (σ_dc ) which is low frequency extrapolation of ac conductivity. An activation energy of  ˜126 meV for the carrier hopping process at the metal-semiconductor interface is estimated from temperature dependence of σ_dc . Above T g, μ levels off to a constant value, whereas σ_dc starts to decrease after a transition knee at T g that can be seen as a combined effect of changes in μ and N. All these observed changes across T g can be correlated to enhanced polymer motion above the glass transition.

  13. Impact of the Nature of the Side-Chains on the Polymer-Fullerene Packing in the Mixed Regions of Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Tonghui

    2016-06-20

    Polymer-fullerene packing in mixed regions of a bulk heterojunction solar cell is expected to play a major role in exciton-dissociation, charge-separation, and charge-recombination processes. Here, molecular dynamics simulations are combined with density functional theory calculations to examine the impact of nature and location of polymer side-chains on the polymer-fullerene packing in mixed regions. The focus is on poly-benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene-thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione (PBDTTPD) as electron-donating material and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) as electron-accepting material. Three polymer side-chain patterns are considered: i) linear side-chains on both benzodithiophene (BDT) and thienopyrroledione (TPD) moieties; ii) two linear side-chains on BDT and a branched side-chain on TPD; and iii) two branched side-chains on BDT and a linear side-chain on TPD. Increasing the number of branched side-chains is found to decrease the polymer packing density and thereby to enhance PBDTTPD–PC61 BM mixing. The nature and location of side-chains are found to play a determining role in the probability of finding PC61BM molecules close to either BDT or TPD. The electronic couplings relevant for the exciton-dissociation and charge-recombination processes are also evaluated. Overall, the findings are consistent with the experimental evolution of the PBDTTPD–PC61BM solar-cell performance as a function of side-chain patterns. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

  14. 25th anniversary article: isoindigo-based polymers and small molecules for bulk heterojunction solar cells and field effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ergang; Mammo, Wendimagegn; Andersson, Mats R

    2014-03-26

    Driven by the potential advantages and promising applications of organic solar cells, donor-acceptor (D-A) polymers have been intensively investigated in the past years. One of the strong electron-withdrawing groups that were widely used as acceptors for the construction of D-A polymers for applications in polymer solar cells and FETs is isoindigo. The isoindigo-based polymer solar cells have reached efficiencies up to ∼7% and hole mobilities as high as 3.62 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) have been realized by FETs based on isoindigo polymers. Over one hundred isoindigo-based small molecules and polymers have been developed in only three years. This review is an attempt to summarize the structures and properties of the isoindigo-based polymers and small molecules that have been reported in the literature since their inception in 2010. Focus has been given only to the syntheses and device performances of those polymers and small molecules that were designed for use in solar cells and FETs. Attempt has been made to deduce structure-property relationships that would guide the design of isoindigo-based materials. It is expected that this review will present useful guidelines for the design of efficient isoindigo-based materials for applications in solar cells and FETs. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Enhanced Power Conversion Efficiency of Graphene/Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells Through NiO Induced Doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuru, Cihan; Yavuz, Serdar; Kargar, Alireza; Choi, Duyoung; Choi, Chulmin; Rustomji, Cyrus; Jin, Sungho; Bandaru, Prabhakar R

    2016-01-01

    We report a doping strategy, where nickel oxide (NiO) nanoparticle film coating is employed for graphene/Si heterojunction solar cells to improve the power conversion efficiency (PCE). NiO doping has been shown to improve the short circuit current (J(SC)) by 12%, open circuit voltage (V(OC)) by 25% and fill factor (FF) by 145% of the cells, in turn increasing the PCE from 1.37% to 4.91%. Furthermore, NiO doped graphene/Si solar cells don't show any significant performance degradation over 10 days revealing that NiO doping can be a promising approach for practical applications of graphene in solar cells.

  16. The dependence of the cathode architecture on the photoactive layer morphology in bulk-heterojunction polymeric solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Dashan; Wang, Wenbo; Wang, Mingxia; Jin, Song; Zhang, Jidong

    2014-12-01

    Poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) have been chosen to prepare binary and ternary blend thin films. In the case of the binary blend thin films of P3HT:PCBM used as the photoactive layers, the LiF/Al cathode offered nearly the same power conversion efficiency (PCE) as bathocuproine (BCP) 2 nm Al-1 and BCP 10 nm Al-1 cathodes. While ternary blend thin films of P3HT:PCBM:PMMA were applied as the photoactive layers, the BCP 2 nm Al-1 cathode showed an increase of roughly 42% in the PCE relative to ternary blend thin film with LiF/Al and BCP 10 nm Al-1 cathodes. The vertical phase separation of P3HT and PCBM was found to be more suppressed in the ternary blend films than in the binary ones, due to the confinement of PMMA. The P3HT:PCBM:PMMA with the BCP 2 nm Al-1 cathode showed an increase of 20% in the PCE as compared to the binary thin film of P3HT:PCBM with the LiF/Al cathode. We provide some insights into the correlation between the morphology control of active layer and cathode structure, useful for the development of polymeric solar cells towards the commercialization.

  17. Nature of the Binding Interactions between Conjugated Polymer Chains and Fullerenes in Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ravva, Mahesh Kumar

    2016-10-24

    Blends of π-conjugated polymers and fullerene derivatives are ubiquitous as the active layers of organic solar cells. However, a detailed understanding of the weak noncovalent interactions at the molecular level between the polymer chains and fullerenes is still lacking and could help in the design of more efficient photoactive layers. Here, using a combination of long-range corrected density functional theory calculations and molecular dynamic simulations, we report a thorough characterization of the nature of binding between fullerenes (C60 and PC61BM) and poly(benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene–thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione) (PBDTTPD) chains. We illustrate the variations in binding strength when the fullerenes dock on the electron-rich vs electron-poor units of the polymer as well as the importance of the role played by the polymer and fullerene side chains and the orientations of the PC61BM molecules with respect to the polymer backbones.

  18. Evidence for near-Surface NiOOH Species in Solution-Processed NiOx Selective Interlayer Materials: Impact on Energetics and the Performance of Polymer Bulk Heterojunction Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratcliff, Erin L.; Meyer, Jens; Steirer, K. Xerxes; Garcia, Andres; Berry, Joseph J.; Ginley, David S.; Olson, Dana C.; Kahn, Antoine; Armstrong, Neal R.

    2011-11-22

    The characterization and implementation of solution-processed, wide bandgap nickel oxide (NiO{sub x}) hole-selective interlayer materials used in bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) organic photovoltaics (OPVs) are discussed. The surface electrical properties and charge selectivity of these thin films are strongly dependent upon the surface chemistry, band edge energies, and midgap state concentrations, as dictated by the ambient conditions and film pretreatments. Surface states were correlated with standards for nickel oxide, hydroxide, and oxyhydroxide components, as determined using monochromatic X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Ultraviolet and inverse photoemission spectroscopy measurements show changes in the surface chemistries directly impact the valence band energies. O₂-plasma treatment of the as-deposited NiO{sub x} films was found to introduce the dipolar surface species nickel oxyhydroxide (NiOOH), rather than the p-dopant Ni₂O₃, resulting in an increase of the electrical band gap energy for the near-surface region from 3.1 to 3.6 eV via a vacuum level shift. Electron blocking properties of the as-deposited and O₂-plasma treated NiO{sub x} films are compared using both electron-only and BHJ devices. O₂-plasma-treated NiO{sub x} interlayers produce electron-only devices with lower leakage current and increased turn on voltages. The differences in behavior of the different pretreated interlayers appears to arise from differences in local density of states that comprise the valence band of the NiO{sub x} interlayers and changes to the band gap energy, which influence their hole-selectivity. The presence of NiOOH states in these NiO{sub x} films and the resultant chemical reactions at the oxide/organic interfaces in OPVs is predicted to play a significant role in controlling OPV device efficiency and lifetime.

  19. Reduction of Charge-Carrier Recombination at ZnO-Polymer Blend Interfaces in PTB7-Based Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells Using Regular Device Structure: Impact of ZnO Nanoparticle Size and Surfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Dkhil, Sadok; Gaceur, Meriem; Diallo, Abdou Karim; Didane, Yahia; Liu, Xianjie; Fahlman, Mats; Margeat, Olivier; Ackermann, Jörg; Videlot-Ackermann, Christine

    2017-05-24

    Cathode interfacial layers, also called electron extraction layers (EELs), based on zinc oxide (ZnO) have been studied in polymer-blend solar cells toward optimization of the opto-electric properties. Bulk heterojunction solar cells based on poly({4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl}{3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl}) (PTB7) and [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC 70 BM) were realized in regular structure with all-solution-processed interlayers. A pair of commercially available surfactants, ethanolamine (EA) and ethylene glycol (EG), were used to modify the surface of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) in alcohol-based dispersion. The influence of ZnO particle size was also studied by preparing dispersions of two NP diameters (6 versus 11 nm). Here, we show that performance improvement can be obtained in polymer solar cells via the use of solution-processed ZnO EELs based on surface-modified nanoparticles. By the optimizing of the ZnO dispersion, surfactant ratio, and the resulting morphology of EELs, PTB7/PC 70 BM solar cells with a power-conversion efficiency of 8.2% could be obtained using small sized EG-modified ZnO NPs that allow the clear enhancement of the performance of solution-processed photovoltaic devices compared to state-of-the-art ZnO-based cathode layers.

  20. The Impact of Grain Alignment of the Electron Transporting Layer on the Performance of Inverted Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Banavoth, Murali

    2015-08-13

    This report presents a new strategy for improving solar cell power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) through grain alignment and morphology control of the ZnO electron transport layer (ETL) prepared by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The systematic control over the ETL\\'s grain alignment and thickness is shown, by varying the deposition pressure and operating substrate temperature during the deposition. Notably, a high PCE of 6.9%, short circuit current density (Jsc) of 12.8 mA cm-2, open circuit voltage (Voc) of 910 mV, and fill factor of 59% are demonstrated using the poly(benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b\\']dithiophene-thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione):[6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester polymer blend with ETLs prepared at room temperature exhibiting oriented and aligned rod-like ZnO grains. Increasing the deposition temperature during the ZnO sputtering induces morphological cleavage of the rod-like ZnO grains and therefore reduced conductivity from 7.2 × 10-13 to ≈1.7 × 10-14 S m-1 and PCE from 6.9% to 4.28%. An investigation of the charge carrier dynamics by femtosecond (fs) transient absorption spectroscopy with broadband capability reveals clear evidence of faster carrier recombination for a ZnO layer deposited at higher temperature, which is consistent with the conductivity and device performance. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. The Effect of Molecular Structure and Environment on the Miscibility and Diffusivity in Polythiophene-Methanofullerene Bulk Heterojunctions: Theory and Modeling with the RISM Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander E. Kobryn

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Although better means to model the properties of bulk heterojunction molecular blends are much needed in the field of organic optoelectronics, only a small subset of methods based on molecular dynamics- and Monte Carlo-based approaches have been hitherto employed to guide or replace empirical characterization and testing. Here, we present the first use of the integral equation theory of molecular liquids in modelling the structural properties of blends of phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM with poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT and a carboxylated poly(3-butylthiophene (P3BT, respectively. For this, we use the Reference Interaction Site Model (RISM with the Universal Force Field (UFF to compute the microscopic structure of blends and obtain insight into the miscibility of its components. Input parameters for RISM, such as optimized molecular geometries and charge distribution of interaction sites, are derived by the Density Functional Theory (DFT methods. We also run Molecular Dynamics (MD simulation to compare the diffusivity of the PCBM in binary blends with P3HT and P3BT, respectively. A remarkably good agreement with available experimental data and results of alternative modelling/simulation is observed for PCBM in the P3HT system. We interpret this as a step in the validation of the use of our approach for organic photovoltaics and support of its results for new systems that do not have reference data for comparison or calibration. In particular, for the less-studied P3BT, our results show that expectations about its performance in binary blends with PCBM may be overestimated, as it does not demonstrate the required level of miscibility and short-range structural organization. In addition, the simulated mobility of PCBM in P3BT is somewhat higher than what is expected for polymer blends and falls into a range typical for fluids. The significance of our predictive multi-scale modelling lies in the insights it offers into nanoscale

  2. Inverted bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells with the transfer-printed anodes and low-temperature-processed ultrathin buffer layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Eiji; Sakai, Shota; Fukuda, Katsutoshi

    2018-03-01

    We studied the effects of a hole buffer layer [molybdenum oxide (MoO3) and natural copper oxide layer] and a low-temperature-processed electron buffer layer on the performance of inverted bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells in a device consisting of indium-tin oxide (ITO)/poly(ethylene imine) (PEI)/titanium oxide nanosheet (TiO-NS)/poly(3-hexylthiopnehe) (P3HT):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methylester (PCBM)/oxide/anode (Ag or Cu). The insertion of ultrathin TiO-NS (˜1 nm) and oxide hole buffer layers improved the open circuit voltage V OC, fill factor, and rectification properties owing to the effective hole blocking and electron transport properties of ultrathin TiO-NS, and to the enhanced work function difference between TiO-NS and the oxide hole buffer layer. The insertion of the TiO-NS contributed to the reduction in the potential barrier at the ITO/PEI/TiO-NS/active layer interface for electrons, and the insertion of the oxide hole buffer layer contributed to the reduction in the potential barrier for holes. The marked increase in the capacitance under positive biasing in the capacitance-voltage characteristics revealed that the combination of TiO-NS and MoO3 buffer layers contributes to the selective transport of electrons and holes, and blocks counter carriers at the active layer/oxide interface. The natural oxide layer of the copper electrode also acts as a hole buffer layer owing to the increase in the work function of the Cu surface in the inverted cells. The performance of the cell with evaporated MoO3 and Cu layers that were transfer-printed to the active layer was almost comparable to that of the cell with MoO3 and Ag layers directly evaporated onto the active layer. We also demonstrated comparable device performance in the cell with all-printed MoO3 and low-temperature-processed silver nanoparticles as an anode.

  3. Concurrent improvement in optical and electrical characteristics by using inverted pyramidal array structures toward efficient Si heterojunction solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hsin Ping

    2016-03-02

    The Si heterojunction (SHJ) solar cell is presently the most popular design in the crystalline Si (c-Si) photovoltaics due to the high open-circuit voltages (V). Photon management by surface structuring techniques to control the light entering the devices is critical for boosting cell efficiency although it usually comes with the V loss caused by severe surface recombination. For the first time, the periodic inverted pyramid (IP) structure fabricated by photolithography and anisotropic etching processes was employed for SHJ solar cells, demonstrating concurrent improvement in optical and electrical characteristics (i.e., short-circuit current density (J) and V). Periodic IP structures show superior light-harvesting properties as most of the incident rays bounce three times on the walls of the IPs but only twice between conventional random upright pyramids (UPs). The high minority carrier lifetime of the IP structures after a-Si:H passivation results in an enhanced V by 28 mV, showing improved carrier collection efficiency due to the superior passivation of the IP structure over the random UP structures. The superior antireflective (AR) ability and passivation results demonstrate that the IP structure has the potential to replace conventional UP structures to further boost the efficiency in solar cell applications.

  4. Self-assembly graphitic carbon nitride quantum dots anchored on TiO2 nanotube arrays: An efficient heterojunction for pollutants degradation under solar light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jingyang; Zhu, Lin; Geng, Ping; Chen, Guohua

    2016-10-05

    In this study, an efficient heterojunction was constructed by anchoring graphitic carbon nitride quantum dots onto TiO2 nanotube arrays through hydrothermal reaction strategy. The prepared graphitic carbon nitride quantum dots, which were prepared by solid-thermal reaction and sequential dialysis process, act as a sensitizer to enhance light absorption. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the charge transfer and separation in the formed heterojunction were significantly improved compared with pristine TiO2. The prepared heterojunction was used as a photoanode, exhibiting much improved photoelectrochemical capability and excellent photo-stability under solar light illumination. The photoelectrocatalytic activities of prepared heterojunction were demonstrated by degradation of RhB and phenol in aqueous solution. The kinetic constants of RhB and phenol degradation using prepared photoelectrode are 2.4 times and 4.9 times higher than those of pristine TiO2, respectively. Moreover, hydroxyl radicals are demonstrated to be dominant active radicals during the pollutants degradation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Enhanced photocatalytic efficiency of C3N4/BiFeO3heterojunctions: the synergistic effects of band alignment and ferroelectricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xian-Zhu; Song, Chuang; Tong, Yin-Lin; Yuan, Guoliang; Gao, Feng; Liu, Dan-Qing; Zhang, Shan-Tao

    2018-01-31

    As one of the most promising photocatalysts, graphitic carbon nitride (g-C 3 N 4 ) shows a visible light response and great chemical stability. However, its relatively low photocatalytic efficiency is a major obstacle to actual applications. Here an effective and feasible method to dramatically increase the visible light photocatalytic efficiency by forming C 3 N 4 /BiFeO 3 ferroelectric heterojunctions is reported, wherein the band alignment and piezo-/ferroelectricity have synergistic positive effects in accelerating the separation of the photogenerated carriers. At the optimum composition of 10 wt% BiFeO 3 , the heterojunction shows 1.4 times improved photocatalytic efficiency than that of the pure C 3 N 4 . Most importantly, mechanical pressing and electrical poling can also improve the photocatalytic efficiencies by 1.3 times and 1.8 times, respectively. The optimized photocatalytic efficiency is even comparable with that of some noble metal based compounds. These results not only prove the improved photocatalytic activity of the C 3 N 4 -ferroelectric heterojunctions, but also provide a new approach for designing high-performance photocatalysts by taking advantage of ferroelectricity.

  6. Optical probing of spin dynamics of two-dimensional and bulk electrons in a GaAs/AlGaAs heterojunction system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rizo, P. J.; Pugzlys, A.; Slachter, A.; Denega, S. Z.; Reuter, D.; Wieck, A. D.; van Loosdrecht, P. H. M.; van der Wal, C. H.

    2010-01-01

    The electron spin dynamics in a GaAs/AlGaAs heterojunction system containing a high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) have been studied in this paper by using pump-probe time-resolved Kerr rotation experiments. Owing to the complex layer structure of this material, the transient Kerr

  7. Enhancing the efficiency of planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells via interfacial engineering with 3-aminopropyl trimethoxy silane hydrolysate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Qiong; Xu, Shou-Bin; Deng, Jian-Guo; Gao, Li-Zhen

    2017-12-01

    The interfacial compatibility between compact TiO2 and perovskite layers is critical for the performance of planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells (PSCs). A compact TiO2 film employed as an electron-transport layer (ETL) was modified using 3-aminopropyl trimethoxy silane (APMS) hydrolysate. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of PSCs composed of an APMS-hydrolysate-modified TiO2 layer increased from 13.45 to 15.79%, which was associated with a significant enhancement in the fill factor (FF) from 62.23 to 68.04%. The results indicate that APMS hydrolysate can enhance the wettability of γ-butyrolactone (GBL) on the TiO2 surface, form a perfect CH3NH3PbI3 film, and increase the recombination resistance at the interface. This work demonstrates a simple but efficient method to improve the TiO2/perovskite interface that can be greatly beneficial for developing high-performance PSCs.

  8. Low-cost, high-efficiency organic/inorganic hetero-junction hybrid solar cells for next generation photovoltaic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudasaini, P. R.; Ayon, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    Organic/inorganic hybrid structures are considered innovative alternatives for the next generation of low-cost photovoltaic devices because they combine advantages of the purely organic and inorganic versions. Here, we report an efficient hybrid solar cell based on sub-wavelength silicon nanotexturization in combination with the spin-coating of poly (3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS). The described devices were analyzed by collecting current-voltage and capacitance-voltage measurements in order to explore the organic/inorganic heterojunction properties. ALD deposited ultrathin aluminium oxide was used as a junction passivation layer between the nanotextured silicon surface and the organic polymer. The measured interface defect density of the device was observed to decrease with the inclusion of an ultrathin Al2O3 passivation layer leading to an improved electrical performance. This effect is thought to be ascribed to the suppression of charge recombination at the organic/inorganic interface. A maximum power conversion efficiency in excess of 10% has been achieved for the optimized geometry of the device, in spite of lacking an antireflection layer or back surface field enhancement schemes.

  9. Self-assembly 2D zinc-phthalocyanine heterojunction: An ideal platform for high efficiency solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xue; Jiang, Zhou; Zhao, Jijun

    2017-12-01

    As an alternative to silicon-based solar cells, organic photovoltaic cells emerge for their easy manufacture, low cost, and light weight but are limited by their less stability, low power conversion efficiencies, and low charge carrier mobilities. Here, we design a series of two-dimensional (2D) organic materials incorporating zinc-phthalocyanine (ZnPc) based building blocks which can inherit their excellent intrinsic properties but overcome those shortcomings. Our first-principles calculation shows that such 2D ZnPc-based materials exhibit excellent thermal stabilities, suitable bandgaps, small effective masses, and good absorption properties. The additional benzene rings and nitrogen atoms incorporated between ZnPc molecules are mainly responsible for the modifications of electronic and optical properties. Moreover, some heterojunction solar cells constructed using those 2D ZnPc monolayers as the donor and acceptor have an appropriate absorber gap and interface band alignment. Among them, a power conversion efficiency up to 14.04% is achieved, which is very promising for the next-generation organic solar cells.

  10. Graphene oxide/PEDOT:PSS composite hole transport layer for efficient and stable planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Da-Young; Na, Seok-In; Kim, Seok-Soon

    2016-01-01

    We investigated a graphene oxide (GO)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) composite as a promising candidate for the practical application of a 2-D carbonaceous hole transport layer (HTL) to planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells (PeSCs) consisting of a transparent electrode/HTL/perovskite/fullerene/metal electrode. Both the insulating properties of GO and the non-uniform coating of the transparent electrode with GO cause the poor morphology of perovskite induced low power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.4%. On the other hand, PeSCs with a GO/PEDOT:PSS composite HTL, exhibited a higher PCE of 9.7% than that of a device fabricated with conventional PEDOT:PSS showing a PCE of 8.2%. The higher performance is attributed to the decreased series resistance (RS) and increased shunt resistance (RSh). The well-matched work-function between GO (4.9 eV) and PEDOT:PSS (5.1 eV) probably results in more efficient charge transport and an overall decrease in RS. The existence of GO with a large bandgap of ~3.6 eV might induce the effective blocking of electrons, leading to an increase of RSh. Moreover, improvement in the long-term stability under atmospheric conditions was observed.

  11. Metal/Semiconductor and Transparent Conductor/Semiconductor Heterojunctions in High Efficient Photoelectric Devices: Progress and Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Melvin David Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal/semiconductor and transparent conductive oxide (TCO/semiconductor heterojunctions have emerged as an effective modality in the fabrication of photoelectric devices. This review is following a recent shift toward the engineering of TCO layers and structured Si substrates, incorporating metal nanoparticles for the development of next-generation photoelectric devices. Beneficial progress which helps to increase the efficiency and reduce the cost, has been sequenced based on efficient technologies involved in making novel substrates, TCO layers, and electrodes. The electrical and optical properties of indium tin oxide (ITO and aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO thin films can be enhanced by structuring the surface of TCO layers. The TCO layers embedded with Ag nanoparticles are used to enhance the plasmonic light trapping effect in order to increase the energy harvesting nature of photoelectric devices. Si nanopillar structures which are fabricated by photolithography-free technique are used to increase light-active surface region. The importance of the structure and area of front electrodes and the effect of temperature at the junction are the value added discussions in this review.

  12. Graphene-based heterojunction photocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Shen, Rongchen; Ma, Song; Chen, Xiaobo; Xie, Jun

    2018-02-01

    Due to their unique physicochemical, optical and electrical properties, 2D semimetallic or semiconducting graphene has been extensively utilized to construct highly efficient heterojunction photocatalysts for driving a variety of redox reactions under proper light irradiation. In this review, we carefully addressed the fundamental mechanism of heterogeneous photocatalysis, fundamental properties and advantages of graphene in photocatalysis, and classification and comparison of graphene-based heterojunction photocatalysts. Subsequently, we thoroughly highlighted and discussed various graphene-based heterojunction photocatalysts, including Schottky junctions, Type-II heterojunctions, Z-scheme heterojunctions, Van der Waals heterostructures, in plane heterojunctions and multicomponent heterojunctions. Several important photocatalytic applications, such as photocatalytic water splitting (H2 evolution and overall water splitting), degradation of pollutants, carbon dioxide reduction and bacteria disinfection, are also summarized. Through reviewing the important advances on this topic, it may inspire some new ideas for exploiting highly effective graphene-based heterojunction photocatalysts for a number of applications in photocatlysis and other fields, such as photovoltaic, (photo)electrocatalysis, lithium battery, fuel cell, supercapacitor and adsorption separation.

  13. Facile in situ synthesis of 2D porous g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} and g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/P25(N) heterojunction with enhanced quantum effect for efficient photocatalytic application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Mingye [College of Materials & Environmental Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Wang, Wei, E-mail: wwnjut@hotmail.com [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Zhou, Yingjie [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Lu, Chunhua; Ni, Yaru; Xu, Zhongzi [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2015-06-25

    Highlights: • N doped P25 is efficient in synthesizing g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} with enhanced quantum effect. • The few-layered g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} has a two-dimensional and porous structure. • The few-layered g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} is superior to the bulk g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} for photocatalysis. • Efficient heterojunction is in situ formed between g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} and N doped P25. • The mass ratio of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} to N doped P25 affects the photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: The major challenge of employing photocatalysis for environment protection is to develop high efficient, low cost, and stable semiconductor photocatalysts. In the present study, an in situ annealing strategy is employed for large scale synthesis of two-dimensional (2D) porous graphitic carbon nitride (g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}) and efficient g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/P25(N) (N doped P25) heterojunction with enhanced quantum effect. The P25 not only serves as the template for g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} polymerization, but is also modified by the N species to enhance the visible light absorption. Compared to the normal bulk g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}, the 2D porous g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} with enhanced quantum effect is found to be more efficient in improving the specific surface area and the electron–hole pair’s separation, even its light absorption edge is blue-shifted. Photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) and phenol indicates the 2D g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} and g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/P25(N) are very efficient and stable under the xenon lamp irradiation. It is also found that the original mass ratio of urea, which is the precursor for g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} synthesis and P25 modification, to P25 also plays a significant effect on the photocatalytic activity. The optimized photocatalyst (mass ratio of P25 to urea is 1:8) can decompose total RhB aqueous solution (10 mg/L, 100 ml) in 25 min. Based on systematic characterizations and discussions, a possible photocatalytic mechanism for the excellent photocatalytic

  14. High voltage and efficient bilayer heterojunction solar cells based on an organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite absorber with a low-cost flexible substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yi-Fang; Jeng, Jun-Yuan; Lee, Mu-Huan; Peng, Shin-Rung; Chen, Peter; Guo, Tzung-Fang; Wen, Ten-Chin; Hsu, Yao-Jane; Hsu, Ching-Ming

    2014-04-07

    A low temperature (solar cell based on an organic-inorganic hybrid CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite-fullerene planar heterojunction (PHJ) is successfully demonstrated. In this manuscript, we study the effects of energy level offset between a solar absorber (organic-inorganic hybrid CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite) and the selective contact materials on the photovoltaic behaviors of the planar organometallic perovskite-fullerene heterojunction solar cells. We find that the difference between the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) level of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite and the Fermi level of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) dominates the voltage output of the device. ITO films on glass or on the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) flexible substrate with different work functions are investigated to illustrate this phenomenon. The higher work function of the PET/ITO substrate decreases the energy loss of hole transfer from the HOMO of perovskite to ITO and minimizes the energy redundancy of the photovoltage output. The devices using the high work function ITO substrate as contact material show significant open-circuit voltage enhancement (920 mV), with the power conversion efficiency of 4.54%, and these types of extra-thin planar bilayer heterojunction solar cells have the potential advantages of low-cost and lightweight.

  15. The Upper Limit to the Theoretical Efficiency of P-N Homojunction and Interfacial Layer Heterojunction Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, Mark Bradley

    The physical mechanisms governing photovoltaic energy conversion in p-n homojunction and interfacial layer heterojunction (ILH) solar cells are examined. The usefulness of minority carrier mirrors (MCM) in such cells is studied by solving the minority carrier diffusion equation in the n- and p-type quasi-neutral regions of the cell, with boundary conditions representing MCM's at the ends of these regions. In this formalism, the MCM is considered to be an interfacial plane having zero surface recombination velocity. Non -zero values are also considered. It is shown that the MCM improves the open circuit voltage of the solar cell when it is located within a diffusion length of the junction between the n- and p-type regions. The effect of the MCM diminishes as the distance between it and the junction increases. The above analysis is applied to the direct gap materials CuInSe(,2) (E = 1.0eV) and GaAs (E = 1.43eV). It is shown that the theoretical upper limit to the conversion efficiency for devices employing MCM's on the front and back is approximately 26% for a CuInSe(,2) cell of width 2 microns. The analysis is also applied to cells made from silicon. A cell thickness of approximately 300 microns is necessary to absorb all the light owing to the indirect bandgap of silicon, yet the solar cell must be made thin in order to attain the maximum effect of the MCM's. A concept of internal light trapping is discussed; this trapping causes the light to undergo multiple reflections within the thin cell. By solving the minority carrier diffusion equation with appropriate generation function, it is shown that the upper limit to the efficiency is approximately 27%, for a cell of 15 microns in width. The ILH solar cell is examined. A model describing current transport in the ILH cell is discussed and applied to the MIS solar cell. A new type of solar cell, the back surface MIS cell, is considered. The model is applied to this type of cell and the efficiency is calculated. The ILH

  16. Effect of the Phosphorus Gettering on Si Heterojunction Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyomin Park

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the efficiency of crystalline silicon solar cells, should be collected the excess carrier as much as possible. Therefore, minimizing the recombination both at the bulk and surface regions is important. Impurities make recombination sites and they are the major reason for recombination. Phosphorus (P gettering was introduced to reduce metal impurities in the bulk region of Si wafers and then to improve the efficiency of Si heterojunction solar cells fabricated on the wafers. Resistivity of wafers was measured by a four-point probe method. Fill factor of solar cells was measured by a solar simulator. Saturation current and ideality factor were calculated from a dark current density-voltage graph. External quantum efficiency was analyzed to assess the effect of P gettering on the performance of solar cells. Minority bulk lifetime measured by microwave photoconductance decay increases from 368.3 to 660.8 μs. Open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current density increase from 577 to 598 mV and 27.8 to 29.8 mA/cm2, respectively. The efficiency of solar cells increases from 11.9 to 13.4%. P gettering will be feasible to improve the efficiency of Si heterojunction solar cells fabricated on P-doped Si wafers.

  17. Three-terminal heterojunction bipolar transistor solar cell for high-efficiency photovoltaic conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí, A; Luque, A

    2015-04-22

    Here we propose, for the first time, a solar cell characterized by a semiconductor transistor structure (n/p/n or p/n/p) where the base-emitter junction is made of a high-bandgap semiconductor and the collector is made of a low-bandgap semiconductor. We calculate its detailed-balance efficiency limit and prove that it is the same one than that of a double-junction solar cell. The practical importance of this result relies on the simplicity of the structure that reduces the number of layers that are required to match the limiting efficiency of dual-junction solar cells without using tunnel junctions. The device naturally emerges as a three-terminal solar cell and can also be used as building block of multijunction solar cells with an increased number of junctions.

  18. Three-terminal heterojunction bipolar transistor solar cell for high-efficiency photovoltaic conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí, A.; Luque, A.

    2015-04-01

    Here we propose, for the first time, a solar cell characterized by a semiconductor transistor structure (n/p/n or p/n/p) where the base-emitter junction is made of a high-bandgap semiconductor and the collector is made of a low-bandgap semiconductor. We calculate its detailed-balance efficiency limit and prove that it is the same one than that of a double-junction solar cell. The practical importance of this result relies on the simplicity of the structure that reduces the number of layers that are required to match the limiting efficiency of dual-junction solar cells without using tunnel junctions. The device naturally emerges as a three-terminal solar cell and can also be used as building block of multijunction solar cells with an increased number of junctions.

  19. Three-terminal heterojunction bipolar transistor solar cell for high-efficiency photovoltaic conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Martí Vega, Antonio; Luque López, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Here we propose, for the first time, a solar cell characterized by a semiconductor transistor structure (n/p/n or p/n/p) where the base?emitter junction is made of a high-bandgap semiconductor and the collector is made of a low-bandgap semiconductor. We calculate its detailed-balance efficiency limit and prove that it is the same one than that of a double-junction solar cell. The practical importance of this result relies on the simplicity of the structure that reduces the number of layers th...

  20. Order enables efficient electron-hole separation at an organic heterojunction with a small energy loss

    KAUST Repository

    Menke, S. Matthew

    2018-01-12

    Donor–acceptor organic solar cells often show low open-circuit voltages (VOC) relative to their optical energy gap (Eg) that limit power conversion efficiencies to ~12%. This energy loss is partly attributed to the offset between Eg and that of intermolecular charge transfer (CT) states at the donor–acceptor interface. Here we study charge generation occurring in PIPCP:PC61BM, a system with a very low driving energy for initial charge separation (Eg−ECT ~ 50 meV) and a high internal quantum efficiency (ηIQE ~ 80%). We track the strength of the electric field generated between the separating electron-hole pair by following the transient electroabsorption optical response, and find that while localised CT states are formed rapidly (<100 fs) after photoexcitation, free charges are not generated until 5 ps after photogeneration. In PIPCP:PC61BM, electronic disorder is low (Urbach energy <27 meV) and we consider that free charge separation is able to outcompete trap-assisted non-radiative recombination of the CT state.

  1. Soluble P3HT-grafted graphene for efficient bilayer-heterojunction photovoltaic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dingshan; Yang, Yan; Durstock, Michael; Baek, Jong-Beom; Dai, Liming

    2010-10-26

    CH(2)OH-terminated regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) was chemically grafted onto carboxylic groups of graphene oxide (GO) via esterification reaction. The resultant P3HT-grafted GO sheets (G-P3HT) are soluble in common organic solvents, facilitating the structure/property characterization and the device fabrication by solution processing. The covalent linkage and the strong electronic interaction between the P3HT and graphene moieties in G-P3HT were confirmed by spectroscopic analyses and electrochemical measurements. A bilayer photovoltaic device based on the solution-cast G-P3HT/C(60) heterostructures showed a 200% increase of the power conversion efficiency (η = 0.61%) with respect to the P3HT/C(60) counterpart under AM 1.5 illumination (100 mW/cm(2)).

  2. Nanomorphological study of polymer bulk heterojuntion used in flexible solar devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Ortiz, Gabriel; Carrasco, Hector; Vedrine-Pauleus, Josee

    2014-03-01

    Solar cells fabricated with organic polymeric materials can enable large area fabrication on printable and flexible substrates, but increasing their efficiency is coupled to understanding their electrical properties and mechanical function on the nanoscale. In this study we measure the nanoscale conducting and mechanical properties of organic bulk heterojunction polymers coated on graphene and flexible PET or Si substrates. We characterize the nanomorphology of bulk heterojunction conducting polymers by applying conductive atomic force microscope (c-AFM), and force volume mapping for quantitative nanomechanical property calculations.

  3. Performance of spray deposited poly [N-9″-hepta-decanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4′,7′-di-2-thienyl-2′,1′, 3′-benzothiadiazole)]/[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester blend active layer based bulk heterojunction organic solar cell devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitoh, Leona; Babu, R. Ramesh; Kannappan, Santhakumar; Kojima, Kenzo; Mizutani, Teruyoshi; Ochiai, Shizuyasu

    2012-01-01

    Bulk heterojunction organic solar cell devices were fabricated using the spray deposited poly [N-9″-hepta-decanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4′,7′-di-2-thienyl-2′,1′, 3′-benzothiadiazole)]/[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester blend active layer. The spray coating parameters such as spraying time, substrate-nozzle distance for the deposition of active layers were analyzed. Optical absorption of the active layers was analyzed using UV–visible spectral studies in the wavelength range from 300 to 800 nm. The surface morphology of the active layers deposited with different parameters was examined using atomic force microscopy. Surface morphology of the active layers deposited with the substrate-nozzle distance of 20 cm and for 20 s shows smooth morphology with peak-valley value of 4 nm. The devices fabricated using the selected active layer show overall power conversion efficiency of 1.08%. - Graphical abstract: Current–voltage (J–V) characteristics of spray deposited PCDTBT:PC 61 BM active layer based solar cell device under illumination of AM 1.5 G, 100 mW/cm 2 . Highlights: ► Organic solar cells were fabricated using a spray deposited PCDTBT:PC61BM active layer. ► The active layers deposited with spray conditions show flat morphology. ► Using the selected active layers power conversion efficiency of 1.08% is obtained.

  4. Role of the substrate reflectance and surface-bulk treatments in CsI quantum efficiency

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, B K; Nitti, M A; Valentini, A

    2003-01-01

    We have experimentally investigated the following aspects related to the quantum efficiency of CsI photocathodes: the type of substrate, the film thickness and the effect of a 'bulk treatment' during the film growth. We discovered that, using a high reflectivity aluminium substrate, the photoemission of very thin CsI film is enhanced. Our study also revealed that photocathodes become less sensitive to moisture when a negative bias voltage is applied to the substrate during the film deposition process.

  5. High-Efficiency Aqueous-Processed Polymer/CdTe Nanocrystals Planar Heterojunction Solar Cells with Optimized Band Alignment and Reduced Interfacial Charge Recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qingsen; Hu, Lu; Cui, Jian; Feng, Tanglue; Du, Xiaohang; Jin, Gan; Liu, Fangyuan; Ji, Tianjiao; Li, Fenghong; Zhang, Hao; Yang, Bai

    2017-09-20

    Aqueous-processed nanocrystal solar cells have attracted increasing attention due to the advantage of its environmentally friendly nature, which provides a promising approach for large-scale production. The urgent affair is boosting the power conversion efficiency (PCE) for further commercial applications. The low PCE is mainly attributed to the imperfect device structure, which leads to abundant nonradiative recombination at the interfaces. In this work, an environmentally friendly and efficient method is developed to improve the performance of aqueous-processed CdTe nanocrystal solar cells. Polymer/CdTe planar heterojunction solar cells (PHSCs) with optimized band alignment are constructed, which results in reduced interfacial charge recombination, enhanced carrier collection efficiency and built-in field. Finally, a champion PCE of 5.9%, which is a record for aqueous-processed solar cells based on CdTe nanocrystals, is achieved after optimizing the photovoltaic device.

