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Sample records for efficient bioethanol production

  1. Efficient approach for bioethanol production from red seaweed Gelidium amansii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho Myeong; Wi, Seung Gon; Jung, Sera; Song, Younho; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Gelidium amansii (GA), a red seaweed species, is a popular source of food and chemicals due to its high galactose and glucose content. In this study, we investigated the potential of bioethanol production from autoclave-treated GA (ATGA). The proposed method involved autoclaving GA for 60min for hydrolysis to glucose. Separate hydrolysis and fermentation processing (SHF) achieved a maximum ethanol concentration of 3.33mg/mL, with a conversion yield of 74.7% after 6h (2% substrate loading, w/v). In contrast, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) produced an ethanol concentration of 3.78mg/mL, with an ethanol conversion yield of 84.9% after 12h. We also recorded an ethanol concentration of 25.7mg/mL from SSF processing of 15% (w/v) dry matter from ATGA after 24h. These results indicate that autoclaving can improve the glucose and ethanol conversion yield of GA, and that SSF is superior to SHF for ethanol production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Life cycle energy efficiency and environmental impact assessment of bioethanol production from sweet potato based on different production modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Jia, Chunrong; Wu, Yi; Xi, Beidou; Wang, Lijun; Zhai, Youlong

    2017-01-01

    The bioethanol is playing an increasingly important role in renewable energy in China. Based on the theory of circular economy, integration of different resources by polygeneration is one of the solutions to improve energy efficiency and to reduce environmental impact. In this study, three modes of bioethanol production were selected to evaluate the life cycle energy efficiency and environmental impact of sweet potato-based bioethanol. The results showed that, the net energy ratio was greater than 1 and the value of net energy gain was positive in the three production modes, in which the maximum value appeared in the circular economy mode (CEM). The environment emission mainly occurred to bioethanol conversion unit in the conventional production mode (CPM) and the cogeneration mode (CGM), and eutrophication potential (EP) and global warming potential (GWP) were the most significant environmental impact category. While compared with CPM and CGM, the environmental impact of CEM significantly declined due to increasing recycling, and plant cultivation unit mainly contributed to EP and GWP. And the comprehensive evaluation score of environmental impact decreased by 73.46% and 23.36%. This study showed that CEM was effective in improving energy efficiency, especially in reducing the environmental impact, and it provides a new method for bioethanol production. PMID:28672044

  3. Marine Enzymes and Microorganisms for Bioethanol Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, M R; Natarajan, V; Krishnan, C

    Bioethanol is a potential alternative fuel to fossil fuels. Bioethanol as a fuel has several economic and environmental benefits. Though bioethanol is produced using starch and sugarcane juice, these materials are in conflict with food availability. To avoid food-fuel conflict, the second-generation bioethanol production by utilizing nonfood lignocellulosic materials has been extensively investigated. However, due to the complexity of lignocellulose architecture, the process is complicated and not economically competitive. The cultivation of lignocellulosic energy crops indirectly affects the food supplies by extensive land use. Marine algae have attracted attention to replace the lignocellulosic feedstock for bioethanol production, since the algae grow fast, do not use land, avoid food-fuel conflict and have several varieties to suit the cultivation environment. The composition of algae is not as complex as lignocellulose due to the absence of lignin, which renders easy hydrolysis of polysaccharides to fermentable sugars. Marine organisms also produce cold-active enzymes for hydrolysis of starch, cellulose, and algal polysaccharides, which can be employed in bioethanol process. Marine microoorganisms are also capable of fermenting sugars under high salt environment. Therefore, marine biocatalysts are promising for development of efficient processes for bioethanol production. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of the fermentation of high gravity thick sugar beet juice worts for efficient bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Sugar beet and intermediates of sugar beet processing are considered to be very attractive feedstock for ethanol production due to their content of fermentable sugars. In particular, the processing of the intermediates into ethanol is considerably facilitated because it does not require pretreatment or enzymatic treatment in contrast to production from starch raw materials. Moreover, the advantage of thick juice is high solid substance and saccharose content which eliminates problems with the storability of this feedstock. Results The objective of this study were to investigate bioethanol production from thick juice worts and the effects of their concentration, the type of mineral supplement, as well as the dose of yeast inoculum on fermentation dynamics and ethanol yield. The obtained results show that to ensure efficient ethanolic fermentation of high gravity thick juice worts, one needs to use a yeast strain with high ethanol tolerance and a large amount of inoculum. The highest ethanol yield (94.9 ± 2.8% of the theoretical yield) and sugars intake of 96.5 ± 2.9% were obtained after the fermentation of wort with an extract content of 250 g/kg supplemented with diammonium hydrogen phosphate (0.3 g/L of wort) and inoculated with 2 g of Ethanol Red dry yeast per L of wort. An increase in extract content in the fermentation medium from 250 g/L to 280 g/kg resulted in decreased efficiency of the process. Also the distillates originating from worts with an extract content of 250 g/kg were characterized by lower acetaldehyde concentration than those obtained from worts with an extract content of 280 g/kg. Conclusions Under the favorable conditions determined in our experiments, 38.9 ± 1.2 L of 100% (v/v) ethyl alcohol can be produced from 100 kg of thick juice. The obtained results show that the selection of process conditions and the yeast for the fermentation of worts with a higher sugar content can improve the economic performance of the

  5. Bioethanol Production from Indigenous Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuka Roy

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced rate of fossil fuel extraction is likely to deplete limited natural resources over short period of time. So search for alternative fuel is only the way to overcome this problem of upcoming energy crisis. In this aspect biofuel is a sustainable option. Agricultural lands cannot be compromised for biofuel production due to the requirement of food for the increasing population. Certain species of algae can produce ethanol during anaerobic fermentation and thus serve as a direct source for bioethanol production. The high content of complex carbohydrates entrapped in the cell wall of the microalgae makes it essential to incorporate a pre-treatment stage to release and convert these complex carbohydrates into simple sugars prior to the fermentation process. There have been researches on production of bioethanol from a particular species of algae, but this work was an attempt to produce bioethanol from easily available indigenous algae. Acid hydrolysis was carried out as pre-treatment. Gas Chromatographic analysis showed that 5 days’ fermentation by baker’s yeast had yielded 93% pure bioethanol. The fuel characterization of the bioethanol with respect to gasoline showed comparable and quite satisfactory results for its use as an alternative fuel.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i1.12182International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-1, Dec-Feb 2014/15, page: 112-120  

  6. Yeasts in sustainable bioethanol production: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Azhar, Siti Hajar; Abdulla, Rahmath; Jambo, Siti Azmah; Marbawi, Hartinie; Gansau, Jualang Azlan; Mohd Faik, Ainol Azifa; Rodrigues, Kenneth Francis

    2017-07-01

    Bioethanol has been identified as the mostly used biofuel worldwide since it significantly contributes to the reduction of crude oil consumption and environmental pollution. It can be produced from various types of feedstocks such as sucrose, starch, lignocellulosic and algal biomass through fermentation process by microorganisms. Compared to other types of microoganisms, yeasts especially Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the common microbes employed in ethanol production due to its high ethanol productivity, high ethanol tolerance and ability of fermenting wide range of sugars. However, there are some challenges in yeast fermentation which inhibit ethanol production such as high temperature, high ethanol concentration and the ability to ferment pentose sugars. Various types of yeast strains have been used in fermentation for ethanol production including hybrid, recombinant and wild-type yeasts. Yeasts can directly ferment simple sugars into ethanol while other type of feedstocks must be converted to fermentable sugars before it can be fermented to ethanol. The common processes involves in ethanol production are pretreatment, hydrolysis and fermentation. Production of bioethanol during fermentation depends on several factors such as temperature, sugar concentration, pH, fermentation time, agitation rate, and inoculum size. The efficiency and productivity of ethanol can be enhanced by immobilizing the yeast cells. This review highlights the different types of yeast strains, fermentation process, factors affecting bioethanol production and immobilization of yeasts for better bioethanol production.

  7. Yeasts in sustainable bioethanol production: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Hajar Mohd Azhar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol has been identified as the mostly used biofuel worldwide since it significantly contributes to the reduction of crude oil consumption and environmental pollution. It can be produced from various types of feedstocks such as sucrose, starch, lignocellulosic and algal biomass through fermentation process by microorganisms. Compared to other types of microoganisms, yeasts especially Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the common microbes employed in ethanol production due to its high ethanol productivity, high ethanol tolerance and ability of fermenting wide range of sugars. However, there are some challenges in yeast fermentation which inhibit ethanol production such as high temperature, high ethanol concentration and the ability to ferment pentose sugars. Various types of yeast strains have been used in fermentation for ethanol production including hybrid, recombinant and wild-type yeasts. Yeasts can directly ferment simple sugars into ethanol while other type of feedstocks must be converted to fermentable sugars before it can be fermented to ethanol. The common processes involves in ethanol production are pretreatment, hydrolysis and fermentation. Production of bioethanol during fermentation depends on several factors such as temperature, sugar concentration, pH, fermentation time, agitation rate, and inoculum size. The efficiency and productivity of ethanol can be enhanced by immobilizing the yeast cells. This review highlights the different types of yeast strains, fermentation process, factors affecting bioethanol production and immobilization of yeasts for better bioethanol production.

  8. Production of Hydrogen from Bio-ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrice Giroudiere; Christophe Boyer; Stephane His; Robert Sanger; Kishore Doshi; Jijun Xu

    2006-01-01

    IFP and HyRadix are collaborating in the development of a new hydrogen production system from liquid feedstock such as bio-ethanol. Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions along with high hydrogen yield are the key objectives. Market application of the system will be hydrogen refueling stations as well as medium scale hydrogen consumers including the electronics, metals processing, and oils hydrogenation industries. The conversion of bio-ethanol to hydrogen will be performed within a co-developed process including an auto-thermal reformer working under pressure. The technology will produce high-purity hydrogen with ultralow CO content. The catalytic auto-thermal reforming technology combines the exothermic and endothermic reaction and leads to a highly efficient heat integration. The development strategy to reach a high hydrogen yield target with the bio-ethanol hydrogen generator is presented. (authors)

  9. Scientific challenges of bioethanol production in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, Henrique V.; Lopes, Mario Lucio [Fermentec, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Castro Oliveira, Juliana Velasco de [Laboratorio Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Bioetanol (CTBE), Sao Paulo (Brazil); Buckeridge, Marcos S. [Laboratorio Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Bioetanol (CTBE), Sao Paulo (Brazil); Universidade de Sao Paulo, INCT do Bioetanol (Brazil). Dept. de Botanica; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique [Laboratorio Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Bioetanol (CTBE), Sao Paulo (Brazil); Universidade de Sao Paulo, INCT do Bioetanol (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas

    2011-09-15

    Bioethanol (fuel alcohol) has been produced by industrial alcoholic fermentation processes in Brazil since the beginning of the twentieth century. Currently, 432 mills and distilleries crush about 625 million tons of sugarcane per crop, producing about 27 billion liters of ethanol and 38.7 million tons of sugar. The production of bioethanol from sugarcane represents a major large-scale technology capable of producing biofuel efficiently and economically, providing viable substitutes to gasoline. The combination of immobilization of CO{sub 2} by sugarcane crops by photosynthesis into biomass together with alcoholic fermentation of this biomass has allowed production of a clean and high-quality liquid fuel that contains 93% of the original energy found in sugar. Over the last 30 years, several innovations have been introduced to Brazilian alcohol distilleries resulting in the improvement of plant efficiency and economic competitiveness. Currently, the main scientific challenges are to develop new technologies for bioethanol production from first and second generation feedstocks that exhibit positive energy balances and appropriately meet environmental sustainability criteria. This review focuses on these aspects and provides special emphasis on the selection of new yeast strains, genetic breeding, and recombinant DNA technology, as applied to bioethanol production processes. (orig.)

  10. Bioethanol production from Asphodelus aestivus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polycarpou, Polycarpos [Agricultural Research Institute, Soils Science Department, P.O. Box 22016, 1516 Lefkosia (Cyprus)

    2009-12-15

    The increase on the price of fossil fuels and the need to protect the environment from greenhouse gases urge the investigation of the possibility of using biofuels to replace them. Cyprus is faced with severe water shortage and unavailability of agricultural land that limit the cultivation of energy crops that supply the feedstock for biofuel production. A possibility would be to use Asphodelus aestivus L. that is encountered in Cyprus and other Mediterranean countries, growing wild in pastures. Its tubers contain starch that was measured to be 10.1%. The bioethanol is produced by fermentation of the mash produced by crashing the tubers of the plant. The first stage of the process was cooking the mash at a temperature of 95 C, combined by liquefaction and saccharification of the starch using enzymes, like alpha-amylase and glucoamylase. The process was followed by fermentation of the mash for three days and finally distillation of bioethanol. The alcohol yield per kilogram tubers was 49.52 ml/kg, compared to the theoretical value of 83.72 ml/kg, mainly due to the incomplete fermentation of the sugars. The plant seems to be a potential energy plant for bioethanol production in arid regions cultivated on degraded land. (author)

  11. Comparative study of bioethanol production from sugarcane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to compare the bioethanol production from Zymomonas mobilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae using molasses as production medium. The focus was on the retention time at lab scale. Bioethanol and petroleum blend can be used in existing gasoline engines. Present study showed a more ...

  12. BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION BY MISCANTHUS AS A LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS: FOCUS ON HIGH EFFICIENCY CONVERSION TO GLUCOSE AND ETHANOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minhee Han Mail

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Current ethanol production processes using crops such as corn and sugar cane have been well established. However, the utilization of cheaper lignocellulosic biomass could make bioethanol more competitive with fossil fuels while avoiding the ethical concerns associated with using potential food resources. In this study, Miscanthus, a lignocellulosic biomass, was pretreated using NaOH to produce bioethanol. The pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis conditions were evaluated by response surface methodology (RSM. The optimal conditions were found to be 145.29 °C, 28.97 min, and 1.49 M for temperature, reaction time, and NaOH concentration, respectively. Enzymatic digestibility of pretreated Miscanthus was examined at various enzyme loadings (10 to 70 FPU/g cellulose of cellulase and 30 CbU/g of β-glucosidase. Regarding enzymatic digestibility, 50 FPU/g cellulose of cellulase and 30 CbU/g of β-glucosidase were selected as the test concentrations, resulting in a total glucose conversion rate of 83.92%. Fermentation of hydrolyzed Miscanthus using Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in an ethanol concentration of 59.20 g/L at 20% pretreated biomass loading. The results presented here constitute a significant contribution to the production of bioethanol from Miscanthus.

  13. Efficient breakdown of lignocellulose using mixed-microbe populations for bioethanol production.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murton, Jaclyn K.; Ricken, James Bryce; Powell, Amy Jo

    2009-11-01

    This report documents progress in discovering new catalytic technologies that will support the development of advanced biofuels. The global shift from petroleum-based fuels to advanced biofuels will require transformational breakthroughs in biomass deconstruction technologies, because current methods are neither cost effective nor sufficiently efficient or robust for scaleable production. Discovery and characterization of lignocellulolytic enzyme systems adapted to extreme environments will accelerate progress. Obvious extreme environments to mine for novel lignocellulolytic deconstruction technologies include aridland ecosystems (ALEs), such as those of the Sevilleta Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) site in central New Mexico (NM). ALEs represent at least 40% of the terrestrial biosphere and are classic extreme environments, with low nutrient availability, high ultraviolet radiation flux, limited and erratic precipitation, and extreme variation in temperatures. ALEs are functionally distinct from temperate environments in many respects; one salient distinction is that ALEs do not accumulate soil organic carbon (SOC), in marked contrast to temperate settings, which typically have large pools of SOC. Low productivity ALEs do not accumulate carbon (C) primarily because of extraordinarily efficient extracellular enzyme activities (EEAs) that are derived from underlying communities of diverse, largely uncharacterized microbes. Such efficient enzyme activities presumably reflect adaptation to this low productivity ecosystem, with the result that all available organic nutrients are assimilated rapidly. These communities are dominated by ascomycetous fungi, both in terms of abundance and contribution to ecosystem-scale metabolic processes, such as nitrogen and C cycling. To deliver novel, robust, efficient lignocellulolytic enzyme systems that will drive transformational advances in biomass deconstruction, we have: (1) secured an award through the Department of Energy

  14. Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation of Sugar Beet Pulp for Efficient Bioethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berłowska, Joanna; Balcerek, Maria; Dziekońska-Kubczak, Urszula; Patelski, Piotr; Dziugan, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Sugar beet pulp, a byproduct of sugar beet processing, can be used as a feedstock in second-generation ethanol production. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of pretreatment, of the dosage of cellulase and hemicellulase enzyme preparations used, and of aeration on the release of fermentable sugars and ethanol yield during simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of sugar beet pulp-based worts. Pressure-thermal pretreatment was applied to sugar beet pulp suspended in 2% w/w sulphuric acid solution at a ratio providing 12% dry matter. Enzymatic hydrolysis was conducted using Viscozyme and Ultraflo Max (Novozymes) enzyme preparations (0.015–0.02 mL/g dry matter). Two yeast strains were used for fermentation: Ethanol Red (S. cerevisiae) (1 g/L) and Pichia stipitis (0.5 g/L), applied sequentially. The results show that efficient simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of sugar beet pulp was achieved. A 6 h interval for enzymatic activation between the application of enzyme preparations and inoculation with Ethanol Red further improved the fermentation performance, with the highest ethanol concentration reaching 26.9 ± 1.2 g/L and 86.5 ± 2.1% fermentation efficiency relative to the theoretical yield. PMID:27722169

  15. Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation of Sugar Beet Pulp for Efficient Bioethanol Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berłowska, Joanna; Pielech-Przybylska, Katarzyna; Balcerek, Maria; Dziekońska-Kubczak, Urszula; Patelski, Piotr; Dziugan, Piotr; Kręgiel, Dorota

    2016-01-01

    Sugar beet pulp, a byproduct of sugar beet processing, can be used as a feedstock in second-generation ethanol production. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of pretreatment, of the dosage of cellulase and hemicellulase enzyme preparations used, and of aeration on the release of fermentable sugars and ethanol yield during simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of sugar beet pulp-based worts. Pressure-thermal pretreatment was applied to sugar beet pulp suspended in 2% w/w sulphuric acid solution at a ratio providing 12% dry matter. Enzymatic hydrolysis was conducted using Viscozyme and Ultraflo Max (Novozymes) enzyme preparations (0.015-0.02 mL/g dry matter). Two yeast strains were used for fermentation: Ethanol Red ( S. cerevisiae ) (1 g/L) and Pichia stipitis (0.5 g/L), applied sequentially. The results show that efficient simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of sugar beet pulp was achieved. A 6 h interval for enzymatic activation between the application of enzyme preparations and inoculation with Ethanol Red further improved the fermentation performance, with the highest ethanol concentration reaching 26.9 ± 1.2 g/L and 86.5 ± 2.1% fermentation efficiency relative to the theoretical yield.

  16. Bioethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Charles; Larsen, Jan; Morgan, K. [DONG Energy, Fredericia (Denmark)

    2007-05-15

    Security of supply, sustainability and the market are controlling parameters for developing the energy system. Bioethanol is part of the solution to the question about security of supply and the demand for a sustainable development, and all over Europe 1st generation bioethanol plants are being established. Market demands on existing power plants and the simultaneous wish for establishing a capacity for the production of bioethanol with at first 1st generation technology and starchy biomass and then with 2nd generation technology and lignocellulose is the reason for DONG Energy's development of the concept IBUS (Integrated Biomass Utilisation System). In the IBUS concept the production of bioethanol with 1st and 2nd generation technology has been joined and integrated with the power and heat production of the central power plant. Until the summer of 2006 the IBUS straw plant at Skaerbaekvaerket was established by means of a EURO 15 mill. EU project. In addition to being a demonstration facility the plant is being upscaled to a 4 tonne straw per hour plant in preparation for demonstrating the process at a size which forms the basis of upscaling to fullscale 20 tonne per hour in 2008. The process includes continued hydrothermal pre-treatment, enzymatic hydrolysis at high dry matter concentrations, fermentation and distillation. The raw materials are wheat and maize straw. The perspective for DONG Energy is that the IBUS concept, in which bioethanol and CHP production are to be joined, is a step towards materialising the vision that a central power plant can be developed into an energy refinery. The presented development work within 2nd generation bioethanol technology will be carried out in cooperation with leading international players and Danish universities and knowledge centres Risoe National Laboratory, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Technical University of Denmark (DTU) and Novozymes. (au)

  17. Environmental sustainability assessment of bio-ethanol production in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silalertruksa, Thapat; Gheewala, Shabbir H.

    2009-01-01

    Bio-ethanol is playing an important role in renewable energy for transport according to Thai government policy. This study aims to evaluate the energy efficiency and renewability of bio-ethanol system and identify the current significant environmental risks and availability of feedstocks in Thailand. Four of the seven existing ethanol plants contributing 53% of the total ethanol fuel production in Thailand have been assessed by the net energy balance method and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). A renewability and net energy ratio portfolio has been used to indicate whether existing bio-ethanol production systems have net energy gain and could help reduce dependency on fossil energy. In addition, LCA has been conducted to identify and evaluate the environmental hotspots of 'cradle to gate' bio-ethanol production. The results show that there are significant differences of energy and environmental performance among the four existing production systems even for the same feedstock. The differences are dependent on many factors such as farming practices, feedstock transportion, fuel used in ethanol plants, operation practices and technology of ethanol conversion and waste management practices. Recommendations for improving the overall energy and environmental performance of the bio-ethanol system are suggested in order to direct the bio-ethanol industry in Thailand towards environmental sustainability.

  18. phytochemical analysis and assessment of bioethanol production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    Bioethanol was produced using enzymatic hydrolysis ... tolerance, less cost and biofuel potential same ..... industries for the production of biofuel would play a greater role in boosting the nation's economy, reduce over reliance on fossil fuel,.

  19. Optimization of bioethanol production from simultaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    fermentation of pineapple peels using Saccharomyces cerevisiae ... ABSTRACT: In this study, bioethanol production from the simultaneous ... in turn has resulted in the need to find a source of ... fruit in the world after Banana and Citrus and.

  20. Pinch analysis for bioethanol production process from lignocellulosic biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, S.; Yanagida, T.; Nakaiwa, M.; Tatsumi, H.; Minowa, T.

    2011-01-01

    Bioethanol produced from carbon neutral and renewable biomass resources is an attractive process for the mitigation of greenhouse gases from vehicle exhaust. This study investigated energy utilization during bioethanol production from lignocellulose while avoiding competition with food production from corn and considering the potential mitigation of greenhouse gases. Process design and simulations were performed for bioethanol production using concentrated sulfuric acid. Mass and heat balances were obtained by process simulations, and the heat recovery ratio was determined by pinch analysis. An energy saving of 38% was achieved. However, energy supply and demand were not effectively utilized in the temperature range from 95 to 100 o C. Therefore, a heat pump was used to improve the temperature range of efficient energy supply and demand. Results showed that the energy required for the process could be supplied by heat released during the process. Additionally, the power required was supplied by surplus power generated during the process. Thus, pinch analysis was used to improve the energy efficiency of the process. - Highlights: → Effective energy utilization of bioethanol production was studied by using pinch analysis. → It was found that energy was not effectively utilized in the temperature range from 95 to 100 o C. → Use of a heat pump was considered to improve the ineffective utilization. → Then, remarkable energy savings could be achieved by it. → Pinch analysis effectively improved the energy efficiency of the bioethanol production.

  1. Recent trends in bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semenčenko Valentina V.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid depletion of the world petroleum supply and the increasing problem of greenhouse gas effects have strenghtened the worldwide interest in alternative, nonpetroleum sources of energy. Bioethanol accounts for the majority of biofuel use worldwide, either as a fuel or a gasoline enhancer. Utilization of bioethanol can significantly reduce petroleum use and exhaust greenhouse gas emission. The production of this fuel is increasing over the years, and has reached the level of 73.9 billion liters during the year 2009. Even though ethanol production for decades mainly depended on energy crops containing starch and sugar (corn, sugar cane etc., new technologies for converting lignocellulosic biomass into ethanol are under development today. The use of lignocellulosic biomass, such as agricultural residues, forest and municipial waste, for the production of biofuels will be unavoidable if liquid fossil fuels are to be replaced by renewable and sustainable alternatives. For biological conversion of lignocellulosic biomass, pretreatment plays a central role affecting all unit operations in the process and is also an important cost deterrent to the comercial viability of the process. The key obstacles are: pretreatment selection and optimization; decreasing the cost of the enzymatic hydrolysis; maximizing the conversion of sugars (including pentoses to ethanol; process scale-up and integration to minimize energy and water demand; characterization and evaluation of the lignin co-product; and lastly, the use of the representative and reliable data for cost estimation, and the determination of environmental and socio-economic impacts. Currently, not all pretreatments are capable of producing biomass that can be converted to sugars in high enough yield and concentration, while being economically viable. For the three main types of feedstocks, the developement of effective continuous fermentation technologies with near to 100% yields and elevated

  2. Bioethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenestijn, J.W. van; Abubackar, H.N.; Veiga, M.C.; Kennes, C.

    2013-01-01

    Production of bioethanol from cellulosic biomass plays an important role to support energy policies. To produce cellulosic ethanol via fermentation it is required to first break the lignocellulosic complex. Numerous technologies for such pretreatment are under development or in a pilot plant stage.

  3. Optimization of Bioethanol Production from Coffee Mucilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio De León-Rodríguez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A response surface methodology with 2k full factorial design was applied to obtain optimum conditions for bioethanol production using coffee mucilage (CM as the substrate and Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL Y-2034 as the inoculum. CM is an agro-industrial residue mainly composed of simple sugars; the product yield and productivity process were analyzed with respect to the fermentation, pH, temperature, and the initial sugar concentration. Employing the following predicted optimum operational conditions attained the highest bioethanol production: pH 5.1, temperature 32 °C, and initial sugar concentration 61.8 g/L. The estimated bioethanol production was 15.02 g/L, and the experimental production was 16.29 g/L ± 0.39 g/L, with a bioethanol yield of 0.27 g/L and a productivity process of 0.34 g/Lh. Glycerol was the predominant byproduct of the fermentative metabolism of S. cerevisiae. The response surface methodology was successfully employed to optimize CM fermentation. In the fermentative processes with yeast, optimizing the conditions of the culture medium is needed to fully exploit the potential of the strains and maximize the production of bioethanol.

  4. Bioethanol production from cassava peels using different microbial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioethanol production from cassava peels using different microbial inoculants. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Abstract. The potential of bioethanol production using different microbial inoculants for the simultaneous ...

  5. Bioethanol production from crops - recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, Colin

    1992-01-01

    The author notes much higher rates of ethanol production in Brazil and the United States of America than in the European Economic Community. While bioethanol from arable crops makes environmental sense there is, at present, a sizeable difference between the value of fuel ethanol (Pound 100-130/t) and the cost of producing it (Pound 236-Pound 450/t). This gap could be remedied using excise duty. Farmers would like to change crop production but await a political initiative. The technology for bioethanol production still needs some fine tuning, with ETBE (an ether produced from reacting isobutylene with ethanol) being preferred to other methods. (UK)

  6. Bioethanol production from coconut husk fiber

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    Mirelle Márcio Santos Cabral

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Population growth and the increasing search for healthy foods have led to a major consumption of coconut water and, hence, to an environmental impact caused by the inappropriate disposal of green coconut husks. This lignocellulosic biomass has deserved attention of researchers concerning the seeking of new usages, as, for example, in renewable fuels production technologies. This study examines the potential of green coconut husk fibers as a feedstock for the production of bioethanol. The coconut fibers were pretreated through an alkaline method, hydrolyzed enzymatically and submitted to ethanol fermentation with commercial yeasts of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Despite the significant loss of cellulose (4.42% in relation to the fiber and 17.9% concerning the original cellulose content, the alkaline pretreatment promoted an efficient solubilization of lignin (80%, turning the coconut fibers into a feasible raw material for 2G ethanol production studies. Enzymatic hydrolysis converted 87% of the sugars and the ethanolic fermentation consumed 81% of the substrate in the hydrolyzate, leading to a sugar to ethanol convertion efficiency of 59.6%. These results points out that green coconut husks are a promising alternative to the production of renewable energy.

  7. Evaluation and Modification of Processes for Bioethanol Separation and Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnner P Sitompul

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns on process evaluation and modification for bioethanol separation and production by applying pinch technology. Further, the paper is also focused on obtaining a most energy-efficient process among several processes. Three basic process configurations of bioethanol separation and production were selected for this study. The three separations and production systems are Othmer process, Barbet process and a separation process that operates under vacuum condition. Basically, each process is combination of Danish Distilleries process with a separation system yielding 95% (v/v bioethanol. The production capacity of the plant is estimated about 4 x 107 litre of bioethanol 95% (v/v per year. The result of the studies shows that the most energy efficient process among the three processes evaluated is the Othmer process, followed by the Barbet process and the process involving vacuum operation. The evaluation also shows that further energy saving can be carried for Barbet and Othmer process configuration when Tmin = 10oC for heat exchange possible.

  8. Microalgal biomass pretreatment for bioethanol production: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Velazquez-Lucio

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels derived from microalgae biomass have received a great deal of attention owing to their high potentials as sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels. Microalgae have a high capacity of CO2 fixation and depending on their growth conditions, they can accumulate different quantities of lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates. Microalgal biomass can, therefore, represent a rich source of fermentable sugars for third generation bioethanol production. The utilization of microalgal carbohydrates for bioethanol production follows three main stages: i pretreatment, ii saccharification, and iii fermentation. One of the most important stages is the pretreatment, which is carried out to increase the accessibility to intracellular sugars, and thus plays an important role in improving the overall efficiency of the bioethanol production process. Diverse types of pretreatments are currently used including chemical, thermal, mechanical, biological, and their combinations, which can promote cell disruption, facilitate extraction, and result in the modification the structure of carbohydrates as well as the production of fermentable sugars. In this review, the different pretreatments used on microalgae biomass for bioethanol production are presented and discussed. Moreover, the methods used for starch and total carbohydrates quantification in microalgae biomass are also briefly presented and compared.

  9. Assessing the sustainability of bioethanol production in Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khatiwada, Dilip

    2010-10-15

    Access to modern energy services derived from renewable sources is a prerequisite, not only for economic growth, rural development and sustainable development, but also for energy security and climate change mitigation. The least developed countries (LDCs) primarily use traditional biomass and have little access to commercial energy sources. They are more vulnerable to problems relating to energy security, air pollution, and the need for hard-cash currency to import fossil fuels. This thesis evaluates sugarcane-molasses bioethanol, a renewable energy source with the potential to be used as a transport fuel in Nepal. Sustainability aspects of molasses-based ethanol have been analyzed. Two important indicators for sustainability, viz. net energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) balances have been used to assess the appropriateness of bioethanol in the life cycle assessment (LCA) framework. This thesis has found that the production of bioethanol is energy-efficient in terms of the fossil fuel inputs required to produce it. Life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from production and combustion are also lower than those of gasoline. The impacts of important physical and market parameters, such as sugar cane productivity, the use of fertilizers, energy consumption in different processes, and price have been observed in evaluating the sustainability aspects of bioethanol production. The production potential of bioethanol has been assessed. Concerns relating to the fuel vs. food debate, energy security, and air pollution have also been discussed. The thesis concludes that the major sustainability indicators for molasses ethanol in Nepal are in line with the goals of sustainable development. Thus, Nepal could be a good example for other LDCs when favorable governmental policy, institutional set-ups, and developmental cooperation from donor partners are in place to strengthen the development of renewable energy technologies

  10. Bioethanol Fuel Production Concept Study: Topline Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marketing Horizons, Inc.

    2001-11-19

    The DOE is in the process of developing technologies for converting plant matter other than feed stock, e.g., corn stover, into biofuels. The goal of this research project was to determine what the farming community thinks of ethanol as a fuel source, and specifically what they think of bioethanol produced from corn stover. This project also assessed the image of the DOE and the biofuels program and determined the perceived barriers to ethanol-from-stover production.

  11. Production of olefins from bioethanol. Catalysts, mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusman Dossumov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This review describes methods of catalytic obtaining from bioethanol of valuable industrial products – olefins, particularly ethylene. Аmong olefins, ethylene is the most popular key raw material of petrochemical synthesis. The scope of appllication of ethylene is almost unlimited in petrochemical products: polyethylene, ethylbenzene, styrene, ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride etc. It also examines catalysts for the production of olefins and their properties. The most promising and commercially advantageous process of ethylene production by catalytic dehydration of ethanol on catalysts based on modified alumina. And this review discusses the mechanisms of catalytic conversion of ethanol to ethylene.

  12. Towards efficient bioethanol production from agricultural and forestry residues: Exploration of unique natural microorganisms in combination with advanced strain engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xinqing; Xiong, Liang; Zhang, Mingming; Bai, Fengwu

    2016-09-01

    Production of fuel ethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks such as agricultural and forestry residues is receiving increasing attention due to the unsustainable supply of fossil fuels. Three key challenges include high cellulase production cost, toxicity of the cellulosic hydrolysate to microbial strains, and poor ability of fermenting microorganisms to utilize certain fermentable sugars in the hydrolysate. In this article, studies on searching of natural microbial strains for production of unique cellulase for biorefinery of agricultural and forestry wastes, as well as development of strains for improved cellulase production were reviewed. In addition, progress in the construction of yeast strains with improved stress tolerance and the capability to fully utilize xylose and glucose in the cellulosic hydrolysate was also summarized. With the superior microbial strains for high titer cellulase production and efficient utilization of all fermentable sugars in the hydrolysate, economic biofuels production from agricultural residues and forestry wastes can be realized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Energy and environmental assessments of bioethanol production from Sri Kanji 1 cassava in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    M. Hanif; T.M.I. Mahlia; H.B. Aditiya; M.S. Abu Bakar

    2017-01-01

    According to the Malaysia’s biofuel policy, renewable fuels are crucial for energy sustainability in the transportation sector in the future. This study was aimed to evaluate the potential of bioethanol production from Sri Kanji 1 cassava in Malaysia in terms of energy efficiency and renewability, as well to estimate the potential greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction in CO2 equivalent. Bioethanol production process from cassava includes cassava farming, ethanol production, and transportat...

  14. Bio-Ethanol Production from Poultry Manure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    john

    ethanol. Fuel ethanol is known as bio-ethanol, since it is produced from plant materials by biological processes. Bioethanol is mainly produced by fermentation of sugar containing crops like corn, maize, wheat, sugar cane, sugar beet, potatoes, ...

  15. Potential development of bioethanol production in Vojvodina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodic, Sinisa N.; Popov, Stevan D.; Dodic, Jelena M.; Rankovic, Jovana A.; Zavargo, Zoltan Z. [Department of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Faculty of Technology, University of Novi Sad, Bul. cara Lazara 1, Novi Sad 21000, Vojvodina (RS)

    2009-12-15

    The Autonomous Province of Vojvodina is an Autonomous Province in Serbia, containing about 27% of its total population according to the 2002 Census. Contribution of renewable energy sources in total energy consumption of Vojvodina contemporary amounts to less than 1%, apropos 280 GWh/year. By combining of methods of introduction of new and renewable sources, systematic application of methods for increasing of energetic efficacy, as well as of introduction of the new technologies, percentage of contribution of the non-conventional energy sources in Vojvodina could be increased to as much as 20%. This paper presents the potential of development of bioethanol production in Vojvodina. Production of bioethanol on small farms can be successfully applied for processing of only 30 kg of corn per day, with obtaining of crude ethanol in the so-called 'brandy ladle' and use of lygnocellulosic agricultural wastes as an energy source. In a case of construction of a larger number of such plants, the only possible solution is seen in the principle of construction of the so-called 'satellite plants', which will on small farm produce crude ethanol, with obtaining and consumption of stillage for animal feeding, and consumption of agricultural wastes as energetic fuels. If stillage is to be used as feed in wet feeding, it is estimated that, because of restrictions established by the magnitude of animal farm, the upper limit of capacity of such enterprises that process is at some 10-15 tons of corn per day, and production of 3000-3500 hL of absolute ethanol per day. In such a case, for animal feeding necessary is to have herd with 1300-1700 of milking cows or 5000-25,000 heads of sheep and/or pigs. Technological model of separate grain processing ad bioethanol production from dextrose hydrolysates of starch is interesting for countries possessing plants for bioethanol production from molasses and plants for cereals processing into starch and dextrose hydrolysates

  16. Yeast Isolation for Bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EKA RURIANI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We have isolated 12 yeast isolates from five different rotten fruits by using a yeast glucose chloramphenicol agar (YGCA medium supplemented with tetracycline. From pre-screening assay, four isolates exhibited higher substrate (glucose-xylose consumption efficiency in the reaction tube fermentation compared to Saccharomyces cerevisiae dan Saccharomyces ellipsoids as the reference strains. Based on the fermentation process in gooseneck flasks, we observed that two isolates (K and SB showed high fermentation efficiency both in sole glucose and mixed glucose-xylose substrate. Moreover, isolates K and SB produced relatively identical level of ethanol concentration compared to the reference strains. Isolates H and MP could only produce high levels of ethanol in glucose fermentation, while only half of that amount of ethanol was detected in glucose-xylose fermentation. Isolate K and SB were identified as Pichia kudriavzeevii (100% based on large sub unit (LSU ribosomal DNA D1/D2 region.

  17. Pretreatment Technologies of Lignocellulosic Materials in Bioethanol Production Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Rusdi Hidayat

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol is one type of biofuel that developed significantly. The utilization of bioethanol is not only limited for fuel, but also could be used as material for various industries such as pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and food. With wide utilization and relatively simple production technology has made bioethanol as the most favored biofuel currently. The use of lignocellulosic biomass, microalgae, seaweeds, even GMO (Genetically modified organisms as substrates for bioethanol production has been widely tested. Differences in the materials eventually led to change in the production technology used. Pretreatment technology in the bioethanol production using lignocellulosic currently experiencing rapid development. It is a key process and crucial for the whole next steps. Based on the advantages and disadvantages from all methods, steam explotion and liquid hot water methods are the most promising  pretreatment technology available.

  18. DSMZ 24726 for second generation bioethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel anaerobic, extreme thermophilic, ethanol high- yielding bacterium. The invention is based on the isolation of the bacterial strain referred to herein as "DTU01", which produces ethanol as the main fermentation product, followed by acetate and lactate. The ....... The isolated organism is an extremely interesting and very promising organism for the establishment of a sustainable bioethanol production process. The invention further relates to a method for producing a fermentation product such as ethanol.......The present invention relates to a novel anaerobic, extreme thermophilic, ethanol high- yielding bacterium. The invention is based on the isolation of the bacterial strain referred to herein as "DTU01", which produces ethanol as the main fermentation product, followed by acetate and lactate...

  19. Techno-economic and environmental assessment of bioethanol production from high starch and root yield Sri Kanji 1 cassava in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hanif

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Transportation played a significant role in energy consumption and pollution subsequently. Caused by the intense growth of greenhouse gas emission, efficient and sustainable improvement of the transportation sector has elevated the concern in many nations including Malaysia. Bioethanol is an alternative and renewable energy that has a great potential to substitute for fossil gasoline in internal combustion engine (ICE. Although bioethanol has been widely utilized in road transport worldwide, the production and application of bioethanol in Malaysia is yet to be considered. Presently there is comprehensive diversity of bioethanol research on distillation, performance and emission analysis available worldwide. Yet, the study on techno-economic and feasibility of bioethanol fuel in Malaysia condition is unavailable. Thus, this study is concentrated on bioethanol production and techno-economic analysis of cassava bioethanol as an alternative fuel in Malaysia. Furthermore, the current study attempts to determine the effect of bioethanol employment towards the energy scenario, environmental and economy. From the economic analysis, determined that the life cycle cost for 54 ktons cassava bioethanol production plant with a project life time of 20 years is $132 million USD, which is equivalent to $0.11 USD per litre of bioethanol. Furthermore, substituting 5 % of gasoline fuel with bioethanol fuel in road transport can reduce the CO2 emissions up to 2,038 ktons in year 2036. In case to repay the carbon debt from converting natural forest to cassava cropland, cassava bioethanol required about 5.4 years. The cassava bioethanol is much cheaper than gasoline fuel even when 20 % taxation is subjected to bioethanol at current production cost. Thus, this study serves as a guideline for further investigation and research on bioethanol production, subsidy cost and other limitation factors before the extensive application of bioethanol can be implemented in

  20. Bioethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poitrat, Etienne

    1994-01-01

    Bioethanol or its deriviatives (ethers), are mixed with petrol for use in combustion engines. Suitably adapted diesel or spark ignition engines can be used with pure ethanol. Several years of experience, in the USA (since 1978) and in France, have proved that bioethanol can be added to gasoline up to 5-10% without modification of engines or of their performances. In France, ethyl alcohol or ethanol is obtained mainly by fermentation of farm crops which have a high sugar content (beet) or starch content (cereals, potatoes). In future, it will be possible to obtain ethanol by using the whole plant (wood and straw) and transforming the cellulose and hemicellulose into elementary sugars (C5,C6) by enzymatic hydrolysis. Research work is underway in this field. The ether considered here is ETBE (ethyl-tertio-butyl-ether), obtained from the reaction between isobutylene and ethanol. (author)

  1. Utilizing thermophilic microbe in lignocelluloses based bioethanol production: Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriharti, Agustina, Wawan; Ratnawati, Lia; Rahman, Taufik; Salim, Takiyah

    2017-01-01

    The utilization of thermophilic microbe has attracted many parties, particularly in producing an alternative fuel like ethanol. Bioethanol is one of the alternative energy sources substituting for earth oil in the future. The advantage of using bioethanol is that it can reduce pollution levels and global warming because the result of bioethanol burning doesn't bring in a net addition of CO2 into environment. Moreover, decrease in the reserves of earth oil globally has also contributed to the notion on searching renewable energy resources such as bioethanol. Indonesia has a high biomass potential and can be used as raw material for bioethanol. The utilization of these raw materials will reduce fears of competition foodstuffs for energy production. The enzymes that play a role in degrading lignocelluloses are cellulolytic, hemicellulolytic, and lignolytic in nature. The main enzyme with an important role in bioethanol production is a complex enzyme capable of degrading lignocelluloses. The enzyme can be produced by the thermophilik microbes of the groups of bacteria and fungi such as Trichoderma viride, Clostridium thermocellum, Bacillus sp. Bioethanol production is heavily affected by raw material composition, microorganism type, and the condition of fermentation used.

  2. Yeast strains designed for 2. generation bioethanol production. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roennow, B.

    2013-04-15

    The aim of the project was to develop a suitable fermentation organism for 2G bioethanol production that would efficiently ferment all of the sugars in lignocellulosic biomass into ethanol at a commercially viable rate (comparable to yeast based 1G ethanol production). More specifically, a yeast strain would be developed with the ability to ferment also the pentoses in lignocellulosic biomass and thereby increase the ethanol yield of the process by 30-45% with a profound positive effect on the total process economy. The project has succeeded in developing a new industrial yeast strain V1. The yeast strain can transform the difficult C5 sugars to ethanol from waste products such as straw and the like from the agricultural sector. The classic issues relating to industrial uses such as inhibitor and ethanol tolerance and high ethanol production is resolved satisfactorily. The potential of the use of the new strain for 2nd generation bioethanol production is that the ethanol yields increase by 30-45%. With the increased ethanol yield follows a marked improvement in the overall process economics. (LN)

  3. Bioethanol fuel production from rambutan fruit biomass as reducing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-05

    Sep 5, 2011 ... bioethanol from rotten rambutan was to manage rambutan wastes, cleaning the ... regarding rambutan, mango, banana and pineapple for the ethanol production ... small pieces together with their skin and blended in a Philips.

  4. The bio-ethanol production with the thin stillage recirculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rakin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the bioethanol production with the thin stillage recirculation in mashing was investigated. The mashing was performed with recirculation of: 0, 10, 20 and 30 % of the thin stillage. The thin stillage recirculation was repeated six times. In the experiment without the thin stillage, the recirculation bioethanol yield (compared to the theoretical yield was 97.96 %, which implicates that the experiment conditions were chosen and performed well. With the addition of the thin stillage, the bioethanol yield increased and was above 100 %. Higher bioethanol yield than 100 % can be explained by the fact that the thin stillage contains carbohydrates, amino acids and yeast cells degradation products. The bioethanol yield increased with the increased number of thin stillage recirculation cycles. Dry matter content in fermenting slurry increased with the increased thin stillage quantity and the number of the thin stillage recirculation cycles (8.04 % for the first and 9.40 % for the sixth cycle. Dry matter content in thin stillage increased with the increased thin stillage quantity and the number of thin stillage recirculation cycles. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that thin stillage recirculation increased the bioethanol yield. The highest bioethanol yields were obtained with recirculation of 10% thin stillage.

  5. Multistage process for the production of bioethanol from almond shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacem, Imen; Koubaa, Mohamed; Maktouf, Sameh; Chaari, Fatma; Najar, Taha; Chaabouni, Moncef; Ettis, Nadia; Ellouz Chaabouni, Semia

    2016-07-01

    This work describes the feasibility of using almond shell as feedstock for bioethanol production. A pre-treatment step was carried out using 4% NaOH for 60min at 121°C followed by 1% sulfuric acid for 60min at 121°C. Enzymatic saccharification of the pre-treated almond shell was performed using Penicillium occitanis enzymes. The process was optimized using a hybrid design with four parameters including the incubation time, temperature, enzyme loads, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) concentration. The optimum hydrolysis conditions led to a sugar yield of 13.5%. A detoxification step of the enzymatic hydrolysate was carried out at pH 5 using 1U/ml of laccase enzyme produced by Polyporus ciliatus. Fermenting efficiency of the hydrolysates was greatly improved by laccase treatment, increasing the ethanol yield from 30% to 84%. These results demonstrated the efficiency of using almond shell as a promising source for bioethanol production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sugar beet for bioethanol production: An approach based on environmental agricultural outputs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar-Ordóñez, Melania; Pérez-Hernández, Pedro P.; Martín-Lozano, José M.

    2013-01-01

    The EU imports both bioethanol and the raw material needed to produce it. Thirty percent of bioethanol is produced from sugar beets in the EU. However, sugar beet cultivated area and yields have fallen due to the 2006 sugar regime reform. Given the potential uncertainty about the future for sugar beet farmers, biofuels may represent an alternative market. This paper analyses potential contribution to the efficiency, in terms of environmental output, of the sugar beet crop both when production is oriented toward bioethanol and regarding the use of input. An empirical application is performed in Spain by Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The results show that 4% of farms have full technical efficiency, while the rest have an average efficiency of 55.9%. The figures show that inputs can be reduced over 40%, and also show the low average level of input-use efficiency. In addition, it cannot be said that there is a relationship between efficiency and farm scale. The consideration of aspects such as the environmental advantages of using sugar beet production for bioethanol can open new lines of action to support this crop in the EU. In addition, boosting sugar beet production may reduce potential dependency on importation. - Highlights: ► Analysing environmental outputs from agricultural input use and production orientation to bioethanol. ► DEA is applied to model farms’ efficiency in GHG emission and nitrous oxides emissions. ► A very low level of efficiency is found in sugar beet farms. ► Efficiency increase should be supported to reduce fertilizers and pesticides. ► Environmental advantages of addressing sugar beet to bioethanol open new lines to support crops

  7. Phytochemical analysis and assessment of bioethanol production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , all having fuel potential and are good source of gasoline. These are produced as a result of fermentation and enzymatic activities of the organic compound present in the biomass sample. Keywords: Bioethanol, Cymbopogon schoenanthus, ...

  8. The bio-ethanol production with the thin stillage recirculation

    OpenAIRE

    M. Rakin; J. Pejin; O. Grujić; Lj. Mojović; D. Pejin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the bioethanol production with the thin stillage recirculation in mashing was investigated. The mashing was performed with recirculation of: 0, 10, 20 and 30 % of the thin stillage. The thin stillage recirculation was repeated six times. In the experiment without the thin stillage, the recirculation bioethanol yield (compared to the theoretical yield) was 97.96 %, which implicates that the experiment conditions were chosen and performed well. With the addition of the thin still...

  9. Bioethanol, biohydrogen and biogas production from wheat straw in a biorefinery concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaparaju, Prasad Laxmi-Narasimha; Serrano, Maria; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2009-01-01

    fermentation of cellulose yielded 0.41 g-ethanol/g-glucose, while dark fermentation of hydrolysate produced 178.0 ml-H-2/g-sugars. The effluents from both bioethanol and biohydrogen processes were further used to produce methane with the yields of 0.324 and 0.381 m(3)/kg volatile solids (VS)added, respectively....... Additionally, evaluation of six different wheat straw-to-biofuel production scenaria showed that either use of wheat straw for biogas production or multi-fuel production were the energetically most efficient processes compared to production of mono-fuel such as bioethanol when fermenting C6 sugars alone. Thus...

  10. Techno-economic analysis of bioethanol production from rice straw by liquid-state fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayata, M. H. M.; Salleh, S. F.; Riayatsyahb, T. M. I.; Aditiyac, H. B.; Mahliaa, T. M. I.; Shamsuddina, A. H.

    2016-03-01

    Renewable energy is the latest approach of the Malaysian government in an effort to find sustainable alternative energy sources and to fulfill the ever increasing energy demand. Being a country that thrives in the service and agricultural sector, bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass presents itself as a promising option. However, the lack of technical practicality and complexity in the operation system hinder it from being economically viable. Hence, this research acquired multiple case studies in order to provide an insight on the process involved and its implication on production as well as to obtain a cost analysis of bioethanol production. The energy input and cost of three main components of the bioethanol production which are the collection, logistics, and pretreatment of rice straw were evaluated extensively. The theoretical bioethanol yield and conversion efficiency obtained were 250 L/t and 60% respectively. The findings concluded that bioethanol production from rice straw is currently not economically feasible in Malaysia’s market due to lack of efficiency in the pretreatment phase and overbearing logistics and pretreatment costs. This work could serve as a reference to future studies of biofuel commercialization in Malaysia.

  11. Bioethanol production from dried sweet sorghum stalk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almodares, A.; Etemadifar, Z.; Ghoreishi, F.; Yosefi, F. [Biology Dept. Univ. of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], e-mail: aalmodares@yahoo.com

    2012-11-01

    Bioethanol as a renewable transportation fuel has a great potential for energy and clean environment. Among crops sweet sorghum is one of the best feedstock for ethanol production under hot and dry climatic conditions. Because it has higher tolerance to salt and drought comparing to sugarcane and corn that are currently used for bio-fuel production in the world. Generally mills are used to extract the juice from sweet sorghum stalks. Three roller mills extract around nearly 50 percent of the juice and more mills is needed to extract higher percentage of the juice. More over under cold weather the stalks become dry and juice is not extracted from the stalk, therefore reduce harvesting period. In this study stalks were harvested, leaves were stripped from the stalks and the stalks were chopped to nearly 4 mm length and sun dried. The dry stalks were grounded to 60 mesh powder by a mill. Fermentation medium consists of 15-35% (w/w) sweet sorghum powder, micronutrients and active yeast inoculum from 0.5-1% (w/w) by submerge fermentation method. The fermentation time and temperature were 48-72 hours and 30 deg, respectively. The results showed the highest amount of ethanol (14.5 % w/w sorghum) was produced with 10% sweet sorghum powder and 1% of yeast inoculum, three day fermentation at 30 deg.

  12. A Model-Based Methodology for Simultaneous Design and Control of a Bioethanol Production Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Abd.Hamid, Mohd-Kamaruddin; Sin, Gürkan

    2010-01-01

    . The PGC methodology is used to generate more efficient separation designs in terms of energy consumption by targeting the separation task at the largest DF. Both methodologies are highlighted through the application of two case studies, a bioethanol production process and a succinic acid production...

  13. Bioethanol production from recovered napier grass with heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Chun-Han; Yu, Fan-Chun; Chang, Fang-Chih; Yang, Bing-Yuan; Chen, Wen-Hua; Hwang, Wen-Song; Tu, Ta-Chih

    2017-12-01

    Using plants to absorb and accumulate heavy metals from polluted soil, followed by the recycling of explants containing heavy metals, can help achieve the goal of reverting contaminated soil to low heavy-metal content soil. However, the re-use of recovered explants can also be problematic. Meanwhile, bioethanol has become a popular energy source. In this study, napier grass was used for the remediation of soil contaminated with heavy metals (artificially contaminated soil). The influence of bioethanol production from napier grass after phytoremediation was also investigated. The concentration of Zn, Cd, and Cr in the contaminated soil was 1000, 100, and 250 mg/kg, respectively. After napier grass phytoremediation, the concentration (dry biomass) of Zn, Cd, and Cr in the explants was 2701.97 ± 173.49, 6.1 ± 2.3, and 74.24 ± 1.42 mg/kg, respectively. Biomass production in the unpolluted soil was 861.13 ± 4.23 g. The biomass production ratio in high Zn-polluted soil was only 3.89%, while it was 4.68% for Cd and 21.4% for Cr. The biomass obtained after napier grass phytoremediation was pretreated using the steam explosion conditions of 180 °C, for 10 min, with 1.5% H 2 SO 2 , followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. The efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis for Zn-polluted biomass was 90% of the unpolluted biomass, while it was 77% for Cd, and approximately the same for Cr. The fermentation efficiency of the heavy-metal-containing biomass was higher than the control biomass. The fermentation ethanol concentration obtained was 8.69-12.68, 13.03-15.50, and 18.48-19.31 g/L in Zn, Cd, and Cr environments, respectively. Results show that the heavy metals had a positive effect on bacteria fermentation. However, the fermentation efficiency was lower for biomass with severe heavy metal pollution. Thus, the utilization of napier grass phytoremediation for bioethanol production has a positive effect on the sustainability of environmental resources. Copyright © 2017

  14. Sustainability of bioethanol production from wheat with recycled residues as evaluated by Emergy assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coppola, F.; Bastianoni, S.; Østergård, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    , were considered. Material and energy flows were assessed to evaluate the bioethanol yield, the production efficiency in terms of Emergy used compared to energy produced (transformity), and the environmental load (ELR) in terms of use of non-renewable resources. These three indicators varied among......An Emergy assessment study of 24 bioethanol production scenarios was carried out for the comparison of bioethanol production using winter wheat grains and/or straw as feedstock and conversion technologies based on starch (1st generation) and/or lignocellulose (2nd generation). An integrated biomass...... utilization system (IBUS) was used for combining the two kinds of feedstock. The crop was cultivated under four combinations of Danish soil conditions (sand or sandy loam) and crop managements (organic or conventional). For each of the production processes, two scenarios, with or without recycling of residues...

  15. Solid-state fermentation from dried sweet sorghum stalk for bioethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almodares, A.; Etemadifar, Z.; Omidi, A. [Univ. of Isfahan, Biology Dept., Univ. of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], e-mail: aalmodares@yahoo.com

    2012-11-01

    Due to depletion of global crude oil, countries are interested to alternate fuel energy resources. Presently bioethanol as a source of energy has been a subject of great interest for the industrialized countries. Therefore, there is need for efficient bioethanol production with low cost raw material and production process. Among energy crops, sweet sorghum is the best candidate for bioethanol production. It has been identified as having higher drought tolerance, lower input cost and higher biomass yield than other energy crops. In addition it has wide adoptability and tolerance to abiotic stresses. Moreover due to the shortage of water in dry and hot countries there is a need to reduce water requirement for bioethanol production and solid state fermentation could be the best process for making bioethanol in these countries. The purpose of this study is to achieve the highest ethanol production with lowest amount of water in solid state fermentation using sweet sorghum stalk. In this study the sweet sorghum particles were used for solid state fermentation. Fermentation medium were: sweet sorghum particles with nutrient media, active yeast powder and different moisture contents. The fermentation medium was incubated for 2-3 days at 30 deg C temperature. The results showed sweet sorghum particles (15% w/w) fermented in medium containing 0.5% yeast inoculums, 73.5% moisture content and 3 days incubation period produced the highest amount of ethanol (13% w/w sorghum)

  16. Microwave pretreatment of switchgrass for bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshwani, Deepak Radhakrishin

    Lignocellulosic materials are promising alternative feedstocks for bioethanol production. These materials include agricultural residues, cellulosic waste such as newsprint and office paper, logging residues, and herbaceous and woody crops. However, the recalcitrant nature of lignocellulosic biomass necessitates a pretreatment step to improve the yield of fermentable sugars. The overall goal of this dissertation is to expand the current state of knowledge on microwave-based pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. Existing research on bioenergy and value-added applications of switchgrass is reviewed in Chapter 2. Switchgrass is an herbaceous energy crop native to North America and has high biomass productivity, potentially low requirements for agricultural inputs and positive environmental impacts. Based on results from test plots, yields in excess of 20 Mg/ha have been reported. Environmental benefits associated with switchgrass include the potential for carbon sequestration, nutrient recovery from run-off, soil remediation and provision of habitats for grassland birds. Published research on pretreatment of switchgrass reported glucose yields ranging from 70-90% and xylose yields ranging from 70-100% after hydrolysis and ethanol yields ranging from 72-92% after fermentation. Other potential value-added uses of switchgrass include gasification, bio-oil production, newsprint production and fiber reinforcement in thermoplastic composites. Research on microwave-based pretreatment of switchgrass and coastal bermudagrass is presented in Chapter 3. Pretreatments were carried out by immersing the biomass in dilute chemical reagents and exposing the slurry to microwave radiation at 250 watts for residence times ranging from 5 to 20 minutes. Preliminary experiments identified alkalis as suitable chemical reagents for microwave-based pretreatment. An evaluation of different alkalis identified sodium hydroxide as the most effective alkali reagent. Under optimum pretreatment

  17. PRODUCTION OF BIOETHAN niger UCTION OF BIOETHANOL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    call by government and other organizations fo conversion of waste to wealth. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Collection of Samples. Rice husk (fito rice) was collected from rice processer at Dawanau, Dawakin tofa loc. , November, 2017 urnal of Pure and Applied Sciences: 10(1): 280 - 284. UCTION OF BIOETHANOL FROM ...

  18. The potential for second generation bio-ethanol production from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A review of possible bio-sources that can be used for bioethanol production with emphasis on those that have potential of replacing conventional fuels with little or minor modification of existing biomass production capacity and trend is presented. Data analysis indicates that the straw from maize, sorghum and wheat can ...

  19. Sugar beet genotype effect on potential of bioethanol production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation on ethanol production were intensively related to the chemical composition of root, especially sugar content, potassium impurity, syrup purity and some characteristics such as root dry matter and root length. Bioethanol production was enhanced by increasing the sugar content and root yield in sugar beet. Sugar ...

  20. Thermotolerant Yeasts for Bioethanol Production Using Lignocellulosic Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasha, Chand; Rao, L. Venkateswar

    glucose without a physical and chemical pre-treatment. The pre-treatment processes normally applied on the different substrates are acidic hydrolysis, steam explosion and wet oxidation. A problem for most pretreatment methods is the generation of compounds that are inhibitory towards the fermenting microorganisms, primarily phenols. Degradation products that could have inhibitory action in later fermentation steps are avoided during pre-treatment by wet oxidation. Followed by pre treatment, hydrolysed with enzymes known as cellulases and hemicellulases, which hydrolyse cellulose and hemicellulose respectively. The production of bioethanol requires two steps, fermentation and distillation. Practically all ethanol fermentation is still based on Saccharomyces cerevisiae . The fermentation using thermotolerant yeasts has more advantageous in that they have faster fermentation rates, avoid the cooling costs, and decrease the over all fermentation costs, so that ethanol can be made available at cheaper rates. In addition they can be used for efficient simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cellulose by cellulases because the temperature optimum of cellulase enzymes (about 40 ° C to 45 ° C) is close to the fermentation temperature of thermotolerant yeasts. Hence selection and improvement of thermotolerant yeasts for bioconversion of lignocellulosic substrates is very useful.

  1. Energy and environmental assessments of bioethanol production from Sri Kanji 1 cassava in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hanif

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the Malaysia’s biofuel policy, renewable fuels are crucial for energy sustainability in the transportation sector in the future. This study was aimed to evaluate the potential of bioethanol production from Sri Kanji 1 cassava in Malaysia in terms of energy efficiency and renewability, as well to estimate the potential greenhouse gas (GHG emissions reduction in CO2 equivalent. Bioethanol production process from cassava includes cassava farming, ethanol production, and transportation in which the primary energy consumption was considered. The Net Energy Balance (NEB and Net Energy Ratio (NER of 25.68 MJ/L and 3.98, respectively, indicated that bioethanol production from Sri Kanji 1 cassava in Malaysia was energy efficient. From the environmental perspective, the GHG balance results revealed that the production and distribution of 1 L of Cassava Fuel Ethanol (CFE could reduce GHG emissions by 73.2%. Although found promising in the present study, Sri Kanji 1 cassava as bioethanol feedstock should be further investigated by constructing an actual ethanol plant to obtain real life data.

  2. Bioethanol productions from rice polish by optimization of dilute acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lignocellulose materials are abundant renewable resource for the production of biofuel from fermentative organism (Sacchromyces cervesiae). Rice polish is cheapest and abundant lignocelluloses resource and has potential to produce bioethanol. The main steps for the conversion of biomass into glucose required dilute ...

  3. Study of Wastewaters Contaminated with Heavy Metals in Bioethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartošová, Alica; Blinová, Lenka

    2017-06-01

    Bioethanol as a substitute for traditional sources of energy, especially oil transport, is currently one of the most researched alternative motor fuels. Normally, bioethanol is produced from agricultural crops such as sugar cane or corn. However, this is counter-productive, because agriculture is primarily serving to ensure enough food for the people. It is therefore necessary to look for new production of appropriate non-food crops or find an added value to this process. Utilisation of contaminated water from metal industry could be one of them. Based on the hypothesis of reduction of some toxic metals with higher oxidation number is opening the possibility of using this wastewater in alcohol fermentation of any kind of biomass. In this study, hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) was used as a model contaminant in the process of aerobic fermentation of corn to bioethanol. To determine the reduction potential of glucose to Cr(VI), and to quantitatively determinate the glucose content after saccharification, UV/VIS spectrophotometry was used. As a method of qualitative determination of fermentation product, gas chromatography with mass detection was used. Infrared spectrometry was used for qualitative analyses of produced ethanol. Based on the established results shown in this paper, we can conclude that the presence of hexavalent chromium in the fermentation process does not have a significant negative impact, while offering the opportunity of using the industrial wastewaters for the production of bioethanol fuel.

  4. Thermodynamic evaluation of hydrogen production via bioethanol steam reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zsolt; Cormos, Ana-Maria; Imre-Lucaci, Árpád; Cormos, Călin C. [Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Arany Janos 11, RO-400028, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2013-11-13

    In this article, a thermodynamic analysis for bioethanol steam reforming for hydrogen production is presented. Bioethanol is a newly proposed renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Reforming of bioethanol provides a promising method for hydrogen production from renewable resources. Steam reforming of ethanol (SRE) takes place under the action of a metal catalyst capable of breaking C-C bonds into smaller molecules. A large domain for the water/bioethanol molar ratio as well as the temperature and average pressure has been used in the present work. The interval of investigated temperature was 100-800°C, the pressure was in the range of 1-10 bar and the molar ratio was between 3-25. The variations of gaseous species concentration e.g. H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} were analyzed. The concentrations of the main products (H{sub 2} and CO) at lower temperature are smaller than the ones at higher temperature due to by-products formation (methane, carbon dioxide, acetylene etc.). The concentration of H2 obtained in the process using high molar ratio (>20) is higher than the one at small molar ratio (near stoichiometric). When the pressure is increased the hydrogen concentration decreases. The results were compared with literature data for validation purposes.

  5. Study of Wastewaters Contaminated with Heavy Metals in Bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartošová Alica

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol as a substitute for traditional sources of energy, especially oil transport, is currently one of the most researched alternative motor fuels. Normally, bioethanol is produced from agricultural crops such as sugar cane or corn. However, this is counter-productive, because agriculture is primarily serving to ensure enough food for the people. It is therefore necessary to look for new production of appropriate non-food crops or find an added value to this process. Utilisation of contaminated water from metal industry could be one of them. Based on the hypothesis of reduction of some toxic metals with higher oxidation number is opening the possibility of using this wastewater in alcohol fermentation of any kind of biomass. In this study, hexavalent chromium Cr(VI was used as a model contaminant in the process of aerobic fermentation of corn to bioethanol. To determine the reduction potential of glucose to Cr(VI, and to quantitatively determinate the glucose content after saccharification, UV/VIS spectrophotometry was used. As a method of qualitative determination of fermentation product, gas chromatography with mass detection was used. Infrared spectrometry was used for qualitative analyses of produced ethanol. Based on the established results shown in this paper, we can conclude that the presence of hexavalent chromium in the fermentation process does not have a significant negative impact, while offering the opportunity of using the industrial wastewaters for the production of bioethanol fuel.

  6. Bioethanol: industrial world perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassi, G.

    2000-01-01

    An overview of the production of bioethanol from biomass is presented, and the future for bioethanol in the transport, cogeneration, domestic appliances, and chemicals markets are examined. Bioethanol economics are considered, and yields and estimated prices for bioethanol produced from different crops are tabulated. Specific uses of bioethanol in the different markets are highlighted including the blending of ethanol with petrol in the transport market, the use of bioethanol for cooking in the domestic market, and the production of chemicals from bioethanol

  7. Analysis and decrease of the energy demand of bioethanol-production by process integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeffer, Martin; Wukovits, Walter; Beckmann, Georg; Friedl, Anton [Vienna University of Technology, Getreidemarkt 9, A-1060 Vienna (Austria)

    2007-11-15

    Process simulation was used to decrease the external heat demand during the production of bioethanol by integration in a network of facilities for heat and power generation. Models for bioethanol fermentation and purification process, the production of DDGS as well as production and utilization of biogas were developed to calculate the heat demand of bioethanol-production and the amount of heat and power generated from residues of the bioethanol process. Depending on the form of biogas utilization (CHP-plant, biogas fired boiler) and the capacity of the bioethanol plant, the conversion of stillage from the bioethanol process to biogas covers a considerable amount of the heat demand necessary for bioethanol-production and purification. (author)

  8. Autohydrolysis Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass for Bioethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qiang

    Autohydrolysis, a simple and environmental friendly process, has long been studied but often abandoned as a financially viable pretreatment for bioethanol production due to the low yields of fermentable sugars at economic enzyme dosages. The introduction of mechanical refining can generate substantial improvements for autohydrolysis process, making it an attractive pretreatment technology for bioethanol commercialization. In this study, several lignocellulosic biomass including wheat straw, switchgrass, corn stover, waste wheat straw have been subjected to autohydrolysis pretreatment followed by mechanical refining to evaluate the total sugar recovery at affordable enzyme dosages. Encouraging results have been found that using autohydrolysis plus refining strategy, the total sugar recovery of most feedstock can be as high as 76% at 4 FPU/g enzymes dosages. The mechanical refining contributed to the improvement of enzymatic sugar yield by as much as 30%. Three non-woody biomass (sugarcane bagasse, wheat straw, and switchgrass) and three woody biomass (maple, sweet gum, and nitens) have been subjected to autohydrolysis pretreatment to acquire a fundamental understanding of biomass characteristics that affect the autohydrolysis and the following enzymatic hydrolysis. It is of interest to note that the nonwoody biomass went through substantial delignification during autohydrolysis compared to woody biomass due to a significant amount of p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid. It has been found that hardwood which has a higher S/V ratio in the lignin structure tends to have a higher total sugar recovery from autohydrolysis pretreatment. The economics of bioethanol production from autohydrolysis of different feedstocks have been investigated. Regardless of different feedstocks, in the conventional design, producing bioethanol and co-producing steam and power, the minimum ethanol revenues (MER) required to generate a 12% internal rate of return (IRR) are high enough to

  9. Life cycle environmental impacts of bioethanol production from sugarcane molasses in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahani, Saeid Shahvarooghi; Asoodar, Mohammad Amin

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, bioethanol from sugarcane molasses has been produced on an industrial scale in Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate molasses-based bioethanol production from an environmental point of view. Data were collected from Debel Khazai agro-industry situated in southern region of Iran by using face-to-face interviews and annual statistics of 2010 to 2016 (6-year life cycle of sugarcane cultivation). Ten impact categories including abiotic depletion (AD), acidification (AC), eutrophication (EP), global warming potential (GWP), ozone layer depletion (OLD), human toxicity (HT), freshwater aquatic ecotoxicity (FE), marine aquatic ecotoxicity (ME), terrestrial ecotoxicity (TE), and photochemical oxidation (PO) were selected based on CML methodology. Inventory data for production of the inputs were taken from Ecoinvent, BUWAL 250, and IDMAT 2001 databases. The results revealed that in sugarcane cultivation process, electricity and trash burning were the most important contributors to all impact categories except OLD and TE. In industrial phase, natural gas had the highest contribution to the most impact categories. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission for production of 1000 L molasses-based bioethanol was 1322.78 kg CO 2  eq. By comparing total GHG emissions from 1000 L bioethanol to gasoline, the net avoided GHG emissions came out at 503.17 kg CO 2  eq. According to results, it is clear that with increasing irrigation efficiency and improving performance of heating systems in industrial phase, environmental burdens would be significantly reduced.