  6. Black TiO2 nanobelts/g-C3N4 nanosheets Laminated Heterojunctions with Efficient Visible-Light-Driven Photocatalytic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Liyan; Xing, Zipeng; Zou, Jinlong; Li, Zhenzi; Wu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Yuchi; Zhu, Qi; Yang, Shilin; Zhou, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Black TiO2 nanobelts/g-C3N4 nanosheets laminated heterojunctions (b-TiO2/g-C3N4) as visible-light-driven photocatalysts are fabricated through a simple hydrothermal-calcination process and an in-situ solid-state chemical reduction approach, followed by the mild thermal treatment (350 °C) in argon atmosphere. The prepared samples are evidently investigated by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, N2 adsorption, and UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, respectively. The results show that special laminated heterojunctions are formed between black TiO2 nanobelts and g-C3N4 nanosheets, which favor the separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. Furthermore, the presence of Ti3+ and g-C3N4 greatly enhance the absorption of visible light. The resultant b-TiO2/g-C3N4 materials exhibit higher photocatalytic activity than that of g-C3N4, TiO2, b-TiO2 and TiO2/g-C3N4 for degradation of methyl orange (95%) and hydrogen evolution (555.8 μmol h−1 g−1) under visible light irradiation. The apparent reaction rate constant (k) of b-TiO2/g-C3N4 is ~9 times higher than that of pristine TiO2. Therefore, the high-efficient laminated heterojunction composites will have potential applications in fields of environment and energy. PMID:28165021

  7. Black TiO2 nanobelts/g-C3N4 nanosheets Laminated Heterojunctions with Efficient Visible-Light-Driven Photocatalytic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Liyan; Xing, Zipeng; Zou, Jinlong; Li, Zhenzi; Wu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Yuchi; Zhu, Qi; Yang, Shilin; Zhou, Wei

    2017-02-01

    Black TiO2 nanobelts/g-C3N4 nanosheets laminated heterojunctions (b-TiO2/g-C3N4) as visible-light-driven photocatalysts are fabricated through a simple hydrothermal-calcination process and an in-situ solid-state chemical reduction approach, followed by the mild thermal treatment (350 °C) in argon atmosphere. The prepared samples are evidently investigated by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, N2 adsorption, and UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, respectively. The results show that special laminated heterojunctions are formed between black TiO2 nanobelts and g-C3N4 nanosheets, which favor the separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. Furthermore, the presence of Ti3+ and g-C3N4 greatly enhance the absorption of visible light. The resultant b-TiO2/g-C3N4 materials exhibit higher photocatalytic activity than that of g-C3N4, TiO2, b-TiO2 and TiO2/g-C3N4 for degradation of methyl orange (95%) and hydrogen evolution (555.8 μmol h-1 g-1) under visible light irradiation. The apparent reaction rate constant (k) of b-TiO2/g-C3N4 is ~9 times higher than that of pristine TiO2. Therefore, the high-efficient laminated heterojunction composites will have potential applications in fields of environment and energy.

  8. Efficiency of polymerization of bulk-fill composite resins: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, André Figueiredo; Vestphal, Mariana; Amaral, Roberto Cesar do; Rodrigues, José Augusto; Roulet, Jean-François; Roscoe, Marina Guimarães

    2017-08-28

    This systematic review assessed the literature to evaluate the efficiency of polymerization of bulk-fill composite resins at 4 mm restoration depth. PubMed, Cochrane, Scopus and Web of Science databases were searched with no restrictions on year, publication status, or article's language. Selection criteria included studies that evaluated bulk-fill composite resin when inserted in a minimum thickness of 4 mm, followed by curing according to the manufacturers' instructions; presented sound statistical data; and comparison with a control group and/or a reference measurement of quality of polymerization. The evidence level was evaluated by qualitative scoring system and classified as high-, moderate- and low- evidence level. A total of 534 articles were retrieved in the initial search. After the review process, only 10 full-text articles met the inclusion criteria. Most articles included (80%) were classified as high evidence level. Among several techniques, microhardness was the most frequently method performed by the studies included in this systematic review. Irrespective to the "in vitro" method performed, bulk fill RBCs were partially likely to fulfill the important requirement regarding properly curing in 4 mm of cavity depth measured by depth of cure and / or degree of conversion. In general, low viscosities BFCs performed better regarding polymerization efficiency compared to the high viscosities BFCs.

  9. Ag-bridged Ag2O nanowire network/TiO2 nanotube array p-n heterojunction as a highly efficient and stable visible light photocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengbin; Cao, Chenghao; Luo, Xubiao; Luo, Shenglian

    2015-03-21

    A unique Ag-bridged Ag2O nanowire network/TiO2 nanotube array p-n heterojunction (Ag-Ag2O/TiO2 NT) was fabricated by simple electrochemical method. Ag nanoparticles were firstly electrochemically deposited onto the surface of TiO2 NT and then were partly oxidized to Ag2O nanowires while the rest of Ag mother nanoparticles were located at the junctions of Ag2O nanowire network. The Ag-Ag2O/TiO2 NT heterostructure exhibited strong visible-light response, effective separation of photogenerated carriers, and high adsorption capacity. The integration of Ag-Ag2O self-stability structure and p-n heterojunction permitted high and stable photocatalytic activity of Ag-Ag2O/TiO2 NT heterostructure photocatalyst. Under 140-min visible light irradiation, the photocatalytic removal efficiency of both dye acid orange 7 (AO7) and industrial chemical p-nitrophenol (PNP) over Ag-Ag2O/TiO2 NT reached nearly 100% much higher than 17% for AO7 or 13% for PNP over bare TiO2 NT. After 5 successive cycles under 600-min simulated solar light irradiation, Ag-Ag2O/TiO2 NT remained highly stable photocatalytic activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Au/BiOCl heterojunction within mesoporous silica shell as stable plasmonic photocatalyst for efficient organic pollutants decomposition under visible light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Xiaoqing; Zhu, Xiaohui; Li, Renhong; Chen, Wenxing

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A heterojunction of Au/BiOCl was fabricated within the mesoporous silica shell. • The compact contact between Au and BiOCl enables electrons back flow from Au to BiOCl. • Au/BiOCl@mSiO 2 plasmonic photocatalyst shows efficient visible light photoactivity. • Hydroxyl radicals are the main oxidants in formaldehyde and Rhodamine B decomposition. - Abstract: A new mesoporous silica protected plasmonic photocatalyst, Au/BiOCl@mSiO 2 , was prepared by a modified AcHE method and a subsequent UV light induced photodeposition process. The surfactant-free heterojunction allows the electrons spontaneously flow from Au to nearby BiOCl surface, leading to the accumulation of positive charges on Au surface, and negative charges on Bi species under visible light. Au/BiOCl@mSiO 2 exhibits high visible light photocatalytic efficiency in complete oxidation of aqueous formaldehyde and Rhodamin B. We showed that a positive relationship exists between the LSPR effect and rate enhancements, and leads to a hypothesis that the metallic Au LSPR enhances the photocatalytic rates on nearby semiconductors by transferring energetic electrons to BiOCl and increasing the steady-state concentration of active ·OH species by a multi-electron reduction of molecular oxygen. The ·OH species is the main oxidant in photocatalytic transformations, whose intensity is greatly enhanced in the dye-involving systems due to the synergetic effect between LSPR and dye sensitization processes. In addition, the mesoporous SiO 2 shell not only inhibits the over growth of BiOCl nanocrystals within the silica frameworks, but also protects the dissolution of chloride or Au species into aqueous solution, which ultimately makes the Au/BiOCl@mSiO 2 catalysts rather stable during photocatalysis.

  11. Nanostructured Bulk Thermoelectric Generator for Efficient Power Harvesting for Self-powered Sensor Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yanliang [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Butt, Darryl [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Agarwal, Vivek [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this Nuclear Energy Enabling Technology research project is to develop high-efficiency and reliable thermoelectric generators for self-powered wireless sensors nodes utilizing thermal energy from nuclear plant or fuel cycle. The power harvesting technology has crosscutting significance to address critical technology gaps in monitoring nuclear plants and fuel cycle. The outcomes of the project will lead to significant advancement in sensors and instrumentation technology, reducing cost, improving monitoring reliability and therefore enhancing safety. The self-powered wireless sensor networks could support the long-term safe and economical operation of all the reactor designs and fuel cycle concepts, as well as spent fuel storage and many other nuclear science and engineering applications. The research is based on recent breakthroughs in high-performance nanostructured bulk (nanobulk) thermoelectric materials that enable high-efficiency direct heat-to-electricity conversion over a wide temperature range. The nanobulk thermoelectric materials that the research team at Boise State University and University of Houston has developed yield up to a 50% increase in the thermoelectric figure of merit, ZT, compared with state-of-the-art bulk counterparts. This report focuses on the selection of optimal thermoelectric materials for this project. The team has performed extensive study on two thermoelectric materials systems, i.e. the half-Heusler materials, and the Bismuth-Telluride materials. The report contains our recent research results on the fabrication, characterization and thermoelectric property measurements of these two materials.

  12. An Efficient Method to Search Real-Time Bulk Data for an Information Processing System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seong Jin; Kim, Jong Myung; Suh, Yong Suk; Keum, Jong Yong; Park, Heui Youn

    2005-01-01

    The Man Machine Interface System (MMIS) of System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor (SMART) is designed with fully digitalized features. The Information Processing System (IPS) of the MMIS acquires and processes plant data from other systems. In addition, the IPS provides plant operation information to operators in the control room. The IPS is required to process bulky data in a real-time. So, it is necessary to consider a special processing method with regards to flexibility and performance because more than a few thousands of Plant Information converges on the IPS. Among other things, the processing time for searching for data from the bulk data consumes much more than other the processing times. Thus, this paper explores an efficient method for the search and examines its feasibility

  13. Efficiency Comparison between Conventional and Modern Port Operation System for Small-Scale Dry Bulk Cargo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiara Aulia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the launching of Sea Toll Road Program in 2015, the improvement in ports’ operation systems has become Indonesia’s foremost necessity. This improvement commonly leads to equipment modernization, while realistically, modern equipment does not always amount to a productive performance, especially in the context of small-scale ports. Instead, it is prone to creating wasteful capital and maintenance cost as well as making the planning time ineffective. This study compares two options of port operation systems in a small port, which is conventional and technologically-advanced method for dry bulk cargo. It results in thin gaps between each option’s financial assessment variables, which are Internal Rate of Return, Benefit/Cost Ratio and Payback Period, regardless of a stark difference between each option’s equipment cost. This study concludes that with the right approach, the conventional operation system is still the most efficient option compared to its contemporary opposite.

  14. Consequences of Anode Interfacial Layer Deletion. HCl-Treated ITO in P3HT:PCBM-Based Bulk-Heterojunction Organic Photovoltaic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    an overall increase in light-to-power conversion efficiency (Eff) of 70% to 5.0% with an active layer composed of poly- (3-hexylthiophene) ( P3HT ) and...electrical homogenization. This suggests that an interface capable ofOhmic contact to the P3HT electron donor for loss-less charge collection might be...Device Fabrication. A clean, dry 10 mL Schlenk flask was charged with P3HT (20 mg), PCBM (20 mg), and a stir bar. The flask was cycled N2/vacuum

  15. Increasing optical density of single-layer multi-polymer bulk-heterojunction OPVs using CdSe(ZnS) core(shell) quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bump, Buddy J.; Olson, Grant T.; Savage, Richard; Echols, Robert S.

    2014-10-01

    Photovoltaic technology has powerful implications from commercial and national security standpoints. Due to the high material cost of silicon solar devices, inexpensive and lightweight polymer based solar is desirable to meet the demand for decentralized electrical power production in traditionally "off-grid" areas. Using a blend of Poly(3-hexylthiophene- 2,5-diyl) (P3HT), Phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), and the low band-gap polymer Poly[2,6-(4,4-bis-(2- ethylhexyl)-4H-cyclopenta [2,1-b;3,4-b']dithiophene)-alt-4,7(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)] (PCPDTBT), we have fabricated devices with a wide spectral response and 3% power conversion efficiency in AM 1.5 conditions. Due to low absorptivity in the peak of the solar spectra (500nm), we have blended this previous polymer system with CdSe(ZnS) core (shell) quantum dots to improve absorption, and thus power conversion efficiencies. Devices were prepared with quantum dots having a peak absorbance at 560nm and an emission wavelength of 577nm, with device loading ranging from 0% to 2.7% by weight. The relationship between quantum dot concentration and device performance is discussed, along with the impact of quantum dot concentration on thermal resistance to morphology changes.

  16. Synthesis, characterization and photovoltaic performance of Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots- P3HT hybrid bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeen, Uzma; Adhikari, Tham; Shah, Syed Mujtaba; Pathak, Dinesh; Nunzi, Jean-Michel

    2017-11-01

    Zinc sulphide (ZnS) and transition metal-doped ZnS nanocrystals were synthesized by co-precipitation method. Further the synthesized nanocrystals were characterized by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM), High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HRTEM), Fluorescence, UV-Visible, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transformed Infra-red (FTIR) Spectrometer (FTIR). Scanning electron microscope supplemented with EDAX was employed to attain grain size and chemical composition of the nanomaterials. A considerable blue shift of absorption band was noted by the manganese concentration (0.5 M) in the doped sample in comparison with ZnS quantum dots because of the decrease in the size of nanoparticles which may be due to quantum confinement. The photoluminescence emission observed at 596 nm is due to the emission of divalent manganese and can be ascribed to a 4T1→6A1 transition within the 3d shell. Though, the broad blue emission band was observed at 424 nm which may originates from the radiative recombination comprising defect states in the un-doped zinc sulphide quantum dots. XRD analysis exhibited that the synthesized nanomaterial endured in cubic structure. The synthesized nanomaterial combined with organic polymer P3HT, poly (3-hexyl thiophene) and worked in the construction of inverted solar cells. The photovoltaic devices with un-doped zinc sulphide quantum dots showed power conversion efficiency of 0.48% without annealing and 0.52% with annealing. By doping with manganese, the efficiency was enhanced by a factor of 0.52 without annealing and 0.59 with annealing. The morphology and packing behavior of blend of nanocrystals with organic polymer were explored using Atomic Force Microscopy.

  17. An easy-to-fabricate low-temperature TiO2 electron collection layer for high efficiency planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Conings

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Organometal trihalide perovskite solar cells arguably represent the most auspicious new photovoltaic technology so far, as they possess an astonishing combination of properties. The impressive and brisk advances achieved so far bring forth highly efficient and solution processable solar cells, holding great promise to grow into a mature technology that is ready to be embedded on a large scale. However, the vast majority of state-of-the-art perovskite solar cells contains a dense TiO2 electron collection layer that requires a high temperature treatment (>450 °C, which obstructs the road towards roll-to-roll processing on flexible foils that can withstand no more than ∼150 °C. Furthermore, this high temperature treatment leads to an overall increased energy payback time and cumulative energy demand for this emerging photovoltaic technology. Here we present the implementation of an alternative TiO2 layer formed from an easily prepared nanoparticle dispersion, with annealing needs well within reach of roll-to-roll processing, making this technology also appealing from the energy payback aspect. Chemical and morphological analysis allows to understand and optimize the processing conditions of the TiO2 layer, finally resulting in a maximum obtained efficiency of 13.6% for a planar heterojunction solar cell within an ITO/TiO2/CH3NH3PbI3-xClxpoly(3-hexylthiophene/Ag architecture.

  18. Influence of the dopant concentration on structural, optical and photovoltaic properties of Cu-doped ZnS nanocrystals based bulk heterojunction hybrid solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeen, Uzma; Adhikari, Tham; Shah, Syed Mujtaba; Pathak, Dinesh; Wagner, Tomas; Nunzi, Jean-Michel

    2017-06-01

    Zinc sulphide (ZnS) and Cu-doped ZnS nanoparticles were synthesized by the wet chemical method. The nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible, fluorescence, fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectrometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Scanning electron microscopy supplemented with EDAX was employed to observe the morphology and chemical composition of the un-doped and doped samples. A significant blue shift of the absorption band with respect to the un-doped zinc sulphide was sighted by increasing the Cu concentration in the doped sample with decreasing the size of nanoparticles. Consequently, the band gap was tuned from 3.13 to 3.49 eV due to quantum confinement. The green emission arises from the recombination between the shallow donor level (sulfur vacancy) and the t2 level of Cu2+. However, the fluorescence emission spectrum of the undoped ZnS nanoparticles was deconvoluted into two bands, which are centered at 419 and 468 nm. XRD analysis showed that the nanomaterials were in cubic crystalline state. XRD peaks show that there were no massive crystalline distortions in the crystal lattice when the Cu concentration (0.05-0.1 M) was increased in the ZnS lattice. However, in the case of Cu-doped samples (0.15-0.2 M), the XRD pattern showed an additional peak at 37° due to incomplete substitution occurring during the experimental reaction step. A comparative study of surfaces of undoped and Cu-doped ZnS nanoparticles were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The synthesized nanomaterial in combination with poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) was used in the fabrication of solar cells. The devices with ZnS nanoparticles showed an efficiency of 0.31%. The overall power conversion efficiency of the solar cells at 0.1 M Cu content in doped ZnS nanoparticles was found to be 1.6 times higher than the

  19. Novel indolin-2-one-substituted methanofullerenes bearing long n-alkyl chains: synthesis and application in bulk-heterojunction solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina P. Romanova

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available An easy, high-yield and atom-economic procedure of a C60 fullerene modification using a reaction of fullerene C60 with N-alkylisatins in the presence of tris(diethylaminophosphine to form novel long-chain alkylindolinone-substituted methanofullerenes (AIMs is described. Optical absorption, electrochemical properties and solubility of AIMs were studied. Poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl (P3HT/AIMs solar cells were fabricated and the effect of the AIM alkyl chain length and the P3HT:AIM ratio on the solar cell performance was studied. The power conversion efficiencies of about 2% were measured in the P3HT/AIM devices with 1:0.4 P3HT:AIM weight ratio for the AIMs with hexadecyl and dodecyl substituents. From the optical and AFM data, we suggested that the AIMs, in contrast to [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM, do not disturb the P3HT crystalline domains. Moreover, the more soluble AIMs do not show a better miscibility with the P3HT crystalline phase.

  20. Photovoltaic performance of P3HT-porphyrin functionalized 1D CdS nanostructured organic inorganic bulk heterojunction hybrid solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeen, Uzma; Adhikari, Tham; Shah, Syed Mujtaba; Pathak, Dinesh; Wagner, Tomas; Nunzi, Jean-Michel

    2017-05-01

    Here we report first time the direct observation of the nucleation and growth process of cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanowires by stirring of CdS nanoparticles. The growth process of CdS nanowires consist of three steps, the growth of CdS particles, nucleation of CdS nanorods and finally the growth of CdS nanowires. This method brings forward a new idea to synthesize nanowires. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX), ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) and photoluminescence (PL) spectra have been provided for the characterization of the as-obtained nanowires. Furthermore, carboxylic functionalize porphyrin was examined as sensitizer for CdS nanowires. The interaction of porphyrin with CdS nanowires was investigated by absorption, infrared, steady state fluorescence spectroscopy and SEM techniques. The hybrid devices were fabricated with organic polymer with different concentration of dyes and the device with optimum concentration 6 × 10-6 M shows the highest efficiency of 0.5% with short-circuit current density 3.10 mA cm-2, open-circuit voltage 0.44 V and fill factor 0.37. Contribution to the topical issue "Materials for Energy harvesting, conversion and storage II (ICOME 2016)", edited by Jean-Michel Nunzi, Rachid Bennacer and Mohammed El Ganaoui

  1. Poly(3-hexylthiophene) - CdSe quantum dot bulk heterojunction solar cells: Influence of the functional end-group of the polymer

    KAUST Repository

    Palaniappan, Kumaranand

    2009-06-23

    The synthesis of H/thiol terminated P3HT from Br/allyl-terminated P3HT precursor was analyzed. The photovoltaic response of blends were prepared of H/thiol terminated P3HT with spherical CdSe quantum dots(QD) and compares the results with regioregular H/Br and Br/aryl-terminated P3HT. Phase segregation was carried by mixing relatively polar pyridine treated CdSe QD with nonpolar P3HT. The experiment revealed that a high loading of CdSe is necessary for an efficient charge transport and different loading ratios of CdSe has been investigated to correlate the photovoltaic response as a function of ration between donor H/thiol-P3ht polymer and acceptor Cdse QD. The results show that H/Br-P3HT, H/thiol- and Br/allyl-terminated P3HT exhibits better performance and Cdse quantum dots were used to obtain results.

  2. Benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b’]dithiophene-Pyrido[3,4-b]pyrazine Small-Molecule Donors for Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Wolf, Jannic Sebastian

    2016-01-22

    We report on the synthesis, material properties and BHJ solar cell characteristics of a set of π-conjugated small-molecule (SM) donors composed of benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene (BDT) and pyrido[3,4-b]pyrazine (PP) units – examining the perspectives of alkyl-substituted PP acceptor motifs in SM designs. In these systems (SM1-4), both the type of side chains derived from the PP motifs and the presence of ring-substituents on BDT critically impact (i) molecular packing, and (ii) thin-film morphologies and charge transport in BHJ solar cells. With the appropriate side-chain pattern, the ring-substituted analogue SM4 stands out: achieving efficiencies of ca. 6.5% with PC71BM, and fine-scale morphologies comparable to those obtained with some of the best-performing polymer donors in BHJ solar cells. 1H-1H DQ-SQ NMR analyses are used to examine the distinct self-assembly pattern of SM4, expected to factor into the development of the BHJ morphology.

  3. A Semi-Empirical Multi-Scale Dynamic Monte Carlo Model of Organic Photovoltaic Performance in RIR-MAPLE Bulk Heterojunction Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiff-Roberts, Adrienne; Atewologun, Ayomide

    A semi-empirical method for investigating the performance of OPVs in resonant infrared, matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (RIR-MAPLE) films is explored. Emulsion-based RIR-MAPLE offers a unique experimental backdrop for investigating trends through simulation and gaining a better understanding of how different thin film characteristics impact OPV device performance. A novel multi-scale formulation of the Dynamic Monte Carlo (DMC) model is developed based on observable morphology features. Specifically, using confocal microscopy, we observe the presence of micro-scale regimes of pure materials and nano-scale regions of the composite blend. This enables us to assign weighted percentages to DMC implementations on two different scales: the microscale and nanoscale regions. In addition to this, we use input simulation parameters acquired by characterization of as-deposited films. The semi-empirical multi-scale model presented serves as a unique simulation opportunity for exploring different properties of RIR-MAPLE deposited OPVs, their effects on OPV performance and potential design routes for improving device efficiencies. This work was supported, in part, by the Office of Naval Research under Grant N00014-10-1-0481 and the NSF Triangle MRSEC on Soft Matter.

  4. On the thermodynamic efficiency of a nickel-based multiferroic thermomagnetic generator: From bulk to atomic scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval, Samuel M., E-mail: samuel.m.sandoval@gmail.com; Sepulveda, Abdon E., E-mail: abdon.sepulveda@gmail.com; Keller, Scott M., E-mail: smkeller@ucla.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2015-04-28

    A model is developed to correlate the effects of size on the thermodynamic efficiency for a nickel-based multiferroic thermomagnetic generator device. Three existing models are combined in order to estimate this correlation, they are (1) thermodynamic efficiency relations, (2) a model of ferromagnetic transition behavior, and (3) the bond-order length strength correlation. At the smallest size considered, a monolayer of nickel atoms shows a reduction in Curie temperature from its bulk value of T{sub c,Bulk}=630 K to T{sub c,ML}=240 K. This difference is analytically shown to affect the thermodynamic efficiency values when compared to bulk. Various nickel nanofilms are considered as a working body, such that the combined model predicts relative efficiency values that are comparable to the bulk scale, but operating closer to room-temperature when compared to bulk form. This result is unexpected since the absolute efficiency is shown to increase as a function of decreasing size, this discrepancy is explained as a consequence of Curie point suppression. The combined model is also applied to a hypothetical composite made of separated layers of nickel with distinct thicknesses. This composite material is predicted to spread the ferromagnetic transition across a much larger temperature range as compared to bulk nickel, such that this material may be better suited for different applications; for example, as a sensor or thermal switch. Moreover, this combined model is also shown to give a lower-bound estimate for thermodynamic efficiency, since the actual performance depends on material characterizations that have yet to be determined.

  5. Effect of resonant-to-bulk electron momentum transfer on the efficiency of electron-cyclotron current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Y.; Smith, G.R.; Cohen, R.H.

    1988-01-01

    Efficiency of current drive by electron-cyclotron waves is investigated numerically by a bounce-average Fokker-Planck code to elucidate the effects of momentum transfer from resonant to bulk electrons, finite bulk temperature relative to the energy of resonant electrons, and trapped electrons. Comparisons are made with existing theories to assess their validity and quantitative difference between theory and code results. Difference of nearly a factor of 2 was found in efficiency between some theory and code results. 4 refs., 4 figs

  6. One-pot facile synthesis of Bi2S3/SnS2/Bi2O3 ternary heterojunction as advanced double Z-scheme photocatalytic system for efficient dye removal under sunlight irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chongfei; Wang, Ke; Yang, Pengyan; Yang, Shengnan; Lu, Chen; Song, Yingze; Dong, Shuying; Sun, Jingyu; Sun, Jianhui

    2017-10-01

    The construction of solid-state Z-scheme heterojunction photocatalytic system to efficiently tailor the photoinduced charge separation is of great significance to water purification. In this study, we reported for the first time the controlled preparation of Bi2S3/SnS2/Bi2O3 double Z-scheme heterojunction photocatalyst by a simple one-pot solvothermal route. The experimental results with regard to rhodamine B (RhB) degradation showed that the as-fabricated heterojunctions can significantly enhance photocatalytic activity in comparison with pure Bi2S3. In addition, the optimized BiS-4 sample possessed good simulated-sunlight photocatalytic efficiency towards the degradation of other types of dyes, including methyl orange (MO), methylene blue (MB), orange IV (OG IV) and crystal violet (CV). By further probing the charge separation and migration behaviors, studying the band structure, as well as conducting the active species trapping experiments, a possible double Z-scheme photocatalytic mechanism was proposed, which not only benefited the efficient photogenerated electron-hole pair separation but also demonstrated advanced capacity for the removal of organic dyes. This work would pave the route towards the design of novel Z-scheme photocatalytic systems for energy conversion and environmental remediation.

  7. Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells: Impact of Minor Structural Modifications to the Polymer Backbone on the Polymer-Fullerene Mixing and Packing and on the Fullerene-Fullerene Connecting Network

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Tonghui

    2018-01-25

    The morphology of the active layer of a bulk heterojunction solar cell, made of a blend of an electron-donating polymer and an electron-accepting fullerene derivative, is known to play a determining role in device performance. Here, a combination of molecular dynamics simulations and long-range corrected density functional theory calculations is used to elucidate the molecular-scale effects that even minor structural changes to the polymer backbone can have on the “local” morphology; this study focuses on the extent of polymer–fullerene mixing, on their packing, and on the characteristics of the fullerene–fullerene connecting network in the mixed regions, aspects that are difficult to access experimentally. Three representative polymer donors are investigated: (i) poly[(5,6-difluoro-2,1,3-benzothiadiazol-4,7-diyl)-alt-(3,3′″-di(2-octyldodecyl)-2,2′;5′,2″;5″,2′″-quaterthiophen-5,5′″-diyl)] (PffBT4T-2OD); (ii) poly[(2,1,3-benzothiadiazol-4,7-diyl)-alt-(3,3′″-di(2-octyldodecyl)-2,2′;5′,2″;5″,2′″-quaterthiophen-5,5′″-diyl)] (PBT4T-2OD), where the fluorine atoms in the benzothiadiazole moieties of PffBT4T-2OD are replaced with hydrogen atoms; and (iii) poly[(2,2′-bithiophene)-alt-(4,7-bis((2-decyltetradecyl)thiophen-2-yl)-5,6-difluoro-2-propyl-2H-benzo[d][1,2,3]triazole)] (PT2-FTAZ), where the sulfur atoms in the benzothiadiazole moieties of PffBT4T-2OD are replaced with nitrogen atoms carrying a linear C3H7 side-chain; these polymers are mixed with the phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) acceptor. This study also discusses the nature of the charge-transfer electronic states appearing at the donor–acceptor interfaces, the electronic couplings relevant for the charge-recombination process, and the electron-transfer features between neighboring PC71BM molecules.

  8. Toward Eco-Friendly and Highly Efficient Solar Water Splitting Using In2S3/Anatase/Rutile TiO2Dual-Staggered-Heterojunction Nanodendrite Array Photoanode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jih-Sheng; Wu, Jih-Jen

    2018-01-31

    The TiO 2 -based heterojunction nanodendrite (ND) array composed of anatase nanoparticles (ANPs) on the surface of the rutile ND (RND) array is selected as the model photoanode to demonstrate the strategies toward eco-friendly and efficient solar water splitting using neutral electrolyte and seawater. Compared with the performances in alkaline electrolyte, a non-negligible potential drop across the electrolyte as well as impeded charge injection and charge separation is monitored in the ANP/RND array photoanode with neutral electrolyte, which are, respectively, ascribed to the series resistance of neutral electrolyte, the fundamentally pH-dependent water oxidation mechanism on TiO 2 surface, as well as the less band bending at the interface of TiO 2 and neutral electrolyte. Accordingly, a TiO 2 -based dual-staggered heterojunction ND array photoanode is further designed in this work to overcome the issue of less band bending with the neutral electrolyte. The improvement of charge separation efficiency is realized by the deposition of a transparent In 2 S 3 layer on the ANP/RND array photoanode for constructing additional staggered heterojunction. Under illumination of AM 1.5G (100 mW cm -2 ), the improved photocurrent densities acquired both in neutral electrolyte and seawater at 1.23 V vs reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE), which approach the theoretical value for rutile TiO 2 , are demonstrated in the dual-staggered-heterojunction ND array photoanode. Faradaic efficiencies of ∼95 and ∼32% for solar water oxidation in neutral electrolyte and solar seawater oxidation for 2 h are acquired at 1.23 V vs RHE, respectively.

  9. Constructing Multifunctional Metallic Ni Interface Layers in the g-C3N4Nanosheets/Amorphous NiS Heterojunctions for Efficient Photocatalytic H2Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jiuqing; Xie, Jun; Zhang, Hongdan; Zhang, Aiping; Liu, Yingju; Chen, Xiaobo; Li, Xin

    2017-04-26

    The construction of exceptionally robust and high-quality semiconductor-cocatalyst heterojunctions remains a grand challenge toward highly efficient and durable solar-to-fuel conversion. Herein, novel graphitic carbon nitride (g-C 3 N 4 ) nanosheets decorated with multifunctional metallic Ni interface layers and amorphous NiS cocatalysts were fabricated via a facile three-step process: the loading of Ni(OH) 2 nanosheets, high-temperature H 2 reduction, and further deposition of amorphous NiS nanosheets. The results demonstrated that both robust metallic Ni interface layers and amorphous NiS can be utilized as electron cocatalysts to markedly boost the visible-light H 2 evolution over g-C 3 N 4 semiconductor. The optimized g-C 3 N 4 -based photocatalyst containing 0.5 wt % Ni and 1.0 wt % NiS presented the highest hydrogen evolution of 515 μmol g -1 h -1 , which was about 2.8 and 4.6 times as much as those obtained on binary g-C 3 N 4 -1.0%NiS and g-C 3 N 4 -0.5%Ni, respectively. Apparently, the metallic Ni interface layers play multifunctional roles in enhancing the visible-light H 2 evolution, which could first collect the photogenerated electrons from g-C 3 N 4 , and then accelerate the surface H 2 -evolution reaction kinetics over amorphous NiS cocatalysts. More interestingly, the synergetic effects of metallic Ni and amorphous NiS dual-layer electron cocatalysts could also improve the TEOA-oxidation capacity through upshifting the VB levels of g-C 3 N 4 . Comparatively speaking, the multifunctional metallic Ni layers are dominantly favorable for separating and transferring photoexcited charge carriers from g-C 3 N 4 to amorphous NiS cocatalysts owing to the formation of Schottky junctions, whereas the amorphous NiS nanosheets are mainly advantageous for decreasing the thermodynamic overpotentials for surface H 2 -evolution reactions. It is hoped that the implantation of multifunctional metallic interface layers can provide a versatile approach to enhance the

  10. Bulk Data Movement for Climate Dataset: Efficient Data Transfer Management with Dynamic Transfer Adjustment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, Alexander; Balman, Mehmet; Williams, Dean; Shoshani, Arie; Natarajan, Vijaya

    2010-01-01

    Many scientific applications and experiments, such as high energy and nuclear physics, astrophysics, climate observation and modeling, combustion, nano-scale material sciences, and computational biology, generate extreme volumes of data with a large number of files. These data sources are distributed among national and international data repositories, and are shared by large numbers of geographically distributed scientists. A large portion of data is frequently accessed, and a large volume of data is moved from one place to another for analysis and storage. One challenging issue in such efforts is the limited network capacity for moving large datasets to explore and manage. The Bulk Data Mover (BDM), a data transfer management tool in the Earth System Grid (ESG) community, has been managing the massive dataset transfers efficiently with the pre-configured transfer properties in the environment where the network bandwidth is limited. Dynamic transfer adjustment was studied to enhance the BDM to handle significant end-to-end performance changes in the dynamic network environment as well as to control the data transfers for the desired transfer performance. We describe the results from the BDM transfer management for the climate datasets. We also describe the transfer estimation model and results from the dynamic transfer adjustment.

  11. Bulk Data Movement for Climate Dataset: Efficient Data Transfer Management with Dynamic Transfer Adjustment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Alexander [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Balman, Mehmet [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Williams, Dean N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Shoshani, Arie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Natarajan, Vijaya [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2010-07-16

    Many scientific applications and experiments, such as high energy and nuclear physics, astrophysics, climate observation and modeling, combustion, nano-scale material sciences, and computational biology, generate extreme volumes of data with a large number of files. These data sources are distributed among national and international data repositories, and are shared by large numbers of geographically distributed scientists. A large portion of data is frequently accessed, and a large volume of data is moved from one place to another for analysis and storage. One challenging issue in such efforts is the limited network capacity for moving large datasets to explore and manage. The Bulk Data Mover (BDM), a data transfer management tool in the Earth System Grid (ESG) community, has been managing the massive dataset transfers efficiently with the pre-configured transfer properties in the environment where the network bandwidth is limited. Dynamic transfer adjustment was studied to enhance the BDM to handle significant end-to-end performance changes in the dynamic network environment as well as to control the data transfers for the desired transfer performance. We describe the results from the BDM transfer management for the climate datasets. We also describe the transfer estimation model and results from the dynamic transfer adjustment.

  12. The Effect of Post-Baking Temperature and Thickness of ZnO Electron Transport Layers for Efficient Planar Heterojunction Organometal-Trihalide Perovskite Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun-Mu Lee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Solution-processed zinc oxide (ZnO-based planar heterojunction perovskite photovoltaic device is reported in this study. The photovoltaic device benefits from the ZnO film as a high-conductivity and high-transparent electron transport layer. The optimal electron transport layer thickness and post-baking temperature for ZnO are systematically studied by scanning electron microscopy, photoluminescence and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Optimized perovskite solar cells (PSCs show an open-circuit voltage, a short-circuit current density, and a fill factor of 1.04 V, 18.71 mA/cm2, and 70.2%, respectively. The highest power conversion efficiency of 13.66% was obtained when the device was prepared with a ZnO electron transport layer with a thickness of ~20 nm and when post-baking at 180 °C for 30 min. Finally, the stability of the highest performance ZnO-based PSCs without encapsulation was investigated in detail.

  13. Accurate efficiency determination and stability studies of conjugated polymer/fullerene solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroon, J.M.; Wienk, M.M.; Verhees, W.J.H.; Hummelen, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    We report on an accurate indoor determination of the power conversion efficiency under standard test conditions [1000 W/m(2), AM1.5 global (IEC 904-3), 25degreesC] for an organic photovoltaic device based on a bulk heterojunction of a conjugated polymer and a methanofullerene. AM1.5 efficiencies up

  14. Fabrication of a Co(OH)2/ZnCr LDH "p-n" Heterojunction Photocatalyst with Enhanced Separation of Charge Carriers for Efficient Visible-Light-Driven H2 and O2 Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Dipti Prava; Nayak, Susanginee; Reddy, K Hemalata; Martha, Satyabadi; Parida, Kulamani

    2018-04-02

    Photocatalytic generation of H 2 and O 2 by water splitting remains a great challenge for clean and sustainable energy. Taking into the consideration promising heterojunction photocatalysts, analogous energy issues have been mitigated to a meaningful extent. Herein, we have architectured a highly efficient bifunctional heterojunction material, i.e., p-type Co(OH) 2 platelets with an n-type ZnCr layered double hydroxide (LDH) by an ultrasonication method. Primarily, the Mott-Schottky measurements confirmed the n- and p-type semiconductive properties of LDH and CH material, respectively, with the construction of a p-n heterojunction. The high resolution transmission electron microscopy results suggest that surface modification of ZnCr LDH by Co(OH) 2 hexagonal platelets could form a fabulous p-n interfacial region that significantly decreases the energy barrier for O 2 and H 2 production by effectively separating and transporting photoinduced charge carriers, leading to enhanced photoreactivity. A deep investigation into the mechanism shows that a 30 wt % Co(OH) 2 -modified ZnCr LDH sample liberates maximum H 2 and O 2 production in 2 h, i.e., 1115 and 560 μmol, with apparent conversion efficiencies of H 2 and O 2 evolution of 13.12% and 6.25%, respectively. Remarkable photocatalytic activity with energetic charge pair transfer capability was illustrated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, linear sweep voltammetry, and photoluminescence spectra. The present study clearly suggests that low-cost Co(OH) 2 platelets are the most crucial semiconductors to provide a new p-n heterojunction photocatalyst for photocatalytic H 2 and O 2 production on the platform of ZnCr LDH.

  15. Ni-doped α-Fe 2 O 3 as electron transporting material for planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells with improved efficiency, reduced hysteresis and ultraviolet stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Ying; Liu, Tao; Wang, Ning; Luo, Qiang; Lin, Hong; Li, Jianbao; Jiang, Qinglong; Wu, Lili; Guo, Zhanhu

    2017-08-01

    We report on high-efficiency planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells (PSCs) employing Ni-doped alpha-Fe2O3 as electron-transporting layer (ETL). The suitable addition of nickel (Ni) dopant could enhance the electron conductivity as well as induce downward shift of the conduction band minimum for alpha-Fe2O3, which facilitate electrons injection and transfer from the conduction band of the perovskite. As a consequence, a substantial reduction in the charge accumulation at the perovskite/ETL interface makes the device much less sensitive to scanning rate and direction, i.e., lower hysteresis. With a reverse scan for the optimized PSC under standard AM-1.5 sunlight illumination, it generates a competitive power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 14.2% with a large short circuit current (J(sc)) of 22.35 mA/cm(2), an open circuit photovoltage (V-oc) of 0.92 V and a fill factor (FF) of 69.1%. Due to the small J-V hysteresis behavior, a higher stabilized PCE up to 11.6% near the maximum power point can be reached for the device fabricated with 4 mol% Ni-doped alpha-Fe2O3 ETL compared with the undoped alpha-Fe2O3 based cell (9.2%). Furthermore, a good stability of devices with exposure to ambient air and high levels of ultraviolet (UV)-light can be achieved. Overall, our results demonstrate that the simple solution-processed Ni-doped alpha-Fe2O3 can be a good candidate of the n-type collection layer for commercialization of PSCs.

  16. Efficient electroreduction of CO{sub 2} on bulk silver electrode in aqueous solution via the inhibition of hydrogen evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quan, Fengjiao; Xiong, Mubing; Jia, Falong, E-mail: fljia@mail.ccnu.edu.cn; Zhang, Lizhi

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • High Faradic efficiency for CO (95%) is achieved on bulk Ag electrode. • The addition of DTAB contributes to enhanced CO{sub 2} conversion efficiency. • Hydrogen evolution is suppressed by the adsorbed DTAB on Ag electrode. - Abstract: Electrochemical CO{sub 2} reduction provides a desirable pathway to convert greenhouse gas into useful chemicals. It is a great challenge to reduce CO{sub 2} efficiently in aqueous solution, especially on commercial bulk metal electrodes. Here, we report substantial improvement in CO{sub 2} reduction on bulk silver electrode through the introduction of ionic surfactant in aqueous electrolyte. The hydrogen evolution on the electrode surface is greatly suppressed by the surfactant, while the catalytic ability of silver towards CO{sub 2} reduction is maintained. The Faradaic efficiency for CO is greatly enhanced from 50% to 95% after the addition of this low-cost surfactant. This study may provide new pathways towards efficient CO{sub 2} reduction through the inhibition of proton reduction.

  17. Ag-bridged Ag{sub 2}O nanowire network/TiO{sub 2} nanotube array p–n heterojunction as a highly efficient and stable visible light photocatalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chengbin, E-mail: chem_cbliu@hnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Jiangxi Province for Persistent Pollutants Control and Resources Recycle, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Cao, Chenghao [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Luo, Xubiao [Key Laboratory of Jiangxi Province for Persistent Pollutants Control and Resources Recycle, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); Luo, Shenglian [Key Laboratory of Jiangxi Province for Persistent Pollutants Control and Resources Recycle, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2015-03-21

    Graphical abstract: A unique Ag-bridged Ag{sub 2}O nanowire network/TiO{sub 2} nanotube array p–n heterojunction was fabricated by simple electrochemical method. The heterostructures exhibit high photocatalytic activity and excellent recycling performance. - Highlights: • Ag-bridged Ag{sub 2}O nanowire network self-stability structure. • Ag{sub 2}O nanowire network/TiO{sub 2} nanotube p–n heterojunction. • High visible light photocatalytic activity. • Highly stable recycling performance. - Abstract: A unique Ag-bridged Ag{sub 2}O nanowire network/TiO{sub 2} nanotube array p–n heterojunction (Ag–Ag{sub 2}O/TiO{sub 2} NT) was fabricated by simple electrochemical method. Ag nanoparticles were firstly electrochemically deposited onto the surface of TiO{sub 2} NT and then were partly oxidized to Ag{sub 2}O nanowires while the rest of Ag mother nanoparticles were located at the junctions of Ag{sub 2}O nanowire network. The Ag–Ag{sub 2}O/TiO{sub 2} NT heterostructure exhibited strong visible-light response, effective separation of photogenerated carriers, and high adsorption capacity. The integration of Ag–Ag{sub 2}O self-stability structure and p–n heterojunction permitted high and stable photocatalytic activity of Ag–Ag{sub 2}O/TiO{sub 2} NT heterostructure photocatalyst. Under 140-min visible light irradiation, the photocatalytic removal efficiency of both dye acid orange 7 (AO7) and industrial chemical p-nitrophenol (PNP) over Ag–Ag{sub 2}O/TiO{sub 2} NT reached nearly 100% much higher than 17% for AO7 or 13% for PNP over bare TiO{sub 2} NT. After 5 successive cycles under 600-min simulated solar light irradiation, Ag–Ag{sub 2}O/TiO{sub 2} NT remained highly stable photocatalytic activity.

  18. Simulation and experimental study of a novel bifacial structure of silicon heterojunction solar cell for high efficiency and low cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haibin; Tian, Gangyu; Zhou, Lang; Yuan, Jiren; Fahrner, Wolfgang R.; Zhang, Wenbin; Li, Xingbing; Chen, Wenhao; Liu, Renzhong

    2018-03-01

    A novel structure of Ag grid/SiN x /n+-c-Si/n-c-Si/i-a-Si:H/p+-a-Si:H/TCO/Ag grid was designed to increase the efficiency of bifacial amorphous/crystalline silicon-based solar cells and reduce the rear material consumption and production cost. The simulation results show that the new structure obtains higher efficiency compared with the typical bifacial amorphous/crystalline silicon-based solar cell because of an increase in the short-circuit current (J sc), while retaining the advantages of a high open-circuit voltage, low temperature coefficient, and good weak-light performance. Moreover, real cells composed of the novel structure with dimensions of 75 mm ×75 mm were fabricated by a special fabrication recipe based on industrial processes. Without parameter optimization, the cell efficiency reached 21.1% with the J sc of 41.7 mA/cm2. In addition, the novel structure attained 28.55% potential conversion efficiency under an illumination of AM 1.5 G, 100 mW/cm2. We conclude that the configuration of the Ag grid/SiN x /n+-c-Si/n-c-Si/i-a-Si:H/p+-a-Si:H/TCO/Ag grid is a promising structure for high efficiency and low cost. Project supported by the Jiangxi Provincial Key Research and Development Foundation, China (Grant No. 2016BBH80043), the Open Fund of Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Materials and Technology for Energy Conversion, China (Grant No. NJ20160032), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61741404, 61464007, and 51561022).

  19. HOLE-BLOCKING LAYERS FOR SILICON/ORGANIC HETEROJUNCTIONS: A NEW CLASS OF HIGH-EFFICIENCY LOW-COST PV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturm, James [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    2017-12-04

    This project is the first investigation of the use of thin titanium dioxide layers on silicon as a hole-blocking / electron-transparent selective contact to silicon. The work was motivated by the goal of a high-efficiency low-cost silicon-based solar cells that could be processed entirely at low temperature (300 Degree Celsius) or less, without requiring plasma-processing.

  20. Chemical bath deposited rutile TiO{sub 2} compact layer toward efficient planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Chao, E-mail: lc401997413@qq.com [State Centre for International Cooperation on Designer Low-Carbon and Environmental Material (SCICDLCEM), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Wu, Zhenhua, E-mail: 80116243@qq.com [Henan Information Engineering School, Zhengzhou 450000 (China); Li, Pengwei, E-mail: pengweili001@126.com [State Centre for International Cooperation on Designer Low-Carbon and Environmental Material (SCICDLCEM), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Fan, Jiajie, E-mail: fanjiajie@zzu.edu.cn [State Centre for International Cooperation on Designer Low-Carbon and Environmental Material (SCICDLCEM), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Zhang, Yiqiang, E-mail: yqzhang@zzu.edu.cn [State Centre for International Cooperation on Designer Low-Carbon and Environmental Material (SCICDLCEM), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Shao, Guosheng, E-mail: gsshao@zzu.edu.cn [State Centre for International Cooperation on Designer Low-Carbon and Environmental Material (SCICDLCEM), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China)

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Rutile TiO{sub 2} thin film can be grown on FTO substrate below 100 °C. • 200 mM TiCl{sub 4} precursor solution results in the best PSC performance. • UV/O{sub 3} treatment can reduce the carrier recombination effectively. • Over 12% power conversion efficiency can be achieved for PSCs. - Abstract: TiO{sub 2} is a best choice of electron transport layers in perovskite solar cells, due to its high electron mobility and stability. However, traditional TiO{sub 2} processing method requires rather high annealing temperature (>500 °C), preventing it from application to flexible devices. Here, we show that TiO{sub 2} thin films can be synthesized via chemical bath deposition below 100 °C. Typically, a compact layer of rutile TiO{sub 2} is deposited onto fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) coated substrates, in an aqueous TiCl{sub 4} solution at 70 °C. Through the optimization of precursor concentration and ultraviolet-ozone surface modification, over 12% power conversion efficiency can be achieved for CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} based perovskite solar cells. These findings offer a potential low-temperature technical solution in using TiO{sub 2} thin film as an effective transport layer for flexible perovskite solar cells.

  1. A facile in situ solvothermal method for two-dimensional layered g-C3N4/SnS2 p-n heterojunction composites with efficient visible-light photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Juan; Chen, Ji-bing; Mu, Jiang-long; Chen, Li-da; Miao, Hui; Liu, En-zhou; Fan, Jun; Hu, Xiao-yun

    2018-02-01

    To overcome the fast recombination rate of electron-hole pairs of individual SnS2, p-n heterojunction g-C3N4/SnS2 composites were fabricated as high-efficiency visible-light photocatalyst to photodegradate the organic dye MB. The morphologies, structures, compositions, and photocatalytic properties were characterized. The SnS2 shows two-dimensional layer structure with an average thickness of 20 nm and diameter size of about 2 μm, and the g-C3N4 nanoflakes were uniformly deposited on the surface of SnS2 nanosheets. In comparison with the bare g-C3N4 and SnS2, the composites show improved photocatalytic activity under visible light, which is sensitive to the content of g-C3N4. In particular, the 15% g-C3N4/SnS2 composites exhibit the highest photocatalytic activity and outstanding reusability, which can degrade 88.01% MB after only 1 h in the visible light ( λ > 420 nm) range. The g-C3N4/SnS2 heterojunction composites show outstanding reusability after four times cycling experiments. The improved photocatalytic activities of composites are attributed to abundant active species, increased charge separation, and decreased electron-hole pair recombination, which originated from the large specific surface area and efficient interfacial transport of photo-induced charge carriers between SnS2 and g-C3N4. These results suggest that the two-dimensional layered g-C3N4/SnS2 p-n heterojunction composites are promised to be a high-efficiency visible-light photocatalyst.

  2. Improved perovskite morphology and crystallinity using porous PbI2 layers for efficient planar heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xianyu; Hu, Ziyang; Xu, Jie; Huang, Like; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Jianjun; Zhu, Yuejin

    2017-12-01

    We demonstrate the flexible and facile use of porous PbI2 layers to fabricate high quality perovskite films with a dense surface and without residual PbI2. PbI2 precursor solutions by adding polystyrene pore-forming agents are first spin-coated to fabricate the wet film. A porous PbI2 layer is formed by washing off polystyrene using organic solvents. The porous PbI2 layer not only serves as a channel for transporting the CH3NH3I solution but also offers extremely enlarged contact areas, facilitating interfacial reaction with CH3NH3I. Shiny smooth perovskite films with excellent electronic quality and solar cells with an efficiency up to 17% are obtained.

  3. A Co2 P/WC Nano-Heterojunction Covered with N-Doped Carbon as Highly Efficient Electrocatalyst for Hydrogen Evolution Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ya; Lang, Zhongling; Yu, Feiyang; Tan, Huaqiao; Yan, Gang; Wang, Yonghui; Ma, Yuanyuan; Li, Yangguang

    2018-03-22

    The hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) produces clean hydrogen through an electrochemical process. However, new nonprecious-metal electrocatalysts for the HER are required to reduce the consumption of energy. Herein, we report a new Co 2 P/WC nano-heterojunction that consists of Co 2 P and WC composite phases coated with a few-layer N-doped graphitic carbon shells (Co 2 P/WC@NC). The composite was prepared by a one-step annealing of the polyoxometalate Na 9 (NH 4 ) 5 [{(B-α-PW 9 O 34 )Co 3 (OH)(H 2 O) 2 (Ale)} 2 Co]⋅35 H 2 O (Co 7 P 6 W 18 ) and dicyandiamide (DCA). The preparation method consisted of the simultaneous phosphorization of Co and carbonization of W in a confined space to isolate a Co 2 P/WC nano-heterojunction phase for the first time. Co 2 P/WC@NC facilitated the generation of hydrogen in the electrolysis process, which had an overpotential of only 91 mV at a current density of 10 mA cm -2 in the acid solution; an excellent HER performance (2 H + +2 e - →H 2 ) and Tafel slope (40 mV dec -1 ) as well as durability over a period of 50 h were achieved. Theoretical calculations showed that the Co 2 P, WC, and N pyridinic C dopants in the material synergistically promoted the HER activity rather than the individual constituents. Furthermore, Co 2 P/WC@NC nano-heterojunctions showed good HER performance in the whole pH range of electrolytes and considerable durability in acidic media containing transition metal ions, which may attract more attention for the exploration and optimization of nano-heterojunction catalysts for the HER. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. The Effect of Post-Baking Temperature and Thickness of ZnO Electron Transport Layers for Efficient Planar Heterojunction Organometal-Trihalide Perovskite Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kun-Mu Lee; Chuan-Jung Lin; Yin-Hsuan Chang; Ting-Han Lin; Vembu Suryanarayanan; Ming-Chung Wu

    2017-01-01

    Solution-processed zinc oxide (ZnO)-based planar heterojunction perovskite photovoltaic device is reported in this study. The photovoltaic device benefits from the ZnO film as a high-conductivity and high-transparent electron transport layer. The optimal electron transport layer thickness and post-baking temperature for ZnO are systematically studied by scanning electron microscopy, photoluminescence and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Optimized perovskite...

  5. Facile in situ synthesis of plasmonic nanoparticles-decorated g-C3N4/TiO2 heterojunction nanofibers and comparison study of their photosynergistic effects for efficient photocatalytic H2 evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xinbo; Shao, Changlu; Li, Xinghua; Lu, Na; Wang, Kexin; Zhang, Zhenyi; Liu, Yichun

    2016-06-07

    Ternary heterostructured nanofibers (NFs) consisting of plasmonic noble metal nanoparticles (Au, Ag, or Pt NPs), graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets (g-C3N4 NSs), and TiO2 NPs were synthesized in situ via a facile electrospinning technique combined with a subsequent thermal oxidation/reduction process. The thermal-reduced plasmonic NPs with sizes from 5 to 10 nm are dispersed uniformly into the heterojunctions of the NFs that are formed by thermal oxidation etching of exfoliated g-C3N4 NSs in the electrospun TiO2 nanofibrous matrix, as evidenced by microscopic and electronic structure analyses. In comparison to single-component photocatalysts, such as g-C3N4 NSs or TiO2 NFs, these ternary heterostructures exhibit significantly high photocatalytic activity for H2 evolution under simulated sunlight irradiation. The enhanced photoactivities are attributed to the strong photosynergistic effect between the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and the heterojunction interface sensitization, which results in the improvement of charge-carrier generation and separation in the ternary heterostructured NFs. Further investigations indicate that coupling heterojunction sensitization on the g-C3N4/TiO2 interface with Ag SPR effects by plasmonic resonant energy transfer is the optimal strategy for synergistically improving the charge-carrier kinetics to achieve highly efficient photocatalytic H2 evolution. It is believed that our present study offers a promising method for the rational integration of multi-component photocatalytic systems that can realize high photocatalytic performances for use in solar-to-fuel conversion.

  6. Efficient method for storage of long conveyor belts passages inside the bulk containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria ŁUSZCZKIEWICZ-PIĄTEK

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces the family of the algorithms designed to improve the process of winding up the long conveyor belt passages on reels located inside the bulk containers, used for i.e. rail transport. The proposed method provides the convenient storage technique of the long belt passages , enabling their transport on the standardized rail wagons. Presented solution also addresses the problems related with binding the smaller belt passages, such as shorter life span in comparison to the single-part belt. Moreover, the presented work contains not only the details of the two algorithms representative for the proposed method, but also the outlook of the system of the automatic control required for the successful application of the proposed technique.

  7. Electronic excited states and relaxation dynamics in polymer heterojunction systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramon, John Glenn Santos

    The potential for using conducting polymers as the active material in optoelectronic devices has come to fruition in the past few years. Understanding the fundamental photophysics behind their operations points to the significant role played by the polymer interface in their performance. Current device architectures involve the use of bulk heterojunctions which intimately blend the donor and acceptor polymers to significantly increase not only their interfacial surface area but also the probability of exciton formation within the vicinity of the interface. In this dissertation, we detail the role played by the interface on the behavior and performance of bulk heterojunction systems. First, we explore the relation between the exciton binding energy to the band offset in determining device characteristics. As a general rule, when the exciton binding energy is greater than the band offset, the exciton remains the lowest energy excited state leading to efficient light-emitting properties. On the other hand, if the offset is greater than the binding energy, charge separation becomes favorable leading to better photovoltaic behavior. Here, we use a Wannier function, configuration interaction based approach to examine the essential excited states and predict the vibronic absorption and emission spectra of the PPV/BBL, TFB/F8BT and PFB/F8BT heterojunctions. Our results underscore the role of vibrational relaxation in the formation of charge-transfer states following photoexcitation. In addition, we look at the relaxation dynamics that occur upon photoexcitation. For this, we adopt the Marcus-Hush semiclassical method to account for lattice reorganization in the calculation of the interconversion rates in TFB/F8BT and PFB/F8BT. We find that, while a tightly bound charge-transfer state (exciplex) remains the lowest excited state, a regeneration pathway to the optically active lowest excitonic state in TFB/F8BT is possible via thermal repopulation from the exciplex. Finally

  8. High efficient photocatalytic activity from nanostructuralized photonic crystal-like p-n coaxial hetero-junction film photocatalyst of Cu3SnS4/TiO2 nanotube arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Liu, Fang-Ting; Chang, Yin; Wang, Jian; Wang, Cheng-Wei

    2017-12-01

    Structuring the materials in the form of photonic crystals is a new strategy for photocatalytic applications. Herein, a new concept of photonic crystal-induced p-n coaxial heterojunction film photocatalyst of Cu3SnS4/TiO2 (CTS/PhC-TNAs) was well-designed and successfully fabricated by combining periodic pulse anodic oxidation and in-situ self-assembling methods Such nanostructured CTS/PhC-TNAs exhibited significantly improved photocatalytic degradation activity under simulated sunlight irradiation with methyl orange (MO) as the target pollutants. Within 120 min, 82% of the MO (10 mg/L) was photodegraded and its kinetic constant per specific surface area reached 0.05332 μmol/m2h, which is 1.6 and 12.8 times more quickly than that of PhC-TNAs and CTS, respectively. Its significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity could be mainly attributed to a joint effect of the unique photonic crystal property of PhC-TNAs and the nanostructured hollow p-n coaxial hetero-junction, which result in an increased efficiency of charge separation and transfer and also an improved spectral response capability. This photonic crystal film photocatalyst has the potential for enhancing the photocatalytic activity via further optimizing the photonic stop band of PhC-TNAs. The study presents a new means to design the kind of photonic crystal structural-induced novel photocatalysts with high photocatalytic activities in pollution treatment.

  9. Estimation of track registration efficiency in solution medium and study of gamma irradiation effects on the bulk-etch rate and the activation energy for bulk etching of CR-39 (DOP) Solid State Nuclear Track Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalsi, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    The fission track registration efficiency of diethylene glycol bis allyl carbonate (dioctyl phthalate doped) (CR-39 (DOP)) solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) in solution medium (K wet ) has been experimentally determined and is found to be (9.7 ± 0.5).10 -4 cm. This is in good agreement with the values of other SSNTDs. The gamma irradiation effects in the dose range of 50.0-220.0 kGy on the bulk etch rate, V b and the activation energy for bulk etching, E of this solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) have also been studied. It is observed that the bulk etch rates increase and the activation energies for bulk etching decrease with the increase in gamma dose. These results have been explained on the basis of scission of the detector due to gamma irradiation

  10. Highly efficient solutions for smart and bulk power transmission of 'green energy'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breuer, Wilfried; Retzmann, Dietmar; Uecker, Karl

    2010-09-15

    Environmental constraints, loss minimization and CO2 reduction will play an increasingly more important role in future. Security and sustainability of power supply as well as economic efficiency needs application of advanced technologies. Innovative solutions with HVDC (High Voltage Direct Current) and FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission Systems) have the potential to cope with these challenges. They provide the features which are necessary to avoid technical problems in power systems, they increase the transmission capacity and system stability very efficiently and help prevent cascading outages. Furthermore, they are essential for Grid Access of Renewable Energy Sources such as Hydro, Wind and Solar-Energy.

  11. High light extraction efficiency in bulk-GaN based volumetric violet light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, Aurelien, E-mail: adavid@soraa.com; Hurni, Christophe A.; Aldaz, Rafael I.; Cich, Michael J.; Ellis, Bryan; Huang, Kevin; Steranka, Frank M.; Krames, Michael R. [Soraa Inc., 6500 Kaiser Dr., Fremont, California 94555 (United States)

    2014-12-08

    We report on the light extraction efficiency of III-Nitride violet light-emitting diodes with a volumetric flip-chip architecture. We introduce an accurate optical model to account for light extraction. We fabricate a series of devices with varying optical configurations and fit their measured performance with our model. We show the importance of second-order optical effects like photon recycling and residual surface roughness to account for data. We conclude that our devices reach an extraction efficiency of 89%.

  12. Black TiO2 nanobelts/g-C3N4 nanosheets Laminated Heterojunctions with Efficient Visible-Light-Driven Photocatalytic Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Liyan; Xing, Zipeng; Zou, Jinlong; Li, Zhenzi; Wu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Yuchi; Zhu, Qi; Yang, Shilin; Zhou, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Black TiO2 nanobelts/g-C3N4 nanosheets laminated heterojunctions (b-TiO2/g-C3N4) as visible-light-driven photocatalysts are fabricated through a simple hydrothermal-calcination process and an in-situ solid-state chemical reduction approach, followed by the mild thermal treatment (350??C) in argon atmosphere. The prepared samples are evidently investigated by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoe...

  13. Enhanced separation efficiency of photoinduced charges for antimony-doped tin oxide (Sb-SnO{sub 2})/TiO{sub 2} heterojunction semiconductors with varied Sb doping concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhen-Long [School of Physics and Electronics, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Ma, Wen-Hai [School of Physical Education, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Mao, Yan-Li, E-mail: ylmao1@163.com [School of Physics and Electronics, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Institute for Computational Materials Science, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China)

    2014-09-07

    In this paper, antimony-doped tin oxide (Sb-SnO{sub 2}) nanoparticles were synthesized with varied Sb doping concentration, and the Sb-SnO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} heterojunction semiconductors were prepared with Sb-SnO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}. The separation efficiency of photoinduced charges was characterized with surface photovoltage (SPV) technique. Compared with Sb-SnO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}, Sb-SnO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} presents an enhanced separation efficiency of photoinduced charges, and the SPV enhancements were estimated to be 1.40, 1.43, and 1.99 for Sb-SnO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} composed of Sb-SnO{sub 2} with the Sb doping concentration of 5%, 10%, and 15%, respectively. To understand the enhancement, the band structure of Sb-SnO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2} in the heterojunction semiconductor was determined, and the conduction band offsets (CBO) between Sb-SnO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2} were estimated to be 0.56, 0.64, and 0.98 eV for Sb-SnO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} composed of Sb-SnO{sub 2} with the Sb doping concentration of 5%, 10%, and 15%, respectively. These results indicate that the separation efficiency enhancement is resulting from the energy level matching, and the increase of enhancement is due to the rising of CBO.

  14. The Silicon:Colloidal Quantum Dot Heterojunction

    KAUST Repository

    Masala, Silvia

    2015-10-13

    A heterojunction between crystalline silicon and colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) is realized. A special interface modification is developed to overcome an inherent energetic band mismatch between the two semiconductors, and realize the efficient collection of infrared photocarriers generated in the CQD film. This junction is used to produce a sensitive near infrared photodetector. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Structural, electronic and transport properties of armorphous/crystalline silicon heterojunctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, Tim Ferdinand

    2011-06-15

    The present dissertation is concerned with the physical aspects of the a-Si:H/c-Si heterojunction in the context of PV research. In a first step, the technological development which took place in the framework of the thesis is summarized. Its main constituent was the development and implementation of ultrathin ({<=}10 nm) undoped a-Si:H[(i)a-Si:H] layers to improve the passivation of the c-Si surface with the goal of increasing the open-circuit voltage of the solar cell. It is shown that the effect of (i)a-Si:H interlayers depends on the c-Si substrate doping type, and that challenges exist particularly on the technologically more relevant (n)c-Si substrate. A precise optimization of (i)a-Si:H thickness and the doping level of the following a-Si:H top layers is required to realize an efficiency gain in the solar cell. In this chapter, the key scientific questions to be tackled in the main part of the thesis are brought up by the technological development. In the next chapter, the charge carrier transport through a-Si:H/c-Si heterojunctions is investigated making use of current-voltage (I/V) characteristics taken at different temperatures. The dominant transport mechanisms in a-Si:H/c-Si heterojunctions are identified, and the relevance for solar cell operation is discussed. It is found that in the bias regime relevant for solar cell operation, the theoretical framework for the description of carrier transport in classical c-Si solar cells applies as well, which enables to use I/V curves for a simple characterization of a-Si:H/c-Si structures. The next chapter deals with the microscopic characterization of ultrathin a-Si:H layers. Employing infrared spectroscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry, photoelectron spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectroscopy, the structural, electronic and optical properties of (i)a-Si:H are analyzed. It is found that ultrathin a-Si:H essentially behaves like layers of 10..100 times the thickness. This represents the basis for the

  16. Design of BAs-AlN monolayered honeycomb heterojunction structures: A first-principles study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho-Mojica, Dulce C.; López-Urías, Florentino, E-mail: flo@ipicyt.edu.mx

    2016-04-15

    Graphical abstract: Single-layer honeycomb heterojunction structures based on alternated and coupled ribbons of BAs and AlN are investigated using first-principles density functional theory calculations. Optimized geometries, density of states, band-gaps, formation energies, and wave functions are studied for different ribbon widths joined along the zigzag and armchair edges. Optimized heterojunction geometries results revealed that BAs narrow ribbons exhibit a corrugation effect at the interface due to a lattice mismatch. From formation energy calculations, it was found that zigzag heterojunctions are more stable than the armchair heterojunctions. - Highlights: • We design new 2D-semiconductor heterojunction nanostructures. • Monolayers formed by alternated strips (heterojunctions) of aluminum-nitride and boron-arsenide, with graphene-like structure are explored by DFT method. • Due to the lattice mismatch, an effect of corrugation was observed in heterojunctions AlN and BAs. • Electronic band gaps are strongly dependent on width and chirality (zigzag or armchair) of the strips. • Formation energy calculations revealed that zigzag heterojunctions are more stable than the armchair heterojunctions. - Abstract: BAs and AlN are semiconductor materials with an indirect and direct gap respectively in the bulk phase. Recently, electronic calculations have demonstrated that a single-layer or few layers of BAs and AlN exhibit a graphite-like structure with interesting electronic properties. In this work, infinite sheets single-layer heterojunction structures based on alternated strips with honeycomb BAs and AlN layers are investigated using first-principles density functional theory calculations. Optimized geometries, density of states, band-gaps, formation energies, and wave functions are studied for different strip widths joined along zigzag and armchair edges. Results in optimized heterojunction geometries revealed that BAs narrow strips exhibit a corrugation

  17. High internal quantum efficiency in AlGaN multiple quantum wells grown on bulk AlN substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Zachary, E-mail: zabryan@ncsu.edu; Bryan, Isaac; Sitar, Zlatko; Collazo, Ramón [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Xie, Jinqiao; Mita, Seiji [HexaTech, Inc., 991 Aviation Pkwy., Suite 800, Morrisville, North Carolina 27560 (United States)

    2015-04-06

    The internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of Al{sub 0.55}Ga{sub 0.45}N/AlN and Al{sub 0.55}Ga{sub 0.45}N/Al{sub 0.85}Ga{sub 0.15}N UVC MQW structures was analyzed. The use of bulk AlN substrates enabled us to undoubtedly distinguish the effect of growth conditions, such as V/III ratio, on the optical quality of AlGaN based MQWs from the influence of dislocations. At a high V/III ratio, a record high IQE of ∼80% at a carrier density of 10{sup 18 }cm{sup −3} was achieved at ∼258 nm. The high IQE was correlated with the decrease of the non-radiative coefficient A and a reduction of midgap defect luminescence, all suggesting that, in addition to dislocations, point defects are another major factor that strongly influences optical quality of AlGaN MQW structures.

  18. Fabrication of efficient TiO2-RGO heterojunction composites for hydrogen generation via water-splitting: Comparison between RGO, Au and Pt reduction sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bery, Haitham M.; Matsushita, Yoshihisa; Abdel-moneim, Ahmed

    2017-11-01

    A facile one-step synthesis approach of M/TiO2/RGO (M = Au or Pt) ternary composite by hydrothermal treatment for hydrogen generation via water-splitting was investigated. Photocurrent response measurements revealed that TiO2 (P25) nanoparticles anchored on the reduced graphene oxide (RGO) surface exhibited a p-n heterojunction interface by changing the photocurrent direction with the applied bias from reverse to forward potential. H2 evolution rate of TiO2/RGO (5 wt.%) composite was substantially enhanced by 12-fold in comparison to bare TiO2 under simulated solar light irradiation. Cyclic volatmmetry measurements manifested, that the optimized 0.3 wt.% of platinum metal loaded on TiO2/RGO composite was the most active catalytic reduction sites for hydrogen generation reaction with an initial hydrogen rate of 670 μmol h-1. This study sheds the light on the tunable semiconductor type of TiO2/RGO composite fabricated by solution mixing pathway and its merits to improve the photocatalytic activity.

  19. Facile preparation of TiO2 quantum dots (QDs) / graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) heterojunction with highly efficient photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing; Jiang, Subin; Huo, Xuejian; Xia, Rui; Muhire, Elisée; Gao, Meizhen

    2018-02-23

    In this article, mechanical grinding - an effortless and super effective synthetic strategy is used to successfully synthesis TiO2QDs/g-C3N4 heterostructure. The XPS results together with TEM reveal the formation of TiO2QDs/g-C3N4 heterostructure with strong interfacial interaction. Because of the advantage of this characteristic, the prepared heterostructures exhibit excellent property for photocatalytic wastewater treatment. Noticeably, the optimum photocatalytic activity of TiO2QDs/g-C3N4 heterostructures is nearly 3.4 times higher than that of g-C3N4 nanosheet used for the photodegradation of rhodamine B pollutant. Also the stability and possible degradation mechanism of TiO2QDs/g-C3N4 heterojunction are in-depth studied. This method may stimulate an effective approach to synthesize quantum dots sensitized semiconductor materials and facilitate their application in environmental protection. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  20. Band offset at the heterojunction interfaces of CdS/ZnSnP2, ZnS/ZnSnP2, and In2S3/ZnSnP2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsuka, Shigeru; Nose, Yoshitaro; Shirai, Yasuharu

    2016-05-01

    Heterojunctions were formed between ZnSnP2 and buffer materials, CdS, ZnS, and In2S3, using chemical bath deposition. The band offset was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy based on Kraut method. The conduction band offset, ΔEC, between ZnSnP2 and CdS was estimated to be -1.2 eV, which significantly limits the open circuit voltage, VOC. Conversely, ΔEC at the heterojunction between ZnSnP2 and ZnS was +0.3 eV, which is within the optimal offset range. In the case of In2S3, ΔEC was a relatively small value, -0.2 eV, and In2S3 is potentially useful as a buffer layer in ZnSnP2 solar cells. The J-V characteristics of heterojunction diodes with an Al/sulfides/ZnSnP2 bulk/Mo structure also suggested that ZnS and In2S3 are promising candidates for buffer layers in ZnSnP2 thin film solar cells, and the band alignment is a key factor for the higher efficiency of solar cells with heterojunctions.

  1. Electronic structure of defects in semiconductor heterojunctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haussy, Bernard; Ganghoffer, Jean Francois

    2002-01-01

    Full text.heterojunctions and semiconductors and superlattices are well known and well used by people interested in optoelectronics communications. Components based on the use of heterojunctions are interesting for confinement of light and increase of quantum efficiency. An heterojunction is the contact zone between two different semiconductors, for example GaAs and Ga 1-x Al x As. Superlattices are a succession of heterojunctions (up to 10 or 20). These systems have been the subjects of many experiments ao analyse the contact between semiconductors. They also have been theoretically studied by different types of approach. The main result of those studies is the prediciton of band discontinuities. Defects in heterojunctions are real traps for charge carriers; they can affect the efficiency of the component decreasing the currents and the fluxes in it. the knowledge of their electronic structure is important, a great density of defects deeply modifies the electronic structure of the whole material creating real new bands of energy in the band structure of the component. in the first part of this work, we will describe the heterostructure and the defect in terms of quantum wells and discrete levels. This approach allows us to show the role of the width of the quantum well describing the structure but induces specific behaviours due to the one dimensional modelling. Then a perturbative treatment is proposed using the Green's functions formalism. We build atomic chains with different types of atoms featuring the heterostructure and the defect. Densities of states of a structure with a defect and levels associated to the defect are obtained. Results are comparable with the free electrons work, but the modelling do not induce problems due to a one dimensional approach. To extend our modelling, a three dimensions approach, based on a cavity model, is investigated. The influence of the defect, - of hydrogenoid type - introduced in the structure, is described by a cavity

  2. Electroluminescence of Multicomponent Conjugated Polymers. 1. Roles of Polymer/Polymer Interfaces in Emission Enhancement and Voltage-Tunable Multicolor Emission in Semiconducting Polymer/Polymer Heterojunctions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Xuejun, Ph.D

    1999-01-01

    Effects of the electronic structure of polymer/polymer interfaces on the electroluminescence efficiency and tunable multicolor emission of polymer heterojunction light-emitting diodes were explored...

  3. Effect of the side chains and anode material on thermal stability and performance of bulk-heterojunction solar cells using DPP(TBFu).sub.2./sub. derivatives as donor materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovalenko, A.; Honová, J.; Vala, M.; Luňák, S.; Fekete, Ladislav; Horáková, P.; Dokládalová, L.; Kubáč, L.; Weiter, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 2015, Dec (2015), s. 1-9, č. článku 734917. ISSN 1110-662X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1409; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-05095S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : power conversion efficiency * diketopyrrolopyrrole derivatives * organic photovoltaics * conjugated molecules Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 1.226, year: 2015

  4. Multi-channel unidirectional transmission of phononic crystal heterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhenlong; Tong, Jie; Wu, Fugen

    2018-02-01

    Two square steel columns are arranged in air to form two-dimensional square lattice phononic crystals (PNCs). Two PNCs can be combined into a non-orthogonal 45∘ heterojunction when the difference in the directional band gaps of the two PNC types is utilized. The finite element method is used to calculate the acoustic band structure, the heterogeneous junction transmission characteristics, acoustic field distribution, and many others. Results show that a non-orthogonal PNC heterojunction can produce a multi-channel unidirectional transmission of acoustic waves. With the square scatterer rotated, the heterojunction can select a frequency band for unidirectional transmission performance. This capability is particularly useful for constructing acoustic diodes with wide-bands and high-efficiency unidirectional transmission characteristics.

  5. A Tetraperylene Diimides Based 3D Nonfullerene Acceptor for Efficient Organic Photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shi-Yong; Wu, Chen-Hao; Li, Chang-Zhi; Liu, Sheng-Qiang; Wei, Kung-Hwa; Chen, Hong-Zheng; Jen, Alex K-Y

    2015-04-01

    A nonfullerene acceptor based on a 3D tetraperylene diimide is developed for bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaics. The disruption of perylene diimide planarity with a 3D framework suppresses the self-aggregation of perylene diimide and inhibits excimer formation. From planar monoperylene diimide to 3D tetraperylene diimide, a significant improvement of power conversion efficiency from 0.63% to 3.54% can be achieved.

  6. Efficient Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Solar Cell Integrating Polymer Nanowires and Inorganic Nanotetrapods

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Weizhe; Tan, Furui; Liu, Xiansheng; Zhang, Weifeng; Qu, Shengchun; Wang, Zhijie; Wang, Zhanguo

    2017-01-01

    Constructing a highly efficient bulk-heterojunction is of critical importance to the hybrid organic/inorganic solar cells. Here in this work, we introduce a novel hybrid architecture containing P3HT nanowire and CdSe nanotetrapod as bicontinuous charge channels for holes and electrons, respectively. Compared to the traditionally applied P3HT molecules, the well crystallized P3HT nanowires qualify an enhanced light absorption at the long wavelength as well as strengthened charge carrier transp...

  7. Improving the performance of solution-processed organic solar cells by incorporating small molecule acceptors into a ternary bulk heterojunction based on DH6T:Mq3:PCBM (M = Ga, Al)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhammad, Fahmi F. [Center for Composites, Institute for Vehicle Systems & Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Soft Materials & Devices Lab, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science & Health, Koya University, Koya, Kurdistan Region (Iraq); Development Center for Research and Training, University of Human Development, Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region (Iraq); Yahya, Mohd Yazid, E-mail: yazidyahya@utm.my [Center for Composites, Institute for Vehicle Systems & Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Sulaiman, Khaulah [Low Dimensional Materials Research Centre, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2017-02-15

    Improvement in the overall performance of solution-processed organic solar cells based on a ternary heterostructure was realized by means of incorporating small molecules of tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) gallium (Gaq3) or Alq3 electron acceptors. The donor host polymer was α,ω-dihexyl-sexithiophene (DH6T), while the ultimate acceptor was fullerene (PC{sub 61}BM). The results showed that short circuit current (I{sub Sc}), open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}), and fill factor (FF) of the devices were pronouncedly enhanced by the inclusion of Gaq3 or Alq3. The maximum output power and conversion efficiency of the ternary devices were increased by an order of 5.8 times compared to that of the control devices. These improvements were ascribed to the broadened light absorption, energy levels alignment between the donor-acceptor components, a balanced charge transfer, and increased crystallinity of the devices active layer. The results were ascertained and analyzed by means of UV–Vis, PL, XRD, IV and TEM investigations. - Highlights: • Ternary solution-processed OSCs including Gaq3 and Alq3 acceptors were realized. • The power and efficiency of the devices were increased by an order of 5.8. • Broadened absorption and improved crystallinity were achieved for the active layers.