  10. Production of Bioethanol from Waste Potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merve Duruyurek

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Using primary energy sources in World as fossil fuels, causes air pollution and climate change. Because of these reasons, people looking for renewable energy suppliers which has less carbondioxide and less pollution. Carbon in biofuels is producing from photosynthesis. For this, burning biofuels don’t increase carbondioxide in atmosphere. Scientists predict that plants with high carbonhydrate and protein contents are 21. centuries biofuels. Potatoes are producing over 280 million in whole world and Turkey is 6th potato producer. Turkey produces 5250000 tonne of potatoes. Approximately 20% of potatoes are waste in Niğde. Our study aimed to produce bioethanol from Solanum tuberosum by using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. As a result renewable energy sources can be produced from natural wastes.

  11. Sustainable Process Design of Biofuels: Bioethanol Production from Cassava rhizome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mangnimit, S.; Malakul, P.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-01-01

    This study is focused on the sustainable process design of bioethanol production from cassava rhizome. The study includes: process simulation, sustainability analysis, economic evaluation and life cycle assessment (LCA). A steady state process simulation if performed to generate a base case design........ Also, simultaneously with sustainability analysis, the life cycle impact on environment associated with bioethanol production is performed. Finally, candidate alternative designs are generated and compared with the base case design in terms of LCA, economics, waste, energy usage and enviromental impact...... in order to identify the most sustainable design for the production of ethanol. The capacity for ethanol production from cassava rhizome is set to 150,000 liters/day, which is about 1.3 % of the total demand of ethanol in Thailand. LCA on the base case design pointed to large amounts of CO2 and CO...

  12. Brosimum Alicastrum as a Novel Starch Source for Bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Olguin-Maciel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ramon (Brosimum alicastrum is a forest tree native to the Mesoamerican region and the Caribbean. The flour obtained from Ramon seeds is 75% carbohydrate, of which 63% is starch, indicating its potential as a novel raw material for bioethanol production. The objective of this study was to produce ethanol from Ramon flour using a 90 °C thermic treatment for 30 min and a native yeast strain (Candida tropicalis for the fermentation process. In addition, the structure of the flour and the effects of pretreatment were observed via scanning electron microscopy. The native yeast strain was superior to the commercial strain, fermenting 98.8% of the reducing sugar (RS at 48 h and generating 31% more ethanol than commercial yeast. One ton of flour yielded 213 L of ethanol. These results suggest that Ramon flour is an excellent candidate for ethanol production. This is the first report on bioethanol production using the starch from Ramon seed flour and a native yeast strain isolated from this feedstock. This alternative material for bioethanol production minimizes the competition between food and energy production, a priority for Mexico that has led to significant changes in public policies to enhance the development of renewable energies.

  13. Switchgrass-Based Bioethanol Productivity and Potential Environmental Impact from Marginal Lands in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Switchgrass displays an excellent potential to serve as a non-food bioenergy feedstock for bioethanol production in China due to its high potential yield on marginal lands. However, few studies have been conducted on the spatial distribution of switchgrass-based bioethanol production potential in China. This study created a land surface process model (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate GIS (Geographic Information System-based (GEPIC model coupled with a life cycle analysis (LCA to explore the spatial distribution of potential bioethanol production and present a comprehensive analysis of energy efficiency and environmental impacts throughout its whole life cycle. It provides a new approach to study the bioethanol productivity and potential environmental impact from marginal lands based on the high spatial resolution GIS data, and this applies not only to China, but also to other regions and to other types of energy plant. The results indicate that approximately 59 million ha of marginal land in China are suitable for planting switchgrass, and 22 million tons of ethanol can be produced from this land. Additionally, a potential net energy gain (NEG of 1.75 x 106 million MJ will be achieved if all of the marginal land can be used in China, and Yunnan Province offers the most significant one that accounts for 35% of the total. Finally, this study obtained that the total environmental effect index of switchgrass-based bioethanol is the equivalent of a population of approximately 20,300, and a reduction in the global warming potential (GWP is the most significant environmental impact.

  14. Pretreatments employed in lignocellulosic materials for bioethanol production: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Danay Carrillo-Nieves; Lourdes Zumalacárregui-de Cárdenas; Olga Sánchez-Collazo; Georgina Michelena-Alvarez; Hector Yznaga-Blanco; José Luis Martínez-Hernández; Cristóbal Noé-Aguilar

    2014-01-01

    Lignocellulosic materials are raw materials with high cellulose content and they constitute the most abun- dant sources of biomass on planet. They are attractive for their low cost and high availability in diverse climates and places for the bioethanol production, however, the main impediment for its use is the appro- priate selection from the technological and economic point of view of the stages of pretreatments and hydrolysis, that allow the breaking down of the lignocellulosic matrix to o...

  15. Production of bioethanol from lignocellulosic materials via the biochemical pathway: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balat, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    Bioethanol is by far the most widely used biofuel for transportation worldwide. Production of bioethanol from biomass is one way to reduce both consumption of crude oil and environmental pollution. Bioethanol can be produced from different kinds of raw materials. These raw materials are classified into three categories of agricultural raw materials: simple sugars, starch and lignocellulose. The price of the raw materials is highly volatile, which can highly affect the production costs of the bioethanol. One major problem with bioethanol production is the availability of raw materials for the production. Lignocellulosic biomass is the most promising feedstock considering its great availability and low cost, but the large-scale commercial production of fuel bioethanol from lignocellulosic materials has still not been implemented.

  16. Bioethanol production from rice straw residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsayed B. Belal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A rice straw -cellulose utilizing mold was isolated from rotted rice straw residues. The efficient rice straw degrading microorganism was identified as Trichoderma reesei. The results showed that different carbon sources in liquid culture such as rice straw, carboxymethyl cellulose, filter paper, sugar cane bagasse, cotton stalk and banana stalk induced T. reesei cellulase production whereas glucose or Potato Dextrose repressed the synthesis of cellulase. T. reesei cellulase was produced by the solid state culture on rice straw medium. The optimal pH and temperature for T. reesei cellulase production were 6 and 25 ºC, respectively. Rice straw exhibited different susceptibilities towards cellulase to their conversion to reducing sugars. The present study showed also that, the general trend of rice straw bioconversion with cellulase was more than the general trend by T. reesei. This enzyme effectively led to enzymatic conversion of acid, alkali and ultrasonic pretreated cellulose from rice straw into glucose, followed by fermentation into ethanol. The combined method of acid pretreatment with ultrasound and subsequent enzyme treatment resulted the highest conversion of lignocellulose in rice straw to sugar and consequently, highest ethanol concentration after 7 days fermentation with S. cerevisae yeast. The ethanol yield in this study was about 10 and 11 g.L-1.

  17. Bioethanol Production from Cachaza as Hydrogen Feedstock: Effect of Ammonium Sulfate during Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestor Sanchez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cachaza is a type of non-centrifugal sugarcane press-mud that, if it is not employed efficiently, generates water pollution, soil eutrophication, and the spread of possible pathogens. This biomass can be fermented to produce bioethanol. Our intention is to obtain bioethanol that can be catalytically reformed to produce hydrogen (H2 for further use in fuel cells for electricity production. However, some impurities could negatively affect the catalyst performance during the bioethanol reforming process. Hence, the aim of this study was to assess the fermentation of Cachaza using ammonium sulfate ((NH42SO4 loadings and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain to produce the highest ethanol concentration with the minimum amount of impurities in anticipation of facilitating further bioethanol purification and reforming for H2 production. The results showed that ethanol production from Cachaza fermentation was about 50 g·L−1 and the (NH42SO4 addition did not affect its production. However, it significantly reduced the production of branched alcohols. When a 160 mg·L−1 (NH42SO4 was added to the fermentation culture, 2-methyl-1-propanol was reduced by 41% and 3-methyl-1-butanol was reduced by 6%, probably due to the repression of the catabolic nitrogen mechanism. Conversely, 1-propanol doubled its concentration likely due to the higher threonine synthesis promoted by the reducing sugar presence. Afterwards, we employed the modified Gompertz model to fit the ethanol, 2M1P, 3M1B, and 1-propanol production, which provided acceptable fits (R2 > 0.881 for the tested compounds during Cachaza fermentation. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reports of the modelling of aliphatic production during fermentation; this model will be employed to calculate yields with further scaling and for life cycle assessment.

  18. Application of lignocellulolytic fungi for bioethanol production from renewable biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović Jelena M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pretreatment is a necessary step in the process of conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol; by changing the structure of lignocellulose, enhances enzymatic hydrolysis, but, often, it consumes large amounts of energy and/or needs an application of expensive and toxic chemicals, which makes the process economically and ecologically unfavourable. Application of lignocellulolytic fungi (from the class Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes and Deuteromycetes is an attractive method for pre-treatment, environmentally friendly and does not require the investment of energy. Fungi produce a wide range of enzymes and chemicals, which, combined in a variety of ways, together successfully degrade lignocellulose, as well as aromatic polymers that share features with lignin. On the basis of material utilization and features of a rotten wood, they are divided in three types of wood-decay fungi: white rot, brown rot and soft rot fungi. White rot fungi are the most efficient lignin degraders in nature and, therefore, have a very important role in carbon recycling from lignified wood. This paper describes fungal mechanisms of lignocellulose degradation. They involve oxidative and hydrolytic mechanisms. Lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase, laccase, cellobiose dehydrogenase and enzymes able to catalyze formation of hydroxyl radicals (•OH such as glyoxal oxidase, pyranose-2-oxidase and aryl-alcohol oxidase are responsible for oxidative processes, while cellulases and hemicellulases are involved in hydrolytic processes. Throughout the production stages, from pre-treatment to fermentation, the possibility of their application in the technology of bioethanol production is presented. Based on previous research, the advantages and disadvantages of biological pre-treatment are pointed out.

  19. Development of industrial yeast for second generation bioethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, X

    2012-01-15

    The cost of lignocellulose-based bioethanol needs to be reduced, in order to commercialize this clean and sustainable fuel substitute for fossil fuels. A microorganism that can completely and efficiently convert all the sugars in lignocellulose into ethanol is one of the prerequisites of a cost-effective production process. In addition, the microorganisms should also have a high tolerance towards the inhibitory compounds present in the lignocellulosic hydrolysate, which are formed during the pretreatment of lignocellulose. Baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is generally regarded as a robust microorganism and can efficiently ferment glucose. But it lacks the ability to ferment xylose which comprises 20-35% of lignocellulose. Naturally xylose-fermenting yeast such as Pichia stipitis is much more sensitive to inhibitors than S. cerevisiae and it requires accurately controlled microaerophilic conditions during the xylose fermentation, rendering the process technically difficult and expensive. In this study, a novel xylose fermenting yeast Spathaspora passalidarum displayed fast cell growth and efficient xylose fermentation under anaerobic conditions. In contrast, P. stipitis was almost unable to utilize xylose under the same conditions. It is further demonstrated that S. passalidarum converts xylose by means of NADH-preferred xylose reductase (XR) and NAD+-dependent xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH). Thus, the capacity of S. passalidarum to utilize xylose under anaerobic conditions is possibly due to a balance between supply and demand of cofactor through this XR-XDH pathway. Only one other XR with NADH preference has been reported so far. Unfortunately, S. passalidarum also has a low tolerance towards inhibitors generated during pretreatment, which prevents immediate use of this yeast in industrial application. S. passalidarum is able to convert the inhibitor furfural to furfuryl alcohol in a synthetic medium when the addition of furfural is low. The enzymes involved

  20. Development of industrial yeast for second generation bioethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, X.

    2012-01-15

    The cost of lignocellulose-based bioethanol needs to be reduced, in order to commercialize this clean and sustainable fuel substitute for fossil fuels. A microorganism that can completely and efficiently convert all the sugars in lignocellulose into ethanol is one of the prerequisites of a cost-effective production process. In addition, the microorganisms should also have a high tolerance towards the inhibitory compounds present in the lignocellulosic hydrolysate, which are formed during the pretreatment of lignocellulose. Baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is generally regarded as a robust microorganism and can efficiently ferment glucose. But it lacks the ability to ferment xylose which comprises 20-35% of lignocellulose. Naturally xylose-fermenting yeast such as Pichia stipitis is much more sensitive to inhibitors than S. cerevisiae and it requires accurately controlled microaerophilic conditions during the xylose fermentation, rendering the process technically difficult and expensive. In this study, a novel xylose fermenting yeast Spathaspora passalidarum displayed fast cell growth and efficient xylose fermentation under anaerobic conditions. In contrast, P. stipitis was almost unable to utilize xylose under the same conditions. It is further demonstrated that S. passalidarum converts xylose by means of NADH-preferred xylose reductase (XR) and NAD+-dependent xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH). Thus, the capacity of S. passalidarum to utilize xylose under anaerobic conditions is possibly due to a balance between supply and demand of cofactor through this XR-XDH pathway. Only one other XR with NADH preference has been reported so far. Unfortunately, S. passalidarum also has a low tolerance towards inhibitors generated during pretreatment, which prevents immediate use of this yeast in industrial application. S. passalidarum is able to convert the inhibitor furfural to furfuryl alcohol in a synthetic medium when the addition of furfural is low. The enzymes

  1. Biological Pretreatment of Rubberwood with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora for Enzymatic Hydrolysis and Bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forough Nazarpour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis, a potential raw material for bioethanol production due to its high cellulose content, was used as a novel feedstock for enzymatic hydrolysis and bioethanol production using biological pretreatment. To improve ethanol production, rubberwood was pretreated with white rot fungus Ceriporiopsis subvermispora to increase fermentation efficiency. The effects of particle size of rubberwood (1 mm, 0.5 mm, and 0.25 mm and pretreatment time on the biological pretreatment were first determined by chemical analysis and X-ray diffraction and their best condition obtained with 1 mm particle size and 90 days pretreatment. Further morphological study on rubberwood with 1 mm particle size pretreated by fungus was performed by FT-IR spectra analysis and SEM observation and the result indicated the ability of this fungus for pretreatment. A study on enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in an increased sugar yield of 27.67% as compared with untreated rubberwood (2.88%. The maximum ethanol concentration and yield were 17.9 g/L and 53% yield, respectively, after 120 hours. The results obtained demonstrate that rubberwood pretreated by C. subvermispora can be used as an alternative material for the enzymatic hydrolysis and bioethanol production.

  2. Wastes from bioethanol and beer productions as substrates for l(+) lactic acid production - A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djukić-Vuković, Aleksandra; Mladenović, Dragana; Radosavljević, Miloš; Kocić-Tanackov, Sunčica; Pejin, Jelena; Mojović, Ljiljana

    2016-02-01

    Waste substrates from bioethanol and beer productions are cheap, abundant and renewable substrates for biorefinery production of lactic acid (LA) and variability in their chemical composition presents a challenge in their valorisation. Three types of waste substrates, wasted bread and wasted potato stillage from bioethanol production and brewers' spent grain hydrolysate from beer production were studied as substrates for the production of l(+) LA and probiotic biomass by Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469. The correlation of the content of free alpha amino nitrogen and the production of LA was determined as a critical characteristic of the waste media for efficient LA production by L. rhamnosus on the substrates which contained equal amount of fermentable sugars. A maximal LA productivity of 1.54gL(-1)h(-1) was obtained on wasted bread stillage media, whilst maximal productivities achieved on the potato stillage and brewers' spent grain hydrolysate media were 1.28gL(-1)h(-1)and 0.48gL(-1)h(-1), respectively. A highest LA yield of 0.91gg(-1) was achieved on wasted bread stillage media, followed by the yield of 0.81gg(-1) on wasted potato stillage and 0.34gg(-1) on brewers' spent grain hydrolysate media. The kinetics of sugar consumption in the two stillage substrates were similar while the sugar conversion in brewers' spent grain hydrolysate was slower and less efficient due to significantly lower content of free alpha amino nitrogen. The lignocellulosic hydrolysate from beer production required additional supplementation with nitrogen. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Study of the environmental impacts of large scale bioethanol production in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The report provides an analysis of the energy balance, the carbon dioxide balance, and other environmental effects. Four crops which might be used as bioethanol feedstock were considered. These were: wheat, sugar beet, sweet sorghum and Jerusalem artichoke. Given the current agricultural capabilities in Europe, wheat and sugar beet could be cultivated immediately for bioethanol production whilst sweet sorghum and Jerusalem artichoke represent crops which are under investigation as potential bioethanol feedstock in the longer term. (author).

  4. Study of the environmental impacts of large scale bioethanol production in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The report provides an analysis of the energy balance, the carbon dioxide balance, and other environmental effects. Four crops which might be used as bioethanol feedstock were considered. These were: wheat, sugar beet, sweet sorghum and Jerusalem artichoke. Given the current agricultural capabilities in Europe, wheat and sugar beet could be cultivated immediately for bioethanol production whilst sweet sorghum and Jerusalem artichoke represent crops which are under investigation as potential bioethanol feedstock in the longer term. (author)

  5. Bioethanol production: Pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of softwood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tengborg, Charlotte

    2000-05-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis process can be used to produce bioethanol from softwood, which are the dominating raw material in the Northern hemisphere. This thesis deals with the development of the process focusing on the pretreatment and the enzymatic hydrolysis stages. The influence of pretreatment conditions on sugar yield, and the effect of inhibitors on the ethanol yield, were investigated for spruce and pine. The maximum yields of hemicellulose sugars and glucose were obtained under different pretreatment conditions. This indicates that two-stage pretreatment may be preferable. The added catalysts, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and SO{sub 2}, resulted in similar total sugar yields about 40 g/100 g dry raw material. However, the fermentability of SO{sub 2}-impregnated material was better. This pretreatment resulted in the formation of inhibitors to the subsequent process steps, e.g. sugar and lignin degradation products. The glucose yield in the enzymatic hydrolysis stage was affected by various parameters such as enzyme loading, temperature, pH, residence time, substrate concentration, and agitation. To decrease the amount of fresh water used and thereby waste water produced, the sugar-rich prehydrolysate from the pretreatment step was included in the enzymatic hydrolysis of the solid fraction, resulting in a reduction in the cellulose conversion of up to 36%. Different prehydrolysate detoxification methods, such as treatment with Ca(OH){sub 2}, laccase, and fermentation using yeast, were investigated. The latter was shown to be very efficient. The amount of fresh water used can be further reduced by recycling various process streams. This was simulated experimentally in a bench-scale process. A reduction in fresh water demand of 50% was obtained without any further negative effects on either hydrolysis or fermentation.

  6. Immobilised Sarawak Malaysia yeast cells for production of bioethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zain, Masniroszaime Mohd; Kofli, Noorhisham Tan; Rozaimah, Siti; Abdullah, Sheikh

    2011-05-01

    Bioethanol production using yeast has become a popular topic due to worrying depleting worldwide fuel reserve. The aim of the study was to investigate the capability of Malaysia yeast strains isolated from starter culture used in traditional fermented food and alcoholic beverages in producing Bioethanol using alginate beads entrapment method. The starter yeast consists of groups of microbes, thus the yeasts were grown in Sabouraud agar to obtain single colony called ST1 (tuak) and ST3 (tapai). The growth in Yeast Potatoes Dextrose (YPD) resulted in specific growth of ST1 at micro = 0.396 h-1 and ST3 at micro = 0.38 h-1, with maximum ethanol production of 7.36 g L-1 observed using ST1 strain. The two strains were then immobilized using calcium alginate entrapment method producing average alginate beads size of 0.51 cm and were grown in different substrates; YPD medium and Local Brown Sugar (LBS) for 8 h in flask. The maximum ethanol concentration measured after 7 h were at 6.63 and 6.59 g L-1 in YPD media and 1.54 and 1.39 g L-1in LBS media for ST1 and ST3, respectively. The use of LBS as carbon source showed higher yield of product (Yp/s), 0.59 g g-1 compared to YPD, 0.25 g g-1 in ST1 and (Yp/s), 0.54 g g-1 compared to YPD, 0.24 g g-1 in ST3 . This study indicated the possibility of using local strains (STI and ST3) to produce bioethanol via immobilization technique with local materials as substrate.

  7. MICROALGAE AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO BIOFUELS PRODUCTION. PART 1: BIOETHANOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiara Priscilla de Souza

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The demand from the energy sector is one of the culminating factors to do researches that enable innovations in the biotechnology sector and to boost biofuel production. The variability of the existing feedstocks provides benefits to energy production, however, we must choose the ones that present plausible characteristics depending on the type of product that we want to obtained. In this context, it is noted that the microalgae have suitable characteristics to producing different types of fuels, depending on the type of treatment are subjected, the species being analyzed as well as the biochemical composition of the biomass. Bioethanol production from microalgae is a promising and growing energy alternative under a view that biomass of these microorganisms has an enormous biodiversity and contain high levels of carbohydrates, an indispensable factor for the bioconversion of microalgae in ethanol. Due to these factors, there is a constant search for more viable methods for pretreatment of biomass, hydrolysis and fermentation, having as one of the major aspects the approach of effectives methodologies in the ambit of quality and yield of ethanol. Therefore, we have to search to increase the interest in the developing of biofuels reconciling with the importance of using microalgae, analyzing whether these micro-organisms are capable of being used in bioethanol production.

  8. Life cycle analysis for bioethanol production from sugar beet crops in Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foteinis, Spyros; Kouloumpis, Victor [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, GR 73100 Chania (Greece); Tsoutsos, Theocharis, E-mail: theocharis.tsoutsos@enveng.tuc.gr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, GR 73100 Chania (Greece)

    2011-09-15

    The main aim of this study is to evaluate whether the potential transformation of the existing sugar plants of Northern Greece to modern bioethanol plants, using the existing cultivations of sugar beet, would be an environmentally sustainable decision. Using Life Cycle Inventory and Impact Assessment, all processes for bioethanol production from sugar beets were analyzed, quantitative data were collected and the environmental loads of the final product (bioethanol) and of each process were estimated. The final results of the environmental impact assessment are encouraging since bioethanol production gives better results than sugar production for the use of the same quantity of sugar beets. If the old sugar plants were transformed into modern bioethanol plants, the total reduction of the environmental load would be, at least, 32.6% and a reduction of more than 2 tons of CO{sub 2}e/sugar beet of ha cultivation could be reached. Moreover bioethanol production was compared to conventional fuel (gasoline), as well as to other types of biofuels (biodiesel from Greek cultivations). - Highlights: > Bioethanol production gives better results than sugar production from sugar beets. > In most cases, sugar beets, as an already industrialized plant has organizational virtues. > Bioethanol could be a sustainable independent way of energy production, alternative to biodiesel.

  9. An integral analysis for second generation bioethanol production via a dynamic model-based simulation approach: stochastic nonlinear optimisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales Rodriguez, Ricardo; Meyer, Anne S.; Gernaey, Krist

    of cellulose, co-fermentation of sugars and downstream processes for purification and recovery of most value-added products. The dynamic model involves both the mass and energy balances coupled with constitutive dynamic equations to assess the process yield and energy efficiency of different bioethanol...

  10. Economic-energy-environment analysis of prospective sugarcane bioethanol production in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes de Carvalho, Ariovaldo; Antunes, Carlos Henggeler; Freire, Fausto

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A Hybrid IO-MOLP model is formulated for energy-economic-environmental analysis. • Scenarios for sugarcane cultivation and 1st- and 2nd-generation bioethanol production. • Higher energy use and GHG emissions due to chemicals in 2G processes. • Lower overall employment level in the 1G + 2G scenarios compared to the 1G scenario. • Policies and technological choices should consider direct and indirect effects of 2G. - Abstract: Bioethanol from sugarcane can be produced using first-generation (1G) or second-generation (2G) technologies. 2G technologies can increase the capacity of production per sugarcane mass input and are expected to have a key role in future reductions of environmental impacts of sugarcane bioethanol. A hybrid Input-Output (IO) framework is developed for Brazil coupling the System of National Accounts and the National Energy Balance, which is extended to assess Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. Life-cycle based estimates for two sugarcane cultivation systems, two 1G and eight 2G bioethanol production scenarios, are coupled in the IO framework. A multi-objective linear programming (MOLP) model is formulated based on this framework for energy-economic-environmental analysis of the Brazilian economic system and domestic bioethanol supply in prospective scenarios. Twenty-four solutions are computed: four “extreme” solutions resulting from the individual optimization of each objective function (GDP, employment level, total energy consumption and total GHG emissions - 1G scenario), ten compromise solutions minimizing the distance of the feasible region to the ideal solution (1G, 1G-optimized and prospective 1G + 2G scenarios), and ten solutions maximizing the total bioethanol production (1G, 1G-optimized and prospective 1G + 2G scenarios). Higher diesel oil and lubricants consumption in the mechanical harvesting process has counterbalanced the positive effects of more efficient trucks leading to higher energy consumption and GHG

  11. Biogas and Bioethanol Production in Organic Farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr

    The thesis consists of two parts. First one is an introduction providing background information on organic farming, ethanol and anaerobic digestion processes, and concept of on‐farm bioenergy production. Second part consists of 8 papers....

  12. Enzymatic saccharification and bioethanol production from Cynara cardunculus pretreated by steam explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Maria C; Ferro, Miguel D; Paulino, Ana F C; Mendes, Joana A S; Gravitis, Janis; Evtuguin, Dmitry V; Xavier, Ana M R B

    2015-06-01

    The correct choice of the specific lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment allows obtaining high biomass conversions for biorefinery implementations and cellulosic bioethanol production from renewable resources. Cynara cardunculus (cardoon) pretreated by steam explosion (SE) was involved in second-generation bioethanol production using separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) or simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) processes. Steam explosion pretreatment led to partial solubilisation of hemicelluloses and increased the accessibility of residual polysaccharides towards enzymatic hydrolysis revealing 64% of sugars yield against 11% from untreated plant material. Alkaline extraction after SE pretreatment of cardoon (CSEOH) promoted partial removal of degraded lignin, tannins, extractives and hemicelluloses thus allowing to double glucose concentration upon saccharification step. Bioethanol fermentation in SSF mode was faster than SHF process providing the best results: ethanol concentration 18.7 g L(-1), fermentation efficiency of 66.6% and a yield of 26.6g ethanol/100 g CSEOH or 10.1 g ethanol/100 g untreated cardoon. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Biogas and bioethanol production in organic farming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oleskowicz-Popiel, P

    2010-08-15

    The consumer demand for environmentally friendly, chemical free and healthy products, as well as concern regarding industrial agriculture's effect on the environment has led to a significant growth of organic farming. On the other hand, organic farmers are becoming interested in direct on-farm energy production which would lead them to independency from fossil fuels and decrease the greenhouse gas emissions from the farm. In the presented work, the idea of biogas and bioenergy production at the organic farm is investigated. This thesis is devoted to evaluate such a possibility, starting from the characterization of raw materials, through optimizing new processes and solutions and finally evaluating the whole on-farm biorefinery concept with the help of a simulation software. (LN)

  14. Biogas and bioethanol production in organic farming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oleskowicz-Popiel, P.

    2010-08-15

    The consumer demand for environmentally friendly, chemical free and healthy products, as well as concern regarding industrial agriculture's effect on the environment has led to a significant growth of organic farming. On the other hand, organic farmers are becoming interested in direct on-farm energy production which would lead them to independency from fossil fuels and decrease the greenhouse gas emissions from the farm. In the presented work, the idea of biogas and bioenergy production at the organic farm is investigated. This thesis is devoted to evaluate such a possibility, starting from the characterization of raw materials, through optimizing new processes and solutions and finally evaluating the whole on-farm biorefinery concept with the help of a simulation software. (LN)

  15. PRODUCTION OF BIOETHANOL FROM AGRICULTURAL WASTE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Braide W, Kanu I.A, Oranusi U.S and Adeleye S.A

    2016-05-01

    May 1, 2016 ... ethanol can be made from the named agricultural waste and the process is ..... of lignocellulosic materials for ethanol production: a review. Bioresour. ... [6] Martín, C., Klinke, H.B. and Thomsen, A.B. Wet oxidation as a ...

  16. Bioethanol production by immobilized Sacharomyces cerevisiae var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-02-04

    Feb 4, 2009 ... potential as a biofuel to replace fossil fuels. Ethanol can be produced by fermentation of sugars from agricultural products or waste plant materials. ..... nate beads after the second cycle was due to intensive growth of cells (which reached 3.35 1010 CFU/g beads) and CO2 evolution during the fermentation.

  17. Energy Efficient Bioethanol Purification by Heat Pump Assisted Extractive Distillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, Anton A.; Luo, Hao; Bildea, Costin Sorin

    2015-01-01

    The purification of bioethanol fuel requires an energy demanding separation process to concentrate the diluted streams obtained in the fermentation stage and to overcome the azeotropic behaviour of ethanol-water mixture. The classic separation sequence consists of three distillation columns that

  18. State of the art on bioethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barisano, D.; De Bari, I.; Viola, E.; Zimbardi, F.; Braccio, G.; Cantarella, M.; Gallifuoco, A.

    2001-01-01

    The state of the art, deals with the ethanol production from current processes based on the use of sugar and starch as feedstock and those under development based on lignocellulosic biomass. In the first section are reported the commercially available processes together with hints to the newest technologies. As regard the ethanol production from lignocellulosics, it has been collected data on the biomass availability in Europe as energy crops, industrial crops, agricultural residues and domestic waste. It is provided a bibliographic study on the technologies and processes under development worldwide for the conversion of lignocellulosics into ethanol. Finally, a brief discussion on the economics highlights the near term viability of producing ethanol by this way [it

  19. Sustainability assessment of bioethanol and petroleum fuel production in Japan based on emergy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jin’e; Lin, Bin-Le; Sagisaka, Masayuki

    2012-01-01

    To promote the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, research and development of bioethanol technologies are encouraged in Japan and a plan to utilize untilled fields to develop rice for bioethanol production as a substitute for petroleum fuel is being devised. This study applies emergy methods to compare the sustainability of petroleum fuel production and two Japanese rice-to-ethanol production scenarios: (a) ethanol from rice grain, while straw and chaff are burned as energy and (b) ethanol from rice+straw+chaff. The major emergy indices, Emergy Yield Ratio (EYR), Environmental Loading Ratio (ELR), Emergy Investment Ratio (EIR), Emergy Sustainability Index (ESI), Environmental Impacts Ratio (EVR) and system transformity (Tr), are analyzed to assess the production processes. The results show that (1) petroleum fuel production presents higher ELR, EIR, EVR and lower EYR, ESI, Tr than rice-to-ethanol production, indicating rice-to-ethanol production makes sense for reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG); (2) scenario (a) performs similarly on major indicators (EYR, ESI, ELR, EIR and EVR) to scenario (b), yet the system efficiency indicator (Tr) of scenario (a, 7.572×10 5 semj/J) is much higher than (b, 4.573×10 5 semj/J), and therefore (b) is a better alternative for policy decisions; (3) both petroleum fuel production and rice-to-ethanol processes are mainly driven by purchased resources and are unsustainable and nonrenewable in the long run. - Highlights: ► We compare petrol fuel and rice-to-ethanol production using emergy indices. ► Rice-to-ethanol reduces green house gas emissions as a substitute for petrol fuel. ► Rice-to-ethanol production has better sustainability than that of petrol fuel. ► Neither petrol fuel nor biofuel production are sustainable in the long term. ► Bioethanol is not a renewable fuel.

  20. Process design and evaluation of production of bioethanol and β-lactam antibiotic from lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Bong; Park, Chulhwan; Kim, Seung Wook

    2014-11-01

    To design biorefinery processes producing bioethanol from lignocellulosic biomass with dilute acid pretreatment, biorefinery processes were simulated using the SuperPro Designer program. To improve the efficiency of biomass use and the economics of biorefinery, additional pretreatment processes were designed and evaluated, in which a combined process of dilute acid and aqueous ammonia pretreatments, and a process of waste media containing xylose were used, for the production of 7-aminocephalosporanic acid. Finally, the productivity and economics of the designed processes were compared. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Perspectives for the production of bioethanol from lignocellulosic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrova, Petia; Ivanova, Viara

    2010-01-01

    The most common renewable fuel today and suitable alternative to replace fossil fuels is ethanol that can be blended with petrol or used as neat alcohol in engines. Ethanol is currently produced from sugar (Brazil) or grain (starch, USA). However, this raw material base will not be sufficient because the increasing demand for fuel ethanol and the lower than expected reduction of greenhouse gases. An alternative is the production of bioethanol from agroindustrial wastes containing abundant cellulose fibers and carbohydrates such as grape pomace, sugar beet pomace, barley and rice straw, corncobs, sunflower stalks and heads, cotton waste, brewer's spent grain, forest residues etc. Lignocellulosic raw materials and agroindustrial wastes minimize the potential conflict between land use for food (and feed) production and energy feedstock production. This review summarizes recent developments in the bioconversion processes, the new technologies required and the advances achieved in recent years to bring agricultural feedstock and lignocellulosic ethanol towards industrial production.

  2. Production of bioethanol from corn meal hydrolyzates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljiljana Mojovic; Svetlana Nikolic; Marica Rakin; Maja Vukasinovic [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro). Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, Department of Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnology

    2006-09-15

    The two-step enzymatic hydrolysis of corn meal by commercially available {alpha}-amylase and glucoamylase and further ethanol fermentation of the obtained hydrolyzates by Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast was studied. The conditions of starch hydrolysis such as substrate and enzyme concentration and the time required for enzymatic action were optimized taking into account both the effects of hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation. The corn meal hydrolyzates obtained were good substrates for ethanol fermentation by S. cerevisiae. The yield of ethanol of more than 80% (w/w) of the theoretical was achieved with a satisfactory volumetric productivity P (g/l h). No shortage of fermentable sugars was observed during simultaneous hydrolysis and fermentation. In this process, the savings in energy by carrying out the saccharification step at lower temperature (32{sup o}C) could be realized, as well as a reduction of the process time for 4 h. 31 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Optimization study on the hydrogen peroxide pretreatment and production of bioethanol from seaweed Ulva prolifera biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yinping; Cui, Jiefen; Zhang, Gaoli; Liu, Zhengkun; Guan, Huashi; Hwang, Hueymin; Aker, Winfred G; Wang, Peng

    2016-08-01

    The seaweed Ulva prolifera, distributed in inter-tidal zones worldwide, contains a large percentage of cellulosic materials. The technical feasibility of using U. prolifera residue (UPR) obtained after extraction of polysaccharides as a renewable energy resource was investigated. An environment-friendly and economical pretreatment process was conducted using hydrogen peroxide. The hydrogen peroxide pretreatment improved the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis. The resulting yield of reducing sugar reached a maximum of 0.42g/g UPR under the optimal pretreatment condition (hydrogen peroxide 0.2%, 50°C, pH 4.0, 12h). The rate of conversion of reducing sugar in the concentrated hydrolysates to bioethanol reached 31.4% by Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation, which corresponds to 61.7% of the theoretical maximum yield. Compared with other reported traditional processes on Ulva biomass, the reducing sugar and bioethanol yield are substantially higher. Thus, hydrogen peroxide pretreatment is an effective enhancement of the process of bioethanol production from the seaweed U. prolifera. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. PRODUCTION OF BIOETHANOL FROM AGRICULTURAL WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Braide

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the potential of ethanol production from agro wastes. Agro waste from sugarcane Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane baggasse, sugarcane bark and maize plant Zea mays (corncob, corn stalk, corn husk was subjected to a pretreatment process using acid hydrolysis was applied to remove lignin which acts as physical barrier to cellulolytic enzymes. Ethanolic fermentation was done using Saccharomyces cerevisiae for 5days and the ethanol yield, specific gravity, pH and total reducing sugar were also determined. From the results, the specific gravity, sugar content and pH decreased over time while the Sugarcane baggasse, Sugarcane bark, Cornstalk, Corncob and Cornhusk gave maximum percentage ethanol yield of 6.72, 6.23, 6.17, 4.17 and 3.45 respectively at 72hrs Fermentation. Maximum yields of ethanol were obtained at pH 3.60, 3.82, 4.00, 3.64 and 3.65. These findings show/prove that ethanol can be made from the named agricultural waste and the process is recommended as a means of generating wealth from waste.

  5. Optimization of bioethanol production from carbohydrate rich wastes by extreme thermophilic microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomas, A.F.

    2013-05-15

    Second-generation bioethanol is produced from residual biomass such as industrial and municipal waste or agricultural and forestry residues. However, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the microorganism currently used in industrial first-generation bioethanol production, is not capable of converting all of the carbohydrates present in these complex substrates into ethanol. This is in particular true for pentose sugars such as xylose, generally the second major sugar present in lignocellulosic biomass. The transition of second-generation bioethanol production from pilot to industrial scale is hindered by the recalcitrance of the lignocellulosic biomass, and by the lack of a microorganism capable of converting this feedstock to bioethanol with high yield, efficiency and productivity. In this study, a new extreme thermophilic ethanologenic bacterium was isolated from household waste. When assessed for ethanol production from xylose, an ethanol yield of 1.39 mol mol-1 xylose was obtained. This represents 83 % of the theoretical ethanol yield from xylose and is to date the highest reported value for a native, not genetically modified microorganism. The bacterium was identified as a new member of the genus Thermoanaerobacter, named Thermoanaerobacter pentosaceus and was subsequently used to investigate some of the factors that influence secondgeneration bioethanol production, such as initial substrate concentration and sensitivity to inhibitors. Furthermore, T. pentosaceus was used to develop and optimize bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass using a range of different approaches, including combination with other microorganisms and immobilization of the cells. T. pentosaceus could produce ethanol from a wide range of substrates without the addition of nutrients such as yeast extract and vitamins to the medium. It was initially sensitive to concentrations of 10 g l-1 of xylose and 1 % (v/v) ethanol. However, long term repeated batch cultivation showed that the strain

  6. Use of extremophilic bacteria for second generation bioethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomás, Ana Faria; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Angelidaki, Irini

    production from food crops, such as corn (starch) or sugar cane (sucrose) is already an established process, with the USA and Brazil supplying 86% of the market. The major challenge remains in the use of different waste sources – agricultural, forestry, animal and household waste - as a feedstock....... The recalcitrance of these materials and their diverse sugar composition make the industrial yeast strains currently used unsuitable for a second generation bioethanol production process. One of the alternative strategies is the use of extreme thermophilic microorganisms. Currently, selected members from the genera...... Clostridium, Thermoanaerobacter, Geobacillus and Thermoanaerobacterium are among the best candidates. A new strain of Thermoanaerobacter, closely related to T. italicus and T. mathranii, has achieved 0.43 gethanol/gxylose, which is 83% of the theoretical yield of ethanol based on xylose and the highest value...

  7. Sustainable bioethanol production combining biorefinery principles and intercropping strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, M.H.; Haugaard-Nielsen, H.; Petersson, A.; Thomsen, A.B.; Jensen, E.S. [Risoe National Lab., DTU, Biosystems Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2007-05-15

    species interactions as a response to the actual growing conditions observed which is not achieved with sole cropping of one species/cultivar. It is also concluded that when growing pea as a sole cropping available soil mineral N reduce N{sub 2} fixation and the full potential of symbiotic nitrogen fixation is not exploited which is regarded as an overall inefficient use of N sources. Using clover-grass intercropping raw materials, as another potential species combination with equivalent field responses to e.g. pea-wheat intercropping, conversion yields obtained in laboratory experiments show that wet oxidation is an efficient method for fractionating clover, grass, and clover-grass mixtures into a convertible solid cellulose fraction and a soluble hemicellulose fraction. The highest yield of fermentable sugars after enzymatic hydrolysis is achieved in clover-grass (mixed 1:1) pretreated at 195 deg. C for 10 minutes using 12 bar oxygen. The optimum pretreatment conditions for clover, grass, and clover-grass mixtures is not significantly different from that of wheat, which indicates that wheat straw and clover-grass (from intercropping) could be pretreated in one step. The produced sugars were converted into ethanol by Mucor indicus giving good ethanol yields Y{sub E/TS,Aerobic} = 0.37 and Y{sub E/TS,oxygen} {sub li} It is also concluded that fructans from unheated clover-grass juice can be co-converted into ethanol by natural enzymes and yeast increasing the ethanol production significantly. Using field data and biomass conversion yields obtained in laboratory experiments a decentralized biorefinery concept for co-production of bioethanol and biogas is described with strong emphasis on sustainability, localness and recycling principles. (au)

  8. Dynamic Analysis of Bioethanol Production from Corn Stover and Immobilized Yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang-Qi Tian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of low cost and abundant corn stover in yeast fermentation can reduce product costs. In this study, bioethanol was produced from a hydrolysate of corn stover using immobilized yeast. A kinetic model was established for the total reducing sugar consumption and the production of bioethanol. The parameter estimation for kinetic modeling considered the main process variables during bioethanol production from corn stover. Total reducing sugar concentrations decreased exponentially in the bioethanol fermentation for 6 h; consumption was more than 90%. To use kinetic modelling of yeast growth for bioethanol fermentation, the value of μmax reached 0.2891 h-1, and the matrix inhibition constant (KIS and production inhibition constant (KIP were 8.9154 g/dm3 and 0.00676 g/dm3, respectively. To use kinetic modelling of fermentation time on bioethanol, the maximum ratio of bioethanol production rate (qmax reached 1.427 g/g•L. However, KIS was 2.813 g/dm3, and KIP was 0.0149 g/dm3.

  9. Over production of fermentable sugar for bioethanol production from carbohydrate-rich Malaysian food waste via sequential acid-enzymatic hydrolysis pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafid, Halimatun Saadiah; Nor 'Aini, Abdul Rahman; Mokhtar, Mohd Noriznan; Talib, Ahmad Tarmezee; Baharuddin, Azhari Samsu; Umi Kalsom, Md Shah

    2017-09-01

    In Malaysia, the amount of food waste produced is estimated at approximately 70% of total municipal solid waste generated and characterised by high amount of carbohydrate polymers such as starch, cellulose, and sugars. Considering the beneficial organic fraction contained, its utilization as an alternative substrate specifically for bioethanol production has receiving more attention. However, the sustainable production of bioethanol from food waste is linked to the efficient pretreatment needed for higher production of fermentable sugar prior to fermentation. In this work, a modified sequential acid-enzymatic hydrolysis process has been developed to produce high concentration of fermentable sugars; glucose, sucrose, fructose and maltose. The process started with hydrothermal and dilute acid pretreatment by hydrochloric acid (HCl) and sulphuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) which aim to degrade larger molecules of polysaccharide before accessible for further steps of enzymatic hydrolysis by glucoamylase. A kinetic model is proposed to perform an optimal hydrolysis for obtaining high fermentable sugars. The results suggested that a significant increase in fermentable sugar production (2.04-folds) with conversion efficiency of 86.8% was observed via sequential acid-enzymatic pretreatment as compared to dilute acid pretreatment (∼42.4% conversion efficiency). The bioethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae utilizing fermentable sugar obtained shows ethanol yield of 0.42g/g with conversion efficiency of 85.38% based on the theoretical yield was achieved. The finding indicates that food waste can be considered as a promising substrate for bioethanol production. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. SACCHARIFICATION OF CORNCOB USING CELLULOLYTIC BACTERIA FOR BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TITI CANDRA SUNARTI

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of cellulose degrading enzyme (cellulases for hydrolysis of lignocellulosic material is a part of bioethanol production process. In this experiment, delignified corncob, its cellulose fraction and alpha cellulose were used as substrates to produce fermentable sugar by using three local isolates of celluloytic bacteria (C5-1, C4-4, C11-1 and Cmix ; mixed cultures of three isolates, and Saccharomyces cereviseae to produce ethanol. The results showed that all isolates of cellulolytic bacteria can grow on cellulose fraction better than on delignified corncob, and alpha cellulose. The highest hydrolytic activity produced from cellulose fraction was by isolate C4-4, which liberated 3.50 g/l of total sugar. Ethanol can be produced by mixed culture of bacteria and yeast, but because of competitive growth, the fermentation only produced 0.39-0.47 g/l of ethanol.

  11. Security of feedstocks supply for future bio-ethanol production in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silalertruksa, Thapat; Gheewala, Shabbir H.

    2010-01-01

    This study assesses the security of feedstock supply to satisfy the increased demand for bio-ethanol production based on the recent 15 years biofuels development plan and target (year 2008-2022) of the Thai government. Future bio-ethanol systems are modeled and the feedstock supply potentials analyzed based on three scenarios including low-, moderate- and high-yields improvement. The three scenarios are modeled and key dimensions including availability; diversity; and environmental acceptability of feedstocks supply in terms of GHG reduction are evaluated through indicators such as net feedstock balances, Shannon index and net life cycle GHG emissions. The results show that only the case of high yields improvement scenario can result in a reliable and sufficient supply of feedstocks to satisfy the long-term demands for bio-ethanol and other related industries. Cassava is identified as the critical feedstock and a reduction in cassava export is necessary. The study concludes that to enhance long-term security of feedstocks supply for sustainable bio-ethanol production in Thailand, increasing use of sugarcane juice as feedstock, improved yields of existing feedstocks and promoting production of bio-ethanol derived from agricultural residues are three key recommendations that need to be urgently implemented by the policy makers. - Research highlights: →Bioethanol in Thailand derived from molasses, cassava, sugarcane juice could yield reductions of 64%, 49% and 87% in GHGs when compared to conventional gasoline. →High yields improvement are required for a reliable and sufficient supply of molasses, cassava and sugarcane to satisfy the long-term demands for bio-ethanol and other related industries. →Other factors to enhance long-term security of feedstocks supply for sustainable bioethanol production in Thailand include increasing use of sugarcane juice as feedstock and promoting production of bioethanol derived from agricultural residues.

  12. Production of hydrogen from bio-ethanol in catalytic membrane reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gernot, E.; Aupretre, F.; Deschamps, A.; Etievant, C.; Epron, F.; Marecot, P.; Duprez, D.

    2006-01-01

    Production of hydrogen from renewable energy sources offers a great potential for CO 2 emission reduction, responsible for global warming. Among renewable energies, liquid biofuels are very convenient hydrogen carriers for decentralized applications such as micro-cogeneration and transports. Ethanol, produced from sugar plants and cereals, allows a reduction of more than 60% of CO 2 emissions in comparison to gasoline. BIOSTAR is an R and D project, co-funded by the French Agency for Environment and Energy Management (ADEME) which aims at developing an efficient source of hydrogen from bio-ethanol, suitable for proton exchange membrane fuel cell systems. The objectives are to obtain, through catalytic process at medium temperature range, an efficient conversion of bio-ethanol into pure hydrogen directly usable for PEMFC. CETH has developed a catalytic membrane reformer (CMR), based on a patented technology, integrating a steam reforming catalyst as well as a combustion catalyst. Both catalysts have been developed and optimized for membrane reactor in partnership with the University of Poitiers. The composite metallic membrane developed by CETH allows hydrogen extraction near the hydrogen production sites, which enhances both efficiency and compactness. (authors)

  13. Characteristics of the products of hydrothermal liquefaction combined with cellulosic bio-ethanol process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Rundong; Xie, Yinghui; Yang, Tianhua; Li, Bingshuo; Zhang, Yang; Kai, Xingping

    2016-01-01

    The integration utilization of fermentation residues from cellulosic bio-ethanol has attracted a great deal of attention to balance the total cost of bio-ethanol production while simultaneously dealing with bio-ethanol wastewater. A process of hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of intact materials from cellulosic bio-ethanol in a batch reactor was proposed. The effects of the reaction temperature and time on the liquefaction characteristics were examined. The optimum condition for liquefaction fermentation residues was 370 °C (21.25 MPa) and 30 min with a bio-oil yield of 40.79 wt%. GC-MS results indicated that the major chemical species in the bio-oil were phenols, ketones, long-chain hydrocarbons and fatty acids. Supercritical conditions (375 °C, 23.50 MPa) was favored for the low-molecular-weight species formation compared to subcritical conditions (370 °C, 21.25 MPa), as some long-chain species decreased. This work thus can provide a novel idea for bio-oil production from HTL of cellulosic bio-ethanol fermentation residues. - Highlights: • Bio-oil production via HTL combined with cellulosic bio-ethanol process was proposed. • Optimum condition for HTL of materials from cellulosic bio-ethanol was 370 °C and 30 min. • Bio-oil contained higher content of hydrocarbons and lower contents of organic acids.

  14. Process optimization for bioethanol production from cassava starch using novel eco-friendly enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanavas, S.; Padmaja, G.; Moorthy, S.N.; Sajeev, M.S.; Sheriff, J.T. [Division of Crop Utilization, Central Tuber Crops Research Institute, Thiruvananthapuram, 695 017 Kerala (India)

    2011-02-15

    Although cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a potential bioethanol crop, high operational costs resulted in a negative energy balance in the earlier processes. The present study aimed at optimizing the bioethanol production from cassava starch using new enzymes like Spezyme {sup registered} Xtra and Stargen trademark 001. The liquefying enzyme Spezyme was optimally active at 90 C and pH 5.5 on a 10% (w/v) starch slurry at levels of 20.0 mg (280 Amylase Activity Units) for 30 min. Stargen levels of 100 mg (45.6 Granular Starch Hydrolyzing Units) were sufficient to almost completely hydrolyze 10% (w/v) starch at room temperature (30 {+-} 1 C). Ethanol yield and fermentation efficiency were very high (533 g/kg and 94.0% respectively) in the Stargen + yeast process with 10% (w/v) starch for 48 h. Raising Spezyme and Stargen levels to 560 AAU and 91.2 GSHU respectively for a two step loading [initial 20% (w/v) followed by 20% starch after Spezyme thinning]/initial higher loading of starch (40% w/v) resulted in poor fermentation efficiency. Upscaling experiments using 1.0 kg starch showed that Stargen to starch ratio of 1:100 (w/w) could yield around 558 g ethanol/kg starch, with a high fermentation efficiency of 98.4%. The study showed that Spezyme level beyond 20.0 mg for a 10% (w/v) starch slurry was not critical for optimizing bioethanol yield from cassava starch, although an initial thinning of starch for 30 min by Spezyme facilitated rapid saccharification-fermentation by Stargen + yeast system. The specific advantage of the new process was that the reaction could be completed within 48.5 h at 30 {+-} 1 C. (author)

  15. The Potential in Bioethanol Production From Waste Fiber Sludges in Pulp Mill-Based Biorefineries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöde, Anders; Alriksson, Björn; Jönsson, Leif J.; Nilvebrant, Nils-Olof

    Industrial production of bioethanol from fibers that are unusable for pulp production in pulp mills offers an approach to product diversification and more efficient exploitation of the raw material. In an attempt to utilize fibers flowing to the biological waste treatment, selected fiber sludges from three different pulp mills were collected, chemically analyzed, enzymatically hydrolyzed, and fermented for bioethanol production. Another aim was to produce solid residues with higher heat values than those of the original fiber sludges to gain a better fuel for combustion. The glucan content ranged between 32 and 66% of the dry matter. The lignin content varied considerably (1-25%), as did the content of wood extractives (0.2-5.8%). Hydrolysates obtained using enzymatic hydrolysis were found to be readily fermentable using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Hydrolysis resulted in improved heat values compared with corresponding untreated fiber sludges. Oligomeric xylan fragments in the solid residue obtained after enzymatic hydrolysis were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight and their potential as a new product of a pulp mill-based biorefinery is discussed.

  16. Comparison of the efficiency of bacterial and fungal laccases in delignification and detoxification of steam-pretreated lignocellulosic biomass for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Torre, María; Martín-Sampedro, Raquel; Fillat, Úrsula; Eugenio, María E; Blánquez, Alba; Hernández, Manuel; Arias, María E; Ibarra, David

    2017-11-01

    This study evaluates the potential of a bacterial laccase from Streptomyces ipomoeae (SilA) for delignification and detoxification of steam-exploded wheat straw, in comparison with a commercial fungal laccase from Trametes villosa. When alkali extraction followed by SilA laccase treatment was applied to the water insoluble solids fraction, a slight reduction in lignin content was detected, and after a saccharification step, an increase in both glucose and xylose production (16 and 6%, respectively) was observed. These effects were not produced with T. villosa laccase. Concerning to the fermentation process, the treatment of the steam-exploded whole slurry with both laccases produced a decrease in the phenol content by up to 35 and 71% with bacterial and fungal laccases, respectively. The phenols reduction resulted in an improved performance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process, improving ethanol production rate. This enhancement was more marked with a presaccharification step prior to the SSF process.

  17. Utilization of hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw for production of bioethanol and carotene-enriched biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrik, SiniŠa; Márová, Ivana; Kádár, Zsófia

    2013-01-01

    In this work hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw was used for production of bioethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and carotene-enriched biomass by red yeasts Rhodotorula glutinis, Cystofilobasidium capitatum and Sporobolomyces roseus. To evaluate the convertibility of pretreated wheat straw...

  18. Comparing centralised and decentralised anaerobic digestion of stillage from a large-scale bioethanol plant to animal feed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosg, B; Wirthensohn, T; Konrad, G; Hornbachner, D; Resch, C; Wäger, F; Loderer, C; Waltenberger, R; Kirchmayr, R; Braun, R

    2008-01-01

    A comparison of stillage treatment options for large-scale bioethanol plants was based on the data of an existing plant producing approximately 200,000 t/yr of bioethanol and 1,400,000 t/yr of stillage. Animal feed production--the state-of-the-art technology at the plant--was compared to anaerobic digestion. The latter was simulated in two different scenarios: digestion in small-scale biogas plants in the surrounding area versus digestion in a large-scale biogas plant at the bioethanol production site. Emphasis was placed on a holistic simulation balancing chemical parameters and calculating logistic algorithms to compare the efficiency of the stillage treatment solutions. For central anaerobic digestion different digestate handling solutions were considered because of the large amount of digestate. For land application a minimum of 36,000 ha of available agricultural area would be needed and 600,000 m(3) of storage volume. Secondly membrane purification of the digestate was investigated consisting of decanter, microfiltration, and reverse osmosis. As a third option aerobic wastewater treatment of the digestate was discussed. The final outcome was an economic evaluation of the three mentioned stillage treatment options, as a guide to stillage management for operators of large-scale bioethanol plants. Copyright IWA Publishing 2008.

  19. Sugar palm (Argena pinnata). Potential of sugar palm for bio-ethanol production

    OpenAIRE

    Elbersen, H.W.; Oyen, L.P.A.

    2010-01-01

    The energetic and economic feasibility of bioethanol production from sugar palm is virtually unknown. A positive factor are the potentially very high yields while the long non-productive juvenile phase and the high labor needs can be seen as problematic. Expansion to large scale sugar palm cultivation comes with risks. Small-scale cultivation of sugar palm perfectly fits into local farming systems. In order to make a proper assessment of the value palm sugar as bio-ethanol crop more informati...

  20. The potential for bioethanol production from wheat in the U.K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batchelor, S.; Booth, E.J.; Walker, K.C.; Cook, P.

    1994-06-01

    Ethanol, currently widely used in cosmetic chemical and pharmaceutical applications, can be manufactured either from petroleum deriviatives (synthetic ethanol), or by the biological fermentation of carbohydrate. This report looks at the United Kingdom potential for production of the latter, so called, bioethanol from wheat. Ethanol from wheat is already produced for the grain spirit industry, and two such bioethanol plants operating in Sweden and France are described. Although there is, at present, no overall cost advantage in using bioethanol from wheat over synthetic ethanol, environmental benefits may sway the balance in its failure. (UK)

  1. New Estimates of Land Use Intensity of Potential Bioethanol Production in the U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheshgi, H. S.; Song, Y.; Torkamani, S.; Jain, A. K.

    2016-12-01

    We estimate potential bioethanol land use intensity (the inverse of potential bioethanol yield per hectare) across the United States by modeling crop yields and conversion to bioethanol (via a fermentation pathway), based on crop field studies and conversion technology analyses. We apply the process-based land surface model, the Integrated Science Assessment model (ISAM), to estimate the potential yield of four crops - corn, Miscanthus, and two variants of switchgrass (Cave-in-Rock and Alamo) - across the U.S.A. landscape for the 14-year period from 1999 through 2012, for the case with fertilizer application but without irrigation. We estimate bioethanol yield based on recent experience for corn bioethanol production from corn kernel, and current cellulosic bioethanol process design specifications under the assumption of the maximum practical harvest fraction for the energy grasses (Miscanthus and switchgrasses) and a moderate (30%) harvest fraction of corn stover. We find that each of four crops included has regions where that crop is estimated to have the lowest land use intensity (highest potential bioethanol yield per hectare). We find that minimizing potential land use intensity by including both corn and the energy grasses only improves incrementally to that of corn (using both harvested kernel and stover for bioethanol). Bioethanol land use intensity is one fundamental factor influencing the desirability of biofuels, but is not the only one; others factors include economics, competition with food production and land use, water and climate, nitrogen runoff, life-cycle emissions, and the pace of crop and technology improvement into the future.

  2. Production of bioethanol using agricultural waste: banana pseudo stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snehal Ingale

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available India is amongst the largest banana (Musa acuminata producing countries and thus banana pseudo stem is commonly available agricultural waste to be used as lignocellulosic substrate. Present study focuses on exploitation of banana pseudo stem as a source for bioethanol production from the sugars released due to different chemical and biological pretreatments. Two fungal strains Aspergillus ellipticus and Aspergillus fumigatus reported to be producing cellulolytic enzymes on sugarcane bagasse were used under co-culture fermentation on banana pseudo stem to degrade holocellulose and facilitate maximum release of reducing sugars. The hydrolysate obtained after alkali and microbial treatments was fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCIM 3570 to produce ethanol. Fermentation of cellulosic hydrolysate (4.1 g% gave maximum ethanol (17.1 g/L with yield (84% and productivity (0.024 g%/h after 72 h. Some critical aspects of fungal pretreatment for saccharification of cellulosic substrate using A. ellipticus and A. fumigatus for ethanol production by S. cerevisiae NCIM 3570 have been explored in this study. It was observed that pretreated banana pseudo stem can be economically utilized as a cheaper substrate for ethanol production.

  3. Steam reforming of technical bioethanol for hydrogen production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rass-Hansen, Jeppe; Johansson, Roger; Møller, Martin Hulbek

    2008-01-01

    Essentially all work on ethanol steam reforming so far has been carried out using simulated bioethanol feedstocks, which means pure ethanol mixed with water. However, technical bioethanol consists of a lot of different components including sugars, which cannot be easily vaporized and steam reformed....... For ethanol steam reforming to be of practical interest, it is important to avoid the energy-intensive purification steps to fuel grade ethanol. Therefore, it is imperative to analyze how technical bioethanol, with the relevant impurities, reacts during the steam reforming process. We show how three different...... bioethanol will result in a faster catalyst deactivation than what is observed when using pure ethanol-water mixtures because of contaminants remaining in the feed. However, the initial activity of the catalysts are not affected by this, hence it is important to not only focus on catalyst activity but rather...

  4. Challenges in bioethanol production: Utilization of cotton fabrics as a feedstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Svetlana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol, as a clean and renewable fuel with its major environmental benefits, represents a promising biofuel today which is mostly used in combination with gasoline. It can be produced from different kinds of renewable feedstocks. Whereas the first generation of processes (saccharide-based have been well documented and are largely applied, the second and third generation of bioethanol processes (cellulose- or algae-based need further research and development since bioethanol yields are still too low to be economically viable. In this study, the possibilities of bioethanol production from cotton fabrics as valuable cellulosic raw material were investigated and presented. Potential lignocellulosic biomass for bioethanol production and their characteristics, especially cotton-based materials, were analyzed. Available lignocellulosic biomass, the production of textile and clothing and potential for sustainable bioethanol production in Serbia is presented. The progress possibilities are discussed in the domain of different pretreatment methods, optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis and different ethanol fermentation process modes. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 31017

  5. Production of bio-sugar and bioethanol from coffee residue (CR) by acid-chlorite pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho Myeong; Choi, Yong-Soo; Lee, Dae-Seok; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2017-07-01

    Nowadays, coffee residue (CR) after roasting is recognized as one of the most useful resources in the world for producing the biofuel and bio-materials. In this study, we evaluated the potential of bio-sugar and bioethanol production from acid-chlorite treated CR. Notably, CR treated three times with acid-chlorite after organic solvent extraction (OSE-3), showed the high monosaccharide content, and the efficient sugar conversion yield compared to the other pretreatment conditions. The OSE-3 (6% substrate loading, w/v) can produce bio-sugar (0.568g/g OSE-3). Also, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) produced ethanol (0.266g/g OSE-3), and showed an ethanol conversion yield of 73.8% after a 72-h reaction period. These results suggest that acid-chlorite pretreatment can improve the bio-sugar and bioethanol production of CR by removing the phenolic and brown compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Saccharification of Sugarcane Bagasse by Enzymatic Treatment for bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed, F. M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The escalating demands for traditional fossil fuels with unsecured deliverance and issues of climate change compel the researchers to develop alternative fuels like bioethanol. This study examines the prospect of biofuel production from high carbohydrate containing lignocellulosic material, e.g. sugarcane bagasse through biological means. Methodology and Results: Cellulolytic enzymes were collected from the culture filtrate of thermotolerant Trichodermaviride grown on variously pre-treated sugarcane bagasse. CMCase and FPase enzyme activities were determined as a measure of suitable substrate pre-treatment and optimum condition for cellulolytic enzyme production. The highest CMCase and FPase activity was found to be 1.217 U/ml and 0.109 U/ml respectively under the production conditions of 200 rpm, pH 4.0 and 50 °C using steamed NaOH treated bagasse as substrate. SEM was carried out to compare and confirm the activity of cellulolytic enzymes on sugarcane bagasse. Saccharification of pre-treated bagasse was carried out with crude enzymes together using a two-factor experimental design. Under optimized conditions the pre-treated bagasse was saccharified up to 42.7 % in 24 h. The hydrolysate was concentrated by heating to suitable concentration and then used for fermentation by an indigenous isolate of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. With 50 and 80 % brix containing liquor the concentration of alcohol was 0.579 % and 1.15 % respectively. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: This is the first report in Bangladesh for the production of cellulosicethanol using local isolates. Though the rate of alcohol production was very low, a great impetus in this field can maximize the production thereby meet the demand for fuel in future.

  7. Simultaneous saccharification and bioethanol production from corn cobs: Process optimization and kinetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewsynker-Sukai, Yeshona; Gueguim Kana, E B

    2018-08-01

    This study investigates the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process for bioethanol production from corn cobs with prehydrolysis (PSSF) and without prehydrolysis (OSSF). Two response surface models were developed with high coefficients of determination (>0.90). Process optimization gave high bioethanol concentrations and bioethanol conversions for the PSSF (36.92 ± 1.34 g/L and 62.36 ± 2.27%) and OSSF (35.04 ± 0.170 g/L and 58.13 ± 0.283%) models respectively. Additionally, the logistic and modified Gompertz models were used to study the kinetics of microbial cell growth and ethanol formation under microaerophilic and anaerobic conditions. Cell growth in the OSSF microaerophilic process gave the highest maximum specific growth rate (µ max ) of 0.274 h -1 . The PSSF microaerophilic bioprocess gave the highest potential maximum bioethanol concentration (P m ) (42.24 g/L). This study demonstrated that microaerophilic rather than anaerobic culture conditions enhanced cell growth and bioethanol production, and that additional prehydrolysis steps do not significantly impact on the bioethanol concentration and conversion in SSF process. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Yeast cell surface display: An efficient strategy for improvement of bioethanol fermentation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xianzhong

    2017-03-04

    The cell surface serves as a functional interface between the inside and the outside of the cell. Within the past 20 y the ability of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) to display heterologous proteins on the cell surface has been demonstrated. Furthermore, S. cerevisiae has been both developed and applied in expression of various proteins on the cell surface. Using this novel and useful strategy, proteins and peptides of various kinds can be displayed on the yeast cell surface by fusing the protein of interest with the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchoring system. Consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) using S. cerevisiae represents a promising technology for bioethanol production. However, further work is needed to improve the fermentation performance. There is some excellent previous research regarding construction of yeast biocatalyst using the surface display system to decrease cost, increase efficiency of ethanol production and directly utilize starch or biomass for fuel production. In this commentary, we reviewed the yeast surface display system and highlighted recent work. Additionally, the strategy for decrease of phytate phosphate content in dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) by display of phytase on the yeast cell surface is discussed.

  9. Biotechnological Strategies to Improve Plant Biomass Quality for Bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Mario Peña-Castro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The transition from an economy dependent on nonrenewable energy sources to one with higher diversity of renewables will not be a simple process. It requires an important research effort to adapt to the dynamics of the changing energy market, sort costly processes, and avoid overlapping with social interest markets such as food and livestock production. In this review, we analyze the desirable traits of raw plant materials for the bioethanol industry and the molecular biotechnology strategies employed to improve them, in either plants already under use (as maize or proposed species (large grass families. The fundamentals of these applications can be found in the mechanisms by which plants have evolved different pathways to manage carbon resources for reproduction or survival in unexpected conditions. Here, we review the means by which this information can be used to manipulate these mechanisms for commercial uses, including saccharification improvement of starch and cellulose, decrease in cell wall recalcitrance through lignin modification, and increase in plant biomass.

  10. Biotechnological Strategies to Improve Plant Biomass Quality for Bioethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Moral, Sandra; Núñez-López, Lizeth; Barrera-Figueroa, Blanca E.; Amaya-Delgado, Lorena

    2017-01-01

    The transition from an economy dependent on nonrenewable energy sources to one with higher diversity of renewables will not be a simple process. It requires an important research effort to adapt to the dynamics of the changing energy market, sort costly processes, and avoid overlapping with social interest markets such as food and livestock production. In this review, we analyze the desirable traits of raw plant materials for the bioethanol industry and the molecular biotechnology strategies employed to improve them, in either plants already under use (as maize) or proposed species (large grass families). The fundamentals of these applications can be found in the mechanisms by which plants have evolved different pathways to manage carbon resources for reproduction or survival in unexpected conditions. Here, we review the means by which this information can be used to manipulate these mechanisms for commercial uses, including saccharification improvement of starch and cellulose, decrease in cell wall recalcitrance through lignin modification, and increase in plant biomass. PMID:28951875

  11. Fuel-cycle assessment of selected bioethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, M.; Wang, M.; Hong, H.