  8. Improving the performance of solution-processed organic solar cells by incorporating small molecule acceptors into a ternary bulk heterojunction based on DH6T:Mq3:PCBM (M = Ga, Al)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad, Fahmi F.; Yahya, Mohd Yazid; Sulaiman, Khaulah

    2017-01-01

    Improvement in the overall performance of solution-processed organic solar cells based on a ternary heterostructure was realized by means of incorporating small molecules of tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) gallium (Gaq3) or Alq3 electron acceptors. The donor host polymer was α,ω-dihexyl-sexithiophene (DH6T), while the ultimate acceptor was fullerene (PC 61 BM). The results showed that short circuit current (I Sc ), open circuit voltage (V oc ), and fill factor (FF) of the devices were pronouncedly enhanced by the inclusion of Gaq3 or Alq3. The maximum output power and conversion efficiency of the ternary devices were increased by an order of 5.8 times compared to that of the control devices. These improvements were ascribed to the broadened light absorption, energy levels alignment between the donor-acceptor components, a balanced charge transfer, and increased crystallinity of the devices active layer. The results were ascertained and analyzed by means of UV–Vis, PL, XRD, IV and TEM investigations. - Highlights: • Ternary solution-processed OSCs including Gaq3 and Alq3 acceptors were realized. • The power and efficiency of the devices were increased by an order of 5.8. • Broadened absorption and improved crystallinity were achieved for the active layers.

  9. Performance analysis of nanodisk and core/shell/shell-nanowire type III-Nitride heterojunction solar cell for efficient energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routray, S. R.; Lenka, T. R.

    2017-11-01

    Now-a-days III-Nitride nanowires with axial (nanodisk) and radial (core/shell/shell-nanowire) junctions are two unique and potential methods for solar energy harvesting adopted by worldwide researchers. In this paper, polarization behavior of GaN/InGaN/GaN junction and its effect on carrier dynamics of nanodisk and CSS-nanowire type solar cells are intensively studied and compared with its planar counterpart by numerical simulations using commercially available Victory TCAD. It is observed that CSS-NW with hexagonal geometrical shapes are robust to detrimental impact of polarization charges and could be good enough to accelerate carrier collection efficiency as compared to nanodisk and planar solar cells. This numerical study provides an innovative aspect of fundamental device physics with respect to polarization charges in CSS-NW and nanodisk type junction towards photovoltaic applications. The internal quantum efficiencies (IQE) are also discussed to evaluate carrier collection mechanisms and recombination losses in each type of junctions of solar cell. Finally, it is interesting to observe a maximum conversion efficiency of 6.46% with 91.6% fill factor from n-GaN/i-In0.1Ga0.9N/p-GaN CSS-nanowire solar cell with an optimized thickness of 180 nm InGaN layer under one Sun AM1.5 illumination.

  10. Energy-level matching of Fe(III) ions grafted at surface and doped in bulk for efficient visible-light photocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Qiu, Xiaoqing; Miyauchi, Masahiro; Hashimoto, Kazuhito

    2013-07-10

    Photocatalytic reaction rate (R) is determined by the multiplication of light absorption capability (α) and quantum efficiency (QE); however, these two parameters generally have trade-off relations. Thus, increasing α without decreasing QE remains a challenging issue for developing efficient photocatalysts with high R. Herein, using Fe(III) ions grafted Fe(III) doped TiO2 as a model system, we present a novel method for developing visible-light photocatalysts with efficient R, utilizing the concept of energy level matching between surface-grafted Fe(III) ions as co-catalysts and bulk-doped Fe(III) ions as visible-light absorbers. Photogenerated electrons in the doped Fe(III) states under visible-light efficiently transfer to the surface grafted Fe(III) ions co-catalysts, as the doped Fe(III) ions in bulk produced energy levels below the conduction band of TiO2, which match well with the potential of Fe(3+)/Fe(2+) redox couple in the surface grafted Fe(III) ions. Electrons in the surface grafted Fe(III) ions efficiently cause multielectron reduction of adsorbed oxygen molecules to achieve high QE value. Consequently, the present Fe(III)-FexTi1-xO2 nanocomposites exhibited the highest visible-light R among the previously reported photocatalysts for decomposition of gaseous organic compounds. The high R can proceed even under commercial white-light emission diode irradiation and is very stable for long-term use, making it practically useful. Further, this efficient method could be applied in other wide-band gap semiconductors, including ZnO or SrTiO3, and may be potentially applicable for other photocatalysis systems, such as water splitting, CO2 reduction, NOx removal, and dye decomposition. Thus, this method represents a strategic approach to develop new visible-light active photocatalysts for practical uses.

  11. Efficient and stable, structurally inverted poly(3-hexylthiopen): [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester heterojunction solar cells with fibrous like poly(3-hexylthiopen)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandara, Jayasundera; Shankar, Karthik; Grimes, Craig A.; Thelakkat, Mukundan

    2011-01-01

    We investigated an inverted organic photovoltaic device structure in which a densely packed ∼ 100 nm thin TiO 2 layer on fluorine doped conducting glass serves as anode and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly(styrenesulfonate)/Au layer on top of the active layer serves as cathode. The active layer is comprised of a blend of poly(3-hexylthiopene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). The rectification behavior of such a device is improved significantly and injection losses are minimized compared to devices without any compact TiO 2 layer. Moreover, nanostructured P3HT active layer was achieved in-situ by spin coating concentrated pure P3HT and P3HT:PCBM blend and solar cell performances on thickness of the active layer were also investigated. For the inverted solar cells constructed with different concentrations of P3HT and PCBM keeping the P3HT:PCBM ratio 1:0.8 (wt.%), the highest short circuit current and efficiency was observed when the P3HT and PCBM concentration was equal to 1.5 (wt.%) and 1.2 (wt.%) respectively. This leads to highly stable and reproducible power conversion efficiency above 3.7% at 100 mW/cm 2 light intensity under AM 1.5 conditions.

  12. Direct evidence of chemically inhomogeneous, nanostructured, Si-O buried interfaces and their effect on the efficiency of carbon nanotube/Si photovoltaic heterojunctions

    KAUST Repository

    Pintossi, Chiara

    2013-09-12

    An angle resolved X-ray photoemission study of carbon nanotube/silicon hybrid photovoltaic (PV) cells is reported, providing a direct probe of a chemically inhomogeneous, Si-O buried interface between the carbon nanotube (CNT) networked layer and the n-type Si substrate. By changing the photoelectron takeoff angle of the analyzer, a nondestructive in-depth profiling of a CNT/SiOx/SiO2/Si complex interface is achieved. Data are interpreted on the basis of an extensive modeling of the photoemission process from layered structures, which fully accounts for the depth distribution function of the photoemitted electrons. As X-ray photoemission spectroscopy provides direct access to the buried interface, the aging and the effects of chemical etching on the buried interface have been highlighted. This allowed us to show how the thickness and the composition of the buried interface can be related to the efficiency of the PV cell. The results clearly indicate that while SiO2 is related to an increase of the efficiency, acting as a buffer layer, SiOx is detrimental to cell performances, though it can be selectively removed by etching in HF vapors. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  13. Morphology-dependent trap formation in bulk heterojunction photodiodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Guozheng; Rayermann, Glennis E; Smith, Eric M; Ginger, David S

    2013-04-25

    We show that local structural variation affects the rate of aging in nanostructured polymer solar cells by comparing time-resolved electrostatic force microscopy (trEFM) and conventional device measurements on model polymer blends. Specifically, we study photovoltaic devices made from 1:1 blends of the polyfluorene copolymers poly(9,9'-dioctylfluorene-co-bis-N,N'-(4-butylphenyl)-bis-N,N'-phenyl-1,4-phenylene-diamine) (PFB) and poly(9,9'-dioctylfluorene-co-benzothiadiazole) (F8BT). We photooxidize these films in situ using 365, 405, and 455 nm illumination under ambient conditions, with the wavelengths chosen to preferentially excite the different components. During photooxidation, we observe a faster loss of photocurrent generation from F8BT-rich domains, leaving the PFB-rich phases to show higher photoresponse even at wavelengths absorbed predominantly by F8BT. We propose that this effect is due to the more rapid degradation of PFB hole-transport pathways in the F8BT-rich regions, resulting in a loss of percolation pathways for hole transport in the F8BT-rich phase.

  14. Different Device Architectures for Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Getachew; Munkhbat, Battulga; Denk, Patrick; Ulbricht, Christoph; Hrelescu, Calin; Scharber, Markus

    2016-08-01

    Titania is the most widely studied photocatalyst. In it’s mixed-phase configuration (anatase-rutile form) -as manifested in the commercially available P25 Degussa material- titania was previously found to exhibit the best photocatalytic properties reported for the pure system. A great deal of published research by various workers in the field have not fully explained the underlying mechanism for the observed behavior of mixed-phase titania photocatalysts. One of the prevalent hypothesis in the literature that is tested in this work involves the presence of small, active clusters of interwoven anatase and rutile crystallites or “catalytic “hot-spots””. Therefore, non-woven nanofibrous mats of titania were produced and upon calcination the mats consisted of nanostructured fibers with different anatase-rutile ratios. By assessing the photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical properties of these samples the optimized photocatalyst was determined. This consisted of TiO2 nanostructures annealed at 500˚C with an anatase /rutile content of 90/10. Since the performance of this material exceeded that of P25 complete structural characterization was employed to understand the catalytic mechanism involved. It was determined that the dominant factors controlling the photocatalytic behavior of the titania system are the relative particle size of the different phases of titania and the growth of rutile laths on anatase grains which allow for rapid electron transfer between the two phases. This explains how to optimize the response of the pure system.

  15. Substituted perylene diimides as electron acceptors in organic solar cells: Suppressing aggregate formation to increase device efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamm, Valentin; Battagliarin, Glauco; Howard, Ian A.; Hansen, Michael; Spiess, Hans W.; Mavrinskiy, Alexey; Pisula, Wojciech; Li, Chen; Muellen, Klaus; Laquai, Frederic [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Polymerforschung, Mainz (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Perylene diimide (PDI) is a promising electron acceptor material for high open circuit voltage bulk heterojunction organic solar cells. However, many PDI molecules have the drawback of strong aggregation leading to intermolecular excited state formation that results in exciton trapping. These traps can effectively limit the diffusion of excitons to the interface where charge separation occurs and thus strongly reduce the charge generation efficiency. In this contribution we study the influence of substitution of PDI molecules with side groups attached to the terminal and to the perylene core positions on the formation of aggregates. In particular transient photoluminescence and absorption spectroscopy are used to probe the impact of aggregation on the dynamics of charge generation and recombination in bulk heterojunction solar cells. Besides, AFM, x-ray and solid state NMR techniques are used to get further insight into the solid state morphology of polymer: PDI blends on different length scales. Finally, we correlate the photophysical properties of the PDI derivatives with the efficiency of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells and present unprecedented efficiencies from polymer: PDI solar cells.

  16. Optoelectronic Evaluation and Loss Analysis of PEDOT:PSS/Si Hybrid Heterojunction Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenhai; Fang, Zebo; Sheng, Jiang; Ling, Zhaoheng; Liu, Zhaolang; Zhu, Juye; Gao, Pingqi; Ye, Jichun

    2017-01-01

    The organic/silicon (Si) hybrid heterojunction solar cells (HHSCs) have attracted considerable attention due to their potential advantages in high efficiency and low cost. However, as a newly arisen photovoltaic device, its current efficiency is still much worse than commercially available Si solar cells. Therefore, a comprehensive and systematical optoelectronic evaluation and loss analysis on this HHSC is therefore highly necessary to fully explore its efficiency potential. Here, a thoroughly optoelectronic simulation is provided on a typical planar polymer poly (3,4-ethylenedioxy thiophene):polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS)/Si HHSC. The calculated spectra of reflection and external quantum efficiency (EQE) match well with the experimental results in a full-wavelength range. The losses in current density, which are contributed by both optical losses (i.e., reflection, electrode shield, and parasitic absorption) and electrical recombination (i.e., the bulk and surface recombination), are predicted via carefully addressing the electromagnetic and carrier-transport processes. In addition, the effects of Si doping concentrations and rear surface recombination velocities on the device performance are fully investigated. The results drawn in this study are beneficial to the guidance of designing high-performance PEDOT:PSS/Si HHSCs.

  17. Efficient CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite/fullerene planar heterojunction hybrid solar cells with oxidized Ni/Au/Cu transparent electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Wei-Chih; Lin, Kun-Wei; Guo, Tzung-Fang; Chen, Peter; Liao, Yuan-Yu

    2018-02-01

    We demonstrated the performance of inverted CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite-based solar cells (SCs) with a thermally oxidized nickel/gold/copper (Ni/Au/Cu) trilayer transparent electrode. Oxidized Ni/Au/Cu is a high transparent layer and has less resistance than the oxidized Ni/Au layer. Like the oxidized Ni/Au layer, oxidized Ni and Cu in oxidized Ni/Au/Cu could perform as a hole transport layer of the perovskite-based SCs. It leads to improved perovskite SC performance on an open circuit voltage of 1.01 V, a short circuit current density of 14.36 mA/cm2, a fill factor of 76.7%, and a power conversion efficiency (η%) of 11.1%. The η% of perovskite SCs with oxidized Ni (10 nm)/Au (6 nm)/Cu (1 nm) improved by approximately 10% compared with that of perovskite SCs with oxidized Ni/Au.

  18. Monolayer MoS2 heterojunction solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Tsai, Menglin

    2014-08-26

    We realized photovoltaic operation in large-scale MoS2 monolayers by the formation of a type-II heterojunction with p-Si. The MoS 2 monolayer introduces a built-in electric field near the interface between MoS2 and p-Si to help photogenerated carrier separation. Such a heterojunction photovoltaic device achieves a power conversion efficiency of 5.23%, which is the highest efficiency among all monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenide-based solar cells. The demonstrated results of monolayer MoS 2/Si-based solar cells hold the promise for integration of 2D materials with commercially available Si-based electronics in highly efficient devices. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  19. Roughness effect on heterojunction photovoltaics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palasantzas, G.; Koumanakos, E.

    1996-01-01

    In this work, we present an investigation of the junction interface roughness effect on the open circuit voltage, Voc for thin film heterojunction photovoltaics. The roughness effect is studied for self-affine rough interfaces, which are described in Fourier space by the correlation model

  20. Fabrication and characterization of amorphous Si/crystalline Si heterojunction devices for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroughi, M. Farrokh; Jeyakumar, R.; Vygranenko, Y.; Khalvati, F.; Sivoththaman, S.

    2004-05-01

    Heterojunction diode and heterojunction photovoltaic cell structures are fabricated with (n+)a-Si/(i)a-Si and rf-sputtered indium-tin-oxide/Al films deposited on p-type crystalline Si using a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition cluster tool system. Dark current-voltage characteristics of the heterojunction diodes are used to determine the carrier transport mechanisms. Experimental results showed the current is recombination-dominated at low forward bias (VAextract band diagram parameters of the heterojunction diodes. Measured parameters, built-in potential, and conduction and valence band offsets, have been verified by Analysis of Microelectronic and Photonic Structures numerical device simulator. External quantum efficiency has been measured on photovoltaic cells and used for calculation of short-circuit current under AM1.5 illumination. .

  1. In situ one-pot fabrication of g-C3N4 nanosheets/NiS cocatalyst heterojunction with intimate interfaces for efficient visible light photocatalytic H2 generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Kelin; Xie, Jun; Li, Mingli; Li, Xin

    2018-02-01

    Constructing high-quality earth-abundant semionconductor/cocatalyst heterojunction remains a grand challenge in the promising fields of photocatalytic solar fuel H2 production. Herein, an intimate g-C3N4 nanosheet/NiS cocatalyst heterojunction is fabricated by in situ one-step calcination of urea, thiourea and nickel acetate. Interestingly, thiourea could act as both the precursor of g-C3N4 and the sulfur source of NiS. The H2-evolution activity of as-obtained photocatalysts was tested in a triethanolamine (TEOA) scavenger solution under visible light irradiation. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) mapping analysis clearly demonstrated that the NiS catalyst nanoparticles could be in situ fabricated and homogeneously distributed on the surface of g-C3N4 nanosheets without an obvious aggregation. The maximum H2-production rate of 29.68 μmol h-1 could be achieved, which is nearly comparable to that of 0.5 wt% Pt loaded sample. It is believed that the intimate heterojunction interfaces between NiS nanoparticles and g-C3N4 nanosheets could be in situ constructed by high temperature calcination, which achieved the improved charge separation, the enhanced oxidation ability of TEOA and the accelerated the sluggish H2-evolution kinetics, thus resulting in the remarkably enhanced hydrogen evolution. Therefore, our study provides insights into constructing high-quality robust g-C3N4-based heterojunction material for photocatalytic applications by using a simple one-step in-situ calcination technique.

  2. Squaraine Planar-Heterojunction Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Fan

    2009-01-01

    derivatives with extraordinarily high extinction coefficients are used as electron donors in bilayer heterojunctions with fullerene C60 as electron acceptor. Due to the very strong squaraine absorption band in the red spectral domain, antibatic behavior due to light filtering is observed in the photocurrent spectrum for film thicknesses of 35 nm to 40 nm. At reduced film thicknesses of 20 nm, this filtering effect at maximum absorption can be alleviated and power conversion efficiencies under simulated AM 1.5 full sun irradiation of 0.59% and 1.01% are obtained for the two squaraine derivatives, respectively. The photovoltaic properties of these cells are investigated with respect to electrode materials and chemical doping.

  3. Three-dimensional numerical analysis of hybrid heterojunction silicon wafer solar cells with heterojunction rear point contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Peng Ling

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a three-dimensional numerical analysis of homojunction/heterojunction hybrid silicon wafer solar cells, featuring front-side full-area diffused homojunction contacts and rear-side heterojunction point contacts. Their device performance is compared with conventional full-area heterojunction solar cells as well as conventional diffused solar cells featuring locally diffused rear point contacts, for both front-emitter and rear-emitter configurations. A consistent set of simulation input parameters is obtained by calibrating the simulation program with intensity dependent lifetime measurements of the passivated regions and the contact regions of the various types of solar cells. We show that the best efficiency is obtained when a-Si:H is used for rear-side heterojunction point-contact formation. An optimization of the rear contact area fraction is required to balance between the gains in current and voltage and the loss in fill factor with shrinking rear contact area fraction. However, the corresponding optimal range for the rear-contact area fraction is found to be quite large (e.g. 20-60 % for hybrid front-emitter cells. Hybrid rear-emitter cells show a faster drop in the fill factor with decreasing rear contact area fraction compared to front-emitter cells, stemming from a higher series resistance contribution of the rear-side a-Si:H(p+ emitter compared to the rear-side a-Si:H(n+ back surface field layer. Overall, we show that hybrid silicon solar cells in a front-emitter configuration can outperform conventional heterojunction silicon solar cells as well as diffused solar cells with rear-side locally diffused point contacts.

  4. III-nitrides, 2D transition metal dichalcogenides, and their heterojunctions

    KAUST Repository

    Mishra, Pawan

    2017-04-01

    Group III-nitride materials have attracted great attention for applications in high efficiency electronic and optoelectronics devices such as high electron mobility transistors, light emitting diodes, and laser diodes. On the other hand, group VI transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) in the form of MX2 has recently emerged as a novel atomic layered material system with excellent thermoelectric, electronic and optoelectronic properties. Also, the recent investigations reveal that the dissimilar heterojunctions formed by TMDs and III-nitrides provide the route for novel devices in the area of optoelectronic, electronics, and water splitting applications. In addition, integration of III-nitrides and TMDs will enable high density integrated optoelectronic circuits and the development of hybrid integration technologies. In this work, we have demonstrated kinetically controlled growth processes in plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) for the III-nitrides and their engineered heterostructures. Techniques such as Ga irradiation and nitrogen plasma exposure has been utilized to implement bulk GaN, InGaN and their heterostructures in PAMBE. For the growth of III-nitride based heterostructures, the in-situ surface stoichiometry monitoring (i-SSM) technique was developed and used for implementing stepped and compositionally graded InGaN-based multiple quantum wells (MQWs). Their optical and microstrain analysis in conjunction with theoretical studies confirmed improvement in the radiative recombination rate of the graded-MQWs as compared to that of stepped-MQWs, owing to the reduced strain in graded-MQWs. Our achievement also includes the realization of the p-type MoS2 by engineering pristine MoS2 layers in PAMBE. Mainly, Ga and nitrogen plasma irradiation on the pristine MoS2 in PAMBE has resulted in the realization of the p-type MoS2. Also, GaN epitaxial thin layers were deposited on MoS2/c-sapphire, WSe2/c-sapphire substrates by PAMBE to study the band

  5. Photoprompted Hot Electrons from Bulk Cross-Linked Graphene Materials and Their Efficient Catalysis for Atmospheric Ammonia Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanhong; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Tengfei; Ge, Zhen; Chang, Huicong; Xiao, Peishuang; Xie, Yuanyuan; Hua, Lei; Li, Qingyun; Li, Haiyang; Ma, Bo; Guan, Naijia; Ma, Yanfeng; Chen, Yongsheng

    2016-11-22

    Ammonia synthesis is the single most important chemical process in industry and has used the successful heterogeneous Haber-Bosch catalyst for over 100 years and requires processing under both high temperature (300-500 °C) and pressure (200-300 atm); thus, it has huge energy costs accounting for about 1-3% of human's energy consumption. Therefore, there has been a long and vigorous exploration to find a milder alternative process. Here, we demonstrate that by using an iron- and graphene-based catalyst, Fe@3DGraphene, hot (ejected) electrons from this composite catalyst induced by visible light in a wide range of wavelength up to red could efficiently facilitate the activation of N 2 and generate ammonia with H 2 directly at ambient pressure using light (including simulated sun light) illumination directly. No external voltage or electrochemical or any other agent is needed. The production rate increases with increasing light frequency under the same power and with increasing power under the same frequency. The mechanism is confirmed by the detection of the intermediate N 2 H 4 and also with a measured apparent activation energy only ∼1/4 of the iron based Haber-Bosch catalyst. Combined with the morphology control using alumina as the structural promoter, the catalyst retains its activity in a 50 h test.

  6. Charge-separation enhancement in inverted polymer solar cells by molecular-level triple heterojunction: NiO-np:P3HT:PCBM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep, U W; Villani, M; Calestani, D; Cristofolini, L; Iannotta, S; Zappettini, A; Coppedè, N

    2017-01-20

    Hole collection and transport are crucial physical processes in bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells, which represent major bottlenecks due to their limitations in power conversion efficiency (PCE). Hence, a more efficient alternative is needed to accept and transport holes to the collection electrode in BHJ solar cells. Here, we bring both electron and hole collection centres close to the point of exciton generation by infiltrating P3HT poly(3-hexylthiophene):PCBM ([6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester) blend into a highly porous interconnected p-type NiO-nanoparticle (NiO-np) network, through solvent-assisted grafting. In this study, a hybrid polymer solar cell is demonstrated with a P3HT:PCBM:NiO-np triple-heterojunction active layer which showed greatly improved rectification behaviour, long electron lifetime and generated higher PCE of 4% under AM 1.5 solar illumination with a 75% increase in PCE with respect to the P3HT:PCBM device. The optimum NiO-np amount and active-layer thickness were found to be 2% and 250 nm, respectively.

  7. Comprehensive insights into the charge dynamics process and excellent photoelectric properties of heterojunction solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangyang; Wang, Shun; Zheng, Haiwu; Cheng, Xiuying; Gu, Yuzong

    2016-09-21

    Zn2SnO4 octahedron nanoparticles/Cu4Bi4S9 (ZTO/CBS) and ZTO octahedron nanoparticles/CBS-graphene nanoplatelets (ZTO/CBS-GNs), as well as two types of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells with high flexibility were prepared on stainless steel meshes (SSMs). The improved photovoltaic responses of CBS-GNs and ZTO/CBS-GNs with the incorporation of graphene nanoplatelets were determined using surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS). The signals of time-resolved fluorescence response (TFR) and transient surface photovoltage (TPV) can provide more detailed information on the transition, separation and transport of photogenerated carriers. Here, the ZTO/CBS-GNs cell exhibits a superior performance and the highest efficiency is 8.6%. The multichannel separation process from the TPV signals indicates that the macro-photoelectric signals can be attributed to photogenerated charges separated at the interface of CBS/GNs, rather than CBS/ZTO. The comprehensive signals of SPS, TFR and TPV not only provide insights into the transition, separation and shifting of photogenerated carriers, but also promote the exploration of charge dynamics from the picosecond to second range. Importantly, the BHJ flexible solar cells with excellent efficiency and facile, scalable production present significant potential for practical application.

  8. Si/ZnO NANO STRUCTURED HETEROJUNCTIONS BY APCVD METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Maleki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, polycrystalline pure zinc oxide nano structured thin films were deposited on two kinds of single crystal and polycrystalline of p and n type Si in three different substrate temperatures of 300, 400 and 500◦C by low cost APCVD method. Structural, electrical and optical properties of these thin films were characterized by X ray diffraction, two point probe method and UV visible spectrophotometer respectively. IV measurements of these heterojunctions showed that turn on voltage and series resistance will increase with increasing substrate temperature in polycrystalline Si, while in single crystal Si, turn on voltage will decrease. Although they are acceptable diodes, their efficiency as a heterojunction solar cell are so low

  9. Performance of planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells under light concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaesha Alnuaimi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present 2D simulation of planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells under high concentration using physics-based TCAD. The performance of planar perovskite heterojunction solar cells is examined up to 1000 suns. We analyze the effect of HTM mobility and band structure, surface recombination velocities at interfaces and the effect of series resistance under concentrated light. The simulation results revealed that the low mobility of HTM material limits the improvement in power conversation efficiency of perovskite solar cells under concentration. In addition, large band offset at perovskite/HTM interface contributes to the high series resistance. Moreover, losses due to high surface recombination at interfaces and the high series resistance deteriorate significantly the performance of perovskite solar cells under concentration.

  10. One-way optical transmission in silicon photonic crystal heterojunction with circular and square scatterers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Dan, E-mail: liudanhu725@126.com [School of Physics and Mechanical & Electrical Engineering, Hubei University of Education, Wuhan, 430205 (China); Hu, Sen [School of Physics and Mechanical & Electrical Engineering, Hubei University of Education, Wuhan, 430205 (China); Gao, Yihua [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics (WNLO), School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), Wuhan, 430074 (China)

    2017-07-12

    A 2D orthogonal square-lattice photonic crystal (PC) heterojunction consisting of circular and square air holes in silicon is presented. Band structures are calculated using the plane wave expansion method, and the transmission properties are investigated by the finite-different time-domain simulations. Thanks to the higher diffraction orders excited when the circular and square holes are interlaced along the interface, one-way transmission phenomena can exist within wide frequency regions. The higher order diffraction is further enhanced through two different interface optimization designs proposed by modifying the PC structure of the hetero-interface. An orthogonal PC heterojunction for wide-band and efficient one-way transmission is constructed, and the maximum transmissivity is up to 78%. - Highlights: • Photonic crystal heterojunction with circular and square scatterers is first studied. • One-way transmission efficiency is closely related to the hetero-interface. • Wide-band and efficient one-way transmission is realized.

  11. 10.2% power conversion efficiency polymer tandem solar cells consisting of two identical sub-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jingbi; Chen, Chun-Chao; Hong, Ziruo; Yoshimura, Ken; Ohya, Kenichiro; Xu, Run; Ye, Shenglin; Gao, Jing; Li, Gang; Yang, Yang

    2013-08-07

    Polymer tandem solar cells with 10.2% power conversion efficiency are demonstrated via stacking two PDTP-DFBT:PC₇₁ BM bulk heterojunctions, connected by MoO₃/PEDOT:PSS/ZnO as an interconnecting layer. The tandem solar cells increase the power conversion efficiency of the PDTP-DFBT:PC₇₁ BM system from 8.1% to 10.2%, successfully demonstrating polymer tandem solar cells with identical sub-cells of double-digit efficiency. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Device physics underlying silicon heterojunction and passivating-contact solar cells: A topical review

    KAUST Repository

    Chavali, Raghu V. K.

    2018-01-15

    The device physics of commercially dominant diffused-junction silicon solar cells is well understood, allowing sophisticated optimization of this class of devices. Recently, so-called passivating-contact solar cell technologies have become prominent, with Kaneka setting the world\\'s silicon solar cell efficiency record of 26.63% using silicon heterojunction contacts in an interdigitated configuration. Although passivating-contact solar cells are remarkably efficient, their underlying device physics is not yet completely understood, not in the least because they are constructed from diverse materials that may introduce electronic barriers in the current flow. To bridge this gap in understanding, we explore the device physics of passivating contact silicon heterojunction (SHJ) solar cells. Here, we identify the key properties of heterojunctions that affect cell efficiency, analyze the dependence of key heterojunction properties on carrier transport under light and dark conditions, provide a self-consistent multiprobe approach to extract heterojunction parameters using several characterization techniques (including dark J-V, light J-V, C-V, admittance spectroscopy, and Suns-Voc), propose design guidelines to address bottlenecks in energy production in SHJ cells, and develop a process-to-module modeling framework to establish the module\\'s performance limits. We expect that our proposed guidelines resulting from this multiscale and self-consistent framework will improve the performance of future SHJ cells as well as other passivating contact-based solar cells.

  13. Dual Function Additives: A Small Molecule Crosslinker for Enhanced Efficiency and Stability in Organic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Rumer, Joseph W.

    2015-02-01

    A bis-azide-based small molecule crosslinker is synthesized and evaluated as both a stabilizing and efficiency-boosting additive in bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic cells. Activated by a noninvasive and scalable solution processing technique, polymer:fullerene blends exhibit improved thermal stability with suppressed polymer skin formation at the cathode and frustrated fullerene aggregation on ageing, with initial efficiency increased from 6% to 7%. © 2015 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Medium Bandgap Conjugated Polymer for High Performance Polymer Solar Cells Exceeding 9% Power Conversion Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae Woong; Liu, Feng; Russell, Thomas P; Jo, Won Ho

    2015-12-02

    Two medium-bandgap polymers composed of benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiohpene and 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole with 6-octyl-thieno[3,2-b]thiophene as a π-bridge unit are synthesized and their photovoltaic properties are analyzed. The two polymers have deep highest occupied molecular orbital energy levels, high crystallinity, optimal bulk-heterojunction morphology, and efficient charge transport, resulting in a power conversion efficiency of as high as 9.44% for a single-junction polymer solar-cell device. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Incorporation of Furan into Low Band-Gap Polymers for Efficient Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Woo, Claire H.

    2010-11-10

    The design, synthesis, and characterization of the first examples of furan-containing low band-gap polymers, PDPP2FT and PDPP3F, with substantial power conversion efficiencies in organic solar cells are reported. Inserting furan moieties in the backbone of the conjugated polymers enables the use of relatively small solubilizing side chains because of the significant contribution of the furan rings to overall polymer solubility in common organic solvents. Bulk heterojunction solar cells fabricated from furan-containing polymers and PC71BM as the acceptor showed power conversion efficiencies reaching 5.0%. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  16. Energy level alignment at planar organic heterojunctions: influence of contact doping and molecular orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Planar organic heterojunctions are widely used in photovoltaic cells, light-emitting diodes, and bilayer field-effect transistors. The energy level alignment in the devices plays an important role in obtaining the aspired gap arrangement. Additionally, the π-orbital overlap between the involved molecules defines e.g. the charge-separation efficiency in solar cells due to charge-transfer effects. To account for both aspects, direct/inverse photoemission spectroscopy and near edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy were used to determine the energy level landscape and the molecular orientation at prototypical planar organic heterojunctions. The combined experimental approach results in a comprehensive model for the electronic and morphological characteristics of the interface between the two investigated molecular semiconductors. Following an introduction on heterojunctions used in devices and on energy levels of organic materials, the energy level alignment of planar organic heterojunctions will be discussed. The observed energy landscape is always determined by the individual arrangement between the energy levels of the molecules and the work function of the electrode. This might result in contact doping due to Fermi level pinning at the electrode for donor/acceptor heterojunctions, which also improves the solar cell efficiency. This pinning behaviour can be observed across an unpinned interlayer and results in charge accumulation at the donor/acceptor interface, depending on the transport levels of the respective organic semiconductors. Moreover, molecular orientation will affect the energy levels because of the anisotropy in ionisation energy and electron affinity and is influenced by the structural compatibility of the involved molecules at the heterojunction. High structural compatibility leads to π-orbital stacking between different molecules at a heterojunction, which is of additional interest for photovoltaic active interfaces and for ground

  17. Efficient Photocatalytic Bilirubin Removal over the Biocompatible Core/Shell P25/g-C3N4 Heterojunctions with Metal-free Exposed Surfaces under Moderate Green Light Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Shifei; Qin, Hengfei; Zhang, Lu; Huang, Yongkui; Bai, Xia; Li, Xi; Sun, Di; Wang, Yangang; Cui, Lifeng

    2017-01-01

    Highly-monodispersed g-C3N4/TiO2 hybrids with a core/shell structure were synthesized from a simple room temperature impregnation method, in which g-C3N4 was coated through self-assembly on the commercially available Degussa P25 TiO2 nanoparticles. Structural and surface characterizations showed that the presence of g-C3N4 notably affected the light absorption characteristics of TiO2. The g-C3N4/TiO2 heterojunctions with metal-free exposed surfaces were directly used as biocompatible photocatalysts for simulated jaundice phototherapy under low-power green-light irradiation. The photocatalytic activity and stability of g-C3N4/TiO2 were enhanced relative to pure P25 or g-C3N4, which could be ascribed to the effective Z-scheme separation of photo-induced charge carriers in g-C3N4/TiO2 heterojunction. The photoactivity was maximized in the 4 wt.% g-C3N4-coated P25, as the bilirubin removal rate under green light irradiation was more than 5-fold higher than that under the clinically-used blue light without any photocatalyst. This study approves the future applications of the photocatalyst-assisted bilirubin removal in jaundice treatment under moderate green light which is more tolerable by humans. PMID:28287189

  18. Luminescence of solar cells with a-Si:H/c-Si heterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhigunov, D. M.; Il'in, A. S.; Forsh, P. A.; Bobyl', A. V.; Verbitskii, V. N.; Terukov, E. I.; Kashkarov, P. K.

    2017-05-01

    We have studied the electroluminescence (EL) and photoluminescence (PL) of solar cells containing a-Si:H/c-Si heterojunctions. It is established that both the EL and PL properties of these cells are determined by the radiative recombination of nonequilibrium carriers in crystalline silicon (c-Si). The external EL energy yield (efficiency) of solar cells with a-Si:H/c-Si heterojunctions at room temperature amounts to 2.1% and exceeds the value reached in silicon diode structures. This large EL efficiency can be explained by good passivation of the surface of crystalline silicon and the corresponding increase in lifetime of minority carrier s in these solar cells.

  19. Hybrid Perovskite/Perovskite Heterojunction Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yinghong; Schlipf, Johannes; Wussler, Michael; Petrus, Michiel L; Jaegermann, Wolfram; Bein, Thomas; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter; Docampo, Pablo

    2016-06-28

    Recently developed organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells combine low-cost fabrication and high power conversion efficiency. Advances in perovskite film optimization have led to an outstanding power conversion efficiency of more than 20%. Looking forward, shifting the focus toward new device architectures holds great potential to induce the next leap in device performance. Here, we demonstrate a perovskite/perovskite heterojunction solar cell. We developed a facile solution-based cation infiltration process to deposit layered perovskite (LPK) structures onto methylammonium lead iodide (MAPI) films. Grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering experiments were performed to gain insights into the crystallite orientation and the formation process of the perovskite bilayer. Our results show that the self-assembly of the LPK layer on top of an intact MAPI layer is accompanied by a reorganization of the perovskite interface. This leads to an enhancement of the open-circuit voltage and power conversion efficiency due to reduced recombination losses, as well as improved moisture stability in the resulting photovoltaic devices.

  20. Electronic structures of interfacial states formed at polymeric semiconductor heterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ya-Shih; Westenhoff, Sebastian; Avilov, Igor; Sreearunothai, Paiboon; Hodgkiss, Justin M.; Deleener, Caroline; Friend, Richard H.; Beljonne, David

    2008-06-01

    Heterojunctions between organic semiconductors are central to the operation of light-emitting and photovoltaic diodes, providing respectively for electron-hole capture and separation. However, relatively little is known about the character of electronic excitations stable at the heterojunction. We have developed molecular models to study such interfacial excited electronic excitations that form at the heterojunction between model polymer donor and polymer acceptor systems: poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-bis-N,N-(4-butylphenyl)-bis-N,N-phenyl-1,4-phenylenediamine) (PFB) with poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-benzothiadiazole) (F8BT), and poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-N-(4-butylphenyl)diphenylamine) (TFB) with F8BT. We find that for stable ground-state geometries the excited state has a strong charge-transfer character. Furthermore, when partly covalent, modelled radiative lifetimes (~10-7s) and off-chain axis polarization (30∘) match observed `exciplex' emission. Additionally for the PFB:F8BT blend, geometries with fully ionic character are also found, thus accounting for the low electroluminescence efficiency of this system.

  1. Electrical conduction by interface states in semiconductor heterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Yacoubi, M.; Evrard, R.; Nguyen, N. D.; Schmeits, M.

    2000-04-01

    Electrical conduction in semiconductor heterojunctions containing defect states in the interface region is studied. As the classical drift-diffusion mechanism cannot in any case explain electrical conduction in semiconductor heterojunctions, tunnelling involving interface states is often considered as a possible conduction path. A theoretical treatment is made where defect states in the interface region with a continuous energy distribution are included. Electrical conduction through this defect band then allows the transit of electrons from the conduction band of one semiconductor to the valence band of the second component. The analysis is initiated by electrical measurements on n-CdS/p-CdTe heterojunctions obtained by chemical vapour deposition of CdS on (111) oriented CdTe single crystals, for which current-voltage and capacitance-frequency results are shown. The theoretical analysis is based on the numerical resolution of Poisson's equation and the continuity equations of electrons, holes and defect states, where a current component corresponding to the defect band conduction is explicitly included. Comparison with the experimental curves shows that this formalism yields an efficient tool to model the conduction process through the interface region. It also allows us to determine critical values of the physical parameters when a particular step in the conduction mechanism becomes dominant.

  2. Excitonic processes at organic heterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, ShouJie; Lu, ZhengHong

    2018-02-01

    Understanding excitonic processes at organic heterojunctions is crucial for development of organic semiconductor devices. This article reviews recent research on excitonic physics that involve intermolecular charge transfer (CT) excitons, and progress on understanding relationships between various interface energy levels and key parameters governing various competing interface excitonic processes. These interface excitonic processes include radiative exciplex emission, nonradiative recombination, Auger electron emission, and CT exciton dissociation. This article also reviews various device applications involving interface CT excitons, such as organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), organic photovoltaic cells, organic rectifying diodes, and ultralow-voltage Auger OLEDs.

  3. Performance of mid-wave T2SL detectors with heterojunction barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asplund, Carl; Marcks von Würtemberg, Rickard; Lantz, Dan; Malm, Hedda; Martijn, Henk; Plis, Elena; Gautam, Nutan; Krishna, Sanjay

    2013-07-01

    A heterojunction T2SL barrier detector which effectively blocks majority carrier leakage over the pn-junction was designed and fabricated for the mid-wave infrared (MWIR) atmospheric transmission window. The layers in the barrier region comprised AlSb, GaSb and InAs, and the thicknesses were selected by using k · P-based energy band modeling to achieve maximum valence band offset, while maintaining close to zero conduction band discontinuity in a way similar to the work of Abdollahi Pour et al. [1] The barrier-structure has a 50% cutoff at 4.75 μm and 40% quantum efficiency and shows a dark current density of 6 × 10-6 A/cm2 at -0.05 V bias and 120 K. This is one order of magnitude lower than for comparable T2SL-structures without the barrier. Further improvement of the (non-surface related) bulk dark current can be expected with optimized doping of the absorber and barrier, and by fine tuning of the barrier layer design. We discuss the effect of barrier doping on dark current based on simulations. A T2SL focal plane array with 320 × 256 pixels, 30 μm pitch and 90% fill factor was processed in house using a conventional homojunction p-i-n photodiode architecture and the ISC9705 readout circuit. High-quality imaging up to 110 K was demonstrated with the substrate fully removed.

  4. Simple fabrication of back contact heterojunction solar cells by plasma ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Koichi; Yamaguchi, Noboru; Hironiwa, Daisuke; Suzuki, Hideo; Ohdaira, Keisuke; Matsumura, Hideki

    2017-08-01

    A back-contact amorphous-silicon (a-Si)/crystalline silicon (c-Si) heterojunction is one of the most promising structures for high-efficiency solar cells. However, the patterning of back-contact electrodes causes the increase in fabrication cost. Thus, to simplify the fabrication of back-contact cells, we attempted to form p-a-Si/i-a-Si/c-Si and n-a-Si/i-a-Si/c-Si regions by the conversion of a patterned area of p-a-Si/i-a-Si/c-Si to n-a-Si/i-a-Si/c-Si by plasma ion implantation. It is revealed that the conversion of the conduction type can be realized by the plasma ion implantation of phosphorus (P) atoms into p-a-Si/i-a-Si/c-Si regions, and also that the quality of passivation can be kept sufficiently high, the same as that before ion implantation, when the samples are annealed at around 250 °C and also when the energy and dose of ion implantation are appropriately chosen for fitting to a-Si layer thickness and bulk c-Si carrier density.

  5. Solution-Processed Organic Solar Cells from Dye Molecules: An Investigation of Diketopyrrolopyrrole:Vinazene Heterojunctions

    KAUST Repository

    Walker, Bright

    2012-01-25

    Although one of the most attractive aspects of organic solar cells is their low cost and ease of fabrication, the active materials incorporated into the vast majority of reported bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells include a semiconducting polymer and a fullerene derivative, classes of materials which are both typically difficult and expensive to prepare. In this study, we demonstrate that effective BHJs can be fabricated from two easily synthesized dye molecules. Solar cells incorporating a diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP)-based molecule as a donor and a dicyanoimidazole (Vinazene) acceptor function as an active layer in BHJ solar cells, producing relatively high open circuit voltages and power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) up to 1.1%. Atomic force microscope images of the films show that active layers are rough and apparently have large donor and acceptor domains on the surface, whereas photoluminescence of the blends is incompletely quenched, suggesting that higher PCEs might be obtained if the morphology could be improved to yield smaller domain sizes and a larger interfacial area between donor and acceptor phases. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  6. Band Alignment of 2D Transition Metal Dichalcogenide Heterojunctions

    KAUST Repository

    Chiu, Ming-Hui

    2016-09-20

    It is critically important to characterize the band alignment in semiconductor heterojunctions (HJs) because it controls the electronic and optical properties. However, the well-known Anderson\\'s model usually fails to predict the band alignment in bulk HJ systems due to the presence of charge transfer at the interfacial bonding. Atomically thin 2D transition metal dichalcogenide materials have attracted much attention recently since the ultrathin HJs and devices can be easily built and they are promising for future electronics. The vertical HJs based on 2D materials can be constructed via van der Waals stacking regardless of the lattice mismatch between two materials. Despite the defect-free characteristics of the junction interface, experimental evidence is still lacking on whether the simple Anderson rule can predict the band alignment of HJs. Here, the validity of Anderson\\'s model is verified for the 2D heterojunction systems and the success of Anderson\\'s model is attributed to the absence of dangling bonds (i.e., interface dipoles) at the van der Waal interface. The results from the work set a foundation allowing the use of powerful Anderson\\'s rule to determine the band alignments of 2D HJs, which is beneficial to future electronic, photonic, and optoelectronic devices. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Vertical nanowire heterojunction devices based on a clean Si/Ge interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Fung, Wayne Y; Lu, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Different vertical nanowire heterojunction devices were fabricated and tested based on vertical Ge nanowires grown epitaxially at low temperatures on (111) Si substrates with a sharp and clean Si/Ge interface. The nearly ideal Si/Ge heterojuctions with controlled and abrupt doping profiles were verified through material analysis and electrical characterizations. In the nSi/pGe heterojunction diode, an ideality factor of 1.16, subpicoampere reverse saturation current, and rectifying ratio of 10(6) were obtained, while the n+Si/p+Ge structure leads to Esaki tunnel diodes with a high peak tunneling current of 4.57 kA/cm(2) and negative differential resistance at room temperature. The large valence band discontinuity between the Ge and Si in the nanowire heterojunctions was further verified in the p+Si/pGe structure, which shows a rectifying behavior instead of an Ohmic contact and raises an important issue in making Ohmic contacts to heterogeneously integrated materials. A raised Si/Ge structure was further developed using a self-aligned etch process, allowing greater freedom in device design for applications such as the tunneling field-effect transistor (TFET). All measurement data can be well-explained and fitted with theoretical models with known bulk properties, suggesting that the Si/Ge nanowire system offers a very clean heterojunction interface with low defect density, and holds great potential as a platform for future high-density and high-performance electronics.

  8. Gate-tunable carbon nanotube–MoS2 heterojunction p-n diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jariwala, Deep; Sangwan, Vinod K.; Wu, Chung-Chiang; Prabhumirashi, Pradyumna L.; Geier, Michael L.; Marks, Tobin J.; Lauhon, Lincoln J.; Hersam, Mark C.

    2013-01-01

    The p-n junction diode and field-effect transistor are the two most ubiquitous building blocks of modern electronics and optoelectronics. In recent years, the emergence of reduced dimensionality materials has suggested that these components can be scaled down to atomic thicknesses. Although high-performance field-effect devices have been achieved from monolayered materials and their heterostructures, a p-n heterojunction diode derived from ultrathin materials is notably absent and constrains the fabrication of complex electronic and optoelectronic circuits. Here we demonstrate a gate-tunable p-n heterojunction diode using semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and single-layer molybdenum disulfide as p-type and n-type semiconductors, respectively. The vertical stacking of these two direct band gap semiconductors forms a heterojunction with electrical characteristics that can be tuned with an applied gate bias to achieve a wide range of charge transport behavior ranging from insulating to rectifying with forward-to-reverse bias current ratios exceeding 104. This heterojunction diode also responds strongly to optical irradiation with an external quantum efficiency of 25% and fast photoresponse <15 μs. Because SWCNTs have a diverse range of electrical properties as a function of chirality and an increasing number of atomically thin 2D nanomaterials are being isolated, the gate-tunable p-n heterojunction concept presented here should be widely generalizable to realize diverse ultrathin, high-performance electronics and optoelectronics. PMID:24145425

  9. Annealing effect and photovoltaic properties of nano-ZnS/textured p-Si heterojunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Liang-Wen; Hsiao, Yu-Jen; Tang, I-Tseng; Meen, Teen-Hang; Liu, Chien-Hung; Tsai, Jenn-Kai; Wu, Tien-Chuan; Wu, Yue-Sian

    2013-11-09

    The preparation and characterization of heterojunction solar cell with ZnS nanocrystals synthesized by chemical bath deposition method were studied in this work. The ZnS nanocrystals were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Lower reflectance spectra were found as the annealing temperature of ZnS film increased on the textured p-Si substrate. It was found that the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the AZO/ZnS/textured p-Si heterojunction solar cell with an annealing temperature of 250°C was η = 3.66%.

  10. Silicon nanowire array architecture for heterojunction electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solovan, M. M., E-mail: m.solovan@chnu.edu.ua [Chernivtsi National University, Department of Electronics and Energy Engeneering (Ukraine); Brus, V. V. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fur Materialien und Energie GmbH, Institute for Silicon Photovoltaics (Germany); Mostovyi, A. I.; Maryanchuk, P. D.; Orletskyi, I. G.; Kovaliuk, T. T. [Chernivtsi National University, Department of Electronics and Energy Engeneering (Ukraine); Abashin, S. L. [National Aerospace University “Kharkiv Aviation Institute”, Department of Physics (Ukraine)

    2017-04-15

    Photosensitive nanostructured heterojunctions n-TiN/p-Si were fabricated by means of titanium nitride thin films deposition (n-type conductivity) by the DC reactive magnetron sputtering onto nano structured single crystal substrates of p-type Si (100). The temperature dependencies of the height of the potential barrier and series resistance of the n-TiN/p-Si heterojunctions were investigated. The dominant current transport mechanisms through the heterojunctions under investigation were determined at forward and reverse bias. The heterojunctions under investigation generate open-circuit voltage V{sub oc} = 0.8 V, short-circuit current I{sub sc} = 3.72 mA/cm{sup 2} and fill factor FF = 0.5 under illumination of 100 mW/cm{sup 2}.

  11. Silicon nanowire array architecture for heterojunction electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solovan, M. M.; Brus, V. V.; Mostovyi, A. I.; Maryanchuk, P. D.; Orletskyi, I. G.; Kovaliuk, T. T.; Abashin, S. L.

    2017-01-01

    Photosensitive nanostructured heterojunctions n-TiN/p-Si were fabricated by means of titanium nitride thin films deposition (n-type conductivity) by the DC reactive magnetron sputtering onto nano structured single crystal substrates of p-type Si (100). The temperature dependencies of the height of the potential barrier and series resistance of the n-TiN/p-Si heterojunctions were investigated. The dominant current transport mechanisms through the heterojunctions under investigation were determined at forward and reverse bias. The heterojunctions under investigation generate open-circuit voltage V oc = 0.8 V, short-circuit current I sc = 3.72 mA/cm 2 and fill factor FF = 0.5 under illumination of 100 mW/cm 2 .

  12. Electric field engineering using quantum-size-effect-tuned heterojunctions

    KAUST Repository

    Adinolfi, V.

    2013-07-03

    A quantum junction solar cell architecture was recently reported that employs colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) on each side of the p-n junction. This architecture extends the range of design opportunities for CQD photovoltaics, since the bandgap can be tuned across the light-absorbing semiconductor layer via control over CQD size, employing solution-processed, room-temperature fabricated materials. We exploit this feature by designing and demonstrating a field-enhanced heterojunction architecture. We optimize the electric field profile within the solar cell through bandgap engineering, thereby improving carrier collection and achieving an increased open circuit voltage, resulting in a 12% improvement in power conversion efficiency.

  13. Zinc telluride-cadmium chalkogenides heterojunctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedotov, Ya.A.; Konnikov, S.G.; Supalov, V.A.; Kondaurov, N.M.; Kovalev, A.N.; Vanyukov, A.V.

    1975-01-01

    Heterojunctions ZnTe-CdSe, ZnTe-CdS, ZnTe-CdSsub(x)Sesub(1-x) have been prepared and studied by means of an electron sonde and electroluminescence. Epitaxial layers of CdSe on oriented plates of ZnTe are grown by the method of a chemical transport reaction in the open system where purified hydrogen is used as a carrier and reagent. The substance to be evaporated is CdSe. The study of cathodoluminescence of cleaved surfaces of heterojunctions ZnTe-CdSe and ZnTe-CdS by a thin electron sonde shows that there exists the region of solid solutions in heterojunctions of such a type. Epitaxial heterojunctions ZnTe-CdX are structures of the type p + -p-n-n + . The study of spectra of electroluminescence of heterojunctions which are characterized by the region of negative resistance in the volt-ampere curve and photoluminescence of epitaxial films at 77 deg K allows the presence of radiation maxima to be established both for ZnTe and CdX. Heterojunctions ZnTe-CdSe on the basis of non-alloyed materials change the colour of luminescence from green to red on switching. A possibility is shown of preparation of luminescent diodes with preferential injection into ZnTe (green sources) and into CdSe (red sources)

  14. Current Status and Future Prospects of Copper Oxide Heterojunction Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence K. S. Wong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The current state of thin film heterojunction solar cells based on cuprous oxide (Cu2O, cupric oxide (CuO and copper (III oxide (Cu4O3 is reviewed. These p-type semiconducting oxides prepared by Cu oxidation, sputtering or electrochemical deposition are non-toxic, sustainable photovoltaic materials with application potential for solar electricity. However, defects at the copper oxide heterojunction and film quality are still major constraining factors for achieving high power conversion efficiency, η. Amongst the Cu2O heterojunction devices, a maximum η of 6.1% has been obtained by using pulsed laser deposition (PLD of AlxGa1−xO onto thermal Cu2O doped with Na. The performance of CuO/n-Si heterojunction solar cells formed by magnetron sputtering of CuO is presently limited by both native oxide and Cu rich copper oxide layers at the heterointerface. These interfacial layers can be reduced by using a two-step sputtering process. A high η of 2.88% for CuO heterojunction solar cells has been achieved by incorporation of mixed phase CuO/Cu2O nanopowder. CuO/Cu2O heterojunction solar cells fabricated by electrodeposition and electrochemical doping has a maximum efficiency of 0.64% after surface defect passivation and annealing. Finally, early stage study of Cu4O3/GaN deposited on sapphire substrate has shown a photovoltaic effect and an η of ~10−2%.

  15. Band alignment at organic-inorganic heterojunctions between P3HT and n-type 6H-SiC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietmueller, Roland; Nesswetter, Helmut; Schoell, Sebastian J; Sharp, Ian D; Stutzmann, Martin

    2011-11-01

    The exact band alignment at organic/inorganic semiconductor heterojunctions is influenced by a variety of properties and is difficult to predict. For organic/inorganic bilayer heterojunctions made of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and n-type 6H-SiC, the band alignment is determined via current-voltage measurements. For this purpose, a model equivalent circuit, combining thermionic emission and space-charge-limited current effects, is proposed which describes the behavior of the heterojunction very well. From the fitting parameters, an interface barrier height of 1.1 eV between the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of P3HT and the conduction band (CB) of 6H-SiC is determined. In addition, from the maximum open circuit voltage of 6H-SiC/P3HT diodes, a difference of 0.9 eV between the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of P3HT and the CB of 6H-SiC is deduced. These two values determine the alignment of the energy bands of 6H-SiC relative to the HOMO and LUMO of P3HT. The 6H-SiC/P3HT bilayer heterojunction exhibits an open circuit voltage of ~0.5 V at room temperature, which makes such a materials system a potential candidate for bulk heterojunction hybrid solar cells with 6H-SiC nanoparticles.

  16. Surface recombination analysis in silicon-heterojunction solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrio, R.; Gandia, J.J.; Carabe, J.; Gonzalez, N.; Torres, I. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Munoz, D.; Voz, C. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-02-15

    The origin of this work is the understanding of the correlation observed between efficiency and emitter-deposition temperature in single silicon-heterojunction solar cells prepared by depositing an n-doped hydrogenated-amorphous-silicon thin film onto a p-type crystalline-silicon wafer. In order to interpret these results, surface-recombination velocities have been determined by two methods, i.e. by fitting the current-voltage characteristics to a theoretical model and by means of the Quasi-Steady-State Photoconductance Technique (QSSPC). In addition, effective diffusion lengths have been estimated from internal quantum efficiencies. The analysis of these data has led to conclude that the performance of the cells studied is limited by back-surface recombination rather than by front-heterojunction quality. A 12%-efficient cell has been prepared by combining optimum emitter-deposition conditions with back-surface-field (BSF) formation by vacuum annealing of the back aluminium contact. This result has been achieved without using any transparent conductive oxide. (author)

  17. Geometric light trapping with a V-trap for efficient organic solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Soo Jin

    2013-03-14

    The efficiency of today’s most efficient organic solar cells is primarily limited by the ability of the active layer to absorb all the sunlight. While internal quantum efficiencies exceeding 90% are common, the external quantum efficiency rarely exceeds 70%. Light trapping techniques that increase the ability of a given active layer to absorb light are common in inorganic solar cells but have only been applied to organic solar cells with limited success. Here, we analyze the light trapping mechanism for a cell with a V-shape substrate configuration and demonstrate significantly improved photon absorption in an 5.3%-efficient PCDTBT:PC70BM bulk heterojunction polymer solar cell. The measured short circuit current density improves by 29%, in agreement with model predictions, and the power conversion efficiency increases to 7.2%, a 35% improvement over the performance in the absence of a light trap.

  18. Assembled fabrication of α-Fe2O3/BiOCl heterojunctions with enhanced photocatalytic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yan; Zhang, Xiao; Zhao, Jie; Yang, Ping

    2018-02-01

    α-Fe2O3/BiOCl heterojunctions were synthesized by growing and assembling α-Fe2O3 nanoplates to BiOCl microflowers via a two-step route to enhance the photocatalytic performance of BiOCl. The morphology, microstructure, element composition and optical properties of α-Fe2O3/BiOCl heterojunctions have been investigated by SEM, TEM, XRD, FT-IR, Raman spectra, XPS, UV-vis diffuse reflectance and PL spectra. Electrostatic interaction was a key to form α-Fe2O3/BiOCl heterojunctions. Compared with pure BiOCl, the synthesized α-Fe2O3/BiOCl heterojunctions possess an efficient visible light absorption and exhibit an improved of photocatalytic efficiency. A photocatalytic degradation mechanism has been proposed to explain that the heterojunctions enhance the separation efficiency of electron-hole pairs, and the holes are the main reactive species in the degratation of Rhodamine B.

  19. Morphological Control for High Performance, Solution-Processed Planar Heterojunction Perovskite Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Eperon, Giles E.

    2013-09-09

    Organometal trihalide perovskite based solar cells have exhibited the highest efficiencies to-date when incorporated into mesostructured composites. However, thin solid films of a perovskite absorber should be capable of operating at the highest efficiency in a simple planar heterojunction configuration. Here, it is shown that film morphology is a critical issue in planar heterojunction CH3NH3PbI3-xCl x solar cells. The morphology is carefully controlled by varying processing conditions, and it is demonstrated that the highest photocurrents are attainable only with the highest perovskite surface coverages. With optimized solution based film formation, power conversion efficiencies of up to 11.4% are achieved, the first report of efficiencies above 10% in fully thin-film solution processed perovskite solar cells with no mesoporous layer. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Enhancing the Efficiency of Polymer Solar Cells by Modifying Buffer Layer with N,N-Dimethylacetamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaopeng Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We modified the PEDOT:PSS anode buffer layer in P3HT:PCBM bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells by spin-coating the solvent N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAC. This modification significantly enhanced the efficiency of the ITO/PEDOT:PSS/DMAC/P3HT:PCBM/LiF/Al solar cells. The DMAC-treated device spin-coated at 3000 rpm exhibited a power conversion efficiency (PCE of 3.74%, a 59% improvement over that of an untreated cell. To study the mechanism of improving the conversion efficiency, we characterized many parameters, including the light and dark I-V curves, external quantum efficiency, active layer absorption spectrum, transmission spectrum of ITO:PEDOTPSS, PEDOT:PSS surface morphology, and electrical conductivity. Modifying the PEDOT:PSS film increased conductivity, making it more conducive to hole extraction and collection. Our findings suggest that modifying the anode buffer layer can improve photoelectric conversion efficiency.

  1. Boosting the Visible-Light Photoactivity of BiOCl/BiVO4/N-GQD Ternary Heterojunctions Based on Internal Z-Scheme Charge Transfer of N-GQDs: Simultaneous Band Gap Narrowing and Carrier Lifetime Prolonging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingyue; Liu, Qian; Chen, Wei; Yin, Yuanyuan; Ge, Lan; Li, Henan; Wang, Kun

    2017-11-08

    The efficient separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs in photoactive materials is highly desired, allowing their transfer to specific sites for undergoing redox reaction in various applications. The construction of ternary heterojunctions is a practical strategy to enhance the migration of photogenerated electron that realizes the synergistic effect of multicomponents rather than the simple overlay of single component. Here, we demonstrate an available way to fabricate new BiOCl/BiVO 4 /nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dot (N-GQD) ternary heterojunctions that exhibit higher efficiency in charge separation than any binary heterojunction or pure material under visible-light irradiation. UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy demonstrated that the proposed BiOCl/BiVO 4 /N-GQD ternary heterojunctions possess the narrower band gap energy. More importantly, the ternary heterojunctions reveal the prolonged lifetime of photogenerated charges and enhanced the separation efficiency of photogenerated electron-hole pairs, which may be ascribed to sensitization based on an internal Z-scheme charge transfer at the interface of N-GQDs with oxygen functional groups. Furthermore, we examine the photoactive performance of proposed ternary heterojunctions in aqueous solution by using the photodegradation of bisphenol A as a model system and BiOCl/BiVO 4 /N-GQD ternary heterojunctions also display a dramatically enhanced photodegradation rate. The proposed charge separation and transfer process of BiOCl/BiVO 4 /N-GQD ternary heterojunctions for the enhanced photoactivity were deduced by electrochemical measurements, photoluminescence, and electron spin resonance. The results demonstrate that a Z-scheme charge process was formed between BiOCl/BiVO 4 binary heterojunctions and N-GQDs, leading to an efficient charge carrier separation and strong photocatalytic ability. Notably, this work may assist in a better understanding of the role of N-GQDs in kinds of heterojunctions

  2. Visualizing excitations at buried heterojunctions in organic semiconductor blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakowetz, Andreas C.; Böhm, Marcus L.; Sadhanala, Aditya; Huettner, Sven; Rao, Akshay; Friend, Richard H.

    2017-05-01

    Interfaces play a crucial role in semiconductor devices, but in many device architectures they are nanostructured, disordered and buried away from the surface of the sample. Conventional optical, X-ray and photoelectron probes often fail to provide interface-specific information in such systems. Here we develop an all-optical time-resolved method to probe the local energetic landscape and electronic dynamics at such interfaces, based on the Stark effect caused by electron-hole pairs photo-generated across the interface. Using this method, we found that the electronically active sites at the polymer/fullerene interfaces in model bulk-heterojunction blends fall within the low-energy tail of the absorption spectrum. This suggests that these sites are highly ordered compared with the bulk of the polymer film, leading to large wavefunction delocalization and low site energies. We also detected a 100 fs migration of holes from higher- to lower-energy sites, consistent with these charges moving ballistically into more ordered polymer regions. This ultrafast charge motion may be key to separating electron-hole pairs into free charges against the Coulomb interaction.

  3. Fabrication of CdTe/Si heterojunction solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Swades Ranjan; Saha, Satyajit

    2016-10-01

    A simple cost effective method is preferred to grow nanoparticles of CdTe. Nanoparticles of CdTe are grown by simple chemical reduction route using EDA as capping agent and Sodium Borohydride as reducing agent. The grown nanoparticles are characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction, optical absorption, and photoluminescence study. From optical absorption study, the band-gap was found to be 2.46 eV. From TEM study, the average particle size was found to be within 8-12 nm which confirms the formation of CdTe nanoparticles. Pl spectra indicate the luminescence from surface states at 2.01 eV, which is less compared to the increased band-gap of 2.46 eV. The grown nanoparticles are used to fabricate a heterojunction of CdTe on P-Si by a spin coating technique for solar cell fabrication in a cost effective way. I-V characteristics of the grown heterojunction in dark as well as under light are measured. Efficiency and fill-factor of the device are estimated.

  4. Photoanodic Hybrid Semiconductor–Molecular Heterojunction for Solar Water Oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Joya, Khurram Saleem

    2015-06-29

    Inorganic photo-responsive semiconducting materials have been employed in photoelectrochemical(PEC) water oxidation devicesin pursuit of solar to fuel conversion.[1]The reaction kinetics in semiconductors is limited by poor contact at the interfaces, and charge transfer is impeded by surface defects and the grain boundaries.[2]It has shown that successful surface functionalization of the photo-responsive semiconducting materials with co-catalysts can maximize the charge separation, hole delivery and its effective consumption, and enhances the efficiency and performane of the PEC based water oxidation assembly.[3]We present here unique modification of photoanodic hematite (α-Fe2O3) and bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) with molecular co-catalysts for enhanced photoelectrochemical water oxidation (Figure 1). These hybrid inorganic–organometallic heterojunctions manifest impressive cathodic shifts in the onset potentials, and the photocurrent densities have been enhanced by > 90% at all potentials relative to uncatalyzed α-Fe2O3 or BiVO4, and other catalyst-semiconductor based heterojunctions.This is a novel development in the solar to fuel conversion field, and is crucially important for designing a tandem device where light interfere very little with the catalyst layer on top of semiconducting light absorber.

  5. Hybrid van der Waals SnO/MoS2 Heterojunctions for Thermal and Optical Sensing Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Zhenwei

    2017-11-10

    Emerging van der Waals heterojunctions (vdWH) containing 2D materials have shown exciting functionalities that surpass those of traditional devices based on bulk materials. In this Communication, a report on the properties of a 2D sulfide/oxide hybrid vdWH based on n-type molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) and p-type tin monoxide (SnO) is presented, with promising rectification, thermal-sensing, and photosensing performance. Specifically, the hybrid SnO/MoS2 vdWH shows static rectification ratio of 2 × 102 with ideality factor of 2.3, and can operate at 100 Hz with good stability. The vdWH shows good temperature stability with reversible and reproducible current levels up to 110 °C, indicating its potential for thermal sensing applications. The sensitivity of current variation is calculated to be 0.0144 dec °C−1. Finally, maximum responsivity of 8.17 mA W−1 and external quantum efficiency of 2.14% have been achieved in photovoltaic measurements. The results suggest that MoS2–SnO hybrid vdWH are promising for various sensing applications.

  6. Surface Passivation for Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deligiannis, D.

    2017-01-01

    Silicon heterojunction solar cells (SHJ) are currently one of the most promising solar cell technologies in the world. The SHJ solar cell is based on a crystalline silicon (c-Si) wafer, passivated on both sides with a thin intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) layer. Subsequently, p-type

  7. Probability density of tunneled carrier states near heterojunctions calculated numerically by the scattering method.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wampler, William R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Myers, Samuel M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Modine, Normand A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The energy-dependent probability density of tunneled carrier states for arbitrarily specified longitudinal potential-energy profiles in planar bipolar devices is numerically computed using the scattering method. Results agree accurately with a previous treatment based on solution of the localized eigenvalue problem, where computation times are much greater. These developments enable quantitative treatment of tunneling-assisted recombination in irradiated heterojunction bipolar transistors, where band offsets may enhance the tunneling effect by orders of magnitude. The calculations also reveal the density of non-tunneled carrier states in spatially varying potentials, and thereby test the common approximation of uniform- bulk values for such densities.

  8. Graphene/Si-quantum-dot heterojunction diodes showing high photosensitivity compatible with quantum confinement effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong Hee; Kim, Sung; Kim, Jong Min; Jang, Chan Wook; Kim, Ju Hwan; Lee, Kyeong Won; Kim, Jungkil; Oh, Si Duck; Lee, Dae Hun; Kang, Soo Seok; Kim, Chang Oh; Choi, Suk-Ho; Kim, Kyung Joong

    2015-04-24

    Graphene/Si quantum dot (QD) heterojunction diodes are reported for the first time. The photoresponse, very sensitive to variations in the size of the QDs as well as in the doping concentration of graphene and consistent with the quantum-confinement effect, is remarkably enhanced in the near-ultraviolet range compared to commercially available bulk-Si photodetectors. The photoresponse proves to be dominated by the carriertunneling mechanism. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Effect of ambient temperature on the efficiency of the PCPDTBT: PC71BM BHJ solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Zubair; Touati, Farid; Muhammad, Fahmi F.; Najeeb, Mansoor Ani; Shakoor, R. A.

    2017-07-01

    In this research article, the influence of environment temperature on the performance of the organic bulk heterojunction organic solar cells has been investigated. We describe the effect of ambient temperature on the efficiency of poly-[2,6-(4,4-bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-cyclopenta-[2,1-b;3,4-b']dithiophene)-alt-4,7-(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)] (PCPDTBT) and [6, 6]-phenylC71-butyric-acid-methyl-ester (PC71BM)-based bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells. The current-voltage characteristics of the ITO/PEDOT:PSS/PCPDTBT:PC71BM/Al solar cells are recorded in the temperature range of 25-60 °C under 100 mW/cm2 solar irradiation. The short-circuit current ( J sc) of the solar cells increased from 4.28 to 9.23 mAcm-2 when the temperature elevated from 25 to 55 °C. However, the open-circuit voltage ( V oc) and fill factor (FF) of the cells almost remained unchanged over the whole investigated temperature range. The values of V oc and FF are found to be 0.58 ± 01 and 0.60 ± 0.12 V, respectively. The results clearly indicate that the maximum efficiency of the ITO/PEDOT:PSS/PCPDTBT:PC71BM/Al solar cells can be achieved in the range of 52-58 °C.

  10. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of electrospun nanofibrous TiO2/g-C3N4 heterojunction photocatalyst under simulated solar light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunlei; Hu, Liming; Chai, Bo; Yan, Juntao; Li, Jianfen

    2018-02-01

    Electrospun nanofibrous TiO2/g-C3N4 heterojunction photocatalysts with different TiO2 content have been synthesized via a facile electrospinning and subsequent in situ evaporation and calcination process for the first time, which are examined in terms of morphology, component content, optical properties, PL spectra, photocurrent response, EIS measurement, photocatalytic activity and mechanism. SEM images exhibit TiO2/g-C3N4-4 heterojunction photocatalyst possesses the excellent 1D structure. HRTEM and element mapping images confirm the formation of heterojunction structure. DRS tests identify that TiO2/g-C3N4-4 heterojunction exhibits the intensitive absorption in both UV and visible light region. The photoelectrochemical tests prove that the recombination between electrons and holes are effectively inhibited. Based on TG analysis and photodegradation experiments, TiO2/g-C3N4-4 heterojunction photocatalyst with TiO2 content of 29.30 wt% possesses the best photocatalytic degradation efficiency for the RhB among the g-C3N4, TiO2 and their mixture under simulated sunlight irradiation. Moreover, 1D morphology of TiO2/g-C3N4-4 heterojunction photocatalyst is in favor of separating from solution for reuse and transferring the electrons, and maintains a very high photocatalytic degradation efficiency of 96% even after four recycles experiments, which is beneficial for practical application.

  11. Life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions and energy payback time of current and prospective silicon heterojunction solar cell designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwen, A.; van Sark, W. G J H M; Schropp, R. E I; Turkenburg, W. C.; Faaij, A. P C

    2015-01-01

    Silicon heterojunction (SHJ) cells offer high efficiencies and several advantages in the production process compared to conventional crystalline silicon solar cells. We performed a life-cycle assessment to identify the greenhouse gas (GHG) footprint, energy payback time (EPBT) and cumulative energy

  12. Light-induced performance increase of silicon heterojunction solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Kobayashi, Eiji

    2016-10-11

    Silicon heterojunction solar cells consist of crystalline silicon (c-Si) wafers coated with doped/intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) bilayers for passivating-contact formation. Here, we unambiguously demonstrate that carrier injection either due to light soaking or (dark) forward-voltage bias increases the open circuit voltage and fill factor of finished cells, leading to a conversion efficiency gain of up to 0.3% absolute. This phenomenon contrasts markedly with the light-induced degradation known for thin-film a-Si:H solar cells. We associate our performance gain with an increase in surface passivation, which we find is specific to doped a-Si:H/c-Si structures. Our experiments suggest that this improvement originates from a reduced density of recombination-active interface states. To understand the time dependence of the observed phenomena, a kinetic model is presented.

  13. Light-induced performance increase of silicon heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Eiji; De Wolf, Stefaan; Levrat, Jacques; Christmann, Gabriel; Descoeudres, Antoine; Nicolay, Sylvain; Despeisse, Matthieu; Watabe, Yoshimi; Ballif, Christophe

    2016-10-01

    Silicon heterojunction solar cells consist of crystalline silicon (c-Si) wafers coated with doped/intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) bilayers for passivating-contact formation. Here, we unambiguously demonstrate that carrier injection either due to light soaking or (dark) forward-voltage bias increases the open circuit voltage and fill factor of finished cells, leading to a conversion efficiency gain of up to 0.3% absolute. This phenomenon contrasts markedly with the light-induced degradation known for thin-film a-Si:H solar cells. We associate our performance gain with an increase in surface passivation, which we find is specific to doped a-Si:H/c-Si structures. Our experiments suggest that this improvement originates from a reduced density of recombination-active interface states. To understand the time dependence of the observed phenomena, a kinetic model is presented.

  14. InN-based heterojunction photodetector with extended infrared response

    KAUST Repository

    Hsu, Lung-Hsing

    2015-11-21

    © 2015 Optical Society of America. The combination of ZnO, InN, and GaN epitaxial layers is explored to provide long wavelength photodetection capability in the GaN based materials. Growth temperature optimization was performed to obtain the best quality of InN epitaxial layer in the MOCVD system. The temperature dependent photoluminescence (PL) can provide the information about thermal quenching in the InN PL transitions and at least two nonradiative processes can be observed. X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy are applied to confirm the inclusion of indium and the formation of InN layer. The band alignment of such system shows a typical double heterojunction, which is preferred in optoelectronic device operation. The photodetector manufactured by this ZnO/GaN/InN layer can exhibit extended long-wavelength quantum efficiency, as high as 3.55%, and very strong photocurrent response under solar simulator illumination.

  15. One-Pot Preparation of a TiO{sub 2}/Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} Heterojunction and its Photocatalytic Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung-Duk; Park, Yong-Kwang; Bu, Chung-Heon; Jung, Dongwoon [Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    The semiconductor Cu{sub 2Z}nSnS{sub 4} (CZTS), was synthesized by reacting CuO, ZnO, and SnO with et hanolamine, 2-methoxyethanol, and thioglycolic acid. Anatase TiO{sub 2} particle was dispersed into the CZTS precursor solution, so that TiO{sub 2}/CZTS heterojunction was created through the nucleation of CZTS onto the TiO{sub 2} surface. The photocatalytic efficiencies of TiO{sub 2}/CZTS heterojunction samples with different TiO{sub 2} : CZTS ratios were then investigated. The photocatalytic efficiency of TiO{sub 2}/CZTS heterojunction sample was found to be superior to those of CZTS and the efficiency decreased with an increase in the TiO{sub 2} : CZTS ratio. The highest efficiency, obtained from the 1:1 sample, wa s about 1.7 times that of P-25.

  16. a-Si:H/c-Si heterojunction front- and back contacts for silicon solar cells with p-type base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostan, Philipp Johannes

    2010-07-01

    internal quantum efficiency shows that both types of back contacts lead to effective diffusion lengths in excess of 600 {mu}m. An extended fill factor analysis shows that fill factor limitations for the full-area a-Si:H/c-Si contacts result from non-ideal diode behavior, ascribed to the injection dependence of the heterojunction interface recombination velocity. Analysis of the external quantum efficiency under back side illumination with different bias light intensities delivers the effective surface recombination S{sub eff}({phi}) in dependance of the illumination intensity {phi}. The front contact (emitter) uses a sequence of intrinsic and phosphorous doped amorphous silicon layers together with a ZnO:Al or a SnO{sub 2}:In layer and an Al front contact grid. The emitter is prepared at a maximum temperature of 220 C. Measurements of the minority carrier lifetime on symmetric i/n-a-Si:H coated wafers judge the emitter passivation quality. The best solar cells that use a thermal oxide back side passivation with Al-point contacts and flat a-Si:H emitters have open circuit voltages up to 683 mV and efficiencies up to 17.4 %. The efficiency of such devices is limited by a low short circuit current due to the flat front side. Using the same back contact structure with random pyramid textured wafer front sides and a-Si:H emitters yields open circuit voltages up to 660 mV and efficiencies up to 18.5 %, so far limited by a relatively low fill factor FF {<=} 74.3 %. Analysis of the external quantum efficiency underlines the excellent surface passivation properties of the amorphous emitter. Combining both, amorphous front- and back contacts yields p-type heterojunction solar cells completely fabricated at temperatures below 220 C. The best devices reach an open circuit voltage V{sub oc} = 678 mV and an efficiency {eta} = 18.1 % with random textured wafers, limited by low fill factors FF {approx} 75 %. Besides the cell fabrication and characterization, this thesis reveals that the

  17. The effect of donor content on the efficiency of P3HT:PCBM bilayers: optical and photocurrent spectral data analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalegno, Mosé; Kotowski, Dariusz; Bernardi, Andrea; Luzzati, Silvia; Po, Riccardo; Raos, Guido

    2015-01-28

    State-of-the-art organic solar cells mostly rely on bulk-heterojunction architectures, where the photoactive layer is cast from a solution containing both the electron donor and acceptor components and subsequently annealed. An alternative route for device preparation is the sequential deposition of the two components using "orthogonal" solvents. The morphology of sequentially deposited bilayers has been extensively studied, but the interplay between optical and electrical properties and its influence on device efficiency is still unclear. Here we present a study of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) bilayers with variable P3HT content, including also a standard bulk-heterojunction device for comparison. Measured optical absorption, external quantum efficieny (EQE), and internal quantum efficiency (IQE) data are analysed and interpreted with the aid of numerical models. In agreement with other studies, our results suggest substantial intermixing between the PCBM and P3HT component, regardless of the P3HT content. In the bulk heterojunction and the bilayer devices with an active layer thickness of 100 nm or less, our best fits to both the optical and optoelectronic data highlight a concentration inversion, with an accumulation of PCBM on the anode side. Through the numerical analysis of device performance at short-circuit, we also find that exciton diffusion toward the P3HT:PCBM interface and geminate recombination can be the main IQE loss factors. Additional losses, attributed to bimolecular electron-hole recombination, are also observed upon increasing the P3HT content.