    2007-01-01

    A large amount of corn stover is available in the U.S. corn belt for the potential production of cellulosic bioethanol when the production technology becomes commercially ready. In fact, because corn stover is already available, it could serve as a starting point for producing cellulosic ethanol as a transportation fuel to help reduce the nation's demand for petroleum oil. Using the data available on the collection and transportation of corn stover and on the production of cellulosic ethanol, we have added the corn stover-to-ethanol pathway in the GREET model, a fuel-cycle model developed at Argonne National Laboratory. We then analyzed the life-cycle energy use and emission impacts of corn stover-derived fuel ethanol for use as E85 in flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs). The analysis included fertilizer manufacturing, corn farming, farming machinery manufacturing, stover collection and transportation, ethanol production, ethanol transportation, and ethanol use in light-duty vehicles (LDVs). Energy consumption of petroleum oil and fossil energy, emissions of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide [CO 2 ], nitrous oxide [N 2 O], and methane [CH 4 ]), and emissions of criteria pollutants (carbon monoxide [CO], volatile organic compounds [VOCs], nitrogen oxide [NO x ], sulfur oxide [SO x ], and particulate matter with diameters smaller than 10 micrometers [PM 10 ]) during the fuel cycle were estimated. Scenarios of ethanol from corn grain, corn stover, and other cellulosic feedstocks were then compared with petroleum reformulated gasoline (RFG). Results showed that FFVs fueled with corn stover ethanol blends offer substantial energy savings (94-95%) relative to those fueled with RFG. For each Btu of corn stover ethanol produced and used, 0.09 Btu of fossil fuel is required. The cellulosic ethanol pathway avoids 86-89% of greenhouse gas emissions. Unlike the life cycle of corn grain-based ethanol, in which the ethanol plant consumes most of the fossil fuel, farming consumes most

  12. Two-steps microwave-assisted treatment on acid hydrolysis of sago pith for bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunarti, T. C.; Yanti, S. D.; Ruriani, E.

    2017-05-01

    Sago is a genus of palm that can be utilized to produce fermentable sugars as substrate for bioethanol. Sago pith is a heterogeneous substrate consists of starch and fiber. Acid hydrolysis by microwave heating radiation can break down starch and fibers together in a very short time, so it is considered to be very efficient process. The use of microwave energy (as power level) and variation of heating time can produce fermentable sugar with certain characteristics. This study included the preparation and analysis of sago pith flour; process of acid hydrolysis (0.3 M and 0.5 M H2SO4) using two steps microwave heating, first with power level 30% (1, 2 and 3 min) and second with power level 70% (3 min); and ethanol production. The conventional treatment (autoclaving at 121°C for 15 min) was carried for the comparison. The highest fermentable sugar (105.7 g/l) was resulted from microwave heating with power level 30% for 2 min followed by the power level 70% for 3 min. This hydrolyzate then used as substrate for bioethanol fermentation and partially neutralized (pH 3, 4, 5) by using yeast Issatchenkia orientalis, and the highest ethanol (2.8 g/l) was produced in pH 5.

  13. Integrated Production of Xylonic Acid and Bioethanol from Acid-Catalyzed Steam-Exploded Corn Stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junjun; Rong, Yayun; Yang, Jinlong; Zhou, Xin; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Lingling; Chen, Jiahui; Yong, Qiang; Yu, Shiyuan

    2015-07-01

    High-efficiency xylose utilization is one of the restrictive factors of bioethanol industrialization. However, xylonic acid (XA) as a new bio-based platform chemical can be produced by oxidation of xylose with microbial. So, an applicable technology of XA bioconversion was integrated into the process of bioethanol production. After corn stover was pretreated with acid-catalyzed steam-explosion, solid and liquid fractions were obtained. The liquid fraction, also named as acid-catalyzed steam-exploded corn stover (ASC) prehydrolyzate (mainly containing xylose), was catalyzed with Gluconobacter oxydans NL71 to prepare XA. After 72 h of bioconversion of concentrated ASC prehydrolyzate (containing 55.0 g/L of xylose), the XA concentration reached a peak value of 54.97 g/L, the sugar utilization ratio and XA yield were 94.08 and 95.45 %, respectively. The solid fraction was hydrolyzed to produce glucose with cellulase and then fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae NL22 to produce ethanol. After 18 h of fermentation of concentrated enzymatic hydrolyzate (containing 86.22 g/L of glucose), the ethanol concentration reached its highest value of 41.48 g/L, the sugar utilization ratio and ethanol yield were 98.72 and 95.25 %, respectively. The mass balance showed that 1 t ethanol and 1.3 t XA were produced from 7.8 t oven dry corn stover.

  14. The effect of dilute acid pre-treatment process in bioethanol production from durian (Durio zibethinus) seeds waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, K. A.; Salleh, S. F.; Riayatsyah, T. M. I.; Aditiya, H. B.; Mahlia, T. M. I.

    2016-03-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is one of the promising feedstocks for bioethanol production. The process starts from pre-treatment, hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation and finally obtaining the final product, ethanol. The efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass depends heavily on the effectiveness of the pre-treatment step which main function is to break the lignin structure of the biomass. This work aims to investigate the effects of dilute acid pre-treatment on the enzymatic hydrolysis of durian seeds waste to glucose and the subsequent bioethanol fermentation process. The yield of glucose from dilute acid pre-treated sample using 0.6% H2SO4 and 5% substrate concentration shows significant value of 23.4951 g/L. Combination of dilute acid pre-treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis using 150U of enzyme able to yield 50.0944 g/L of glucose content higher compared to normal pre-treated sample of 8.1093 g/L. Dilute acid pre-treatment sample also shows stable and efficient yeast activity during fermentation process with lowest glucose content at 2.9636 g/L compared to 14.7583g/L for normal pre-treated sample. Based on the result, it can be concluded that dilute acid pre-treatment increase the yield of ethanol from bioethanol production process.

  15. Recent trends in global production and utilization of bio-ethanol fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balat, Mustafa; Balat, Havva

    2009-01-01

    Bio-fuels are important because they replace petroleum fuels. A number of environmental and economic benefits are claimed for bio-fuels. Bio-ethanol is by far the most widely used bio-fuel for transportation worldwide. Production of bio-ethanol from biomass is one way to reduce both consumption of crude oil and environmental pollution. Using bio-ethanol blended gasoline fuel for automobiles can significantly reduce petroleum use and exhaust greenhouse gas emission. Bio-ethanol can be produced from different kinds of raw materials. These raw materials are classified into three categories of agricultural raw materials: simple sugars, starch and lignocellulose. Bio-ethanol from sugar cane, produced under the proper conditions, is essentially a clean fuel and has several clear advantages over petroleum-derived gasoline in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and improving air quality in metropolitan areas. Conversion technologies for producing bio-ethanol from cellulosic biomass resources such as forest materials, agricultural residues and urban wastes are under development and have not yet been demonstrated commercially.

  16. Optimization of upstream and development of cellulose hydrolysis process for cellulosic bio-ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Hyun Jong; Wi, Seung Gon; Kim, Su Bae; Shin, You Jung; Yi, Ju Hui [Chonnam National University, Bio-Energy Research Institute, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    The purpose of this project is optimization of upstream and development of cellulose hydrolysis process for cellulosic bio-ethanol production. Research scope includes 1) screening of various microorganisms from decayed biomass in order to search for more efficient lignocellulose degrading microorganism, 2) identification and verification of new cell wall degrading cellulase for application cellulose bioconversion process, and 3) identification and characterization of novel genes involved in cellulose degradation. To find good microorganism candidates for lignocellulose degrading, 75 decayed samples from different areas were assayed in triplicate and analyzed. For cloning new cell wall degrading enzymes, we selected microorganisms because it have very good lignocellulose degradation ability. From that microorganisms, we have apparently cloned a new cellulase genes (10 genes). We are applying the new cloned cellulase genes to characterize in lignocellulsoe degradation that are most important to cellulosic biofuels production

  17. Technological trends, global market, and challenges of bio-ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussatto, Solange I; Dragone, Giuliano; Guimarães, Pedro M R; Silva, João Paulo A; Carneiro, Lívia M; Roberto, Inês C; Vicente, António; Domingues, Lucília; Teixeira, José A

    2010-01-01

    Ethanol use as a fuel additive or directly as a fuel source has grown in popularity due to governmental regulations and in some cases economic incentives based on environmental concerns as well as a desire to reduce oil dependency. As a consequence, several countries are interested in developing their internal market for use of this biofuel. Currently, almost all bio-ethanol is produced from grain or sugarcane. However, as this kind of feedstock is essentially food, other efficient and economically viable technologies for ethanol production have been evaluated. This article reviews some current and promising technologies for ethanol production considering aspects related to the raw materials, processes, and engineered strains development. The main producer and consumer nations and future perspectives for the ethanol market are also presented. Finally, technological trends to expand this market are discussed focusing on promising strategies like the use of microalgae and continuous systems with immobilized cells. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Optimization of upstream and development of cellulose hydrolysis process for cellulosic bio-ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Hyun Jong; Wi, Seung Gon; Kim, Su Bae; Shin, You Jung; Yi, Ju Hui

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this project is optimization of upstream and development of cellulose hydrolysis process for cellulosic bio-ethanol production. Research scope includes 1) screening of various microorganisms from decayed biomass in order to search for more efficient lignocellulose degrading microorganism, 2) identification and verification of new cell wall degrading cellulase for application cellulose bioconversion process, and 3) identification and characterization of novel genes involved in cellulose degradation. To find good microorganism candidates for lignocellulose degrading, 75 decayed samples from different areas were assayed in triplicate and analyzed. For cloning new cell wall degrading enzymes, we selected microorganisms because it have very good lignocellulose degradation ability. From that microorganisms, we have apparently cloned a new cellulase genes (10 genes). We are applying the new cloned cellulase genes to characterize in lignocellulsoe degradation that are most important to cellulosic biofuels production

  19. Evaluation and Selection of Potential Biomass Sources of North-East India towards Sustainable Bioethanol Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nongthombam, Grihalakshmi D.; Labala, Rajendra K.; Das, Sudripta; Handique, Pratap J.; Talukdar, Narayan C.

    2017-01-01

    Vegetation biomass production in North-East India within Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot is luxuriant and available from April to October to consider their potential for bioethanol production. Potential of six lignocellulosic biomass (LCB) sources; namely, sugarcane bagasse (BG), cassava aerial parts (CS), ficus fruits (Ficus cunia) (FF), “phumdi” (floating biomass), rice straw (RS), and sawdust were investigated for bioethanol production using standard techniques. Morphological and chemical changes were evaluated by Scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and quantity of sugars and inhibitors in LCB were determined by High performance liquid chromatography. Hydrothermally treated BG, CS, and FF released 954.54, 1,354.33, and 1,347.94 mg/L glucose and 779.31, 612.27, and 1,570.11 mg/L of xylose, respectively. Inhibitors produced due to effect of hydrothermal pretreatment ranged from 42.8 to 145.78 mg/L acetic acid, below detection level (BDL) to 17.7 µg/L 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, and BDL to 56.78 µg/L furfural. The saccharification efficiency of hydrothermally treated LCB (1.35–28.64%) was significantly higher compared with their native counterparts (0.81–17.97%). Consolidated bioprocessing of the LCB using MTCC 1755 (Fusarium oxysporum) resulted in maximum ethanol concentration of 0.85 g/L and corresponded to 42 mg ethanol per gram of hydrothermally treated BG in 120 h followed by 0.83 g/L corresponding to 41.5 mg/g of untreated CS in 144 h. These ethanol concentrations corresponded to 23.43 and 21.54% of theoretical ethanol yield, respectively. LCB of CS and FF emerged as a suitable material to be subjected to test for enhanced ethanol production in future experiments through efficient fermentative microbial strains, appropriate enzyme loadings, and standardization of other fermentation parameters.

  20. Evaluation and Selection of Potential Biomass Sources of North-East India towards Sustainable Bioethanol Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nongthombam, Grihalakshmi D., E-mail: griha789@gmail.com; Labala, Rajendra K.; Das, Sudripta [Institute of Bioresources and Sustainable Development (IBSD), Imphal (India); Handique, Pratap J. [Department of Biotechnology, Gauhati University, Guwahati (India); Talukdar, Narayan C., E-mail: griha789@gmail.com [Division of Life Sciences, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology, Guwahati (India)

    2017-07-11

    Vegetation biomass production in North-East India within Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot is luxuriant and available from April to October to consider their potential for bioethanol production. Potential of six lignocellulosic biomass (LCB) sources; namely, sugarcane bagasse (BG), cassava aerial parts (CS), ficus fruits (Ficus cunia) (FF), “phumdi” (floating biomass), rice straw (RS), and sawdust were investigated for bioethanol production using standard techniques. Morphological and chemical changes were evaluated by Scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and quantity of sugars and inhibitors in LCB were determined by High performance liquid chromatography. Hydrothermally treated BG, CS, and FF released 954.54, 1,354.33, and 1,347.94 mg/L glucose and 779.31, 612.27, and 1,570.11 mg/L of xylose, respectively. Inhibitors produced due to effect of hydrothermal pretreatment ranged from 42.8 to 145.78 mg/L acetic acid, below detection level (BDL) to 17.7 µg/L 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, and BDL to 56.78 µg/L furfural. The saccharification efficiency of hydrothermally treated LCB (1.35–28.64%) was significantly higher compared with their native counterparts (0.81–17.97%). Consolidated bioprocessing of the LCB using MTCC 1755 (Fusarium oxysporum) resulted in maximum ethanol concentration of 0.85 g/L and corresponded to 42 mg ethanol per gram of hydrothermally treated BG in 120 h followed by 0.83 g/L corresponding to 41.5 mg/g of untreated CS in 144 h. These ethanol concentrations corresponded to 23.43 and 21.54% of theoretical ethanol yield, respectively. LCB of CS and FF emerged as a suitable material to be subjected to test for enhanced ethanol production in future experiments through efficient fermentative microbial strains, appropriate enzyme loadings, and standardization of other fermentation parameters.

  1. Lignin-enriched Fermentation Residues from Bioethanol Production of Fast-growing Poplar and Forage Sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José I Santos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The current challenges in developing a cost-effective bioethanol industry include the production of not only high-volume, low cost biofuels but also high-value products with minimal downstream waste. The up-grading of side-stream lignins from bioethanol production plants to novel high-value products will improve the profitability of the bioethanol industry; to do that, a precise understanding of lignin is required. In the present study, lignin-enriched fermentation residues from bioethanol production (steam explosion pretreatment, saccharification, and fermentation of fast-growing poplar and forage sorghum were characterized. In addition to the purity and composition, lignin structure (syringyl/guaiacyl (S/G ratio, inter-unit linkages was also analyzed with spectroscopy techniques such as Fourier transform infrared and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance. Bioethanol processing and feedstock origins seemed to be the main factors determining the purity, composition, and structure of lignins. Residual lignins from poplar and forage sorghum contained significant amounts of sugar and protein impurities. Poplar lignin showed a very high S/G ratio associated with p-hydroxybenzoate. A lower S/G ratio together with H lignin units and p-hydroxycinnamates (p-coumarate and ferulate was observed for forage sorghum lignin. The main inter-unit linkages present in both lignins were β-O-4´ aryl ether followed by resinols and phenylcoumarans.

  2. The sustainability of cassava-based bioethanol production in southern Mali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kjeld; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Bruun, Thilde Bech

    2015-01-01

    of labour input. Analysis of the significance of current cassava production for food security shows that bioethanol production should be based on the attiéké variety of cassava, thereby avoiding interference with the important role of the bonouma in assuring food security in northern Mali. The key factor......The demand for biofuels has been rising, which has led developing countries to focus on production of feedstocks for biodiesel and bioethanol production. This has caused concerns for the impacts on food security, food prices and environmental sustainability. This paper examines a hypothetical case...

  3. A low-energy, cost-effective approach to fruit and citrus peel waste processing for bioethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, In Seong; Lee, Yoon Gyo; Khanal, Sarmir Kumar; Park, Bok Jae; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Simple bioprocess of bioethanol production from fruit wastes containing D-limonene. • Two in-house enzymatic bioconversion rates were approximately 90%. • Limonene recovery column (LRC) was designed for absorption of D-limonene. • Ethanol production by immobilized yeast fermentation and LRC was 12-fold greater. - Abstract: Large quantities of fruit waste are generated from agricultural processes worldwide. This waste is often simply dumped into landfills or the ocean. Fruit waste has high levels of sugars, including sucrose, glucose, and fructose, that can be fermented for bioethanol production. However, some fruit wastes, such as citrus peel waste (CPW), contain compounds that can inhibit fermentation and should be removed for efficient bioethanol production. We developed a novel approach for converting single-source CPW (i.e., orange, mandarin, grapefruit, lemon, or lime) or CPW in combination with other fruit waste (i.e., banana peel, apple pomace, and pear waste) to produce bioethanol. Two in-house enzymes were produced from Avicel and CPW and were tested with fruit waste at 12–15% (w/v) solid loading. The rates of enzymatic conversion of fruit waste to fermentable sugars were approximately 90% for all feedstocks after 48 h. We also designed a D-limonene removal column (LRC) that successfully removed this inhibitor from the fruit waste. When the LRC was coupled with an immobilized cell reactor (ICR), yeast fermentation resulted in ethanol concentrations (14.4–29.5 g/L) and yields (90.2–93.1%) that were 12-fold greater than products from ICR fermentation alone

  4. An integrated approach for biodiesel and bioethanol production from Scenedesmus bijugatus cultivated in a vertical tubular photobioreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashokkumar, Veeramuthu; Salam, Zainal; Tiwari, O.N.; Chinnasamy, Senthil; Mohammed, Sudheer; Ani, Farid Nasir

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Alga Scenedesmus bijugatus was explored for biodiesel and bioethanol production. • Tubular photobioreactor was designed and produced 0.26 g L −1 d −1 of dry biomass. • Sequential stages of transesterification produced 0.21 g biodiesel yield/g dry biomass. • The lipid extracted residues of S. bijugatus produced 0.158 g bioethanol/g dry biomass. - Abstract: Algae are considered promising renewable feedstocks for the production of alternative fuels. In this study, an indigenous strain of Scenedesmus bijugatus found commonly in the fresh water bodies was isolated and evaluated for biofuels production. The alga was successfully mass cultivated in the custom made vertical tubular photobioreactor (250 L capacity) at semi-continuous mode. During the cultivation period, the volumetric biomass and lipid productivity were assessed. The alga S. bijugatus produced 0.26 g L −1 d −1 of dry biomass and 63 mg L −1 d −1 of lipids, respectively. Algal biomass was harvested by a combined harvesting process involving coagulation and flocculation using Iron (III) sulfate and an organic polymer which resulted in 98% harvesting efficiency. Lipid extraction using hexane:diethyl ether (1:2 ratio) resulted in maximum extraction of lipids. This study also examined sequential stages of esterification and transesterification to convert lipids to biodiesel. The maximum biodiesel yield of 0.21 g/g of dry biomass was obtained through the acid base catalytic process. The biodiesel fuel properties were tested and observed that most of the properties complying with ASTM D6751 specifications. The lipid extracted residual biomass recorded a yield of 0.158 g of bioethanol per g. This study confirmed the potential of lipid extracted biomass for the production of bioethanol to improve the economic feasibility of microalgal biorefinery

  5. Bioethanol production from forestry residues: A comparative techno-economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankó, Balázs; Galbe, Mats; Wallberg, Ola

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A proposed cellulosic ethanol biorefinery in Sweden was simulated with Aspen Plus. • Forestry residues with different bark contents were evaluated as raw materials. • The bark content negatively influenced the minimum ethanol selling price. • Sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the influence of raw material cost. - Abstract: A techno-economic analysis was conducted to assess the feasibility of using forestry residues with different bark contents for bioethanol production. A proposed cellulosic ethanol biorefinery in Sweden was simulated with Aspen Plus. The plant was assumed to convert different forestry assortments (sawdust and shavings, fuel logs, early thinnings, tops and branches, hog fuel and pulpwood) to ethanol, pellets, biogas and electricity. The intention was not to obtain absolute ethanol production costs for future facilities, but to assess and compare the future potential of utilizing different forestry residues for bioethanol production. The same plant design and operating conditions were assumed in all cases, and the effect of including bark on the whole conversion process, especially how it influenced the ethanol production cost, was studied. While the energy efficiency (not including district heating) obtained for the whole process was between 67 and 69% regardless of the raw material used, the ethanol production cost differed considerably; the minimum ethanol selling price ranging from 0.77 to 1.52 USD/L. Under the basic assumptions, all the forestry residues apart from sawdust and shavings exhibited a negative net present value at current market prices. The profitability decreased with increasing bark content of the raw material. Sensitivity analyses showed that, at current market prices, the utilization of bark-containing forestry residues will not provide significant cost improvement compared with pulpwood unless the conversion of cellulose and hemicellulose to monomeric sugars is improved.

  6. Pressurized liquid extraction of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) with bioethanol: an efficient and sustainable approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiajin; Guo, Zheng; Glasius, Marianne; Kristensen, Kasper; Xiao, Langtao; Xu, Xuebing

    2011-08-26

    To develop an efficient green extraction approach for recovery of bioactive compounds from natural plants, we examined the potential of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) with bioethanol/water as solvents. The advantages of PLE over other extraction approaches, in addition to reduced time/solvent cost, the extract of PLE showed a distinct constituent profile from that of Soxhlet extraction, with significantly improved recovery of diarylheptanoids, etc. Among the pure solvents tested for PLE, bioethanol yield the highest efficiency for recovering most constituents of gingerol-related compounds; while for a broad concentration spectrum of ethanol aqueous solutions, 70% ethanol gave the best performance in terms of yield of total extract, complete constituent profile and recovery of most gingerol-related components. PLE with 70% bioethanol operated at 1500 psi and 100 °C for 20 min (static extraction time: 5 min) is recommended as optimized extraction conditions, achieving 106.8%, 109.3% and 108.0% yield of [6]-, [8]- and [10]-gingerol relative to the yield of corresponding constituent obtained by 8h Soxhlet extraction (absolute ethanol as extraction solvent). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Bioethanol production from date palm fruit waste fermentation using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CDPW is a renewable and sustainable resource of energy that is not greatly used in industries. The date is rich in biodegradable sugars, providing bioethanol after fermentation during 72 h at 30°C in the presence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast and the distillation of date's juice obtained. In the first experience, a solar ...

  8. Bioethanol production from Curcubita pepo and Opilia amentacea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subsequently, the highest outputs of 60.72 ± 0.68 and 50.93 ± 1.61 g ethanol/kg were obtained respectively with O. amentacea and C. pepo. In the same time, 460.97 ± 8.66 g ethanol/kg were got as maximum output from sucrose (NG). Keywords: Fruit juices, enrichment, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, fermentation, bioethanol

  9. A preliminary study on performance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae n0 DY 7221 immobilized using grafted bioflocculant in bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suci, Windhu Griyasti; Margono, Kaavessina, Mujtahid

    2018-02-01

    Bioethanol has been well acknowledged to be developed as a biofuel and can be derived from renewable resources. Currently, the utilization of bioethanol as a fuel is more expensive than that of gasoline due to the high production cost. Researchers from industrial and academia have been doing some efforts to reduce it, namely: energy efficiency, exploring many potential renewable resources, increasing fermentation productivity, etc. We propose a novel immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae trapped in grafted bioflocculant. The flocculant was developed from polyacrylamide chains grafted into modified starches. This research aims to preliminary performance study of S. cerevisiae immobilized using our new developed method. The bioflocculant solution with the various concentration of 1%, 2%, and 2.5% v/v was dropped into 90 ml of developed inoculum to get flocs which would be used as a starter in fermentation process. The fermentation process was carried out in a shaken flask at 30oC and 150 rpm for 72 hours. The best result was obtained in the sample of 2.5% bioflocculant fraction, i.e. bioethanol 9.25% and enhanced productivity 3.6 times of free cell. These results indicate that flocculation method is a way of immobilizing yeast that needs to be further investigated.

  10. Second generation bioethanol production from Saccharum spontaneum L. ssp. aegyptiacum (Willd.) Hack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilo Scordia; Salvatore L. Consentino; Thomas W. Jeffries

    2010-01-01

    Saccharum (Saccharum spontaneum L. ssp. aegyptiacum (Willd.) Hack.), is a rapidly growing, wide ranging high-yield perennial, suitable for second generation bioethanol production. This study evaluated oxalic acid as a pretreatment for bioconversion. Overall sugar yields, sugar degradation products, enzymatic glucan hydrolysis and ethanol production were studied as...

  11. Bioethanol production from residual lignocellulosic materials: A review – Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTIAN-TEODOR BURUIANA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic materials (LCM are produced in large quantities and without clear application and their use as raw material for bioethanol production shows economic and ecologic benefits. LCM are composed mainly of three polymers: cellulose made up of glucose units, hemicellulose made up of several sugars (as xylose or arabinose, and lignin made up of phenylpropane units, interconnected in a strong structure. Pretreatment is an important step for bioethanol production from LCM, causing the solubilisation of hemicellulosic fraction (leading to the recovery of hemicellulose-derived saccharides in order to obtain a solid phase enriched in cellulose and more susceptible to enzymatic attack. This study provides a comparative data regarding the chemical composition of various LCM used for bioethanol production, as well as different pretreatment technologies for improving the enzymatic hydrolysis of LCM.

  12. Fuel-cycle assessment of selected bioethanol production.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, M.; Wang, M.; Hong, H.; Energy Systems

    2007-01-31

    A large amount of corn stover is available in the U.S. corn belt for the potential production of cellulosic bioethanol when the production technology becomes commercially ready. In fact, because corn stover is already available, it could serve as a starting point for producing cellulosic ethanol as a transportation fuel to help reduce the nation's demand for petroleum oil. Using the data available on the collection and transportation of corn stover and on the production of cellulosic ethanol, we have added the corn stover-to-ethanol pathway in the GREET model, a fuel-cycle model developed at Argonne National Laboratory. We then analyzed the life-cycle energy use and emission impacts of corn stover-derived fuel ethanol for use as E85 in flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs). The analysis included fertilizer manufacturing, corn farming, farming machinery manufacturing, stover collection and transportation, ethanol production, ethanol transportation, and ethanol use in light-duty vehicles (LDVs). Energy consumption of petroleum oil and fossil energy, emissions of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide [CO{sub 2}], nitrous oxide [N{sub 2}O], and methane [CH{sub 4}]), and emissions of criteria pollutants (carbon monoxide [CO], volatile organic compounds [VOCs], nitrogen oxide [NO{sub x}], sulfur oxide [SO{sub x}], and particulate matter with diameters smaller than 10 micrometers [PM{sub 10}]) during the fuel cycle were estimated. Scenarios of ethanol from corn grain, corn stover, and other cellulosic feedstocks were then compared with petroleum reformulated gasoline (RFG). Results showed that FFVs fueled with corn stover ethanol blends offer substantial energy savings (94-95%) relative to those fueled with RFG. For each Btu of corn stover ethanol produced and used, 0.09 Btu of fossil fuel is required. The cellulosic ethanol pathway avoids 86-89% of greenhouse gas emissions. Unlike the life cycle of corn grain-based ethanol, in which the ethanol plant consumes most of the fossil

  13. Attainable region analysis for continuous production of second generation bioethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Felipe; Conejeros, Raúl; Aroca, Germán

    2013-11-29

    Despite its semi-commercial status, ethanol production from lignocellulosics presents many complexities not yet fully solved. Since the pretreatment stage has been recognized as a complex and yield-determining step, it has been extensively studied. However, economic success of the production process also requires optimization of the biochemical conversion stage. This work addresses the search of bioreactor configurations with improved residence times for continuous enzymatic saccharification and fermentation operations. Instead of analyzing each possible configuration through simulation, we apply graphical methods to optimize the residence time of reactor networks composed of steady-state reactors. Although this can be easily made for processes described by a single kinetic expression, reactions under analysis do not exhibit this feature. Hence, the attainable region method, able to handle multiple species and its reactions, was applied for continuous reactors. Additionally, the effects of the sugars contained in the pretreatment liquor over the enzymatic hydrolysis and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) were assessed. We obtained candidate attainable regions for separate enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) and SSF operations, both fed with pretreated corn stover. Results show that, despite the complexity of the reaction networks and underlying kinetics, the reactor networks that minimize the residence time can be constructed by using plug flow reactors and continuous stirred tank reactors. Regarding the effect of soluble solids in the feed stream to the reactor network, for SHF higher glucose concentration and yield are achieved for enzymatic hydrolysis with washed solids. Similarly, for SSF, higher yields and bioethanol titers are obtained using this substrate. In this work, we demonstrated the capabilities of the attainable region analysis as a tool to assess the optimal reactor network with minimum residence time applied to the SHF and

  14. Evaluation of Alkali-Pretreated Soybean Straw for Lignocellulosic Bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seonghun Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean straw is a renewable resource in agricultural residues that can be used for lignocellulosic bioethanol production. To enhance enzymatic digestibility and fermentability, the biomass was prepared with an alkali-thermal pretreatment (sodium hydroxide, 121°C, 60 min. The delignification yield was 34.1~53%, in proportion to the amount of sodium hydroxide, from 0.5 to 3.0 M. The lignin and hemicellulose contents of the pretreated biomass were reduced by the pretreatment process, whereas the proportion of cellulose was increased. Under optimal condition, the pretreated biomass consisted of 74.0±0.1% cellulose, 10.3±0.1% hemicellulose, and 10.1±0.6% lignin. During enzymatic saccharification using Cellic® CTec2 cellulase, 10% (w/v of pretreated soybean straw was hydrolyzed completely and converted to 67.3±2.1 g/L glucose and 9.4±0.5 g/L xylose with a 90.9% yield efficiency. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of the pretreated biomass by Saccharomyces cerevisiae W303-1A produced 30.5±1.2 g/L ethanol in 0.5 L fermented medium containing 10% (w/v pretreated biomass after 72 h. The ethanol productivity was 0.305 g ethanol/g dry biomass and 0.45 g ethanol/g glucose after fermentation, with a low concentration of organic acid metabolites. Also, 82% of fermentable sugar was used by the yeast for ethanol fermentation. These results show that the combination of alkaline pretreatment and biomass hydrolysate is useful for enhancing bioethanol productivity using delignified soybean straw.

  15. Bioethanol Production from Empty Fruit Bunch using Direct Fermentation by an Actinomycete Streptosporangium roseum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nik Him, N. R.; Huda, T.

    2018-05-01

    Study on the production of bioethanol using palm oil empty fruit bunch (EFB) has been performed using actinomycete Streptosporangium roseum. Positive result of bioethanol production was recorded using Iodoform test followed by confirmation with GC-FID using a polar capillary column (PEG-type, 10m x 0.53, with autosampler) and n-propanol as internal standard. The first and second round distillation has produced azeotrope (85-15% ethanol-water) and the third round has concentrated the ethanol to 96.1%. Therefore, the process was accomplished by using molecular sieves that selectively absorbed the final excess water. Direct fermentation using Streptosporangium roseum has shown to be a very potential way to catalyst for the synthesis of bioethanol from EFB.

  16. Bioethanol production from residual lignocellulosic materials: A review – Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTIAN-TEODOR BURUIANA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic material (LCM can be employed as feedstock for biorefineries, a concept related to industries designed to process biomass for producing chemicals, fuels and/or electrical power. According to this philosophy, LCM can be fractionated and the resulting fractions employed for specific applications. Bioethanol production from cellulosic fraction of LCM involves: hydrolysis of polysaccharides and fermentation of the monomers into bioethanol. Enzymatic hydrolysis is catalyzed by cellulolytic enzymes and fermentation is carried out by bacteria, yeasts or fungi. The main objective of this article is to review different process integration technologies for bioethanol production from LCM. This paper include: separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF, and simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF methods. Furthermore, the fermentation process and a comparative data of cellulases, hemicellulases and ethanol producing-microorganisms were presented.

  17. Integration of chlorogenic acid recovery and bioethanol production from spent coffee grounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burniol Figols, Anna; Cenian, Katarzyna; Skiadas, Ioannis V.

    2016-01-01

    Spent coffee grounds (SCG) are an abundant by-product of the coffee industry with a complex composition that makes them a promising feedstock for a biorefinery. The objective of this study was to evaluate SCG as a substrate for combined chlorogenic acid and bioethanol production after dilute acid...

  18. Sugar palm (Argena pinnata). Potential of sugar palm for bio-ethanol production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbersen, H.W.; Oyen, L.P.A.

    2010-01-01

    The energetic and economic feasibility of bioethanol production from sugar palm is virtually unknown. A positive factor are the potentially very high yields while the long non-productive juvenile phase and the high labor needs can be seen as problematic. Expansion to large scale sugar palm

  19. Potential of bioethanol as a chemical building block for biorefineries: Preliminary sustainability assessment of 12 bioethanol-based products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posada Duque, J.A.; Patel, A.D.; Roes, A.L.; Blok, K.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Patel, M.K.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present and apply a quick screening method and to identify the most promising bioethanol derivatives using an early-stage sustainability assessment method that compares a bioethanol-based conversion route to its respective petrochemical counterpart. The method combines,

  20. Production of bioethanol from agricultural waste | Braide | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maximum yields of ethanol were obtained at pH 3.60, 3.82, 4.00, 3.64 and 3.65. These findings show/prove that ethanol can be made from the named agricultural waste and the process is recommended as a means of generating wealth from waste. Keywords: bioethanol; fermentation; agro waste; Zea mays; sugar cane ...

  1. Bioethanol production potential from Brazilian biodiesel co-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, Evan Michael; Filho, Delly Oliveira; Martins, Marcio Aredes [Departamento de Engenharia Agricola, Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Campus Universitario 36570-000 Vicosa, MG (Brazil); Steward, Brian L. [Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Iowa State University, 214D Davidson Hall, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    One major problem facing the commercial production of cellulosic ethanol is the challenge of economically harvesting and transporting sufficient amounts of biomass as a feedstock at biorefinery plant scales. Oil extraction for biodiesel production, however, yields large quantities of biomass co-products rich in cellulose, sugar and starch, which in many cases may be sufficient to produce enough ethanol to meet the alcohol demands of the transesterification process. Soybean, castor bean, Jatropha curcas, palm kernel, sunflower and cottonseed were studied to determine ethanol production potential from cellulose found in the oil extraction co-products and also their capacity to meet transesterification alcohol demands. All crops studied were capable of producing enough ethanol for biodiesel production and, in the case of cottonseed, 470% of the transesterification demand could be met with cellulosic ethanol production from oil extraction co-products. Based on Brazilian yields of the crops studied, palm biomass has the highest potential ethanol yield of 108 m{sup 3} km{sup -2} followed by J. curcas with 40 m{sup 3} km{sup -2}. A total of 3.5 hm{sup 3} could be produced from Brazilian soybean oil extraction co-products. (author)

  2. Enzymatic hydrolysis and production of bioethanol from common macrophytic green alga Ulva fasciata Delile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Nitin; Gupta, Vishal; Reddy, C R K; Jha, Bhavanath

    2013-12-01

    The green seaweed Ulva which proliferates fast and occurs abundantly worldwide was used as a feedstock for production of ethanol following enzymatic hydrolysis. Among the different cellulases investigated for efficient saccharification, cellulase 22119 showed the highest conversion efficiency of biomass into reducing sugars than Viscozyme L, Cellulase 22086 and 22128. Pre-heat treatment of biomass in aqueous medium at 120°C for 1h followed by incubation in 2% (v/v) enzyme for 36 h at 45°C gave a maximum yield of sugar 206.82±14.96 mg/g. The fermentation of hydrolysate gave ethanol yield of 0.45 g/g reducing sugar accounting for 88.2% conversion efficiency. These values are substantially higher than those of reported so far for both agarophytes and carrageenophytes. It was also confirmed that enzyme can be used twice without compromising on the saccharification efficiency. The findings of this study reveal that Ulva can be a potential feedstock for bioethanol production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Thermophilic amylase from Thermus sp. isolation and its potential application for bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Fatoni

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Limited reserves of fossil energy stimulate researchers to explore for a new alternative energy, such as bioethanol.A thermophilic amylase producing bacterium was isolated from local hot-springs and its characteristic and potential applicationfor bioethanol production was determined. The obtained amylase was studied to determine its optimum temperature, pH,enzymatic reaction time, and substrate concentration. Tapioca waste was used as the substrate to find the potential of theamylase for degrading starch into glucose, and then the process was continued by fermentation to produce bioethanol. Theamylase producer bacterium was proposed as genus Thermus sp. The crude amylase that was obtained has the optimumtemperature of 60°C and optimum pH of 8.0, optimum substrate concentration at 10% (w/w and optimum enzymatic reactiontime of 45 minutes. These enzymes convert the starches of waste tapioca at optimum conditions, with the result of 2.9%ethanol produced from raw materials.

  4. Modeling of Production and Quality of Bioethanol Obtained from Sugarcane Fermentation Using Direct Dissolved Sugars Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borja Velazquez-Marti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol production from sugarcane represents an opportunity for urban-agricultural development in small communities of Ecuador. Despite the fact that the industry for bioethanol production from sugarcane in Brazil is fully developed, it is still considered expensive as a small rural business. In order to be able to reduce the costs of monitoring the production process, and avoid the application of expensive sensors, the aim of this research was modeling the kinetics of production of bioethanol based on direct measurements of Brix grades, instead of the concentration of alcohol, during the process of cane juice bio-fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This avoids the application of expensive sensors that increase the investment costs. Fermentation experiments with three concentrations of yeast and two temperatures were carried out in a laboratory reactor. In each case Brix grades, amount of ethanol and alcoholic degree were measured. A mathematical model to predict the quality and production of bioethanol was developed from Brix grade measurements, obtaining an adjusted coefficient of determination of 0.97. The model was validated in a pilot plant.

  5. Production of 2nd generation Bioethanol from Lucerne - Optimization of Hydrothermal Pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe; Jensen, Morten; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2012-01-01

    Lucerne (Medicago sativa) has many qualities associated with sustainable agriculture such as nitrogen fixation and high biomass yield. Therefore, there is interest in whether lucerne is a suitable biomass substrate for bioethanol production, and if hydrothermal pretreatment (HTT) of lucerne impro...

  6. Cell-wall structural changes in wheat straw pretreated for bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan B. Kristensen; G. Thygesen Lisbeth; Claus Felby; Henning Jorgensen; Thomas Elder

    2008-01-01

    Pretreatment is an essential step in the enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass and subsequent production of bioethanol. Recent results indicate that only a mild pretreatment is necessary in an industrial, economically feasible system. The Integrated Biomass Utilisation System hydrothermal pretreatment process has previously been shown to be effective in preparing wheat straw...

  7. Bioethanol production by inherent enzymes from rye and wheat with addition of organic farming cheese whey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kádár, Zsófia; Christensen, Anne Deen; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard

    2011-01-01

    . Throughout our studies, wheat and rye grain was used as raw material in bioethanol production with the purpose of producing in situ enzymes (during germination) for the hydrolysis of starch in the grains and compared with commercial amylase enzyme preparations. Whey permeate was incorporated into the grain...

  8. Feasibility of Hydrothermal Pretreatment on Maize Silage for Bioethanol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jian; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2010-01-01

    The potential of maize silage as a feedstock to produce bioethanol was evaluated in the present study. The hydrothermal pretreatment with five different pretreatment severity factors (PSF) was employed to pretreat the maize silage and compared in terms of sugar recovery, toxic test, and ethanol...... the liquors from the five conditions were not toxic to the Baker’s yeast. Pretreatment under 195°C for 7 min had the similar PSF with that of 185°C for 15 min, and both gave the higher ethanol concentration of 19.92 and 19.98 g/L, respectively. The ethanol concentration from untreated maize silage was only 7...

  9. Enhanced Bio-Ethanol Production from Industrial Potato Waste by Statistical Medium Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Izmirlioglu, Gulten; Demirci, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Industrial wastes are of great interest as a substrate in production of value-added products to reduce cost, while managing the waste economically and environmentally. Bio-ethanol production from industrial wastes has gained attention because of its abundance, availability, and rich carbon and nitrogen content. In this study, industrial potato waste was used as a carbon source and a medium was optimized for ethanol production by using statistical designs. The effect of various medium componen...

  10. Use of magnetic nanoparticles to enhance bioethanol production in syngas fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Kee; Lee, Haryeong

    2016-03-01

    The effect of two types of nanoparticles on the enhancement of bioethanol production in syngas fermentation by Clostridium ljungdahlii was examined. Methyl-functionalized silica and methyl-functionalized cobalt ferrite-silica (CoFe2O4@SiO2-CH3) nanoparticles were used to improve syngas-water mass transfer. Of these, CoFe2O4@SiO2-CH3 nanoparticles showed better enhancement of syngas mass transfer. The nanoparticles were recovered using a magnet and reused five times to evaluate reusability, and it was confirmed that their capability for mass transfer enhancement was maintained. Both types of nanoparticles were applied to syngas fermentation, and production of biomass, ethanol, and acetic acid was enhanced. CoFe2O4@SiO2-CH3 nanoparticles were more efficient for the productivity of syngas fermentation due to improved syngas mass transfer. The biomass, ethanol, and acetic acid production compared to a control were increased by 227.6%, 213.5%, and 59.6%, respectively by addition of CoFe2O4@SiO2-CH3 nanoparticles. The reusability of the nanoparticles was confirmed by reuse of recovered nanoparticles for fermentation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Continuous production of bio-oil by catalytic liquefaction from wet distiller’s grain with solubles (WDGS) from bio-ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toor, Saqib Sohail; Rosendahl, Lasse; Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Glasius, Marianne; Rudolf, Andreas; Iversen, Steen Brummerstedt

    2012-01-01

    Bio-refinery concepts are currently receiving much attention due to the drive toward flexible, highly efficient systems for utilization of biomass for food, feed, fuel and bio-chemicals. One way of achieving this is through appropriate process integration, in this particular case combining enzymatic bio-ethanol production with catalytic liquefaction of the wet distillers grains with soluble, a byproduct from the bio-ethanol process. The catalytic liquefaction process is carried out at sub-critical conditions (280–370 °C and 25 MPa) in the presence of a homogeneous alkaline and a heterogeneous Zirconia catalyst, a process known as the Catliq ® process. In the current work, catalytic conversion of WDGS was performed in a continuous pilot plant with a maximum capacity of 30 dm 3 h −1 of wet biomass. In the process, WDGS was converted to bio-oil, gases and water-soluble organic compounds. The oil obtained was characterized using several analysis methods, among them elementary analysis and GC–MS. The study shows that WDGS can be converted to bio oil with high yields. The results also indicate that through the combination of bio-ethanol production and catalytic liquefaction, it is possible to significantly increase the liquid product yield and scope, opening up for a wider end use applicability. -- Highlights: ► Hydrothermal liquefaction of wet biomass. ► Product phase analysis: oil, acqeous, gas and mineral phase. ► Energy and mass balance evaluation.

  12. Bioethanol - Status report on bioethanol production from wood and other lignocellulosic feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott-Kerr, Chris; Johnson, Tony; Johnson, Barbara; Kiviaho, Jukka

    2010-09-15

    Lignocellulosic biomass is seen as an attractive feedstock for future supplies of renewable fuels, reducing the dependence on imported petroleum. However, there are technical and economic impediments to the development of commercial processes that utilise biomass feedstocks for the production of liquid fuels such as ethanol. Significant investment into research, pilot and demonstration plants is on-going to develop commercially viable processes utilising the biochemical and thermochemical conversion technologies for ethanol. This paper reviews the current status of commercial lignocellulosic ethanol production and identifies global production facilities.

  13. PRETREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES IN BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Janušić

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol is today most commonly produced from corn grain and sugar cane. It is expected that there will be limits to the supply of these raw materials in the near future. Therefore, lignocellulosic biomass, namely agricultural and forest waste, is seen as an attractive feedstock for future supplies of ethanol. Lignocellulosic biomass consists of lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose. Indeed, complexicity of the lignocellulosic biomass structure causes a pretreatment to be applied prior to cellulose and hemicellulose hydrolysis into fermentable sugars. Pretreatment technologies can be physical (mechanical comminution, pyrolysis, physico-chemical (steam explosion, ammonia fiber explosion, CO2 explosion, chemical (ozonolysis, acid hydrolysis, alkaline hydrolysis, oxidative delignification, organosolvent process and biological ones.

  14. Technical Feasibility and Comprehensive Sustainability Assessment of Sweet Sorghum for Bioethanol Production in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Yang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Under dual pressures of energy and environmental security, sweet sorghum is becoming one of the most promising feedstocks for biofuel production. In the present study, the technical feasibility of sweet sorghum production was assessed in eight agricultural regions in China using the Sweet Sorghum Production Technique Maturity Model. Three top typical agricultural zones were then selected for further sustainability assessment of sweet sorghum production: Northeast China (NEC, Huang-Huai-Hai Basin (HHHB and Ganxin Region (GX. Assessment results demonstrated that NEC exhibited the best sustainable production of sweet sorghum, with a degree of technical maturity value of 0.8066, followed by HHHB and GX, with corresponding values of 0.7531 and 0.6594, respectively. Prospective economic profitability analysis indicated that bioethanol production from sweet sorghum was not feasible using current technologies in China. More efforts are needed to dramatically improve feedstock mechanization logistics while developing new bioethanol productive technology to reduce the total cost. This study provides insight and information to guide further technological development toward profitable industrialization and large-scale sweet sorghum bioethanol production.

  15. Bioconversion of glycerol for bioethanol production using isolated Escherichia coli SS1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheril Norliana Suhaimi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioconverting glycerol into various valuable products is one of glycerol's promising applications due to its high availability at low cost and the existence of many glycerol-utilizing microorganisms. Bioethanol and biohydrogen, which are types of renewable fuels, are two examples of bioconverted products. The objectives of this study were to evaluate ethanol production from different media by local microorganism isolates and compare the ethanol fermentation profile of the selected strains to use of glucose or glycerol as sole carbon sources. The ethanol fermentations by six isolates were evaluated after a preliminary screening process. Strain named SS1 produced the highest ethanol yield of 1.0 mol: 1.0 mol glycerol and was identified as Escherichia coli SS1 Also, this isolated strain showed a higher affinity to glycerol than glucose for bioethanol production.

  16. Synergistic effect of pretreatment and fermentation process on carbohydrate-rich Scenedesmus dimorphus for bioethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chng, Lee Muei; Lee, Keat Teong; Chan, Derek Juinn Chieh

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Biomass of Scenedesmus dimorphus is degradable to produce fermentable sugar. • Sugar yield improves with acidic, enzymatic and organosolv pretreatment. • Pretreatment strategies are positively correlated with fermentation process. • SSF with organosolv-treated biomass is promising for bioethanol production. - Abstract: Significant development in conversion technologies to produce bioethanol from microalgae biomass is causing paradigm-shift in energy management. In this study, carbohydrate-rich microalgae, Scenedesmus dimorphus (49% w/w of carbohydrate) is selected with the aim to obtain qualitative correlation between pretreatment and fermentation process. In view of this, separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) were conducted experimentally. The fermentation behavior were investigated for microalgae biomass treated via organosolv, enzymatic and acidic pretreatment. Fermentation process was carried out by ethanologen microbe, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. From the result, it is observed that a combination of two treatment is found to be the most effective in producing fermentable sugar for the subsequent fermentation process. The organosolv treatment which is followed with the SSF process produced a theoretical yield of bioethanol that exceeded 90%. On the other hand, hydrothermal acid-hydrolyzed fermentation produced the bioethanol yield with 80% of its theoretical yield. Enzymatic-hydrolyzed SHF produced 84% of theoretical yield at longer reaction time compared with others. The results were obtained with constant fermentation parameters conducted at pH 5, temperature of 34 °C, and microalgae biomass loading at 18 g/L. Ultimately, the coupling of organosolv-treated biomass with SSF process is found to be the most cost-effective for S. dimorphus biomass as bioethanol feedstock.

  17. Improved bioethanol production using fusants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and xylose-fermenting yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Rajni; Pramanik, K

    2012-06-01

    The present research deals with the development of a hybrid yeast strain with the aim of converting pentose and hexose sugar components of lignocellulosic substrate to bioethanol by fermentation. Different fusant strains were obtained by fusing protoplasts of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and xylose-fermenting yeasts such as Pachysolen tannophilus, Candida shehatae and Pichia stipitis. The fusants were sorted by fluorescent-activated cell sorter and further confirmed by molecular characterization. The fusants were evaluated by fermentation of glucose-xylose mixture and the highest ethanol producing fusant was used for further study to ferment hydrolysates produced by acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of cotton gin waste. Among the various fusant and parental strains used under present study, RPR39 was found to be stable and most efficient strain giving maximum ethanol concentration (76.8 ± 0.31 g L(-1)), ethanol productivity (1.06 g L(-1) h(-1)) and ethanol yield (0.458 g g(-1)) by fermentation of glucose-xylose mixture under test conditions. The fusant has also shown encouraging result in fermenting hydrolysates of cotton gin waste with ethanol concentration of 7.08 ± 0.142 g L(-1), ethanol yield of 0.44 g g(-1), productivity of 0.45 g L(-1) h(-1) and biomass yield of 0.40 g g(-1).

  18. Technology Evaluation of Process Configurations for Second Generation Bioethanol Production using Dynamic Model-based Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales Rodriguez, Ricardo; Meyer, Anne S.; Gernaey, Krist

    2011-01-01

    An assessment of a number of different process flowsheets for bioethanol production was performed using dynamic model-based simulations. The evaluation employed diverse operational scenarios such as, fed-batch, continuous and continuous with recycle configurations. Each configuration was evaluated...... against the following benchmark criteria, yield (kg ethanol/kg dry-biomass), final product concentration and number of unit operations required in the different process configurations. The results has shown the process configuration for simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) operating...... in continuous mode with a recycle of the SSCF reactor effluent, results in the best productivity of bioethanol among the proposed process configurations, with a yield of 0.18 kg ethanol /kg dry-biomass....

  19. Bio-ethanol Production from Green Onion by Yeast in Repeated Batch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robati, Reza

    2013-09-01

    Considered to be the cleanest liquid fuel, bio-ethanol can be a reliable alternative to fossil fuels. It is produced by fermentation of sugar components of plant materials. The common onions are considered to be a favorable source of fermentation products as they have high sugar contents as well as contain various nutrients. This study focused on the effective production of ethanol from Green onion (Allium fistulosum L.) by the yeast "Saccharomyces cerevisiae" in repeated batch. The results showed that the total sugar concentration of onion juice was 68.4 g/l. The maximum rate of productivity, ethanol yield and final bio-ethanol percentage was 7 g/l/h (g ethanol per liter of onion juice per hour), 35 g/l (g ethanol per liter of onion juice) and 90 %, respectively.

  20. Evolutionary engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for efficient conversion of red algal biosugars to bioethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye-Jin; Kim, Soo-Jung; Yoon, Jeong-Jun; Kim, Kyoung Heon; Seo, Jin-Ho; Park, Yong-Cheol

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this work was to apply the evolutionary engineering to construct a mutant Saccharomyces cerevisiae HJ7-14 resistant on 2-deoxy-D-glucose and with an enhanced ability of bioethanol production from galactose, a mono-sugar in red algae. In batch and repeated-batch fermentations, HJ7-14 metabolized 5-fold more galactose and produced ethanol 2.1-fold faster than the parental D452-2 strain. Transcriptional analysis of genes involved in the galactose metabolism revealed that moderate relief from the glucose-mediated repression of the transcription of the GAL genes might enable HJ7-14 to metabolize galactose rapidly. HJ7-14 produced 7.4 g/L ethanol from hydrolysates of the red alga Gelidium amansii within 12 h, which was 1.5-times faster than that observed with D452-2. We demonstrate conclusively that evolutionary engineering is a promising tool to manipulate the complex galactose metabolism in S. cerevisiae to produce bioethanol from red alga. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Potential of fecal waste for the production of biomethane, bioethanol and biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomaa, Mohamed A; Abed, Raeid M M

    2017-07-10

    Fecal waste is an environmental burden that requires proper disposal, which ultimately becomes also an economic burden. Because fecal waste is nutrient-rich and contains a diverse methanogenic community, it has been utilized to produce biomethane via anaerobic digestion. Carbohydrates and lipids in fecal waste could reach up to 50% of the dry weight, which also suggests a potential as a feedstock for bioethanol and biodiesel production. We measured biomethane production from fecal waste of cows, chickens, goats and humans and compared the microbial community composition before and after anaerobic digestion. We also compared the fecal waste for cellulase production, saccharification and fermentation to produce bioethanol and for lipid content and fatty acid profiles to produce biodiesel. All fecal waste produced biomethane, with the highest yield of 433.4±77.1ml CH 4 /g VS from cow fecal waste. Production of bioethanol was achieved from all samples, with chicken fecal waste yielding as high as 1.6±0.25g/l. Sludge samples exhibited the highest extractable portion of lipids (20.9±0.08wt%) and conversion to fatty acid methyl esters (11.94wt%). Utilization of fecal waste for the production of biofuels is environmentally and economically beneficial. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Bio-ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    , there is not enough biomass for 'everyone', not physically and not in terms of money to promote its use. This leads to the conclusion that any use of biomass for energy purposes will have to compare to the lost opportunity of using it for something else. In this perspective, the choice to use biomass for bio......-ethanol production will not lead to reduction but to increase in CO2 emission and fossil fuel dependency. Both first and second generation bio-ethanol suffer from a biomass-to-ethanol energy conversion efficiency as low as 30-40 %, and moreover external fossil fuels are used to run the conversion. There is only......, but they do not improve the energy balance enough for bio-ethanol to compete with alternative uses of the biomass. When using biomass to substitute fossil fuels in heat & power production, a close to 100% substitution efficiency is achieved. The best alternative for CO2 reduction and oil saving is, therefore...

  3. EVALUATION OF BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM Eucalyptus WOOD WITH Saccharomyces cerevisiae AND SACSV-10 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Enid Vazquez

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Eucalyptus spp. residues of paper industry are a potential lignocellulosic raw material for production of second-generation bioethanol as an alternative to conventional production from cereal crops. Studying the behavior at 40 ºC of a commercial cellulase (Sunson, Eucalyptus sawdust saccharification was carried out under two pH conditions. With the aim to evaluate the bioethanol production from Eucalyptus wood, a strategy combining saccharification and Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF was undertaken at 40 ºC with a thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae with different substrate and inoculum concentrations, and different nitrogen sources. At last, the process was carried out in optimal conditions with Saccharomyces cerevisiae M522 and SacSV-10. Saccharification produced more free glucose at pH 5, reaching a maximum of 1.5 g/L. Encouraging results were obtained with 500 mg/L of ammonium sulphate as a nitrogen source and 10 % v/v initial inoculum at 106 cfu/mL concentration. Yeast SacSV-10 was not inhibited by phenols present in the culture media using a wood concentration of 10 g/L, but when the solids concentration was increased, the bioprocess yield was compromised. When the process was carried out in optimal conditions the bioethanol production, expressed as the conversion percentage of cellulose to ethanol, was 71.5 % and 73.6 % for M522 and the mutant strain respectively. The studied properties of the mutant strain provide added value to it, which pose new challenges to national companies dedicated to the production and sale of inputs for bioethanol industry.

  4. Bioethanol Production from Waste Potatoes as a Sustainable Waste-to-energy Resource via Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, A. A.; Shah, F. A.; Kumar, N.

    2017-07-01

    Ever increasing demand of energy and corresponding looming depletion of fossil fuels have transpired into a burning need of time to vie for alternative energy resources before the traditional energy sources are completely exhausted. Scientists are continuously working on sustainable energy production as an alternate source of energy to meet the present and future requirements. This research deals with conversion of the starch to fermentable carbon source (sugars) by fermentation through liquefaction by using yeast and alpha- amylase. The results show that the significant bioethanol production was achieved while using the parameters like temperature (30 °C) pH (6) and incubation time of 84 hrs. About 90 ml of bioethanol was produced from potato intake of 800 g. Pakistan being an agricultural country is rich in potato crop and this research bodes well to open new vistas to arrest the energy shortage in this part of the world

  5. Integrated furfural and first generation bioethanol production: process simulation and techno-economic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. L. Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Furfural is a base chemical with a wide range of applications and with a great opportunity for market growth in the near term. Derived from biomass, its production may be incorporated to the Brazilian chemical industry using sugarcane bagasse as feedstock. In this context, the integration of a furfural plant to a first generation bioethanol facility, within the biorefinery concept, was simulated considering different scenarios compared to an autonomous bioethanol distillery. The economic analysis of the different scenarios showed that the revenues from furfural commercialization increase the internal rate of return of the project for maximum furfural production (22.0% in comparison to a conventional ethanol distillery (13.5%, despite the decrease in electricity output. Moreover, the economic analysis of the results pointed out the possibility of lowering furfural prices to levels that could lead to its use as a precursor for biofuels.

  6. Process Engineering App lied to the Production of Bioethanol Using Banana Rejection Urabá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Flórez Alvarado

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Most countries either financially or in advanced stages of development are faced with the problem of disposal and treatment of waste and organic waste; these can be treated in different ways, for example by reducing its volume or processing any useful substance using physicochemical transformation processesbananas in bioethanol and analyzing environmental impacts to meet sanitary standards.The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential for ethanol production from banana and the study and application of process engineering in ethanol production using banana rejection as feedstock in the region of Urabá.Bioethanol is obtained by fermentation and distillation of rejected bananas where the results are reflected in the operational controls and leaf pattern obtained in the standardization process.

  7. Enzymatic hydrolysis of eucalyptus biomass for bioethanol production: a bibliometric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Amorim Margon

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The energy matrix in the Brazilian and world scenarios has undergone significant changes during the last decades. Due to oscillations in the price of the oil barrel and its derivatives, the study of alternative energies has been intensifying. In this context, the production of second generation bioethanol has been considered as a way to meet this demand. Besides being able to partially solve the dependence of the use of fossil fuels, this technology stands out for utilizing lignocellulosic industries residues, adding value to this material. This article consists of a bibliometric review of this application, giving an overview of the advances made to date. A quantitative analysis of the articles found in the Web of Science database was carried out, followed by a qualitative analysis. Subsequently, the convergences and divergences between the articles were identified. The results demonstrate that some improvements are still needed in the process, however the technique is feasible and advantageous in the production of bioethanol.

  8. Bioethanol production from leafy biomass of mango (Mangifera indica) involving naturally isolated and recombinant enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Saprativ P; Ravindran, Rajeev; Deka, Deepmoni; Jawed, Mohammad; Das, Debasish; Goyal, Arun

    2013-01-01

    The present study describes the usage of dried leafy biomass of mango (Mangifera indica) containing 26.3% (w/w) cellulose, 54.4% (w/w) hemicellulose, and 16.9% (w/w) lignin, as a substrate for bioethanol production from Zymomonas mobilis and Candida shehatae. The substrate was subjected to two different pretreatment strategies, namely, wet oxidation and an organosolv process. An ethanol concentration (1.21 g/L) was obtained with Z. mobilis in a shake-flask simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) trial using 1% (w/v) wet oxidation pretreated mango leaves along with mixed enzymatic consortium of Bacillus subtilis cellulase and recombinant hemicellulase (GH43), whereas C. shehatae gave a slightly higher (8%) ethanol titer of 1.31 g/L. Employing 1% (w/v) organosolv pretreated mango leaves and using Z. mobilis and C. shehatae separately in the SSF, the ethanol titers of 1.33 g/L and 1.52 g/L, respectively, were obtained. The SSF experiments performed with 5% (w/v) organosolv-pretreated substrate along with C. shehatae as fermentative organism gave a significantly enhanced ethanol titer value of 8.11 g/L using the shake flask and 12.33 g/L at the bioreactor level. From the bioreactor, 94.4% (v/v) ethanol was recovered by rotary evaporator with 21% purification efficiency.

  9. Potential of bioethanol as a chemical building block for biorefineries: Preliminary sustainability assessment of 12 bioethanol-based products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posada Duque, J.A.; Patel, A.D.; Roes, A.L.; Blok, K.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Patel, M.K.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present and apply aquick screening method and to identify the most promising bioethanol derivatives using an early- stage sustainability assessment method that compares abioetha- nol-base d conversion route to its respective petrochemical counterpart. The method

  10. A two-stage bioprocess for hydrogen and methane production from rice straw bioethanol residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hai-Hsuan; Whang, Liang-Ming; Wu, Chao-Wei; Chung, Man-Chien

    2012-06-01

    This study evaluates a two-stage bioprocess for recovering hydrogen and methane while treating organic residues of fermentative bioethanol from rice straw. The obtained results indicate that controlling a proper volumetric loading rate, substrate-to-biomass ratio, or F/M ratio is important to maximizing biohydrogen production from rice straw bioethanol residues. Clostridium tyrobutyricum, the identified major hydrogen-producing bacteria enriched in the hydrogen bioreactor, is likely utilizing lactate and acetate for biohydrogen production. The occurrence of acetogenesis during biohydrogen fermentation may reduce the B/A ratio and lead to a lower hydrogen production. Organic residues remained in the effluent of hydrogen bioreactor can be effectively converted to methane with a rate of 2.8 mmol CH(4)/gVSS/h at VLR of 4.6 kg COD/m(3)/d. Finally, approximately 75% of COD in rice straw bioethanol residues can be removed and among that 1.3% and 66.1% of COD can be recovered in the forms of hydrogen and methane, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Practicability of Lignocellulosic Waste Composite in Controlling Air Pollution from Leaves Litter through Bioethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrsini, Mahadevan; Teoh, Yi Peng; Ng, Qi Hwa; Kunasundari, Balakrishnan; Xian Ooi, Zhong; Siew Shuit, Hoong; Hoo, Peng Yong

    2018-03-01

    Environmental degradation through greenhouse emission have spurred nation’s interest on feedstock-based fuel. Yet, development of this clean biofuel is obstructed by the expensive feedstock which takes up most of the production cost. Therefore, as an alternative, utilization of widely available lignocellulosic residues with relatively no commercial significance has been considered. This present work emphasizes on mango (Mangifera indica) leaves one of the most abundant lignocellulosic waste in Malaysia. Through implementation of this biomass for bioethanol production, continuous allowance of air pollution with a deleterious impact to the country’s environment could be reduced. The high concentration of sugar (16-18%w/v) in the form of cellulose and hemicellulose is ultimately the reason behind the selection of these leaves as a substrate for bioethanol production. Hence, in this study, a comparison of biomass composition in Harum Manis, Sunshine and Chokanan mango leaves were conducted to detect the most suitable substrate source to produce biofuel. At the end of the biomass evaluation, Harum Manis mango leaves turned out to be the most competitive bioethanol crop as these leaves reported to be made up of 34.71% cellulose and 44.02% hemicellulose which summed up to give highest fermentable sugar source with a lignin content of 19.45%.

  12. Carob pod as a feedstock for the production of bioethanol in Mediterranean areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, S.; Lozano, L.J.; Godinez, C.; Juan, D.; Perez, A.; Hernandez, F.J. [Technical University of Cartagena, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, C/Dr. Fleming S/N, Campus Muralla del Mar, 30202 Cartagena (Spain)

    2010-11-15

    There is a growing interest worldwide to find out new and cheap carbohydrate sources for production of bioethanol. In this context, carob pod (Ceratonia siliqua) is proposed as an economical source for bioethanol production, especially, in arid regions. The carob tree is an evergreen shrub native to the Mediterranean region, cultivated for its edible seed pods and it is currently being reemphasised as an alternative in dryland areas, because no carbon-enriched lands are necessary. In this work, the global process of ethanol production from carob pod was studied. In a first stage, aqueous extraction of sugars from the pod was conducted, achieving very high yields (>99%) in a short period of time. The process was followed by acid or alkaline hydrolysis of washed pod at different operating conditions, the best results (R = 38.20%) being reached with sulphuric acid (2% v/v) at 90 C, using a L/S (liquid/solid) ratio of 7.5 and shaking at 700 rpm for 420 min. After that, fermentation of hydrolysates were tested at 30 C, 125 rpm, 200 g/L of sugars and 15 g/L of yeast with three different kinds of yeasts. In these conditions a maximum of 95 g/L of ethanol was obtained after 24 h. Finally, the distillation and dehydration of water-bioethanol mixtures was analyzed using the chemical process simulation software CHEMCAD with the aim of estimate the energy requirements of the process. (author)

  13. Optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation conditions for improved bioethanol production from potato peel residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Taher, Imen; Fickers, Patrick; Chniti, Sofien; Hassouna, Mnasser

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this work was the optimization of the enzyme hydrolysis of potato peel residues (PPR) for bioethanol production. The process included a pretreatment step followed by an enzyme hydrolysis using crude enzyme system composed of cellulase, amylase and hemicellulase, produced by a mixed culture of Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma reesei. Hydrothermal, alkali and acid pretreatments were considered with regards to the enhancement of enzyme hydrolysis of potato peel residues. The obtained results showed that hydrothermal pretreatment lead to a higher enzyme hydrolysis yield compared to both acid and alkali pretreatments. Enzyme hydrolysis was also optimized for parameters such as temperature, pH, substrate loading and surfactant loading using a response surface methodology. Under optimized conditions, 77 g L -1 of reducing sugars were obtained. Yeast fermentation of the released reducing sugars led to an ethanol titer of 30 g L -1 after supplementation of the culture medium with ammonium sulfate. Moreover, a comparative study between acid and enzyme hydrolysis of potato peel residues was investigated. Results showed that enzyme hydrolysis offers higher yield of bioethanol production than acid hydrolysis. These results highlight the potential of second generation bioethanol production from potato peel residues treated with onsite produced hydrolytic enzymes. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:397-406, 2017. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  14. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs., E-mail: tazsolt@chem.ubbcluj.ro; Cormos, C. C., E-mail: cormos@chem.ubbcluj.ro; Agachi, P. S. [Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 11 Arany Janos, Postal code: 400028, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2015-12-23

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO{sub 2} emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint.

  15. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs.; Cormos, C. C.; Agachi, P. S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO 2 emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint

  16. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs.; Cormos, C. C.; Agachi, P. S.

    2015-12-01

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO2 emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint.

  17. Utilization of Microalgal Biofractions for Bioethanol, Higher Alcohols, and Biodiesel Production: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa M. El-Dalatony

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomass is a crucial energy resource used for the generation of electricity and transportation fuels. Microalgae exhibit a high content of biocomponents which makes them a potential feedstock for the generation of ecofriendly biofuels. Biofuels derived from microalgae are suitable carbon-neutral replacements for petroleum. Fermentation is the major process for metabolic conversion of microalgal biocompounds into biofuels such as bioethanol and higher alcohols. In this review, we explored the use of all three major biocomponents of microalgal biomass including carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids for maximum biofuel generation. Application of several pretreatment methods for enhancement the bioavailability of substrates (simple sugar, amino acid, and fatty acid was discussed. This review goes one step further to discuss how to direct these biocomponents for the generation of various biofuels (bioethanol, higher alcohol, and biodiesel through fermentation and transesterification processes. Such an approach would result in the maximum utilization of biomasses for economically feasible biofuel production.

  18. Recycling of cellulases in a continuous process for production of bioethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haven, Mai Østergaard

    studies, this PhD project investigates enzyme recycling at industrial relevant conditions in the Inbicon process, e.g. high dry matter conditions and process configurations that could be implemented in large scale. The results point towards potential processes for industrial recycling of enzymes......The focus of the work presented in this thesis is recycling of commercial enzymes in a continuous process for production of bioethanol from biomass. To get a deeper understanding of the factors affecting the potential for enzyme recycling, the interactions between enzymes and biomass......, the adsorption and desorption as well as stability and recovery of activity was investigated. More knowledge on these factors have enabled a process adapted for enzyme recycling. The driver being that enzyme consumption remains a major cost when producing bioethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. Unlike previous...

  19. Development and perspective of promising energy plants for bioethanol production in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Sin-Yie; Lin, Chien-Yih

    2009-01-01

    The global energy crisis and continual soaring prices of fossil fuels force people to seek the new and recycled alternative energy sources hard. Biodiesel oil as well as bioethanol fuel, as two new and clean fuels for environmental protection, have already been approved as substitutes for fuel or fuel additive. Some common bottlenecks for production of biodiesel crops have been found. However, developing bioethanol crops in Taiwan has many benefits. Four most promising alcohol crops in Taiwan, i.e., sweet potato, maize, sugarcane, and sweet sorghum have been discussed. Sweet sorghum can be strongly recommended as a key alcohol crop in Taiwan, because of its short growing period, low water requirement, large amount of biomass and alcohol produced, and greater income obtained from sweet sorghum cultivation. (author)

  20. Effect of pH fermentation on production bioethanol from jackfruit seeds (Artocarpus heterophyllus) through separate fermentation hydrolysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, A. R.; Natsir, H.; Rohani, H.; Karim, A.

    2018-03-01

    Bioethanol is one of the alternative energy sourced from natural products containing carbohydrates through hydrolysis and fermentation process. Jackfruit seeds is one of the feedstock that contain high carbohydrate content but less utilized. The aims of this study to determine the effect of pH hydrolysis in the process of production bioethanol from jackfruit seeds (Artocarpus heterophyllus) through separate fermentation hydrolysis (SHF) method. The hydrolysis process uses H2SO4 as a hydrolyzing agent. The fermentation process used Saccharomyces cereviceae as a fermentor with a variation of pH 2,3 4 and 5 for 70 hours. The results showed that glucose content of 75% and pH 3 was the optimum pH of fermentation with the content of bioethanol 57.94%. The fermentation stage has an important role in increasing the levels of glucose and bioethanol in linear. The content of glucose and bioethanol of jackfruit seeds showed a great potential for development as the feedstock in bioethanol production.

  1. A review of conversion processes for bioethanol production with a focus on syngas fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamatha Devarapalli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol production from corn is a well-established technology. However, emphasis on exploring non-food based feedstocks is intensified due to dispute over utilization of food based feedstocks to generate bioethanol. Chemical and biological conversion technologies for non-food based biomass feedstocks to biofuels have been developed. First generation bioethanol was produced from sugar based feedstocks such as corn and sugar cane. Availability of alternative feedstocks such as lignocellulosic and algal biomass and technology advancement led to the development of complex biological conversion processes, such as separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF, simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF, consolidated bioprocessing (CBP, and syngas fermentation. SHF, SSF, SSCF, and CBP are direct fermentation processes in which biomass feedstocks are pretreated, hydrolyzed and then fermented into ethanol. Conversely, ethanol from syngas fermentation is an indirect fermentation that utilizes gaseous substrates (mixture of CO, CO2 and H2 made from industrial flue gases or gasification of biomass, coal or municipal solid waste. This review article provides an overview of the various biological processes for ethanol production from sugar, lignocellulosic, and algal biomass. This paper also provides a detailed insight on process development, bioreactor design, and advances and future directions in syngas fermentation.

  2. Bioethanol Production from Iles-Iles (Amorphopallus campanulatus Flour by Fermentation using Zymomonas mobilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusmiyati Kusmiyati

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the depletion of fossil oil sources, Indonesia attempts to search new source of bioenergy including bioethanol. One of this sources is Iles-iles tubers (Amorphophallus campanulatus, which is abundantly available in Java Indonesia. The carbohydrate content in Iles-Iles tuber flour was 77% and it can be converted to ethanol by three consecutive steps methods consist of liquefaction-saccharification using α and β-amylase, respectively and then followed by fermentation by using Z. mobilis. The objective of this research was to convert the Iles-iles flour to bioethanol by fermentation process with Z.mobilis. The ethanol production process was studied at various starch concentration 15-30% g/L, Z. mobilis concentration (10-40% and pH fermentation of (4-6. The result showed that the yield of bioethanol (10.33% was the highest at 25% starch concentration and 25% of Z.mobilis concentration. The optimum conditions was found at 4.5, 30°C, 10%, 120 h for pH, temperature, Z. mobilis concentration and fermentation time, respectively  at which  ACT tuber flour produced a maximum ethanol of 10.33 % v/v.Article History: Received November 12nd 2015; Received in revised form January 25th 2016; Accepted January 29th 2016; Available online How to Cite This Article: Kusmiyati , Hadiyanto,H  and Kusumadewi, I (2016. Bioethanol Production from Iles-Iles (Amorphopallus campanulatus Flour by Fermentation using Zymomonas mobilis. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 9(1, 9-14 http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.5.1.9-14 

  3. Production of liquid biofuels (biodiesel and bioethanol) from brown marine macroalgae Padina tetrastromatica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashokkumar, Veeramuthu; Salim, Mohd Razman; Salam, Zainal; Sivakumar, Pandian; Chong, Cheng Tung; Elumalai, Sanniyasi; Suresh, Veeraperumal; Ani, Farid Nasir

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Integrated concept of biofuels production from brown macroalgae P. tetrastromatica. • The activation energy was determined as Ea = 34.314 kJ mol"−"1. • Brown marine alga produced 7.8% of biodiesel by acid and alkali transesterification. • The fuel properties of Padina biodiesel meet the ASTM specifications. • Spent biomass of Padina yields 16.1% of bioethanol after fermentation process. - Abstract: In this study, an integrated biomass conversion concept of producing liquid biofuels from brown marine macroalga Padina tetrastromatica was investigated. The algal biomass was collected from the Mandapam coastal region and processed under laboratory. Various parameters were studied to extract crude lipids from the biomass. A kinetic study was conducted for extracting the lipids from the biomass, which follows the first order kinetics and the lipid yield was 8.15 wt.%. The activation energy; Ea = 34.314 kJ mol"−"1 and their thermodynamic parameters were determined. Since the crude algal lipids contain high amount of free fatty acids, a sequential transesterification technique was examined and 7.8% of biodiesel (78 mg/g algal biomass) yield was obtained. The biodiesel was analyzed by "1H and "1"3C–NMR spectroscopy and the conversion yield was estimated. Further, the biodiesel fuel properties were investigated and found that all the features fit the required ASTM D6751 specification limits. The residual biomass after lipid extraction was further explored for bioethanol production through the anaerobic fermentation process. The ethanol yield obtained after saccharification and fermentation were estimated and 161 mg/g residue biomass was reported. The theoretical yield of conversion of hydrolysate to bioethanol was estimated and found to be 83.4%. Therefore, this study demonstrates that macroalga P. tetrastromatica biomass has great potential to produce liquid biofuels such as biodiesel and bioethanol.

  4. Integrated production of cellulosic bioethanol and succinic acid from industrial hemp in a biorefinery concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuglarz, Mariusz; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop integrated biofuel (cellulosic bioethanol) and biochemical (succinic acid) production from industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) in a biorefinery concept. Two types of pretreatments were studied (dilute-acid and alkaline oxidative method). High cellulose recovery...... productivity. With respect to succinic acid production, the highest productivity was obtained after liquid fraction fermentation originated from steam treatment with 1.5% of acid. The mass balance calculations clearly showed that 149 kg of EtOH and 115 kg of succinic acid can be obtained per 1 ton of dry hemp....... Results obtained in this study clearly document the potential of industrial hemp for a biorefinery....

  5. Co-production of bio-ethanol, electricity and heat from biomass residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reith, J.H.; Den Uil, H.; Van Veen, H. [ECN Biomass, Petten (Netherlands); De Laat, W.T.A.M.; Niessen, J.J. [Royal Nedalco, Bergen op Zoom (Netherlands); De Jong, E.; Elbersen, H.W.; Weusthuis, R. [Agrotechnological Research Institute ATO, BU Renewable Resources, Wageningen (Netherlands); Van Dijken, J.P.; Raamsdonk, L. [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)

    2002-07-01

    The use of lignocellulose biomass residues as a feedstock offers good perspectives for large scale production of fuel ethanol at competitive costs. An evaluation was performed to assess the international status of lignocellulose-to-bioethanol technology and the economical and ecological system performance, to identify RandD approaches for further development. Deriving fermentable sugars from the hemicellulose and cellulose fractions of lignocellulose materials via suitable pretreatment and enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis is a critical RandD issue. Further development of pretreatment via mild, low temperature alkaline extraction or weak acid hydrolysis using CO2, dissolved in pressurized hot water ('carbonic acid process') shows good perspectives. Enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis with the currently available industrial cellulases accounts for 36-45% of ethanol production costs. At least a 10-fold increase of cellulase cost-effectiveness is required. Despite substantial RandD efforts, no suitable fermentation system is currently available for the fermentation of pentoses (mainly xylose) from the hemicellulose fraction. Several strains of anaerobic, thermophilic bacteria are able to convert all (hemi)cellulose components into ethanol. Follow-up RandD will focus on isolation of suitable strain(s) from this group. The system evaluation shows a 40-55% energetic efficiency (LHV basis) for conversion of lignocellulose feedstocks to ethanol. Thermal conversion of non-fermentable residues (mainly lignin) in a Biomass-Integrated-Gasifier/Combined Cycle (BIG/CC) system can provide the total steam and electricity requirement for the production process and an electricity surplus for export to the grid, giving a total system efficiency of 56-68%. Water consumption in the process (28-54 liter water/liter ethanol) is much higher than in current ethanol production (lo-15 l/l ethanol). The large amount of process water (used in the pretreatment and cellulose hydrolysis

  6. Bioethanol Production From Banana Stem By Using Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusmiyati; Mustofa, A.; Jumarmi

    2018-05-01

    The rapid growth and development of industries in the world result in a greater energy needs. Some studies show that ethanol can be used as an alternative energy. However, bioethanol production from food raw materials such as sugar and starch has drawback that cause the food crisis. This aim of this study was to convert banana stem into bioethanol. Banana stem contained of 44.6% cellulose, 36.0% hemicellulose and 19.4% lignin. After banana stems were pretreated with acid (H2SO4) and alkaline (NaOH) at a concentration of 2% w/v at 121 °C for 30 minutes, then subsequently the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) were carried out by using mixed cultures of Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma reesei and Zymomonas mobilis at various enzymes ratios of (1:1:1), (1:2:1), (1:2:2), (1:1:2) and various pH (4, 5 and 6) with SSF time for 144 hours and temperature of 30°C. The results show that acid pretreatment showed better results than the alkali pretreatment. After acid pretreatment and alkali pretreatment, lignin content of pretreted banana stem reduced to 15.92% and 16.34%, respectively, cellulose increased to 52.11% and 50.6% respectively, hemicellulose reduced to 28.45% and 28.83%, respectively The SSF showed that pH 5 gave the highest bioethanol. The highest concentration of bioethanol (8.51 g/L) was achieved at the SSF process at pH 5 with a ratio Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma reesei and Zymomonas mobilis enzymes of (1:1:2).

  7. Techno-economic evaluation of 2nd generation bioethanol production from sugar cane bagasse and leaves integrated with the sugar-based ethanol process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Bioethanol produced from the lignocellulosic fractions of sugar cane (bagasse and leaves), i.e. second generation (2G) bioethanol, has a promising market potential as an automotive fuel; however, the process is still under investigation on pilot/demonstration scale. From a process perspective, improvements in plant design can lower the production cost, providing better profitability and competitiveness if the conversion of the whole sugar cane is considered. Simulations have been performed with AspenPlus to investigate how process integration can affect the minimum ethanol selling price of this 2G process (MESP-2G), as well as improve the plant energy efficiency. This is achieved by integrating the well-established sucrose-to-bioethanol process with the enzymatic process for lignocellulosic materials. Bagasse and leaves were steam pretreated using H3PO4 as catalyst and separately hydrolysed and fermented. Results The addition of a steam dryer, doubling of the enzyme dosage in enzymatic hydrolysis, including leaves as raw material in the 2G process, heat integration and the use of more energy-efficient equipment led to a 37 % reduction in MESP-2G compared to the Base case. Modelling showed that the MESP for 2G ethanol was 0.97 US$/L, while in the future it could be reduced to 0.78 US$/L. In this case the overall production cost of 1G + 2G ethanol would be about 0.40 US$/L with an output of 102 L/ton dry sugar cane including 50 % leaves. Sensitivity analysis of the future scenario showed that a 50 % decrease in the cost of enzymes, electricity or leaves would lower the MESP-2G by about 20%, 10% and 4.5%, respectively. Conclusions According to the simulations, the production of 2G bioethanol from sugar cane bagasse and leaves in Brazil is already competitive (without subsidies) with 1G starch-based bioethanol production in Europe. Moreover 2G bioethanol could be produced at a lower cost if subsidies were used to compensate for the opportunity cost from the

  8. Techno-economic evaluation of 2nd generation bioethanol production from sugar cane bagasse and leaves integrated with the sugar-based ethanol process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macrelli Stefano

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bioethanol produced from the lignocellulosic fractions of sugar cane (bagasse and leaves, i.e. second generation (2G bioethanol, has a promising market potential as an automotive fuel; however, the process is still under investigation on pilot/demonstration scale. From a process perspective, improvements in plant design can lower the production cost, providing better profitability and competitiveness if the conversion of the whole sugar cane is considered. Simulations have been performed with AspenPlus to investigate how process integration can affect the minimum ethanol selling price of this 2G process (MESP-2G, as well as improve the plant energy efficiency. This is achieved by integrating the well-established sucrose-to-bioethanol process with the enzymatic process for lignocellulosic materials. Bagasse and leaves were steam pretreated using H3PO4 as catalyst and separately hydrolysed and fermented. Results The addition of a steam dryer, doubling of the enzyme dosage in enzymatic hydrolysis, including leaves as raw material in the 2G process, heat integration and the use of more energy-efficient equipment led to a 37 % reduction in MESP-2G compared to the Base case. Modelling showed that the MESP for 2G ethanol was 0.97 US$/L, while in the future it could be reduced to 0.78 US$/L. In this case the overall production cost of 1G + 2G ethanol would be about 0.40 US$/L with an output of 102 L/ton dry sugar cane including 50 % leaves. Sensitivity analysis of the future scenario showed that a 50 % decrease in the cost of enzymes, electricity or leaves would lower the MESP-2G by about 20%, 10% and 4.5%, respectively. Conclusions According to the simulations, the production of 2G bioethanol from sugar cane bagasse and leaves in Brazil is already competitive (without subsidies with 1G starch-based bioethanol production in Europe. Moreover 2G bioethanol could be produced at a lower cost if subsidies were used to compensate for the

  9. Potential of bioethanol as a chemical building block for biorefineries: preliminary sustainability assessment of 12 bioethanol-based products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posada, John A; Patel, Akshay D; Roes, Alexander; Blok, Kornelis; Faaij, André P C; Patel, Martin K

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study is to present and apply a quick screening method and to identify the most promising bioethanol derivatives using an early-stage sustainability assessment method that compares a bioethanol-based conversion route to its respective petrochemical counterpart. The method combines, by means of a multi-criteria approach, quantitative and qualitative proxy indicators describing economic, environmental, health and safety and operational aspects. Of twelve derivatives considered, five were categorized as favorable (diethyl ether, 1,3-butadiene, ethyl acetate, propylene and ethylene), two as promising (acetaldehyde and ethylene oxide) and five as unfavorable derivatives (acetic acid, n-butanol, isobutylene, hydrogen and acetone) for an integrated biorefinery concept. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Production of raw starch-degrading enzyme by Aspergillus sp. and its use in conversion of inedible wild cassava flour to bioethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshi, Anselm P; Hosea, Ken M M; Elisante, Emrode; Mamo, Gashaw; Önnby, Linda; Nges, Ivo Achu

    2016-04-01

    The major bottlenecks in achieving competitive bioethanol fuel are the high cost of feedstock, energy and enzymes employed in pretreatment prior to fermentation. Lignocellulosic biomass has been proposed as an alternative feedstock, but because of its complexity, economic viability is yet to be realized. Therefore, research around non-conventional feedstocks and deployment of bioconversion approaches that downsize the cost of energy and enzymes is justified. In this study, a non-conventional feedstock, inedible wild cassava was used for bioethanol production. Bioconversion of raw starch from the wild cassava to bioethanol at low temperature was investigated using both a co-culture of Aspergillus sp. and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and a monoculture of the later with enzyme preparation from the former. A newly isolated strain of Aspergillus sp. MZA-3 produced raw starch-degrading enzyme which displayed highest activity of 3.3 U/mL towards raw starch from wild cassava at 50°C, pH 5.5. A co-culture of MZA-3 and S. cerevisiae; and a monoculture of S. cerevisiae and MZA-3 enzyme (both supplemented with glucoamylase) resulted into bioethanol yield (percentage of the theoretical yield) of 91 and 95 at efficiency (percentage) of 84 and 96, respectively. Direct bioconversion of raw starch to bioethanol was achieved at 30°C through the co-culture approach. This could be attractive since it may significantly downsize energy expenses. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Case study: Preliminary assessment of integrated palm biomass biorefinery for bioethanol production utilizing non-food sugars from oil palm frond petiole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, Sharifah Soplah Syed; Shirai, Yoshihito; Ali, Ahmad Amiruddin Mohd; Mustapha, Mahfuzah; Hassan, Mohd Ali

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Fermentable sugars production from oil palm frond by integrated technology concept. • Bioethanol production from oil palm frond sugars in a biorefinery. • Palm oil mills have sufficient excess energy and steam to support biorefinery. • The net energy ratio of bioethanol from oil palm frond petiole is 7.48. - Abstract: In this case study, a preliminary assessment on the bioethanol production from oil palm frond (OPF) petiole sugars within an integrated palm biomass biorefinery was carried out. Based on the case study of 4 neighbouring palm oil mills, approximately 55,600 t/y of fermentable sugars could be obtained from OPF petiole. The integrated biorefinery will be located at one of the 4 mills. The mill has potential excess energy comprising 3.64 GW h/y of electricity and 177,000 t/y of steam which are sufficient to run the biorefinery. With 33.9 million litres/y of bioethanol production, the specific production cost of bioethanol is estimated at $ 0.52/l bioethanol, compared to $ 0.31–0.34/l bioethanol produced from sugarcane and $ 0.49–0.60/l bioethanol from other lignocellulosics. The net energy ratio of 7.48 for bioethanol production from OPF provides a promising alternative for OPF utilization as a non-food sugar feedstock.

  12. Optimization of hydrogen production with CO_2 capture by autothermal chemical-looping reforming using different bioethanol purities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Díez, E.; García-Labiano, F.; De Diego, L.F.; Abad, A.; Gayán, P.; Adánez, J.; Ruíz, J.A.C.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Autothermal-CLR and WGS have been considered for H_2 production with CO_2 capture. • Bioethanol was used as renewable fuel. • Mass and heat balances allow process optimization. • The use of diluted bioethanol implies energy saves in the bioethanol production. • The use of diluted bioethanol (52 vol.%) produces 4.62 mol H_2/mol ethanol. - Abstract: Autothermal Chemical-Looping Reforming (a-CLR) is a process which allows hydrogen production avoiding the environmental penalty of CO_2 emission typically produced in other processes. The major advantage of this technology is that the heat needed for syngas production is generated by the process itself. The heat necessary for the endothermic reactions is supplied by a Ni-based oxygen-carrier (OC) circulating between two reactors: the air reactor (AR), where the OC is oxidized by air, and the fuel reactor (FR), where the fuel is converted to syngas. Other important advantage is that this process also allows the production of pure N_2 in the AR outlet stream. A renewable fuel such as bioethanol was chosen in this work due to their increasing worldwide production and the current excess of this fuel presented by different countries. In this work, mass and heat balances were done to determine the auto-thermal conditions that maximize H_2 production, assuming that the product gas was in thermodynamic equilibrium. Three different types of bioethanol has been considered according to their ethanol purity; Dehydrated ethanol (≈100 vol.%), hydrated ethanol (≈96 vol.%), and diluted ethanol (≈52 vol.%). It has been observed that the higher H_2 production (4.62 mol of H_2 per mol of EtOH) has been obtained with the use of diluted ethanol and the surplus energy needed could be compensated by the energy save achieved during the purification of ethanol in the production process.

  13. An overview of key pretreatment processes for biological conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to bioethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Maurya, Devendra Prasad; Singla, Ankit; Negi, Sangeeta

    2015-01-01

    Second-generation bioethanol can be produced from various lignocellulosic biomasses such as wood, agricultural or forest residues. Lignocellulosic biomass is inexpensive, renewable and abundant source for bioethanol production. The conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to bioethanol could be a promising technology though the process has several challenges and limitations such as biomass transport and handling, and efficient pretreatment methods for total delignification of lignocellulosics. P...

  14. Promoting bioethanol production through clean development mechanism: Findings and lessons learnt from ASIATIC project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnansounou, Edgard; Bedniaguine, Denis; Dauriat, Arnaud

    2005-12-15

    Global climate change mitigation policies call for increasing use of biomass fuels as renewable substitutes to fossil energy resources. Quantified targets for biofuels introduction in to the market exist in the United States, the European Union, and a number of developing countries. In this context, mixing biologically produced ethanol with conventional gasoline represents an attractive technical option allowing for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases and lessening the dependence on non-renewable petrol in the transportation sector. This paper investigates technological and socio-economic aspects of ethanol production in developing countries, particularly in China, with special focus on determining eligibility of bioethanol projects for Clean Development Mechanism. Basing on the findings of the ASIATIC study (Agriculture and Small to Medium Scale Industries in Peri-urban Areas through Ethanol Production for Transport In China), we analyse how alcohol fuels can be produced in a sustainable way with mutual benefits between rural and urban people. The bioethanol production cost and life cycle CO2 eq. emissions were calculated for six different types of feedstock: sugarcane, sugarcane molasses, sweet sorghum juice, cassava, corn, and sorghum bagasse. Implications of the CDM rules and procedures for bioethanol industry were examined under the angles of environmental and economical additionality, and conformity with the principles of sustainable development. It is found that the starch-based (cassava) ethanol production path has the greatest potential for market penetration in China, followed by the conversion route using sugar-based feedstock (sorghum juice, sugarcane molasses). Meanwhile, the lignocelluloses biomass - to - ethanol technology may represent the highest interest for implementation as Clean Development Mechanism project. (Author)

  15. Display of phytase on the cell surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to degrade phytate phosphorus and improve bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xianzhong; Xiao, Yan; Shen, Wei; Govender, Algasan; Zhang, Liang; Fan, You; Wang, Zhengxiang

    2016-03-01

    Currently, development of biofuels as an alternative fuel has gained much attention due to resource and environmental challenges. Bioethanol is one of most important and dominant biofuels, and production using corn or cassava as raw materials has become a prominent technology. However, phytate contained in the raw material not only decreases the efficiency of ethanol production, but also leads to an increase in the discharge of phosphorus, thus impacting on the environment. In this study, to decrease phytate and its phosphorus content in an ethanol fermentation process, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was engineered through a surface-displaying system utilizing the C-terminal half of the yeast α-agglutinin protein. The recombinant yeast strain, PHY, was constructed by successfully displaying phytase on the surface of cells, and enzyme activity reached 6.4 U/g wet biomass weight. Ethanol productions using various strains were compared, and the results demonstrated that the specific growth rate and average fermentation rate of the PHY strain were higher 20 and 18 %, respectively, compared to the control strain S. cerevisiae CICIMY0086, in a 5-L bioreactor process by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. More importantly, the phytate phosphorus concentration decreased by 89.8 % and free phosphorus concentration increased by 142.9 % in dry vinasse compared to the control in a 5-L bioreactor. In summary, we constructed a recombinant S. cerevisiae strain displaying phytase on the cell surface, which could improve ethanol production performance and effectively reduce the discharge of phosphorus. The strain reported here represents a useful novel engineering platform for developing an environment-friendly system for bioethanol production from a corn substrate.

  16. Wheat straw, household waste and hay as a source of lignocellulosic biomass for bioethanol and biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomczak, Anna; Bruch, Magdalena; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2010-01-01

    To meet the increasing need for bioenergy three lignocellulosic materials: raw hay, pretreated wheat straw and pretreated household waste were considered for the production of bioethanol and biogas. Several mixtures of household waste supplemented with different fractions of wheat straw and hay...... in fermentation process with Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated. Wheat straw and household wastes were pretreated using IBUS technology, patented by Dong Energy, which includes milling, stem explosion treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Methane production was investigated using stillages, the effluents...... from bioethanol fermentation experiment. Previous trial of biogas production from above mentioned household wastes was enclosed....

  17. Water and energy saving bioprocess for bioethanol production from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UP

    2013-10-02

    Oct 2, 2013 ... Poznań University of Life Sciences, Wojska Polskiego 31, 60-624 Poznań, Poland. ... of distillery stillage liquid part instead of process water. ... these conditions distillery yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae efficiently produced ...

  18. 1st or 2nd generation bioethanol-impacts of technology integration & on feed production and land use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentsen, Niclas Scott; Felby, Claus

    2009-01-01

    production comparable to gasoline production in terms of energy loss. Utilisation of biomass in the energy sector is inevitably linked to the utilisation of land. This is a key difference between fossil and bio based energy systems. Thus evaluations of bioethanol production based on energy balances alone...

  19. Utilisation of wheat bran as a substrate for bioethanol production using recombinant cellulases and amylolytic yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cripwell, Rosemary; Favaro, Lorenzo; Rose, Shaunita H.; Basaglia, Marina; Cagnin, Lorenzo; Casella, Sergio; Zyl, Willem van

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A cocktail of recombinant cellulases was proposed for wheat bran hydrolysis. • Optimal conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat bran were determined. • Recombinant amylolytic strains completely hydrolysed the starch in wheat bran. • Addition of cellulases to SSF with amylolytic strains enhanced ethanol yield. - Abstract: Wheat bran, generated from the milling of wheat, represents a promising feedstock for the production of bioethanol. This substrate consists of three main components: starch, hemicellulose and cellulose. The optimal conditions for wheat bran hydrolysis have been determined using a recombinant cellulase cocktail (RCC), which contains two cellobiohydrolases, an endoglucanase and a β-glucosidase. The 10% (w/v, expressed in terms of dry matter) substrate loading yielded the most glucose, while the 2% loading gave the best hydrolysis efficiency (degree of saccharification) using unmilled wheat bran. The ethanol production of two industrial amylolytic Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, MEL2[TLG1-SFA1] and M2n[TLG1-SFA1], were compared in a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) for 10% wheat bran loading with or without the supplementation of optimised RCC. The recombinant yeast S. cerevisiae MEL2[TLG1-SFA1] and M2n[TLG1-SFA1] completely hydrolysed wheat bran’s starch producing similar amounts of ethanol (5.3 ± 0.14 g/L and 5.0 ± 0.09 g/L, respectively). Supplementing SSF with RCC resulted in additional ethanol production of about 2.0 g/L. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the effectiveness of both RCC and engineered amylolytic strains in terms of cellulose and starch depolymerisation. This study demonstrated that untreated wheat bran could be a promising ready-to-use substrate for ethanol production. The addition of crude recombinant cellulases improved ethanol yields in the SSF process and S. cerevisiae MEL2[TLG1-SFA1] and M2n[TLG1-SFA1] strains can efficiently convert wheat bran’s starch to ethanol.

  20. Reduction of water consumption in bioethanol production from triticale by recycling the stillage liquid phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumienna, Małgorzata; Lasik, Małgorzata; Szambelan, Katarzyna; Czarnecki, Zbigniew

    2011-01-01

    The distillery stillage is a major and arduous byproduct generated during ethanol production in distilleries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility of the stillage recirculation in the mashing process of triticale for non-byproducts production and reducing the fresh water consumption. The number of recirculation cycles which can be applied without disturbances in the ethanol fermentation process was investigated. Winter triticale BOGO and "Ethanol Red" Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast were used in the experiments. The method of non-pressure cooking was used for gelatinizingthe triticale, commercial α-amylase SPEZYME ETHYL and glucoamylase FERMENZYME L-400 were applied for starch liquefaction and saccharification. The process was conducted at 30°C for 72 h, next after distillation the stillage was centrifuged and the liquid fraction was used instead of 75% of process water. Ethanol yield from triticale fermentations during 40 cycles ranged between 82% and 95% of theoretical yield preserving yeast vitality and quantity on the same level. The obtained distillates were characterized with enhanced volatile compounds (fusel oil, esters, aldehydes, methanol) as well as protein and potassium concentrations. The liquid part of stillage was proved that can be reused instead of water in bioethanol production from triticale, without disturbing the fermentation process. This investigated solution of distillery byproducts utilization (liquid phase of stillage) constitutes the way which could significantly decrease the bioethanol production costs by reducing the water consumption, as well as wastewater production.

  1. Progress in the production of bioethanol on starch-based feedstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragiša Savić

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol produced from renewable biomass, such as sugar, starch, or lignocellulosic materials, is one of the alternative energy resources, which is both renewable and environmentally friendly. Although, the priority in global future ethanol production is put on lignocellulosic processing, which is considered as one of the most promising second-generation biofuel technologies, the utilizetion of lignocellulosic material for fuel ethanol is still under improvement. Sugar- based (molasses, sugar cane, sugar beet and starch-based (corn, wheat, triticale, potato, rice, etc. feedstock are still currently predominant at the industrial level and they are, so far, economically favorable compared to lingocelluloses. Currently, approx. 80 % of total world ethanol production is obtained from the fermentation of simple sugars by yeast. In Serbia, one of the most suitable and available agricultural raw material for the industrial ethanol production are cereals such as corn, wheat and triticale. In addition, surpluses of this feedstock are being produced in our country constantly. In this paper, a brief review of the state of the art in bioethanol production and biomass availability is given, pointing out the progress possibilities on starch-based production. The progress possibilities are discussed in the domain of feedstock choice and pretreatment, optimization of fermentation, process integration and utilization of the process byproducts.

  2. Improvement of bioethanol yield by pervaporation

    OpenAIRE

    Nongauza, Sinethemba Aubrey

    2010-01-01

    Due to the depletion of petroleum reserves and environmental concerns, bioethanol has been identified as an alternative fuel to petrol. Bioethanol is a fuel of bio-origin derived from renewable biomass. Starch and sugar containing materials are the primary sources of carbon for bioethanol production. Starch is firstly hydrolysed into simple sugars which are later fermented to bioethanol using Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae). The fermentation of sugars to bioethanol is however limited...

  3. Lignocellulosic bioethanol potential utilizing subproducts from the biodiesel production process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, Evan Michael; Oliveira Filho, Delly; Toledo, Olga Moraes [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DEA/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola

    2008-07-01

    Cellulosic ethanol production is one of the most researched fields in today's biofuels industry, and one of the major problems facing the commercial production of cellulosic ethanol is the challenge of collecting biomass. Oil extraction for biodiesel production yields large amounts of cellulose rich biomass sub-products, which in many cases can produce enough ethanol to meet the alcohol demands of transesterification. Soybean, castor bean, Jatropha Curcas, palm kernel, sunflower seed, rapeseed and cottonseed were studied to determine ethanol production potential from their oil extraction co-products and also the capacity to meet transesterification alcohol demands. Nearly all crops studied were capable of producing enough ethanol for biodiesel production and, in the case of palm kernels, 383% of the transesterification demands could be met with cellulosic ethanol production of the proper sub-products. Based on Brazilian yields, Palm kernels have a production potential of 6725 L ha{sup -1} of ethanol followed by Jatropha curcas with 695 L ha{sup -1}. (author)

  4. Prioritization of Bioethanol Production Pathways in China based on Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment and Multi-Criteria Decision-Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Manzardo, Alessandro; Mazzi, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The study objectives are two-fold: (i) combining the life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA) framework and the multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methodology for sustainability assessment; (ii) determining the most sustainable scenario for bioethanol production in China according......’s proposed method investigates an illustrative case about three alternative bioethanol production scenarios (wheat-based, corn-based and cassava-based): the prior sequence (based on the sustainability performances) in descending order is cassava-based, corn-based and wheat-based. The proposed methodology...... is to test the combination of a MCDM methodology and LCSA for sustainability decision-making by studying three alternative pathways for bioethanol production in China. The proposed method feasibly enables the decision-makers/stakeholders to find the most sustainable scenario to achieve their objectives among...

  5. Production of bioethanol from organic whey using Kluyveromyces marxianus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, A.D.; Kádár, Zsófia; Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    Ethanol production by K. marxianus in whey from organic cheese production was examined in batch and continuous mode. The results showed that no pasteurization or freezing of the whey was necessary and that K. marxianus was able to compete with the lactic acid bacteria added during cheese production...... ethanol yield (~0.50 g ethanol/g lactose) at both 30°C and 40°C using low pH (4.5) or no pH control. Continuous fermentation of nonsterilized whey was performed using Ca-alginate-immobilized K. marxianus. High ethanol productivity (2.5-4.5 g/l/h) was achieved at dilution rate of 0.2/h......, and it was concluded that K. marxianus is very suitable for industrial ethanol production from whey. © 2010 Society for Industrial Microbiology....

  6. Recent trends in bioethanol production from food processing byproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbas, Meltem Yesilcimen; Stark, Benjamin C

    2016-11-01

    The widespread use of corn starch and sugarcane as sources of sugar for the production of ethanol via fermentation may negatively impact the use of farmland for production of food. Thus, alternative sources of fermentable sugars, particularly from lignocellulosic sources, have been extensively investigated. Another source of fermentable sugars with substantial potential for ethanol production is the waste from the food growing and processing industry. Reviewed here is the use of waste from potato processing, molasses from processing of sugar beets into sugar, whey from cheese production, byproducts of rice and coffee bean processing, and other food processing wastes as sugar sources for fermentation to ethanol. Specific topics discussed include the organisms used for fermentation, strategies, such as co-culturing and cell immobilization, used to improve the fermentation process, and the use of genetic engineering to improve the performance of ethanol producing fermenters.

  7. production of bioethanol from rice straw using yeast extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    70% of production cost using less important materials, like agricultural waste ... rice cultivation and wood industries results in the ... method for pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification ... The economic problems consist exclusive of cost.

  8. Bioethanol production from date palm fruit waste fermentation using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lenovo

    2016-07-27

    Jul 27, 2016 ... comparison to the theoretical ethanol directly produced from sugar by chemical synthesis .... with the solar water heater, in order to reduce the energy ..... Production of pectinase by Bacillus subtilis EFRL01 in a date syrup.

  9. Simultaneous production of bioethanol and value-added d-psicose from Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Younho; Oh, Chihoon; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2017-11-01

    In this study, the production of bioethanol and value added d-psicose from Jerusalem artichoke (JA) was attempted by an enzymatic method. An enzyme mixture used for hydrolysis of 100mgmL -1 JA. The resulting concentrations of released d-fructose and d-glucose were measured at approximately 56mgmL -1 and 15mgmL -1 , respectively. The d-psicose was epimerized from the JA hydrolyzate, and the conversion rate was calculated to be 32.1%. The residual fructose was further converted into ethanol at 18.0gL -1 and the yield was approximately 72%. Bioethanol and d-psicose were separated by pervaporation. This is the first study to report simultaneous d-psicose production and bioethanol fermentation from JA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Combined Biogas and Bioethanol Production: Opportunities and Challenges for Industrial Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Cesaro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades the increasing energy requirements along with the need to face the consequences of climate change have driven the search for renewable energy sources, in order to replace as much as possible the use of fossil fuels. In this context biomass has generated great interest as it can be converted into energy via several routes, including fermentation and anaerobic digestion. The former is the most common option to produce ethanol, which has been recognized as one of the leading candidates to substitute a large fraction of the liquid fuels produced from oil. As the economic competitiveness of bioethanol fermentation processes has to be enhanced in order to promote its wider implementation, the most recent trends are directed towards the use of fermentation by-products within anaerobic digestion. The integration of both fermentation and anaerobic digestion, in a biorefinery concept, would allow the production of ethanol along with that of biogas, which can be used to produce heat and electricity, thus improving the overall energy balance. This work aims at reviewing the main studies on the combination of both bioethanol and biogas production processes, in order to highlight the strength and weakness of the integrated treatment for industrial application.

  11. Construction of novel Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for bioethanol active dry yeast (ADY) production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Daoqiong; Zhang, Ke; Gao, Kehui; Liu, Zewei; Zhang, Xing; Li, Ou; Sun, Jianguo; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Du, Fengguang; Sun, Peiyong; Qu, Aimin; Wu, Xuechang

    2013-01-01

    The application of active dry yeast (ADY) in bioethanol production simplifies operation processes and reduces the risk of bacterial contamination. In the present study, we constructed a novel ADY strain with improved stress tolerance and ethanol fermentation performances under stressful conditions. The industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain ZTW1 showed excellent properties and thus subjected to a modified whole-genome shuffling (WGS) process to improve its ethanol titer, proliferation capability, and multiple stress tolerance for ADY production. The best-performing mutant, Z3-86, was obtained after three rounds of WGS, producing 4.4% more ethanol and retaining 2.15-fold higher viability than ZTW1 after drying. Proteomics and physiological analyses indicated that the altered expression patterns of genes involved in protein metabolism, plasma membrane composition, trehalose metabolism, and oxidative responses contribute to the trait improvement of Z3-86. This work not only successfully developed a novel S. cerevisiae mutant for application in commercial bioethanol production, but also enriched the current understanding of how WGS improves the complex traits of microbes.

  12. Study of Application of Vinasse from Bio-ethanol Production to Farmland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Shinogi, Yoshiyuki

    During bio-ethanol production from sugarcane molasses, large amounts of vinasse, which is strongly acidic with high COD and BOD, is produced as a by-product. Disposal of vinasse is one restrictive problem for sustainable bio-ethanol production. In this study, possible application of vinasse to farmland was investigated. First, the staple characteristics of vinasse were determined. Second, availability of nutrients such as nitrogen and potassium to crops and dynamics in the soil environment were studied in the laboratory, and crop growth experiments were carried out in the field. Farmland application of vinasse as a substitute for one third of the potassium showed no significant damage to the growth of red-radishes and tomatoes. When large amounts of vinasse are applied to farmland as a substitution for the nitrogen in traditional chemical fertilizers, nitrogen-hunger especially immediately after application is expected. In addition, it is necessary to take into consideration the leaching of ions and the dark material in the vinasse for proper timing of application and soil conditions.

  13. Enhanced Bioethanol Production from Potato Peel Waste Via Consolidated Bioprocessing with Statistically Optimized Medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Tahmina; Miah, Abdul Bathen; Mahmud, Siraje Arif; Mahin, Abdullah-Al-

    2018-04-12

    In this study, an extensive screening was undertaken to isolate some amylolytic microorganisms capable of producing bioethanol from starchy biomass through Consolidated Bioprocessing (CBP). A total of 28 amylolytic microorganisms were isolated, from which 5 isolates were selected based on high α-amylase and glucoamylase activities and identified as Candida wangnamkhiaoensis, Hyphopichia pseudoburtonii (2 isolates), Wickerhamia sp., and Streptomyces drozdowiczii based on 26S rDNA and 16S rDNA sequencing. Wickerhamia sp. showed the highest ethanol production (30.4 g/L) with fermentation yield of 0.3 g ethanol/g starch. Then, a low cost starchy waste, potato peel waste (PPW) was used as a carbon source to produce ethanol by Wickerhamia sp. Finally, in order to obtain maximum ethanol production from PPW, a fermentation medium was statistically designed. The effect of various medium ingredients was evaluated initially by Plackett-Burman design (PBD), where malt extracts, tryptone, and KH 2 PO 4 showed significantly positive effect (p value < 0.05). Using Response Surface Modeling (RSM), 40 g/L (dry basis) PPW and 25 g/L malt extract were found optimum and yielded 21.7 g/L ethanol. This study strongly suggests Wickerhamia sp. as a promising candidate for bioethanol production from starchy biomass, in particular, PPW through CBP.

  14. Process design and economic analysis of a hypothetical bioethanol production plant using carob pod as feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Segado, S; Lozano, L J; de Los Ríos, A P; Hernández-Fernández, F J; Godínez, C; Juan, D

    2012-01-01

    A process for the production of ethanol from carob (Ceratonia siliqua) pods was designed and an economic analysis was carried out for a hypothetical plant. The plant was assumed to perform an aqueous extraction of sugars from the pods followed by fermentation and distillation to produce ethanol. The total fixed capital investment for a base case process with a capacity to transform 68,000 t/year carob pod was calculated as 39.61 millon euros (€) with a minimum bioethanol production cost of 0.51 €/L and an internal rate of return of 7%. The plant was found to be profitable at carob pod prices lower than 0.188 €/kg. An increase in the transformation capacity of the plant from 33,880 to 135,450 t/year was calculated to result in an increase in the internal rate of return from 5.50% to 13.61%. The obtained results show that carob pod is a promising alternative source for bioethanol production. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Statistical screening and selection of sweet sorghum varieties for bioethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehmood, S.; Aqil, T.; Tahir, M.S.

    2014-01-01

    This study aims at the screening of four cultivars of sorghums as a feedstock for bioethanol production. The straw of these varieties were subjected to pretreatment (dilute sulfuric acid) followed by enzyme hydrolysis to evaluate their potential to produce sugars. Four factor full factorial experimental design (2*2*2*4=32) was used to investigate the effects of experimental factors; sorghum varieties (84-Y-01, 85-G-86, Mr. Buster and RARI S-3), acid concentration (1 and 2%), temperature (121 and 140 degree C) and pretreatment time (30 and 60 min). The tested sorghum varieties follow the order 85-G-86 (47 g/100g) > Mr. Buster (44.6 g/100g) > 84-Y-01 (42 g/100g) > RARI S-3 (36 g/100g) for their sugar yield. The factors followed given order of significance; variety > temperature > acid concentration > pretreatment time. Sorghum variety (85-G-86) was selected as an appropriate feedstock for bioethanol production due to its higher sugar yield and lower concentration of by-products and furans. (author)

  16. Construction of novel Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for bioethanol active dry yeast (ADY production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daoqiong Zheng

    Full Text Available The application of active dry yeast (ADY in bioethanol production simplifies operation processes and reduces the risk of bacterial contamination. In the present study, we constructed a novel ADY strain with improved stress tolerance and ethanol fermentation performances under stressful conditions. The industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain ZTW1 showed excellent properties and thus subjected to a modified whole-genome shuffling (WGS process to improve its ethanol titer, proliferation capability, and multiple stress tolerance for ADY production. The best-performing mutant, Z3-86, was obtained after three rounds of WGS, producing 4.4% more ethanol and retaining 2.15-fold higher viability than ZTW1 after drying. Proteomics and physiological analyses indicated that the altered expression patterns of genes involved in protein metabolism, plasma membrane composition, trehalose metabolism, and oxidative responses contribute to the trait improvement of Z3-86. This work not only successfully developed a novel S. cerevisiae mutant for application in commercial bioethanol production, but also enriched the current understanding of how WGS improves the complex traits of microbes.

  17. Optimization of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation conditions with amphipathic lignin derivatives for concentrated bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ningning; Koda, Keiichi; Tamai, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Yoko; Takasuka, Taichi E; Uraki, Yasumitsu

    2017-05-01

    Amphipathic lignin derivatives (A-LDs) prepared from the black liquor of soda pulping of Japanese cedar are strong accelerators for bioethanol production under a fed-batch simultaneous enzymatic saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process. To improve the bioethanol production concentration, conditions such as reaction temperature, stirring program, and A-LDs loadings were optimized in both small scale and large scale fed-batch SSF. The fed-batch SSF in the presence of 3.0g/L A-LDs at 38°C gave the maximum ethanol production and a high enzyme recovery rate. Furthermore, a jar-fermenter equipped with a powerful mechanical stirrer was designed for 1.5L-scale fed-batch SSF to achieve rigorous mixing during high substrate loading. Finally, the 1.5L fed-batch SSF with a substrate loading of 30% (w/v) produced a high ethanol concentration of 87.9g/L in the presence of A-LDs under optimized conditions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of the biomass potential for the production of lignocellulosic bioethanol from various agricultural residues in Austria and Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahr, Heike; Steindl, Daniel; Wimberger, Julia; Schürz, Daniel; Jäger, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    Due to the fact that the resources of fossil fuels are steadily decreasing, researchers have been trying to find alternatives over the past few years. As bioethanol of the first generation is based on potential food, its production has become an increasingly controversial topic. Therefore the focus of research currently is on the production of bioethanol of the second generation, which is made from cellulosic and lignocellulosic materials. However, for the production of bioethanol of the second generation the fibres have to be pre-treated. In this work the mass balances of various agricultural residues available in Austria were generated and examined in lab scale experiments for their bioethanol potential. The residues were pretreatment by means of state of the art technology (steam explosion), enzymatically hydrolysed and fermented with yeast to produce ethanol. Special attention was paid the mass balance of the overall process. Due to the pretreatment the proportion of cellulose increases with the duration of the pre-treatment, whereby the amount of hemicellulose decreases greatly. However, the total losses were increasing with the duration of the pre-treatment, and the losses largely consist of hemicellulose. The ethanol yield varied depending on the cellulose content of the substrates. So rye straw 200 °C 20 min reaches an ethanol yield of 169 kg/t, by far the largest yield. As result on the basis of the annual straw yield in Austria, approximately 210 000 t of bioethanol (266 million litres) could be produced from the straw of wheat (Triticum vulgare), rye (Secale cereale), oat (Avena sativa) and corn (Zea mays) as well as elephant grass (Miscanthus sinensis) using appropriate pre-treatment. So the greenhouse gas emissions produced by burning fossil fuels could be reduced significantly. About 1.8 million tons of motor gasoline are consumed in Austria every year. The needed quantity for a transition to E10 biofuels could thus be easily provided by bioethanol

  19. Thermodynamic and economic analysis of integrating lignocellulosic bioethanol production in a Danish combined heat and power unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lythcke-Jørgensen, Christoffer Ernst; Haglind, Fredrik; Clausen, Lasse Røngaard

    bioethanol production in the Danish CHP unit Avedøreværket 1. Numerical models of the plants were developed, and feasible integration solutions were identified and optimised using exergy analysis. Hour-wise production simulations were run over a reference year, and market prices and economic parameters from...

  20. Genetic improvement of plants for enhanced bio-ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sanghamitra; Ramachandran, Srinivasan

    2013-04-01

    The present world energy situation urgently requires exploring and developing alternate, sustainable sources for fuel. Biofuels have proven to be an effective energy source but more needs to be produced to meet energy goals. Whereas first generation biofuels derived from mainly corn and sugarcane continue to be used and produced, the contentious debate between "feedstock versus foodstock" continues. The need for sources that can be grown under different environmental conditions has led to exploring newer sources. Lignocellulosic biomass is an attractive source for production of biofuel, but pretreatment costs to remove lignin are high and the process is time consuming. Genetically modified plants that have increased sugar or starch content, modified lignin content, or produce cellulose degrading enzymes are some options that are being explored and tested. This review focuses on current research on increasing production of biofuels by genetic engineering of plants to have desirable characteristics. Recent patents that have been filed in this area are also discussed.

  1. Strategy for Adapting Wine Yeasts for Bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R. Lankford

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast strains 71B-1122 and K1-V1116 were used to derive strains that could tolerate and produce higher ethanol yields. Respiratory-deficient mutants resistant to 500 mg/mL lycorine were isolated. Two mutants, 71B-1122 YEBr L3 and K1-V1116 YEBr L4, were shown to achieve about 10% and 18% improvement in their glucose-to-ethanol conversion efficiency compared to their respective parent strains. The K1-V1116 YEBr L4 in particular can tolerate an ethanol yield of 18.8 ± 0.8% at 3.5 weeks of fermentation and continued to consume most of the sugar until less than 1% glucose was left.

  2. Investigation of Bioethanol Productivity from Sargassum sp. (Brown Seaweed) by Pressure Cooker and Steam Cooker Pretreatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yu Wah; Kyaw Nyein Aye; Tint Tint Kyaw; Moe Moe Kyaw

    2011-12-01

    Production of biothanol from Sargassum sp. (Brown seaweed) is more suitable than using any other raw materials because it can easily collect on Chaung Tha Beach in Myanmar without any environmental damages. In this regard an attempt for bioethanol production from sargassum sp. by separation hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) with saccharomyces cerevisiae was made. Sargassum sp. was pretreated with steam cooker at 120 C and 1 bar for 30 min and pressure cooker at 65 C for 2 hour. The pretreated sargassum sp. was liquefied with the crude enzyme from Trichoderma sp. at the temperature of 50 C and pH of 4 for the first liquefaction step and 95 C, pH of 5 and enzyme of SPEZYME FERD were employed for the second liquefaction step. OPTIDEX L-400 was used as saccharified enzyme with the temperature of 65 C and pH of 4.5 at saccharification step. The process of fermentation was followed by distillation at 78 C for alcohol extraction. Concentrations of crude ethanol were about 1.8% by using steam cooker and 2% for pressure cooker treatment with enzyme mediated saccharification followed by yeast fermentation. Yields of bioethanol were 23% for pressure cooker treatment and 21% for steam cooker treatment at SHF process.

  3. Genomic reconstruction to improve bioethanol and ergosterol production of industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ke; Tong, Mengmeng; Gao, Kehui; Di, Yanan; Wang, Pinmei; Zhang, Chunfang; Wu, Xuechang; Zheng, Daoqiong

    2015-02-01

    Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is the common yeast used in the fields of bread making, brewing, and bioethanol production. Growth rate, stress tolerance, ethanol titer, and byproducts yields are some of the most important agronomic traits of S. cerevisiae for industrial applications. Here, we developed a novel method of constructing S. cerevisiae strains for co-producing bioethanol and ergosterol. The genome of an industrial S. cerevisiae strain, ZTW1, was first reconstructed through treatment with an antimitotic drug followed by sporulation and hybridization. A total of 140 mutants were selected for ethanol fermentation testing, and a significant positive correlation between ergosterol content and ethanol production was observed. The highest performing mutant, ZG27, produced 7.9 % more ethanol and 43.2 % more ergosterol than ZTW1 at the end of fermentation. Chromosomal karyotyping and proteome analysis of ZG27 and ZTW1 suggested that this breeding strategy caused large-scale genome structural variations and global gene expression diversities in the mutants. Genetic manipulation further demonstrated that the altered expression activity of some genes (such as ERG1, ERG9, and ERG11) involved in ergosterol synthesis partly explained the trait improvement in ZG27.

  4. Isolation and characterization of lignin from the oak wood bioethanol production residue for adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Jung; Kim, Hyun Joo; Cho, Eun Jin; Song, Younho; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Lignin was isolated from the residue of bioethanol production with oak wood via alkaline and catalyzed organosolv treatments at ambient temperature to improve the purity of lignin for the materials application. The isolated lignins were analyzed for their chemical composition by nitrobenzene oxidation method and their functionality was characterized via wet chemistry method, element analysis, (1)H NMR, GPC and FTIR-ATR. The isolated lignin by acid catalyzed organosolv treatment (Acid-OSL) contained a higher lignin content, aromatic proton, phenolic hydroxyl group and a lower nitrogen content that is more reactive towards chemical modification. The lignin-based adhesives were prepared and the bond strength was measured to evaluate the enhanced reactivity of lignin by the isolation. Two steps of phenolation and methylolation were applied for the modification of the isolated lignins and their tensile strengths were evaluated for the use as an adhesive. The acid catalyzed organosolv lignin-based adhesives had comparable bond strength to phenol-formaldehyde adhesives. The analysis of lignin-based adhesives by FTIR-ATR and TGA showed structural similarity to phenol adhesive. The results demonstrate that the reactivity of lignin was enhanced by isolation from hardwood bioethanol production residues at ambient temperature and it could be used in a value-added application to produce lignin-based adhesives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A Factorial Analysis Study on Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Fiber Pressed Oil Palm Frond for Bioethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, F. S.; Yussof, H. W.; Zahari, M. A. K. M.; Illias, R. M.; Rahman, R. A.

    2016-03-01

    Different technologies have been developed to for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to suitable fermentation substrates for bioethanol production. The enzymatic conversion of cellulose seems to be the most promising technology as it is highly specific and does not produce substantial amounts of unwanted byproducts. The effects of agitation speed, enzyme loading, temperature, pH and reaction time on the conversion of glucose from fiber pressed oil palm frond (FPOPF) for bioethanol production were screened by statistical analysis using response surface methodology (RSM). A half fraction two-level factorial analysis with five factors was selected for the experimental design to determine the best enzymatic conditions that produce maximum amount of glucose. FPOPF was pre-treated with alkaline prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. The enzymatic hydrolysis was performed using a commercial enzyme Cellic CTec2. From this study, the highest yield of glucose concentration was 9.736 g/L at 72 hours reaction time at 35 °C, pH 5.6, and 1.5% (w/v) of enzyme loading. The model obtained was significant with p-value model had a maximum point which is likely to be the optimum point and possible for the optimization process.

  6. Production of Bioethanol from Carrot Pomace Using the Thermotolerant Yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi-Yang Yu; Bo-Hong Jiang; Kow-Jen Duan [Tatung University, Tapei, Taiwan (China). Department of Bioengineering

    2013-03-15

    Carrot pomace, a major agricultural waste from the juice industry, was used as a feedstock for bioethanol production by fermentation with the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus. Treatment of the carrot pomace with Accellerase(TM) 1000 and pectinase at 50 °C for 84 h, resulted in conversion of 42% of its mass to fermentable sugars, mainly glucose, fructose, and sucrose. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) at 42 °C was performed on 10% (w/v) carrot pomace; the concentration of ethanol reached 18 g/L and the yield of ethanol from carrot pomace was 0.18 g/g. The highest ethanol concentration of 37 g/L was observed with an additional charge of 10% supplemented to the original 10% of carrot pomace after 12 h; the corresponding yield was 0.185 g/g. Our results clearly demonstrated the potential of combining a SSF process with thermotolerant yeast for the production of bioethanol using carrot pomace as a feedstock.

  7. Production of Bioethanol From Lignocellulosic Biomass Using Thermophilic Anaerobic Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva, Tania I.

    2006-01-01

    and xylose and to tolerate the inhibitory compounds present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates is therefore apparent. Several thermophilic anaerobic xylan degrading bacteria from our culture collection (EMB group at BioCentrum-DTU) have been screened for a potential ethanol producer from hemicellulose...... hydrolysates, and out of the screening test, one particular strain (A10) was selected for the best performance. The strain was morphologically and physiologically characterized as Thermoanaerobacter mathranii strain A10. Unlike other thermophilic anaerobic bacteria, the wild-type strain Thermoanaerobacter...... Thermoanaerobacter BG1L1 was further studied. The experiments were carried out in a continuous immobilized reactor system (a fluidized bed reactor), which is likely to be the process design configuration for xylose fermentation in a Danish biorefinery concept for production of fuel ethanol. The immobilization...

  8. Comparasion of iles-iles and cassava tubers as a Saccharomyces cerevisiae substrate fermentation for bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUSMIYATI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Kusmiyati (2010 Comparasion of iles-iles and cassava tubers as a Saccharomyces cerevisiae substrate fermentation for bioethanol production. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 7-13. The production of bioethanol increase rapidly because it is renewable energy that can be used to solve energy crisis caused by the depleting of fossil oil. The large scale production bioethanol in industry generally use feedstock such as sugarcane, corn, and cassava that are also required as food resouces. Therefore, many studies on the bioethanol process concerned with the use raw materials that were not competing with food supply. One of the alternative feedstock able to utilize for bioethanol production is the starchy material that available locally namely iles-iles (Amorphophallus mueller Blum. The contain of carbohydrate in the iles-iles tubers is around 71.12 % which is slightly lower as compared to cassava tuber (83,47%. The effect of various starting material, starch concentration, pH, fermentation time were studied. The conversion of starchy material to ethanol have three steps, liquefaction and saccharification were conducted using α-amylase and amyloglucosidase then fermentation by yeast S.cerevisiaie. The highest bioethanol was obtained at following variables starch:water ratio=1:4 ;liquefaction with 0.40 mL α-amylase (4h; saccharification with 0.40 mL amyloglucosidase (40h; fermentation with 10 mL S.cerevisiae (72h producing bioethanol 69,81 g/L from cassava while 53,49 g/L from iles-iles tuber. At the optimum condition, total sugar produced was 33,431 g/L from cassava while 16,175 g/L from iles-iles tuber. The effect of pH revealed that the best ethanol produced was obtained at pH 5.5 during fermentation occurred for both cassava and iles-iles tubers. From the results studied shows that iles-iles tuber is promising feedstock because it is producing bioethanol almost similarly compared to cassava.

  9. Economic Analysis of an Organosolv Process for Bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Kautto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In a previous paper, conceptual process design, simulation, and mass and energy balances were presented for an organosolv process with a hardwood feed of 2350 metric tons (MT per day and ethanol, lignin, furfural, and acetic acid production rates of 459, 310, 6.6, and 30.3 MT/day, respectively. In this paper, the investment and operating costs of the process and the minimum ethanol selling price (MESP to make the process economically feasible were estimated. The total capital investment of the plant was approximately 720 million USD. Lignin price was found to affect the MESP considerably. With a base case lignin price of 450 USD/MT, the MESP was approximately 3.1 USD per gallon (gal. Higher lignin price of 1000 USD/MT was required to equal the MESP with the December 2013 ethanol market price (2.0 USD/gal. In addition to lignin price, the MESP was found to be strongly affected by feedstock, enzyme, and investment costs. Variations in feedstock and investment costs affected the MESP by approximately 0.2 and 0.5 USD/gal, respectively. Changing the enzyme dosage and price from base case estimate of 5270 USD/MT and 0.02 g/g cellulose to more conservative 3700 USD/MT and 0.06 g/g cellulose, respectively, increased the MESP by 0.59 USD/gal.

  10. Review of China's bioethanol development and a case study of fuel supply, demand and distribution of bioethanol expansion by national application of E10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Jing; Yu, Suiran; Wu, Tianxing

    2011-01-01

    The increasing dependence on imported oil and tremendous greenhouse gases (GHG) emission is making the diversification of primary fuel such as petroleum a critical vital energy and environmental issue in China. China is promoting bioethanol by mandatory use in nine provinces and the expansion is on agenda. This paper first reviews China's bioethanol development. Next, suitable feedstock crops for expanded ethanol production are discussed. Particularly, bioethanol expansion by national application of E10 is investigated from perspectives of potential in bioethanol supply, projected ethanol demand, and the possible cost-effective bioethanol distribution system. It is calculated that by making use of un-used land for feedstock planting and introduction of improved feedstock varieties, potential bioethanol production capacity in China will be up to 25.33 million tons per year. Ethanol demand for national application of E10 is projected to be around 7 million tons per year. A linear optimization model is used to consider the economic costs of distributing bioethanol in China. The optimization result suggests that development of bioethanol industry may focus on Henan, Jilin, Anhui, Jiangxi and Sichuan basin. It also estimates 53.79 RMB per ton of bioethanol for downstream rail or truck transportation remain a relatively small fraction of total fuel cost. Thanks to the well developed railway network in China, more bioethanol can be distributed at a relatively modest premium distribution costs and with low environmental influences. -- Highlights: → China's bioethanol development is reviewed. → Ethanol potential, projected demand and efficient distribution system are studied. → We find that nationwide bioethanol application can be commercially viable. → Impacts of oil and feedstock prices on ethanol expansion are discussed. → Ecological impacts of large scale feedstock crop plantation should be inspected.

  11. Bioethanol production from mannitol by a newly isolated bacterium, Enterobacter sp. JMP3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Kim, Young Mi; Rhee, Hong Soon; Lee, Min Woo; Park, Jong Moon

    2013-05-01

    In this study a new bacterium capable of growing on brown seaweed Laminaria japonica, Enterobacter sp. JMP3 was isolated from the gut of turban shell, Batillus cornutus. In anaerobic condition, it produced high yields of ethanol (1.15 mol-EtOH mol-mannitol(-1)) as well as organic acids from mannitol, the major carbohydrate component of L. japonica. Based on carbon distribution and metabolic flux analysis, it was revealed that mannitol was more favorable than glucose for ethanol production due to their different redox states. This indicates that L. japonica is one of the promising feedstock for bioethanol production. Additionally, the mannitol dehydrogenation pathway in Enterobacter sp. JMP3 was examined and verified. Finally, an attempt was made to explore the possibility of controlling ethanol production by altering the redox potential via addition of external NADH in mannitol fermentation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Optimization of bioethanol production from carbohydrate rich wastes by extreme thermophilic microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomás, Ana Faria

    of the carbohydrates present in these complex substrates into ethanol. This is in particular true for pentose sugars such as xylose, generally the second major sugar present in lignocellulosic biomass. The transition of second-generation bioethanol production from pilot to industrial scale is hindered...... on the sugar composition of the rapeseed straw. This was 50 % and 14 % higher than the yield obtained with the bacteria or the yeast alone, respectively. When T. pentosaceus was immobilized in rapeseed straw, an improvement of 11 % in ethanol production was observed in batch mode. In continuous mode......, it was shown that hydraulic retention time (HRT) affected ethanol yield, and a dramatic shift from ethanol to acetate and lactate production occurred at an HRT of 6 h. The maximum ethanol yield and concentration, 1.50 mol mol-1 consumed sugars and 12.4 g l-1, were obtained with an HRT of 12 h. The latter...

  13. Life cycle analysis of multi-crop lignocellulosic material (perennial grasses) for bioethanol production in western Canada : a review.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathy, A. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Agricultural and Bioresource Engineering; Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Saskatoon Research Centre, Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Bioproducts and Bioprocessing; Panigrahi, S. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Agricultural and Bioresource Engineering; Mupondwa, E.K. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Saskatoon Research Centre, Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Bioproducts and Bioprocessing

    2009-07-01

    This paper presented a life cycle assessment of multi-crop lignocellulosic biomass to determine the environmental performance of a bioethanol biorefinery in western Canada. The study investigated the economic aspects of the ethanol fuel system such as biorefinery operating costs and possible improvements in biorefinery economics resulting from pretreatment, hydrolysis, and fermentation processes. The eco-efficiency was determined by comparing economic parameters with selected environmental parameters. The study also compared the efficiency of the lignoce lulosic biorefinery with grain-based dry milling ethanol plants that produce ethanol as well as dried grains and solubles used as animal feed. The study showed that the choice of feedstock and location of the biorefinery is very important. The location should be carefully chosen where there is no water shortage. Various low valued lignocellulosic energy crops such as switch grass, alfalfa, and other perennial grasses can grow in marginal or pasture land and can decrease production costs considerably, thus improving the economic viability of biorefineries. The use of co-products can also add value to the process and can decrease the cost of ethanol production. tabs., figs.

  14. Hydrodynamic cavitation as a novel pretreatment approach for bioethanol production from reed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ilgook; Lee, Ilgyu; Jeon, Seok Hwan; Hwang, Taewoon; Han, Jong-In

    2015-09-01

    In this study, hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) was employed as a physical means to improve alkaline pretreatment of reed. The HC-assisted alkaline pretreatment was undertaken to evaluate the influence of NaOH concentration (1-5%), solid-to-liquid ratio (5-15%), and reaction time (20-60 min) on glucose yield. The optimal condition was found to be 3.0% NaOH at solid-to-liquid (S/L) ratio of 11.8% for 41.1 min, which resulted in the maximum glucose yield of 326.5 g/kg biomass. Furthermore, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was conducted to assess the ethanol production. An ethanol concentration of 25.9 g/L and ethanol yield of 90% were achieved using batch SSF. These results clearly demonstrated HC system can be indeed a promising pretreatment tool for lignocellulosic bioethanol production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Municipal Solid Waste Management in a Low Income Economy Through Biogas and Bioethanol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miezah, Kodwo; Obiri-Danso, Kwasi; Kádár, Zsófia

    2017-01-01

    The biodegradable fraction of municipal solid wastes generated from households in Ghana has favourable characteristics worth considering for bioenergy production. The suitability of this biodegradable portion for biogas and bioethanol production was assessed in this study. The assessment...... was performed on both untreated and hydrothermally treated unsorted and sorted fractions of the waste using standard methods for biomass conversion to bioenergy. Compositional analysis of the waste indicated that unsorted biodegradable municipal solid wastes (BMSW) consisted of 38.7 % dry matter (DM) glucan, 8.......3 % DM hemicellulose, 10.1 % DM lignin and 7.6 % DM ash. The sorted fractions with the highest glucan but least lignin and hemicellulose were the pool of cassava, yam and plantain peeling wastes (CYPPW) with 84 % DM glucan much of which was starch, 5.6 % DM lignin and 0.5 % DM hemicellulose. The highest...

  16. Analysis of the potential for sustainable, cassava-based bioethanol production in Mali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kjeld; Bruun, Thilde Bech; Birch-Thomsen, Torben

    and solar resources in Mali 5) Screening of feasible applications of wind and solar energy in Mali: Assessment using the wind and solar maps for Mali The project is being carried out by a group of university departments, research institutions and consultants led by the UNEP Risø Centre (URC......The present project is covered in five main reports: 1) Analyses of the potential for sustainable, cassava-based bio-ethanol production in Mali 2) Agricultural residues for energy production in Mali 3) Pre-feasibility study for an electric power plant based on rice straw 4) Estimation of wind......) at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) and conducted in cooperation with Direction Nationale de l’Energie (DNE) and Centre National de l’Energie Solaire et des Energies Renouvelables (CNESOLER) in Mali. The subcontracted institutions comprise Geographic Resource Analysis & Science A/S (GRAS), Department...

  17. Isolation and characterization of marine bacteria from macroalgae Gracilaria salicornia and Gelidium latifolium on agarolitic activity for bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaroe, M.; Pratiwi, I.; Sunudin, A.

    2017-05-01

    Gracilaria salicornia and Gelidium latifolium have high content of agar and potential to be use as raw material for bioethanol. In bioethanol production, one of the processes level is enzyme hydrolysis. Various microorganisms, one of which is bacteria, can carry out the enzyme hydrolysis. Bacteria that degrade the cell walls of macroalgae and produce an agarase enzyme called agarolytic bacteria. The purpose of this study was to isolate bacteria from macroalgae G. salicornia and G. latifolium, which has the highest agarase enzyme activities, and to obtain agarase enzyme characteristic for bioethanol production. There are two isolates bacteria resulted from G. salicornia that are N1 and N3 and there are two isolates from G. latifolium that are BSUC2 and BSUC4. The result of agarase enzyme qualitative test showed that isolates bacteria from G. latifolium were greater than G. salicornia. The highest agarolitic index of bacteria from G. salicornia produced by isolate N3 was 2.32 mm and isolate N3 was 2.27 mm. Bacteria from G. latifolium produced by isolate BSUC4 was 4.28 mm and isolate BSUC2 was 4.18 mm, respectively. Agarase enzyme activities from isolates N1 and N3 were optimum working at pH 7 and temperature 30 °C, while from isolates BSUC4 was optimum at pH 7 and temperature 50 °C. This is indicated that the four bacteria are appropriate to hydrolyze macro alga for bioethanol production.

  18. Potential environmental impact of bioethanol production chain from fiber sorghum to be used in passenger cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Annachiara; Zucaro, Amalia; Fagnano, Massimo; Fierro, Angelo

    2017-11-15

    A life cycle assessment (LCA) was applied to assess the environmental load of a prospective local bioethanol (EtOH) production system in Southern Italy by using lignocellulosic Fiber sorghum (FS) feedstock. A two steps analysis was carried out considering: (i) a "cradle-to-farm gate" LCA to investigate thoroughly the FS cultivation on hilly marginal land and (ii) a "cradle-to-wheels" system boundary encompassing the environmental pressure of the whole EtOH supply-use chain. Primary data related to lignocellulosic biomass production were combined with experimental feedstock conversion processes through advanced second generation technology. The purpose was the evaluation of the environmental performance of different EtOH-gasoline mixtures in midsize passenger cars: E10 (10% of EtOH and 90% of gasoline) and E85 (85% of EtOH and 15% of gasoline). N fertilization appeared as the prevailing contributor of the crop phase. The "cradle-to-wheels" results concerning E10 passenger car disclosed that the main hotspots were represented by the input of low sulphur petrol (66%) and the linked tailpipe emissions (15%), for almost all the impact categories. Otherwise, for E85 flex-fuel vehicle, the major drivers were represented by the feedstock production (46%) and the imported electricity used in the conversion facility (18%). The FS EtOH blends entailed potential environmental benefits compared with the fossil counterpart (gasoline) for climate change, ozone and fossil depletions. Otherwise, they evidenced a worse profile in terms of acidification, eutrophication and particulate matter formation. Within the context of a the prospective territorial bio-refinery network, the comparison of the annual FS bioethanol based systems with similar EtOH scenarios from giant reed perennial crops highlighted: (i) the importance to optimize the N-management for FS feedstock cultivation and (ii) the need to increase the use of the renewable energy carriers along the industrial conversion

  19. Ensiling – Wet-storage method for lignocellulosic biomass for bioethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr; Thomsen, Anne Belinda; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2011-01-01

    , and consequently by lowing pH, inhibiting other microbes to degrade the polysaccharides. Following silage treatment, enzymatic convertibility tests showed that 51.5%, 36.5%, and 41.9% of the cellulose was converted by cellulytic enzymes in ensiled maize, rye, and clover grass, respectively. In addition, tests......Ensiling of humid biomass samples wrapped in plastic bales has been investigated as a wet-storage for bioethanol production from three lignocellulosic biomass samples i.e. maize, rye, and clover grass. During the silage process, lactic acid bacteria fermented free sugars to lactic acid.......5% (by S. cerevisiae); the yields significantly increased after hydrothermal pretreatment: 77.7%, 72.8%, 79.5% (by K. marxianus) and 72.0%, 80.7%, 75.7% (by S. cerevisiae) of the theoretical based on the C6 sugar contents in maize, rye, and clover grass, respectively....