  18. Amorphous silicon crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Fahrner, Wolfgang Rainer

    2013-01-01

    Amorphous Silicon/Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells deals with some typical properties of heterojunction solar cells, such as their history, the properties and the challenges of the cells, some important measurement tools, some simulation programs and a brief survey of the state of the art, aiming to provide an initial framework in this field and serve as a ready reference for all those interested in the subject. This book helps to "fill in the blanks" on heterojunction solar cells. Readers will receive a comprehensive overview of the principles, structures, processing techniques and the current developmental states of the devices. Prof. Dr. Wolfgang R. Fahrner is a professor at the University of Hagen, Germany and Nanchang University, China.

  19. A highly efficient g-C3N4/SiO2heterojunction: the role of SiO2in the enhancement of visible light photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qiang; Niu, Xiuxiu; Nie, Changshun; Hao, Simeng; Zou, Wei; Ge, Jiangman; Chen, Daimei; Yao, Wenqing

    2016-11-23

    SiO 2 , an insulator, hardly has any photocatalytic acitivity due to its intrinsic property, and it is generally used as a hard template to increase the surface area of catalysts. However, in this work, we found that the surface state of the insulator SiO 2 can promote the migration of photogenerated charge carriers, leading to the enhancement of the photooxidation ability of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C 3 N 4 ). A one-pot calcination method was employed to prepare g-C 3 N 4 /SiO 2 composites using melamine and SiO 2 as precursors. The composites present considerably high photocatalytic degradation activities for 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) and rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light (λ > 420 nm) irradiation, which are about 1.53 and 4.18 times as high as those of bulk g-C 3 N 4 , respectively. The enhancement of the photocatalytic activity is due to the fact that the introduction of the insulator SiO 2 in g-C 3 N 4 /SiO 2 composites can greatly improve the specific surface area of the composites; more importantly, the impurity energy level of SiO 2 can help accelerate the separation and transfer of electron-hole pairs of g-C 3 N 4 . Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and trapping experiments with different radical scavengers show that the main active species of g-C 3 N 4 are superoxide radicals, while holes also play a role in photodegradation. For g-C 3 N 4 /SiO 2 -5, besides superoxide radicals and holes, the effect of hydroxyl radicals was greatly improved. Finally, a possible mechanism for the photogenerated charge carrier migration of the g-C 3 N 4 /SiO 2 photocatalyst was proposed.

  20. Heterojunction Structures for Photon Detector Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-21

    Sariciftci N S, Indigo and Tyrian Purple – From Ancient Natural Dyes to Modern Organic Semiconductors, Israel Journal of Chemistry, 52, pp. 540-551...2211 Photodetector, graded barrier, GaAs/AlGaAs, Infrared, Band Gap Narrowing, Dye Sensitized, J aggregate, Solar cells, Noise REPORT DOCUMENTATION...2)The photovoltaic properties of heterojunctions with J-/ H- aggregated dye films sandwiched between n– and p- type semiconductors were

  1. 0D/2D Z-Scheme Heterojunctions of Bismuth Tantalate Quantum Dots/Ultrathin g-C3N4Nanosheets for Highly Efficient Visible Light Photocatalytic Degradation of Antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Zhang, Gaoke; Li, Jun; Li, Yuan; Wu, Xiaoyong

    2017-12-20

    Constructing 0D/2D Z-scheme photocatalysts is a great promising path to improve photocatalytic activity by  efficiently enhancing charge separation. Herein, we fabricated a visible-light-responsive Bi 3 TaO 7 quantum dots (QDs)/g-C 3 N 4 nanosheets (NSs) 0D/2D Z-scheme composite via a facile ultrasound method, and Bi 3 TaO 7 QDs could be interspersed on the surface of g-C 3 N 4 NSs uniformly. Furthermore, the strong interaction between Bi 3 TaO 7 QDs and g-C 3 N 4 NSs disturbed the CN heterocycles by forming C═O bonds between C atoms of the N-(C) 3 group and O atoms of the Ta-O bond. The optimum composite with 20 wt % g-C 3 N 4 NSs showed the superior photocatalytic activity for degradation of ciprofloxacin (CIP) over the composites prepared by mechanical mixing and solid-state methods, the photocatalytic efficiency of which were 4 and 12.2 times higher than those of bare Bi 3 TaO 7 and g-C 3 N 4 . Photoluminescence (PL), time-resolved transient PL decay spectra, and photocurrent together verify that the photogenerated hole-electron pairs in this 0D/2D Z-scheme composite have been effectively separated. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of as-synthesized photocatalysts could be attributed to the synergistic effect of efficient Z-scheme charge separation, highly dispersed 0D Bi 3 TaO 7 nanocrystals, coordinating sites of 2D g-C 3 N 4 NSs and the strong coupling between them. This study might pave the way toward designing novel visible-light-induced 0D/2D photocatalyst systems for highly efficient degradation of antibiotics.

  2. -MoS2 Lateral Heterojunctions

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ming-yang

    2018-02-28

    2D layered heterostructures have attracted intensive interests due to their unique optical, transport, and interfacial properties. The laterally stitched heterojunction based on dissimilar 2D transition metal dichalcogenides forms an intrinsic p–n junction without the necessity of applying an external voltage. However, no scalable processes are reported to construct the devices with such lateral heterostructures. Here, a scalable strategy, two-step and location-selective chemical vapor deposition, is reported to synthesize self-aligned WSe2–MoS2 monolayer lateral heterojunction arrays and demonstrates their light-emitting devices. The proposed fabrication process enables the growth of high-quality interfaces and the first successful observation of electroluminescence at the WSe2–MoS2 lateral heterojunction. The electroluminescence study has confirmed the type-I alignment at the interface rather than commonly believed type-II alignment. This self-aligned growth process paves the way for constructing various 2D lateral heterostructures in a scalable manner, practically important for integrated 2D circuit applications.

  3. Synthesis and visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity of p–n heterojunction Ag2O/NaTaO3 nanocubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Songbo; Xu, Dongbo; Chen, Biyi; Luo, Bifu; Yan, Xu; Xiao, Lisong; Shi, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We firstly report a facile way to prepare the visible-light-driven Ag 2 O/NaTaO 3 p–n heterojunction by chemical precipitation method. • The Ag 2 O/NaTaO 3 heterojunction shows the highest photocatalytic activity than the pure NaTaO 3 and Ag 2 O nanoparticles under visible light. • The enhancement of the heterojunction photocatalytic activity was discussed and the photocatalytic mechanism was tested in our paper. • In summary, we think that the Ag 2 O/NaTaO 3 heterojunction with the strong visible light absorption and efficient photocatalytic activity have been extended application in photocatalysis for organic dyes pollutants degradation and purification of water. - Abstract: The constructing of p–n heterojunction photocatalytic system has received much attention in environmental purification and hydrogen generation from water. In this study, an efficient visible-light-driven p–n heterojunction Ag 2 O/NaTaO 3 was successfully prepared by chemical precipitation method at room temperature. It showed an enhanced photocatalytic activity for the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) under visible-light irradiation, much higher than those of either individual Ag 2 O or NaTaO 3 . The reactive species scavenger results indicated the superoxide anion radicals (·O 2− ) played key roles in RhB decoloration. From the experimental results and the relative band gap position of these semiconductors, a detailed possible photocatalytic mechanism of the Ag 2 O/NaTaO 3 heterojunction under visible light was proposed. The enhancement of the photocatalytic activity was attributed to the interfacial electronic interaction between NaTaO 3 and Ag 2 O and the high migration efficiency of photogenerated carriers.

  4. Synthesis and visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity of p–n heterojunction Ag{sub 2}O/NaTaO{sub 3} nanocubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Songbo [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Xu, Dongbo [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); School of Energy and Power Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Chen, Biyi; Luo, Bifu [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Yan, Xu [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); School of Energy and Power Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Xiao, Lisong, E-mail: xiaolisong123@sina.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Shi, Weidong, E-mail: swd1978@ujs.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • We firstly report a facile way to prepare the visible-light-driven Ag{sub 2}O/NaTaO{sub 3}p–n heterojunction by chemical precipitation method. • The Ag{sub 2}O/NaTaO{sub 3} heterojunction shows the highest photocatalytic activity than the pure NaTaO{sub 3} and Ag{sub 2}O nanoparticles under visible light. • The enhancement of the heterojunction photocatalytic activity was discussed and the photocatalytic mechanism was tested in our paper. • In summary, we think that the Ag{sub 2}O/NaTaO{sub 3} heterojunction with the strong visible light absorption and efficient photocatalytic activity have been extended application in photocatalysis for organic dyes pollutants degradation and purification of water. - Abstract: The constructing of p–n heterojunction photocatalytic system has received much attention in environmental purification and hydrogen generation from water. In this study, an efficient visible-light-driven p–n heterojunction Ag{sub 2}O/NaTaO{sub 3} was successfully prepared by chemical precipitation method at room temperature. It showed an enhanced photocatalytic activity for the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) under visible-light irradiation, much higher than those of either individual Ag{sub 2}O or NaTaO{sub 3}. The reactive species scavenger results indicated the superoxide anion radicals (·O{sup 2−}) played key roles in RhB decoloration. From the experimental results and the relative band gap position of these semiconductors, a detailed possible photocatalytic mechanism of the Ag{sub 2}O/NaTaO{sub 3} heterojunction under visible light was proposed. The enhancement of the photocatalytic activity was attributed to the interfacial electronic interaction between NaTaO{sub 3} and Ag{sub 2}O and the high migration efficiency of photogenerated carriers.

  5. Structural, electrical and photovoltaic properties of CoS/Si heterojunction prepared by spray pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Radaf, I. M.; Nasr, Mahmoud; Mansour, A. M.

    2018-01-01

    Au/p-CoS/n-Si/Al heterojunction device was fabricated by spray pyrolysis technique. The structural and morphological features were examined by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive x-ray analysis. The capacitance–voltage characteristics of the prepared heterojunction were analyzed at room temperature in the dark. The current–voltage characteristics were examined under dark and different incident light intensities 20–100 mW cm‑2. The rectification ratio, series resistance, shunt resistance, diode ideality factor and the effective barrier height were determined at dark and illumination conditions. The photovoltaic parameters such as short circuit current density, open circuit voltage, fill factor and power conversion efficiency were calculated at different incident light intensities.

  6. Noise Performance of Heterojunction DDR MITATT Devices Based on at W-Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suranjana Banerjee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise performance of different structures of anisotype heterojunction double-drift region (DDR mixed tunneling and avalanche transit time (MITATT devices has been studied. The devices are designed for operation at millimeter-wave W-band frequencies. A simulation model has been developed to study the noise spectral density and noise measure of the device. Two different mole fractions and of Ge and corresponding four types of device structure are considered for the simulation. The results show that the -Si heterojunction DDR structure of MITATT device excels all other structures as regards noise spectral density ( sec and noise measure (33.09 dB as well as millimeter-wave properties such as DC-to-RF conversion efficiency (20.15% and CW power output (773.29 mW.

  7. Influence of growth conditions on photovoltaic effect of ZnO/Si heterojunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Weiying; Lin, Bixia; Fu, Zhuxi [Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, No. 96 Road Jinzai, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Meng, Qinglei [Special Class for the Gifted Young, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2008-08-15

    A series of heterojunctions consisting of intrinsic zinc oxide (ZnO) films and p-type Si substrates have been prepared by DC reactive sputtering. The ZnO films were grown at different conditions, and the influence of growth conditions on photovoltaic (PV) property was discussed. It was found that both growth temperature and oxygen partial pressure play important roles for enhancing the PV effect of the samples. By optimizing growth conditions, the PV efficiency has been improved and also by more magnitudes. The open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) and short circuit current (I{sub sc}) per square centimeter arrived at 350 mV and 2.5 mA, respectively. The variation mechanism of PV effect with growth conditions has been investigated in order to understand the photoelectric conversion behavior of the ZnO/Si heterojunction. (author)

  8. Polyaniline micro-rods based heterojunction solar cell: Structural and photovoltaic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sönmezoǧlu, Savaş; Taş, Recep; Akın, Seçkin; Can, Muzaffer

    2012-12-01

    The present paper reports the fabrication and photovoltaic characterization of pure and dodecyl benzene sulfonic acid (DBSA)-doped polyaniline (PAni) micro-rods polymer/n-Si heterojunction solar cells, and also the morphological and structural properties of pure and micro-rods PAni doping with DBSA. The device shows a strong photovoltaic behavior with a maximum open-circuit voltage Voc of 0.83 V, a short-circuit current Jsc of 14.72 mA cm-2, fill factor FF of 0.54 resulting in an estimated device efficiency η of 6.13% under simulated solar light with the intensity of 100 mW/cm2. The results indicate that the Au/DBSA-doped PAni micro-rods/n-Si heterojunction structure might be promising for the solar cell applications.

  9. Bulk oil clauses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gough, N.

    1993-01-01

    The Institute Bulk Oil Clauses produced by the London market and the American SP-13c Clauses are examined in detail in this article. The duration and perils covered are discussed, and exclusions, adjustment clause 15 of the Institute Bulk Oil Clauses, Institute War Clauses (Cargo), and Institute Strikes Clauses (Bulk Oil) are outlined. (UK)

  10. 19 CFR 149.4 - Bulk and break bulk cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bulk and break bulk cargo. 149.4 Section 149.4... TREASURY (CONTINUED) IMPORTER SECURITY FILING § 149.4 Bulk and break bulk cargo. (a) Bulk cargo exempted.... (b) Break bulk cargo exempted from time requirement. For break bulk cargo that is exempt from the...

  11. Visible light degradation of Orange II using xCuyOz/TiO2 heterojunctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helaili, N.; Bessekhouad, Y.; Bouguelia, A.; Trari, M.

    2009-01-01

    Cu 2 O/TiO 2 , Cu/Cu 2 O/TiO 2 and Cu/Cu 2 O/CuO/TiO 2 heterojunctions were prepared and studied for their potential application as photocatalysts able to induce high performance under visible light. Orange II was used as a representative dye molecule. The effect of the amount and composition of the photosensitizers toward the activation of TiO 2 was studied. In each case, the global mechanism of Inter Particle Electrons Injection (IPEI) was discussed. The highest photocatalytic activity was observed for the system Cu/Cu 2 O/CuO (MB2 catalyst) under visible light (t 1/2 = 24 min, k = 159.7 x 10 -3 min -1 ) and for the heterojunction cascade Cu/Cu 2 O/CuO/TiO 2 (MB2 (50%)/TiO 2 ) under UV-vis light (t 1/2 = 4 min, k = 1342 x 10 -3 min -1 ). In the last case, the high performance was attributed firstly to the electromotive forces developed under this configuration in which CuO energy bands mediate the electrons transfer from Cu 2 O to TiO 2 . The formation of monobloc sensitizers also accounts for the decrease of the probability of the charges lost. It was demonstrated that 'Cu 2 O/CuO' governs the capability of the heterojunction cascade and Cu does not play a significant role regardless of the heterojunction cascade efficiency. The electrical energy consumption per order of magnitude for photocatalytic degradation of Orange II was investigated for some representative catalytic systems. Visible/MB2 and UV/vis MB2 (50%)/TiO 2 exhibited respectively 0.340 and 0.05 kWh m -3 demonstrating the high efficiency of the systems.

  12. Ordering effects in benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']difuran-thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6- dione polymers with >7% solar cell efficiency

    KAUST Repository

    Warnan, Julien

    2014-05-15

    Benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b\\']difuran-thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione (PBDFTPD) polymers prepared by microwave-assisted synthesis can achieve power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) >7% in bulk-heterojunction solar cells with phenyl-C61/71-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). In "as-cast" PBDFTPD-based devices solution-processed without a small-molecule additive, high PCEs can be obtained in spite of the weak propensity of the polymers to self-assemble and form π-aggregates in thin films. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Atomically precise graphene nanoribbon heterojunctions from a single molecular precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Giang D.; Tsai, Hsin-Zon; Omrani, Arash A.; Marangoni, Tomas; Wu, Meng; Rizzo, Daniel J.; Rodgers, Griffin F.; Cloke, Ryan R.; Durr, Rebecca A.; Sakai, Yuki; Liou, Franklin; Aikawa, Andrew S.; Chelikowsky, James R.; Louie, Steven G.; Fischer, Felix R.; Crommie, Michael F.

    2017-11-01

    The rational bottom-up synthesis of atomically defined graphene nanoribbon (GNR) heterojunctions represents an enabling technology for the design of nanoscale electronic devices. Synthetic strategies used thus far have relied on the random copolymerization of two electronically distinct molecular precursors to yield GNR heterojunctions. Here we report the fabrication and electronic characterization of atomically precise GNR heterojunctions prepared through late-stage functionalization of chevron GNRs obtained from a single precursor. Post-growth excitation of fully cyclized GNRs induces cleavage of sacrificial carbonyl groups, resulting in atomically well-defined heterojunctions within a single GNR. The GNR heterojunction structure was characterized using bond-resolved scanning tunnelling microscopy, which enables chemical bond imaging at T = 4.5 K. Scanning tunnelling spectroscopy reveals that band alignment across the heterojunction interface yields a type II heterojunction, in agreement with first-principles calculations. GNR heterojunction band realignment proceeds over a distance less than 1 nm, leading to extremely large effective fields.

  14. Microwave assisted synthesis of porous ZnO/SnS heterojunction and its application in visible light degradation of ciprofloxacin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makama, A. B., E-mail: abmakama@hotmail.com; Salmiaton, A., E-mail: mie@upm.edu.my; Choong, T. S. Y., E-mail: csthomas@upm.edu.my; Abdullah, N., E-mail: nhafizah@upm.edu.my [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Serdang, UPM 43400 (Malaysia); Saion, E. B., E-mail: elias@upm.edu.my [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Serdang, UPM 43400 (Malaysia)

    2016-07-06

    Porous ZnO/SnS heterojunctions were successfully synthesized via microwave-assisted heating of aqueous solutions containing different amounts of SnS precursors (SnCl{sub 2} and Na{sub 2}S) in the presence of fixed amount of ZnCO{sub 3} nanoparticles. The experimental results revealed that the heterojunctions exhibited much higher visible light-driven photocatalytic activity for the degradation of the ciprofloxacin than pure SnS nanocrystals. The photocatalytic degradation efficiency (1-C{sub t}/C{sub 0}) of the pollutant for the most active heterogeneous nanostructure is about four times more efficient than pure SnS. The enhanced photocatalytic efficiency is ascribed to the synergic effect of high photon absorption and reduction in the recombination of electrons and holes because of efficient separation and electron transfer from the SnS to ZnO nanoparticles.

  15. Heterojunction DDR THz IMPATT diodes based on AlxGa1-xN/GaN material system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Suranjana; Mitra, Monojit

    2015-06-01

    Simulation studies are made on the large-signal RF performance and avalanche noise properties of heterojunction double-drift region (DDR) impact avalanche transit time (IMPATT) diodes based on AlxGa1-xN/GaN material system designed to operate at 1.0 THz frequency. Two different heterojunction DDR structures such as n-Al0.4Ga0.6N/p-GaN and n-GaN/p-Al0.4Ga0.6N are proposed in this study. The large-signal output power, conversion efficiency and noise properties of the heterojunction DDR IMPATTs are compared with homojunction DDR IMPATT devices based on GaN and Al0.4Ga0.6N. The results show that the n-Al0.4Ga0.6N/p-GaN heterojunction DDR device not only surpasses the n-GaN/p-Al0.4Ga0.6N DDR device but also homojunction DDR IMPATTs based on GaN and Al0.4Ga0.6N as regards large-signal conversion efficiency, power output and avalanche noise performance at 1.0 THz.

  16. Microfabricated Bulk Piezoelectric Transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barham, Oliver M.

    Piezoelectric voltage transformers (PTs) can be used to transform an input voltage into a different, required output voltage needed in electronic and electro- mechanical systems, among other varied uses. On the macro scale, they have been commercialized in electronics powering consumer laptop liquid crystal displays, and compete with an older, more prevalent technology, inductive electromagnetic volt- age transformers (EMTs). The present work investigates PTs on smaller size scales that are currently in the academic research sphere, with an eye towards applications including micro-robotics and other small-scale electronic and electromechanical sys- tems. PTs and EMTs are compared on the basis of power and energy density, with PTs trending towards higher values of power and energy density, comparatively, indicating their suitability for small-scale systems. Among PT topologies, bulk disc-type PTs, operating in their fundamental radial extension mode, and free-free beam PTs, operating in their fundamental length extensional mode, are good can- didates for microfabrication and are considered here. Analytical modeling based on the Extended Hamilton Method is used to predict device performance and integrate mechanical tethering as a boundary condition. This model differs from previous PT models in that the electric enthalpy is used to derive constituent equations of motion with Hamilton's Method, and therefore this approach is also more generally applica- ble to other piezoelectric systems outside of the present work. Prototype devices are microfabricated using a two mask process consisting of traditional photolithography combined with micropowder blasting, and are tested with various output electri- cal loads. 4mm diameter tethered disc PTs on the order of .002cm. 3 , two orders smaller than the bulk PT literature, had the followingperformance: a prototype with electrode area ratio (input area / output area) = 1 had peak gain of 2.3 (+/- 0.1), efficiency of 33 (+/- 0

  17. Managing excitons for high performance hybrid white organic light-emitting diodes by using a simple planar heterojunction interlayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Changsheng; Sun, Ning; Wu, Zhongbin; Chen, Jiangshan; Ahamad, Tansir; Alshehri, Saad M.; Ma, Dongge

    2018-01-01

    High performance hybrid white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) were fabricated by inserting a planar heterojunction interlayer between the fluorescent and phosphorescent emitting layers (EMLs). The maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 19.3%, current efficiency of 57.1 cd A-1, and power efficiency (PE) of 66.2 lm W-1 were achieved in the optimized device without any light extraction enhancement. At the luminance of 1000 cd m-2, the EQE and PE remained as high as 18.9% and 60 lm W-1, respectively, showing the reduced efficiency-roll. In order to disclose the reason for such high performance, the distribution of excitons was analyzed by using ultra-thin fluorescent and phosphorescent layers as sensors. It was found that the heterojunction interlayer can efficiently separate the singlet and triplet excitons, preventing the triplet excitons from being quenched by the fluorescent emitter. The introduction of the heterojunction interlayer between the fluorescent and phosphorescent EMLs should offer a simple and efficient route to fabricate the high performance hybrid WOLEDs.

  18. Investigation of Performance Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells Using a-Si: H or a-SiC: H at Emitter Layer Through AMPS-1D Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmaa BENSMAIN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We offer a numerical simulation tool, AMPS-1D, which allows to model homo- as well as heterojunction devices. AMPS-1D is the short form of automat for simulation of heterostructures. The program solves the one dimensional semiconductor equations in steady-state. Furthermore, a variety of common characterization techniques have been implemented, current- voltage, external quantum efficiency, conduction and valence band. A user-friendly interface allows to easily perform parameter variations, and to visualize and compare your simulations. In this work, The silicon heterojunction cell performances are investigated by detailed described on external quantum efficiency, and light current-voltage characteristics by recognized simulator AMPS-1D (Analysis of Micro- electronics and Photonic Structures. The objective of this work is to study the correlation between the emitter properties of both heterojunction cells a-Si:H/c-Si and a-SiC:H/c-Si (absorption, defect profiles and energy band offsets and the carrier collection.

  19. Z-Scheme NiTiO3/g-C3N4Heterojunctions with Enhanced Photoelectrochemical and Photocatalytic Performances under Visible LED Light Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhenyu; Zeng, Xiaoqiao; Li, Kai; Gao, Shanmin; Wang, Qingyao; Lu, Jun

    2017-11-29

    Direct Z-scheme NiTiO 3 /g-C 3 N 4 heterojunctions were successfully assembled by using simple calcination method and the photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic performance were investigated by light emitting diode (LED). The photoanode composed by the heterojunction with about 50 wt % NiTiO 3 content exhibits the best photoelectrochemical activity with photoconversion efficiency up to 0.066%, which is 4.4 and 3.13 times larger than NiTiO 3 or g-C 3 N 4 . The remarkably enhanced photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic activity of the heterojunction can be due to the efficiently photogenerated electron-hole separation by a Z-scheme mechanism.

  20. Silicon homo-heterojunction solar cells: A promising candidate to realize high performance more stably

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Miao; Zhong, Sihua; Wang, Wenjie; Shen, Wenzhong

    2017-08-01

    We have investigated the influences of diverse physical parameters on the performances of a silicon homo-heterojunction (H-H) solar cell, which encompasses both homojunction and heterojunction, together with their underlying mechanisms by the aid of AFORS-HET simulation. It is found that the performances of H-H solar cell are less sensitive to (i) the work function of the transparent conductive oxide layer, (ii) the interfacial density of states at the front hydrogenated amorphous silicon/crystalline silicon (a-Si:H/c-Si) interface, (iii) the peak dangling bond defect densities within the p-type a-Si:H (p-a-Si:H) layer, and (iv) the doping concentration of the p-a-Si:H layer, when compared to that of the conventional heterojunction with intrinsic thin layer (HIT) counterparts. These advantages are due to the fact that the interfacial recombination and the recombination within the a-Si:H region are less affected by all the above parameters, which fundamentally benefit from the field-effect passivation of the homojunction. Therefore, the design of H-H structure can provide an opportunity to produce high-efficiency solar cells more stably.

  1. Silicon homo-heterojunction solar cells: A promising candidate to realize high performance more stably

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Tan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the influences of diverse physical parameters on the performances of a silicon homo-heterojunction (H-H solar cell, which encompasses both homojunction and heterojunction, together with their underlying mechanisms by the aid of AFORS-HET simulation. It is found that the performances of H-H solar cell are less sensitive to (i the work function of the transparent conductive oxide layer, (ii the interfacial density of states at the front hydrogenated amorphous silicon/crystalline silicon (a-Si:H/c-Si interface, (iii the peak dangling bond defect densities within the p-type a-Si:H (p-a-Si:H layer, and (iv the doping concentration of the p-a-Si:H layer, when compared to that of the conventional heterojunction with intrinsic thin layer (HIT counterparts. These advantages are due to the fact that the interfacial recombination and the recombination within the a-Si:H region are less affected by all the above parameters, which fundamentally benefit from the field-effect passivation of the homojunction. Therefore, the design of H-H structure can provide an opportunity to produce high-efficiency solar cells more stably.

  2. Electronic structure and band alignment at an epitaxial spinel/perovskite heterojunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Liang; Li, Wei; Xiao, Haiyan; Meyer, Harry M; Liang, Xuelei; Nguyen, N V; Weber, William J; Biegalski, Michael D

    2014-08-27

    The electronic properties of solid-solid interfaces play critical roles in a variety of technological applications. Recent advances of film epitaxy and characterization techniques have demonstrated a wealth of exotic phenomena at interfaces of oxide materials, which are critically dependent on the alignment of their energy bands across the interface. Here we report a combined photoemission and electrical investigation of the electronic structures across a prototypical spinel/perovskite heterojunction. Energy-level band alignment at an epitaxial Co3O4/SrTiO3(001) heterointerface indicates a chemically abrupt, type I heterojunction without detectable band bending at both the film and substrate. The unexpected band alignment for this typical p-type semiconductor on SrTiO3 is attributed to its intrinsic d-d interband excitation, which significantly narrows the fundamental band gap between the top of the valence band and the bottom of the conduction band. The formation of the type I heterojunction with a flat-band state results in a simultaneous confinement of both electrons and holes inside the Co3O4 layer, thus rendering the epitaxial Co3O4/SrTiO3(001) heterostructure to be a very promising material for high-efficiency luminescence and optoelectronic device applications.

  3. Solution-grown organic single-crystalline donor-acceptor heterojunctions for photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hanying; Fan, Congcheng; Fu, Weifei; Xin, Huolin L; Chen, Hongzheng

    2015-01-12

    Organic single crystals are ideal candidates for high-performance photovoltaics due to their high charge mobility and long exciton diffusion length; however, they have not been largely considered for photovoltaics due to the practical difficulty in making a heterojunction between donor and acceptor single crystals. Here, we demonstrate that extended single-crystalline heterojunctions with a consistent donor-top and acceptor-bottom structure throughout the substrate can be simply obtained from a mixed solution of C60 (acceptor) and 3,6-bis(5-(4-n-butylphenyl)thiophene-2-yl)-2,5-bis(2-ethylhexyl)pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-1,4-dione (donor). 46 photovoltaic devices were studied with the power conversion efficiency of (0.255±0.095)% under 1 sun, which is significantly higher than the previously reported value for a vapor-grown organic single-crystalline donor-acceptor heterojunction (0.007%). As such, this work opens a practical avenue for the study of organic photovoltaics based on single crystals. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Observation of a photoinduced, resonant tunneling effect in a carbon nanotube–silicon heterojunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Aramo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A significant resonant tunneling effect has been observed under the 2.4 V junction threshold in a large area, carbon nanotube–silicon (CNT–Si heterojunction obtained by growing a continuous layer of multiwall carbon nanotubes on an n-doped silicon substrate. The multiwall carbon nanostructures were grown by a chemical vapor deposition (CVD technique on a 60 nm thick, silicon nitride layer, deposited on an n-type Si substrate. The heterojunction characteristics were intensively studied on different substrates, resulting in high photoresponsivity with a large reverse photocurrent plateau. In this paper, we report on the photoresponsivity characteristics of the device, the heterojunction threshold and the tunnel-like effect observed as a function of applied voltage and excitation wavelength. The experiments are performed in the near-ultraviolet to near-infrared wavelength range. The high conversion efficiency of light radiation into photoelectrons observed with the presented layout allows the device to be used as a large area photodetector with very low, intrinsic dark current and noise.

  5. Electroluminescence of a-Si/c-Si heterojunction solar cells after high energy irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrara, Manuela

    2009-11-24

    The crystalline silicon as absorber material will certainly continue to dominate the market for space applications of solar cells. In the contribution under consideration the applicability of a-Si:H/c-Si heterojunction solar cells in space has been tested by the investigation of the cell modification by high energy protons and comparing the results to the degradation of homojunction crystalline silicon reference cells. The investigated solar cells have been irradiated with protons of different energies and doses. For all investigated solar cells the maximum damage happens for an energy of about 1.7 MeV and is mainly due to the decrease of the effective minority carrier diffusion length in the crystalline silicon absorber. Simulations carried out by AFORS-HET, a heterojunction simulation program, also confirmed this result. The main degradation mechanism for all types of devices is the monotonically decreasing charge carrier diffusion length in the p-type monocrystalline silicon absorber layer. For the heterojunction solar cell an enhancement of the photocurrent in the blue wavelength region has been observed but only in the case of heterojunction solar cell with intrinsic a-Si:H buffer layer. Additionally to the traditional characterization techniques the electroluminescence technique used for monitoring the modifications of the heteroluminescence technique used for monitoring the modifications of the heterointerface between amorphous silicon and crystalline silicon in solar cells after proton irradiation. A direct relation between minority carrier diffusion length and electroluminescence quantum efficiency has been observed but also details of the interface modification could be monitored by this technique.

  6. Synthesis of g-C3N4/Ag3PO4 heterojunction with enhanced photocatalytic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Peizhi; Song, Limin; Zhang, Shujuan; Wu, Xiaoqing; Wei, Qingwu

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: g-C 3 N 4 /Ag 3 PO 4 heterojunction photocatalyst with visible-light response was prepared by a facile coprecipitation method. The results show that g-C 3 N 4 /Ag 3 PO 4 possesses a much higher activity for the decomposition of RhB than that of the pure Ag 3 PO 4 particles. The most mechanism is that g-C 3 N 4 /Ag 3 PO 4 heterojunction photocatalyst can efficiently separate the photogenerated electron–hole pairs, enhancing the photocatalytic activity of g-C 3 N 4 /Ag 3 PO 4 composites. - Highlights: • g-C 3 N 4 /Ag 3 PO 4 heterojunction showed much higher activity than that of Ag 3 PO 4 . • The high activity could be attributed to g-C 3 N 4 for modifying Ag 3 PO 4 . • More ·OH radicals may be significant reason to improve Ag 3 PO 4 activity. - Abstract: g-C 3 N 4 /Ag 3 PO 4 heterojunction photocatalyst with visible-light response was prepared by a facile coprecipitation method. The photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, UV–vis absorption spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activities of the obtained samples were tested by using Rhodamine B (RhB) as the degradation target under visible light irradiation. g-C 3 N 4 /Ag 3 PO 4 decomposed RhB more effectively than the pure Ag 3 PO 4 particles did, and 2 wt.% g-C 3 N 4 had the highest activity. Furthermore, 2 wt.% g-C 3 N 4 /Ag 3 PO 4 degraded high-concentration RhB more potently than unmodified Ag 3 PO 4 did, probably because g-C 3 N 4 /Ag 3 PO 4 heterojunction photocatalyst enhanced the photocatalytic activity by efficiently separating the photogenerated electron–hole pairs

  7. Hydrothermal synthesis of In2S3/g-C3N4 heterojunctions with enhanced photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Chaosheng; Wu, Zhudong; Jiang, Deli; Chen, Min

    2014-11-01

    Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) was hybridized by In2S3 to form a novel In2S3/g-C3N4 heterojunction photocatalyst via a hydrothermal method. TEM and HRTEM results reveal that In2S3 nanoparticles and g-C3N4 closely contact with each other to form an intimate interface. The as-obtained In2S3/g-C3N4 heterojunctions exhibit higher photocatalytic activity than those of pure g-C3N4 and In2S3 for the photodegradation of rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation. The enhanced photocatalytic performance of In2S3/g-C3N4 heterojunctions could be attributed to its wide absorption in the visible region and efficient electron-hole separation. On the basis of radical scavenger experiments, superoxide radicals and holes are suggested to play a critical role in RhB degradation over In2S3/g-C3N4 heterojunctions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Two-dimensional CsPbBr3/PCBM heterojunctions for sensitive, fast and flexible photodetectors boosted by charge transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yalong; Yu, Dejian; Wang, Xiong; Huo, Chengxue; Wu, Ye; Zhu, Zhengfeng; Zeng, Haibo

    2018-02-01

    Inorganic halide perovskites exhibited promising potentials for high-performance wide-band photodetectors (PDs) due to their high light absorption coefficients, long carrier diffusion length and wide light absorption ranges. Here, we report two-dimensional (2D) CsPbBr3/PCBM heterojunctions for sensitive, fast and flexible PDs, whose performances can be greatly boosted by the charge transfer through the energy-aligned interface. The 2D CsPbBr3 nanosheets with high crystallinity were fabricated via a simple solution-process at room temperature, and then assembled into flexible heterojunctions films with polymerphenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). Significantly, the efficient and fast charge transfer at the heterojunctions interface was evidenced by the obvious photoluminescence quenching and variation of recombination dynamics. Subsequently, such heterojunctions PD exhibited an enhanced responsivity of 10.85 A W-1 and an ultrahigh detectivity of 3.06 × 1013 Jones. In addition, the PD shows a broad linear dynamic range of 73 dB, a fast response speed with rise time of 44 μs and decay time of 390 μs, respectively. Moreover, the PD lying on polyethylene terephthalate substrates exhibited an outstanding mechanical flexibility and a robust electrical stability. These results could provide a new avenue for integration of 2D perovskites and organic functional materials and for high-performance flexible PDs.

  9. Observation of Volkov-Pankratov states in topological HgTe heterojunctions using high-frequency compressibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhofer, A.; Tchoumakov, S.; Assaf, B. A.; Fève, G.; Berroir, J. M.; Jouffrey, V.; Carpentier, D.; Goerbig, M. O.; Plaçais, B.; Bendias, K.; Mahler, D. M.; Bocquillon, E.; Schlereth, R.; Brüne, C.; Buhmann, H.; Molenkamp, L. W.

    2017-11-01

    It is well established that topological insulators sustain Dirac fermion surface states as a consequence of band inversion in the bulk. These states have a helical spin polarization and a linear dispersion with large Fermi velocity. We report on a set of experimental observations supporting the existence of additional massive surface states. These states are also confined by the band inversion at a topological-trivial semiconductor heterojunction. While first introduced by Volkov and Pankratov (VP) before the understanding of the topological nature of such a junction, they were not experimentally identified. Here we identify their signatures on transport properties at high electric field. By monitoring the ac admittance of HgTe topological-insulator field-effect capacitors, we access the compressibility and conductivity of surface states in a broad range of energies and electric fields. The Dirac states are characterized by a compressibility minimum, a linear energy dependence, and a high mobility persisting up to energies much larger than the transport band gap of the bulk. At higher energies, we observe multiple anomalous behaviors in conductance, charge metastability, and Hall resistance that point towards the contribution of massive surface states in transport scattering and charge transfer to the bulk. The spectrum of these anomalies agrees with predictions of a phenomenological model of VP states in a smooth topological heterojunction. The model accounts for the finite interface depth, the effect of electric fields including Dirac screening, and predicts the energy of the first VP state. The massive surface states are a hallmark of topological heterojunctions, whose understanding is crucial for transport studies and applications.

  10. Molecular and Nanoscale Engineering of High Efficiency Excitonic Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenekhe, Samson A. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Ginger, David S. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Cao, Guozhong [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2016-01-15

    We combined the synthesis of new polymers and organic-inorganic hybrid materials with new experimental characterization tools to investigate bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells and hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells during the 2007-2010 period (phase I) of this project. We showed that the bulk morphology of polymer/fullerene blend solar cells could be controlled by using either self-assembled polymer semiconductor nanowires or diblock poly(3-alkylthiophenes) as the light-absorbing and hole transport component. We developed new characterization tools in-house, including photoinduced absorption (PIA) spectroscopy, time-resolved electrostatic force microscopy (TR-EFM) and conductive and photoconductive atomic force microscopy (c-AFM and pc-AFM), and used them to investigate charge transfer and recombination dynamics in polymer/fullerene BHJ solar cells, hybrid polymer-nanocrystal (PbSe) devices, and dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs); we thus showed in detail how the bulk photovoltaic properties are connected to the nanoscale structure of the BHJ polymer solar cells. We created various oxide semiconductor (ZnO, TiO2) nanostructures by solution processing routes, including hierarchical aggregates and nanorods/nanotubes, and showed that the nanostructured photoanodes resulted in substantially enhanced light-harvesting and charge transport, leading to enhanced power conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells.