  20. Optimization of upstream and development of cellulose hydrolysis process for cellulosic bio-ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Hyeun Jong; Wi, Seung Gon; Lee, Yoon Gyo; Kim, Ho Myung; Kim, Su Bae

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this project is optimization of upstream and development of cellulose hydrolysis process for cellulosic bio-ethanol production. The 2nd year Research scope includes: 1) Optimization of pre-treatment conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass and 2) Demonstration of enzymatic hydrolysis by recombinant enzymes. To optimize the pretreatment, we applied two processes: a wet process (wet milling + popping), and dry process (popping + dry milling). Out of these, the wet process presented the best glucose yield with a 93.1% conversion, while the dry process yielded 69.6%, and the unpretreated process yielded <20%. The recombinant cellulolytic enzymes showed very high specific activity, about 80-1000 times on CMC and 13-70 times on filter paper at pH 3.5 and 55 .deg. C

  1. Comparison of microwave and conduction-convection heating autohydrolysis pretreatment for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Reynosa, Alejandra; Romaní, Aloia; Rodríguez-Jasso, Rosa M; Aguilar, Cristóbal N; Garrote, Gil; Ruiz, Héctor A

    2017-11-01

    This work describes the application of two forms of heating for autohydrolysis pretreatment on isothermal regimen: conduction-convection heating and microwave heating processing using corn stover as raw material for bioethanol production. Pretreatments were performed using different operational conditions: residence time (10-50 min) and temperature (160-200°C) for both pretreatments. Subsequently, the susceptibility of pretreated solids was studied using low enzyme loads, and high substrate loads. The highest conversion was 95.1% for microwave pretreated solids. Also solids pretreated by microwave heating processing showed better ethanol conversion in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process (92% corresponding to 33.8g/L). Therefore, microwave heating processing is a promising technology in the pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Amphipathic lignin derivatives to accelerate simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of unbleached softwood pulp for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ningning; Yamamoto, Yoko; Koda, Keiichi; Tamai, Yutaka; Uraki, Yasumitsu

    2014-12-01

    Amphipathic lignin derivatives (A-LDs) were already demonstrated to improve enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulose. Based on this knowledge, two kinds of A-LDs prepared from black liquor of soda pulping of Japanese cedar were applied to a fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process for unbleached soda pulp of Japanese cedar to produce bioethanol. Both lignin derivatives slightly accelerated yeast fermentation of glucose but not inhibited it. In addition, ethanol yields based on the theoretical maximum ethanol production in the fed-batch SSF process was increased from 49% without A-LDs to 64% in the presence of A-LDs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Continuous recycling of enzymes during production of lignocellulosic bioethanol in demonstration scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haven, Mai Østergaard; Lindedam, Jane; Jeppesen, Martin D.

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of enzymes in production of lignocellulosic bioethanol has been tried for more than 30 years. So far, the successes have been few and the experiments have been carried out at conditions far from those in an industrially feasible process. Here we have tested continuous enzyme recycling a...... broth also opens up the possibility of lowering the dry matter content in hydrolysis and fermentation while still maintaining high ethanol concentrations....... at demonstration scale using industrial process conditions (high dry matter content and low enzyme dosage) for a period of eight days. The experiment was performed at the Inbicon demonstration plant (Kalundborg, Denmark) capable of converting four tonnes of wheat straw per hour. 20% of the fermentation broth...... was recycled to the hydrolysis reactor while enzyme dosage was reduced by 5%. The results demonstrate that recycling enzymes by this method can reduce overall enzyme consumption and may also increase the ethanol concentrations in the fermentation broth. Our results further show that recycling fermentation...

  4. Process design and optimization of novel wheat-based continuous bioethanol production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifeen, Najmul; Wang, Ruohang; Kookos, Ioannis K; Webb, Colin; Koutinas, Apostolis A

    2007-01-01

    A novel design of a wheat-based biorefinery for bioethanol production, including wheat milling, gluten extraction as byproduct, fungal submerged fermentation for enzyme production, starch hydrolysis, fungal biomass autolysis for nutrient regeneration, yeast fermentation with recycling integrated with a pervaporation membrane for ethanol concentration, and fuel-grade ethanol purification by pressure swing distillation (PSD), was optimized in continuous mode using the equation-based software General Algebraic Modelling System (GAMS). The novel wheat biorefining strategy could result in a production cost within the range of dollars 0.96-0.50 gal(-1) ethanol (dollars 0.25-0.13 L(-1) ethanol) when the production capacity of the plant is within the range of 10-33.5 million gal y(-1) (37.85-126.8 million L y(-1)). The production of value-added byproducts (e.g., bran-rich pearlings, gluten, pure yeast cells) was identified as a crucial factor for improving the economics of fuel ethanol production from wheat. Integration of yeast fermentation with pervaporation membrane could result in the concentration of ethanol in the fermentation outlet stream (up to 40 mol %). The application of a PSD system that consisted of a low-pressure and a high-pressure column and employing heat integration between the high- and low-pressure columns resulted in reduced operating cost (up to 44%) for fuel-grade ethanol production.

  5. Perspectives for the production of bioethanol from wood and straw in Austria: technical, economic, and ecological aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravanja, Philipp; Friedl, Anton [Vienna University of Technology, Thermal Process Engineering-Process Simulation, Institute of Chemical Engineering, Wien (Austria); Koenighofer, Kurt; Canella, Lorenza; Jungmeier, Gerfried [Joanneum Research Forschungsgesellschaft mbH - Resources, Graz (Austria)

    2012-06-15

    Bioethanol produced from lignocellulosic resources is a promising candidate for the replacement of fossil fuels. In this study, we aim to determine the perspectives to produce lignocellulosic ethanol in Austria. Technical, environmental and economic aspects are being considered. Thirteen biotechnological production concepts using the raw materials straw and softwood were established and simulated with the steady state flowsheeting software IPSEpro. Bioethanol production cost and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for each system were calculated based on mass and energy balances obtained from process simulation. The emission of GHGs along the entire bioethanol process chain (''from well to wheel'') are compared to two reference systems producing the same amounts of by-products. In all concepts, process heat and considerable amounts of the by-products electricity, heat, pellets, C5 molasses, or biomethane could be obtained from residual biomass. Compared to a reference system driven by fossil energy, GHG emissions can be reduced by up to 76%. The production cost of ethanol was found to between 0.66 EUR and 0.94 EUR per liter of gasoline equivalent. The type and amount of by-product influence technical, economic, and environmental performance significantly. Converting all straw and softwood available in Austria to ethanol would result in an annual production of 340 kt. (orig.)

  6. Bayesian Computational Approaches for Gene Regulation Studies of Bioethanol and Biohydrogen Production. Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newberg, Lee; McCue, Lee Anne; Van Roey, Patrick

    2014-04-17

    The project developed mathematical models and first-version software tools for the understanding of gene regulation across multiple related species. The project lays the foundation for understanding how certain alpha-proteobacterial species control their own genes for bioethanol and biohydrogen production, and sets the stage for exploiting bacteria for the production of fuels. Enabling such alternative sources of fuel is a high priority for the Department of Energy and the public.

  7. Bioethanol production from the dry powder of Jerusalem artichoke tubers by recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Zhou; Zou, Shan-Mei; He, Mei-Lin; Wang, Chang-Hai

    2015-04-01

    It has been found that recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae 6525 can produce high concentration of ethanol in one-step fermentation from the extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers or inulin. However, the utilization rate of raw materials was low and the fermentation process was costly and complicated. Therefore, in this study, after the optimum processing conditions for ethanol production in fed-batch fermentation were determined in flask, the recombinant S. cerevisiae 6525 was first used to produce ethanol from the dry powder of Jerusalem artichoke tubers in 5-L agitating fermentor. After 72 h of fermentation, around 84.3 g/L ethanol was produced in the fermentation liquids, and the conversion efficiency of inulin-type sugars to ethanol was 0.453, or 88.6 % of the theoretical value of 0.511. This study showed high feasibility of bioethanol industrial production from the Jerusalem artichoke tubers and provided a basis for it in the future.

  8. Cellulosic bioethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) using hydrogen peroxide-acetic acid (HPAC) pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Younho; Wi, Seung Gon; Kim, Ho Myeong; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2016-08-01

    Jerusalem artichoke (JA) is recognized as a suitable candidate biomass crop for bioethanol production because it has a rapid growth rate and high biomass productivity. In this study, hydrogen peroxide-acetic acid (HPAC) pretreatment was used to enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis and to effectively remove the lignin of JA. With optimized enzyme doses, synergy was observed from the combination of three different enzymes (RUT-C30, pectinase, and xylanase) which provided a conversion rate was approximately 30% higher than the rate with from treatment with RUT-C30 alone. Fermentation of the JA hydrolyzates by Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced a fermentation yield of approximately 84%. Therefore, Jerusalem artichoke has potential as a bioenergy crop for bioethanol production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Biodiesel and bioethanol production: A sustainable alternative for the energy crisis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Castro Martínez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present contribution intends to give an overview of the current -status of the energy crisis and suggest some sustainable alternatives for energy production. In first place, a brief summary of the history about resources for energy production is presented. The high dependency of fossil combustibles it is well known and has been estimated that more than 90% of the used energy comes from non-renewable resources such as oil, gas and carbon. In the same way, here, it is described that oil is, by far, the main source of energy used to date and as a consequence, this resource is, unavoidably,coming to an end and at the same time is causing and increasing environmental pollution problems. Later in this work, it is suggested that in order to achieve the energetic sustainability, the development of alternative sources that will allow the reduction of toxic greenhouse gas (GHG emissions as well as a decrease of water usage along with a decrease in the energy production costs are needed. One of the alternatives that have been proposed is the production of biofuels, such as biodiesel and bioethanol. Here, some of the main properties at the level of the employed raw materials and production systems are cited. Finally, this work suggests some solutions that are under development worldwide in order to face thiscurrent energy situation.

  10. Bioethanol production from starchy biomass by direct fermentation using saccharomyces diastaticus in batch free and immobilized cell systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilonzo, P.M.; Margaritis, A. [University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering; Yu, J.; Ye, Q. [East China Univ. of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China). Biochemical Engineering Research Inst. and State Key Lab

    2006-07-01

    The feasibility of using amylolytic yeasts for the direct fermentation of starchy biomass to ethanol was discussed. Although amylolytic yeasts such as Saccharomycopsis, Lipomyces, and Schwaniomyces secrete both {alpha}-amylase and glucoamylase enzymes that synergistically enhance starch degradation, they are not suitable for industrial bio-ethanol production because of low tolerance for ethanol and slow fermentation rate. For that reason, this study examined the direct ethanol fermentation of soluble starch or dextrin with the amylolytic yeast Saccharomyces diastaticus in batch free and immobilized cells systems. Saccharomyces diastaticus secretes glucoamylase and can therefore assimilate and ferment starch and starch-like biomass. The main focus of the study was on parameters leading to higher ethanol yields from high concentration of dextrin and soluble starch using batch cultures. A natural attachment method was proposed in which polyurethane foam sheets were used as the carrier for amylolytic yeasts immobilization in ethanol fermentations. The support was chosen because it was inexpensive, autoclavable, pliable and could be tailored to suit process requirements regarding net surface charge, shape and size. It was found that Saccharomyces diastaticus was very efficient in terms of fermentation of high initial concentrations of dextrin or soluble starch. Higher concentrations of ethanol were produced. In batch fermentations, the cells fermented high dextrin concentrations more efficiently. In particular, in batch fermentation, more than 92 g-L of ethanol was produced from 240 g-L of dextrin, at conversion efficiency of 90 per cent. The conversion efficiency decreased to 60 per cent but a higher final ethanol concentration of 147 g/L was attained with a medium containing 500 g/L of dextrin. In an immobilized cell bioreactor, Saccharomyces diastaticus produced 83 g/L of ethanol from 240 g/L of dextrin, corresponding to ethanol volumetric productivity of 9.1 g

  11. The effect of cassava-based bioethanol production on above-ground carbon stocks: A case study from Southern Mali

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vang Rasmussen, Laura; Rasmussen, Kjeld; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Kristensen, Søren B.P.; Traoré, Oumar

    2012-01-01

    Increasing energy use and the need to mitigate climate change make production of liquid biofuels a high priority. Farmers respond worldwide to this increasing demand by converting forests and grassland into biofuel crops, but whether biofuels offer carbon savings depends on the carbon emissions that occur when land use is changed to biofuel crops. This paper reports the results of a study on cassava-based bioethanol production undertaken in the Sikasso region in Southern Mali. The paper outlines the estimated impacts on above-ground carbon stocks when land use is changed to increase cassava production. The results show that expansion of cassava production for bioethanol will most likely lead to the conversion of fallow areas to cassava. A land use change from fallow to cassava creates a reduction in the above-ground carbon stocks in the order of 4–13 Mg C ha −1 , depending on (a) the age of the fallow, (b) the allometric equation used and (c) whether all trees are removed or the larger, useful trees are preserved. This ‘carbon debt’ associated with the above-ground biomass loss would take 8–25 years to repay if fossil fuels are replaced with cassava-based bioethanol. - Highlights: ► Demands for biofuels make production of cassava-based bioethanol a priority. ► Farmers in Southern Mali are likely to convert fallow areas to cassava production. ► Converting fallow to cassava creates reductions in above-ground carbon stocks. ► Estimates of carbon stock reductions include that farmers preserve useful trees. ► The carbon debt associated with above-ground biomass loss takes 8–25 years to repay.

  12. Systemic analysis of production scenarios for bioethanol produced from ligno-cellulosic biomass [abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghysel, F.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Defining alternatives for non-renewable energy sources constitutes a priority to the development of our societies. One of these alternatives is biofuels production starting from energy crops, agricultural wastes, forest products or wastes. In this context, a "second generation" biofuels production, aiming at utilizing the whole plant, including ligno-cellulosic (hemicelluloses, cellulose, lignin fractions (Ogier et al., 1999 that are not used for human food, would allow the reduction of the drawbacks of bioethanol production (Schoeling, 2007. However, numerous technical, economical, ethical and environmental questions are still pending. One of the aims of the BioEtha2 project, directed by the Walloon Agricultural Research Centre, is to define the position of bioethanol produced from ligno-cellulosic biomass among the different renewable energy alternatives that could be developed in Wallonia towards 2020. With this aim, and in order to answer the numerous questions in this field, the project aims at using tools and methods coming from the concept of "forecasting scenarios" (Sebillotte, 2002; Slegten et al., 2007; For-learn, 2008. This concept, based on a contemporary reality, aims to explore different possible scenarios for the future development of alternative sources of energy production. The principle is to evaluate, explore, possible futures of the studied problematic, through the establishment of possible evolution trajectories. We contribute to this prospective through a systemic approach (Vanloqueren, 2007 that allows lightening the existing interactions within the system "ligno-cellulosic biomass chain" without isolating it from its environment. We explain and sketch the two contexts needed to identify primary stakes. The global context includes inter-dependant and auto-regulating fields such as society, politics, technology and economy. These four fields influence each part of the "chain" with specific tools. However, the interest and

  13. Screening of Jerusalem artichoke varieties for bio-ethanol production in Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passarinho, P.C.; Oliveira, A.C.; Rosa, M.F. [INETI, Departamento de Energias Renovaveis, Estrada do Paco do Lumiar, Ed. G, 1649-038, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this work was the evaluation of the potential of 9 Jerusalem artichoke varieties for the sustainable production of bio-ethanol in Portugal. The tubers, which are the part of the plant with higher sugar content, were harvested at different stages of development (29 to 55 weeks), and crashed for juice extraction. The two phases obtained were characterized in terms of total sugars, protein, ash and dry matter. The ethanol productivity of the different J. artichoke varieties was then evaluated fermenting juice or mixtures of juice and pulp aqueous extract with a strain of Kluyveromyces marxianus, a yeast able to hydrolyze and ferment inulin polymers. The chamical characteristic more dependable on the harvest period was the amount of total sugars in the tubers. Juices, obtained until 48 weeks development, contained 173 - 235 g/L of total sugars while juices from the last harvest presented markedly lower sugar contents, indicating crop degradation or sugar migration to the soil. Regarding the fermentative process, ethanol yields ranged from 0.3 to 0.5 g/g. The main conclusion of this work indicates C13 variety as the best. Although bearing a lower sugar concentration in tubers, the substantially higher agricultural productivities (kg/m2) after 8 months growing allowed to estimate productions higher than 10 000 L/ha.

  14. Study on bio-ethanol production from oil palm (Elaies Guineensis) trunks sap using factorial design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norhazimah, A. H.; Che Ku, M. Faizala [Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang (Malaysia)], email: amfaizal@ump.edu.my

    2011-07-01

    Oil palm (Elaies Guineensis) trunks (OPT), a waste generated from the re-plantation of oil palm trees for palm oil production, contain useful fermentable sugar for bio-ethanol production, and are a very important biomass material for future energy production. The fermentation usually can be affected along several parameters: temperature, pH, agitation rate, percentage inoculums, time of incubation, nitrogen sources, age of the inoculums and other chemical and physical factors. Since identifying all the effects of a particular factor on the fermentation process is impractical for reasons of time and cost, the approach of this study was based on a two-level five-factor (25) full factorial design (FFD) in order to identify the independent parameters for screening experiment purposes and determine the range of levels of the factor as well as the regions for optimization. The results from this study showed that the most influential principal factors affecting ethanol concentration and productivity were temperature, followed by initial pH and agitation rate.

  15. Integrated production of cellulosic bioethanol and succinic acid from industrial hemp in a biorefinery concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuglarz, Mariusz; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Karakashev, Dimitar; Angelidaki, Irini

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop integrated biofuel (cellulosic bioethanol) and biochemical (succinic acid) production from industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) in a biorefinery concept. Two types of pretreatments were studied (dilute-acid and alkaline oxidative method). High cellulose recovery (>95%) as well as significant hemicelluloses solubilization (49-59%) after acid-based method and lignin solubilization (35-41%) after alkaline H2O2 method were registered. Alkaline pretreatment showed to be superior over the acid-based method with respect to the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol productivity. With respect to succinic acid production, the highest productivity was obtained after liquid fraction fermentation originated from steam treatment with 1.5% of acid. The mass balance calculations clearly showed that 149kg of EtOH and 115kg of succinic acid can be obtained per 1ton of dry hemp. Results obtained in this study clearly document the potential of industrial hemp for a biorefinery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. One-pot bioethanol production from cellulose by co-culture of Acremonium cellulolyticus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Enoch Y

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the ethanol production from biomass by consolidated bioprocess (CBP is considered to be the most ideal process, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF is the most appropriate strategy in practice. In this study, one-pot bioethanol production, including cellulase production, saccharification of cellulose, and ethanol production, was investigated for the conversion of biomass to biofuel by co-culture of two different microorganisms such as a hyper cellulase producer, Acremonium cellulolyticus C-1 and an ethanol producer Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Furthermore, the operational conditions of the one-pot process were evaluated for maximizing ethanol concentration from cellulose in a single reactor. Results Ethanol production from cellulose was carried out in one-pot bioethanol production process. A. cellulolyticus C-1 and S. cerevisiae were co-cultured in a single reactor. Cellulase producing-medium supplemented with 2.5 g/l of yeast extract was used for productions of both cellulase and ethanol. Cellulase production was achieved by A. cellulolyticus C-1 using Solka-Floc (SF as a cellulase-inducing substrate. Subsequently, ethanol was produced with addition of both 10%(v/v of S. cerevisiae inoculum and SF at the culture time of 60 h. Dissolved oxygen levels were adjusted at higher than 20% during cellulase producing phase and at lower than 10% during ethanol producing phase. Cellulase activity remained 8–12 FPU/ml throughout the one-pot process. When 50–300 g SF/l was used in 500 ml Erlenmeyer flask scale, the ethanol concentration and yield based on initial SF were as 8.7–46.3 g/l and 0.15–0.18 (g ethanol/g SF, respectively. In 3-l fermentor with 50–300 g SF/l, the ethanol concentration and yield were 9.5–35.1 g/l with their yields of 0.12–0.19 (g/g respectively, demonstrating that the one-pot bioethanol production is a reproducible process in a scale-up bioconversion of cellulose to ethanol

  17. Improving bioethanol production from sugarcane: evaluation of distillation, thermal integration and cogeneration systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Marina O.S.; Modesto, Marcelo; Ensinas, Adriano V.; Nebra, Silvia A.; Filho, Rubens Maciel; Rossell, Carlos E.V.

    2011-01-01

    Demand for bioethanol has grown considerably over the last years. Even though Brazil has been producing ethanol from sugarcane on a large scale for decades, this industry is characterized by low energy efficiency, using a large fraction of the bagasse produced as fuel in the cogeneration system to supply the process energy requirements. The possibility of selling surplus electricity to the grid or using surplus bagasse as raw material of other processes has motivated investments on more efficient cogeneration systems and process thermal integration. In this work simulations of an autonomous distillery were carried out, along with utilities demand optimization using Pinch Analysis concepts. Different cogeneration systems were analyzed: a traditional Rankine Cycle, with steam of high temperature and pressure (80 bar, 510 o C) and back pressure and condensing steam turbines configuration, and a BIGCC (Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle), comprised by a gas turbine set operating with biomass gas produced in a gasifier that uses sugarcane bagasse as raw material. Thermoeconomic analyses determining exergy-based costs of electricity and ethanol for both cases were carried out. The main objective is to show the impact that these process improvements can produce in industrial systems, compared to the current situation.

  18. Direct Bioconversion of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches for Bioethanol Production By Solid State Bioconversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassereldeen Ahmed Kabbashi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The bioethanol production was conducted by utilizing agriculture waste, palm oil empty fruit bunches (EFB with the aid of T. harzianum and yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae using solid state bioconversion method. The compatibility of various fungal strains was done as to develop the direct bioconversion process of compatible mixed culture. Analyzes such ethanol estimation, reducing sugar and glucosamine as growth indicator were conducted in order to select the best experimented run for optimization. The optimization of process conditions, by using central composite design (CCD was carried out. Optimization of process condition was done with varied level of moisture content, pH, inoculum size, concentration of co-substrate (wheat flour and mineral solutions. Statistical analysis showed that the optimum process condition for moisture content was 50% (v/w, pH of 4, inoculum size of 10% (v/v, concentration of wheat flour of 1% (v/v and mineral solutions 1%(v/v. In this study, the application levels of the methods of environmental management in regards to the maximum production were determined. The final optimization with the developed process conditions indicated that the maximum production was increased from 14.315 (v/v to 34.785(v/v.

  19. Utilization of microwave and ultrasound pretreatments in the production of bioethanol from corn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolic, Svetlana; Mojovic, Ljiljana; Rakin, Marica [University of Belgrade, Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, Belgrade (Serbia); Pejin, Dusanka; Pejin, Jelena [University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Technology, Novi Sad (Serbia)

    2011-08-15

    Bioethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of corn meal by Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. ellipsoideus yeast in a batch system with prior ultrasound or microwave treatment was studied. The optimal duration of the pretreatments and the SSF process kinetics were assessed and determined. Also, the effect of ultrasound and microwave pretreatments on ethanol yield and productivity was investigated. An optimal duration of 5 min was determined for both pretreatments. Ultrasonic and microwave pretreatments effectively increased the glucose concentration obtained after liquefaction by 6.82 and 8.48%, respectively, compared to untreated control sample. Also, both pretreatments improved ethanol yield and productivity during the SSF process. Ultrasound and microwave pretreatments increased the maximum ethanol concentration produced in the SSF process by 11.15 and 13.40% (compared to the control sample), respectively. The application of microwave pretreatment resulted in higher glucose release during liquefaction and consequently in higher ethanol concentration, compared to ultrasound pretreatment. A maximum ethanol concentration of 9.91% (w/w) and percentage of theoretical ethanol yield of 92.27% were achieved after 44 h of the SSF process of corn meal with prior microwave treatment. (orig.)

  20. Thermodynamic evaluation of hydrogen production for fuel cells by using bio-ethanol steam reforming: Effect of carrier gas addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Liliana; Kafarov, Viatcheslav

    Omitting the influence of the addition of carrier gas to the reaction system for hydrogen production by bio-ethanol steam reforming can lead to wrong conclusions, especially when it is going to be made to scale. The effect of carrier gas addition to produce hydrogen using bio-ethanol steam reforming to feed fuel cells was evaluated. Thermodynamic calculations in equilibrium conditions were made, however the analysis derived from them can also be applied to kinetic conditions. These calculations were made by using the Aspen-HYSYS software at atmospheric pressure and different values of temperature, water/ethanol molar ratios, and inert (argon)/(water/ethanol) molar ratios. The addition of inert carrier gas modifies the concentrations of the reaction products in comparison to those obtained without its presence. This behavior occurs because most of the reactions which take place in bio-ethanol steam reforming have a positive difference of moles. This fact enhances the system sensitivity to inert concentration at low and moderated temperatures (<700 °C). At high values of temperature, the inert addition does not influence the composition of the reaction products because of the predominant effect of inverse WGS reaction.

  1. Thermodynamic evaluation of hydrogen production for fuel cells by using bio-ethanol steam reforming: Effect of carrier gas addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, Liliana; Kafarov, Viatcheslav [Universidad Industrial de Santander, Escuela de Ingenieria Quimica, Bucaramanga 678 (Colombia)

    2009-07-01

    Omitting the influence of the addition of carrier gas to the reaction system for hydrogen production by bio-ethanol steam reforming can lead to wrong conclusions, especially when it is going to be made to scale. The effect of carrier gas addition to produce hydrogen using bio-ethanol steam reforming to feed fuel cells was evaluated. Thermodynamic calculations in equilibrium conditions were made, however the analysis derived from them can also be applied to kinetic conditions. These calculations were made by using the Aspen-HYSYS software at atmospheric pressure and different values of temperature, water/ethanol molar ratios, and inert (argon)/(water/ethanol) molar ratios. The addition of inert carrier gas modifies the concentrations of the reaction products in comparison to those obtained without its presence. This behavior occurs because most of the reactions which take place in bio-ethanol steam reforming have a positive difference of moles. This fact enhances the system sensitivity to inert concentration at low and moderated temperatures (<700 C). At high values of temperature, the inert addition does not influence the composition of the reaction products because of the predominant effect of inverse WGS reaction. (author)

  2. Evaluation of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. [Moench]) on several population density for bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwarti; Efendi, R.; Massinai, R.; Pabendon, M. B.

    2018-03-01

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. [Moench]) crop management that is use for raw source of bioethanol for industrial purpose in Indonesia is less developed. The aim of this research was to evaluated sweet sorghum variety at several population to determine optimum density for juice production. Experiment design was set on split-plot design with three replications, conducted on August to December 2016 at the Indonesian Cereals Research Institute Research Station, Maros South Sulawesi. Main plot were six variation of plant row, and sub plot were three sweet sorghum varieties. Result of the study showed that plant population was high significanty affect to stalk weight, total biomass yield, leaf weight, and also significantly affect bagass weight and juice volume. Varieties were high significantly different in plant height, juice volume, and number of nodes. Super 1 variety on population at 166,667 plants/ha (P1) was obtained the highest juice volume (19,445 lHa-1), meanwhile the highest brix value obtained from Numbu at the same plants population. Furthermore juice volume had significant correlation with biomass weight at the r=0.73. Based on ethanol production, Super 2 and Numbu had the highest volume at 83.333 plants/ha density (P3) and Super 1 at 166.667 plants/ha density with the ethanol volume were 827.68 l Ha-1, 1116.50 l/ha and 993.62 l Ha-1 respectively.

  3. Bioethanol production involving recombinant C. thermocellum hydrolytic hemicellulase and fermentative microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Saprativ P; Ravindran, Rajeev; Ahmed, Shadab; Das, Debasish; Goyal, Dinesh; Fontes, Carlos M G A; Goyal, Arun

    2012-07-01

    The enhancement of the biomass productivity of Escherichia coli cells harbouring the truncated 903 bp gene designated as glycoside hydrolase family 43 (GH43) from Clostridium thermocellum showing hemicellulase activity along with its further use in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process is described. (Phosphoric acid) H(3)PO(4)-acetone treatment and ammonia fibre expansion (AFEX) were the pretreatment strategies employed on the leafy biomass of mango, poplar, neem and asoka among various substrates owing to their high hemicellulose content. GH43 showed optimal activity at a temperature of 50 °C, pH 5.4 with stability over a pH range of 5.0-6.2. A 4-fold escalation in growth of the recombinant E. coli cells was observed when grown using repeated batch strategy in LB medium supplemented with glucose as co-substrate. Candida shehatae utilizing pentose sugars was employed for bioethanol production. AFEX pretreatment proved to be better over acid-acetone technique. The maximum ethanol concentration (1.44 g/L) was achieved for AFEX pretreated mango (1%, w/v) followed by poplar with an ethanol titre (1.32 g/L) in shake flask experiments. A 1.5-fold increase in ethanol titre (2.11 g/L) was achieved with mango (1%, w/v) in a SSF process using a table top 2-L bioreactor with 1 L working volume.

  4. Continuous recycling of enzymes during production of lignocellulosic bioethanol in demonstration scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haven, Mai Østergaard; Lindedam, Jane; Jeppesen, Martin Dan; Elleskov, Michael; Rodrigues, Ana Cristina; Gama, Miguel; Jørgensen, Henning; Felby, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Results from continuous experiments in demonstration scale for a total of 16 days. • Reuse of enzymes is possible through recycling fermentation broth. • Recycling fermentation broth can increase ethanol concentration with lower dry matter. - Abstract: Recycling of enzymes in production of lignocellulosic bioethanol has been tried for more than 30 years. So far, the successes have been few and the experiments have been carried out at conditions far from those in an industrially feasible process. Here we have tested continuous enzyme recycling at demonstration scale using industrial process conditions (high dry matter content and low enzyme dosage) for a period of eight days. The experiment was performed at the Inbicon demonstration plant (Kalundborg, Denmark) capable of converting four tonnes of wheat straw per hour. 20% of the fermentation broth was recycled to the hydrolysis reactor while enzyme dosage was reduced by 5%. The results demonstrate that recycling enzymes by this method can reduce overall enzyme consumption and may also increase the ethanol concentrations in the fermentation broth. Our results further show that recycling fermentation broth also opens up the possibility of lowering the dry matter content in hydrolysis and fermentation while still maintaining high ethanol concentrations.

  5. Old oil palm trunk: A promising source of sugars for bioethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, H.; Ohara, S. [Department of Global Agricultural Sciences, University of Tokyo, 1-1-1, Yayoi, Bunkyo 113-8657 (Japan); Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, 1 Matsunosato, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8687 (Japan); Tanaka, R.; Yamamoto, K. [Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, 1 Matsunosato, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8687 (Japan); Sulaiman, O.; Hashim, R.; Hamid, Z.A.A.; Yahya, M.K.A. [School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Penang (Malaysia); Kosugi, A.; Arai, T.; Murata, Y.; Nirasawa, S. [Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences, 1-1, Owashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8686 (Japan); Mohd Yusof, Mohd Nor; Ibrahim, Wan Asma [Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Kepong, 52109 Selangor (Malaysia); Mori, Y. [Department of Global Agricultural Sciences, University of Tokyo, 1-1-1, Yayoi, Bunkyo 113-8657 (Japan); Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences, 1-1, Owashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8686 (Japan)

    2010-11-15

    Oil palm trees are replanted at an interval of approximately 25 years because of decreased oil productivity of old trees. Consequently the felled trunks are the enormous amount of biomass resources in the palm oil producing countries such as Malaysia and Indonesia. In this report, we found that the felled oil palm trunk contains large quantity of sap, which accounts for approximately 70% of the whole trunk weight, and that sugars existing in the sap increased remarkably during storage after logging. Total sugar in the sap increased from 83 mg ml{sup -1} to 153 mg ml{sup -1}, the concentration comparable to that of sugar cane juice, after 30 days of storage, followed by the gradual decrease. The sugars contained in the sap were glucose, sucrose, fructose and galactose, all of which are fermentable by ordinary industrial yeast strains. The results indicate that old oil palm trunk becomes a promising source of sugars by proper aging after logging and, thus, its sap can be a good feedstock for bioethanol. (author)

  6. Ultrasonic pretreatment of woodchips for the conversion of cellulose to glucose for bioethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutun Nugraha; Rettyana Ayuputri; Mohammad Ihsan

    2010-01-01

    In this study, lignocellulosic biomass i.e. the woodchips of Albacia tree (Paraserianthes falcataria) were given different pretreatment methods, i.e. chemical (acid) and physical (ultrasonic). The pretreatment was given in order to convert the cellulose to glucose for the production of bioethanol. 1 % H_2SO_4 was applied for the acid pretreatment. Ultrasound pretreatment was carried out at varied time (10, 20 and 30 minutes) at 600 W, 20 khz before or after the acid pretreatment. Enzymatic attack of the pretreated sample was also applied to enhance the saccharification process of cellulose. The objective of the research was to determine the most effective ultrasonic duration and the best combination of method for enzymatic hydrolysis of the woodchips. The data showed that the highest yield of glucose was achieved at 20 minutes ultrasonic time. It was also found that substantial amount of hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose occur during the ultrasonic stage even without the presence of acid or cellulose enzyme. It is likely that the highly energetic ultrasonic process alone could assist in enhancing rate of hydrolysis of lignocellulosic cellulose into glucose. (author)

  7. Bioethanol Production By Utilizing Cassava Peels Waste Through Enzymatic And Microbiological Hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witantri, R. G.; Purwoko, T.; Sunarto; Mahajoeno, E.

    2017-07-01

    Cassava peels waste contains, cellulose which is quite high at 43.626%, this is a potential candidate as a raw for bioethanol production. The purpose of this study was to determine the performance of the enzymatic hydrolysis, microbiological (Effective microbe) and fermentation in cassava peel waste is known from the results of quantitative measurement of multiple ethanol parameters (DNS Test, pH, ethanol concentration). This research was carried out in stages, the first stage is hydrolysis with completely randomized design with single factor variation of the catalyst, consisting of three levels ie cellulase enzymes, multienzyme and effective microbial EM4. The second stage is fermentation with factorial randomized block design, consisting of three groups of variations of catalyst, and has two factors: variations of fermipan levels 1, 2, 3% and the duration of fermentation, 2,4,6 days. The parameters in the test is a reducing sugar, pH and concentration of ethanol. The results showed that variation of hydrolysis treatment, fermentation time, and fermipan levels has real effect on the fermentation process. On average the highest ethanol content obtained from the treatment with multienzyme addition, with the addition of 2% fermipan levels and on the 2nd day of fermentation that is equal to 3.76%.

  8. Cell-wall structural changes in wheat straw pretreated for bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgensen Henning

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pretreatment is an essential step in the enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass and subsequent production of bioethanol. Recent results indicate that only a mild pretreatment is necessary in an industrial, economically feasible system. The Integrated Biomass Utilisation System hydrothermal pretreatment process has previously been shown to be effective in preparing wheat straw for these processes without the application of additional chemicals. In the current work, the effect of the pretreatment on the straw cell-wall matrix and its components are characterised microscopically (atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy and spectroscopically (attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in order to understand this increase in digestibility. Results The hydrothermal pretreatment does not degrade the fibrillar structure of cellulose but causes profound lignin re-localisation. Results from the current work indicate that wax has been removed and hemicellulose has been partially removed. Similar changes were found in wheat straw pretreated by steam explosion. Conclusion Results indicate that hydrothermal pretreatment increases the digestibility by increasing the accessibility of the cellulose through a re-localisation of lignin and a partial removal of hemicellulose, rather than by disruption of the cell wall.

  9. Isolation and characterization of two soil derived yeasts for bioethanol production on Cassava starch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Gi-Wook; Kim, Yule; Kang, Hyun-Woo [Changhae Institute of Cassava and Ethanol Research, Changhae Ethanol Co., Ltd, Palbok-Dong 829, Dukjin-Gu, Jeonju 561-203 (Korea); Um, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Mina; Kim, Yang-Hoon [Department of Microbiology, Chungbuk National University, 410 Sungbong-Ro, Heungduk-Gu, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea); Chung, Bong-Woo [Department of Bioprocess Engineering, Chonbuk National University, 664-14, 1-Ga, Duckjin-Dong, Duckjin-Gu, Jeonju 561-156 (Korea)

    2010-08-15

    Two ethanol-producing yeast strains, CHY1011 and CHFY0901 were isolated from soil in South Korea using an enrichment technique in a yeast peptone dextrose medium supplemented with 5% (w v{sup -1}) ethanol at 30 C. The phenotypic and physiological characteristics, as well as molecular phylogenetic analysis based on the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit (26S) rRNA gene and the internally transcribed spacer (ITS) 1 + 2 regions suggested that they were novel strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. During shaking flask cultivation, the highest ethanol productivity and theoretical yield of S. cerevisiae CHY1011 in YPD media containing 9.5% total sugars was 1.06 {+-} 0.02 g l{sup -1} h{sup -1} and 95.5 {+-} 1.2%, respectively, while those for S. cerevisiae CHFY0901 were 0.97 {+-} 0.03 g l{sup -1} h{sup -1} and 91.81 {+-} 2.2%, respectively. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation for ethanol production was carried out using liquefied cassava (Manihot esculenta) starch in a 5 l lab-scale jar fermenter at 32 C for 66 h with an agitation speed of 2 Hz. Under these conditions, S. cerevisiae CHY1011 and CHFY0901 yielded a final ethanol concentration of 89.1 {+-} 0.87 g l{sup -1} and 83.8 {+-} 1.11 g l{sup -1}, a maximum ethanol productivity of 2.10 {+-} 0.02 g l{sup -1} h{sup -1} and 1.88 {+-} 0.01 g l{sup -1} h{sup -1}, and a theoretical yield of 93.5 {+-} 1.4% and 91.3 {+-} 1.1%, respectively. These results suggest that S. cerevisiae CHY1011 and CHFY0901 have potential use in industrial bioethanol fermentation processes. (author)

  10. An evaluation of different bioreactor configurations for continuous bio-ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ntihuga, Jean Nepomuscene; Senn, Thomas; Gschwind, Peter; Kohlus, Reinhard

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Two bioreactor configurations were constructed and compared. • Continuous bioethanol production was performed in both bioreactors. • Plate heat exchanger bioreactor was the best for solid mash fermentation. • Operational power costs of both bioreactors were different in small scale levels. • Further study needed for both bioreactors with optimized parameters. - Abstract: In this preliminary investigation, a so-called Blenke cascade and plate heat exchanger bioreactor configuration were compared in terms of mixing characteristics, contamination free process, operational power costs and overall performance. At room temperature, fermentation was initially started as batch run and switched to continuous operation, when the residual sugars within the reactor were detected to be C ⩽ 1% (g/L). Samples from both configurations were taken and analyzed for ethanol and residual sugar content, as well as for any infection of the fermentation and lactic acid content, respectively. Mixing characteristics were studied by the residence time distribution method. Both geometries behaved as a finite number n of continuous stirred tanks in series, behaving as a plug flow with superimposed axial dispersion. The number of tanks in series n obtained in the plate heat exchanger configuration was 1.5–3 times larger than those in the Blenke cascade. The average ethanol productivity was Q p = 3.07 (g/L h) and Q p = 2.31 (g/L h) for cascade and plate exchanger configuration, respectively. The analysis of operational power costs indicates relevant differences between the two reactors at laboratory scale; however, systems with different types of pumps and viscosities are compared. From an industrial scale point of view, specific operational costs decrease with scale-up, as no mechanical mixing is needed in the fermenters

  11. Comparative study of bio-ethanol production from mahula (Madhuca latifolia L.) flowers by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zymomonas mobilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behera, Shuvashish; Mohanty, Rama Chandra [Department of Botany, Utkal University, Vanivihar, Bhubaneswar 751004, Orissa (India); Ray, Ramesh Chandra [Microbiology Laboratory, Central Tuber Crops Research Institute (Regional Centre), Bhubaneswar 751019, Orissa (India)

    2010-07-15

    Mahula (Madhuca latifolia L.) flower is a suitable alternative cheaper carbohydrate source for production of bio-ethanol. Recent production of bio-ethanol by microbial fermentation as an alternative energy source has renewed research interest because of the increase in the fuel price. Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) and Zymomonas mobilis (bacteria) are two most widely used microorganisms for ethanol production. In this study, experiments were carried out to compare the potential of the yeast S. cerevisiae (CTCRI strain) with the bacterium Z. mobilis (MTCC 92) for ethanol fermentation from mahula flowers. The ethanol production after 96 h fermentation was 149 and 122.9 g kg{sup -1} flowers using free cells of S. cerevisiae and Z. mobilis, respectively. The S. cerevisiae strain showed 21.2% more final ethanol production in comparison to Z. mobilis. Ethanol yield (Yx/s), volumetric product productivity (Qp), sugar to ethanol conversion rate (%) and microbial biomass concentration (X) obtained by S. cerevisiae were found to be 5.2%, 21.1%, 5.27% and 134% higher than Z. mobilis, respectively after 96 h of fermentation. (author)

  12. Comparative study of bio-ethanol production from mahula (Madhuca latifolia L.) flowers by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zymomonas mobilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behera, Shuvashish; Mohanty, Rama Chandra; Ray, Ramesh Chandra

    2010-01-01

    Mahula (Madhuca latifolia L.) flower is a suitable alternative cheaper carbohydrate source for production of bio-ethanol. Recent production of bio-ethanol by microbial fermentation as an alternative energy source has renewed research interest because of the increase in the fuel price. Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) and Zymomonas mobilis (bacteria) are two most widely used microorganisms for ethanol production. In this study, experiments were carried out to compare the potential of the yeast S. cerevisiae (CTCRI strain) with the bacterium Z. mobilis (MTCC 92) for ethanol fermentation from mahula flowers. The ethanol production after 96 h fermentation was 149 and 122.9 g kg -1 flowers using free cells of S. cerevisiae and Z. mobilis, respectively. The S. cerevisiae strain showed 21.2% more final ethanol production in comparison to Z. mobilis. Ethanol yield (Yx/s), volumetric product productivity (Qp), sugar to ethanol conversion rate (%) and microbial biomass concentration (X) obtained by S. cerevisiae were found to be 5.2%, 21.1%, 5.27% and 134% higher than Z. mobilis, respectively after 96 h of fermentation. (author)

  13. Production of bioethanol from papaya and pineapple wastes using marine associated microorganisms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayaprakashvel, M.; Akila, S.; Venkatramani, M.; Vinothini, S.; Bhagat, J.; Hussain, A. J.

    and methane are advantageous. In this study, an attempt was made to produce bio-ethanol by marine fungi in fermentation process with the use of fruit wastes (papaya and pine apple) as substrates. A total of 19 marine fungi were isolated from various marine...

  14. Production of bio-ethanol from corncobs using Aspergillus niger and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maize is the most abundant cereal grown in Ghana and is accompanied by enormous amount of agrowastes of which corncobs form 30%. This agrowaste which is currently under utilized was used to produce bio-ethanol. Aspergillus niger isolated from soil sampled from Ejura farms was used to hydrolyze the corncobs into ...

  15. Recovery of Glucose from Residual Starch of Sago Hampas for Bioethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awg-Adeni, D. S.; Bujang, K. B.; Hassan, M. A.; Abd-Aziz, S.

    2013-01-01

    Lower concentration of glucose was often obtained from enzymatic hydrolysis process of agricultural residue due to complexity of the biomass structure and properties. High substrate load feed into the hydrolysis system might solve this problem but has several other drawbacks such as low rate of reaction. In the present study, we have attempted to enhance glucose recovery from agricultural waste, namely, “sago hampas,” through three cycles of enzymatic hydrolysis process. The substrate load at 7% (w/v) was seen to be suitable for the hydrolysis process with respect to the gelatinization reaction as well as sufficient mixture of the suspension for saccharification process. However, this study was focused on hydrolyzing starch of sago hampas, and thus to enhance concentration of glucose from 7% substrate load would be impossible. Thus, an alternative method termed as cycles I, II, and III which involved reusing the hydrolysate for subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis process was introduced. Greater improvement of glucose concentration (138.45 g/L) and better conversion yield (52.72%) were achieved with the completion of three cycles of hydrolysis. In comparison, cycle I and cycle II had glucose concentration of 27.79 g/L and 73.00 g/L, respectively. The glucose obtained was subsequently tested as substrate for bioethanol production using commercial baker's yeast. The fermentation process produced 40.30 g/L of ethanol after 16 h, which was equivalent to 93.29% of theoretical yield based on total glucose existing in fermentation media. PMID:23509813

  16. Evaluation of Fermentation Parameters of Elephant foot Yam (Amorphophalluspaeoniifolius for Bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejie C. Magnaye

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol successfully finds its role in the development of renewable energy sources to supplement the world’s increasing demand in energy supply. In this study, elephant foot yam (Amorphophalluspeoniifolius, a starch-based crop, abundantly grown in tropical countries like Philippines, was used for the evaluation of the effect of substrate concentration and yeast loading (Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF. In SSF, the optimum condition was observed at10% w/v substrate concentration in 20 mL yeast loadingwith an ethanol yield of 12.02 ± 0.21 %. As substrate concentration decreases and yeast loading increases, percent ethanol yield increases. Best mathematical model was generated to describe the relationship of the substrate concentration and yeast loading to ethanol yield. The generated quadratic model, 2.47= 80.63 −84.46 +126.73 −17.49+65.592 + 91.022,can explain 99.96 % (R2 of the variability in the yield. The statistical significance of the model was evaluated by F-test for analysis of variance (p<0.05. The results showed that the production of ethanol was more strongly affected by the variation of yeast loading. Using the best substrate concentration and yeast loading, ethanol yield was determined in SSF coupled with Acid Hydrolysis (SSF-AH having an ethanol yield of 19.1952%. The results revealed that subjecting first the substrate to acid hydrolysis could increase the ethanol yield for it increased the reducing sugar of the substrate.

  17. Recovery of Glucose from Residual Starch of Sago Hampas for Bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Awg-Adeni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lower concentration of glucose was often obtained from enzymatic hydrolysis process of agricultural residue due to complexity of the biomass structure and properties. High substrate load feed into the hydrolysis system might solve this problem but has several other drawbacks such as low rate of reaction. In the present study, we have attempted to enhance glucose recovery from agricultural waste, namely, “sago hampas,” through three cycles of enzymatic hydrolysis process. The substrate load at 7% (w/v was seen to be suitable for the hydrolysis process with respect to the gelatinization reaction as well as sufficient mixture of the suspension for saccharification process. However, this study was focused on hydrolyzing starch of sago hampas, and thus to enhance concentration of glucose from 7% substrate load would be impossible. Thus, an alternative method termed as cycles I, II, and III which involved reusing the hydrolysate for subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis process was introduced. Greater improvement of glucose concentration (138.45 g/L and better conversion yield (52.72% were achieved with the completion of three cycles of hydrolysis. In comparison, cycle I and cycle II had glucose concentration of 27.79 g/L and 73.00 g/L, respectively. The glucose obtained was subsequently tested as substrate for bioethanol production using commercial baker’s yeast. The fermentation process produced 40.30 g/L of ethanol after 16 h, which was equivalent to 93.29% of theoretical yield based on total glucose existing in fermentation media.

  18. Rapid estimation of sugar release from winter wheat straw during bioethanol production using FTIR-photoacoustic spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekiaris, Georgios; Lindedam, Jane; Peltre, Clément

    2015-01-01

    Complexity and high cost are the main limitations for high-throughput screening methods for the estimation of the sugar release from plant materials during bioethanol production. In addition, it is important that we improve our understanding of the mechanisms by which different chemical components...... are affecting the degradability of plant material. In this study, Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) was combined with advanced chemometrics to develop calibration models predicting the amount of sugars released after pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw during...

  19. Bioethanol Production From Cellulose by Candida tropicalis, as An Alternative Microbial Agent to Produce Ethanol from Lignocellulosic Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermansyah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Candida tropicalis isolated from Tuak is a potentially useful microorganism for the ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass and it can be alterbative agent replacing Saccharomyces cerevisae for fermentation process. Although C.tropicalis could not convert all carbohydrates content of lignocellulosic into bioethanol, however it is able to grow on medium in the presence of either xylose or arabinose as carbon source. Our result showed that fermentation of 10 % (w/v cellulosic as sole carbon source produced 2.88% (v/v ethanol by C.tropicalis. This ethanol production was lower than usage of 10% (w/v dextrose as sole carbon source medium which producing 5.51% (v/v ethanol. Based upon our expreiment indicated that C.tropicalis is able to conduct two main process in converting of cellulosic material- to ethanol which is hydrolysis the degradation of cellulose into glucose, and fermentation the process the conversion glucose into bioethanol. Keywords : Candida tropicalis, bioethanol, fermentation, cellulosic Abstrak (Indonesian: Candida tropicalis yang diisiolasi dari Tuak adalah agen yang berpotensi dalam produksi etanol dari biomasa lignoselulosa dan dapat dijadikan agen alternatif menggantikan Saccharomyces cerevisiae pada proses fernentasi. Walaupun C.tropicalis tidak dapat mengkonversi semua kandungan karbohidrat lignoselulosamenjadi etanol, akan tetapi C.tropicalis mampu tumbuh pada media dengan xilosa atau arabinosa sebagaisumber karbon. Hasil kami menunjukkan bahwa dengan mengguankan C.tropicalis fermentasi 10% (w/v selulosa sebagai satu-satunya sumber karbon menghasilkan 2,88% (v/v etanol, Produksi etanol ini lebih rendah jika menggunakan 10% (w/v dekstrosa sebagai satu satunya sumber karbon yang menghasilkan 5,51% (v/v etanol. Berdasarkan percobaan menunjukkan bahwa C.tropicalis mampu melakukan dua proses utama dalam mengkonversi material selulosa menjadi etanol yaitu hidrolisis degradasi selulosa menjadi glukosa, dan

  20. Utilization of Iles-Iles and Sorghum Starch for Bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusmiyati Kusmiyati

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to convert the starches from iles-iles tubers (Amorphophalus campanulatus and sorghum grains (Sorghum bicolor L into bioethanol as an alternative energy. Both of these agricultural products contains a high content starches and they do not use as the major foods in Indonesia. To find out the maximum ethanol concentration and yield, both the raw materials were converted to ethanol on various process variables including the concentration of flour substrate solution (100-300 g/L, β-amylase enzyme concentration (0.8 - 6.4 ml/kg of flour , the  concentration of dry yeast S. cerevisiae (2-15 g, and fermentation time (72-168 hours. The results showed that at the flour substrate concentration of 250 g/L produced the maximum ethanol contents of 100.29 g/L and 95.11 g/L   for iles-iles and sorghum, respectively. Effect of β-amylase enzyme in the saccharification process showed that at concentration  of 3.2 ml/kg  the maximum reducing sugar content of 204.94 g/L and 193.15 g/L  for iles-iles and sorghum substrate, respectively were generated therefore it was corresponding to the maximum ethanol production. The concentration effect of dry yeast S. cerevisiae in the fermentation stage for the iles-iles and sorghum substrate revealed that the maximum ethanol obtained at 5 g yeast activated in 100 ml medium starter resulted the highest ethanol content 100.29 g/L 95.11 g/L for iles-iles and sorghum substrate, respectively. To determine the effect of fermentation time on ethanol yield from iles-iles and sorghum substrate, the fermentation process were performed at 3, 5, and 7 days. The maximum ethanol fermentation was obtained at 5 days fermentation. The ethanol yield is calculated by weight of ethanol is formed (g divided by the weight of flour (g. Based on the experiment results, conducted, generally the highest ethanol yield of iles-iles was higher than that of sorghum flour. The highest yield (g/g iles-iles and sorghum

  1. CO{sub 2} neutral steam production for the production of bioethanol; CO{sub 2}-neutrale Dampferzeugung fuer die Bioethanolproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetter, Christof; Bruegging, Elmar; Baumkoetter, Daniel [Fachhochschule Muenster (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Conventional plants for the production of bioethanol use fossil fuels such as heating oil or lignite for the supply of process energy. The authors of the contribution under consideration report on a tightly connection of an agricultural company with a biogas plant with a distillery by means an energy center consisting of two cogeneration plants and a steam generator. With this, a CO{sub 2} neutral fuel is produced from a CO{sub 2} neutral vapor.

  2. Production of D-tagatose and bioethanol from onion waste by an intergrating bioprocess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho Myeong; Song, Younho; Wi, Seung Gon; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2017-10-20

    The rapid increase of agricultural waste is becoming a burgeoning problem and considerable efforts are being made by numerous researchers to convert it into a high-value resource material. Onion waste is one of the biggest issues in a world of dwindling resource. In this study, the potential of onion juice residue (OJR) for producing valuable rare sugar or bioethanol was evaluated. Purified Paenibacillus polymyxaL-arabinose isomerase (PPAI) has a molecular weight of approximately 53kDa, and exhibits maximal activity at 30°C and pH 7.5 in the presence of 0.8mM Mn 2+ . PPAI can produce 0.99g D-tagatose from 10g OJR. In order to present another application for OJR, we produced 1.56g bioethanol from 10g OJR through a bioconversion and fermentation process. These results indicate that PPAI can be used for producing rare sugars in an industrial setting, and OJR can be converted to D-tagatose and bioethanol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Pretreated of banana pseudo-stem as raw material for enzymatic hydrolysis and bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusmiyati

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of alternative energy is needed to solve the energy problem, including bioethanol. Banana pseudo-stem is a lignocellulose material that can used to produce bioethanol. Banana pseudo-stem has 28.83% cellulose and 19.39% lignin. The amount of lignin will reduce by pretreatment process. Variations of pretreatment methods by autoclaving of banana-pseudo stem in a steam, 0.5N, 1N, 1.5N, 2N NaOH solutions for 90 minutes were employed. Then the preteated samples were further enzymatic hydrolysed for 24, 48, 72 hours. The fermentation method of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF was applied using cellulase enzyme and yeast of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for 120 hours. The variation of the pretreatment process by increasing of NaOH concentration solutions led to decreased the lignin content while increased in cellulose content. The lowest lignin content was 11.44% and the highest cellulose was 51.66%. The highest sugar content was 29.8 g/L (at pretreatment 2N NaOH solution, 72 hours hydrolysis. The highest bioethanol amount (4.32 g/L was produced from pretreated banana stem using 2N NaOH solution.

  4. Multi-objective optimization of bioethanol production during cold enzyme starch hydrolysis in very high gravity cassava mash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yingling, Bao; Li, Chen; Honglin, Wang; Xiwen, Yu; Zongcheng, Yan

    2011-09-01

    Cold enzymatic hydrolysis conditions for bioethanol production were optimized using multi-objective optimization. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the effects of α-amylase, glucoamylase, liquefaction temperature and liquefaction time on S. cerevisiae biomass, ethanol concentration and starch utilization ratio. The optimum hydrolysis conditions were: 224 IU/g(starch) α-amylase, 694 IU/g(starch) glucoamylase, 77°C and 104 min for biomass; 264 IU/g(starch) α-amylase, 392 IU/g(starch) glucoamylase, 60°C and 85 min for ethanol concentration; 214 IU/g(starch) α-amylase, 398 IU/g(starch) glucoamylase, 79°C and 117 min for starch utilization ratio. The hydrolysis conditions were subsequently evaluated by multi-objectives optimization utilizing the weighted coefficient methods. The Pareto solutions for biomass (3.655-4.380×10(8)cells/ml), ethanol concentration (15.96-18.25 wt.%) and starch utilization ratio (92.50-94.64%) were obtained. The optimized conditions were shown to be feasible and reliable through verification tests. This kind of multi-objective optimization is of potential importance in industrial bioethanol production. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Techno-Economic Analysis of the Optimum Softwood Lignin Content for the Production of Bioethanol in a Repurposed Kraft Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shufang Wu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Kraft pulping is one possible pretreatment for softwood to economically produce bioethanol. This work evaluates the techno-economic potential of using the kraft process for producing bioethanol from softwoods in a repurposed or co-located kraft mill. Pretreated loblolly pine was enzymatically hydrolyzed at low enzyme dosages of 5 and 10 FPU/g of substrate. Pretreated residue with 13% lignin content had the highest sugar recovery, 32.7% and 47.7% at 5 and 10 FPU/g, respectively. The pretreated residues were oxygen delignified and refined. In all cases, oxygen delignification improved sugar recovery, while refining was mostly effective for pulps with high lignin content. At 5 FPU/g, the sugar recovery for all kraft pulps was 51 to 53% with oxygen delignification and refining. Increasing the enzyme dosage to 10 FPU/g increased the sugar recovery for these pulps to greater than 60%. Economic analysis for the pulps with different initial lignin content showed that kraft pulps with an initial lignin content of 6.7% with oxygen delignification had an ethanol yield of 285 L/ODt wood and the lowest total production cost of $0.55/L. Pulps with initial lignin content of 18.6% had a total production cost of $0.64/L with an ethanol yield of 264 L/ODt wood.

  6. An investigative study of indigenous sweet sorghum varieties for bioethanol production: the case of Kenya local sorghum varieties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wangai, L.K.; Mbeo, C.O. [Kenya Industrial Research and Development Inst., Nairobi (Kenya); Kamau, C.K. [Kenya Agricurtural Research Inst.(s), Machakos (Kenya)

    2012-11-01

    There are over 500 sorghum genotypes grown locally in Kenya. This study was an investigation and selection of suitable sorghum genotypes for sustainable bio-ethanol production in Kenya. For the study, 500 genotypes of sorghum were planted and grown using the recommended agricultural practices. Random sampling of 230 genotypes was done and the samples analysed for juice and sugar content. The 26 best yielding genotypes were selected and grown again in duplicate for further detailed study. Data on date of flowering, pest resistance, {sup 0}brix, wet and dry weight, plant population, ratooning, grain yield and juice yield and juice sugar content were recorded and analyzed using GENstat. Sampling was done for each genotype when about 50% of the crop had flowered and there after, every 2 weeks until the grains dried. Crushing was done with a three roller mill crusher [8]. The sugar content was measured using a digital refractometer. Sugar yield obtained ranged between 10.3{sup 0}Brix and 19.3{sup 0}Brix and juice yield between 268 litres/hectare and 11390 litres/hectare. Five indigenous sorghum varieties, GBK-007130, GBK-007076, GBK-007102, GBK-007296, GBK-007098 were found to have the highest sugar and juice yields and were considered the most suitable sweet sorghum genotypes among those studied, for bio-ethanol production in Kenya.

  7. Design and optimization of a fixed - bed reactor for hydrogen production via bio-ethanol steam reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maria A Goula; Olga A Bereketidou; Costas G Economopoulos; Olga A Bereketidou; Costas G Economopoulos

    2006-01-01

    Global climate changes caused by CO 2 emissions are currently debated around the world. Renewable sources of energy are being sought as alternatives to replace fossil fuels. Hydrogen is theoretically the best fuel, environmentally friendly and its combustion reaction leads only to the production of water. Bio-ethanol has been proven to be effective in the production of hydrogen via steam reforming reaction. In this research the steam reforming reaction of bio-ethanol is studied at low temperatures over 15,3 % Ni/La 2 O 3 catalyst. The reaction and kinetic analysis takes place in a fixed - bed reactor in 130 - 250 C in atmospheric pressure. This study lays emphasis on the design and the optimization of the fixed - bed reactor, including the total volume of the reactor, the number and length of the tubes and the degree of ethanol conversion. Finally, it is represented an approach of the total cost of the reactor, according to the design characteristics and the materials that can be used for its construction. (authors)

  8. Evaluation of thermostable enzymes for bioethanol processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Pernille Anastasia

    of fermentable sugars (glucose) as cellulose is tightly linked to hemicellulose and lignin. Lignocellulose is disrupted during pretreatment, but to degrade cellulose to single sugars, lignocellulolytic enzymes such as cellulases and hemicellulases are needed. Lignocellulolytic enzymes are costly...... for the ioethanol production, but the expenses can be reduced by using thermostable enzymes, which are known for their increased stability and inhibitor olerance. However, the advantage of using thermostable enzymes has not been studied thoroughly and more knowledge is needed for development of bioethanol processes....... Enzymes are added to the bioethanol process after pretreatment. For an efficient sugar and ethanol yield, the solids content of biomass is normally increased, which results in highly viscous slurries that are difficult to mix. Therefore, the first enzymatic challenge is to ensure rapid reduction...

  9. Biohydrogen and Bioethanol Production from Biodiesel-Based Glycerol by Enterobacter aerogenes in a Continuous Stir Tank Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rujira Jitrwung

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Crude glycerol from the biodiesel manufacturing process is being produced in increasing quantities due to the expanding number of biodiesel plants. It has been previously shown that, in batch mode, semi-anaerobic fermentation of crude glycerol by Enterobacter aerogenes can produce biohydrogen and bioethanol simultaneously. The present study demonstrated the possible scaling-up of this process from small batches performed in small bottles to a 3.6-L continuous stir tank reactor (CSTR. Fresh feed rate, liquid recycling, pH, mixing speed, glycerol concentration, and waste recycling were optimized for biohydrogen and bioethanol production. Results confirmed that E. aerogenes uses small amounts of oxygen under semi-anaerobic conditions for growth before using oxygen from decomposable salts, mainly NH4NO3, under anaerobic condition to produce hydrogen and ethanol. The optimal conditions were determined to be 500 rpm, pH 6.4, 18.5 g/L crude glycerol (15 g/L glycerol and 33% liquid recycling for a fresh feed rate of 0.44 mL/min. Using these optimized conditions, the process ran at a lower media cost than previous studies, was stable after 7 days without further inoculation and resulted in yields of 0.86 mol H2/mol glycerol and 0.75 mol ethanol/mole glycerol.

  10. Biohydrogen and Bioethanol Production from Biodiesel-Based Glycerol by Enterobacter aerogenes in a Continuous Stir Tank Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitrwung, Rujira; Yargeau, Viviane

    2015-01-01

    Crude glycerol from the biodiesel manufacturing process is being produced in increasing quantities due to the expanding number of biodiesel plants. It has been previously shown that, in batch mode, semi-anaerobic fermentation of crude glycerol by Enterobacter aerogenes can produce biohydrogen and bioethanol simultaneously. The present study demonstrated the possible scaling-up of this process from small batches performed in small bottles to a 3.6-L continuous stir tank reactor (CSTR). Fresh feed rate, liquid recycling, pH, mixing speed, glycerol concentration, and waste recycling were optimized for biohydrogen and bioethanol production. Results confirmed that E. aerogenes uses small amounts of oxygen under semi-anaerobic conditions for growth before using oxygen from decomposable salts, mainly NH4NO3, under anaerobic condition to produce hydrogen and ethanol. The optimal conditions were determined to be 500 rpm, pH 6.4, 18.5 g/L crude glycerol (15 g/L glycerol) and 33% liquid recycling for a fresh feed rate of 0.44 mL/min. Using these optimized conditions, the process ran at a lower media cost than previous studies, was stable after 7 days without further inoculation and resulted in yields of 0.86 mol H2/mol glycerol and 0.75 mol ethanol/mole glycerol. PMID:25970750

  11. Productivity and energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovins, H. [Rocky Mountain Inst., Snowmass, CO (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Energy efficient building and office design offers the possibility of significantly increased worker productivity. By improving lighting, heating and cooling, workers can be made more comfortable and productive. An increase of 1 percent in productivity can provide savings to a company that exceed its entire energy bill. Efficient design practices are cost effective just from their energy savings. The resulting productivity gains make them indispensable. This paper documents eight cases in which efficient lighting, heating, and cooling have measurably increased worker productivity, decreased absenteeism, and/or improved the quality of work performed. They also show that efficient lighting can measurably increase work quality by removing errors and manufacturing defects. The case studies presented include retrofit of existing buildings and the design of new facilities, and cover a variety of commercial and industrial settings. Each case study identifies the design changes that were most responsible for increased productivity. As the eight case studies illustrate, energy efficient design may be one of the least expensive ways for a business to improve the productivity of its workers and the quality of its product. (author). 15 refs.

  12. Comparison of different pretreatment methods for separation hemicellulose from straw during the lignocellulosic bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhuber, Katharina; Krennhuber, Klaus; Steinmüller, Viktoria; Kahr, Heike; Jäger, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    The combustion of fossil fuels is responsible for 73% of carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere and consequently contributes to global warming. This fact has enormously increased the interest in the development of methods to reduce greenhouse gases. Therefore, the focus is on the production of biofuels from lignocellulosic agricultural residues. The feedstocks used for 2nd generation bioethanol production are lignocellulosic raw materials like different straw types or energy crops like miscanthus sinensis or arundo donax. Lignocellulose consists of hemicellulose (xylose and arabinose), which is bonded to cellulose (glucose) and lignin. Prior to an enzymatic hydrolysis of the polysaccharides and fermentation of the resulting sugars, the lignocelluloses must be pretreated to make the sugar polymers accessible to enzymes. A variety of pretreatment methods are described in the literature: thermophysical, acid-based and alkaline methods.In this study, we examined and compared the most important pretreatment methods: Steam explosion versus acid and alkaline pretreatment. Specific attention was paid to the mass balance, the recovery of C 5 sugars and consumption of chemicals needed for pretreatment. In lab scale experiments, wheat straw was either directly pretreated by steam explosion or by two different protocols. The straw was either soaked in sulfuric acid or in sodium hydroxide solution at different concentrations. For both methods, wheat straw was pretreated at 100°C for 30 minutes. Afterwards, the remaining straw was separated by vacuum filtration from the liquid fraction.The pretreated straw was neutralized, dried and enzymatically hydrolyzed. Finally, the sugar concentrations (glucose, xylose and arabinose) from filtrate and from hydrolysate were determined by HPLC. The recovery of xylose from hemicellulose was about 50% using the sulfuric acid pretreatment and less than 2% using the sodium hydroxide pretreatment. Increasing concentrations of sulfuric acid

  13. An evaluation of cassava, sweet potato and field corn as potential carbohydrate sources for bioethanol production in Alabama and Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziska, Lewis H.; Tomecek, Martha; Sicher, Richard [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Crop Systems and Global Change Lab, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Building 1, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Runion, G. Brett; Prior, Stephen A.; Torbet, H. Allen [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Soil Dynamics Laboratory, 411 South Donahue Drive, Auburn, AL 36832 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    The recent emphasis on corn production to meet the increasing demand for bioethanol has resulted in trepidation regarding the sustainability of the global food supply. To assess the potential of alternative crops as sources of bioethanol production, we grew sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and cassava (Manihot esculentum) at locations near Auburn, Alabama and Beltsville, Maryland in order to measure root carbohydrate (starch, sucrose, glucose) and root biomass. Averaged for both locations, sweet potato yielded the highest concentration of root carbohydrate (ca 80%), primarily in the form of starch (ca 50%) and sucrose (ca 30%); whereas cassava had root carbohydrate concentrations of (ca 55%), almost entirely as starch. For sweet potato, overall carbohydrate production was 9.4 and 12.7 Mg ha{sup -1} for the Alabama and Maryland sites, respectively. For cassava, carbohydrate production in Maryland was poor, yielding only 2.9 Mg ha{sup -1}. However, in Alabama, carbohydrate production from cassava averaged {proportional_to}10 Mg ha{sup -1}. Relative to carbohydrate production from corn in each location, sweet potato and cassava yielded approximately 1.5 x and 1.6 x as much carbohydrate as corn in Alabama; 2.3 x and 0.5 x for the Maryland site. If economical harvesting and processing techniques could be developed, these data suggest that sweet potato in Maryland, and sweet potato and cassava in Alabama, have greater potential as ethanol sources than existing corn systems, and as such, could be used to replace or offset corn as a source of biofuels. (author)

  14. Integrated decision making for the optimal bioethanol supply chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corsano, Gabriela; Fumero, Yanina; Montagna, Jorge M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimal allocation, design and production planning of integrated ethanol plants is considered. • Mixed Integer Programming model is presented for solving the integration problem. • Different tradeoffs can be assessed and analyzed. • The modeling framework represents an useful tool for guiding decision making. - Abstract: Bioethanol production poses different challenges that require an integrated approach. Usually previous works have focused on specific perspectives of the global problem. On the contrary, bioethanol, in particular, and biofuels, in general, requires an integrated decision making framework that takes into account the needs and concerns of the different members involved in its supply chain. In this work, a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) model for the optimal allocation, design and production planning of integrated ethanol/yeast plants is considered. The proposed formulation addresses the relations between different aspects of the bioethanol supply chain and provides an efficient tool to assess the global operation of the supply chain taking into account different points of view. The model proposed in this work simultaneously determines the structure of a three-echelon supply chain (raw material sites, production facilities and customer zones), the design of each installed plant and operational considerations through production campaigns. Yeast production is considered in order to reduce the negative environmental impact caused by bioethanol residues. Several cases are presented in order to assess the approach capabilities and to evaluate the tradeoffs among all the decisions

  15. Numerical of Bioethanol Production from Liquid Waste of Rise Flour by Distillation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Ketut Sari

    2016-01-01

    The results obtained experimentally study the composition of bioethanol a maximum of 95% to 96%, the results of experiments and simulations EWI ternary system form the temperature profile, the profile of the composition of liquid and vapor composition profile dimensionless time functions both at the bottom and in the distillate shows the results of the same approach. The simulation results before used reference in experiments performed the validation beforehand, so that the ternary system simulation EWI after validation of reference can be used in experiments.