  11. Large-area SnSe2/GaN heterojunction diodes grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choong Hee; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Paul, Pran K.; O'Hara, Dante J.; Brenner, Mark R.; Kawakami, Roland K.; Arehart, Aaron R.; Rajan, Siddharth

    2017-11-01

    We report on the synthesis and properties of wafer-scale two-dimensional/three-dimensional (2D/3D) n-SnSe2/n-GaN(0001) heterojunctions. The hexagonal crystal structure of crystalline SnSe2 grown by molecular beam epitaxy was confirmed via in-situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction and off-axis X-ray diffraction. Current-voltage (I-V) measurements of SnSe2/GaN diodes exhibited 9 orders of magnitude rectification, and the SnSe2/GaN heterojunction barrier height was estimated to be 1 eV using capacitance-voltage measurements and internal photoemission measurements. Vertical electronic transport analyzed using temperature-dependent I-V measurements indicates thermionic field emission transport across the junction. This work demonstrates the potential of epitaxial growth of large area high quality 2D crystals on 3D bulk semiconductors for device applications involving carrier injection across 2D/3D heterojunctions.

  12. Efficient hybrid solar cell with P3HT:PCBM and Cu2ZnSnS4 nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Se-Jung; Thuy Ho, Nhu; Lee, Min Hyung; Kim, Yong Soo

    2017-06-01

    Recently, Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) with band gap about 1.50 eV is predicted to become an ideal light absorption material due to the abundant component elements in the crust being nontoxic and environmentally friendly. However, CZTS solar cells made by high temperature and vacuum-processed are at a perceived cost disadvantage in compared with solution-processed systems such as organic and hybrid solar cells. In this study, we propose a hybrid solar configurations with solution-processed CZTS nanocrystals and P3HT:PCBM bulk heterojunction. The forming double heterojunction, as charge can be separated at both the P3HT:PCBM and CZTS:PCBM interface is attributed to enhance the light harvesting efficiency. As a result, organic solar cells with CZTS nanocrystals show the higher efficiency 3.32 % compare to 2.65 % of reference organic solar cells. A 25 % improvement of power conversion efficiency is obtained by the increasing in short-circuit current and fill factor.

  13. Low temperature back-surface-field contacts deposited by hot-wire CVD for heterojunction solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, D. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Grup de Recerca en Micro i Nanotecnologies, Jordi Girona 1-3, Barcelona 08034 (Spain)], E-mail: delfina@eel.upc.edu; Voz, C.; Martin, I.; Orpella, A.; Alcubilla, R. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Grup de Recerca en Micro i Nanotecnologies, Jordi Girona 1-3, Barcelona 08034 (Spain); Villar, F.; Bertomeu, J.; Andreu, J. [CeRMAE-Universitat de Barcelona, Departament de Fisica Aplicada i Optica, Diagonal 647, Barcelona 08028 (Spain); Roca-i-Cabarrocas, P. [LPICM-Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS 91128 Palaiseau (France)

    2008-08-30

    The growing interest in using thinner wafers (< 200 {mu}m) requires the development of low temperature passivation strategies for the back contact of heterojunction solar cells. In this work, we investigate low temperature deposited back contacts based on boron-doped amorphous silicon films obtained by Hot-Wire CVD. The influence of the deposition parameters and the use of an intrinsic buffer layer have been considered. The microstructure of the deposited thin films has been comprehensively studied by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry in the UV-visible range. The effective recombination velocity at the back surface has been measured by the Quasi-Steady-State Photoconductance technique. Complete double-side heterojunction solar cells (1 cm{sup 2}) have been fabricated and characterized by External Quantum Efficiency and current-voltage measurements. Total-area conversion efficiencies up to 14.5% were achieved in a fully low temperature process (< 200 deg. C)

  14. Synthesis of flower-like Ag{sub 2}O/BiOCOOH p-n heterojunction with enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shijie [Innovation & Application Institute, Zhejiang Ocean University, Zhoushan, Zhejiang Province 316022 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Health Risk Factors for Seafood, Zhoushan Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Zhoushan 316021 (China); State Environmental Protection Engineering Center for Pollution Treatment and Control in Textile Industry, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Xu, Kaibing [State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, Research Center for Analysis and Measurement, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Hu, Shiwei, E-mail: hushiweihai@163.com [Innovation & Application Institute, Zhejiang Ocean University, Zhoushan, Zhejiang Province 316022 (China); Jiang, Wei [Innovation & Application Institute, Zhejiang Ocean University, Zhoushan, Zhejiang Province 316022 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Health Risk Factors for Seafood, Zhoushan Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Zhoushan 316021 (China); Zhang, Junlei [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Particle Pollution and Prevention (LAP3), Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Liu, Jianshe [State Environmental Protection Engineering Center for Pollution Treatment and Control in Textile Industry, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Zhang, Lisha, E-mail: lszhang@dhu.edu.cn [State Environmental Protection Engineering Center for Pollution Treatment and Control in Textile Industry, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2017-03-01

    Highlights: • Ag{sub 2}O/BiOCOOH p-n heterojunctions are prepared by a solvothermal deposition-precipitation method. • They consist of flower-like BiOCOOH microspheres decorated with Ag{sub 2}O nanoparticles. • Heterojunction with the Ag/Bi molar ratio of 0.2/1 showed the highest photocatalytic activity. • The photogenerated holes (h{sup +}) and superoxide radical anions (·O{sub 2}{sup −}) have been found to be the main reactive species. - Abstract: The development of efficient semiconductor heterojunction photocatalysts has drawn much attention. Herein, we have reported a kind of flower-like Ag{sub 2}O/BiOCOOH p-n heterojunction as a novel and efficient visible-light-driven photocatalyst. The Ag{sub 2}O/BiOCOOH heterojunctions have been successfully prepared via a solvothermal precipitation-deposition method. They consist of flower-like BiOCOOH microspheres (diameters: 1–2.5 μm) decorated with Ag{sub 2}O nanoparticles (size: ∼14 nm). In addition, optical characterization reveals that they have broad visible-light photo-absorption. Importantly, under visible-light irradiation (λ > 400 nm), all Ag{sub 2}O/BiOCOOH heterojunctions exhibit enhanced photocatalytic activity than pure BiOCOOH or Ag{sub 2}O for the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) dye and para-chlorophenol (4-CP). Especially, the Ag{sub 2}O/BiOCOOH heterojunction with the Ag/Bi molar ratio of 0.2/1 shows the highest photocatalytic activity, which is even higher than the activity from the mechanical mixture (8 wt% Ag{sub 2}O + 92 wt% BiOCOOH). This enhanced photocatalytic performance could be predominantly attributed to the efficient separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. The photogenerated holes (h{sup +}) and superoxide radical anions (·O{sub 2}{sup −}) have been found to be the main reactive species responsible for the photodegradation of RhB dye in aqueous solution. Therefore, the Ag{sub 2}O/BiOCOOH p-n heterojunction has great potential to be used as a kind of efficient

  15. Charge Recombination Suppressed by Destructive Quantum Interference in Heterojunction Materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tempelaar, Roel; Koster, L. Jan Anton; Havenith, Remco W. A.; Knoester, Jasper; Jansen, Thomas L. C.

    2016-01-01

    We show that charge recombination in ordered heterojunctions depends sensitively on the degree of coherent delocalization of charges at the donor acceptor interface. Depending on the relative sign of the electron and hole transfer integrals, such delocalization can dramatically suppress

  16. Electrical conduction by interface states in semiconductor heterojunctions

    OpenAIRE

    El Yacoubi, Mohamed; Evrard, Roger; Nguyen, Ngoc Duy; Schmeits, Marcel

    2000-01-01

    Electrical conduction in semiconductor heterojunctions containing defect states in the interface region is studied. As the classical drift-diffusion mechanism cannot in any case explain electrical conduction in semiconductor heterojunctions, tunnelling involving interface states is often considered as a possible conduction path. A theoretical treatment is made where defect states in the interface region with a continuous energy distribution are included. Electrical conduction through this def...

  17. Large rectification magnetoresistance in nonmagnetic Al/Ge/Al heterojunctions

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Kun; Li, Huan-huan; Grünberg, Peter; Li, Qiang; Ye, Sheng-tao; Tian, Yu-feng; Yan, Shi-shen; Lin, Zhao-jun; Kang, Shi-shou; Chen, Yan-xue; Liu, Guo-lei; Mei, and Liang-mo

    2015-01-01

    Magnetoresistance and rectification are two fundamental physical properties of heterojunctions and respectively have wide applications in spintronics devices. Being different from the well known various magnetoresistance effects, here we report a brand new large magnetoresistance that can be regarded as rectification magnetoresistance: the application of a pure small sinusoidal alternating-current to the nonmagnetic Al/Ge Schottky heterojunctions can generate a significant direct-current volt...

  18. Harnessing light energy with a planar transparent hybrid of graphene/single wall carbon nanotube/n-type silicon heterojunction solar cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Leifeng; Yu, Hua; Zhong, Jiasong

    2015-01-01

    The photovoltaic conversion efficiency of a solar cell fabricated by a simple electrophoretic method with a planar transparent hybrid of graphenes (GPs) and single wall carbon nanotubes (SCNTs)/n-type silicon heterojunction was significantly increased compared to GPs/n-Si and SCNTs/n-Si solar cells...

  19. A Breakthrough Efficiency of 19.9% Obtained in Inverted Perovskite Solar Cells by Using an Efficient Trap State Passivator Cu(thiourea)I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Senyun; Rao, Haixia; Zhao, Ziran; Zhang, Linjuan; Bao, Hongliang; Sun, Weihai; Li, Yunlong; Gu, Feidan; Wang, Jianqiang; Liu, Zhiwei; Bian, Zuqiang; Huang, Chunhui

    2017-06-07

    It is extremely significant to study the trap state passivation and minimize the trap states of perovskite to achieve high-performance perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Here, we have first revealed and demonstrated that a novel p-type conductor Cu(thiourea)I [Cu(Tu)I] incorporated in perovskite layer can effectively passivate the trap states of perovskite via interacting with the under-coordinated metal cations and halide anions at the perovskite crystal surface. The trap state energy level of perovskite can be shallowed from 0.35-0.45 eV to 0.25-0.35 eV. In addition, the incorporated Cu(Tu)I can participate in constructing the p-i bulk heterojunctions with perovskite, leading to an increase of the depletion width from 126 to 265 nm, which is advantageous for accelerating hole transport and reducing charge carrier recombination. For these two synergistic effects, Cu(Tu)I can play a much better role than that of the traditional p-type conductor CuI, probably due to its identical valence band maximum with that of perovskite, which enables to not only lower the trap state energy level to a greater extent but also eliminate the potential wells for holes at the p-i heterojunctions. After optimization, a breakthrough efficiency of 19.9% has been obtained in the inverted PSCs with Cu(Tu)I as the trap state passivator of perovskite.

  20. Catalytic growth of vertically aligned SnS/SnS2 p-n heterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degrauw, Aaron; Armstrong, Rebekka; Rahman, Ajara A.; Ogle, Jonathan; Whittaker-Brooks, Luisa

    2017-09-01

    Nanowire arrays of SnS/SnS2 p-n heterojunctions are grown on transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) coated-glass and Si/SiO2 substrates via chemical vapor transport (CVT). The nanowire arrays are comprised of individual SnS/SnS2 heterostructures that are highly oriented with their lengths and morphologies controlled by the CVT conditions (i.e. reaction temperature, flow rate, and reaction time). The growth and optoelectronic characterization of these well-defined SnS/SnS2 p-n heterostructures pave the way for the fabrication of highly efficient solar cell devices.

  1. Annealing effect and photovoltaic properties of nano-ZnS/textured p-Si heterojunction

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Liang-Wen; Hsiao, Yu-Jen; Tang, I-Tseng; Meen, Teen-Hang; Liu, Chien-Hung; Tsai, Jenn-Kai; Wu, Tien-Chuan; Wu, Yue-Sian

    2013-01-01

    The preparation and characterization of heterojunction solar cell with ZnS nanocrystals synthesized by chemical bath deposition method were studied in this work. The ZnS nanocrystals were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Lower reflectance spectra were found as the annealing temperature of ZnS film increased on the textured p-Si substrate. It was found that the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the AZO/ZnS/textured p-Si h...

  2. Depleted-heterojunction colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics employing low-cost electrical contacts

    KAUST Repository

    Debnath, Ratan

    2010-01-01

    With an aim to reduce the cost of depleted-heterojunction colloidal quantum dot solar cells, we describe herein a strategy that replaces costly Au with a low-cost Ni-based Ohmic contact. The resultant devices achieve 3.5% Air Mass 1.5 power conversion efficiency. Only by incorporating a 1.2-nm-thick LiF layer between the PbS quantum dot film and Ni, we were able to prevent undesired reactions and degradation at the metal-semiconductor interface. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.

  3. Investigation of transparent conductive electrodes for application in heterojunction silicon wafer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mei

    This thesis focuses on the fabrication, characterisation and analysis of high-quality transparent conductive electrodes for application in heterojunction silicon wafer solar cells. Indium tin oxide (ITO) is the material of interest, which is investigated by both the pulsed direct current (PDC) and the unbalanced radio frequency (URF) magnetron sputtering methods. The influences of deposition parameters and annealing conditions on the performance of the ITO films are studied and the optimal deposition conditions are established for both systems. The results show that ITO films with low crystallinity have degraded electrical properties after annealing at 200°C. The degradation of ITO film properties is associated with the excess scattering centres formed along with the newly crystallised regions, which significantly deteriorate the electron mobility. The relationships between the deposition conditions and the material properties are investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It is shown that the major electron donors in amorphous ITO films are oxygen vacancies. With the increase of the film crystallinity, the doping efficiency of Sn atoms improves. The substitutional Sn atoms contribute additional free electrons in ITO films, which improve the film's conductivity. It is also shown that the darkening of ITO films observed in PDC sputtering is due to the existence of second phase Sn3O4, which severely darken the ITO sample when it is excessively present in the surface layer and in the bulk of the film. The hydrogen gas used in the URF sputtering method is shown to effectively lower the concentration of free electrons. Benefiting from the reduced electron scattering by ionized dopant atoms, the ITO films deposited with hydrogen gas maintain a high electron mobility. Besides the ITO material properties, the sputter induced damages are also studied. It is shown that in PDC sputtering the ion bombardment damage is the primary damage contributor, while plasma

  4. Research on ZnO/Si heterojunction solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Li; Chen, Xinliang; Liu, Yiming

    2017-01-01

    -Si substrate for photovoltaic applications. We investigate the effects of thickness, buffer layer, ZnO: B affinity and work function of electrodes on performances of solar cells through computer simulations using AFORS-HET software package. The energy conversion efficiency of the ZnO: B(n)/ZnO/c-Si(p) solar......We put forward an n-ZnO/p-Si heterojunction solar cell model based on AFORS-HET simulations and provide experimental support in this article. ZnO: B (B-doped ZnO) thin films deposited by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) are planned to act as electrical emitter layer on p-type c...... cell can achieve 17.16% (Voc: 675.8 mV, Jsc: 30.24 mA/cm2, FF: 83.96%) via simulation. On a basis of optimized conditions in simulation, we carry out some experiments, which testify that the ZnO buffer layer of 20 nm contributes to improving performances of solar cells. The influences of growth...

  5. InGaP Heterojunction Barrier Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welser, Roger E. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A new solar cell structure called a heterojunction barrier solar cell is described. As with previously reported quantum-well and quantum-dot solar cell structures, a layer of narrow band-gap material, such as GaAs or indium-rich InGaP, is inserted into the depletion region of a wide band-gap PN junction. Rather than being thin, however, the layer of narrow band-gap material is about 400-430 nm wide and forms a single, ultrawide well in the depletion region. Thin (e.g., 20-50 nm), wide band-gap InGaP barrier layers in the depletion region reduce the diode dark current. Engineering the electric field and barrier profile of the absorber layer, barrier layer, and p-type layer of the PN junction maximizes photogenerated carrier escape. This new twist on nanostructured solar cell design allows the separate optimization of current and voltage to maximize conversion efficiency.

  6. Large area CNT-Si heterojunction for photodetection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aramo, C., E-mail: aramo@na.infn.it [INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Via Cintia 2, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Ambrosio, M.; Bonavolontà, C. [INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Via Cintia 2, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Boscardin, M.; Crivellari, M. [Centro per Materiali e i Microsistemi Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), Via Sommarive 18, Povo di Trento, 38123 Trento (Italy); Lisio, C. de [INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Via Cintia 2, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Dip. Scienze Fisiche, Università degli Studi di Napoli “Federico II”, Via Cintia 2, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Grossi, V. [INFN, Sezione di L' Aquila and Dip. Scienze Fisiche e Chimiche, Università degli Studi dell' Aquila, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Maddalena, P. [INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Via Cintia 2, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Dip. Scienze Fisiche, Università degli Studi di Napoli “Federico II”, Via Cintia 2, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Passacantando, M. [INFN, Sezione di L' Aquila and Dip. Scienze Fisiche e Chimiche, Università degli Studi dell' Aquila, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Valentino, M. [CNR-SPIN UOS di Napoli, Via Cintia 2, 80126 Napoli (Italy)

    2017-02-11

    Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) consist of multiple layers of graphite sheets arranged in concentric cylinders, from two to many tens. These systems are closely related to graphite layers but in some features, MWCNTs behave quite differently from graphite. In particular, their ability to generate a photocurrent in a wide wavelength range has been demonstrated either without or with the application of a draining voltage. In addition, the photocurrent signal has been found to reproduce the optical absorbance of MWCNTs, showing a maximum in the near UV region. In this paper main characteristics of a novel large area photodetector featuring low noise, high linearity and efficiency are reported. This detector has been obtained by coupling the optoelectronic characteristics of MWCNTs with the well-known properties of silicon. MWCNTs are growth on n-doped silicon layer by chemical vapour deposition creating a p–n heterojunction with high sensitivity to the radiation from UV to IR. An additional MIS junction is obtained with a metallic conductive layer deposited on the back of silicon substrate. Moreover, first results on the signals generated by pulsed laser are also reported.

  7. MoO3–Au composite interfacial layer for high efficiency and air-stable organic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pan, Hongbin; Zuo, Lijian; Fu, Weifei

    2013-01-01

    Efficient and stable polymer bulk-heterojunction solar cells based on regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PC61BM) blend active layer have been fabricated with a MoO3–Au co-evaporation composite film as the anode interfacial layer (AIL). The optical...... resistance and thus improving the fill factor and efficiency of the devices. Additionally, the air stability of devices with different AILs (MoO3–Au composite, MoO3 and PEDOT:PSS) were studied and it was found that the MoO3–Au composite layer remarkably improved the stability of the solar cells with shelf...

  8. On the front and back side quantum efficiency differences in semi-transparent organic solar cells and photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouthinon, B.; Clerc, R.; Verilhac, J. M.; Racine, B.; De Girolamo, J.; Jacob, S.; Lienhard, P.; Joimel, J.; Dhez, O.; Revaux, A.

    2018-03-01

    The External Quantum Efficiency (EQE) of semi-transparent Bulk Hetero-Junction (BHJ) organic photodiodes processed in air shows significant differences when measured from the front or back side contacts. This difference was found significantly reduced when decreasing the active layer thickness or by applying a negative bias. This work brings new elements to help understanding this effect, providing a large set of experiments featuring different applied voltages, active layers, process conditions, and electron and hole layers. By means of detailed electrical simulations, all these measurements have been found consistent with the mechanisms of irreversible photo-oxidation, modeled as deep trap states (and not as p-type doping). The EQE measurement from front and back sides is thus a simple and efficient way of monitoring the presence and amplitude of oxygen contamination in BHJ organic solar cells and photodiodes.

  9. Quantitative Analysis of the Molecular Dynamics of P3HT:PCBM Bulk Heterojunction

    OpenAIRE

    Guilbert, A.A.Y.; Zbiri, M.; Dunbar, A.D.F.; Nelson, J.

    2017-01-01

    The optoelectronic properties of blends of conjugated polymers and small molecules are likely to be affected by the molecular dynamics of the active layer components. We study the dynamics of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) blends using molecular dynamics (MD) simulation on time scales up to 50 ns and in a temperature range of 250–360 K. First, we compare the MD results with quasi-elastic neutron-scattering (QENS) measurements. Experiment...

  10. Quantitative Analysis of the Molecular Dynamics of P3HT:PCBM Bulk Heterojunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbert, Anne A Y; Zbiri, Mohamed; Dunbar, Alan D F; Nelson, Jenny

    2017-09-28

    The optoelectronic properties of blends of conjugated polymers and small molecules are likely to be affected by the molecular dynamics of the active layer components. We study the dynamics of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) blends using molecular dynamics (MD) simulation on time scales up to 50 ns and in a temperature range of 250-360 K. First, we compare the MD results with quasi-elastic neutron-scattering (QENS) measurements. Experiment and simulation give evidence of the vitrification of P3HT upon blending and the plasticization of PCBM by P3HT. Second, we reconstruct the QENS signal based on the independent simulations of the three phases constituting the complex microstructure of such blends. Finally, we found that P3HT chains tend to wrap around PCBM molecules in the amorphous mixture of P3HT and PCBM; this molecular interaction between P3HT and PCBM is likely to be responsible for the observed frustration of P3HT, the plasticization of PCBM, and the partial miscibility of P3HT and PCBM.

  11. New C-84 derivative and its application in a bulk heterojunction solar cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooistra, FB; Mihailetchi, VD; Popescu, LM; Kronholm, D; Blom, PWM; Hummelen, JC; Mihailetchi, Valentin D.

    2006-01-01

    We report here the synthesis and characteristics of a new C-84 adduct ([84]PCBM), realized via a diazoalkane addition reaction. [84] PCBM was obtained as a mixture containing three major isomers. [84]PCBM was tested in a fullerene/poly(2-methoxy-5-(3',7'-dimethyloctyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene)

  12. Morphology versus vertical phase segregation in solvent annealed small molecule bulk heterojunction organic solar cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovalenko, A.; Stoyanova, V.; Pospisil, J.; Zhivkov, I.; Fekete, Ladislav; Karashanova, D.; Kratochvílová, Irena; Vala, M.; Weiter, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 2015, Oct (2015), s. 238981 ISSN 1110-662X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-05095S; GA TA ČR TA04020156; GA MŠk LO1409 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : organic solar cells Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.226, year: 2015

  13. Tuning the Properties of Polymer Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells by Adjusting Fullerene Size to Control Intercalation

    KAUST Repository

    Cates, Nichole C.

    2009-12-09

    We demonstrate that intercalation of fullerene derivatives between the side chains of conjugated polymers can be controlled by adjusting the fullerene size and compare the properties of intercalated and nonintercalated poly(2,5-bis(3-hexadecylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (pBTTT):fullerene blends. The intercalated blends, which exhibit optimal solar-cell performance at 1:4 polymer:fullerene by weight, have better photoluminescence quenching and lower absorption than the nonintercalated blends, which optimize at 1:1. Understanding how intercalation affects performance will enable more effective design of polymer:fullerene solar cells. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  14. Understanding Mott-Schottky Measurements under Illumination in Organic Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonno, Irene; Martinez-Otero, Alberto; Hebig, Jan-Christoph; Kirchartz, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    The Mott-Schottky analysis in the dark is a frequently used method to determine the doping concentration of semiconductors from capacitance-voltage measurements, even for such complex systems as polymer:fullerene blends used for organic solar cells. While the analysis of capacitance-voltage measurements in the dark is relatively well established, the analysis of data taken under illumination is currently not fully understood. Here, we present experiments and simulations to show which physical mechanisms affect the Mott-Schottky analysis under illumination. We show that the mobility of the blend has a major influence on the shape of the capacitance-voltage curve and can be obtained from data taken under reverse bias. In addition, we show that the apparent shift of the built-in voltage observed previously can be explained by a shift of the onset of space-charge-limited collection with illumination intensity.

  15. Nanofiber-Based Bulk-Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells Using Coaxial Electrospinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    produced by coaxial electrospin - ning [ 56 , 57 ] is examined for BHJ–OPV devices. Previously, P3HT fi bers have been made using various...However, it has been observed [ 59 ] that electrospinning a solution of only P3HT and PCL yields nanoscale P3HT fi bers after stripping away the PCL...and   Andrew J.   Steckl  *    (Supporting Information) Fig S1. P3HT -PCBM structures obtained by electrospinning blends of (a) 3 wt

  16. Fabrication of High-Performance Polymer Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells by Interfacial Modifications I

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-30

    calibrated by a quartz monitor. The work functions (Φ) of the films were defined by Φ= hν-△E, where hv is the photon energy (21.2 eV) and △E is determined...using a UV-visible spectrometer from GBC Scientific Equipment, Australia (model GBC Cintra 10e). The bandgap of TiO2 film was calculated according to λ...of the films were defined by F¼ hnOE, where hv is the photon energy (21.2 eV) andOE is determined from the distance of the binding energy between

  17. Patterns of efficiency and degradation of composite polymer solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeranko, T; Tributsch, H; Sariciftci, NS; Hummelen, JC

    2004-01-01

    Bulk-heterojunction plastic solar cells (PSC) produced from a conjugated polymer, poly(2-methoxy-5-(3',7'-dimethyloctyl-oxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene) (MDMO-PPV), and a methanofullerene [6,6]-phenyl C-61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) were investigated using photocurrent imaging techniques to

  18. Depleted-Heterojunction Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Pattantyus-Abraham, Andras G.

    2010-06-22

    Colloidal quantum dot (CQD) photovoltaics combine low-cost solution processability with quantum size-effect tunability to match absorption with the solar spectrum. Rapid recent advances in CQD photovoltaics have led to impressive 3.6% AM1.5 solar power conversion efficiencies. Two distinct device architectures and operating mechanisms have been advanced. The first-the Schottky device-was optimized and explained in terms of a depletion region driving electron-hole pair separation on the semiconductor side of a junction between an opaque low-work-function metal and a p-type CQD film. The second-the excitonic device-employed a CQD layer atop a transparent conductive oxide (TCO) and was explained in terms of diffusive exciton transport via energy transfer followed by exciton separation at the type-II heterointerface between the CQD film and the TCO. Here we fabricate CQD photovoltaic devices on TCOs and show that our devices rely on the establishment of a depletion region for field-driven charge transport and separation, and that they also exploit the large bandgap of the TCO to improve rectification and block undesired hole extraction. The resultant depletedheterojunction solar cells provide a 5.1% AM1.5 power conversion efficiency. The devices employ infrared-bandgap size-effect-tuned PbS CQDs, enabling broadband harvesting of the solar spectrum. We report the highest opencircuit voltages observed in solid-state CQD solar cells to date, as well as fill factors approaching 60%, through the combination of efficient hole blocking (heterojunction) and very small minority carrier density (depletion) in the large-bandgap moiety. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  19. Theoretical studies on the solar cell parameters of n-C/p-Si heterojunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, B.; Shishodia, P.K.; Kapoor, A.; Mehra, R.M. [Department of Electronic Science, University of Delhi, South Campus, Benito Juarez Road, 110021 New Delhi (India); Krishna, K.M.; Umeno, M. [Research Center for Microstructure Devices, Nagoya Institute of Technology, 466 8555 Nagoya (Japan); Soga, T.; Jimbo, T. [Department of Environmental Technology and Urban Planning, Nagoya Institute of Technology, 466 8555 Nagoya (Japan)

    2002-01-01

    Amorphous carbon (a-C) is a potential material for the development of low cost solar cells. The heterojunction n-C/p-Si solar cell has been recently developed by Krishna et al. It has been shown that the maximum quantum efficiency (25%) appears at wavelength {lambda} (600 nm). In the present work, theoretical quantum efficiency has been calculated taking into account the contribution of hole photocurrent density, electron photocurrent density and the photocurrent within the depletion region. The variation of quantum efficiency with wavelength is found to be qualitatively similar to the experimentally observed variation. The solar cell parameters namely V{sub oc}, I{sub sc}, FF and efficiency have also been calculated and compared with the experimental values.

  20. Mesoscopic CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 /TiO 2 Heterojunction Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Etgar, Lioz

    2012-10-24

    We report for the first time on a hole conductor-free mesoscopic methylammonium lead iodide (CH 3NH 3PbI 3) perovskite/TiO 2 heterojunction solar cell, produced by deposition of perovskite nanoparticles from a solution of CH 3NH 3I and PbI 2 in γ-butyrolactone on a 400 nm thick film of TiO 2 (anatase) nanosheets exposing (001) facets. A gold film was evaporated on top of the CH 3NH 3PbI 3 as a back contact. Importantly, the CH 3NH 3PbI 3 nanoparticles assume here simultaneously the roles of both light harvester and hole conductor, rendering superfluous the use of an additional hole transporting material. The simple mesoscopic CH 3NH 3PbI 3/TiO 2 heterojunction solar cell shows impressive photovoltaic performance, with short-circuit photocurrent J sc= 16.1 mA/cm 2, open-circuit photovoltage V oc = 0.631 V, and a fill factor FF = 0.57, corresponding to a light to electric power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 5.5% under standard AM 1.5 solar light of 1000 W/m 2 intensity. At a lower light intensity of 100W/m 2, a PCE of 7.3% was measured. The advent of such simple solution-processed mesoscopic heterojunction solar cells paves the way to realize low-cost, high-efficiency solar cells. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  1. Efficiency enhancement in mesogenic-phthalocyanine-based solar cells with processing additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duy Dao, Quang; Hori, Tetsuro; Fukumura, Kaoru; Masuda, Tetsuya; Kamikado, Toshiya; Fujii, Akihiko; Shimizu, Yo; Ozaki, Masanori

    2012-12-01

    Bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells, fabricated by spin casting processes, with phase-separated small molecules including a phthalocyanine derivative, 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octahexylphthalocyanine (C6PcH2), and a fullerene derivative, 1-(3-methoxy-carbonyl)-propyl-1-1-phenyl-(6,6)C61 (PCBM), have been demonstrated to have a power conversion efficiency exceeding 4.1%. The C6PcH2:PCBM BHJ surface morphology and the phase separation have been controlled by utilizing processing additives in various solvents. The effects of the processing additives on the crystallization of the discotic C6PcH2 columns in hexagonal structures have been discussed.

  2. Efficient organic solar cells using copper(I) iodide (CuI) hole transport layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Ying [Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Optical Information, Ministry of Education, Institute of Optoelectronic Technology, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Department of Physics and Centre for Plastic Electronics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Yaacobi-Gross, Nir; Perumal, Ajay K.; Faber, Hendrik A.; Bradley, Donal D. C.; Anthopoulos, Thomas D., E-mail: zhqhe@bjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: t.anthopoulos@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Centre for Plastic Electronics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Vourlias, George; Patsalas, Panos A. [Department of Physics, Laboratory of Applied Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); He, Zhiqun, E-mail: zhqhe@bjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: t.anthopoulos@imperial.ac.uk [Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Optical Information, Ministry of Education, Institute of Optoelectronic Technology, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China)

    2015-06-15

    We report the fabrication of high power conversion efficiency (PCE) polymer/fullerene bulk heterojunction (BHJ) photovoltaic cells using solution-processed Copper (I) Iodide (CuI) as hole transport layer (HTL). Our devices exhibit a PCE value of ∼5.5% which is equivalent to that obtained for control devices based on the commonly used conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): polystyrenesulfonate as HTL. Inverted cells with PCE >3% were also demonstrated using solution-processed metal oxide electron transport layers, with a CuI HTL evaporated on top of the BHJ. The high optical transparency and suitable energetics of CuI make it attractive for application in a range of inexpensive large-area optoelectronic devices.

  3. Enhancing efficiency in polymer-blend solar cells: Structural insights through scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppa, Vikram

    All-polymer solar cells that employ blends of semiconducting polymers are capable of harnessing a greater portion of the incident solar spectrum than singly sensitized devices. However, they invariably show poor performance when compared with small-molecule bulk heterojunction cells. Following our successful approach in adding very small quantities of pristine graphene to the active layer to boost performance in P3HT/PCBM cells, we have recently reported a three-fold enhancement in efficiency of all-polymer (a blend of P3HT and F8BT) photovoltaic devices. These new cells exhibit more balanced transport of electrons and holes, strong dependence of recombination behavior on graphene content, and up to two orders of magnitude increase in mobility, resulting in a peak improvement of over 200

  4. Optical and electronic proprieties of thin films based on (Z-5-(4-chlorobenzylidene-3-(2-ethoxyphenyl-2 thioxothiazolidin-4-one, (CBBTZ and possible application as exciton-blocking layer in heterojunction organic solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morsli M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, organic thin film solar cells with structures based on CuPc/C60 bulk heterojunctions, have been fabricated and characterized. The effect of introducing an exciton blocking layer (EBL between the active layer and the metal layer in the solar cell was investigated. For that (Z-5-(4-chlorobenzylidene-3-(2-ethoxyphenyl-2-thioxothiazolidin-4-one, that we called (CBBTZ has been synthesized, characterized and probed as EBL. It was shown that optimized structures containing EBLs resulted in an improvement in solar cell conversion efficiencies. The energy levels corresponding to the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO of the CBBTZ have been determined from the first oxidation and reduction potential respectively, using cyclic voltametric (CV measurements. From CV curves, CBBTZ in dichloromethane showed a one electron reversible reduction and oxidation waves. The values of its HOMO and LUMO have been estimated to be 6.42 eV and 3.42 eV respectively. Such values show that CBBTZ could be probed as EBL in organic solar cells based on the ED/EA couple copper phthalocyanine(CuPc/fullerene (C60. The photovoltaic solar cells have been obtained by sequential deposition under vacuum of the different films where their thicknesses were measured in situ by a quartz monitor. When obtained, the averaged efficiency of the cells using the CBBTZ is higher than that achieved without EBL layer.

  5. Research on ZnO/Si heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Chen, Xinliang; Liu, Yiming; Zhao, Ying; Zhang, Xiaodan

    2017-06-01

    We put forward an n-ZnO/p-Si heterojunction solar cell model based on AFORS-HET simulations and provide experimental support in this article. ZnO:B (B-doped ZnO) thin films deposited by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) are planned to act as electrical emitter layer on p-type c-Si substrate for photovoltaic applications. We investigate the effects of thickness, buffer layer, ZnO:B affinity and work function of electrodes on performances of solar cells through computer simulations using AFORS-HET software package. The energy conversion efficiency of the ZnO:B(n)/ZnO/c-Si(p) solar cell can achieve 17.16% ({V}{oc}: 675.8 mV, {J}{sc}: 30.24 mA/cm2, FF: 83.96%) via simulation. On a basis of optimized conditions in simulation, we carry out some experiments, which testify that the ZnO buffer layer of 20 nm contributes to improving performances of solar cells. The influences of growth temperature, thickness and diborane (B2H6) flow rates are also discussed. We achieve an appropriate condition for the fabrication of the solar cells using the MOCVD technique. The obtained conversion efficiency reaches 2.82% ({V}{oc}: 294.4 mV, {J}{sc}: 26.108 mA/cm2, FF: 36.66%). Project supported by the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (Nos. 2011CBA00706, 2011CBA00707), the Tianjin Applied Basic Research Project and Cutting-Edge Technology Research Plan (No. 13JCZDJC26900), the Tianjin Major Science and Technology Support Project (No. 11TXSYGX22100), the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (No. 2013AA050302), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. 65010341).

  6. Solution-processable MoOx nanocrystals enable highly efficient reflective and semitransparent polymer solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Jagadamma, Lethy Krishnan

    2016-09-09

    Solution-manufacturing of organic solar cells with best-in-class power conversion efficiency (PCE) will require all layers to be solution-coated without compromising solar cell performance. To date, the hole transporting layer (HTL) deposited on top of the organic bulk heterojunction layer in the inverted architecture is most commonly an ultrathin (<10 nm) metal oxide layer prepared by vacuum-deposition. Here, we show that an alcohol-based nanocrystalline MoOx suspension with carefully controlled nanocrystal (NC) size can yield state of the art reflective and semitransparent solar cells. Using NCs smaller than the target HTL thickness (∼10 nm) can yield compact, pinhole-free films which result in highly efficient polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells with PCE=9.5%. The solution processed HTL is shown to achieve performance parity with vacuum-evaporated HTLs for several polymer:fullerene combinations and is even shown to work as hole injection layer in polymer light emitting diodes (PLED). We also demonstrate that larger MoOx NCs (30–50 nm) successfully composite MoOx with Ag nanowires (NW) to form a highly conducting, transparent top anode with exceptional contact properties. This yields state-of-the-art semitransparent polymer: fullerene solar cells with PCE of 6.5% and overall transmission >30%. The remarkable performance of reflective and semitransparent OPVs is due to the uncommonly high fill factors achieved using a carefully designed strategy for implementation of MoOx nanocrystals as HTL materials. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  7. Following the TRMC Trail: Optimization of Photovoltaic Efficiency and Structure-Property Correlation of Thiophene Oligomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Tanwistha; Gopal, Anesh; Nagasawa, Shinji; Mohan, Nila; Saeki, Akinori; Nair, Vijayakumar C

    2016-09-28

    Semiconducting conjugated oligomers having same end group (N-ethylrhodanine) but different central core (thiophene: OT-T, bithiophene: OT-BT, thienothiophene: OT-TT) connected through thiophene pi-linker (alkylated terthiophene) were synthesized for solution processable bulk-heterojunction solar cells. The effect of the incorporation of an extra thiophene to the central thiophene unit either through C-C bond linkage to form bithiophene or by fusing two thiophenes together to form thienothiophene on the optoelectronic properties and photovoltaic performances of the oligomers were studied in detail. Flash photolysis time-resolved microwave conductivity (FP-TRMC) technique shows OT-TT has significantly higher photoconductivity than OT-T and OT-BT implying that the former can outperform the latter two derivatives by a wide margin under identical conditions in a bulk-heterojunction solar cell device. However, the initial photovoltaic devices fabricated from all three oligomers (with PC71BM as the acceptor) gave power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of about 0.7%, which was counterintuitive to the TRMC observation. By using TRMC results as a guiding tool, solution engineering was carried out; no remarkable changes were seen in the PCE of OT-T and OT-BT. On the other hand, 5-fold enhancement in the device efficiency was achieved in OT-TT (PCE: 3.52%, VOC: 0.80 V, JSC: 8.74 mA cm(-2), FF: 0.50), which was in correlation with the TRMC results. The structure-property correlation and the fundamental reasons for the improvement in device performance upon solvent engineering were deduced through UV-vis absorption, atomic force microscopy, bright-field transmission electron microscopy, photoluminescence quenching analysis and two-dimensional grazing incidence X-ray diffraction studies.

  8. Trap assisted charge multiplication enhanced photoresponse of Li-P codoped p-ZnO/n-Si heterojunction ultraviolet photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pankaj; Bhardwaj, Ritesh; Kumar, Amitesh; Mukherjee, Shaibal

    2018-01-01

    In this work, we report a high-performance p-ZnO/n-Si heterojunction-based ultraviolet (UV) photodetector fabricated by dual ion beam sputter deposition. The lithium-phosphorus (Li-P) codoping route was used to realize low resistive and stable p-type ZnO. The current-voltage characteristics of p-ZnO/n-Si heterojunction photodiode showed good rectifying behavior with a rectification ratio of 170 at  ±3 V. The spectral response measurements of the photodiode showed excellent responsivity with a peak observed around ~325 nm and cutoff wavelength around 370 nm. The maximum responsivity achieved was 2.6 A W-1 at an applied reverse bias of  -6 V. The external quantum efficiency determined was of the order of ~1000% which is attributed to the trap assisted multiplication of charge carriers.

  9. Insight into synergistically enhanced adsorption and visible light photocatalytic performance of Z-scheme heterojunction of SrTiO3(La,Cr)-decorated WO3 nanosheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Jiang, Junzhe; Jia, Yushuai; Qiu, Jinmin; Xia, Tonglin; Zhang, Yuhong; Li, Yuqin; Chen, Xiangshu

    2017-08-01

    The efficient treatment of dye wastewater has been a hot topic of environment field. The integration of adsorption and photocatalytic degradation via fabrication of bi-component heterojunction photocatalyst is considered as a facile and effective strategy to enhance the dye elimination efficiency. In this report, a Z-scheme heterojunction material, SrTiO3(La,Cr)/WO3 with bifunction of adsorption and photocatalysis was successfully synthesized for efficient removal of methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation. The morphology and microstructure characterization demonstrates that the SrTiO3(La,Cr) nanoparticles are uniformly decorated on the WO3 nanosheets, forming an intimate heterojunction interface. MB degradation results indicate that the removal efficiency by the synergistic adsorption-photocatalysis process is greatly improved compared to pure WO3 and SrTiO3(La,Cr) with the adsorption and photocatalytic activity closely related to the composition of the material. The possible mechanism for the enhanced photocatalytic activity could be ascribed to the formation of a Z-scheme heterojunction system based on active species trapping experiments. Furthermore, the investigations of adsorption kinetics and isotherm show that the adsorption process follows pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm, respectively. Due to the synergistic advantages of negative zeta potential, large surface area and accelerated separation of photogenerated carriers driven by Z-scheme heterojunction, SrTiO3(La,Cr)/WO3 exhibits excellent adsorption-photocatalytic performance and stability on MB removal, which could be potentially used for practical wastewater treatment.

  10. Stimulated emission within the exciplex band by plasmonic-nanostructured polymeric heterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinping; Li, Hongwei; Wang, Yimeng; Liu, Feifei

    2015-03-01

    Organic heterojunctions have been extensively employed in the design of light-emitting diodes, photovoltaic devices, and thin-film field-effect transistors, which can be achieved by constructing a bilayer or a multi-layered thin-film deposition, or by blending two or more organic semiconductors with different charge-transport performances. Charge transfer excited states or exciplex may form on the heterointerfaces. Efficient light-emitting diodes have been demonstrated using exciplex emission. However, lasing or stimulated emission processes have not been observed with exciplex formation at organic heterojunctions. In this work, we demonstrate strong coherent interaction between photons and exciplex formation in the blends of poly-9,9'-dioctylfluorene-co-bis-N,N'-(4-butylphenyl)-bis-N,N'-phenyl-l,4-phenylenediamine (PFB) and poly-9,9'-dioctylfluorene-co-benzothiadiazole (F8BT), leading to transient stimulated exciplex emission. The responsible mechanisms involve plasmonic local-field enhancement and plasmonic feedback in a three-dimensional gold-nanoparticle matrix.Organic heterojunctions have been extensively employed in the design of light-emitting diodes, photovoltaic devices, and thin-film field-effect transistors, which can be achieved by constructing a bilayer or a multi-layered thin-film deposition, or by blending two or more organic semiconductors with different charge-transport performances. Charge transfer excited states or exciplex may form on the heterointerfaces. Efficient light-emitting diodes have been demonstrated using exciplex emission. However, lasing or stimulated emission processes have not been observed with exciplex formation at organic heterojunctions. In this work, we demonstrate strong coherent interaction between photons and exciplex formation in the blends of poly-9,9'-dioctylfluorene-co-bis-N,N'-(4-butylphenyl)-bis-N,N'-phenyl-l,4-phenylenediamine (PFB) and poly-9,9'-dioctylfluorene-co-benzothiadiazole (F8BT), leading to transient

  11. High performance ultraviolet photodetectors based on ZnO nanoflakes/PVK heterojunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yuhua; Xiang, Jinzhong, E-mail: jzhxiang@ynu.edu.cn [School of Physical and Astronomy, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091 (China); Tang, Libin, E-mail: scitang@163.com; Ji, Rongbin, E-mail: jirongbin@gmail.com; Zhao, Jun; Kong, Jincheng [Kunming Institute of Physics, Kunming 650223 (China); Lai, Sin Ki; Lau, Shu Ping [Department of Applied Physics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Zhang, Kai [Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics (SINANO), Chinese Academy of Science, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2016-08-15

    A high performance ultraviolet (UV) photodetector is receiving increasing attention due to its significant applications in fire warning, environmental monitoring, scientific research, astronomical observation, etc. The enhancement in performance of the UV photodetector has been impeded by lacking of a high-efficiency heterojunction in which UV photons can efficiently convert into charges. In this work, the high performance UV photodetectors have been realized by utilizing organic/inorganic heterojunctions based on a ZnO nanoflakes/poly (N-vinylcarbazole) hybrid. A transparent conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)-coated quartz substrate is employed as the anode in replacement of the commonly ITO-coated glass in order to harvest shorter UV light. The devices show a lower dark current density, with a high responsivity (R) of 7.27 × 10{sup 3 }A/W and a specific detectivity (D*) of 6.20 × 10{sup 13} cm Hz{sup 1/2}/W{sup −1} at 2 V bias voltage in ambient environment (1.30 mW/cm{sup 2} at λ = 365 nm), resulting in the enhancements in R and D* by 49% and one order of magnitude, respectively. The study sheds light on developing high-performance, large scale-array, flexible UV detectors using the solution processable method.

  12. Photoelectric converters on Cr/x/Te/y/-Zn/x/Cd/1-x/S heterojunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinova, E. M.; Stratieva, N. R.

    The layer properties of Zn(x)Cd(1-x)S(x) are are investigated, and the use of these materials in heterojunction photocells and convertors is evaluated. Results show that the calculated lattice mismatch of the semiconductor decreases with an increase of the Zn content in the solid solutions. A Cr(x)Te(y)-Zn(x)Cd(1-x)S heterojunction is fabricated and is found to have an increase in efficiency of 1% when the open-circuit voltage is raised by about 150 mV and the other parameters are held constant. The open-circuit voltage for photocells based on Cr(x)Te(y) and Zn(x)Cd(1-x)S, with x = 0.05-0.3, is measured under 80 mW/sq cm illumination, and is shown to be lower than the open circuit voltages for Cr(x)Te(y)-Zn(x) Cd(1-x)S samples. In addition, the I-V characteristics of the samples are determined. It is concluded that the wide spectral sensitivity, the high open-circuit voltage, as well as satisfactory conversion efficiencies, of solar cells based on Cr(x)Te(y)-Zn(x)Cd(1-x)S will allow the development of solar energy convertors with improved parameters.

  13. Photovoltaic effect on the performance enhancement of organic light-emitting diodes with planar heterojunction architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Dan; Huang, Wei; Guo, Hao [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC), Chengdu 610054 (China); Wang, Hua, E-mail: wanghua001@tyut.edu.cn [Research Center of Advanced Materials Science and Technology, Taiyuan University of Technology (TYUT), Taiyuan 030024 (China); Yu, Junsheng, E-mail: jsyu@uestc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC), Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • The photovoltaic effect on the performance of OLEDs was studied. • The device performance with different planar heterojunctions was investigated. • The mechanism relies on the overlap of electroluminescence and absorption spectrum. - Abstract: Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with planar heterojunction (PHJ) architecture consisting of photovoltaic organic materials of fullerene carbon 60 (C{sub 60}) and copper (II) phthalocyanine (CuPc) inserted between emitting unit and cathode were constructed, and the photovoltaic effect on OLEDs performance was studied. The electroluminescent (EL) characteristics and mechanism of device performance variation without and with different PHJs (herein including C{sub 60}/CuPc, CuPc/C{sub 60} and CuPc) were systematically investigated in red, green and blue OLEDs. Of the three combinations, OLEDs with C{sub 60}/CuPc showed the highest efficiency. It is revealed that the photovoltaic C{sub 60}/CuPc PHJ can absorb part of photons, which are radiated from emission zone, then form excitons, and dissociated into free charges. Consequently, the high device efficiency of OLEDs performance improvement was acquired. This research demonstrates that PHJ consisting of two n- and p-type photovoltaic organic materials could be a promising methodology for high performance OLEDs.

  14. Investigation of porosity and heterojunction effects of a mesoporous hematite electrode on photoelectrochemical water splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingling; Shahid, Muhammad; Ko, Young-Seon; Kim, Eunchul; Ahn, Tae Kyu; Park, Jong Hyeok; Kwon, Young-Uk

    2013-06-28

    In this paper, we report the porosity and heterojunction effects of hematite (α-Fe2O3) on the photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting properties. The worm-like mesoporous hematite thin films (MHFs) with a pore size of ~9 nm and a wall thickness of ~5 nm were successfully obtained through the self-assembly process. MHFs formed on FTO showed much better PEC properties than those of nonporous hematite thin films (NP-HF) owing to the suppression of charge recombination. The PEC data of MHFs under front and back illumination conditions indicated that the porous structure allows the diffusion of electrolyte deep inside the MHF increasing the number of holes to be utilized in the water oxidation reaction. A heterojunction structure was formed by introducing a thin layer of SnO2 (~15 nm in thickness) between the MHF and FTO for a dramatically enhanced PEC response, which is attributed to the efficient electron transfer. Our spectroscopic and electrochemical data show that the SnO2 layer functions as an efficient electron transmitter, but does not affect the recombination kinetics of MHFs.

  15. A Generalized Theory Explains the Anomalous Suns–Voc Response of Si Heterojunction Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Chavali, Raghu Vamsi Krishna

    2016-11-30

    Suns–Voc measurements exclude parasitic series resistance effects and are, therefore, frequently used to study the intrinsic potential of a given photovoltaic technology. However, when applied to a-Si/c-Si heterojunction (SHJ) solar cells, the Suns–Voc curves often feature a peculiar turnaround at high illumination intensities. Generally, this turn-around is attributed to extrinsic Schottky contacts that should disappear with process improvement. In this paper, we demonstrate that this voltage turnaround may be an intrinsic feature of SHJ solar cells, arising from the heterojunction (HJ), as well as its associated carrier-transport barriers, inherent to SHJ devices. We use numerical simulations to explore the full current–voltage (J–V) characteristics under different illumination and ambient temperature conditions. Using these characteristics, we establish the voltage and illumination-intensity bias, as well as temperature conditions necessary to observe the voltage turnaround in these cells. We validate our turnaround hypothesis using an extensive set of experiments on a high-efficiency SHJ solar cell and a molybdenum oxide (MoOx) based hole collector HJ solar cell. Our work consolidates Suns–Voc as a powerful characterization tool for extracting the cell parameters that limit efficiency in HJ devices.

  16. Potential of PEDOT:PSS as a hole selective front contact for silicon heterojunction solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäckle, Sara; Liebhaber, Martin; Gersmann, Clemens; Mews, Mathias; Jäger, Klaus; Christiansen, Silke; Lips, Klaus

    2017-05-19

    We show that the highly conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) can successfully be applied as a hole selective front contact in silicon heterojunction (SHJ) solar cells. In combination with a superior electron selective heterojunction back contact based on amorphous silicon (a-Si), mono-crystalline n-type silicon (c-Si) solar cells reach power conversion efficiencies up to 14.8% and high open-circuit voltages exceeding 660 mV. Since in the PEDOT:PSS/c-Si/a-Si solar cell the inferior hybrid junction is determining the electrical device performance we are capable of assessing the recombination velocity (v I ) at the PEDOT:PSS/c-Si interface. An estimated v I of ~400 cm/s demonstrates, that while PEDOT:PSS shows an excellent selectivity on n-type c-Si, the passivation quality provided by the formation of a native oxide at the c-Si surface restricts the performance of the hybrid junction. Furthermore, by comparing the measured external quantum efficiency with optical simulations, we quantify the losses due to parasitic absorption of PEDOT:PSS and reflection of the device layer stack. By pointing out ways to better passivate the hybrid interface and to increase the photocurrent we discuss the full potential of PEDOT:PSS as a front contact in SHJ solar cells.

  17. Effect of illumination intensity and temperature on the I-V characteristics of n-C/p-Si heterojunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Babita; Shishodia, P.K.; Kapoor, A.; Mehra, R.M. [Department of Electronic Science, University of Delhi South Campus, Benito Juarez Road, 110021 New Delhi (India); Soga, Tetsuo; Jimbo, Takashi [Department of Environmental Technology and Urban Planning, Nagoya Institute of Technology, 466-8555 Nagoya (Japan); Umeno, Masayoshi [Research Center for Microstructure Devices, Nagoya Institute of Technology, 466-8555 Nagoya (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    Krishna et al. (Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 65 (2001) 163) have recently developed an heterojunction n-C/p-Si in order to achieve low cost and high-efficiency carbon solar cell. It has been shown that for this structure, the maximum quantum efficiency (25%) appears at wavelength {lambda} (600nm). In this paper, the dependence of I-V characteristics of this heterojunction solar cell on illumination intensity and temperature has been systematically investigated. An estimation of the stability of the solar cell with temperature has been made in terms of the temperature coefficient of I{sub sc} and V{sub oc}. The intensity variation study has been used to estimate the series resistance R{sub s} of the solar cell. The effect of illumination intensity on I-V of n-C/p-Si heterojunction is more complex because the carrier lifetime and the carrier mobility of amorphous carbon are small and also because drift of carriers by built-in electric field plays an important role in these cells. Therefore, the conventional analytical expression for I-V characteristic is not applicable to such solar cells. These structures will not obey the principle of superposition of illuminated and dark current. The experimental results have been analysed by developing empirical relation for I-V.The temperature sensitivity parameters {alpha}, the change in I{sub sc} and {beta}, the change in V{sub oc} per degree centigrade have been computed and are found to be 0.087mA/C and 1mV/C, respectively. This suggests that the heterojunction n-C/p-Si has good temperature tolerance. The value of series resistance has been estimated from the family of I-V curves at various intensities. The R{sub s} is found to be {approx}12{omega}, which is on the higher side from the point of view of photovoltaic application.

  18. Opto-electronic properties of a TiO{sub 2}/PS/mc-Si heterojunction based solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janene, N.; Ghrairi, N. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaïque, Centre de Recherches et des Technologies de l’Energie, Technopole de Borj-Cédria, BP 95, 2050 Hammam-Lif (Tunisia); Allagui, A. [Center for Advanced Materials Research, University of Sharjah, PO Box 27272, Sharjah (United Arab Emirates); Dept. of Sustainable and Renewable Energy Engineering, University of Sharjah, PO Box 27272, Sharjah (United Arab Emirates); Alawadhi, H. [Center for Advanced Materials Research, University of Sharjah, PO Box 27272, Sharjah (United Arab Emirates); Khakani, M. A. El [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, INRS-Énergie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, 1650, Blvd. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, QC, Canada J3X-1S2 (Canada); Bessais, B. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaïque, Centre de Recherches et des Technologies de l’Energie, Technopole de Borj-Cédria, BP 95, 2050 Hammam-Lif (Tunisia); Gaidi, M., E-mail: mkaidi@sharjah.ac.ae [Center for Advanced Materials Research, University of Sharjah, PO Box 27272, Sharjah (United Arab Emirates)

    2016-04-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • In this work solar cells based on Au/PS/mc-Si/Al and Au/TiO{sub 2}/PS/mc-Si/Al structures have prepared. • A novel double treatment passivation based on TiO2/Porous Si has been used. • An enhancement of the electrical properties of TiO{sub 2}/PS/mc-Si heterojunction was observed after TiO{sub 2} coating. • The solar cells efficiencies past from 1.4% for uncoated PS/mc-Si structure to 5% for TiO{sub 2} coated one. - Abstract: In this work, we show the results of our investigation on the photoelectric properties of heterojunction solar cells based on Au/PS/mc-Si/Al and Au/TiO{sub 2}/PS/mc-Si/Al structures. Porous silicon (PS) were prepared by an electrochemical etching process with different values of current density. The surface porosity was found to increase with the increase of current density. Pulsed laser deposition was used to deposit 80 nm TiO{sub 2} thin films. Surface morphology and structural properties of TiO{sub 2}/PS were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). An enhancement of the electrical properties of the TiO{sub 2}/PS/mc-Si heterojunction was observed after coating with TiO{sub 2}. As a consequence, the solar cell efficiencies increased from 1.4% for the uncoated PS/mc-Si structure to 5% for the TiO{sub 2} coated one. Impedance spectroscopy confirmed the passivation effect of TiO{sub 2} through the improvement of the elaborated cells’ electron lifetime and the formation of a TiO{sub 2}/PS/Au heterojunction with the appearance of a second semi-circle in the Nyquist plot.

  19. High-performance a -Si/c-Si heterojunction photoelectrodes for photoelectrochemical oxygen and hydrogen evolution

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hsin Ping

    2015-05-13

    Amorphous Si (a-Si)/crystalline Si (c-Si) heterojunction (SiHJ) can serve as highly efficient and robust photoelectrodes for solar fuel generation. Low carrier recombination in the photoelectrodes leads to high photocurrents and photovoltages. The SiHJ was designed and fabricated into both photoanode and photocathode with high oxygen and hydrogen evolution efficiency, respectively, by simply coating of a thin layer of catalytic materials. The SiHJ photoanode with sol-gel NiOx as the catalyst shows a current density of 21.48 mA/cm2 at the equilibrium water oxidation potential. The SiHJ photocathode with 2 nm sputter-coated Pt catalyst displays excellent hydrogen evolution performance with an onset potential of 0.640 V and a solar to hydrogen conversion efficiency of 13.26%, which is the highest ever reported for Si-based photocathodes. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  20. Planar Heterojunction Perovskite Solar Cells with TiO_2 Scaffold in Perovskite Film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Peng; Zhang, Jing; Chen, Renjie; Zeng, Zhaobing; Huang, Xiaokun; Wang, Liming; Xu, Jie; Hu, Ziyang; Zhu, Yuejin

    2017-01-01

    TiO_2 nanoparticle is employed as mesoporous scaffold under low temperature in methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI_3) perovskite layer for planar heterojunction solar cells (PH PSCs). It has been found that the high quality perovskite crystalline is obtained by adding TiO_2 nanoparticles into perovskite layer. The incident photon to current conversion efficiency (IPCE) has been significantly improved due to the enhanced light scattering of TiO_2 nanoparticles and efficient electron transport in perovskite layer. Specially, interconnected TiO_2 nanoparticles improves the electron transport property, leading to reducing hysteresis and obtaining the much higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) (12.96%) with V_o_c = 0.99 V, J_s_c = 22.9 mA/cm"2 and FF = 0.562. This fabrication method is promising for flexible PH PSCs application and reducing the preparation cost.

  1. On solid bulk liquefaction

    OpenAIRE

    Fkhir, Moustafa

    2016-01-01

    Solid bulk cargoes, such as nickel ore and iron ore, have a tendency to liquefy. Such goods can transform from hard to liquid state very rapidly leaving no time for the master or crew to do anything but face their imminent fate. The liquefaction of solid bulk cargoes has claimed many seafarers’ lives and dozens of ships. The moisture content present in these cargoes can be dramatically increased to unsafe limits by the mere reason of the vessel’s rolling on waves. In response to the alarming ...

  2. Heterojunction phototransistor for highly sensitive infrared detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Mohsen; Park, Min-Su; Tan, Chee Leong; Rabinowitz, Cobi; Wheaton, Skyler; Mohseni, Hooman

    2017-02-01

    In this work, we have proposed a model for the ultimate physical limit on the sensitivity of the heterojunction bipolar phototransistors (HPTs). Based on our modeling we have extracted the design criteria for the HPT for high sensitivity application. HPT with the submicron emitter and base area has the potential to be used for the low number photon resolving in near-infrared (NIR) wavelength. However, in practice, the quality of materials, processing, and the passivation plays an important role in the realization of the highly sensitive HPT. For short wave infrared (SWIR) HPTs based on lattice matched InGaAs to InP is studied. For these devices, conditions to reach to the highest possible sensitivity is examined. We have made an HPT based on InGaAs collector and base on the InP substrate. After developing proper processing combination of wet and dry etching and the surface passivation for the device we made an imager with 320x256 pixels based with a 30m pixel pitch. The imager shows the sensitivity less the 30 photons for each pixel with the frame rate more than 1K frames per second.

  3. Mapping Energy Levels for Organic Heterojunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiying; Li, Peicheng; Lu, Zheng-Hong

    2017-06-01

    An organic semiconductor thin film is a solid-state matter comprising one or more molecules. For applications in electronics and photonics, several distinct functional organic thin films are stacked together to create a variety of devices such as organic light-emitting diodes and organic solar cells. The energy levels at these thin-film junctions dictate various electronic processes such as the charge transport across these junctions, the exciton dissociation rates at donor-acceptor molecular interfaces, and the charge trapping during exciton formation in a host-dopant system. These electronic processes are vital to a device's performance and functionality. To uncover a general scientific principle in governing the interface energy levels, highest occupied molecular orbitals, and vacuum level dipoles, herein a comprehensive experimental research is conducted on several dozens of organic-organic heterojunctions representative of various device applications. It is found that the experimental data map on interface energy levels, after correcting variables such as molecular orientation-dependent ionization energies, consists of three distinct regions depending on interface fundamental physical parameters such as Fermi energy, work function, highest occupied molecular orbitals, and lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals. This general energy map provides a master guide in selection of new materials for fabricating future generations of organic semiconductor devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Transparent electronics: Schottky barrier and heterojunction considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wager, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    Transparent electronics employs wide band gap semi-conductors which are transparent in the visible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum for the fabrication of electronic devices and circuits. Current and future transparent electronics applications require the use of wide band gap oxide semi-conductor interfaces as contacts and rectifiers, as well as for passivation and barrier-shaping layers. Modern Schottky barrier and heterojunction theory can be applied to the assessment of such interfaces, and is reviewed for this purpose from a charge transfer, energy band diagram perspective. Ideal interface formation theory is envisaged as originating from Fermi level mediated charge transfer giving rise to a macroscopic interfacial dipole, while non-ideal theory involves charge neutrality level mediated charge transfer giving rise to a microscopic interfacial dipole. This interface formation theory is applied to the problem of indium tin oxide (ITO) - zinc oxide and ITO - tin oxide interfaces, confirming their utility as injecting source-drain contacts in transparent thin-film transistors

  5. "Understanding" cosmological bulk viscosity

    OpenAIRE

    Zimdahl, Winfried

    1996-01-01

    A universe consisting of two interacting perfect fluids with the same 4-velocity is considered. A heuristic mean free time argument is used to show that the system as a whole cannot be perfect as well but neccessarily implies a nonvanishing bulk viscosity. A new formula for the latter is derived and compared with corresponding results of radiative hydrodynamics.

  6. Interface magnetization effect in heterojunctions based on semimagnetic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malkova, N.

    1998-07-01

    The electronic states of stressed heterojunctions formed from narrow-gap semimagnetic semiconductors showing antiferromagnetic ordering are studies. The model Hamiltonian is constructed in the framework of the two-band envelope function approximation including far-band corrections. Heterojunctions both with normal and inverted band arrangements in the initial semiconductors are investigated. The interface Tamm-like states have been shown recently toe appear in these heterojunctions and they are spin-split with the magnetic axis perpendicular to the interface plane. The effect of far-band corrections is shown to be conditioned by the mutual movement of the constituent bands, resulting in changes and in some cases in full disappearance of the energy interval in which the interface state exists. The interface magnetization effect is expected when the Fermi level lies in one of the spin-polarized interface bands. Using the appropriate parameters, the value of the relative interface magnetization is calculated. (author)

  7. Coherent Electron Transfer at the Ag / Graphite Heterojunction Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shijing; Dai, Yanan; Zhang, Shengmin; Liu, Liming; Zhao, Jin; Petek, Hrvoje

    2018-03-01

    Charge transfer in transduction of light to electrical or chemical energy at heterojunctions of metals with semiconductors or semimetals is believed to occur by photogenerated hot electrons in metal undergoing incoherent internal photoemission through the heterojunction interface. Charge transfer, however, can also occur coherently by dipole coupling of electronic bands at the heterojunction interface. Microscopic physical insights into how transfer occurs can be elucidated by following the coherent polarization of the donor and acceptor states on the time scale of electronic dephasing. By time-resolved multiphoton photoemission spectroscopy (MPP), we investigate the coherent electron transfer from an interface state that forms upon chemisorption of Ag nanoclusters onto graphite to a σ symmetry interlayer band of graphite. Multidimensional MPP spectroscopy reveals a resonant two-photon transition, which dephases within 10 fs completing the coherent transfer.

  8. Large rectification magnetoresistance in nonmagnetic Al/Ge/Al heterojunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Li, Huan-Huan; Grünberg, Peter; Li, Qiang; Ye, Sheng-Tao; Tian, Yu-Feng; Yan, Shi-Shen; Lin, Zhao-Jun; Kang, Shi-Shou; Chen, Yan-Xue; Liu, Guo-Lei; Mei, Liang-Mo

    2015-09-21

    Magnetoresistance and rectification are two fundamental physical properties of heterojunctions and respectively have wide applications in spintronics devices. Being different from the well known various magnetoresistance effects, here we report a brand new large magnetoresistance that can be regarded as rectification magnetoresistance: the application of a pure small sinusoidal alternating-current to the nonmagnetic Al/Ge Schottky heterojunctions can generate a significant direct-current voltage, and this rectification voltage strongly varies with the external magnetic field. We find that the rectification magnetoresistance in Al/Ge Schottky heterojunctions is as large as 250% at room temperature, which is greatly enhanced as compared with the conventional magnetoresistance of 70%. The findings of rectification magnetoresistance open the way to the new nonmagnetic Ge-based spintronics devices of large rectification magnetoresistance at ambient temperature under the alternating-current due to the simultaneous implementation of the rectification and magnetoresistance in the same devices.

  9. Metal Oxide/Semiconductor Heterojunctions as Carrier-Selective Contacts for Photovoltaic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Gabriel Jen Shi

    Solar radiation is a vast, distributed, and renewable energy source which Humanity can utilize via the photovoltaic effect. The goal of photovoltaic technology is to minimize the true costs, while maximizing the power conversion efficiency and lifetime of the cell/module. Interface-related approaches to achieving this goal are explored here, for two technologically-important classes of light absorbers: crystalline-silicon (c-Si) and metal halide perovskite (MHP). The simplest solar cell consists of a light absorber, sandwiched between two metals with dissimilar work functions. Carrier-selective contacts (CSC's), which are ubiquitous in modern solar cells, are added to improve the electrical performance. Solar cells require asymmetric carrier transport within the cell, which can be effected via electrostatic and/or effective fields, and CSC's augment the asymmetry by selectively transporting holes to one contact, and electrons to the other contact. The proper design and implementation of a CSC is crucial, as the performance, lifetime, and/or cost reduction of a solar cell can be hampered by a single interface or layer. A framework, consisting of eight core requirements, was developed from first-principles to evaluate the effectiveness of a given CSC. The framework includes some requirements which are well-recognized, such as the need for appropriate band offsets, and some requirements which are not well-recognized at the moment, such as the need for effective valence/conduction band density of states matching between the absorber and CSC. The application of the framework to multiple silicon-based and MHP-based CSC's revealed the difficulties of effectively designing and implementing a CSC. A poly(3-hexylthiophene)/c-Si heterojunction was found to be a near ideal hole-selective contact (HSC). Three metal oxide/c-Si heterojunctions initially expected to yield comparable electron-selective contacts (ESC's), titanium dioxide/c-Si (TiO2/c-Si), zinc oxide/c-Si (Zn

  10. Tunneling-assisted transport of carriers through heterojunctions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wampler, William R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Myers, Samuel M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Modine, Normand A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-10-01

    The formulation of carrier transport through heterojunctions by tunneling and thermionic emission is derived from first principles. The treatment of tunneling is discussed at three levels of approximation: numerical solution of the one-band envelope equation for an arbitrarily specified potential profile; the WKB approximation for an arbitrary potential; and, an analytic formulation assuming constant internal field. The effects of spatially varying carrier chemical potentials over tunneling distances are included. Illustrative computational results are presented. The described approach is used in exploratory physics models of irradiated heterojunction bipolar transistors within Sandia's QASPR program.

  11. Z-Scheme NiTiO 3 /g-C 3 N 4 Heterojunctions with Enhanced Photoelectrochemical and Photocatalytic Performances under Visible LED Light Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Zhenyu [School; Zeng, Xiaoqiao [Chemical; Li, Kai [School; Gao, Shanmin [School; Wang, Qingyao [School; Lu, Jun [Chemical

    2017-11-14

    Direct Z-scheme NiTiO3/g-C3N4 heterojunctions were successfully assembled by using simple calcination method and the photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic performance were investigated by light emitting diode (LED). The photoanode composed by the heterojunction with about 50 wt% NiTiO3 content exhibits the best photoelectrochemical activity with photoconversion efficiency up to 0.066%, which is 4.4 and 3.13 times larger than NiTiO3 or g-C3N4. The remarkably enhanced photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic activity of the heterojunction can be due to the efficiently photogenerated electron-hole separation by a Z-scheme mechanism.

  12. Single In x Ga1-x As nanowire/p-Si heterojunction based nano-rectifier diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, K.; Palit, M.; Guhathakurata, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Banerji, P.

    2017-09-01

    Nanoscale power supply units will be indispensable for fabricating next generation smart nanoelectronic integrated circuits. Fabrication of nanoscale rectifier circuits on a Si platform is required for integrating nanoelectronic devices with on-chip power supply units. In the present study, a nanorectifier diode based on a single standalone In x Ga1-x As nanowire/p-Si (111) heterojunction fabricated by metal organic chemical vapor deposition technique has been studied. The nanoheterojunction diodes have shown good rectification and fast switching characteristics. The rectification characteristics of the nanoheterojunction have been demonstrated by different standard waveforms of sinusoidal, square, sawtooth and triangular for two different frequencies of 1 and 0.1 Hz. Reverse recovery time of around 150 ms has been observed in all wave response. A half wave rectifier circuit with a simple capacitor filter has been assembled with this nanoheterojunction diode which provides 12% output efficiency. The transport of carriers through the heterojunction is investigated. The interface states density of the nanoheterojunction has also been determined. Occurrence of output waveforms incommensurate with the input is attributed to higher series resistance of the diode which is further explained considering the dimension of p-side and n-side of the junction. The sudden change of ideality factor after 1.7 V bias is attributed to recombination through interface states in space charge region. Low interface states density as well as high rectification ratio makes this heterojunction diode a promising candidate for future nanoscale electronics.

  13. Room temperature giant positive junction magnetoresistance of NiFe2O4/n-Si heterojunction for spintronics application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panda, J.; Saha, S.N.; Nath, T.K.

    2014-01-01

    Electronic- and magnetic-transport properties of NiFe 2 O 4 (NFO)–SiO 2 –Si heterojunction fabricated by depositing NFO thin films on silicon substrates with the intermediate native oxide (SiO 2 ) layer have been investigated in details. The current–voltage (I–V) characteristics across the junction have been recorded in the temperature range of 10–300 K. All I–V curves show non-linear behavior throughout the temperature range. The dominating current transport mechanism is found to be temperature dependent tunneling assisted by Frenkel–Poole type emission. In this paper, we report the junction magnetoresistance (JMR) properties of this heterojunction in the temperature range of 10–300 K. With increasing temperature, the JMR of the heterojunction increases accordingly. The high positive JMR (∼54%) has been observed at room temperature (RT). The origin of high positive JMR at RT is attributed to efficient spin-polarized carrier transport across the junction

  14. Eco Issues in Bulk Materials Handling Technologies in Ports

    OpenAIRE

    Nenad Zrnic; Milos Dordevic; Branislav Dragovic; Srdan Bosnjak

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with eco issues in bulk materials handling in ports. Solid, free-flowing materials are said to be in bulk. Bulk materials han-dling is very difficult, because it incorporates all the features of liquids, gasses and mass solids. Energy efficiency, dust emissions in nearby en-vironment, dust explosions, jamming, noise, handling of hazardous ma-terials and protection of materials from contamination are issues that will be considered in this paper. Here are also presented possibl...

  15. Superior heterojunction properties of solution processed copper-zinc-tin-sulphide quantum dots on Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sudarshan; Katiyar, Ajit K.; Midya, Anupam; Ghorai, Arup; Ray, Samit K.

    2017-10-01

    CZTS nanocrystals have been synthesized via a new facile and environmentally friendly route using olive oil at a relatively low temperature. Nanocrystals synthesized using olive oil have a smaller average size in comparison to those synthesized with a conventional solvent-like ethylenediamine. Nanocrystals with an average diameter of 40, 20 and 6 nm have been extracted from the olive oil at different centrifugation speeds of 500, 1000 and 2000 rpm, respectively. The photovoltaic characteristics of p-CZTS/n-Si heterojunctions fabricated using the synthesized colloidal quaternary nanocrystals are demonstrated. The device fabricated with smallest sized CZTS nanocrystals, having an average diameter of ∼6 nm, exhibits an enhancement in power conversion efficiency of 61% in comparison to that of the device fabricated with the nanocrystals of 40 nm in diameter. A lower reflectance and higher minority carrier life time along with a larger surface-to-volume ratio resulted in an enhanced power conversion efficiency for smaller sized CZTS nanocrystals.

  16. Sequentially Vapor-Grown Hybrid Perovskite for Planar Heterojunction Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won-Gyu; Kang, Dong-Won; Na, Sungjae; Park, Chan-Gyu; Gokdemir, Fatma Pinar; Moon, Taeho

    2018-01-11

    High-quality and reproducible perovskite layer fabrication routes are essential for the implementation of efficient planar solar cells. Here, we introduce a sequential vapor-processing route based on physical vacuum evaporation of a PbCl 2 layer followed by chemical reaction with methyl-ammonium iodide vapor. The demonstrated vapor-grown perovskite layers show compact, pinhole-free, and uniform microstructure with the average grain size of ~ 320 nm. Planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells are fabricated using TiO 2 and spiro-OMeTAD charge transporting layers in regular n-i-p form. The devices exhibit the best efficiency of 11.5% with small deviation indicating the high uniformity and reproducibility of the perovskite layers formed by this route.

  17. RETRACTED: Advances in colloidal quantum dot solar cells: The depleted-heterojunction device

    KAUST Repository

    Kramer, Illan J.

    2011-08-01

    Colloidal quantum dot (CQD) photovoltaics combine low-cost solution processibility with quantum size-effect tunability to match absorption with the solar spectrum. Recent advances in CQD photovoltaics have led to 3.6% AM1.5 solar power conversion efficiencies. Here we report CQD photovoltaic devices on transparent conductive oxides and show that our devices rely on the establishment of a depletion region for field-driven charge transport and separation. The resultant depleted-heterojunction solar cells provide a 5.1% AM1.5 power conversion efficiency. The devices employ infrared-bandgap size-effect-tuned PbS colloidal quantum dots, enabling broadband harvesting of the solar spectrum. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  18. Micromegas in a bulk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giomataris, I.; De Oliveira, R.; Andriamonje, S.; Aune, S.; Charpak, G.; Colas, P.; Fanourakis, G.; Ferrer, E.; Giganon, A.; Rebourgeard, Ph.; Salin, P.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel way to manufacture the bulk Micromegas detector. A simple process based on the Printed Circuit Board (PCB) technology is employed to produce the entire sensitive detector. Such a fabrication process could be extended to very large area detectors made by the industry. The low cost fabrication together with the robustness of the electrode materials will make it attractive for several applications ranging from particle physics and astrophysics to medicine

  19. Characterization of photovoltaics with In2S3 nanoflakes/p-Si heterojunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yu-Jen; Lu, Chung-Hsin; Ji, Liang-Wen; Meen, Teen-Hang; Chen, Yan-Lung; Chi, Hsiao-Ping

    2014-01-15

    We demonstrate that heterojunction photovoltaics based on hydrothermal-grown In2S3 on p-Si were fabricated and characterized in the paper. An n-type In2S3 nanoflake-based film with unique 'cross-linked network' structure was grown on the prepared p-type silicon substrate. It was found that the bandgap energy of such In2S3 film is 2.5 eV by optical absorption spectra. This unique nanostructure significantly enhances the surface area of the In2S3 films, leading to obtain lower reflectance spectra as the thickness of In2S3 film was increased. Additionally, such a nanostructure resulted in a closer spacing between the cross-linked In2S3 nanostructures and formed more direct conduction paths for electron transportation. Thus, the short-circuit current density (Jsc) was effectively improved by using a suitable thickness of In2S3. The power conversion efficiency (PCE, η) of the AZO/In2S3/textured p-Si heterojunction solar cell with 100-nm-thick In2S3 film was 2.39%.

  20. Laser Induced Forward Transfer for front contact improvement in silicon heterojunction solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colina, M., E-mail: monicacolinb@gmail.com; Morales-Vilches, A.; Voz, C.; Martín, I.; Ortega, P.; Orpella, A.; López, G.; Alcubilla, R.

    2015-05-01

    Highlights: • LIFT technique is investigated to improve heterojunction HJ solar cells. • Doped silicon films are adequate precursors for LIFT application in HJ cells. • LIFT leads to a reduction of the series resistance of a-Si HJ diodes. • LIFT allows the improvement of the front contact resistance in a-Si HJ solar cells. - Abstract: In this work the Laser Induced Forward Transfer (LIFT) technique is investigated to create n-doped regions on p-type c-Si substrates. The precursor source of LIFT consisted in a phosphorous-doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon layer grown by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) onto a transparent substrate. Transfer of the doping atoms occurs when a sequence of laser pulses impinging onto the doped layer propels the material toward the substrate. The laser irradiation not only transfers the doping material but also produces a local heating that promotes its diffusion into the substrate. The laser employed was a 1064 nm, lamp-pumped system, working at pulse durations of 100 and 400 ns. In order to obtain a good electrical performance a comprehensive optimization of the applied laser fluency and number of pulses was carried out. Subsequently, arrays of n + p local junctions were created by LIFT and the resulting J–V curves demonstrated the formation of good quality n+ regions. These structures were finally incorporated to enhance the front contact in conventional silicon heterojunction solar cells leading to an improvement of conversion efficiency.