  16. Evaluation of the parameters effects on the bio-ethanol production process from Ricotta Cheese Whey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sansonetti, Sascha; Curcio, Stefano; Calabrò, Vincenza

    2010-01-01

    composite design, constituted by 26 runs, has been carried out, and the effects of the parameters have been evaluated. Eventually, once eliminated the negligible effects, Response Surface Methodology (RSM) has been applied to optimize the four parameters values in RCW fermentation process. After......The work consists of an experimental analysis to evaluate the effects of the variables temperature (T), pH, agitation rate (K) and initial lactose concentration (L) on the batch fermentation process of Ricotta Cheese Whey (RCW) into bio-ethanol by using the yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus. A central...

  17. Bioethanol production from waste bread samples made from mixtures of wheat and buckwheat flours

    OpenAIRE

    Ačanski, Marijana; Pastor, Kristian; Razmovski, Radojka; Vučurović, Vesna; Psodorov, Đorđe

    2014-01-01

    In this paper yields of bioethanol from seven samples of bread were compared. Samples of bread were produced and prepared in a laboratory by mixing wheat and buckwheat flour in amounts of 0, 20, 40, 50, 60, 80 and 100%. At first, the analysis of all seven samples of bread was done (dry matter, starch content and pH value of bread sample suspensions). Then the waste bread suspensions were hydrolyzed by applying commercial hydrolytic enzymes, Termamyl® SC and SAN Extra® L. The fermentation proc...

  18. Production of bioethanol from heart and pineapple shell using the yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corella Quiros, Byron Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The performance of bioethanol production was evaluated from heart and pineapple shell, using the yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, in which has been obtained a maximum output of 1,6% v/v. The research was divided into a phase of characterization and five experimental phases. The heart and pineapple shell were used as substrate for the study. The contents of glucose, reducing sugars and total, moisture, ash, crude fiber and soluble solids content were determined of the heart and golden pineapple shell (MD2). The shell has had a higher content of soluble solids, fiber content, ash and lower moisture content and reducing sugars. In the first experimental phase was made a fermentation of commercial sucrose, with the objective to corroborate the method of measurement of CO 2 and the pH was measured of the water that is collected the gas. Great variation between samples has not been observed, comparing the method to estimate the losses of gas, so it is reproducible and the losses of CO 2 has been at least of 22%. In the second experimental stage to compare measurement methods of ethanol, for collection of CO 2 and gas chromatography, it has been found that for concentrations from 0 to 0,79% v/v, the results have shown a quadratic behavior (second-degree polynomial with 0,83173x 2 +0,0024 x, R 2 =0,9984), while that for higher concentrations to 0,79% the relation has been linear (0,6372 x -0,099, R 2 =0,9424), in which x is the %v/v of ethanol, of the chromatographic method. In the third experimental stage were compared the effects of the filtration. The significant differences of this effect were not found for either of the two substrates used: hearts and shells. The adjustment parameters of the modified Gompertz equation for mixtures of 53% heart and 47% shell, and concentration of 280 g/L have been: Pm 0,72 %v/v; λ 0,3 h, Rm 0,047 (%v/v)/h; for a concentration of 400 g/L, have been Pm 1,3 %v/v λ 1,8 h and Rm 0,068 (%v/v)/h and for 523 g/L, using extract of yeast have

  19. Bio-ethanol production from waste biomass of Pogonatherum crinitum phytoremediator: an eco-friendly strategy for renewable energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghmare, Pankajkumar R; Watharkar, Anuprita D; Jeon, Byong-Hun; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we have described three steps to produce ethanol from Pogonatherum crinitum , which was derived after the treatment of textile wastewater. (a) Production of biomass: biomass samples collected from a hydroponic P. crinitum phytoreactor treating dye textile effluents and augmented with Ca-alginate immobilized growth-promoting bacterium, Bacillus pumilus strain PgJ (consortium phytoreactor), and waste sorghum husks were collected and dried. Compositional analysis of biomass (consortium phytoreactor) showed that the concentration of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin was 42, 30 and 17%, respectively, whereas the biomass samples without the growth-promoting bacterium (normal phytoreactor) was slightly lower, 40, 29 and 16%, respectively. (b) Hydrolysate (sugar) production: a crude sample of the fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium containing hydrolytic enzymes such as endoglucanase (53.25 U/ml), exoglucanase (8.38 U/ml), glucoamylase (115.04 U/ml), xylanase (83.88 U/ml), LiP (0.972 U/ml) and MnP (0.459 U/ml) was obtained, and added to consortium, normal and control phytoreactor derived biomass supplemented with Tween-20 (0.2% v/v). The hydrolysate of biomass from consortium phytoreactor produced maximum reducing sugar (0.93 g/l) than hydrolysates of normal phytoreactor biomass (0.82 g/l) and control phytoreactor biomass (0.79 g/l). FTIR and XRD analysis confirmed structural changes in treated biomass. (c) Ethanol production: the bioethanol produced from enzymatic hydrolysates of waste biomass of consortium and normal phytoreactor using Saccharomyces cerevisiae (KCTC 7296) was 42.2 and 39.4 g/l, respectively, while control phytoreactor biomass hydrolysate showed only 25.5 g/l. Thus, the amalgamation of phytoremediation and bioethanol production can be the truly environment-friendly way to eliminate the problem of textile dye along with bioenergy generation.

  20. Enhancing the Feasibility of Microcystis aeruginosa as a Feedstock for Bioethanol Production under the Influence of Various Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Imran; Lee, Moon Geon; Seo, Hyo Jin; Shin, Jin Hyuk; Shin, Tai Sun; Yoon, Yang Ho; Kim, Min Yong; Choi, Jong Il; Kim, Jong Deog

    2016-01-01

    Microcystis aeruginosa, a freshwater microalga, is capable of producing and accumulating different types of sugars in its biomass which make it a good feedstock for bioethanol production. Present study aims to investigate the effect of different factors increasing growth rate and carbohydrates productivity of M. aeruginosa. MF media (modified BG11 media) and additional ingredients such as aminolevulinic acid (2 mM), lysine (2.28 mM), alanine (1 mM), and Naphthalene acetic acid (1 mM) as cytokine promoted M. aeruginosa growth and sugar contents. Salmonella showed growth-assisting effect on M. aeruginosa. Enhanced growth rate and carbohydrates contents were observed in M. aeruginosa culture grown at 25°C under red LED light of 90 μmolm(-2)s(-1) intensity. More greenish and carbohydrates rich M. aeruginosa biomass was prepared (final OD660 nm = 2.21 and sugar contents 10.39 mM/mL) as compared to control (maximum OD660 nm = 1.4 and sugar contents 3 mM/mL). The final algae biomass was converted to algae juice through a specific pretreatment method. The resulted algae Juice was used as a substrate in fermentation process. Highest yield of bioethanol (50 mM/mL) was detected when Brettanomyces custersainus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Pichia stipitis were used in combinations for fermentation process as compared to their individual fermentation. The results indicated the influence of different factors on the growth rate and carbohydrates productivity of M. aeruginosa and its feasibility as a feedstock for fermentative ethanol production.

  1. Enhancing the Feasibility of Microcystis aeruginosa as a Feedstock for Bioethanol Production under the Influence of Various Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Imran Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Microcystis aeruginosa, a freshwater microalga, is capable of producing and accumulating different types of sugars in its biomass which make it a good feedstock for bioethanol production. Present study aims to investigate the effect of different factors increasing growth rate and carbohydrates productivity of M. aeruginosa. MF media (modified BG11 media and additional ingredients such as aminolevulinic acid (2 mM, lysine (2.28 mM, alanine (1 mM, and Naphthalene acetic acid (1 mM as cytokine promoted M. aeruginosa growth and sugar contents. Salmonella showed growth-assisting effect on M. aeruginosa. Enhanced growth rate and carbohydrates contents were observed in M. aeruginosa culture grown at 25°C under red LED light of 90 μmolm−2s−1 intensity. More greenish and carbohydrates rich M. aeruginosa biomass was prepared (final OD660 nm = 2.21 and sugar contents 10.39 mM/mL as compared to control (maximum OD660 nm = 1.4 and sugar contents 3 mM/mL. The final algae biomass was converted to algae juice through a specific pretreatment method. The resulted algae Juice was used as a substrate in fermentation process. Highest yield of bioethanol (50 mM/mL was detected when Brettanomyces custersainus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Pichia stipitis were used in combinations for fermentation process as compared to their individual fermentation. The results indicated the influence of different factors on the growth rate and carbohydrates productivity of M. aeruginosa and its feasibility as a feedstock for fermentative ethanol production.

  2. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of Agave tequilana fructans by Kluyveromyces marxianus yeasts for bioethanol and tequila production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Jose-Axel; Gschaedler, Anne; Amaya-Delgado, Lorena; Herrera-López, Enrique J; Arellano, Melchor; Arrizon, Javier

    2013-10-01

    Agave tequilana fructans (ATF) constitute a substrate for bioethanol and tequila industries. As Kluyveromyces marxianus produces specific fructanases for ATF hydrolysis, as well as ethanol, it can perform simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. In this work, fifteen K. marxianus yeasts were evaluated to develop inoculums with fructanase activity on ATF. These inoculums were added to an ATF medium for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. All the yeasts, showed exo-fructanhydrolase activity with different substrate specificities. The yeast with highest fructanase activity in the inoculums showed the lowest ethanol production level (20 g/l). Five K. marxianus strains were the most suitable for the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of ATF. The volatile compounds composition was evaluated at the end of fermentation, and a high diversity was observed between yeasts, nevertheless all of them produced high levels of isobutyl alcohol. The simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of ATF with K. marxianus strains has potential for industrial application. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Can the environmental benefits of biomass support agriculture? - The case of cereals for electricity and bioethanol production in Northern Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, Maria Isabel; Azqueta, Diego

    2008-01-01

    Recent policy documents, such as the EC Communication on an Energy Policy for Europe (January 2007) make emphasis on the opportunities that energy applications can offer certain agricultural commodities, especially in the framework of a progressive dismantling of the Common Agricultural Policy. This paper analyses whether this can be true for wheat and barley farmers, using the real example of a straw-based power plant in Northern Spain and a theoretical factory for bioethanol production fed with cereal grain. The outcomes of such an exercise, in which their relative environmental benefits vis-a-vis fossil fuel alternatives are worked out with the aid of a simplified life-cycle approach, show that the characteristics of the electricity and biomass markets, the baseline scenario and the fuel prices are crucial for the future of the sector. (author)

  4. Hydrolysis of Miscanthus for bioethanol production using dilute acid presoaking combined with wet explosion pre-treatment and enzymatic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Annette; Teller, Philip Johan; Hilstrøm, Troels

    2008-01-01

    xylose prior to wet explosion. The acid presoaking extracted 63.2% xylose and 5.2% glucose. Direct enzymatic hydrolysis of the presoaked biomass was found to give only low sugar yields of 24-26% glucose. Wet explosion is a pre-treatment method that combines wet-oxidation and steam explosion. The effect...... of wet explosion on non-presoaked and presoaked Miscanthus was investigated using both atmospheric air and hydrogen peroxide as the oxidizing agent. All wet explosion pre-treatments showed to have a disrupting effect on the lignocellulosic biomass, making the sugars accessible for enzymatic hydrolysis......Miscanthus is a high yielding bioenergy crop. In this study we used acid presoaking, wet explosion, and enzymatic hydrolysis to evaluate the combination of the different pre-treatment methods for bioethanol production with Miscanthus. Acid presoaking is primarily carried out in order to remove...

  5. Can the environmental benefits of biomass support agriculture? - The case of cereals for electricity and bioethanol production in Northern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, Maria Isabel; Azqueta, Diego [Department of Economics, University of Alcala, Plaza de la Victoria, 3, 28002 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain)

    2008-01-15

    Recent policy documents, such as the EC Communication on an Energy Policy for Europe (January 2007) make emphasis on the opportunities that energy applications can offer certain agricultural commodities, especially in the framework of a progressive dismantling of the Common Agricultural Policy. This paper analyses whether this can be true for wheat and barley farmers, using the real example of a straw-based power plant in Northern Spain and a theoretical factory for bioethanol production fed with cereal grain. The outcomes of such an exercise, in which their relative environmental benefits vis-a-vis fossil fuel alternatives are worked out with the aid of a simplified life-cycle approach, show that the characteristics of the electricity and biomass markets, the baseline scenario and the fuel prices are crucial for the future of the sector. (author)

  6. Mechanistic study on ultrasound assisted pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse using metal salt with hydrogen peroxide for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadoss, Govindarajan; Muthukumar, Karuppan

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the ultrasound assisted pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse (SCB) using metal salt with hydrogen peroxide for bioethanol production. Among the different metal salts used, maximum holocellulose recovery and delignification were achieved with ultrasound assisted titanium dioxide (TiO2) pretreatment (UATP) system. At optimum conditions (1% H2O2, 4 g SCB dosage, 60 min sonication time, 2:100 M ratio of metal salt and H2O2, 75°C, 50% ultrasound amplitude and 70% ultrasound duty cycle), 94.98 ± 1.11% holocellulose recovery and 78.72 ± 0.86% delignification were observed. The pretreated SCB was subjected to dilute acid hydrolysis using 0.25% H2SO4 and maximum xylose, glucose and arabinose concentration obtained were 10.94 ± 0.35 g/L, 14.86 ± 0.12 g/L and 2.52 ± 0.27 g/L, respectively. The inhibitors production was found to be very less (0.93 ± 0.11 g/L furfural and 0.76 ± 0.62 g/L acetic acid) and the maximum theoretical yield of glucose and hemicellulose conversion attained were 85.8% and 77%, respectively. The fermentation was carried out using Saccharomyces cerevisiae and at the end of 72 h, 0.468 g bioethanol/g holocellulose was achieved. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of pretreated SCB was made and its morphology was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The compounds formed during the pretreatment were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Bioethanol production from sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. flour using co-culture of Trichoderma sp. and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in solid-state fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manas Ranjan Swain

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the optimiation of co-culturing of Trichoderma sp. and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (1:4 ratio on sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. flour (SPF for the production of bio-ethanol in solid-state fermentation (SSF. Maximum ethanol (172 g/kg substrate was produced in a medium containing 80% moisture, ammonium sulphate 0.2%, pH 5.0, inoculuted with 10% inoculum size and fermented at 30ºC for 72h. .Concomitant with highest ethanol concentration, maximum ethanol productivity (2.8 g/kg substrate/h, microbial biomass (23×10(8 CFU/ g substrate, ethanol yield (47 g/100g sugar consumed and fermentation efficiency (72% were also obtained under these conditions. Cell interaction was observed familiar between the viable cells of Trichoderma sp. and S. cerevisiae when co-cultured. Ethanol production ability by the co-culture was 65 % higher than the single culture of S. cerevisiae from un-saccharified SPF.

  8. Development of eco-friendly process for the production of bioethanol from banana peel using inhouse developed cocktail of thermo-alkali-stable depolymerizing enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Heena; Chauhan, Prakram Singh; General, Thiyam; Sharma, A K

    2018-03-29

    Conversion of agro-industrial wastes to energy is an innovative approach for waste valorization and management which also mitigates environmental pollution. In this view, present study investigated the feasibility of producing bioethanol from banana peels using cocktail of depolymerizing enzyme/s. We isolated Geobacillus stearothermophilus HPA19 from natural resource which produces cocktail of thermo-alkali-stable xylano-pectino-cellulolytic enzyme/s using wheat bran within 24 h. The optimal temperature and pH for xylanase, filter paper cellulase and pectinase were 80, 70 and 80 °C, and 9.0, 8.0 and 9.0, respectively. Cocktail enzymes showed stability at high temperature (80 °C) and pH (10.0). Ni 2+ and Zn 2+ promoted the relative activity of xylanase and FPase, whereas Na + , Ca 2+ and K + promoted pectinase activity. Cocktail was assessed in saccharification of banana peel. Reducing sugar obtained (37.06 mg ml -1 ) after one variable at a time (OVAT) method is greatly influenced by enzyme dose. Further, response surface methodology was used to optimize saccharification leading to twofold increase in reducing sugar. Maximum ethanol production (21.1 gl -1 ) was achieved through fermentation giving the efficiency of 76.5% within 30 h. Hence utilization of waste biomass for production of value-added products through biotechnological intervention not only helps to combat environmental pollution but also contributes significantly to the economy.

  9. Bioethanol Production by Carbohydrate-Enriched Biomass of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markou, Giorgos; Angelidaki, Irini; Nerantzis, Elias

    2013-01-01

    at four concentrations, 2.5 N, 1 N, 0.5 N and 0.25 N, and for each acid concentration the saccharification was conducted under four temperatures (40 °C, 60 °C, 80 °C and 100 °C). Higher acid concentrations gave in general higher reducing sugars (RS) yields (%, gRS/gTotal sugars) with higher rates, while...... the increase in temperature lead to higher rates at lower acid concentration. The hydrolysates then were used as substrate for ethanolic fermentation by a salt stress-adapted Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain. The bioethanol yield (%, gEtOH/gBiomass) was significantly affected by the acid concentration used...

  10. Cyanobacterial biomass as carbohydrate and nutrient feedstock for bioethanol production by yeast fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möllers, K Benedikt; Canella, D.; Jørgensen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 was fermented using yeast into bioethanol. Results: The cyanobacterium accumulated a total carbohydrate content of about 60% of cell dry weight when cultivated under nitrate limitation. The cyanobacterial cells were harvested by centrifugation and subjected to enzymatic...... cyanobacteria or microalgae. Importantly, as well as fermentable carbohydrates, the cyanobacterial hydrolysate contained additional nutrients that promoted fermentation. This hydrolysate is therefore a promising substitute for the relatively expensive nutrient additives (such as yeast extract) commonly used...... hydrolysis using lysozyme and two alpha-glucanases. This enzymatic hydrolysate was fermented into ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae without further treatment. All enzyme treatments and fermentations were carried out in the residual growth medium of the cyanobacteria with the only modification being that p...

  11. Energy consumption in barley and turnip rape cultivation for bioethanol and biodiesel (RME) production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkola, Hannu; Ahokas, Jukka [University of Helsinki, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, Department of Agricultural Sciences, FIN-00014 Helsingin yliopisto (Finland); Pahkala, Katri [MTT, Agrifood Research Finland, Crop Science and Technology, FIN-31600 Jokioinen (Finland)

    2011-01-15

    The energy consumption for six spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) production chains and five spring turnip rape (Brassica rapa ssp. oleifera (DC) Metsg.) production chains were compared with each other and in relation to the energy content of the seed yield. Two cultivation intensities, standard and intensive production, were used for barley. Fertiliser production and grain drying were the most energy consuming phases of the chains. The production of nitrogen fertiliser alone accounted for 1/3-1/2 of the total energy consumption of the production chains. If barley were direct drilled and the yield stored in airtight silos, instead of drying, the energy consumption would decrease by 30-34%. Use of wood-chips instead of oil for grain drying would decrease the use of fossil fuel to the same extent. The input-output ratios for the intensive barley production chains were 0.18-0.25. They were somewhat lower than the ratios for the standard production intensity. The intensive production was more energy efficient despite higher input rates. The input-output ratios for turnip rape production were 0.32-0.34. The energy consumption for manufacturing, repair and maintenance of machines and buildings requires more research because it is a significant factor but the data available are largely old and few studies have been conducted. (author)

  12. Bioethanol production from Scenedesmus obliquus sugars. The influence of photobioreactors and culture conditions on biomass production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, J.R.; Passarinho, P.C.; Gouveia, L. [Laboratorio Nacional de Energia e Geologia (LNEG), Lisbon (Portugal). Unidade de Bioenergia

    2012-10-15

    A closed-loop vertical tubular photobioreactor (PBR), specially designed to operate under conditions of scarce flat land availability and irregular solar irradiance conditions, was used to study the potential of Scenedesmus obliquus biomass/sugar production. The results obtained were compared to those from an open-raceway pond and a closed-bubble column. The influence of the type of light source and the regime (natural vs artificial and continuous vs light/dark cycles) on the growth of the microalga and the extent of the sugar accumulation was studied in both PBRs. The best type of reactor studied was a closed-loop PBR illuminated with natural light/dark cycles. In all the cases, the relationship between the nitrate depletion and the sugar accumulation was observed. The microalga Scenedesmus was cultivated for 53 days in a raceway pond (4,500 L) and accumulated a maximum sugar content of 29 % g/g. It was pre-treated for carrying out ethanol fermentation assays, and the highest ethanol concentration obtained in the hydrolysate fermented by Kluyveromyces marxianus was 11.7 g/L. (orig.)

  13. Bioethanol production from Scenedesmus obliquus sugars: the influence of photobioreactors and culture conditions on biomass production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, J R; Passarinho, P C; Gouveia, L

    2012-10-01

    A closed-loop vertical tubular photobioreactor (PBR), specially designed to operate under conditions of scarce flat land availability and irregular solar irradiance conditions, was used to study the potential of Scenedesmus obliquus biomass/sugar production. The results obtained were compared to those from an open-raceway pond and a closed-bubble column. The influence of the type of light source and the regime (natural vs artificial and continuous vs light/dark cycles) on the growth of the microalga and the extent of the sugar accumulation was studied in both PBRs. The best type of reactor studied was a closed-loop PBR illuminated with natural light/dark cycles. In all the cases, the relationship between the nitrate depletion and the sugar accumulation was observed. The microalga Scenedesmus was cultivated for 53 days in a raceway pond (4,500 L) and accumulated a maximum sugar content of 29 % g/g. It was pre-treated for carrying out ethanol fermentation assays, and the highest ethanol concentration obtained in the hydrolysate fermented by Kluyveromyces marxianus was 11.7 g/L.

  14. Synthesis and simulation of efficient divided wall column sequences for bioethanol recovery and purification from an actual lignocellulosic fermentation broth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres-Ortega, Carlo Edgar; Rong, Ben-Guang

    2016-01-01

    Actual lignocellulosic fermentation broth has intrinsic multiphase and multicomponent nature and calls for complex separation systems in both bioethanol recovery and purification [Torres-Ortega, C. E.; Rong, B.-G. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2016, 55, 210]. In this work, we present the synthesis...... of column sections as novel synthesis approaches to formulate hybrid units and divided wall columns. Rigorous simulation in Aspen Plus V8.0 was used to simulate the intensified separation systems. The new intensified alternatives achieved relevant savings, ranging from 17 to 23% in TAC (total annual costs......), and ranging from 18 to 28% in TEC (total energy consumption). Moreover, reduction of the number of separation units varied from the original eight units down to three units. Finally, we performed a sensitivity analysis varying the bioethanol concentration in the fermentation broth between the reference case...

  15. Response surface optimization of the thermal acid pretreatment of sugar beet pulp for bioethanol production using Trichoderma viride and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gendy, Nour Sh; Madian, Hekmat R; Nassar, Hussein N; Amr, Salem S Abu

    2015-09-15

    Worldwide nowadays, relying on the second generation bioethanol from the lignocellulosic feedstock is a mandatory aim. However, one of the major drawbacks for high ethanol yield is the physical and chemical pretreatment of this kind of feedstock. As the pretreatment is a crucial process operation that modifies the lignocellulosic structure and enhances its accessibility for the high cost hydrolytic enzymes in an attempt to maximize the yield of the fermentable sugars. The objective of this work was to optimize and integrate a physicochemical pretreatment of one of the major agricultural wastes in Egypt; the sugar beet pulp (SBP) and the enzymatic saccharification of the pretreated SBP using a whole fungal cells with a separate bioethanol fermentation batch processes to maximize the bioethanol yield. The response surface methodology was employed in this study to statistically evaluate and optimize the conditions for a thermal acid pretreatment of SBP. The significance and the interaction effects of the concentrations of HCl and SBP and the reaction temperature and time were studied using a three-level central composite design of experiments. A quadratic model equation was obtained to maximize the production of the total reducing sugars. The validity of the predicted model was confirmed. The thermally acid pretreated SBP was further subjected to a solid state fermentation batch process using Trichoderma viride F94. The thermal acid pretreatment and fungal hydrolyzes were integrated with two parallel batch fermentation processes of the produced hydrolyzates using Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y39, that yielded a total of ≈ 48 g/L bioethanol, at a conversion rate of ≈ 0.32 g bioethanol/ g SBP. Applying the proposed integrated process, approximately 97.5 gallon of ethanol would be produced from a ton (dry weight) of SBP.

  16. Biodiesel from microalgae beats bioethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisti, Yusuf

    2008-03-01

    Renewable biofuels are needed to displace petroleum-derived transport fuels, which contribute to global warming and are of limited availability. Biodiesel and bioethanol are the two potential renewable fuels that have attracted the most attention. As demonstrated here, biodiesel and bioethanol produced from agricultural crops using existing methods cannot sustainably replace fossil-based transport fuels, but there is an alternative. Biodiesel from microalgae seems to be the only renewable biofuel that has the potential to completely displace petroleum-derived transport fuels without adversely affecting supply of food and other crop products. Most productive oil crops, such as oil palm, do not come close to microalgae in being able to sustainably provide the necessary amounts of biodiesel. Similarly, bioethanol from sugarcane is no match for microalgal biodiesel.

  17. Cellulase production through solid-state tray fermentation, and its use for bioethanol from sorghum stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Ayman Salih Omer; Pandey, Ashok; Rao, S S; Sukumaran, Rajeev K

    2017-10-01

    The production of cellulase by Trichoderma reesei RUT C-30 under solid-state fermentation (SSF) on wheat bran and cellulose was optimized employing a two stage statistical design of experiments. Optimization of process parameters resulted in a 3.2-fold increase in CMCase production to 959.53IU/gDS. The process was evaluated at pilot scale in tray fermenters and yielded 457IU/gDS using the lab conditions and indicating possibility for further improvement. The cellulase could effectively hydrolyze alkali pretreated sorghum stover and addition of Aspergillus niger β-glucosidase improved the hydrolytic efficiency 174%, indicating the potential to use this blend for effective saccharification of sorghum stover biomass. The enzymatic hydrolysate of sorghum stover was fermented to ethanol with ∼80% efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Optimized acid hydrolysis of the polysaccharides from the seaweed Solieria filiformis (Kützing P.W. Gabrielson for bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Meredite Cunha de Castro

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The seaweeds are bio-resource rich in sulfated and neutral polysaccharides. The tropical seaweed species used in this study (Solieria filiformis, after dried, shows 65.8% (w/w carbohydrate, 9.6% (w/w protein, 1.7% (w/w lipid, 7.0% (w/w moisture and 15.9% (w/w ash. The dried seaweed was easily hydrolyzed under mild conditions (0.5 M sulfuric acid, 20 min., generating fermentable monosaccharides with a maximum hydrolysis efficiency of 63.21%. Galactose and glucose present in the hydrolyzed were simultaneously fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae when the yeast was acclimated to galactose and cultivated in broth containing only galactose. The kinetic parameters of the fermentation of the seaweed hydrolyzed were Y(P⁄S = 0.48 ± 0.02 g.g−1, PP = 0.27 ± 0.04 g.L−1.h−1, h = 94.1%, representing a 41% increase in bioethanol productivity. Therefore, S. filiformis was a promising renewable resource of polysaccharides easily hydrolyzed, generating a broth rich in fermentable monosaccharides for ethanol production.

  19. Fed-batch production of green coconut hydrolysates for high-gravity second-generation bioethanol fermentation with cellulosic yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Jimmy; Demeke, Mekonnen M; Van de Velde, Miet; Foulquié-Moreno, Maria R; Kerstens, Dorien; Sels, Bert F; Verplaetse, Alex; Fernandes, Antonio Alberto Ribeiro; Thevelein, Johan M; Fernandes, Patricia Machado Bueno

    2017-11-01

    The residual biomass obtained from the production of Cocos nucifera L. (coconut) is a potential source of feedstock for bioethanol production. Even though coconut hydrolysates for ethanol production have previously been obtained, high-solid loads to obtain high sugar and ethanol levels remain a challenge. We investigated the use of a fed-batch regime in the production of sugar-rich hydrolysates from the green coconut fruit and its mesocarp. Fermentation of the hydrolysates obtained from green coconut or its mesocarp, containing 8.4 and 9.7% (w/v) sugar, resulted in 3.8 and 4.3% (v/v) ethanol, respectively. However, green coconut hydrolysate showed a prolonged fermentation lag phase. The inhibitor profile suggested that fatty acids and acetic acid were the main fermentation inhibitors. Therefore, a fed-batch regime with mild alkaline pretreatment followed by saccharification, is presented as a strategy for fermentation of such challenging biomass hydrolysates, even though further improvement of yeast inhibitor tolerance is also needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Genome-scale metabolic analysis of Clostridium thermocellum for bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooks J Paul

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microorganisms possess diverse metabolic capabilities that can potentially be leveraged for efficient production of biofuels. Clostridium thermocellum (ATCC 27405 is a thermophilic anaerobe that is both cellulolytic and ethanologenic, meaning that it can directly use the plant sugar, cellulose, and biochemically convert it to ethanol. A major challenge in using microorganisms for chemical production is the need to modify the organism to increase production efficiency. The process of properly engineering an organism is typically arduous. Results Here we present a genome-scale model of C. thermocellum metabolism, iSR432, for the purpose of establishing a computational tool to study the metabolic network of C. thermocellum and facilitate efforts to engineer C. thermocellum for biofuel production. The model consists of 577 reactions involving 525 intracellular metabolites, 432 genes, and a proteomic-based representation of a cellulosome. The process of constructing this metabolic model led to suggested annotation refinements for 27 genes and identification of areas of metabolism requiring further study. The accuracy of the iSR432 model was tested using experimental growth and by-product secretion data for growth on cellobiose and fructose. Analysis using this model captures the relationship between the reduction-oxidation state of the cell and ethanol secretion and allowed for prediction of gene deletions and environmental conditions that would increase ethanol production. Conclusions By incorporating genomic sequence data, network topology, and experimental measurements of enzyme activities and metabolite fluxes, we have generated a model that is reasonably accurate at predicting the cellular phenotype of C. thermocellum and establish a strong foundation for rational strain design. In addition, we are able to draw some important conclusions regarding the underlying metabolic mechanisms for observed behaviors of C. thermocellum

  1. Determination of two-liquid mixture composition by assessing its dielectric parameters 2. modified measuring system for monitoring the dehydration process of bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilitis O.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In Part 2 of the work we describe a modified measuring system for precise monitoring of the dehydration process of bioethanol production. This is based on the earlier proposed system for measuring the concentration of solutions and two-liquid mixtures using devices with capacitive sensors (1-300pF, which provides a stable measuring resolution of ± 0.005 pF at measuring the capacitance of a sensor. In this part of our work we determine additional requirements that are to be imposed on the measuring system at monitoring the ethanol dehydration process and control of bioethanol production. The most important parameters of the developed measuring system are identified. An exemplary calculation is given for the thermocompensated calibration of measuring devices. The results of tests have shown a good performance of the developed measuring system.

  2. Polyelectrolyte flocculation of grain stillage for improved clarification and water recovery within bioethanol production facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menkhaus, Todd J; Anderson, Jason; Lane, Samuel; Waddell, Evan

    2010-04-01

    Polyelectrolytes were investigated for flocculation of a corn whole stillage stream to improve solid-liquid clarification operations and reduce downstream utility requirements for evaporation and drying within a bioethanol process. Despite a negative zeta potential for the stillage solids, an anionic polyelectrolyte was found to provide the best flocculation. At the optimal dosage of 1.1mg polymer/g dry suspended solids, an anionic flocculant provided a clarified stream with only 0.15% w/w suspended solids (equivalent to a total dissolved solid to total suspended solid ratio greater than 40, and a viscosity reduction of 39% compared to an unflocculated "clarified" stream). The resulting solids cake had greater than 40% w/w solids, and more than 80% water recovery was found in the clarified stream. Addition of flocculant improved filtration flux by six fold and/or would allow for up to a 4-times higher flow rate if using a decanting centrifuge for clarification of corn stillage. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A new magnesium bisulfite pretreatment (MBSP) development for bio-ethanol production from corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Heng; Ren, Jiwei; Liu, Lei; Zheng, Zhaojuan; Zhu, Junjun; Yong, Qiang; Ouyang, Jia

    2016-01-01

    This study established a new more neutral magnesium bisulfate pretreatment (MBSP) using magnesium bisulfate as sulfonating agent for improving the enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency of corn stover. Using the MBSP with 5.21% magnesium bisulfate, 170°C and pH 5.2 for 60 min, about 90% of lignin and 80% of hemicellulose were removed from biomass and more than 90% cellulose conversion of substrate was achieved after 48 h hydrolysis. About 6.19 kg raw corn stover could produce 1 kg ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Meanwhile, MBSP also could protect sugars from excessive degradation, prevent fermentation inhibition formation and directly convert the hemicelluloses into xylooligosaccharides as higher-value products. These results suggested that the MBSP method offers an alternative approach to the efficient conversion of nonwoody lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol and had broad space for development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Co-fermentation using Recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yeast Strains Hyper-secreting Different Cellulases for the Production of Cellulosic Bioethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cho-Ryong; Sung, Bong Hyun; Lim, Kwang-Mook; Kim, Mi-Jin; Sohn, Min Jeong; Bae, Jung-Hoon; Sohn, Jung-Hoon

    2017-06-30

    To realize the economical production of ethanol and other bio-based chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass by consolidated bioprocessing (CBP), various cellulases from different sources were tested to improve the level of cellulase secretion in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by screening an optimal translational fusion partner (TFP) as both a secretion signal and fusion partner. Among them, four indispensable cellulases for cellulose hydrolysis, including Chaetomium thermophilum cellobiohydrolase (CtCBH1), Chrysosporium lucknowense cellobiohydrolase (ClCBH2), Trichoderma reesei endoglucanase (TrEGL2), and Saccharomycopsis fibuligera β-glucosidase (SfBGL1), were identified to be highly secreted in active form in yeast. Despite variability in the enzyme levels produced, each recombinant yeast could secrete approximately 0.6-2.0 g/L of cellulases into the fermentation broth. The synergistic effect of the mixed culture of the four strains expressing the essential cellulases with the insoluble substrate Avicel and several types of cellulosic biomass was demonstrated to be effective. Co-fermentation of these yeast strains produced approximately 14 g/L ethanol from the pre-treated rice straw containing 35 g/L glucan with 3-fold higher productivity than that of wild type yeast using a reduced amount of commercial cellulases. This process will contribute to the cost-effective production of bioenergy such as bioethanol and biochemicals from cellulosic biomass.

  5. Same-vessel enzymatic saccharification and fermentation of organosolv/H2O2 pretreated oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) fronds for bioethanol production: Optimization of process parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ofori-Boateng, Cynthia; Lee, Keat Teong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Same vessel enzymatic saccharification and fermentation (SVSF) of pretreated OPFs. • Optimum conditions:37 °C, 8.0% solid loading, 14.0 g/l yeast concentration, pH 5.3. • Optimum bioethanol concentration and yield of 21.96 g/l and 84.65% respectively. • Organosolv/H 2 O 2 pretreatment of OPFs improved SVSF yield at high solid loading. - Abstract: Based on optimized pretreatment process, oil palm fronds (OPFs) were sequentially pretreated with 1.4% (w/v) aq. NaOH in 80% ethanol with ultrasound assistance (at 75 °C for 30 min) and 3% (v/v) aq. H 2 O 2 . Using the Box–Behnken design (BBD) of response surface methodology (RSM), bioethanol production from the sono-assisted organosolv/H 2 O 2 OPFs were optimized using same-vessel enzymatic saccharification and fermentation (SVSF) where both the hydrolysis and fermentation processes were carried out in one vessel simultaneously. Throughout the SVSF process, the incubation time and enzyme loading were kept at 72 h and 15 filter paper unit (FPU)/g substrate respectively. The other SVSF parameters which affect bioethanol yield such as temperature (X 1 : 30–50 °C), solid loading (X 2 : 5.0–10.0% w/v), yeast concentration (X 3 : 5.0–20 g/l) and pH (X 4 : 4.0–7.0) were optimized. Well fitted regression equations (R 2 > 0.97) obtained were able to predict reliable optimum bioethanol concentration and yield. The predicted optimum bioethanol concentration (i.e., 20.61 g/l) and yield (i.e., 84.60%) were attained at 36.94 °C (∼37 °C), 7.57% w/v solid loading (∼8.0% w/v), 13.97 g/l yeast concentration (∼14.0 g/l) and pH of 5.29 (∼5.30). Validated results indicated a maximum ethanol concentration and yield of 21.96 g/l and 84.65% respectively, which were closer to the predicted optimum responses. Using the optimum conditions, the highest bioethanol productivity of 0.76 g/l/h was observed at 12 h of SVSF process

  6. A Simulation Model of Combined Biogas, Bioethanol and Protein Fodder Co-Production in Organic Farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2009-01-01

    In order to evaluate new strategies for the production of renewable energy within sustainable organic agriculture, a process-simulation model for a 100 ha organic farm was developed. Data used for the model was obtained from laboratory trials, literature data, consultancy with experts, and results...... ha organic farm with ethanol or biogas, respectively. This calculation was based on the assumption that the electrical efficiency of CHP (combined heat and power) unit was 38%. A variety of different scenarios can be simulated to mirror the farmer's needs....

  7. Analysis of federal and state policies and environmental issues for bioethanol production facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Chandra; Chan Hilton, Amy B

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate incentives and barriers to fuel ethanol production from biomass in the U.S. during the past decade (2000-2010). In particular, we examine the results of policies and economic conditions during this period by way of cellulosic ethanol activity in four selected states with the potential to produce different types of feedstocks (i.e., sugar, starch, and cellulosic crops) for ethanol production (Florida, California, Hawaii, and Iowa). Two of the four states, Iowa and California, currently have commercial ethanol production facilities in operation using corn feedstocks. While several companies have proposed commercial scale facilities in Florida and Hawaii, none are operating to date. Federal and state policies and incentives, potential for feedstock production and conversion to ethanol and associated potential environmental impacts, and environmental regulatory conditions among the states were investigated. Additionally, an analysis of proposed and operational ethanol production facilities provided evidence that a combination of these policies and incentives along with the ability to address environmental issues and regulatory environment and positive economic conditions all impact ethanol production. The 2000-2010 decade saw the rise of the promise of cellulosic ethanol. Federal and state policies were enacted to increase ethanol production. Since the initial push for development, expansion of cellulosic ethanol production has not happened as quickly as predicted. Government and private funding supported the development of ethanol production facilities, which peaked and then declined by the end of the decade. Although there are technical issues that remain to be solved to more efficiently convert cellulosic material to ethanol while reducing environmental impacts, the largest barriers to increasing ethanol production appear to be related to government policies, economics, and logistical issues. The numerous federal and state

  8. Biochemical studies on the production of biofuel (bioethanol) from potato peels wastes by Saccharomyces cerevisiae: effects of fermentation periods and nitrogen source concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, Ryan A.; Al-Bar, Omar A.; Soliman, Youssri M. Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an interesting micro-organism with good prospects in the future of yeast bioethanol production. In this study, both commercial and genetically modified S. cerevisiae were obtained from the local shops in Jeddah - Saudi Arabia and the Microbial Biotechnology Department - National Research Center (Dokki - Egypt) respectively, and incubated at 25 °C before being acclimatized for the conditions of this research. In this work, the impact of two different biochemical conditions (fermentation periods and nitrogen source concentration) on the growth, carbohydrates yields, and mainly bioethanol productivity from potato peels wastes (PPW) were studied in both species. PPW were used as a solo carbon source in this study with HCl acidic pre-treatment method. When studying the impact of fermentation periods, the best fermentation periods were found to be between the third and the fourth day. Additionally, the optimal nitrogen source concentration added to the fermentation medium was 2 g/L. This study concludes with some suggestions for future work in an attempt to reach commercial production of bioethanol at the lowest possible costs

  9. Enhanced cellulase production by Penicillium oxalicum for bio-ethanol application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Reetu; Saini, Jitendra Kumar; Adsul, Mukund; Patel, Anil Kumar; Mathur, Anshu; Tuli, Deepak; Singhania, Reeta Rani

    2015-01-01

    Present study was focused on cellulase production from an indigenously isolated filamentous fungal strain, identified as Penicillium oxalicum. Initially, cellulase production under submerged fermentation in shake flasks resulted in cellulase activity of 0.7 FPU/mL. Optimization of process parameters enhanced cellulase production by 1.7-fold and resulted in maximum cellulase activity of 1.2 FPU/mL in 8 days. Cellulase production was successfully scaled-up to 7 L fermenter under controlled conditions and incubation time was reduced from 8 days to 4 days for achieving similar cellulase titer. Optimum pH and temperature for activity of the crude enzyme were pH 5 and 50 °C, respectively. At 50 °C the produced cellulase retained approximately 50% and 26% of its activity at 48 h and 72 h, respectively. Hydrolytic efficiency of P. oxalicum was comparable to commercial cellulase preparations which indicate its great potential for application in the lignocellulose hydrolysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Advances in consolidated bioprocessing systems for bioethanol and butanol production from biomass: a comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Salehi Jouzani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, lignocellulosic biomass as the most abundant renewable resource has been widely considered for bioalcohols production. However, the complex structure of lignocelluloses requires a multi-step process which is costly and time consuming. Although, several bioprocessing approaches have been developed for pretreatment, saccharification and fermentation, bioalcohols production from lignocelluloses is still limited because of the economic infeasibility of these technologies. This cost constraint could be overcome by designing and constructing robust cellulolytic and bioalcohols producing microbes and by using them in a consolidated bioprocessing (CBP system. This paper comprehensively reviews potentials, recent advances and challenges faced in CBP systems for efficient bioalcohols (ethanol and butanol production from lignocellulosic and starchy biomass. The CBP strategies include using native single strains with cellulytic and alcohol production activities, microbial co-cultures containing both cellulytic and ethanologenic microorganisms, and genetic engineering of cellulytic microorganisms to be alcohol-producing or alcohol producing microorganisms to be cellulytic. Moreover, high-throughput techniques, such as metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, next generation sequencing and synthetic biology developed to explore novel microorganisms and powerful enzymes with high activity, thermostability and pH stability are also discussed. Currently, the CBP technology is in its infant stage, and ideal microorganisms and/or conditions at industrial scale are yet to be introduced. So, it is essential to bring into attention all barriers faced and take advantage of all the experiences gained to achieve a high-yield and low-cost CBP process.

  11. Bio-ethanol production by fermentation of ricotta cheese whey as an effective alternative non-vegetable source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sansonetti, Sascha; Curcio, Stefano; Calabro, Vincenza; Iorio, Gabriele [Department of Engineering Modeling, University of Calabria, Ponte P. Bucci, Cubo 42/A, 87036 Rende, Cosenza (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    The aim of the present paper is to investigate the feasibility of bio-ethanol production by batch fermentation of ricotta cheese whey (''Scotta''), a dairy industry waste characterized by lactose concentration ranging from 4.5% to 5.0% (w/w) and, with respect to traditional (raw) whey, by much lower protein content. Scotta, therefore, could represent an effective non-vegetable source for renewable energy production. The microrganism used to carry out the fermentation processes was the yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus. Preliminary experiments, performed in aerobic conditions on different volumes of scotta, have shown the actual growth of the yeast. The subsequent fermentation experiments were carried out, in anaerobic conditions, on three different substrates: scotta, raw cheese whey and deproteinized whey. The experimental data have demonstrated the process feasibility: scotta is an excellent substrate for fermentation and exhibits better performance with respect to both raw cheese whey and deproteinized whey. Complete lactose consumption, indeed, was observed in the shortest time (13 h) and with the highest ethanol yield (97% of the theoretical value). (author)

  12. DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A REFLUX COLUMN DISTILLATION UNIT FOR BIO-ETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM SUGARCANE SUBSTRATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. O. Olaoye

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A bio-ethanol distilling tank was designed and constructed to distil ethanol from sugarcane substrate. The machine has a capacity to process 200 litres of substrate at full load of the boiler. The distiller has mlntemalReflux Still Condenser (IRSC that controls the internal re-distillation process and the separation of the final output. The column diameter was 40 mm. An anaerobic fermentation of substrate was adopted before distillation could be carried out. The fermented substrate was adjusted to an optimum pH level value of 4-5 by addition of 0.1 M HjSQ, and the optimum temperature was within the temperature range of 29-38°C. A charcoal pot was used as heat source. The results of the machine evaluation showed that optimum yield occurred at 0.0325 ratio of substrate to ethanol yield. An average distilled product of 2.1 litres was obtained at highest ratio of substrate to ethanol yield of 0.033 when the distillation time was 45 minutes. The total distilled products after 1XA hours of distillation was estimated at 4.25 litres. It was observed that the fermentation and distillation processes were done in situ, and could definitely affect clear separation of the fermentable portion of the fermented sugar solution.

  13. Bioethanol production from the nutrient stress-induced microalga Chlorella vulgaris by enzymatic hydrolysis and immobilized yeast fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung Hyoun; Choi, In Seong; Kim, Ho Myeong; Wi, Seung Gon; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2014-02-01

    The microalga Chlorella vulgaris is a potential feedstock for bioenergy due to its rapid growth, carbon dioxide fixation efficiency, and high accumulation of lipids and carbohydrates. In particular, the carbohydrates in microalgae make them a candidate for bioethanol feedstock. In this study, nutrient stress cultivation was employed to enhance the carbohydrate content of C. vulgaris. Nitrogen limitation increased the carbohydrate content to 22.4% from the normal content of 16.0% on dry weight basis. In addition, several pretreatment methods and enzymes were investigated to increase saccharification yields. Bead-beating pretreatment increased hydrolysis by 25% compared with the processes lacking pretreatment. In the enzymatic hydrolysis process, the pectinase enzyme group was superior for releasing fermentable sugars from carbohydrates in microalgae. In particular, pectinase from Aspergillus aculeatus displayed a 79% saccharification yield after 72h at 50°C. Using continuous immobilized yeast fermentation, microalgal hydrolysate was converted into ethanol at a yield of 89%. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of lignins from side-streams generated in an olive tree pruning-based biorefinery: Bioethanol production and alkaline pulping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, José I; Fillat, Úrsula; Martín-Sampedro, Raquel; Eugenio, María E; Negro, María J; Ballesteros, Ignacio; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Ibarra, David

    2017-12-01

    In modern lignocellulosic-based biorefineries, carbohydrates can be transformed into biofuels and pulp and paper, whereas lignin is burned to obtain energy. However, a part of lignin could be converted into value-added products including bio-based aromatic chemicals, as well as building blocks for materials. Then, a good knowledge of lignin is necessary to define its valorisation procedure. This study characterized different lignins from side-streams produced from olive tree pruning bioethanol production (lignins collected from steam explosion pretreatment with water or phosphoric acid as catalysts, followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process) and alkaline pulping (lignins recovered from kraft and soda-AQ black liquors). Together with the chemical composition, the structure of lignins was investigated by FTIR, 13 C NMR, and 2D NMR. Bioethanol lignins had clearly distinct characteristics compared to pulping lignins; a certain number of side-chain linkages (mostly alkyl-aryl ether and resinol) accompanied with lower phenolic hydroxyls content. Bioethanol lignins also showed a significant amount of carbohydrates, mainly glucose and protein impurities. By contrast, pulping lignins revealed xylose together with a dramatical reduction of side-chains (some resinol linkages survive) and thereby higher phenol content, indicating rather severe lignin degradation during alkaline pulping processes. All lignins showed a predominance of syringyl units. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Greenhouse gas emissions and energy balances in bio-ethanol production and utilization in Brazil (1996)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macedo, Isaias de Carvalho

    1998-01-01

    Production of sugar cane in Brazil in the 1996/97 season was 273 million t (harvested wet wt)/year, leading to 13.7 million m 3 ethanol and 13.5 million t of sugar. Emissions of greenhouse gases were evaluated for the agronomic/industrial production processes and product utilization including N 2 O and methane. Up-dating the energy balance from 1985 to 1995 indicated the effect of the main technological trends; apparently, fossil fuel consumption due to the increasing agricultural mechanization is largely off-set by technological advances in transportation and overall conversion efficiencies (agricultural and industrial). Output/input energy ratio in ethanol grew to 9.2 (average) and 11.2 (best values). Net savings in CO 2 (equivalent) emissions, due to ethanol and bagasse substitution for fossil fuels, correspond to 46.7 x 10 6 t CO 2 (equivalent)/year, nearly 20% of all CO 2 emissions from fuels in Brazil. Ethanol alone is responsible for 64% of the net avoided emissions. (author)

  16. Phenotypic characterisation of Saccharomyces spp. yeast for tolerance to stresses encountered during fermentation of lignocellulosic residues to produce bioethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background During industrial fermentation of lignocellulose residues to produce bioethanol, microorganisms are exposed to a number of factors that influence productivity. These include inhibitory compounds produced by the pre-treatment processes required to release constituent carbohydrates from biomass feed-stocks and during fermentation, exposure of the organisms to stressful conditions. In addition, for lignocellulosic bioethanol production, conversion of both pentose and hexose sugars is a pre-requisite for fermentative organisms for efficient and complete conversion. All these factors are important to maximise industrial efficiency, productivity and profit margins in order to make second-generation bioethanol an economically viable alternative to fossil fuels for future transport needs. Results The aim of the current study was to assess Saccharomyces yeasts for their capacity to tolerate osmotic, temperature and ethanol stresses and inhibitors that might typically be released during steam explosion of wheat straw. Phenotypic microarray analysis was used to measure tolerance as a function of growth and metabolic activity. Saccharomyces strains analysed in this study displayed natural variation to each stress condition common in bioethanol fermentations. In addition, many strains displayed tolerance to more than one stress, such as inhibitor tolerance combined with fermentation stresses. Conclusions Our results suggest that this study could identify a potential candidate strain or strains for efficient second generation bioethanol production. Knowledge of the Saccharomyces spp. strains grown in these conditions will aid the development of breeding programmes in order to generate more efficient strains for industrial fermentations. PMID:24670111

  17. Alkali-aided enzymatic viscosity reduction of sugar beet mash for novel bioethanol production process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srichuwong, Sathaporn; Arakane, Mitsuhiro; Fujiwara, Maki; Zhang, Zilian; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Tokuyasu, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Ethanol fermentation of fresh sugar beet mash (SBM) could give a benefit on reducing energy input for sugar diffusion, juice separation, and water evaporation as used in conventional practices, thus offering promise as a low energy process. Actions of cell-wall degrading enzymes provide a mash with low viscosity, which can be easily fermented to ethanol. However, a several-fold higher enzyme loading was required for viscosity reduction of SBM compared with that of potato mash. In this study, the use of dilute alkali treatment (0.025-0.15 N NaOH, 25 o C, 1 h) in enhancing enzymatic viscosity reduction of SBM was evaluated. The results showed that higher NaOH concentration enhanced demethylation and deacetylation of SBM, resulting in greater performances of the enzymes on reducing viscosity. Efficient enzymatic viscosity reduction of SBM was observed with the 0.1 N NaOH treatment. On the other hand, untreated SBM was highly resistant to viscosity reduction, even though a 20-fold more enzyme loading was used. The resulting mash containing 12-13% (w/v) sucrose yielded 7-8% (v/v) ethanol after 24 h of fermentation (90% efficiency). Accordingly, alkali treatment can be applied for facilitating the use of fresh sugar beet for ethanol production.

  18. Co-production of bioethanol and probiotic yeast biomass from agricultural feedstock: application of the rural biorefinery concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Claire M; Loveridge, E Joel; Donnison, Iain S; Kelly, Diane E; Kelly, Steven L

    2014-01-01

    Microbial biotechnology and biotransformations promise to diversify the scope of the biorefinery approach for the production of high-value products and biofuels from industrial, rural and municipal waste feedstocks. In addition to bio-based chemicals and metabolites, microbial biomass itself constitutes an obvious but overlooked by-product of existing biofermentation systems which warrants fuller attention. The probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii is used to treat gastrointestinal disorders and marketed as a human health supplement. Despite its relatedness to S. cerevisiae that is employed widely in biotechnology, food and biofuel industries, the alternative applications of S. boulardii are not well studied. Using a biorefinery approach, we compared the bioethanol and biomass yields attainable from agriculturally-sourced grass juice using probiotic S. boulardii (strain MYA-769) and a commercial S. cerevisiae brewing strain (Turbo yeast). Maximum product yields for MYA-769 (39.18 [±2.42] mg ethanol mL(-1) and 4.96 [±0.15] g dry weight L(-1)) compared closely to those of Turbo (37.43 [±1.99] mg mL(-1) and 4.78 [±0.10] g L(-1), respectively). Co-production, marketing and/or on-site utilisation of probiotic yeast biomass as a direct-fed microbial to improve livestock health represents a novel and viable prospect for rural biorefineries. Given emergent evidence to suggest that dietary yeast supplementations might also mitigate ruminant enteric methane emissions, the administration of probiotic yeast biomass could also offer an economically feasible way of reducing atmospheric CH4.

  19. Integrated economic and life cycle assessment of thermochemical production of bioethanol to reduce production cost by exploiting excess of greenhouse gas savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes Valle, C.; Villanueva Perales, A.L.; Vidal-Barrero, F.; Ollero, P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Assessment of economics and sustainability of thermochemical ethanol production. • Exploitation of excess CO 2 saving by either importing fossil energy or CO 2 trading. • Significant increase in alcohol production by replacing biomass with natural gas. • CO 2 emission trading is not cost-competitive versus import of fossil energy. • Lowest ethanol production cost for partial oxidation as reforming technology. - Abstract: In this work, two options are investigated to enhance the economics of the catalytic production of bioethanol from biomass gasification by exploiting the excess of CO 2 emission saving: (i) to import fossil energy, in the form of natural gas and electricity or (ii) to trade CO 2 emissions. To this end, an integrated life cycle and economic assessment is carried out for four process configurations, each using a different light hydrocarbon reforming technology: partial oxidation, steam methane reforming, tar reforming and autothermal reforming. The results show that for all process configurations the production of bioethanol and other alcohols significantly increases when natural gas displaces biomass, maintaining the total energy content of the feedstock. The economic advantage of the partial substitution of biomass by natural gas depends on their prices and this is explored by carrying out a sensitivity analysis, taking historical prices into account. It is also concluded that the trade of CO 2 emissions is not cost-competitive compared to the import of natural gas if the CO 2 emission price remains within historical European prices. The CO 2 emission price would have to double or even quadruple the highest CO 2 historical price for CO 2 emission trading to be a cost-competitive option

  20. Optimization of enzymatic saccharification of Chaetomorpha linum biomass for the production of macroalgae-based third generation bioethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Slaheddine Masmoudi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the efficacy of marine macro-algae Chaetomorpha linum as a potential biofuel resource, the effects of the enzymatic treatment conditions on sugar yield were evaluated using a three factor three level Box-Behnken design. The hydrothermally pretreated C. linum biomass was treated with Aspergillus niger cellulase at various liquid to solid ratios (50–100 mL/g, enzyme concentrations (10–60 U/g and incubations times (4–44 h. Data obtained from the response surface methodology were subjected to the analysis of variance and analyzed using a second order polynomial equation. The fitted model was found to be robust and was used to optimize the sugar yield (% during enzymatic hydrolysis. The optimum saccharification conditions were: L/S ratio 100 mL/g; enzyme concentration 52 U/g; and time 44 h. Their application led to a maximum sugar yield of 30.2 g/100g dry matter. Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation of the algal hydrolysate provided 8.6 g ethanol/100g dry matter. These results showed a promising future of applying C. linum biomass as potential feedstock for third generation bioethanol production.

  1. Alkaline pretreatment of Mexican pine residues for bioethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alkaline pretreatment of Mexican pine residues for bioethanol production. ... Keywords: Lignocellulosic biomass, alkaline pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentable sugars, fermentation. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 12(31), pp.

  2. Improvement Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Wheat Straw for Bioethanol Production by Combined Treatment of Radiation and Acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Sung Hyun; Lee, Seung Sik; Bai, Hyoung Woo; Chung, Byung Yeoup

    2012-01-01

    The cost of ethanol production from starch and sucrose for use as a vehicle fuel is ultimately high. Consequently, it has been suggested that the large-scale use of ethanol as a fuel will require the utilization of cellulosic feedstock. Lignocellulosic biomass has the potential to serve as a low cost and renewable feedstock for bioconversion into fermentable sugars, which can be further utilized for biofuel production. It is estimated that there is over one billion tons of biomass available for conversion into biofuels on a renewable basis to displace a substantial portion of the fossil fuels currently consumed within the transportation sector. Among different pretreatment methods such as biological, physical, chemical, and physic-chemical pretreatments, chemical pretreatment using dilute acid as catalyst, which has been extensively evaluated for treating a variety of lignocellulosic feedstocks, is reported as one of the leading pretreatment technologies. Ionizing radiation can easily penetrate lignocellulosic structure and undoubtedly produce free radicals useful in modification of lignin structure as well as breakdown cellulose crystal regions. Phenoxy radicals appeared to be important radical intermediates that ultimately transformed into o-quinonoid structures in lignin. Therefore, ionizing radiation such as gamma ray and electron beam can be a great alternative. In this study, the effect of ionizing irradiation of wheat straw prior to dilute sulfuric acid treatment is investigated. The combined pretreatment for wheat straw was performed to evaluate the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis and compared with that of the effect of enzymatic hydrolysis by individual pretreatment

  3. Identification of candidate genes for yeast engineering to improve bioethanol production in very high gravity and lignocellulosic biomass industrial fermentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Francisco B

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The optimization of industrial bioethanol production will depend on the rational design and manipulation of industrial strains to improve their robustness against the many stress factors affecting their performance during very high gravity (VHG or lignocellulosic fermentations. In this study, a set of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes found, through genome-wide screenings, to confer resistance to the simultaneous presence of different relevant stresses were identified as required for maximal fermentation performance under industrial conditions. Results Chemogenomics data were used to identify eight genes whose expression confers simultaneous resistance to high concentrations of glucose, acetic acid and ethanol, chemical stresses relevant for VHG fermentations; and eleven genes conferring simultaneous resistance to stresses relevant during lignocellulosic fermentations. These eleven genes were identified based on two different sets: one with five genes granting simultaneous resistance to ethanol, acetic acid and furfural, and the other with six genes providing simultaneous resistance to ethanol, acetic acid and vanillin. The expression of Bud31 and Hpr1 was found to lead to the increase of both ethanol yield and fermentation rate, while Pho85, Vrp1 and Ygl024w expression is required for maximal ethanol production in VHG fermentations. Five genes, Erg2, Prs3, Rav1, Rpb4 and Vma8, were found to contribute to the maintenance of cell viability in wheat straw hydrolysate and/or the maximal fermentation rate of this substrate. Conclusions The identified genes stand as preferential targets for genetic engineering manipulation in order to generate more robust industrial strains, able to cope with the most significant fermentation stresses and, thus, to increase ethanol production rate and final ethanol titers.

  4. Evaluation of hyper thermal acid hydrolysis of Kappaphycus alvarezii for enhanced bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra, Chae Hun; Nguyen, Trung Hau; Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Kim, Sung-Koo

    2016-06-01

    Hyper thermal (HT) acid hydrolysis of Kappaphycus alvarezii, a red seaweed, was optimized to 12% (w/v) seaweed slurry content, 180mM H2SO4 at 140°C for 5min. The maximum monosaccharide concentration of 38.3g/L and 66.7% conversion from total fermentable monosaccharides of 57.6g/L with 120gdw/L K. alvarezii slurry were obtained from HT acid hydrolysis and enzymatic saccharification. HT acid hydrolysis at a severity factor of 0.78 efficiently converted the carbohydrates of seaweed to monosaccharides and produced a low concentration of inhibitory compounds. The levels of ethanol production by separate hydrolysis and fermentation with non-adapted and adapted Kluyveromyces marxianus to high concentration of galactose were 6.1g/L with ethanol yield (YEtOH) of 0.19 at 84h and 16.0g/L with YEtOH of 0.42 at 72h, respectively. Development of the HT acid hydrolysis process and adapted yeast could enhance the overall ethanol fermentation yields of K. alvarezii seaweed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Production of Bioethanol from Cashew Apple Juice by Batch Fermentation Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y2084 and Vin13

    OpenAIRE

    Deenanath, Evanie Devi; Rumbold, Karl; Iyuke, Sunny

    2013-01-01

    Bioethanol as a fossil fuel additive to decrease environmental pollution and reduce the stress of the decline in crude oil availability is becoming increasingly popular. This study aimed to evaluate the concentration of bioethanol obtainable from fermenting cashew apple juice by the microorganism Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y2084 and Vin13. The fermentation conditions were as follows: initial sugar = 100 g/L, pH = 4.50, agitation = 150 rpm, temperatures = 30°C (Y2084) and 20°C (Vin13), oxygen sa...

  6. Life-cycle assessment of straw use in bio-ethanol production: A case study based on biophysical modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabrielle, Benoit; Gagnaire, Nathalie

    2008-01-01

    Cereal straw, a by-product in the production of agricultural crops, is considered as a potentially large source of energy supply with an estimated value of 47 x 10 18 J worldwide. However, there is some debate regarding the actual amounts of straw which could be removed from arable soils without jeopardizing their quality, as well as the potential trade-offs in the overall straw-to-energy chain compared to the use of fossil energy sources. Here, we used a deterministic model of C and N dynamics in soil-crop systems to simulate the effect of straw removal under various sets of soil, climate and crop management conditions in northeastern France. Model results in terms of nitrate leaching, soil C variations, nitrous oxide and ammonia emissions were subsequently inputted into the life-cycle assessment (LCA) of a particular bio-energy chain in which straw was used to generate heat and power in a plant producing bio-ethanol from wheat grains. Straw removal had little influence on simulated environmental emissions in the field, and straw incorporation in soil resulted in a sequestration of only 5-10% of its C in the long term (30 years). The LCA concluded to significant benefits of straw use for energy in terms of global warming and use of non-renewable energy. Only the eutrophication and atmospheric acidification impact categories were slightly unfavourable to straw use in some cases, with a difference of 8% at most relative to straw incorporation. These results based on a novel methodology thereby confirm the environmental benefits of substituting fossil energy with straw. (author)

  7. Bioethanol Production by Calcium Alginate-Immobilised St1 Yeast System: Effects of Size of Beads, Ratio and Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masniroszaime Md Zain

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Immobilized yeast-cell technology posses several advantages in bioethanol production due to its potential to increase the ethanol yield by eliminating unit process used. Thus, process expenses in cell recovery and reutilization can be minimised. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of three parameters (substrate concentrations, size of alginate beads and ratio of volume of beads to volume of medium on local isolated yeast (ST1 which immobilized using calcium alginate fermentation system. The most affected ethanol production by calcium alginate-immobilised ST1 yeast system were ratio of volume of the beads to the volume of substrate and concentration of LBS. Highest theoretical yield, 78% was obtained in ST1-alginate beads with the size of beads 0.5cm, ratio volume of beads to the volume of LBS media 0.4 and 150g/l concentration of LBS.ABSTRAK: Teknologi sel yis pegun memiliki beberapa kelebihan dalam penghasilan bioetanol kerana ia berpotensi meningkatkan pengeluaran etanol dengan menyingkirkan unit proses yang digunakan. Maka, proses pembiayaan dalam perolehan sel dan penggunaan semula boleh dikurangkan. Tujuan kajian ini adalah untuk mengkaji pengaruh tiga parameter (kepekatan substrat, saiz manik alginat dan nisbah isipadu manik terhadap isipadu bahantara ke atas sel tempatan terasing (local isolated yeast (ST1 yang dipegun menggunakan sistem penapaian kalsium alginat. Penghasilan etanol yang paling berkesan dengan menggunakan sistem yis ST1 kalsium alginat-pegun adalah dengan kadar nisbah isipadu manik terhadap isipadu substrat dan kepekatan LBS. Kadar hasil teori tertinggi iaitu 78% didapati menerusi manik alginat-ST1 dengan saiz manik 0.5cm, nisbah isipadu 0.4 terhadap perantara LBS dan kepekatan LBS sebanyak 150g/l. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

  8. Performance and emission analysis of single cylinder SI engine using bioethanol-gasoline blend produced from Salvinia Molesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Priyank; Protim Das, Partha; Mubarak, M.; Shaija, A.

    2018-01-01

    Rapid depletion of world’s crude oil reserve, rising global energy demand and concerns about greenhouse gases emission have led to the high-level interest in biofuels. The biofuel, bioethanol is found as an alternative fuel for SI engines as it has similar properties those of gasoline. Higher areal productivity with fast growth rate of microalgae and aquatic weeds makes them promising alternative feedstocks for bioethanol production. In this study, bioethanol produced from S.molesta (aquatic weed) using combined pre-treatment and hydrolysis followed by fermentation with yeast was used to make bioethanol-gasoline blend. The quantity of bioethanol produced from S.molesta was 99.12% pure. The physical properties such as density and heating value of bioethanol were 792.2 kg/m3 and 26.12 MJ/kg, respectively. In this work, the effects of bioethanol-gasoline (E5) fuel blends on the performance and combustion characteristics of a spark ignition (SI) engine were investigated. In the experiments, a single-cylinder, four-stroke SI engine was used. The tests were performed using electric dynamometer while running the engine at the speed (3200 rpm), and seven different load (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3 kW). The results obtained from the use of bioethanol-gasoline fuel blends were compared to those of gasoline fuel. The test results showed an increase of 0.3% in brake thermal efficiency for E5. From the emission analysis, reduced emissions of 39 ppm unburned hydrocarbon, 1.55% carbon monoxide and 2% smoke opacity, respectively was observed with E5 at full load. An increase in CO2 by 0.17% and NOx by 86.7 ppm was observed for E5 at full load.

  9. Energy analysis of biochemical conversion processes of biomass to bioethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakari, M.; Ngadi, M.; Bergthorson, T. [McGill Univ., Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Bioresource Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Bioethanol is among the most promising of biofuels that can be produced from different biomass such as agricultural products, waste and byproducts. This paper reported on a study that examined the energy conversion of different groups of biomass to bioethanol, including lignocelluloses, starches and sugar. Biochemical conversion generally involves the breakdown of biomass to simple sugars using different pretreatment methods. The energy needed for the conversion steps was calculated in order to obtain mass and energy efficiencies for the conversions. Mass conversion ratios of corn, molasses and rice straw were calculated as 0.3396, 0.2300 and 0.2296 kg of bioethanol per kg of biomass, respectively. The energy efficiency of biochemical conversion of corn, molasses and rice straw was calculated as 28.57, 28.21 and 31.33 per cent, respectively. The results demonstrated that lignocelluloses can be efficiently converted with specific microorganisms such as Mucor indicus, Rhizopus oryzae using the Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF) methods.

  10. Microbial pretreatment of cotton stalks by Phanerochaete chrysosporium for bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jian

    Lignocellulosic biomass has been recognized as a widespread, potentially low cost renewable source of mixed sugars for fermentation to fuel ethanol. Pretreatment, as the first step towards conversion of lignocellulose to ethanol, remains one of the main barriers to technical and commercial success of the processing technology. Existing pretreatment methods have largely been developed on the basis of physiochemical technologies which are considered relatively expensive and usually involve adverse environmental impacts. In this study, an environmentally benign alternative, microbial pretreatment using Phanerochaete chrysosporium, was explored to degrade lignin in cotton stalks and facilitate their conversion into ethanol. Two submerged liquid pretreatment techniques (SmC), shallow stationary and agitated cultivation, at three inorganic salt concentrations (no salts, modified salts without Mn2+, modified salts with Mn2+) were compared by evaluating their pretreatment efficiencies. Shallow stationary cultivation with no salt was superior to other pretreatment conditions and gave 20.7% lignin degradation along with 76.3% solids recovery and 29.0% carbohydrate availability over a 14 day period. The influence of substrate moisture content (65%, 75% and 80% M.C. wet-basis), inorganic salt concentration (no salts, modified salts without Mn2+ , modified salts with Mn2+) and culture time (0-14 days) on pretreatment effectiveness in solid state (SSC) systems was also examined. It was shown that solid state cultivation at 75% M.C. without salts was the most preferable pretreatment resulting in 27.6% lignin degradation, 71.1% solids recovery and 41.6% carbohydrate availability over a period of 14 days. A study on hydrolysis and fermentation of cotton stalks treated microbially using the most promising SmC (shallow stationary, no salts) and SSC (75% moisture content, no salts) methods resulted in no increase in cellulose conversion with direct enzyme application (10.98% and 3

  11. The production-ecological sustainability of cassava, sugarcane and sweet sorghum cultivation for bioethanol in Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de S.C.; Ven, van de G.W.J.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Giller, K.E.

    2012-01-01

    We present an approach for providing quantitative insight into the production-ecological sustainability of biofuel feedstock production systems. The approach is based on a simple crop-soil model and was used for assessing feedstock from current and improved production systems of cassava for

  12. Haeme bioethanol and biogasification plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kymaelaeinen, M.; Laine, V.; Kautola, H. (HAMK University of Applied Sciences, Degree Programme in Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Haemeenlinna (Finland)); Siukola, K.; Naesi, J. (Suomen Biojalostus Oy, Renko (Finland)); Enwald, H. (Insinoeoeritoimisto Valcon Oy, Valkeakoski (Finland))

    2007-07-01

    In Haeme, located in southern part of Finland, local possibilities of bioethanol production have been studied since 2002. The study, initiated by local farmers, was first aimed to find out alternative use of the sugar beet which was unprofitable to utilize in sugar production. Later on, the study extended to cover the use of barley and to find out a sustainable and cost effective solution for the utilization of agro based raw materials in the bioethanol fuel production. The Haeme plant, according to present plans, utilizes barley and sugar beet (optional) as raw materials. The plant has been designed without feed dryers thus achieving considerable savings both in investment and operational (energy) costs compared to conventional grain based bioethanol plant with DDGS (Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles) as a predominant by product. Local markets for wet feed fractions wet distillers grains (DWG) and wet condensed distillers solubles (CDS) - have been found to be ready. The capacity of the plant, around 50-60 000 tons of ethanol per year, has been adjusted for local raw material supply, as well as for the local feed markets. In addition to production of wet feed fractions, another special feature of the plant is the integration with biogasification. A part of the stillage (distillation residue) can be utilized in the production of biogas which in turn is used to increase the energy self sufficiency of the plant. In overall, the Haeme plant has been designed to fit into local circumstances, aiming to improve the energy balance and reduce GHG-emissions of agro based bioethanol production. (orig.)

  13. DesinFix TM 135 in fermentation process for bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothee Barth

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has the world's largest ethanol production from sugarcane, but bacterial contamination decreases the ethanol yields. It was shown that the biocide DesinFixTM 135 can reduce the contamination without decreasing the yeasts' viability or negatively affecting the ethanol production.

  14. Mucoralean fungi for sustainable production of bioethanol and biologically active molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satari, Behzad; Karimi, Keikhosro

    2018-02-01

    Mucoralean fungi are suitable microorganisms for the sustainable production of food, fodder, and fuels from inexpensive natural resources. Ethanol-producing Mucorales are particularly advantageous for second-generation ethanol production in comparison to the conventional ethanolic yeasts and bacteria. They are able to ferment a wide range of sugars to a range of valuable products, while they are typically resistance against the inhibitors available in different substrates, including untreated lignocellulosic hydrolysates. In addition to a high ethanol yield, the fungi produce several commercially valuable by-products, including chitosan, microbial oil (mainly polyunsaturated fatty acids), and protein. Moreover, the fungal extracts can replace the expensive nutrients required in fermentation. Besides, their morphologies can be altered from filamentous to yeast like and are adjustable based on the process requirement. The focus of this review is on applying Mucorales in producing ethanol and the biomass by-products thereof.

  15. Simultaneous Biohydrogen and Bioethanol Production from Anaerobic Fermentation with Immobilized Sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Wang, Zhanqing; Chen, Hong; Yao, Xin; Li, Yongfeng

    2011-01-01

    The effects of organic loading rates (OLRs) on fermentative productions of hydrogen and ethanol were investigated in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with attached sludge using molasses as substrate. The CSTR reactor with attached sludge was operated under different OLRs, ranging from 8 to 24 kg/m3·d. The H2 and ethanol production rate essentially increased with increasing OLR. The highest H2 production rate (10.74 mmol/h·L) and ethanol production rate (11.72 mmol/h·L) were obtained both operating at OLR = 24 kg/m3·d. Linear regression results show that ethanol production rate (y) and H2 production rate (x) were proportionately correlated and can be expressed as y = 1.5365x − 5.054 (r2 = 0.9751). The best energy generation rate was 19.08 kJ/h·L, which occurred at OLR = 24 kg/m3·d. In addition, the hydrogen yield was affected by the presence of ethanol and acetic acid in the liquid phase, and the maximum hydrogen production rate occurred while the ratio of ethanol to acetic acid was close to 1. PMID:21799660

  16. Simultaneous Biohydrogen and Bioethanol Production from Anaerobic Fermentation with Immobilized Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Han

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of organic loading rates (OLRs on fermentative productions of hydrogen and ethanol were investigated in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR with attached sludge using molasses as substrate. The CSTR reactor with attached sludge was operated under different OLRs, ranging from 8 to 24 kg/m3·d. The H2 and ethanol production rate essentially increased with increasing OLR. The highest H2 production rate (10.74 mmol/h⋅L and ethanol production rate (11.72 mmol/h⋅L were obtained both operating at OLR = 24 kg/m3·d. Linear regression results show that ethanol production rate ( and H2 production rate ( were proportionately correlated and can be expressed as =1.5365−5.054 (2=0.9751. The best energy generation rate was 19.08 kJ/h⋅L, which occurred at OLR = 24 kg/m3·d. In addition, the hydrogen yield was affected by the presence of ethanol and acetic acid in the liquid phase, and the maximum hydrogen production rate occurred while the ratio of ethanol to acetic acid was close to 1.

  17. Pyrolysis based bio-refinery for the production of bioethanol from demineralized ligno-cellulosic biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luque, L.; Westerhof, Roel Johannes Maria; van Rossum, G.; Oudenhoven, Stijn; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Berruti, F.; Rehmann, L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper evaluates a novel biorefinery approach for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass from pinewood. A combination of thermochemical and biochemical conversion was chosen with the main product being ethanol. Fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomasss with fractional condensation of the

  18. Bioethanol: fuel or feedstock?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rass-Hansen, Jeppe; Falsig, Hanne; Jørgensen, Betina

    2007-01-01

    Increasing amounts of bioethanol are being produced from fermentation of biomass, mainly to counteract the continuing depletion of fossil resources and the consequential escalation of oil prices. Today, bioethanol is mainly utilized as a fuel or fuel additive in motor vehicles, but it could also...

  19. Cellulase production using biomass feed stock and its application in lignocellulose saccharification for bio-ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukumaran, Rajeev K.; Singhania, Reeta Rani; Mathew, Gincy Marina; Pandey, Ashok [Biotechnology Division, National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, CSIR, Trivandrum-695 019 (India)

    2009-02-15

    A major constraint in the enzymatic saccharification of biomass for ethanol production is the cost of cellulase enzymes. Production cost of cellulases may be brought down by multifaceted approaches which include the use of cheap lignocellulosic substrates for fermentation production of the enzyme, and the use of cost efficient fermentation strategies like solid state fermentation (SSF). In the present study, cellulolytic enzymes for biomass hydrolysis were produced using solid state fermentation on wheat bran as substrate. Crude cellulase and a relatively glucose tolerant BGL were produced using fungi Trichoderma reesei RUT C30 and Aspergillus niger MTCC 7956, respectively. Saccharification of three different feed stock, i.e. sugar cane bagasse, rice straw and water hyacinth biomass was studied using the enzymes. Saccharification was performed with 50 FPU of cellulase and 10 U of {beta}-glucosidase per gram of pretreated biomass. Highest yield of reducing sugars (26.3 g/L) was obtained from rice straw followed by sugar cane bagasse (17.79 g/L). The enzymatic hydrolysate of rice straw was used as substrate for ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The yield of ethanol was 0.093 g per gram of pretreated rice straw. (author)

  20. Efficient HVAC. New products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Jung is responding to the challenge of energy efficiency, ease of operation and economic profitability in all of its solutions for the tertiary sector, whether for newly constructed buildings or refurbishments, for full management of the electrical system or the partial control of lighting, HVAC, mood settings, access control, etc., for the bedrooms or specific areas of the building. In the specific case of hotels, Jung offers each a custom-made solution in line with its possibilities and objectives. (Author)

  1. Energy security for India: Biofuels, energy efficiency and food productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunatilake, Herath; Roland-Holst, David; Sugiyarto, Guntur

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of biofuel as a renewable energy source offers opportunities for significant climate change mitigation and greater energy independence to many countries. At the same time, biofuel represents the possibility of substitution between energy and food. For developing countries like India, which imports over 75% of its crude oil, fossil fuels pose two risks—global warming pollution and long-term risk that oil prices will undermine real living standards. This paper examines India's options for managing energy price risk in three ways: biofuel development, energy efficiency promotion, and food productivity improvements. Our salient results suggest that biodiesel shows promise as a transport fuel substitute that can be produced in ways that fully utilize marginal agricultural resources and hence promote rural livelihoods. First-generation bioethanol, by contrast, appears to have a limited ability to offset the impacts of oil price hikes. Combining the biodiesel expansion policy with energy efficiency improvements and food productivity increases proved to be a more effective strategy to enhance both energy and food security, help mitigate climate change, and cushion the economy against oil price shocks. - Highlights: • We investigate the role of biofuels in India applying a CGE model. • Biodiesel enhances energy security and improve rural livelihoods. • Sugarcane ethanol does not show positive impact on the economy. • Biodiesel and energy efficiency improvements together provide better results. • Food productivity further enhances biodiesel, and energy efficiency impacts

  2. Bioethanol Quality Improvement of Coffee Fruit Leather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edahwati Luluk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Indonesia’s dependence on petroleum is to be reduced and even eliminated. To overcome the problem of finding the needed alternative materials that can produce ethanol, in this case as a substitute material or a transport fuel mix, boosting the octane number, and gasoline ethanol (gasohol can be conducted. In the red coffee processing (cooking that will produce 65% and 35% of coffee beans, coffee leather waste is a source of organic material with fairly high cellulose content of 46.82%, 3.01% of pectin and 7.68% of lignin. In this case, its existence is abundant in Indonesia and optimally utilized. During the coffee fruit peeling, the peel waste is only used as a mixture of animal feed or simply left to rot. The purpose of this study was to produce and improve the quality of the fruit skin of bioethanol from coffee cellulose. However, to improve the quality of bioethanol, the production of the lignin content in the skin of the coffee fruit should be eliminated or reduced. Hydrolysis process using organosolve method is expected to improve the quality of bioethanol produced. In particular, the use of enzyme Saccharomyces and Zymmomonas will change the resulting sugar into bioethanol. On one hand, by using batch distillation process for 8 hours with Saccharomyces, bioethanol obtains high purity which is 39.79%; on the other hand, by using the same batch distillation process with Zymmomonas, the bioethanol obtains 38.78%.

  3. Addressing land use change and uncertainty in the life-cycle assessment of wheat-based bioethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malça, João; Freire, Fausto

    2012-01-01

    Despite the significant growth in the number of published life-cycle assessments of biofuels, important aspects have not captured sufficient attention, namely soil carbon emissions from land use change (LUC) and uncertainty analysis. The main goal of this article is to evaluate the implications of different LUC scenarios and uncertainty in the life-cycle energy renewability efficiency and GHG (greenhouse gases) intensity of wheat-based bioethanol replacing gasoline. A comprehensive assessment of different LUC scenarios (grassland or cropland converted to wheat cultivation) and agricultural practices is conducted, which results in different carbon stock change values. The types of uncertainty addressed include parameter uncertainty (propagated into LC (life-cycle) results using Monte-Carlo simulation) and uncertainty concerning how bioethanol co-product credits are accounted for. Results show that GHG emissions have considerably higher uncertainty than energy efficiency values, mainly due to soil carbon emissions from direct LUC and N 2 O release from cultivated soil. Moreover, LUC dominates the GHG intensity of bioethanol. Very different GHG emissions are calculated depending on the LUC scenario considered. Conversion of full- or low-tillage croplands to wheat cultivation results in bioethanol GHG emissions lower than gasoline emissions, whereas conversion of grassland does not contribute to bioethanol GHG savings over gasoline in the short- to mid-term. -- Highlights: ► We address different LUC scenarios and uncertainty in the LCA of wheat bioethanol. ► GHG emissions have considerably higher uncertainty than energy efficiency values. ► Bioethanol contributes to primary energy savings over gasoline. ► Very different life-cycle GHG emissions are calculated depending on the LUC scenario. ► GHG savings over gasoline are only achieved if cropland is the reference land use.

  4. Bio-ethanol production from non-food parts of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuwamanya, Ephraim; Kawuki, Robert S.; Baguma, Yona [National Agricultural Research organization, National Crops Resources Research Inst. (NaCRRI), Kampala (Uganda); Chiwona-Karltun, Linley [Dept. of Urban and Rural Development, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)], email: Linley.karltun@slu.se

    2012-03-15

    Global climate issues and a looming energy crisis put agriculture under pressure in Sub-Saharan Africa. Climate adaptation measures must entail sustainable development benefits, and growing crops for food as well as energy may be a solution, removing people from hunger and poverty without compromising the environment. The present study investigated the feasibility of using non-food parts of cassava for energy production and the promising results revealed that at least 28% of peels and stems comprise dry matter, and 10 g feedstock yields >8.5 g sugar, which in turn produced >60% ethanol, with pH {approx} 2.85, 74-84% light transmittance and a conductivity of 368 mV, indicating a potential use of cassava feedstock for ethanol production. Thus, harnessing cassava for food as well as ethanol production is deemed feasible. Such a system would, however, require supportive policies to acquire a balance between food security and fuel.

  5. Simultaneous production of bio-ethanol and bleached pulp from red algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Min Ho; Lee, Yoon Woo; Lee, Chun Han; Seo, Yung Bum

    2012-12-01

    The red algae, Gelidium corneum, was used to produce bleached pulp for papermaking and ethanol. Aqueous extracts obtained at 100-140 °C were subjected to saccharification, purification, fermentation, and distillation to produce ethanol. The solid remnants were bleached with chlorine dioxide and peroxide to make pulp. In the extraction process, sulfuric acid and sodium thiosulfate were added to increase the extract yield and to improve de-polymerization of the extracts, as well as to generate high-quality pulp. An extraction process incorporating 5% sodium thiosulfate by dry weight of the algae provided optimal production conditions for the production of both strong pulp and a high ethanol yield. These results suggest that it might be possible to utilize algae instead of trees and starch for pulp and ethanol production, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Potential for using thermophilic anaerobic bacteria for bioethanol production from hemicellulose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, P.; Georgieva, Tania I.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2004-01-01

    A limited number of bacteria, yeast and fungi can convert hemicellulose or its monomers (xylose, arabinose, mannose and galactose) into ethanol with a satisfactory yield and productivity. In the present study we tested a number of thermophilic enrichment cultures, and new isolates of thermophilic...... Of D-Xylose into ethanol; (ii) test for viability and ethanol production in pretreated wheat straw hemicellulose hydrolysate; (iii) test for tolerance against high D-xylose concentrations. A total of 86 enrichment cultures and 58 pure cultures were tested and five candidates were selected which...

  7. Bioethanol production from renewable sources as alternative valorization of waste of starting dates in south Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehani, Insaf; Bouchekima, Bachir

    2018-05-01

    The necessary reduction and progressive consumption of fossil fuels, whose scarcity is inevitable, involves mobilizing a set of alternatives. Renewable energy, including bio energy is an alternative to the depletion of fossil fuels and a way to fight against the harmful effects of pollution that undergoes the environment. In Algeria, the conditioning units of dates generate significant quantities of waste arising from sorting deviations. This biomass, until then considered as a waste with high impact on the environment can be transformed into high value added product. It is possible to develop common dates of low commercial value, and put on the local and international market a new generation of products with high added values such as bio ethanol. Besides its use in chemical synthesis, bio ethanol can be blended with gasoline to produce a clean fuel while improving the octane. The objective of the present work is to study the feasibility and productivity of generating bio ethanol in laboratory from the transformation of common date using anaerobic fermentation and distillation processes. After an alcoholic fermentation of the substrate of the date using bakery yeast at 30°C for 72 h, the distilled and rectified date juice generated the highest ethanol 88° with acceptable productions.

  8. Acidogenesis driven by hydrogen partial pressure towards bioethanol production through fatty acids reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Omprakash; Butti, Sai Kishore; Venkata Mohan, S.

    2017-01-01

    H 2 partial pressure drives the reduction of carboxylic acid (short chain fatty acids) formed as primary metabolites in acidogenic fermentation to form bioalcohols. Microbial catalysis under the influence of H 2 partial pressure was evaluated in comparison with a reactor operated at atmospheric pressure under identical conditions. Carboxylic acid reduction gets regulated selectively by the influence of elevated pressures and redox conditions, resulting in the formation of alcohols. The non-equilibrium of the intra and extracellular H 2 ions causes the anaerobic bacteria to alter their pathways as a function of interspecies H 2 transfer. Ethanol production was quantified, as acetic acid was the major carboxylic acid synthesised during acidogenesis. H 2 pressure influenced the electrochemical activity which was reflected in the distinct variation of the electron transfer rates and the catalytic activity of redox mediators (NAD + /NADH, flavoproteins and iron-sulphur clusters). The bioprocess depicted in this communication depicted a non-genetic regulation of product formation, understanding the acidogenic metabolism and alternate route for alcohol production. - Highlights: • H 2 partial pressure in HPR aided in the reduction of carboxylic acids to alcohols. • Production and consumption rate of VFAs were correlating with alcohol formation. • Metabolic shift was evident with bioelectrochical analysis. • NADH/NAD + ratio and H 2 partial pressure coupled in enhanced solventogenesis.

  9. Recycle bioreactor for bioethanol production from wheat starch. 1. Cold enzyme hydrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, X.; Hill, G.A.; MacDonald, D.G. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2001-06-01

    A 5 L membrane bioreactor system has been designed and operated at low temperature to hydrolyze starch granules directly to sugars using barley {alpha}-amylase. The system includes a temperature and pH controlled, well-mixed bioreactor; microfilters to separate and recycle granules; and ultrafilters to separate and recycle enzyme molecules. Operation in batch mode demonstrated similar kinetics and low productivity observed earlier in shake flasks, whereas continuous flow operation was not successful due to enzyme inhibition and degradation. Sequential batch mode operation, involving filtration after each batch hydrolysis, produced optimum productivity measured at 0.16 grams of starch granules hydrolyzed per gram of enzyme per hour for more than 100 hours of operation. (author)

  10. Bioethanol Production from Raw Juice as Intermediate of Sugar Beet Processing: A Response Surface Methodology Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevan Popov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Response surface methodology (RSM was used for selecting optimal fermentation time and initial sugar mass fraction in cultivation media based on raw juice from sugar beet in order to produce ethanol. Optimal fermentation time and initial sugar mass fraction for ethanol production in batch fermentation by free Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells under anaerobic conditions at the temperature of 30 °C and agitation rate of 200 rpm were estimated to be 38 h and 12.30 % by mass, respectively. For selecting optimal conditions for industrial application, further techno-economic analysis should be performed by using the obtained mathematical representation of the process (second degree polynomial model. The overall fermentation productivity of five different types of yeast was examined and there is no significant statistical difference between them.

  11. Advances in cellulosic conversion to fuels: engineering yeasts for cellulosic bioethanol and biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Ja Kyong; Lee, Sun-Mi

    2018-04-01

    Cellulosic fuels are expected to have great potential industrial applications in the near future, but they still face technical challenges to become cost-competitive fuels, thus presenting many opportunities for improvement. The economical production of viable biofuels requires metabolic engineering of microbial platforms to convert cellulosic biomass into biofuels with high titers and yields. Fortunately, integrating traditional and novel engineering strategies with advanced engineering toolboxes has allowed the development of more robust microbial platforms, thus expanding substrate ranges. This review highlights recent trends in the metabolic engineering of microbial platforms, such as the industrial yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Yarrowia lipolytica, for the production of renewable fuels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Experimental study of bioethanol production using mixed cassava and durian seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seer, Q. H.; Nandong, J.; Shanon, T.

    2017-06-01

    The production of biofuels using conventional fermentation feedstocks, such as sugar-and starch-based agricultural crops will in the long-term lead to a serious competition with human-animal food consumption. To avoid this competition, it is important to explore various alternative feedstocks especially those from inedible waste materials. Potentially, fruit wastes such as damaged fruits, peels and seeds represent alternative cheap feedstocks for biofuel production. In this work, an experimental study was conducted on ethanol production using mixed cassava and durian seeds through fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast. The effects of pH, temperature and ratio of hydrolyzed cassava to durian seeds on the ethanol yield, substrate consumption and product formation rates were analyzed in the study. In flask-scale fermentation using the mixed cassava-durian seeds, it was found that the highest ethanol yield of 45.9 and a final ethanol concentration of 24.92 g/L were achieved at pH 5.0, temperature 35°C and 50:50 volume ratio of hydrolyzed cassava to durian seeds for a batch period of 48 hours. Additionally, the ethanol, glucose and biomass concentration profiles in a lab-scale bioreactor were examined for the fermentation using the proposed materials under the flask-scale optimum conditions. The ethanol yield of 35.7 and a final ethanol concentration of 14.61 g/L were obtained over a period of 46 hours where the glucose was almost fully consumed. It is worth noting that both pH and temperature have significant impacts on the fermentation process using the mixed cassava-durian seeds.

  13. State and Kinetic Parameters Estimation of Bio-Ethanol Production with Immobilized Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaylova, Iva; Popova, Silviya; Kostov, Georgi; Ignatova, Maya; Lubenova, Velislava; Naydenova, Vessela; Pircheva, Desislava; Angelov, Mihail

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, state and kinetic parameters estimation based on extended Kalman filter (EKF) is proposed. Experimental data from alcoholic fermentation process with immobilized cells is used. The measurements of glucose and ethanol concentration are used as on-line measurements for observers design and biomass concentration is used for results verification. Biomass, substrate and product concentrations inside immobilized compounds are estimated using the proposed algorithm. Monitoring of the ...

  14. Cold alkaline extraction as a pretreatment for bioethanol production from eucalyptus, sugarcane bagasse and sugarcane straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Danila Morais de; Sevastyanova, Olena; Queiroz, José Humberto de; Colodette, Jorge Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Mathematical approach to optimize the process of cold alkaline extraction. • Hemicelluloses and lignin removal from biomasses by cold alkaline extraction. • Higher xylan and lignin removal for straw during pretreatment. • Formation of pseudo-extractives for eucalyptus during pretreatment. • Higher ethanol production for pretreated sugarcane straw. - Abstract: Optimal conditions for the cold alkaline extraction (CAE) pretreatment of eucalyptus, sugarcane bagasse and sugarcane straw are proposed in view of their subsequent bioconversion into ethanol through the semi-simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSSF) process (with presaccharification followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, or SSF). The optimum conditions, which are identified based on an experiment with a factorial central composite design, resulted in the removal of 46%, 52% and 61% of the xylan and 15%, 37% and 45% of the lignin for eucalyptus, bagasse and straw, respectively. The formation of pseudo-extractives was observed during the CAE of eucalyptus. Despite the similar glucose concentration and yield for all biomasses after 12 h of presaccharification, the highest yield (0.065 g_e_t_h_a_n_o_l/g_b_i_o_m_a_s_s), concentrations (5.74 g L"−"1) and volumetric productivity for ethanol (0.57 g L"−"1 h"−"1) were observed for the sugarcane straw. This finding was most likely related to the improved accessibility of cellulose that resulted from the removal of the largest amount of xylan and lignin.

  15. N2 gas is an effective fertilizer for bioethanol production by Zymomonas mobilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Timothy A.; LaSarre, Breah; Posto, Amanda L.; McKinlay, James B.

    2015-01-01

    A nascent cellulosic ethanol industry is struggling to become cost-competitive against corn ethanol and gasoline. Millions of dollars are spent on nitrogen supplements to make up for the low nitrogen content of the cellulosic feedstock. Here we show for the first time to our knowledge that the ethanol-producing bacterium, Zymomonas mobilis, can use N2 gas in lieu of traditional nitrogen supplements. Despite being an electron-intensive process, N2 fixation by Z. mobilis did not divert electrons away from ethanol production, as the ethanol yield was greater than 97% of the theoretical maximum. In a defined medium, Z. mobilis produced ethanol 50% faster per cell and generated half the unwanted biomass when supplied N2 instead of ammonium. In a cellulosic feedstock-derived medium, Z. mobilis achieved a similar cell density and a slightly higher ethanol yield when supplied N2 instead of the industrial nitrogen supplement, corn steep liquor. We estimate that N2-utilizing Z. mobilis could save a cellulosic ethanol production facility more than $1 million/y. PMID:25646422

  16. UTILIZATION OF OIL PALM EMPTY FRUIT BUNCH (OPEFB FOR BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION THROUGH ALKALI AND DILUTE ACID PRETREATMENT AND SIMULTANEOUS SACCHARIFICATION AND FERMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanni Sudiyani

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic biomass is a potential alternative source of bioethanol for energy. The lignocellulosics are abundantly available in Indonesia. Most of them are wastes of agriculture, plantation and forestry. Among those wastes, oil palm empty fruit bunch (OP EFB is one of a potential lignocellulosics to be converted to bioethanol. This EFB, which is wastes in oil palm factories, is quite abundant (around 25 million tons/year and also has high content of cellulose (41-47%. The conversion of OPEFB to ethanol basically consists of three steps which are pretreatment, hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose to simple sugars (hexoses and pentoses, and fermentation of simple sugars to ethanol. Acid and alkali pretreatments are considered the simplest methods and are potentially could be applied in the next couple of years. However, there are still some problems that have to be overcome to make the methods economically feasible. The high price of cellulose enzyme that is needed in the hydrolysis step is one of factors that cause the cost of EFB conversion is still high. Thus, the search of potential local microbes that could produce cellulase is crucial. Besides that, it is also important to explore fermenting microbes that could ferment six carbon sugars from cellulose as well as five carbon sugars from hemicellulose, so that the conversion of lignocellulosics, particularly EFB, would be more efficient. Keywords: OPEFB, lignocellulosics, pretreatment, fermentation, ethanol

  17. Pretreatment of the macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum for the production of bioethanol - Comparison of five pretreatment technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Thygesen, Anders; Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe

    2013-01-01

    -assisted pretreatment (PAP) and ball milling (BM), to determine effects of the pretreatment methods on the conversion of C. linum into ethanol by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). WO and BM showed the highest ethanol yield of 44. g ethanol/100. g glucan, which was close to the theoretical ethanol......A qualified estimate for pretreatment of the macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum for ethanol production was given, based on the experience of pretreatment of land-based biomass. C. linum was subjected to hydrothermal pretreatment (HTT), wet oxidation (WO), steam explosion (STEX), plasma...... yield of 57. g ethanol/100. g glucan. A 64% higher ethanol yield, based on raw material, was reached after pretreatment with WO and BM compared with unpretreated C. linum, however 50% of the biomass was lost during WO. Results indicated that the right combination of pretreatment and marine macroalgae...

  18. Bioethanol production from corn stover residues. Process design and Life Cycle Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Bari, I.; Dinnino, G.; Braccio, G.

    2008-01-01

    In this report, the mass and energy balance along with a land-to-wheel Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is described for a corn stover-to-ethanol industrial process assumed to consist of the main technologies being researched at ENEA TRISAIA: pretreatment by steam explosion and enzymatic hydrolysis. The modelled plant has a processing capacity of 60kt/y (dimensioned on realistic supplying basins of residues in Italy); biomass is pre-treated by acid catalyzed-steam explosion; cellulose and hemicelluloses are hydrolyzed and separately fermented; enzymes are on-site produced. The main target was to minimize the consumption of fresh water, enzymes and energy. The results indicate that the production of 1kg bio ethanol (95.4 wt%) requires 3.5 kg biomass dry matter and produces an energy surplus up to 740 Wh. The main purpose of the LCA analysis was to assess the environmental impact of the entire life cycle from the bio ethanol production up to its end-use as E10 blended gasoline. Boustead Model was used as tool to compile the life cycle inventory. The results obtained and discussed in this reports suffer of some limitations deriving from the following main points: some process yields have been extrapolated according to optimistic development scenarios; the energy and steam recovery could be lower than that projected because of lacks in the real systems; water recycle could be limited by the yeast tolerance toward the potential accumulation of toxic compounds. Nevertheless, the detailed process analysis here provided has its usefulness in: showing the challenging targets (even if they are ambitious) to bet on to make the integrated process feasible; driving the choice of the most suitable technologies to bypass some process bottlenecks [it

  19. State of the art on bioethanol production; Stato dell'arte della produzione di bioetanolo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barisano, D; De Bari, I; Viola, E; Zimbardi, F; Braccio, G [ENEA, Divisione Fonti Rinnovabili di Energia, Centro Ricerche Trisaia, Policoro, Matera (Italy); Cantarella, M; Gallifuoco, A [L' Aquila Univ., L' Aquila (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Chimica e dei Materiali

    2001-07-01

    The state of the art, deals with the ethanol production from current processes based on the use of sugar and starch as feedstock and those under development based on lignocellulosic biomass. In the first section are reported the commercially available processes together with hints to the newest technologies. As regard the ethanol production from lignocellulosics, it has been collected data on the biomass availability in Europe as energy crops, industrial crops, agricultural residues and domestic waste. It is provided a bibliographic study on the technologies and processes under development worldwide for the conversion of lignocellulosics into ethanol. Finally, a brief discussion on the economics highlights the near term viability of producing ethanol by this way. [Italian] Questo lavoro tratta della produzione di etanolo da diverse biomasse, compreso i materiali lignocellulosici. Sono riportati cenni al mercato mondiale ed europeo dell'etanolo insieme ad una breve rassegna dei processi impiegati correntemente; si tratta per lo piu' di tecnologie ormai mature basate sull'utilizzo di piante ad alto contenuto di zucchero o di amido. Per quanto riguarda la produzione di etanolo da biomasse lignocellulosiche, sono riportati i risultati di un'indagine statistica sulla disponibilita' in Europa di questi materiali in termini di coltivazini dedicate, residui agro-forestali e rifiuti domestici. E' riportata altresi una ricerca bibliografica sui recenti sviluppi dei processi di conversione a etanolo su scala banco e pilota. Infine, una breve discussione sugli aspetti economici connessi all'utilizzo di materiali lignocellulosici per la produzione di etanolo mostra come questi processi si stiano avvicinando alla completa fattibilita'.

  20. State of the art on bioethanol production; Stato dell'arte della produzione di bioetanolo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barisano, D.; De Bari, I.; Viola, E.; Zimbardi, F.; Braccio, G. [ENEA, Divisione Fonti Rinnovabili di Energia, Centro Ricerche Trisaia, Policoro, Matera (Italy); Cantarella, M.; Gallifuoco, A. [L' Aquila Univ., L' Aquila (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Chimica e dei Materiali

    2001-07-01

    The state of the art, deals with the ethanol production from current processes based on the use of sugar and starch as feedstock and those under development based on lignocellulosic biomass. In the first section are reported the commercially available processes together with hints to the newest technologies. As regard the ethanol production from lignocellulosics, it has been collected data on the biomass availability in Europe as energy crops, industrial crops, agricultural residues and domestic waste. It is provided a bibliographic study on the technologies and processes under development worldwide for the conversion of lignocellulosics into ethanol. Finally, a brief discussion on the economics highlights the near term viability of producing ethanol by this way. [Italian] Questo lavoro tratta della produzione di etanolo da diverse biomasse, compreso i materiali lignocellulosici. Sono riportati cenni al mercato mondiale ed europeo dell'etanolo insieme ad una breve rassegna dei processi impiegati correntemente; si tratta per lo piu' di tecnologie ormai mature basate sull'utilizzo di piante ad alto contenuto di zucchero o di amido. Per quanto riguarda la produzione di etanolo da biomasse lignocellulosiche, sono riportati i risultati di un'indagine statistica sulla disponibilita' in Europa di questi materiali in termini di coltivazini dedicate, residui agro-forestali e rifiuti domestici. E' riportata altresi una ricerca bibliografica sui recenti sviluppi dei processi di conversione a etanolo su scala banco e pilota. Infine, una breve discussione sugli aspetti economici connessi all'utilizzo di materiali lignocellulosici per la produzione di etanolo mostra come questi processi si stiano avvicinando alla completa fattibilita'.

  1. Response surface optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis of narrow-leaf cattail for bioethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruangmee, Arrisa; Sangwichien, Chayanoot

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The cellulose of pretreated sample was higher than untreated sample. • Lower hemicellulose and lignin were enhanced of hydrolyzed cellulose to sugar. • The predicted result of enzymatic hydrolysis process was fitted by quadratic model. • Predicted data was good agreement with the experimental data; with 95% confidence. - Abstract: Narrow-leaf cattail was employed as lignocellulosic biomass substrate for the investigation of the hydrolysis process of lignocellulosic ethanol. Cellulose saccharification into a high yield of fermentable sugar is an important step in ethanol production. Response surface methodology was utilized in the study of variables affecting enzymatic hydrolysis on the released glucose and xylose. Five levels (−2, −1, 0, +1, +2) of independent variable factors; cellulase (5–25 FPU/g substrate), β-glucosidase (0–20 U/g substrate), hydrolysis temperature (30–50 °C), and hydrolysis time (24–96 h), were randomly setup by using the Design of Experiment program. The significance of the regression model was high; with 95% confidence interval (less than 5% error). The predicted result after optimization was also in good agreement with the experimental data. An optimal condition; 13.50 FPU/g substrate, 16.50 U/g substrate, 50 °C and 24 h, was obtained, yielding a released glucose of 552.9 mg/g substrate (75.6% saccharification) and a released xylose of 74.0 mg/g substrate (45.6% saccharification)

  2. Bioethanol and lipid production from the enzymatic hydrolysate of wheat straw after furfural extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenburg, Jule; Poppele, Ieva; Blomqvist, Johanna; Puke, Maris; Pickova, Jana; Sandgren, Mats; Rapoport, Alexander; Vedernikovs, Nikolajs; Passoth, Volkmar

    2018-05-26

    This study investigates biofuel production from wheat straw hydrolysate, from which furfural was extracted using a patented method developed at the Latvian State Institute of Wood Chemistry. The solid remainder after furfural extraction, corresponding to 67.6% of the wheat straw dry matter, contained 69.9% cellulose of which 4% was decomposed during the furfural extraction and 26.3% lignin. Enzymatic hydrolysis released 44% of the glucose monomers in the cellulose. The resulting hydrolysate contained mainly glucose and very little amount of acetic acid. Xylose was not detectable. Consequently, the undiluted hydrolysate did not inhibit growth of yeast strains belonging to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lipomyces starkeyi, and Rhodotorula babjevae. In the fermentations, average final ethanol concentrations of 23.85 g/l were obtained, corresponding to a yield of 0.53 g ethanol per g released glucose. L. starkeyi generated lipids with a rate of 0.08 g/h and a yield of 0.09 g per g consumed glucose. R. babjevae produced lipids with a rate of 0.18 g/h and a yield of 0.17 per g consumed glucose. In both yeasts, desaturation increased during cultivation. Remarkably, the R. babjevae strain used in this study produced considerable amounts of heptadecenoic, α,- and γ-linolenic acid.

  3. Green coconut mesocarp pretreated by an alkaline process as raw material for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Jimmy; Demeke, Mekonnen M; Foulquié-Moreno, Maria R; Van de Velde, Miet; Verplaetse, Alex; Fernandes, Antonio Alberto Ribeiro; Thevelein, Johan M; Fernandes, Patricia Machado Bueno

    2016-09-01

    Cocos nucifera L., coconut, is a palm of high importance in the food industry, but a considerable part of the biomass is inedible. In this study, the pretreatment and saccharification parameters NaOH solution, pretreatment duration and enzyme load were evaluated for the production of hydrolysates from green coconut mesocarp using 18% (w/v) total solids (TS). Hydrolysates were not detoxified in order to preserve sugars solubilized during the pretreatment. Reduction of enzyme load from 15 to 7.5 filter paper cellulase unit (FPU)/g of biomass has little effect on the final ethanol titer. With optimized pretreatment and saccharification, hydrolysates with more than 7% (w/v) sugars were produced in 48h. Fermentation of the hydrolysate using industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains produced 3.73% (v/v) ethanol. Our results showed a simple pretreatment condition with a high-solid load of biomass followed by saccharification and fermentation of undetoxified coconut mesocarp hydrolysates to produce ethanol with high titer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. High-loading-substrate enzymatic hydrolysis of palm plantation waste followed by unsterilized-mixed-culture fermentation for bio-ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardant, Teuku Beuna; Winarni, Ina; Sukmana, Hadid

    2017-01-01

    It was desired to obtain a general formula for producing bio-ethanol from any part of lignocelluloses wastes that came from palm oil industries due to its abundance. Optimum condition that obtained by using RSM for conducting high-loading-substrate enzymatic hydrolysis of palm oil empty fruit bunch was applied to palm oil trunks and then followed by unsterilized fermentation for producing bio-ethanol. From several optimized conditions investigated, the resulted ethanol concentration could reach 7.92 %v by using 36.5 %w of palm oil trunks but the results were averagely 2.46 %v lower than palm oil empty fruit bunch. The results was statistically compared and showed best correlative coefficient at 0.808 (in scale 0-1) which support the conclusion that the optimum condition for empty fruit bunch and trunks are similar. Utilization of mixed-culture yeast was investigated to produce ethanol from unsterilized hydrolysis product but the improvement wasn't significant compares to single culture yeast.

  5. A MICROWAVE-ASSISTED LIQUEFACTION AS A PRETREATMENT FOR THE BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION BY THE SIMULTANEOUS SACCHARIFICATION AND FERMENTATION OF CORN MEAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Nikolić

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A microwave-assisted liquefaction as a pretreatment for the bioethanol production by the simultaneous saccharification and fer entation (SSF of corn meal using Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. ellipsoideus yeast in a batch system was studied. An optimal power of microwaves of 80 W and the 5-min duration of the microwave treatment were selected by following the concentration of glucose released from the corn meal suspensions at hidromodul of 1:3 (corn meal to water ratio in the liquefaction step. The results indicated that the microwave pretreatment could increase the maximum ethanol concentration produced in the SSF process for 13.4 %. Consequently, a significant increase of the ethanol productivity on substrate (YP/S, as well as the volumetric ethanol productivity (P in this process, could be achieved

  6. Energy Efficient Hybrid Vapor Stripping-Vapor Permeation Process for Ethanol Recovery ad Dehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distillation combined with molecular sieve dehydration is the current state of the art for fuel grade ethanol production from fermentation broths. To improve the sustainability of bioethanol production, energy efficient separation alternatives are needed, particularly for lower f...

  7. Energy efficient recovery and dehydration of ethanol from fermentation broths by Membrane Assisted Vapor Stripping technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distillation combined with molecular sieve dehydration is the current state of the art for fuel grade ethanol production from fermentation broths. To improve the sustainability of bioethanol production, energy efficient separation alternatives are needed, particularly for lower ...

  8. Hydrogen production from raw bioethanol steam reforming: optimization of catalyst composition with improved stability against various impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Valant, A.; Can, F.; Bion, N.; Epron, F.; Duprez, D.

    2009-01-01

    Usually, ethanol steam reforming is performed using pure ethanol, whereas the use of raw bioethanol is of major importance for a cost effective industrial application. Raw bioethanol contains higher alcohols as the main impurities and also aldehydes, amines, acids and esters. The effect of these impurities on the catalytic performances for ethanol steam reforming (ESR) has been studied, using a reference catalyst, Rh/MgAl 2 O 4 . It was shown that the aldehyde, the amine and methanol has no negative effect on the catalytic performances, contrary to the ester, acid and higher alcohols. The deactivation is mainly explained by coke formation favored by the presence of these impurities in the feed. In order to improve the stability of the catalyst and its performances in the presence of these deactivating impurities, the catalyst formulation, i.e. the composition of the support and of the metallic phase, was modified. The addition of rare earth elements instead of magnesium to the alumina support leads to a decrease of the strong and medium acid sites and to an increase of the basicity. On these modified supports, the dehydration reaction, leading to olefins, which are coke precursors, is disfavored, the ethanol conversion and the hydrogen yield are increased. The best catalytic performances were obtained with Rh/Y-Al 2 O 3 . Then, the metallic phase was also modified by adding a second metal (Ni, Pt or Pd). The Rh-Ni/Y-Al 2 O 3 catalyst leads to the highest hydrogen yield. This catalyst, tested in the presence of raw bioethanol during 24h was very stable compared to the reference catalyst Rh/MgAl 2 O 4 , which was strongly deactivated after 2h of time-on-stream. (author)

  9. Production of bioethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranekjær, Michael; Sommer, Peter; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    1998-01-01

    investigations of the structure of the hemicellulose fraction prior to pretreatment, prior to hydrolysis, prior to fermentation, and after fermentation. Various techniques, such as gas chromatography / mass spectrometry (GC/MS), size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry...

  10. Bioethanol from lignocellulosics: Status and perspectives in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabee, W E; Saddler, J N

    2010-07-01

    Canada has invested significantly in the development of a domestic bioethanol industry, and it is expected that bioethanol from lignocellulosics will become more desirable to the industry as it expands. Development of the Canadian industry to date is described in this paper, as are examples of domestic research programs focused on both bioconversion and thermochemical conversion to generate biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass. The availability of lignocellulosic residues from agricultural and forestry operations, and the potential biofuel production associated with these residues, is described. The policy tools used to develop the domestic bioethanol industry are explored. A residue-based process could greatly extend the potential of the bioethanol industry in Canada. It is estimated that bioethanol production from residual lignocellulosic feedstocks could provide up to 50% of Canada's 2006 transportation fuel demand, given ideal conversion and full access to these feedstocks. Utilizing lignocellulosic biomass will extend the geographic range of the bioethanol industry, and increase the stability and security of this sector by reducing the impact of localized disruptions in supply. Use of disturbance crops could add 9% to this figure, but not in a sustainable fashion. If pursued aggressively, energy crops ultimately could contribute bioethanol at a volume double that of Canada's gasoline consumption in 2006. This would move Canada towards greater transportation fuel independence and a larger role in the export of bioethanol to the global market. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Significance of Lignin S/G Ratio in Biomass Recalcitrance of Populus trichocarpa Variants for Bioethanol Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Chang Geun [BioEnergy; amp, Center for BioEnergy Innovation, Biosciences; UT−ORNL; Dumitrache, Alexandru [BioEnergy; amp, Center for BioEnergy Innovation, Biosciences; Muchero, Wellington [BioEnergy; amp, Center for BioEnergy Innovation, Biosciences; Natzke, Jace [BioEnergy; amp, Center for BioEnergy Innovation, Biosciences; Akinosho, Hannah [School; Li, Mi [BioEnergy; amp, Center for BioEnergy Innovation, Biosciences; UT−ORNL; Sykes, Robert W. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, Colorado 80401, United States; Brown, Steven D. [BioEnergy; amp, Center for BioEnergy Innovation, Biosciences; Davison, Brian [BioEnergy; amp, Center for BioEnergy Innovation, Biosciences; Tuskan, Gerald A. [BioEnergy; amp, Center for BioEnergy Innovation, Biosciences; Pu, Yunqiao [BioEnergy; amp, Center for BioEnergy Innovation, Biosciences; UT−ORNL; Ragauskas, Arthur J. [BioEnergy; amp, Center for BioEnergy Innovation, Biosciences; UT−ORNL; Department; amp, Center for Renewable

    2017-12-27

    Lignin S/G ratio has been investigated as an important factor in biomass recalcitrance to bioethanol production. Because of the complexity and variety of biomass, recalcitrance was also reportedly influenced by several other factors, such as total lignin content, degree of cellulose polymerization, etc. In addition, the effect of S/G ratio on biomass conversion is not uniform across plant species. Herein, 11 Populus trichocarpa natural variants grown under the same conditions with similar total lignin content were selected to minimize the effects of other factors. The lignin S/G ratio of the selected P. trichocarpa natural variants showed negative correlations with p-hydroxybenzoate (PB) and ..beta..-5 linkage contents, while it had positive ones with ..beta..-O-4 linkage, lignin molecular weight, and ethanol production. This study showed the importance of lignin S/G ratio as an independent recalcitrance factor that may aid future energy crop engineering and biomass conversion strategies.

  12. Dynamic Model-Based Evaluation of Process Configurations for Integrated Operation of Hydrolysis and Co-Fermentation for Bioethanol Production from Lignocellulose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales Rodriguez, Ricardo; Meyer, Anne S.; Gernaey, Krist

    2011-01-01

    In this study a number of different process flowsheets were generated and their feasibility evaluated using simulations of dynamic models. A dynamic modeling framework was used for the assessment of operational scenarios such as, fed-batch, continuous and continuous with recycle configurations. E......) operating in continuous mode with a recycle of the SSCF reactor effluent, results in the best productivity of bioethanol among the proposed process configurations, with a yield of 0.18 kg ethanol/kg dry-biomass........ Each configuration was evaluated against the following benchmark criteria, yield (kg ethanol/kg dry-biomass), final product concentration and number of unit operations required in the different process configurations. The results show that simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF...

  13. A novel solid state fermentation coupled with gas stripping enhancing the sweet sorghum stalk conversion performance for bioethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Bioethanol production from biomass is becoming a hot topic internationally. Traditional static solid state fermentation (TS-SSF) for bioethanol production is similar to the traditional method of intermittent operation. The main problems of its large-scale intensive production are the low efficiency of mass and heat transfer and the high ethanol inhibition effect. In order to achieve continuous production and high conversion efficiency, gas stripping solid state fermentation (GS-SSF) for bioethanol production from sweet sorghum stalk (SSS) was systematically investigated in the present study. Results TS-SSF and GS-SSF were conducted and evaluated based on different SSS particle thicknesses under identical conditions. The ethanol yield reached 22.7 g/100 g dry SSS during GS-SSF, which was obviously higher than that during TS-SSF. The optimal initial gas stripping time, gas stripping temperature, fermentation time, and particle thickness of GS-SSF were 10 h, 35°C, 28 h, and 0.15 cm, respectively, and the corresponding ethanol stripping efficiency was 77.5%. The ethanol yield apparently increased by 30% with the particle thickness decreasing from 0.4 cm to 0.05 cm during GS-SSF. Meanwhile, the ethanol yield increased by 6% to 10% during GS-SSF compared with that during TS-SSF under the same particle thickness. The results revealed that gas stripping removed the ethanol inhibition effect and improved the mass and heat transfer efficiency, and hence strongly enhanced the solid state fermentation (SSF) performance of SSS. GS-SSF also eliminated the need for separate reactors and further simplified the bioethanol production process from SSS. As a result, a continuous conversion process of SSS and online separation of bioethanol were achieved by GS-SSF. Conclusions SSF coupled with gas stripping meet the requirements of high yield and efficient industrial bioethanol production. It should be a novel bioconversion process for bioethanol production from SSS

  14. Energy Management Strategy for a Bioethanol Isolated Hybrid System: Simulations and Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Gabriel Rullo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy sources have significant advantages both from the environmental and the economic point of view. Additionally, renewable energy sources can contribute significantly to the development of isolated areas that currently have no connection to the electricity supply network. In order to make efficient use of these energy sources, it is necessary to develop appropriate energy management strategies. This work presents an energy management strategy for an isolated hybrid renewable energy system with hydrogen production from bioethanol reforming. The system is based on wind-solar energy, batteries and a bioethanol reformer, which produces hydrogen to feed a fuel cell system. Bioethanol can contribute to the development of isolated areas with surplus agricultural production, which can be used to produce bioethanol. The energy management strategy takes the form of a state machine and tries to maximize autonomy time while minimizing recharging time. The proposed rule-based strategy has been validated both by simulation and experimentally in a scale laboratory station. Both tests have shown the viability of the proposed strategy complying with the specifications imposed and a good agreement between experimental and simulation results.

  15. The contribution of bioethanol to sustainable development in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Stevan D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The pollution caused by the use of fossil fuels for the production of mechanical or electrical energy is one of the most important environmental issues nowa­days. In this respect, biofuels represent a viable source of energy. Bioethanol as a renewable energy source is derived from organic material of plant origin, so-called biomass, thus reducing environmental pollution. The aim of this study was to analyze the potential of bioethanol in meeting future energy demands in the Republic of Serbia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike SRbije, br. TR31002: The improvement of bioethanol production from sugar beet processing products

  16. Can the environmental benefits of biomass support agriculture?-The case of cereals for electricity and bioethanol production in Northern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, Maria Isabel [Department of Economics, University of Alcala, Plaza de la Victoria, 3, 28002 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: isabel.blanco@uah.es; Azqueta, Diego [Department of Economics, University of Alcala, Plaza de la Victoria, 3, 28002 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain)

    2008-01-15

    Recent policy documents, such as the EC Communication on an Energy Policy for Europe (January 2007) make emphasis on the opportunities that energy applications can offer certain agricultural commodities, especially in the framework of a progressive dismantling of the Common Agricultural Policy. This paper analyses whether this can be true for wheat and barley farmers, using the real example of a straw-based power plant in Northern Spain and a theoretical factory for bioethanol production fed with cereal grain. The outcomes of such an exercise, in which their relative environmental benefits vis-a-vis fossil fuel alternatives are worked out with the aid of a simplified life-cycle approach, show that the characteristics of the electricity and biomass markets, the baseline scenario and the fuel prices are crucial for the future of the sector.

  17. Comparison between solid-state and powder-state alkali pretreatment on saccharification and fermentation for bioethanol production from rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeasmin, Shabina; Kim, Chul-Hwan; Islam, Shah Md Asraful; Lee, Ji-Young

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of different concentrations of NaOH (0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75%, and 1.00%) for the pretreatment of rice straw in solid and powder state in enzymatic saccharification and fermentation for the production of bioethanol was evaluated. A greater amount of biomass was recovered through solid-state pretreatment (3.74 g) from 5 g of rice straw. The highest increase in the volume of rice straw powder as a result of swelling was observed with 1.00% NaOH pretreatment (48.07%), which was statistically identical to 0.75% NaOH pretreatment (32.31%). The surface of rice straw was disrupted by the 0.75% NaOH and 1.00% NaOH pretreated samples as observed using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). In Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, absorbance of hydroxyl groups at 1,050 cm(-1) due to the OH group of lignin was gradually decreased with the increase of NaOH concentration. The greatest amounts of glucose and ethanol were obtained in 1.00% NaOH solid-state pretreated and powder-state hydrolyzed samples (0.804 g g(-1) and 0.379 g g(-1), respectively), which was statistically similar to the use of 0.75% NaOH (0.763 g g(-1) and 0.358 g g(-1), respectively). Thus, solid-state pretreatment with 0.75% NaOH and powder-state hydrolysis appear to be suitable for fermentation and bioethanol production from rice straw.

  18. Optimization of a low-cost defined medium for alcoholic fermentation--a case study for potential application in bioethanol production from industrial wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comelli, Raúl N; Seluy, Lisandro G; Isla, Miguel A

    2016-01-25

    In bioethanol production processes, the media composition has an impact on product concentration, yields and the overall process economics. The main purpose of this research was to develop a low-cost mineral-based supplement for successful alcoholic fermentation in an attempt to provide an economically feasible alternative to produce bioethanol from novel sources, for example, sugary industrial wastewaters. Statistical experimental designs were used to select essential nutrients for yeast fermentation, and its optimal concentrations were estimated by Response Surface Methodology. Fermentations were performed on synthetic media inoculated with 2.0 g L(-1) of yeast, and the evolution of biomass, sugar, ethanol, CO2 and glycerol were monitored over time. A mix of salts [10.6 g L(-1) (NH4)2HPO4; 6.4 g L(-1) MgSO4·7H2O and 7.5 mg L(-1) ZnSO4·7H2O] was found to be optimal. It led to the complete fermentation of the sugars in less than 12h with an average ethanol yield of 0.42 g ethanol/g sugar. A general C-balance indicated that no carbonaceous compounds different from biomass, ethanol, CO2 or glycerol were produced in significant amounts in the fermentation process. Similar results were obtained when soft drink wastewaters were tested to evaluate the potential industrial application of this supplement. The ethanol yields were very close to those obtained when yeast extract was used as the supplement, but the optimized mineral-based medium is six times cheaper, which favorably impacts the process economics and makes this supplement more attractive from an industrial viewpoint. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The Macroalgae Biorefinery for Production of Bioethanol and Fish Feed from the Two Brown Algae: Laminaria Digitata and Saccharina Latissima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaoru; Bjerre, Anne-Belinda; Hansen, Jonas Høeg

    by ensiling (with lactic acid bacteria) or simple drying. Pretreatment was carried out using wet-milling and enzymatic hydrolysis in accordance with 1G bioethanol technology from corn. Different commercial enzyme mixtures for fully or partly hydrolysis of algae sugar polymers into monomers were tested...... and conversion of the differently pretreated macroalgae biomass into ethanol by fermentation were compared. The protein contents and nutrient salts in residues from ethanol fermentation trials were characterized for potential fish feed. A first-step scenario for sustainability and feasibility assessment...... will be presented for this innovative process of biorefining of value-added algae proteins derived directly through fermentation processes of algae sugars to bioenergy carriers....

  20. Purification of bioethanol effluent in an UASB reactor system with simultaneous biogas formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torry-Smith, Mads Peter; Sommer, Peter; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    of these compounds were removed from the BEE in the reactor. Implementation of a UASB purification step was found to be a promising approach to detoxify process water from bioethanol production allowing for recirculation of the process water and reduced production costs.......In this study, the prospect of using an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactor for detoxification of process water derived from bioethanol production has been investigated. The bioethanol effluent (BEE) originated from wet oxidized wheat straw fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae...

  1. Alkaline peroxide pretreatment of rapeseed straw for enhancing bioethanol production by Same Vessel Saccharification and Co-Fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karagöz, Pinar; Vaitkeviciute-Rocha, Indre; Özkan, Melek

    2012-01-01

    Alkaline peroxide pretreatment of rapeseed straw was evaluated for conversion of cellulose and hemicellulose to fermentable sugars. After pretreatment, a liquid phase called pretreatment liquid and a solid phase were separated by filtration. The neutralized pretreatment liquids were used in a co...... pretreatment combination with respect to overall ethanol production. At this condition, 5.73g ethanol was obtained from pretreatment liquid and 14.07g ethanol was produced by co-fermentation of solid fraction with P. stipitis. Optimum delignification was observed when 0.5M MgSO4 was included...... in the pretreatment mixture, and it resulted in 0.92% increase in ethanol production efficiency....

  2. Microwave pretreatment of rape straw for bioethanol production: Focus on energy efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Xuebin; Xi, Bo; Zhang, Yimin

    2011-01-01

    solid loading and energy input were fixed at 50% (w/w) and 54kJ (900W for 1min), respectively, and amounted to 5.5 and 10.9kJ to produce 1g of glucose after enzymatic hydrolysis and 1g ethanol after fermentation, respectively. In general, 1g ethanol can produce about 30kJ of energy, and therefore...

  3. Characterization of an organic solvent-tolerant thermostable glucoamylase from a halophilic isolate, Halolactibacillus sp. SK71 and its application in raw starch hydrolysis for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hui-Ying; Li, Xin

    2014-01-01

    A halophilic bacterium Halolactibacillus sp. SK71 producing extracellular glucoamylase was isolated from saline soil of Yuncheng Salt Lake, China. Enzyme production was strongly influenced by the salinity of growth medium with maximum in the presence of 5% NaCl. The glucoamylase was purified to homogeneity with a molecular mass of 78.5 kDa. It showed broad substrate specificity and raw starch hydrolyzing activity. Analysis of hydrolysis products from soluble starch by thin-layer chromatography revealed that glucose was the sole end-product, indicating the enzyme was a true glucoamylase. Optimal enzyme activity was found to be at 70°C, pH 8.0, and 7.5% NaCl. In addition, it was highly active and stable over broad ranges of temperature (0-100°C), pH (7.0-12.0), and NaCl concentration (0-20%), showing excellent thermostable, alkali stable, and halotolerant properties. Furthermore, it displayed high stability in the presence of hydrophobic organic solvents. The purified glucoamylase was applied for raw corn starch hydrolysis and subsequent bioethanol production using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The yield in terms of grams of ethanol produced per gram of sugar consumed was 0.365 g/g, with 71.6% of theoretical yield from raw corn starch. This study demonstrated the feasibility of using enzymes from halophiles for further application in bioenergy production. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  4. Bioethanol development in China and the potential impacts on its agricultural economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Huanguang; Huang, Jikun; Yang, Jun [Center for Chinese Agricultural Policy, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Jia 11, Datun Road, Anwai, Beijing 100101 (China); Rozelle, Scott [Shorenstein Asia Pacific Research Center, Stanford University, Stanford, California 95305 (United States); Zhang, Yuhua; Zhang, Yanli [Institute of Rural Energy and Environmental Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Engineering, No. 41, Maizidian Street, Chaoyang, Beijing 100026 (China); Zhang, Yahui [Center of International Cooperative, Ministry of Agriculture of China, No. 55, Nongzhan Beilu, Chaoyang, Beijing 100026 (China)

    2010-01-15

    China is now the third largest bioethanol producer in the world after the United State and Brazil. The overall goals of this paper are to provide an overview of China's current bioethanol program, its future trend, and the likely impacts on its agricultural economy in the future. The analysis shows that China has developed an ambitious long-run biofuel program with a series of financial and institutional supports. While there are several potential feedstock crops available for bioethanol production, lack of land for feedstock production is one of major constraints in China's bioethanol expansion. The results show that although China's bioethanol expansion will have little impacts on overall agricultural prices in international markets, it will have significant impacts on the prices, productions, and trade of those energy crops being used for bioethanol production in China. (author)

  5. Development of chemical and biological processes for production of bioethanol. Optimization of the wet oxidation process and characterization of products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjerre, A B; Skammelsen Schmidt, A

    1997-02-01

    The combination of the wet oxidation pretreatment process and alkaline hydrolysis was investigated in order to efficiently solubilize the hemicellulose, degrade the lignin, and open the solid crystalline cellulose structure of wheat straw lignocellulose without generating fermentation inhibitors. The effects of temperature, oxygen pressure, reaction time, and concentration of straw were evaluated. The degree of lignin degradation and hemicellulose solubilization increased with the reaction temperature and time. The optimum conditions were 15 minutes at 185 deg. C, producing 9.8 g/L hemicellulose. For quantification of the solubilized hemicellulose the best overall acid hydrolysis was obtained by treatment with 4 %w/v sulfuric acid for 10 minutes. The Aminex HPX-87H column was less sensitive towards impurities than the Aminex HPX-87P column. HPX-87H gave improved recovery and reproducibility, and was chosen for routine quantification of hydrolyzed hemicellulose sugars. The purity of the solid cellulose fraction also improved with higher temperature. The optimum condition for obtaining enzymatic convertible cellulose (90%) was 10 minutes at 170 deg. C using a high carbonate concentration. The hemicellulose yield and recovery were significantly reduced under these conditions indicating that a simultaneous optimal utilization of the hemicellulose and cellulose was difficult. The oxygen pressure and sodium carbonate concentration had little effect on the solubilization of hemicellulose, however, by combining wet oxidation with alkaline hydrolysis the formation of 2-furfural, a known microbial inhibitor, was minimal. Much more hemicellulose and lignin were solubilized from the straw by wet oxidation than by steaming(an alternative process). More cellulose was solubilized (and degraded) by steaming than by wet oxidation. Overall carbohydrates `losses` of 20.1% for steaming and 16.2% for wet oxidation were found. More 2-furfural was formed by steaming than by wet oxidation.

  6. Development of chemical and biological processes for production of bioethanol. Optimization of the wet oxidation process and characterization of products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjerre, A.B.; Skammelsen Schmidt, A.

    1997-02-01

    The combination of the wet oxidation pretreatment process and alkaline hydrolysis was investigated in order to efficiently solubilize the hemicellulose, degrade the lignin, and open the solid crystalline cellulose structure of wheat straw lignocellulose without generating fermentation inhibitors. The effects of temperature, oxygen pressure, reaction time, and concentration of straw were evaluated. The degree of lignin degradation and hemicellulose solubilization increased with the reaction temperature and time. The optimum conditions were 15 minutes at 185 deg. C, producing 9.8 g/L hemicellulose. For quantification of the solubilized hemicellulose the best overall acid hydrolysis was obtained by treatment with 4 %w/v sulfuric acid for 10 minutes. The Aminex HPX-87H column was less sensitive towards impurities than the Aminex HPX-87P column. HPX-87H gave improved recovery and reproducibility, and was chosen for routine quantification of hydrolyzed hemicellulose sugars. The purity of the solid cellulose fraction also improved with higher temperature. The optimum condition for obtaining enzymatic convertible cellulose (90%) was 10 minutes at 170 deg. C using a high carbonate concentration. The hemicellulose yield and recovery were significantly reduced under these conditions indicating that a simultaneous optimal utilization of the hemicellulose and cellulose was difficult. The oxygen pressure and sodium carbonate concentration had little effect on the solubilization of hemicellulose, however, by combining wet oxidation with alkaline hydrolysis the formation of 2-furfural, a known microbial inhibitor, was minimal. Much more hemicellulose and lignin were solubilized from the straw by wet oxidation than by steaming(an alternative process). More cellulose was solubilized (and degraded) by steaming than by wet oxidation. Overall carbohydrates 'losses' of 20.1% for steaming and 16.2% for wet oxidation were found. More 2-furfural was formed by steaming than by wet oxidation

  7. The bioethanol industry in sub-Saharan Africa: history, challenges, and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deenanath, Evanie Devi; Iyuke, Sunny; Rumbold, Karl

    2012-01-01

    Recently, interest in using bioethanol as an alternative to petroleum fuel has been escalating due to decrease in the availability of crude oil. The application of bioethanol in the motor-fuel industry can contribute to reduction in the use of fossil fuels and in turn to decreased carbon emissions and stress of the rapid decline in crude oil availability. Bioethanol production methods are numerous and vary with the types of feedstock used. Feedstocks can be cereal grains (first generation feedstock), lignocellulose (second generation feedstock), or algae (third generation feedstock) feedstocks. To date, USA and Brazil are the leading contributors to global bioethanol production. In sub-Saharan Africa, bioethanol production is stagnant. During the 1980s, bioethanol production has been successful in several countries including Zimbabwe, Malawi, and Kenya. However, because of numerous challenges such as food security, land availability, and government policies, achieving sustainability was a major hurdle. This paper examines the history and challenges of bioethanol production in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and demonstrates the bioethanol production potential in SSA with a focus on using bitter sorghum and cashew apple juice as unconventional feedstocks for bioethanol production.

  8. The Bioethanol Industry in Sub-Saharan Africa: History, Challenges, and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evanie Devi Deenanath

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, interest in using bioethanol as an alternative to petroleum fuel has been escalating due to decrease in the availability of crude oil. The application of bioethanol in the motor-fuel industry can contribute to reduction in the use of fossil fuels and in turn to decreased carbon emissions and stress of the rapid decline in crude oil availability. Bioethanol production methods are numerous and vary with the types of feedstock used. Feedstocks can be cereal grains (first generation feedstock, lignocellulose (second generation feedstock, or algae (third generation feedstock feedstocks. To date, USA and Brazil are the leading contributors to global bioethanol production. In sub-Saharan Africa, bioethanol production is stagnant. During the 1980s, bioethanol production has been successful in several countries including Zimbabwe, Malawi, and Kenya. However, because of numerous challenges such as food security, land availability, and government policies, achieving sustainability was a major hurdle. This paper examines the history and challenges of bioethanol production in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA and demonstrates the bioethanol production potential in SSA with a focus on using bitter sorghum and cashew apple juice as unconventional feedstocks for bioethanol production.

  9. Exploring grape marc as trove for new thermotolerant and inhibitor-tolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for second-generation bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaro, Lorenzo; Basaglia, Marina; Trento, Alberto; Van Rensburg, Eugéne; García-Aparicio, Maria; Van Zyl, Willem H; Casella, Sergio

    2013-11-29

    Robust yeasts with high inhibitor, temperature, and osmotic tolerance remain a crucial requirement for the sustainable production of lignocellulosic bioethanol. These stress factors are known to severely hinder culture growth and fermentation performance. Grape marc was selected as an extreme environment to search for innately robust yeasts because of its limited nutrients, exposure to solar radiation, temperature fluctuations, weak acid and ethanol content. Forty newly isolated Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains gave high ethanol yields at 40°C when inoculated in minimal media at high sugar concentrations of up to 200 g/l glucose. In addition, the isolates displayed distinct inhibitor tolerance in defined broth supplemented with increasing levels of single inhibitors or with a cocktail containing several inhibitory compounds. Both the fermentation ability and inhibitor resistance of these strains were greater than those of established industrial and commercial S. cerevisiae yeasts used as control strains in this study. Liquor from steam-pretreated sugarcane bagasse was used as a key selective condition during the isolation of robust yeasts for industrial ethanol production, thus simulating the industrial environment. The isolate Fm17 produced the highest ethanol concentration (43.4 g/l) from the hydrolysate, despite relatively high concentrations of weak acids, furans, and phenolics. This strain also exhibited a significantly greater conversion rate of inhibitory furaldehydes compared with the reference strain S. cerevisiae 27P. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing a strain of S. cerevisiae able to produce an ethanol yield equal to 89% of theoretical maximum yield in the presence of high concentrations of inhibitors from sugarcane bagasse. This study showed that yeasts with high tolerance to multiple stress factors can be obtained from unconventional ecological niches. Grape marc appeared to be an unexplored and promising substrate for the

  10. Techno-Economic Analysis of Bioethanol Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass in China: Dilute-Acid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Lili; Zhang, Xiliang; Xu, Jie; Ou, Xunmin; Chang, Shiyan; Wu, Maorong

    2015-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass-based ethanol is categorized as 2 nd generation bioethanol in the advanced biofuel portfolio. To make sound incentive policy proposals for the Chinese government and to develop guidance for research and development and industrialization of the technology, the paper reports careful techno-economic and sensitivity analyses performed to estimate the current competitiveness of the bioethanol and identify key components which have the greatest impact on its plant-gate price...

  11. Bioethanol production by a flocculent hybrid, CHFY0321 obtained by protoplast fusion between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces bayanus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Gi-Wook; Kang, Hyun-Woo; Kim, Yule [Changhae Institute of Cassava and Ethanol Research, Changhae Ethanol Co., LTD, Palbok-Dong 829, Dukjin-Gu, Jeonju 561-203 (Korea); Um, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Mina; Kim, Yang-Hoon [Department of Microbiology, Chungbuk National University, 410 Sungbong-Ro, Heungduk-Gu, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea)

    2010-08-15

    Fusion hybrid yeast, CHFY0321, was obtained by protoplast fusion between non-flocculent-high ethanol fermentative Saccharomyces cerevisiae CHY1011 and flocculent-low ethanol fermentative Saccharomyces bayanus KCCM12633. The hybrid yeast was used together with the parental strains to examine ethanol production in batch fermentation. Under the conditions tested, the fusion hybrid CHFY0321 flocculated to the highest degree and had the capacity to ferment well at pH 4.5 and 32 C. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation for ethanol production was carried out using a cassava (Manihot esculenta) powder hydrolysate medium containing 19.5% (w v{sup -1}) total sugar in a 5 l lab scale jar fermenter at 32 C for 65 h with an agitation speed of 2 Hz. Under these conditions, CHFY0321 showed the highest flocculating ability and the best fermentation efficiency for ethanol production compared with those of the wild-type parent strains. CHFY0321 gave a final ethanol concentration of 89.8 {+-} 0.13 g l{sup -1}, a volumetric ethanol productivity of 1.38 {+-} 0.13 g l{sup -1} h{sup -1}, and a theoretical yield of 94.2 {+-} 1.58%. These results suggest that CHFY0321 exhibited the fermentation characteristics of S. cerevisiae CHY1011 and the flocculent ability of S. bayanus KCCM12633. Therefore, the strong highly flocculent ethanol fermentative CHFY0321 has potential for improving biotechnological ethanol fermentation processes. (author)

  12. Bioethanol production by a flocculent hybrid, CHFY0321 obtained by protoplast fusion between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces bayanus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Gi-Wook; Um, Hyun-Ju; Kang, Hyun-Woo; Kim, Yule; Kim, Mina; Kim, Yang-Hoon

    2010-01-01

    Fusion hybrid yeast, CHFY0321, was obtained by protoplast fusion between non-flocculent-high ethanol fermentative Saccharomyces cerevisiae CHY1011 and flocculent-low ethanol fermentative Saccharomyces bayanus KCCM12633. The hybrid yeast was used together with the parental strains to examine ethanol production in batch fermentation. Under the conditions tested, the fusion hybrid CHFY0321 flocculated to the highest degree and had the capacity to ferment well at pH 4.5 and 32 o C. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation for ethanol production was carried out using a cassava (Manihot esculenta) powder hydrolysate medium containing 19.5% (w v -1 ) total sugar in a 5 l lab scale jar fermenter at 32 o C for 65 h with an agitation speed of 2 Hz. Under these conditions, CHFY0321 showed the highest flocculating ability and the best fermentation efficiency for ethanol production compared with those of the wild-type parent strains. CHFY0321 gave a final ethanol concentration of 89.8 ± 0.13 g l -1 , a volumetric ethanol productivity of 1.38 ± 0.13 g l -1 h -1 , and a theoretical yield of 94.2 ± 1.58%. These results suggest that CHFY0321 exhibited the fermentation characteristics of S. cerevisiae CHY1011 and the flocculent ability of S. bayanus KCCM12633. Therefore, the strong highly flocculent ethanol fermentative CHFY0321 has potential for improving biotechnological ethanol fermentation processes.

  13. Performance indicators of bioethanol distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marriaga, Nilson

    2009-01-01

    The increase of biofuels demand accelerates the construction of new production plants and technological improvements in the process so the development of versatile tools for evaluating alternatives becomes an undeniable challenge. It was established through heuristic rules, thermodynamic analysis and simulation computer the energy consumption and performance indicators that govern, from fermented mash (ethanol 8.5 % v/v), the distillation of various capacities for bioethanol production: 20, 60, 100 and 150 KLD (kiloliters / day) through Aspen PlusTM simulator. It was found that the distillation demand nearly 30% of heat that would be obtained by burning alcohol fuel produced thus it is necessary the use of raw materials that generate enough biomass to produce the steam required. In addition, correlations were found to allow for easy diameters of distillation columns in terms of production capacity.

  14. Bioethanol produced from Moringa oleifera seeds husk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, E. N.; Kemat, S. Z.

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents the potential of bioethanol production from Moringa oleifera seeds husk which contains lignocellulosic through Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF) process by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This paper investigates the parameters which produce optimum bioethanol yield. The husk was hydrolyzed using NaOH and fermented using Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast. Batch fermentation was performed with different yeast dosage of 1, 3, and 5 g/L, pH value was 4.5, 5.0 and 5.5, and fermentation time of 3, 6, 9 and 12 hours. The temperature of fermentation process in incubator shaker is kept constant at 32ºC. The samples are then filtered using a 0.20 μm nylon filter syringe. The yield of bioethanol produced was analysed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that the highest yield of 29.69 g/L was obtained at 3 hours of fermentation time at pH of 4.5 and using 1g/L yeast. This research work showed that Moringa oleifera seeds husk can be considered to produce bioethanol.

  15. Dry-grind processing using amylase corn and superior yeast to reduce the exogenous enzyme requirements in bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Deepak; Singh, Vijay

    2016-01-01

    Conventional corn dry-grind ethanol production process requires exogenous alpha and glucoamylases enzymes to breakdown starch into glucose, which is fermented to ethanol by yeast. This study evaluates the potential use of new genetically engineered corn and yeast, which can eliminate or minimize the use of these external enzymes, improve the economics and process efficiencies, and simplify the process. An approach of in situ ethanol removal during fermentation was also investigated for its potential to improve the efficiency of high-solid fermentation, which can significantly reduce the downstream ethanol and co-product recovery cost. The fermentation of amylase corn (producing endogenous α-amylase) using conventional yeast and no addition of exogenous α-amylase resulted in ethanol concentration of 4.1 % higher compared to control treatment (conventional corn using exogenous α-amylase). Conventional corn processed with exogenous α-amylase and superior yeast (producing glucoamylase or GA) with no exogenous glucoamylase addition resulted in ethanol concentration similar to control treatment (conventional yeast with exogenous glucoamylase addition). Combination of amylase corn and superior yeast required only 25 % of recommended glucoamylase dose to complete fermentation and achieve ethanol concentration and yield similar to control treatment (conventional corn with exogenous α-amylase, conventional yeast with exogenous glucoamylase). Use of superior yeast with 50 % GA addition resulted in similar increases in yield for conventional or amylase corn of approximately 7 % compared to that of control treatment. Combination of amylase corn, superior yeast, and in situ ethanol removal resulted in a process that allowed complete fermentation of 40 % slurry solids with only 50 % of exogenous GA enzyme requirements and 64.6 % higher ethanol yield compared to that of conventional process. Use of amylase corn and superior yeast in the dry-grind processing industry

  16. Significance of Lignin S/G Ratio in Biomass Recalcitrance of Populus trichocarpa Variants for Bioethanol Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Chang Geun [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dumitrache, Alexandru [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Muchero, Wellington [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Natzke, Jace [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Akinosho, Hannah [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Li, Mi [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sykes, Robert W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brown, Steven D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Davison, Brian [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tuskan, Gerald A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pu, Yunqiao [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ragauskas, Arthur J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2017-12-11

    Lignin S/G ratio has been investigated as an important factor in biomass recalcitrance to bioethanol production. Because of the complexity and variety of biomass, recalcitrance was also reportedly influenced by several other factors, such as total lignin content, degree of cellulose polymerization, etc. In addition, the effect of S/G ratio on biomass conversion is not uniform across plant species. Herein, 11 Populus trichocarpa natural variants grown under the same conditions with similar total lignin content were selected to minimize the effects of other factors. The lignin S/G ratio of the selected P. trichocarpa natural variants showed negative correlations with p-hydroxybenzoate (PB) and β–5 linkage contents, while it had positive ones with β-O-4 linkage, lignin molecular weight, and ethanol production. In conclusion, this study showed the importance of lignin S/G ratio as an independent recalcitrance factor that may aid future energy crop engineering and biomass conversion strategies.

  17. Comparative study of bio-ethanol production from mahula (Madhuca latifolia L.) flowers by Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells immobilized in agar agar and Ca-alginate matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behera, Shuvashish; Mohanty, Rama Chandra [Department of Botany, Utkal University, Vani Vihar, Bhubaneswar 751004, Orissa (India); Kar, Shaktimay; Ray, Ramesh Chandra [Microbiology Laboratory, Central Tuber Crops Research Institute (Regional Centre), Bhubaneswar 751019, Orissa (India)

    2010-01-15

    Batch fermentation of mahula (Madhuca latifolia L., a tree commonly found in tropical rain forest) flowers was carried out using immobilized cells (in agar agar and calcium alginate) and free cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The ethanol yields were 151.2, 154.5 and 149.1 g kg{sup -1} flowers using immobilized (in agar agar and calcium alginate) and free cells, respectively. Cell entrapment in calcium alginate was found to be marginally superior to those in agar agar (2.2% more) as well as over free cell (3.5% more) as regard to ethanol yield from mahula flowers is concerned. Further, the immobilized cells were physiologically active at least for three cycles [150.6, 148.5 and 146.5 g kg{sup -1} (agar agar) and 152.8, 151.5 and 149.5 g kg{sup -1} flowers (calcium alginate) for first, second and third cycle, respectively] of ethanol fermentation without apparently lowering the productivity. Mahula flowers, a renewable, non-food-grade cheap carbohydrate substrate from non-agricultural environment such as forest can serve as an alternative to food grade sugar/starchy crops such as maize, sugarcane for bio-ethanol production. (author)

  18. Expression of a codon-optimized β-glucosidase from Cellulomonas flavigena PR-22 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for bioethanol production from cellobiose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-Fránquez, Francisco Javier; González-Bautista, Enrique; Ponce-Noyola, Teresa; Ramos-Valdivia, Ana Carmela; Poggi-Varaldo, Héctor Mario; García-Mena, Jaime; Martinez, Alfredo

    2017-05-01

    Bioethanol is one of the main biofuels produced from the fermentation of saccharified agricultural waste; however, this technology needs to be optimized for profitability. Because the commonly used ethanologenic yeast strains are unable to assimilate cellobiose, several efforts have been made to express cellulose hydrolytic enzymes in these yeasts to produce ethanol from lignocellulose. The C. flavigenabglA gene encoding β-glucosidase catalytic subunit was optimized for preferential codon usage in S. cerevisiae. The optimized gene, cloned into the episomal vector pRGP-1, was expressed, which led to the secretion of an active β-glucosidase in transformants of the S. cerevisiae diploid strain 2-24D. The volumetric and specific extracellular enzymatic activities using pNPG as substrate were 155 IU L -1 and 222 IU g -1 , respectively, as detected in the supernatant of the cultures of the S. cerevisiae RP2-BGL transformant strain growing in cellobiose (20 g L -1 ) as the sole carbon source for 48 h. Ethanol production was 5 g L -1 after 96 h of culture, which represented a yield of 0.41 g g -1 of substrate consumed (12 g L -1 ), equivalent to 76% of the theoretical yield. The S. cerevisiae RP2-BGL strain expressed the β-glucosidase extracellularly and produced ethanol from cellobiose, which makes this microorganism suitable for application in ethanol production processes with saccharified lignocellulose.

  19. Mixtures of bioethanol and gasoline as a fuel for SI engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojiljković Dragoslava D.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of alternative fuels, especially bioethanol and biodiesel, rises due to the limited oil sources, secure supply, prices changes, and environment pollution. Bioethanol is an alternative fuel which will be important in future, as a fuel produced from different crops and lignocelluloses materials. The quality of bioethanol has significant influence on the characteristics of mixtures with gasoline and engine performance. The investigations were performed with the bioethanol obtained as by-product from sugar industry, which is not denaturated and produced according the requests prescribed by standards for ethanol used in mixtures with gasoline. Main target was to examine the possibility of utilisation of bioethanol obtained as by-product and without additional technologies for purification and additional costs. The results of standard and non-standard investigations and engine tests of bioethanol and gasoline mixtures are presented.

  20. Effects of bioethanol ultrasonic generated aerosols application on diesel engine performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariasiu Florin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the effects of an experimental bioethanol fumigation application using an experimental ultrasound device on performance and emissions of a single cylinder diesel engine have been experimentally investigated. Engine performance and pollutant emissions variations were considered for three different types of fuels (biodiesel, biodiesel-bioethanol blend and biodiesel and fumigated bioethanol. Reductions in brake specific fuel consumption and NOx pollutant emissions are correlated with the use of ultrasonic fumigation of bioethanol fuel, comparative to use of biodiesel-bioethanol blend. Considering the fuel consumption as diesel engine’s main performance parameter, the proposed bioethanol’s fumigation method, offers the possibility to use more efficient renewable biofuels (bioethanol, with immediate effects on environmental protection.

  1. Purification Simulation With Vapor Permeation and Distillation-Adsorption In Bioethanol Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Misri Gozan; Mia Sari Setiawan; Kenny Lischer

    2017-01-01

    High purity of Bioethanol is required in biofuel mixing with gasoline (EXX). In bioethanol production line, the azeotropic property of ethanol-water becomes the barrier for purification process. This study examined two bioethanol separation processes by support of simulation tools, Superpro Designer 9.0 software. Ethanol purity and a low costeconomical process were the major considerations. Purification method of vapor permeation membrane technology was compared with distillation-adsorption m...

  2. Characteristics of Corn Stover Pretreated with Liquid Hot Water and Fed-Batch Semi-Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation for Bioethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuezhi; Lu, Jie; Zhao, Jian; Qu, Yinbo

    2014-01-01

    Corn stover is a promising feedstock for bioethanol production because of its abundant availability in China. To obtain higher ethanol concentration and higher ethanol yield, liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment and fed-batch semi-simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (S-SSF) were used to enhance the enzymatic digestibility of corn stover and improve bioconversion of cellulose to ethanol. The results show that solid residues from LHW pretreatment of corn stover can be effectively converted into ethanol at severity factors ranging from 3.95 to 4.54, and the highest amount of xylan removed was approximately 89%. The ethanol concentrations of 38.4 g/L and 39.4 g/L as well as ethanol yields of 78.6% and 79.7% at severity factors of 3.95 and 4.54, respectively, were obtained by fed-batch S-SSF in an optimum conditions (initial substrate consistency of 10%, and 6.1% solid residues added into system at the prehydrolysis time of 6 h). The changes in surface morphological structure, specific surface area, pore volume and diameter of corn stover subjected to LHW process were also analyzed for interpreting the possible improvement mechanism. PMID:24763192

  3. Effect of cassava bioethanol by-product and crude palm oil in Brahman x Thai native yearling heifer cattle diets: II. Carcass characteristics and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoemchalard, Chirasak; Uriyapongson, Suthipong

    2015-12-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of cassava bioethanol by-product (CEP) and crude palm oil (CPO) on the carcass characteristics and meat quality of yearling heifer cattle. Eighteen crossbred Brahman × Thai heifers were randomly allotted to 2 × 3 factorial arrangement consisting of two levels of CEP (15 or 30 %, LCEP or HCEP) and 3 levels of CPO (0, 2, and 4 %). The results obtained showed that lean meat was greater (P < 0.05) in HCEP-fed cattle, but bone percentage and lean/bone ratio were less (P < 0.05) than LCEP-fed cattle. Carcass fat (P < 0.05) and fat content (P < 0.01) were significantly increased with levels of dietary CPO. Diets with 4 % CPO supplementation had better effects on redness (a*, P < 0.01) and chroma (C*, P < 0.001) values. In conclusion, up to 30 % CEP can be used to improve lean carcass and 4 % CPO can improve the redness of the meat.

  4. Seawater as Alternative to Freshwater in Pretreatment of Date Palm Residues for Bioethanol Production in Coastal and/or Arid Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Chuanji; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Brudecki, Grzegorz P; Cybulska, Iwona; Frankaer, Christian Grundahl; Bastidas-Oyanedel, Juan-Rodrigo; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2015-11-01

    The large water consumption (1.9-5.9 m(3) water per m(3) of biofuel) required by biomass processing plants has become an emerging concern, which is particularly critical in arid/semiarid regions. Seawater, as a widely available water source, could be an interesting option. This work was to study the technical feasibility of using seawater to replace freshwater in the pretreatment of date palm leaflets, a lignocellulosic biomass from arid regions, for bioethanol production. It was shown that leaflets pretreated with seawater exhibited lower cellulose crystallinity than those pretreated with freshwater. Pretreatment with seawater produced comparably digestible and fermentable solids to those obtained with freshwater. Moreover, no significant difference of inhibition to Saccharomyces cerevisiae was observed between liquids from pretreatment with seawater and freshwater. The results showed that seawater could be a promising alternative to freshwater for lignocellulose biorefineries in coastal and/or arid/semiarid areas. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. White paper on perspectives of biofuels in Denmark - with focus on 2nd generation bioethanol; Hvidbog om perspektiver for biobraendstoffer i Danmark - med fokus paa 2. generations bioethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Gy.; Foghmar, J.

    2009-11-15

    The white paper presents the perspectives - both options and barriers - for a Danish focus on production and use of biomass, including sustainable 2nd generation bioethanol, for transport. The white paper presents the current knowledge of biofuels and bioethanol and recommendations for a Danish strategy. (ln)

  6. Detecting Molecular Features of Spectra Mainly Associated with Structural and Non-Structural Carbohydrates in Co-Products from BioEthanol Production Using DRIFT with Uni- and Multivariate Molecular Spectral Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peiqiang; Damiran, Daalkhaijav; Azarfar, Arash; Niu, Zhiyuan

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to use DRIFT spectroscopy with uni- and multivariate molecular spectral analyses as a novel approach to detect molecular features of spectra mainly associated with carbohydrate in the co-products (wheat DDGS, corn DDGS, blend DDGS) from bioethanol processing in comparison with original feedstock (wheat (Triticum), corn (Zea mays)). The carbohydrates related molecular spectral bands included: A_Cell (structural carbohydrates, peaks area region and baseline: ca. 1485–1188 cm−1), A_1240 (structural carbohydrates, peak area centered at ca. 1240 cm−1 with region and baseline: ca. 1292–1198 cm−1), A_CHO (total carbohydrates, peaks region and baseline: ca. 1187–950 cm−1), A_928 (non-structural carbohydrates, peak area centered at ca. 928 cm−1 with region and baseline: ca. 952–910 cm−1), A_860 (non-structural carbohydrates, peak area centered at ca. 860 cm−1 with region and baseline: ca. 880–827 cm−1), H_1415 (structural carbohydrate, peak height centered at ca. 1415 cm−1 with baseline: ca. 1485–1188 cm−1), H_1370 (structural carbohydrate, peak height at ca. 1370 cm−1 with a baseline: ca. 1485–1188 cm−1). The study shows that the grains had lower spectral intensity (KM Unit) of the cellulosic compounds of A_1240 (8.5 vs. 36.6, P carbohydrate of A_928 (17.3 vs. 2.0) and A_860 (20.7 vs. 7.6) than their co-products from bioethanol processing. There were no differences (P > 0.05) in the peak area intensities of A_Cell (structural CHO) at 1292–1198 cm−1 and A_CHO (total CHO) at 1187–950 cm−1 with average molecular infrared intensity KM unit of 226.8 and 508.1, respectively. There were no differences (P > 0.05) in the peak height intensities of H_1415 and H_1370 (structural CHOs) with average intensities 1.35 and 1.15, respectively. The multivariate molecular spectral analyses were able to discriminate and classify between the corn and corn DDGS molecular spectra, but not wheat and wheat DDGS. This

  7. Techno-Economic Analysis of Bioethanol Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass in China: Dilute-Acid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Zhao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic biomass-based ethanol is categorized as 2nd generation bioethanol in the advanced biofuel portfolio. To make sound incentive policy proposals for the Chinese government and to develop guidance for research and development and industrialization of the technology, the paper reports careful techno-economic and sensitivity analyses performed to estimate the current competitiveness of the bioethanol and identify key components which have the greatest impact on its plant-gate price (PGP. Two models were developed for the research, including the Bioethanol PGP Assessment Model (BPAM and the Feedstock Cost Estimation Model (FCEM. Results show that the PGP of the bioethanol ranges $4.68–$6.05/gal (9,550–12,356 yuan/t. The key components that contribute most to bioethanol PGP include the conversion rate of cellulose to glucose, the ratio of five-carbon sugars converted to ethanol, feedstock cost, and enzyme loading, etc. Lignocellulosic ethanol is currently unable to compete with fossil gasoline, therefore incentive policies are necessary to promote its development. It is suggested that the consumption tax be exempted, the value added tax (VAT be refunded upon collection, and feed-in tariff for excess electricity (byproduct be implemented to facilitate the industrialization of the technology. A minimum direct subsidy of $1.20/gal EtOH (2,500 yuan/t EtOH is also proposed for consideration.

  8. Effect of wheat gluten proteins on bioethanol yield from grain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buresova, Iva [Agrotest Fyto, Ltd., Havlickova 2787/121, 767 01 Kromeriz (Czech Republic); Hrivna, Ludek [Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2011-04-15

    Bioethanol can be used as motor fuel and/or as a gasoline enhancer. A high yield feedstock for bioethanol production is cereal grain. Cereal grains containing less gluten proteins (glutenin and gliadin), but high starch, are favoured by distillers because they increase the bioethanol conversion. The direct effect of wheat gluten proteins on bioethanol yield was studied on triticale grain. Examined triticale Presto 1R.1D{sub 5+10}-2 and Presto Valdy were developed by introducing selected segments of wheat chromosome 1D into triticale chromosome 1R. Even if the samples analysed in this study do not afford to make definitive assumptions, it can be noticed that in analysed cases the presence of gliadin had more significant effect on investigated parameters than the presence of glutenin. Despite the presence of glutenin subunits did not significantly decrease the investigated parameters - specific weight, Hagberg falling number and starch content in grain met the requirements for grain for bioethanol production - protein content was higher than is optimal. The fermentation experiments demonstrated good bioethanol yields but depression in grain yields caused by the presence of wheat gliadin and glutenin decreased the energy balance of Presto Valdy and Presto 1R.1D{sub 5+10}-2. (author)

  9. Policy options for non-grain bioethanol in China: Insights from an economy-energy-environment CGE model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge, Jianping; Lei, Yalin

    2017-01-01

    The Chinese government has been issuing numerous incentive policies to promote non-grain bioethanol development to address the problem of excessive energy consumption and environmental pollution. In this study, we divide the incentive policies into five categories: subsidies on bioethanol production, non-grain feedstocks planting, marginal land reclamation and utilization, bioethanol consumption in more cities, and consumption tax on gasoline use. The objective of the paper is to evaluate and compare the economic, energy, and environmental effects of the incentive policies to help the government choose the optimal policies to promote bioethanol in China. The results show that subsidies on bioethanol production and consumption can boost GDP, and simultaneously, decrease crude oil and gasoline consumption, and reduce CO_2 emissions. However, the increase in bioethanol consumption is combined with the rise in coal and electricity consumption. Subsidies on bioethanol production can promote GDP and reduce energy consumption and CO_2 emission but have less effect on bioethanol development than that under the scenario of subsides on bioethanol consumption. On the contrary, although subsidies on non-grain feedstocks planting and marginal land reclamation and utilization can improve macro-economy but have a negative effect on energy saving and CO_2 emission reduction. Therefore, appropriate subsidies on bioethanol production and consumption can promote bioethanol consumption with economic, energy and environmental benefits. The Chinese government should further pay more attention to the coordination of different policy options by policy tools and intensities. - Highlights: • Non-grain bioethanol incentive policy is divided into supply and demand perspectives. • China's bioethanol CGE model is constructed. • Demand incentives have largest positive effects on GDP. • Demand incentives have better effects on energy saving and emission reduction. • Subsidies on

  10. Development and Testing the Technology of Complex Transformation of Carbohydrates from Vegetable Raw Materials into Bioethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. Tsygankov

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Results of development and testing the tentative technology of sweet sorghum and finger millet processing into bioethanol are described. The carbohydrates content and range of the studied vegetable biomass as the raw material is defined. Bioethanol potential output from sugar sorghum and finger millet carbohydrates and key technological parameters of preparation of both types of vegetable raw material for alcohol fermentation are defined. The concept of the tentative technology of bioethanol production from carbohydrate raw material of the first and second generations is offered. Testing of complex transformation of carbohydrates from vegetable raw materials into bioethanol is performed.

  11. Selective dehydration of bio-ethanol to ethylene catalyzed by lanthanum-phosphorous-modified HZSM-5: influence of the fusel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yaochi; Zhan, Nina; Dou, Chang; Huang, He; Han, Yuwang; Yu, Dinghua; Hu, Yi

    2010-11-01

    Bio-ethanol dehydration to ethylene is an attractive alternative to oil-based ethylene. The influence of fusel, main byproducts in the fermentation process of bio-ethanol production, on the bio-ethanol dehydration should not be ignored. We studied the catalytic dehydration of bio-ethanol to ethylene over parent and modified HZSM-5 at 250°C, with weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) equal to 2.0/h. The influences of a series of fusel, such as isopropanol, isobutanol and isopentanol, on the ethanol dehydration over the catalysts were investigated. The 0.5%La-2%PHZSM-5 catalyst exhibited higher ethanol conversion (100%), ethylene selectivity (99%), and especially enhanced stability (more than 70 h) than the parent and other modified HZSM-5. We demonstrated that the introduction of lanthanum and phosphorous to HZSM-5 could weaken the negative influence of fusel on the formation of ethylene. The physicochemical properties of the catalysts were characterized by ammonia temperature-programmed desorption (NH(3)-TPD), nitrogen adsorption and thermogravimetry (TG)/differential thermogravimetry (DTG)/differential thermal analysis (DTA) (TG/DTG/DTA) techniques. The results indicated that the introduction of lanthanum and phosphorous to HZSM-5 could inhibit the formation of coking during the ethanol dehydration to ethylene in the presence of fusel. The development of an efficient catalyst is one of the key technologies for the industrialization of bio-ethylene.

  12. From biofuel to bioproduct: is bioethanol a suitable fermentation feedstock for synthesis of bulk chemicals?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weusthuis, R.A.; Aarts, J.M.M.J.G.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    The first pilot-scale factories for the production of bioethanol from lignocellulose have been installed, indicating that we are on the brink of overcoming most hurdles for an economically feasible process. When bioethanol is competitive as biofuel with fuels originating from petrochemical

  13. Build Your Own Second-Generation Bioethanol Plant in the Classroom!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seters, van J.R.; Sijbers, J.P.J.; Denis, M.; Tramper, J.

    2011-01-01

    The production of bioethanol from cellulosic waste is described. The experiment is suitable for students in secondary school classroom settings and leads to bioethanol in a concentration high enough to burn the liquid. The experiment consists of three steps: (i) the cellulose of the waste material

  14. Pressurized liquid extraction of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) with bioethanol:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Jiajin; Guo, Zheng; Glasius, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    To develop an efficient green extraction approach for recovery of bioactive compounds from natural plants, we examined the potential of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) with bioethanol/water as solvents. The advantages of PLE over other extraction...... approaches, in addition to reduced time/solvent cost, the extract of PLE showed a distinct constituent profile from that of Soxhlet extraction, with significantly improved recovery of diarylheptanoids, etc. Among the pure solvents tested for PLE, bioethanol yield the highest efficiency for recovering most...... constituents of gingerol-related compounds; while for a broad concentration spectrum of ethanol aqueous solutions, 70% ethanol gave the best performance in terms of yield of total extract, complete constituent profile and recovery of most gingerol-related components. PLE with 70% bioethanol operated at 1500...

  15. The Efficiency of Educational Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogetoft, Peter; Heinesen, Eskil; Tranæs, Torben

    is the most efficient Nordic country (often fully efficient), whereas Sweden and especially Norway and Denmark are clearly inefficient. However, using PISA test scores as indicators of student input quality in upper secondary education reduces the inefficiencies of these three countries. Also, when expected......Focusing in particular on upper secondary education, this paper examines whether the relatively high level of expenditure on education in the Nordic countries is matched by high output from the educational sector, both in terms of student enrolment and indicators of output quality in the form...... of graduation/completion rates and expected earnings after completed education. We use Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to compare (benchmark) the Nordic countries with a relevant group of rich OECD countries and calculate input efficiency scores for each country. We estimate a wide range of specifications...

  16. The Efficiency of Educational Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogetoft, Peter; Heinesen, Eskil; Tranæs, Torben

    2015-01-01

    is the most efficient Nordic country (often fully efficient), whereas Sweden and especially Norway and Denmark are clearly inefficient. However, using PISA test scores as indicators of student input quality in upper secondary education reduces the inefficiencies of these three countries. Also, when expected......Focusing in particular on upper secondary education, this paper examines whether the relatively high level of expenditure on education in the Nordic countries is matched by high output from the educational sector, both in terms of student enrolment and indicators of output quality in the form...... of graduation/completion rates and expected earnings after completed education. We use data envelopment analysis (DEA) to compare (benchmark) the Nordic countries with a relevant group of rich OECD countries and calculate input efficiency scores for each country. We estimate a wide range of specifications...

  17. BOREAS TE-17 Production Efficiency Model Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A BOREAS version of the Global Production Efficiency Model(www.inform.umd.edu/glopem) was developed by TE-17 to generate maps of gross and net primary production,...

  18. Effects of reflux ratio and feed conditions for the purification of bioethanol in a continuous distillation column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasan, Y. K.; Abdullah, M. A.; Bhat, A. H.

    2014-10-01

    Continuous distillation column was used for the purification of bioethanol from fermentation of molasses using Saccharomyces cerevisia. Bioethanol produced was at 8.32% (v/v) level. The efficiency of continuous distillation process was evaluated based on reflux ratio, and feed condition. The lab results were validated using COFE simulation Software. The analyses showed that both reflux ratio and feed condition had significant effects on the distillation process. Stages increased from 1.79 to 2.26 as the reflux ratio was decreased from 90% to 45% and the saturated feed produced lower mole fraction of desired product. We concluded that the lower reflux ratio with cold feed condition was suitable for higher mole fraction of top product.

  19. The addition of zeolite adsorbents and calcium oxide on purification of bioethanol from sugar palm (arenga pinnata merr)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlina, Netti; Siska Dewi Harahap, Ici

    2018-03-01

    Bioethanol (C2H5OH) is a biochemical liquid produced by microorganisms through fermentation process on sugar molecules from carbohydrates. Bioethanol is a fuel of vegetable oil that has similar properties to premium. With its main product of palm juice, Sugar palm (Arenga pinnata) is a potential source of sugar and carbohydrate for bioethanol production. Production of palm juice can reach up to 12-14 liters/tree/day with total sugar content in palm juice ranges from 12-15%. The purpose of this research was to produce highly-concentrated bioethanol from palm juice through fermentation proccess to subtitude fossil fuel. This study was conducted with three stages of treatment, namely: the fermentation of palm juice, distillation of bioethanol, and purification of bioethanol with the addition of adsorbent zeolite and calcium oxide.

  20. Kinetic studies of adsorption in the bioethanol dehydration using polyvinyl alcohol, zeolite and activated carbon as adsorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laksmono, J. A.; Pratiwi, I. M.; Sudibandriyo, M.; Haryono, A.; Saputra, A. H.

    2017-11-01

    Bioethanol is considered as the most promising alternative fuel in the future due to its abundant renewable sources. However, the result of bioethanol production process using fermentation contains 70% v/v, and it still needs simultaneous purification process. One of the most energy-efficient purification methods is adsorption. Specifically, the rate of adsorption is an important factor for evaluating adsorption performance. In this work, we have conducted an adsorption using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), zeolite and activated carbon as promising adsorbents in the bioethanol dehydration. This research aims to prove that PVA, zeolite, activated carbon is suitable to be used as adsorbent in bioethanol dehydration process through kinetics study and water adsorption selectivity performance. According to the results, PVA, zeolite and activated carbon are the potential materials as adsorbents in the bioethanol dehydration process. The kinetics study shows that 30°C temperature gave the optimum adsorption kinetics rate for PVA, zeolite, and activated carbon adsorbents which were 0.4911 min-1; 0.5 min-1; and 1.1272 min-1 respectively. In addition, it also shows that the activated carbon performed as a more potential adsorbent due to its higher pore volume and specific surface area properties. Based on the Arrhenius equation, the PVA works in the chemisorption mechanism, meanwhile zeolite and activated carbon work in the physisorption system as shown in the value of the activation energy which are 51.43 kJ/mole; 8.16 kJ/mole; and 20.30 kJ/mole. Whereas the water to ethanol selectivity study, we discover that zeolite is an impressive adsorbent compared to the others due to the molecular sieving characteristic of the material.

  1. Energy production and reactor efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Doubts have been raised in relation to the economic and energetic efficiency of nuclear reactors. Some economists are questioning whether, when all the capital and material inputs to fission technology are considered, nuclear reactors yield sufficiently large amounts of energy to show a nett gain of energy. (author)

  2. Sustainable low cost production of lignocellulosic bioethanol - "The carbon slaughterhouse". A process concept developed by BioGasol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Langvad, Niels Bo

    2008-01-01

    technologies within pretreatment, biogas production and a unique C5-fermentation for maximum ethanol production. The BioGasol concept is a well integrated technology with more than 90% utilization of the energy potential in the biomass. The production of other biofuels such as methane and hydrogen adds value...... to the overall process benefit. The technology can be used for green field plants or for bolt on plants to existing first generation ethanol plants. Using the yields obtained in the pilot plant 1.36 USD per Gallon is a valid estimate of the Minimum Ethanol Sales Price (MESP) for the N-th plant and Bio...

  3. Modelling Framework for the Identification of Critical Variables and Parameters under Uncertainty in the Bioethanol Production from Lignocellulose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales Rodriguez, Ricardo; Meyer, Anne S.; Gernaey, Krist

    2011-01-01

    This study presents the development of a systematic modelling framework for identification of the most critical variables and parameters under uncertainty, evaluated on a lignocellulosic ethanol production case study. The systematic framework starts with: (1) definition of the objectives; (2......, suitable for further analysis of the bioprocess. The uncertainty and sensitivity analysis identified the following most critical variables and parameters involved in the lignocellulosic ethanol production case study. For the operating cost, the enzyme loading showed the strongest impact, while reaction...

  4. The Efficiency of Educational Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogetoft, Peter; Heinesen, Eskil; Tranæs, Torben

    the educational sector, both in terms of a large number of students enrolled in educational programmes and a high completion rate. The methodology used is to compare (benchmark) Denmark with a relevant group of countries and to calculate how much cheaper Denmark could teach the same number of students...... to explain the higher costs of upper secondary education. On the output side, if earnings and levels of employment among those who complete their education are taken into account, then Denmark is in fact found to be efficient. However, this high level of efficiency has become less clear-cut in recent years......Denmark, Norway, New Zealand, Canada and the USA are the OECD countries that spend most on education, measured in relation to GDP. Focusing in particular on upper secondary education, this paper examines whether the heavy expenditure on education in Denmark is matched by high output from...

  5. Eco-efficiency in industrial production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Raesfeld Meijer, Ariane M.; de Bakker, F.G.A.; Groen, Arend J.

    2001-01-01

    English AbstractThis report of the MATRIC project investigated 'Eco-efficiency in industrial production'. After a general introduction into the domain of eco-efficiency, the first part of this report further focusses on the organisation of Product-Oriented Environmental Management (POEM), which is

  6. Chemistry - Toward efficient hydrogen production at surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Jens Kehlet; Christensen, Claus H.

    2006-01-01

    Calculations are providing a molecular picture of hydrogen production on catalytic surfaces and within enzymes, knowledge that may guide the design of new, more efficient catalysts for the hydrogen economy.......Calculations are providing a molecular picture of hydrogen production on catalytic surfaces and within enzymes, knowledge that may guide the design of new, more efficient catalysts for the hydrogen economy....

  7. Economic analysis of hydrogen production through a bio-ethanol steam reforming process: Sensitivity analyses and cost estimations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Hua; Ozkan, Umit S.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the hydrogen selling price from ethanol steam reforming has been estimated for two different production scenarios in the United States, i.e. central production (150,000 kg H 2 /day) and distributed (forecourt) production (1500 kg H 2 /day), based on a process flowchart generated by Aspen Plus registered including downstream purification steps and economic analysis model template published by the U.S Department of Energy (DOE). The effect of several processing parameters as well as catalyst properties on the hydrogen selling price has been evaluated. 2.69/kg is estimated as the selling price for a central production process of 150,000 kg H 2 /day and 4.27/kg for a distributed hydrogen production process at a scale of 1500 kg H 2 /day. Among the parameters investigated through sensitivity analyses, ethanol feedstock cost, catalyst cost, and catalytic performance are found to play a significant role on determining the final hydrogen selling price. (author)

  8. Production of bioethanol from fermented sugars of sugarcane bagasse produced by lignocellulolytic enzymes of Exiguobacterium sp. VSG-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayalaxmi, S; Anu Appaiah, K A; Jayalakshmi, S K; Mulimani, V H; Sreeramulu, K

    2013-09-01

    Exiguobacterium sp. VSG-1 was isolated from the soil sample and characterized for the production of lignocellulolytic enzymes. Production of these enzymes by the strain VSG-1 was carried out using steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse (SCB) and found to secrete cellulase, pectinase, mannanase, xylanase, and tannase. The growth and enzyme production were found to be optimum at pH 9.0 and 37 °C. Upon steam explosion of SCB, the cellulose increased by 42 %, whereas hemicelluloses and lignin decreased by 40 and 62 %, respectively. Enzymatic hydrolysis of steam-exploded SCB yielded 640 g/l of total sugars. Fermentation of sugars produced from pretreated SCB was carried out by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae at pH 5.0 and 30 °C. The alcohol produced was calculated and found to be 62.24 g/l corresponding to 78 % of the theoretical yield of ethanol. Hence, the strain VSG-1 has an industrial importance for the production of fermentable sugars for biofuels.

  9. Improving efficiency in pig production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    by adopting different strategies for meat production ... lates to some specific nutritional considerations. ... allowances were made for the correlated effects of any change. ... end of her reproductive life the sow is also usually sold for meat ... the experimental work. ... on pigs of up-to-date genotype fed on modern balanced diets.

  10. Scale-up study of oxalic acid pretreatment of agricultural lignocellulosic biomass for the production of bioethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jae-Won Lee; Carl J. Houtman; Hye-Yun Kim; In-Gyu Choi; Thomas W. Jeffries

    2011-01-01

    Building on our laboratory-scale optimization, oxalic acid was used to pretreat corncobs on the pilotscale. The hydrolysate obtained after washing the pretreated biomass contained 32.55 g/l of xylose, 2.74 g/l of glucose and low concentrations of inhibitors. Ethanol production, using Scheffersomyces stipitis, from this hydrolysate was 10.3 g/l, which approached the...

  11. Thermotolerant Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains representing potentials for bioethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke by consolidated bioprocessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Nan; Yuan, Bo; Sun, Juan; Wang, Shi-An; Li, Fu-Li

    2012-09-01

    Thermotolerant inulin-utilizing yeast strains are desirable for ethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke tubers by consolidated bioprocessing (CBP). To obtain such strains, 21 naturally occurring yeast strains isolated by using an enrichment method and 65 previously isolated Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were investigated in inulin utilization, extracellular inulinase activity, and ethanol fermentation from inulin and Jerusalem artichoke tuber flour at 40 °C. The strains Kluyveromyces marxianus PT-1 (CGMCC AS2.4515) and S. cerevisiae JZ1C (CGMCC AS2.3878) presented the highest extracellular inulinase activity and ethanol yield in this study. The highest ethanol concentration in Jerusalem artichoke tuber flour fermentation (200 g L(-1)) at 40 °C achieved by K. marxianus PT-1 and S. cerevisiae JZ1C was 73.6 and 65.2 g L(-1), which corresponded to the theoretical ethanol yield of 90.0 and 79.7 %, respectively. In the range of 30 to 40 °C, temperature did not have a significant effect on ethanol production for both strains. This study displayed the distinctive superiority of K. marxianus PT-1 and S. cerevisiae JZ1C in the thermotolerance and utilization of inulin-type oligosaccharides reserved in Jerusalem artichoke tubers. It is proposed that both K. marxianus and S. cerevisiae have considerable potential in ethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke tubers by a high temperature CBP.

  12. Thermotolerant Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains representing potentials for bioethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke by consolidated bioprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Nan [Agricultural Univ., Qingdao, SD (China). College of Animal Science and Technology; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, SD (China). Key Lab. of Biofuels; Yuan, Bo; Wang, Shi-An; Li, Fu-Li [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, SD (China). Key Lab. of Biofuels; Sun, Juan [Agricultural Univ., Qingdao, SD (China). College of Animal Science and Technology

    2012-09-15

    Thermotolerant inulin-utilizing yeast strains are desirable for ethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke tubers by consolidated bioprocessing (CBP). To obtain such strains, 21 naturally occurring yeast strains isolated by using an enrichment method and 65 previously isolated Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were investigated in inulin utilization, extracellular inulinase activity, and ethanol fermentation from inulin and Jerusalem artichoke tuber flour at 40 C. The strains Kluyveromyces marxianus PT-1 (CGMCC AS2.4515) and S. cerevisiae JZ1C (CGMCC AS2.3878) presented the highest extracellular inulinase activity and ethanol yield in this study. The highest ethanol concentration in Jerusalem artichoke tuber flour fermentation (200 g L{sup -1}) at 40 C achieved by K. marxianus PT-1 and S. cerevisiae JZ1C was 73.6 and 65.2 g L{sup -1}, which corresponded to the theoretical ethanol yield of 90.0 and 79.7 %, respectively. In the range of 30 to 40 C, temperature did not have a significant effect on ethanol production for both strains. This study displayed the distinctive superiority of K. marxianus PT-1 and S. cerevisiae JZ1C in the thermotolerance and utilization of inulin-type oligosaccharides reserved in Jerusalem artichoke tubers. It is proposed that both K. marxianus and S. cerevisiae have considerable potential in ethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke tubers by a high temperature CBP. (orig.)

  13. Optimization of hydrothermal pretreatment of wheat straw for production of bioethanol at low water consumption without addition of chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard Petersen, Mai; Larsen, Jan; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard

    2009-01-01

    straw at pilot scale (up to 100 kg h(-1)) where six different pretreatment conditions have been investigated; all pretreatment conditions have been evaluated with regards to recovery of sugars after pretreatment (both C5 and C6) and convertibility of the cellulosic part of the fibers into ethanol......In the IBUS process (Integrated Biomass Utilization System) lignocellulosic biomass is converted into ethanol at high dry matter content without addition of chemicals and with a strong focus on energy efficiency. This study describes optimization of continuous hydrothermal pretreatment of wheat....... The experiments show that the optimum pretreatment parameters are 195 degrees C for 6-12 min. At these conditions, a total of app. 70% of the hemicellulose is recovered, 93-94% of the cellulose is recovered in the fibers and app. 89% of the cellulose in the fibers can be converted into ethanol by commercial...

  14. Ownership and efficiency in nuclear power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollitt, M.G.

    1995-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute to the relatively small amount of academic literature on the efficiency of nuclear power production. The author draws on world-wide comparisons to illustrate the situation in the United Kingdom, where the nuclear generating capacity, conceived of and constructed as a public concern, has recently been privatised. The theory and evidence for links between ownership and productive efficiency is received. Efficiency measures used are explained as are the linear programs required to generate them. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is used to analyse productive efficiency of nuclear power plants before and after privatisation. Results of the DEA are used to test the hypothesis that ownership has no effect on productive efficiency. (UK)

  15. Cloning of affecting pyruvate decarboxylase gene in the production bioethanol of agricultural waste in the E.coli bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masome Zeinali

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ethanol made by a biomass is one of the useful strategies in terms of economic and environmental and as a clean and safe energy to replace fossil fuels considered and examined. Materials and methods: In this study, key enzyme in the production of ethanol (Pyruvate decarboxylase from Zymomonas mobilis bacteria was isolated and cloned at E. coli bacteria by freeze and thaw method. For gene cloning, we used specific primers of pdc and PCR reaction and then pdc gene isolated and pET 28a plasmid double digested with (Sal I and Xho I enzymes. Digestion Products were ligated by T4 DNA ligase in 16 °C for 16 hours. Results: Results of bacteria culture showed that a few colonies containing pET 28a plasmid could grow. Result of colony pcr of pdc gene with specific primers revealed 1700 bp bands in 1% agarose gel electrophoresis. The results of PCR with T7 promotor forward primer and pdc revers primer have proved the accurate direction of integration of pdc gene into plasmid and revealed 1885 bp band. Double digestion of recombinant plasmid with SalI and XhoI enzymes revealed same bands. Finally, RT showed the expected band of 1700 bp that implies the desired gene expression in the samples. Discussion and conclusion: Due to the increased production of ethanol via pyruvate decarboxylase gene cloning in expression plasmids with a strong promoter upstream of the cloning site can conclude that, pyruvate decarboxylase cloning as a key gene would be useful and according to beneficial properties of E. coli bacteria, transfering the gene to bacteria appears to be reasonable.

  16. Potencialidades do sorgo sacarino [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench] para a produção sustentável de bioetanol no Alentejo The potential of sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench] for sustainable bioethanol production in Alentejo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E.V. Lourenço

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Fazem-se algumas considerações sobre a importância dos biocombustíveis (biodiesel e bioetanol, num futuro próximo, e acerca das potencialidades do sorgo sacarino para a produção de bioetanol. Apresentam-se resultados de um ensaio de quatro dotações de rega (1500, 2500, 3500 e 4500 m³/ha aplicadas a uma variedade de sorgo sacarino. Avaliou-se a concentração em sólidos solúveis (ºBrix nos caules verdes e a altura das plantas ao longo do ciclo. Determinou-se a produção de matéria verde em caules e de matéria seca em caules, folhas e inflorescências. Estimou-se também a produção de açúcar e bioetanol por hectare. Os dados revelaram que a dotação de rega mais aconselhável foi a de 4500 m³/ha pois conduziu aos melhores resultados em todos os parâmetros, excepto no que se refere ao Brix que foi semelhante à da dotação de 3500 m ³/ha (17 e 16%, respectivamente. Com aquela dotação de rega, se os resultados se confirmarem, será de esperar que, no Alentejo, as produções de bioetanol, da referida cultura, sejam superiores a 5000 l/ha.The importance of biofuels (biodiesel and bioethanol in the next future, and the potential of sweet sorghum for bioethanol production are discussed. Results of a trial with four irrigation treatments (1500, 2500, 3500 e 4500 m³/ha applied, to one variety of sweet sorghum, are presented. The soluble solids content (ºBrix of the fresh stalks and plant height were monitored along the life cycle of the crop. The yield of fresh stalks and the dry matter yield of stalks, leaves and inflorescences were determined. Sugar and bioethanol yields were also estimated. The results showed that the 4500 m³/ha irrigation treatment conducted to the best results in all variables, except for the Brix values that were similar to the 3500 m³/ha treatment (17 and 16%, respectively. With that irrigation treatment, and if the results are confirmed in the future, it will be expected that bioethanol yields from

  17. Purifying, concentrating and anhydriding bio-ethanol: Alternative process schemes and innovative separation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerreri, G.; Lovati, A.

    1992-01-01

    Starting with the conventional process scheme for bio-ethanol production, this paper illustrates how the anhydriding section, which incorporates an azeotropic distillation process, can be conveniently substituted with a plate and frame pervaporation process which makes use of optimum heat exchange with the stripping section. This technical feasibility study, which proves the superior energy efficiency of the pervaporation scheme as compared with the conventional scheme, is followed by a cost benefit analysis which evidences the economic benefits also to be had with pervaporation

  18. Production of Bioethanol from Agricultural Wastes Using Residual Thermal Energy of a Cogeneration Plant in the Distillation Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaela Cutzu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholic fermentations were performed, adapting the technology to exploit the residual thermal energy (hot water at 83–85 °C of a cogeneration plant and to valorize agricultural wastes. Substrates were apple, kiwifruit, and peaches wastes; and corn threshing residue (CTR. Saccharomyces bayanus was chosen as starter yeast. The fruits, fresh or blanched, were mashed; CTR was gelatinized and liquefied by adding Liquozyme® SC DS (Novozymes, Dittingen, Switzerland; saccharification simultaneous to fermentation was carried out using the enzyme Spirizyme® Ultra (Novozymes, Dittingen, Switzerland. Lab-scale static fermentations were carried out at 28 °C and 35 °C, using raw fruits, blanched fruits and CTR, monitoring the ethanol production. The highest ethanol production was reached with CTR (10.22% (v/v and among fruits with apple (8.71% (v/v. Distillations at low temperatures and under vacuum, to exploit warm water from a cogeneration plant, were tested. Vacuum simple batch distillation by rotary evaporation at lab scale at 80 °C (heating bath and 200 mbar or 400 mbar allowed to recover 93.35% (v/v and 89.59% (v/v of ethanol, respectively. These results support a fermentation process coupled to a cogeneration plant, fed with apple wastes and with CTR when apple wastes are not available, where hot water from cogeneration plant is used in blanching and distillation phases. The scale up in a pilot plant was also carried out.

  19. A new approach for bioethanol production from sugarcane bagasse using hydrodynamic cavitation assisted-pretreatment and column reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terán Hilares, Ruly; Kamoei, Douglas Viana; Ahmed, Muhammad Ajaz; da Silva, Silvio Silvério; Han, Jong-In; Santos, Júlio César Dos

    2018-05-01

    Hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) was adopted to assist alkaline-hydrogen peroxide pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse (SCB). In the following condition: 0.29 M of NaOH, 0.78% (v/v) of H 2 O 2 , 9.95 min of process time and 3 bar of inlet pressure, 95.4% of digestibility of cellulosic fraction was achieved. To take the best use of the pretreated biomass, the overall process was intensified by way of employing a packed bed flow-through column reactor and thus enabling to handle a high solid loading of 20%, thereby leading to cellulose and hemicellulose conversions to 74.7% and 75%, respectively. In the fermentation step, a bubble column reactor was introduced to maximize ethanol production from the pretreated SCB by Scheffersomyces stipitis NRRL-Y7124, resulting in 31.50 g/L of ethanol, 0.49 g/g of ethanol yield and 0.68 g/L.h of productivity. All this showed that our HC-assisted NaOH-H 2 O 2 pretreatment strategy along with the process intensification approach might offer an option for SCB-based biorefineries. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Cue Effectiveness in Communicatively Efficient Discourse Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Ting; Jaeger, T. Florian

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have seen a surge in accounts motivated by information theory that consider language production to be partially driven by a preference for communicative efficiency. Evidence from discourse production (i.e., production beyond the sentence level) has been argued to suggest that speakers distribute information across discourse so as to…

  1. Dual effect of soluble materials in pretreated lignocellulose on simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation process for the bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lei; Li, Xia; Liu, Li; Zhu, Jia-Qing; Guan, Qi-Man; Zhang, Man-Tong; Li, Wen-Chao; Li, Bing-Zhi; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2017-01-01

    In this study, wash liquors isolated from ethylenediamine and dry dilute acid pretreated corn stover were used to evaluate the effect of soluble materials in pretreated biomass on simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) for ethanol production, respectively. Both of the wash liquors had different impacts on enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. Enzymatic conversions of glucan and xylan monotonically decreased as wash liquor concentration increased. Whereas, with low wash liquor concentrations, xylose consumption rate, cell viability and ethanol yield were maximally stimulated in fermentation without nutrient supplementary. Soluble lignins were found as the key composition which promoted sugars utilization and cell viability without nutrient supplementary. The dual effects of soluble materials on enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation resulted in the reduction of ethanol yield as soluble materials increased in SSCF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Bioethanol from lignocellulose. An ecological and economic assessment of selected concepts; Bioethanol aus Lignozellulose. Eine oekologische und oekonomische Bewertung ausgewaehlter Konzepte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meisel, Kathleen; Zech, Konstantin [DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnuetzige GmbH, Leipzig (Germany); Mueller-Langer, Franziska

    2014-08-01

    Against the background of an increased use of residual and waste materials in this paper the specific GHG emissions and production costs of different lignocellulosic based bioethanol concepts are assessed and compared to a conventional wheat based bioethanol concept and to the fossil reference. In order to find the best concept regarding both the environment and the economics the GHG emissions and production costs are compared and the GHG mitigation costs are calculated. Concept 5 (reference concept with C5 sugar to bioethanol and a natural gas-/biogasboiler) could be a good compromise between the both targets. Furthermore this concept has lower GHG emissions and lower production costs compared to the conventional wheat based bioethanol concept.

  3. Productivity benefits of industrial energy efficiency measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Laitner, John A.; Michael, Ruth; Finman, Hodayah

    2004-08-30

    We review the relationship between energy efficiency improvement measures and productivity in industry. We review over 70 industrial case studies from widely available published databases, followed by an analysis of the representation of productivity benefits in energy modeling. We propose a method to include productivity benefits in the economic assessment of the potential for energy efficiency improvement. The case-study review suggests that energy efficiency investments can provide a significant boost to overall productivity within industry. If this relationship holds, the description of energy-efficient technologies as opportunities for larger productivity improvements has significant implications for conventional economic assessments. The paper explores the implications this change in perspective on the evaluation of energy-efficient technologies for a study of the iron and steel industry in the US. This examination shows that including productivity benefits explicitly in the modeling parameters would double the cost-effective potential for energy efficiency improvement, compared to an analysis excluding those benefits. We provide suggestions for future research in this important area.

  4. Technical efficiency of irrigated vegetable production among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to analyse the technical efficiency of irrigated vegetable production among smallholder farmers in the guinea savannah, Nigeria, and determine the cost and returns on irrigated vegetable production. Two-stage sampling technique was used, purposive selection of two states and three Local ...

  5. RESOURCE USE EFFICIENCY OF GROUNDNUT PRODUCTION IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AGROSEARCH UIL

    2012-09-28

    Sep 28, 2012 ... A stratified sampling technique was employed to select 58 respondents. ... there is still opportunity to increase their production to attain optimal economic efficiency. The ... metric tons and an average productivity of 1.4 metric tons /ha. Developing ... The educated population are gainfully employed in some.

  6. The potential of macroalgae as a source of carbohydrates for use in bioethanol fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nwachukwu, A.N. [School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Chukwu, M.A. [Department of Sustainable Chemical Engineering, University of Newcastle Upon Tyne (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    Fossil fuel which is the global energy source gives rise to land contamination, air pollution, climate change, fuel crises, hike of price of petroleum products, crises in oil producing nations, dependency on oil producing countries and high risk associated with oil exploitation has led to a search for sustainable and efficient energy sources. Several types and sources of biofuels have been recently studied as potential source of energy to replace the environmentally unfriendly fossil fuels. Bioethanol produced from terrestrial plants have attracted the attention of the global society, though numerous controversies and debates were associated with the technology; such as the issue of food versus fuel competition, which further encouraged more research work on a sustainable renewable bioethanol source. This study aims at determining total carbohydrates from macroalgal specie (Laminaria digitata) for use in bioethanol fermentation, also using wet and analytical chemistry to extract and spectrophotometrically analyse the sample in respect to glucose and sucrose standards. The samples were lyophilized and the resulting powder extracted in a water bath at 100oC in 15minutes. The analysis was performed using anthrone (colorimetric) method and the analyte read in a UV-visible spectrophotometer at 620nm. The result showed that carbohydrates were present in the samples, indicated by green and yellow, colourless pigments. Glucose and sucrose were the main identified sugars from the standards analysed. The concentration of sugars varied with time; months and seasons of the year. Result of the samples showed highest level of sugar concentration in May 2010 and lowest sugar concentration in November 2010. It was observed that the mass of sugars (glucose and sucrose) deposited as a result of photosynthesis, significantly contributed to the weight of biomass. The implication of the result indicated that: the smaller the biomass, the most likely it is to have lower mass of sugars

  7. A biorefinery concept using the green macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum for the coproduction of bioethanol and biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Yahmed, Nesrine; Jmel, Mohamed Amine; Ben Alaya, Monia; Bouallagui, Hassib; Marzouki, M. Nejib; Smaali, Issam

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Chaetomorpha linum was used as sustainable feedstock for co-production of bioethanol and biomethane. • An eco-friendly process was developed, only generating 0.3 ± 0.01 g/g of waste. • Ethanol yield obtained was 0.41 g/g reducing sugar. • Methane yield obtained was 0.26 ± 0.045 L/gVS. - Abstract: An innovative integrated biorefinery approach using the green macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum was investigated in the present study for the co-production of bioethanol and biogas. Among three pretreatments of C. linum biomass, consisting of acidic, neutral and alkali ones, 3% NaOH pretreatment gave the best result in terms of thallus disintegration, biomass recovery and enzymatic digestibility as demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy and saccharification tests. The hydrolysis of C. linum feedstock with a crude specific enzyme preparation, locally produced from fermentation of Aspergillus awamori, at 45 °C, pH 5 for 30 h gave the maximum yield of fermentable sugar of 0.22 ± 0.02 g/g dry substrate. An ethanol yield of 0.41 g/g reducing sugar corresponding to about 0.093 g/g pretreated algae was obtained after alcoholic fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the integrated proposed process, mycelium issued from the fungal fermentation, liquid issued from alkali pretreatment, residual from the non-hydrolysable biomass and all effluents and co-products represent a heterogeneous substrate that feed an anaerobic digester for biogas production. GC-analysis of this later showed that the biomethane yield reached 0.26 ± 0.045 L/gVS. This study presents therefore an eco-friendly biorefining process, which efficiently coproduce bioethanol and biomethane and generate only a single waste (0.3 ± 0.01 g/g) allowing an almost complete conversion of the algal biomass.

  8. Production and efficiency analysis with R

    CERN Document Server

    Behr, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This textbook introduces essential topics and techniques in production and efficiency analysis and shows how to apply these methods using the statistical software R. Numerous small simulations lead to a deeper understanding of random processes assumed in the models and of the behavior of estimation techniques. Step-by-step programming provides an understanding of advanced approaches such as stochastic frontier analysis and stochastic data envelopment analysis. The text is intended for master students interested in empirical production and efficiency analysis. Readers are assumed to have a general background in production economics and econometrics, typically taught in introductory microeconomics and econometrics courses.

  9. PRODUCT EFFICIENCY IN THE SPANISH AUTOMOBILE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates product efficiency in the Spanish automobile market. We use non parametric frontier techniques in order to estimate product efficiency scores for each model. These scores reflect the minimum price for which each car could be sold, given the bundle of tangible features it offers in comparison to the best-buy models. Unlike previous research, we use discounted prices which have been adjusted by car dealerships to meet sale targets. Therefore, we interpret the efficiency scores as indicators of the value of the intangible features of the brand. The results show that Audi, Volvo, Volkswagen and Mercedes offer the greatest intangible value, since they are heavily overpriced in terms of price/product ratios. Conversely, Seat, Kia, Renault and Dacia are the brands that can be taken as referent in terms of price/product ratios.

  10. The Emergence and Challenging Growth of the Bio-Ethanol Innovation System in Taiwan (1949–2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Chao-Chen; Yang, Siang-Cing

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the bio-ethanol innovation system in Taiwan from the perspective of a technology innovation system (TIS). Taiwan is a newly industrialized country and is not currently a main producer of bio-ethanol. This study analyzes the evolution of bio-ethanol innovation system in Taiwan and places a particular emphasis on challenges that present policies face in the context of potential long-term bio-ethanol development. Through an evaluation of the consistency of the present research, technology, development and innovation (RTDI) policies as well as the influence of these policies on the functional dynamics of bio-ethanol innovation system, mechanisms prohibiting the system from flourishing are determined. It is suggested that the production of bio-ethanol in Taiwan would be achieved if the government: (1) fixes long-term targets for both domestic bio-ethanol development and emission reduction; and (2) comprehensively designs a set of interrelated RTDI policies in accordance with the functional pattern of the bio-ethanol innovation system and consistently implements these policies. If such measures were implemented, it is considered that the bio-ethanol innovation system in Taiwan would flourish. PMID:26907306

  11. The Emergence and Challenging Growth of the Bio-Ethanol Innovation System in Taiwan (1949-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Chao-Chen; Yang, Siang-Cing

    2016-02-19

    This study explores the bio-ethanol innovation system in Taiwan from the perspective of a technology innovation system (TIS). Taiwan is a newly industrialized country and is not currently a main producer of bio-ethanol. This study analyzes the evolution of bio-ethanol innovation system in Taiwan and places a particular emphasis on challenges that present policies face in the context of potential long-term bio-ethanol development. Through an evaluation of the consistency of the present research, technology, development and innovation (RTDI) policies as well as the influence of these policies on the functional dynamics of bio-ethanol innovation system, mechanisms prohibiting the system from flourishing are determined. It is suggested that the production of bio-ethanol in Taiwan would be achieved if the government: (1) fixes long-term targets for both domestic bio-ethanol development and emission reduction; and (2) comprehensively designs a set of interrelated RTDI policies in accordance with the functional pattern of the bio-ethanol innovation system and consistently implements these policies. If such measures were implemented, it is considered that the bio-ethanol innovation system in Taiwan would flourish.

  12. The Emergence and Challenging Growth of the Bio-Ethanol Innovation System in Taiwan (1949–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Chen Chung

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the bio-ethanol innovation system in Taiwan from the perspective of a technology innovation system (TIS. Taiwan is a newly industrialized country and is not currently a main producer of bio-ethanol. This study analyzes the evolution of bio-ethanol innovation system in Taiwan and places a particular emphasis on challenges that present policies face in the context of potential long-term bio-ethanol development. Through an evaluation of the consistency of the present research, technology, development and innovation (RTDI policies as well as the influence of these policies on the functional dynamics of bio-ethanol innovation system, mechanisms prohibiting the system from flourishing are determined. It is suggested that the production of bio-ethanol in Taiwan would be achieved if the government: (1 fixes long-term targets for both domestic bio-ethanol development and emission reduction; and (2 comprehensively designs a set of interrelated RTDI policies in accordance with the functional pattern of the bio-ethanol innovation system and consistently implements these policies. If such measures were implemented, it is considered that the bio-ethanol innovation system in Taiwan would flourish.

  13. Malmquist Productivity Index on Efficiency Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Rezai balf ∗

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA, a popular linear programming technique is useful to rate comparatively operational effiency of decision Making Unit (DMU based on the their deterministic inputoutput data. The Malmquist productivity index in DEA, calculable with the distance function, for measurement the productivity change among two variant time period or two variant group in the same time. This index is based on two factor of efficiency change index and a technological change index. In this paper, we operate on the collective Malmquist productivity index, which performs clustering operation DMUs with classification into different levels of efficient frontier, and then we discuss on the relation between Malmquist index on the efficiency layers and their attractiveness and progress

  14. Assessment of bio-ethanol as a transport fuel in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrow, J.E.; Coombs, J.; Lees, E.W.

    1987-10-01

    The technical and economic issues associated with the production of bio-ethanol as a road transport fuel (fuel ethanol) in the UK are assessed. This volume addresses the current situation (May 1987) and covers the production of bio-ethanol from available raw materials using technology that is well established on an industrial scale, as well as the use of ethanol-petrol blends in existing petrol engines.

  15. Efficiency and productivity of hospitals in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thuy Linh

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the relative efficiency and productivity of hospitals during the health reform process. Data envelopment analyses method (DEA) with the input-oriented variable-returns-to-scale model was used to calculate efficiency scores. Malmquist total factor productivity index approach was then employed to calculate productivity of hospitals. Data of 101 hospitals was extracted from databases of the Ministry of Health, Vietnam from the years 1998 to 2006. There was evidence of improvement in overall technical efficiency from 65 per cent in 1998 to 76 per cent in 2006. Hospitals' productivity progressed around 1.4 per cent per year, which was mainly due to the technical efficiency improvement. Furthermore, provincial hospitals were more technically efficient than their central counterparts and hospitals located in different regions performed differently. The paper provides an insight in the performance of Vietnamese public hospitals that has been rarely examined before and contributes to the existing literature of hospital performance in developing countries

  16. Artificial neural networks: an efficient tool for modelling and optimization of biofuel production (a mini review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewsynker-Sukai, Yeshona; Faloye, Funmilayo; Kana, Evariste Bosco Gueguim

    2016-01-01

    In view of the looming energy crisis as a result of depleting fossil fuel resources and environmental concerns from greenhouse gas emissions, the need for sustainable energy sources has secured global attention. Research is currently focused towards renewable sources of energy due to their availability and environmental friendliness. Biofuel production like other bioprocesses is controlled by several process parameters including pH, temperature and substrate concentration; however, the improvement of biofuel production requires a robust process model that accurately relates the effect of input variables to the process output. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have emerged as a tool for modelling complex, non-linear processes. ANNs are applied in the prediction of various processes; they are useful for virtual experimentations and can potentially enhance bioprocess research and development. In this study, recent findings on the application of ANN for the modelling and optimization of biohydrogen, biogas, biodiesel, microbial fuel cell technology and bioethanol are reviewed. In addition, comparative studies on the modelling efficiency of ANN and other techniques such as the response surface methodology are briefly discussed. The review highlights the efficiency of ANNs as a modelling and optimization tool in biofuel process development

  17. Bioethanol from lignocellulose. An ecological and economic assessment of selected concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meisel, Kathleen; Zech, Konstantin; Mueller-Langer, Franziska

    2014-01-01

    Against the background of an increased use of residual and waste materials in this paper the specific GHG emissions and production costs of different lignocellulosic based bioethanol concepts are assessed and compared to a conventional wheat based bioethanol concept and to the fossil reference. In order to find the best concept regarding both the environment and the economics the GHG emissions and production costs are compared and the GHG mitigation costs are calculated. Concept 5 (reference concept with C5 sugar to bioethanol and a natural gas-/biogasboiler) could be a good compromise between the both targets. Furthermore this concept has lower GHG emissions and lower production costs compared to the conventional wheat based bioethanol concept.

  18. FOOD VS. FUEL – A TURNING POINT FOR BIOETHANOL?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Harlander

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently concerns have been raised that biofuels would affect food prices. Bioethanol is made from sugar or starch containing plants that are also used in food production. In public perception this led to an emotional resistance against biofuels that in real terms is not substantiated. Generally, biofuels are a political product. Triggered by the oil crisis in the early 1970ies national fuel ethanol programmes were first laun