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Sample records for efficiency wall coating

  1. ICRF boronization. A new technique towards high efficiency wall coating for superconducting tokamak reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jiangang; Zhao Yan Ping; Gu Xue Mao

    1999-01-01

    A new technique for wall conditioning that will be especially useful for future larger superconducting tokamaks, such as ITER, has been successfully developed and encouraging results have been obtained. Solid carborane powder, which is non-toxic and non-explosive, was used. Pulsed RF plasma was produced by a non-Faraday shielding RF antenna with RF power of 10 kW. The ion temperature was about 2 keV with a toroidal magnetic field of 1.8 T and a pressure of 3x10 -1 Pa. Energetic ions broke up the carborane molecules, and the resulting boron ions struck and were deposited on the first wall. In comparison with glow discharge cleaning boronization, the B/C coating film shows higher adhesion, more uniformity and longer lifetime during plasma discharges. The plasma performance was improved after ICRF boronization. (author). Letter-to-the-editor

  2. Characteristics of wall pressure over wall with permeable coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Woo Seog; Shin, Seungyeol; Lee, Seungbae [Inha Univ., Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    Fluctuating wall pressures were measured using an array of 16 piezoelectric transducers beneath a turbulent boundary layer. The coating used in this experiment was an open cell, urethane type foam with a porosity of approximately 50 ppi. The ultimate objective of the coating is to provide a mechanical filter to reduce the wall pressure fluctuations. The ultimate objective of the coating is to provide a mechanical filter to reduce the wall pressure fluctuations. The boundary layer on the flat plate was measured by using a hot wire probe, and the CPM method was used to determine the skin friction coefficient. The wall pressure autospectra and streamwise wavenumber frequency spectra were compared to assess the attenuation of the wall pressure field by the coating. The coating is shown to attenuate the convective wall pressure energy. However, the relatively rough surface of the coating in this investigation resulted in a higher mean wall shear stress, thicker boundary layer, and higher low frequency wall pressure spectral levels compared to a smooth wall.

  3. Tokamak first-wall coating program development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, M.J.; Langley, R.A.; Prevender, T.S.

    1977-08-01

    The development of a research program to study coatings for control of impurities originating from the first wall of a Tokamak reactor is extensively discussed. The first wall environment and sputtering, temperature, surface chemical, and bulk radiation damage effects are reviewed. Candidate materials and application techniques are discussed. The philosophy and flow chart of a recommended coating development plan are presented and discussed. Projected impacts of the proposed plan include benefits to other aspects of confinement experiments. A list of 45 references is appended

  4. Drag reduction in silica nanochannels induced by graphitic wall coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagemann, Enrique; Walther, J. H.; Zambrano, Harvey A.

    2017-11-01

    Transport of water in hydrophilic nanopores is of significant technological and scientific interest. Water flow through hydrophilic nanochannels is known to experience enormous hydraulic resistance. Therefore, drag reduction is essential for the development of highly efficient nanofluidic devices. In this work, we propose the use of graphitic materials as wall coatings in hydrophilic silica nanopores. Specifically, by conducting atomistic simulations, we investigate the flow inside slit and cylindrical silica channels with walls coated with graphene (GE) layers and carbon nanotubes (CNTs), respectively. We develop realistic force fields to simulate the systems of interest and systematically, compare flow rates in coated and uncoated nanochannels under different pressure gradients. Moreover, we assess the effect that GE and CNT translucencies to wettability have on water hydrodynamics in the nanochannels. The influence of channel size is investigated by systematically varying channel heights and nanopore diameters. In particular, we present the computed water density and velocity profiles, volumetric flow rates, slip lengths and flow enhancements, to clearly demonstrate the drag reduction capabilities of graphitic wall coatings. We wish to thank partial funding from CRHIAM Conicyt/ Fondap Project 15130015 and computational support from DTU and NLHPC (Chile).

  5. Coating requirements for an ICF dry-wall design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, L.H.; Sucov, E.W.

    1981-01-01

    A new concept for protecting the first wall of an ICF reactor has been developed which relies heavily on a coating to protect the steel tubes which comprise the first wall. This coating must survive the pellet explosion, be ductile, and be compatible with the materials in the ICF pellet. Calculations indicate that tantalum is the best choice for the coating material and that tantalum coated steel tubes can handle fusion thermal powers of 3500 MW in a 10 m radius spherical chamber

  6. Drag reduction in silica nanochannels induced by graphitic wall coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagemann, Enrique; Walther, Jens Honore; Zambrano, Harvey

    . In this work, we propose the use of graphitic materials as wall coatings in hydrophilic silica nanopores. Specifically, by conducting atomistic simulations, we investigate the flow inside slit and cylindrical silica channels with walls coated with graphene (GE) layers and carbonnanotubes (CNTs), respectively...

  7. High efficiency turbine blade coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youchison, Dennis L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gallis, Michail A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The development of advanced thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) that exhibit lower thermal conductivity through better control of electron beam - physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) processing is of prime interest to both the aerospace and power industries. This report summarizes the work performed under a two-year Lab-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project (38664) to produce lower thermal conductivity, graded-layer thermal barrier coatings for turbine blades in an effort to increase the efficiency of high temperature gas turbines. This project was sponsored by the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Investment Area. Therefore, particular importance was given to the processing of the large blades required for industrial gas turbines proposed for use in the Brayton cycle of nuclear plants powered by high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). During this modest (~1 full-time equivalent (FTE)) project, the processing technology was developed to create graded TBCs by coupling ion beam-assisted deposition (IBAD) with substrate pivoting in the alumina-YSZ system. The Electron Beam - 1200 kW (EB-1200) PVD system was used to deposit a variety of TBC coatings with micron layered microstructures and reduced thermal conductivity below 1.5 W/m.K. The use of IBAD produced fully stoichiometric coatings at a reduced substrate temperature of 600°C and a reduced oxygen background pressure of 0.1 Pa. IBAD was also used to successfully demonstrate the transitioning of amorphous PVD-deposited alumina to the -phase alumina required as an oxygen diffusion barrier and for good adhesion to the substrate Ni2Al3 bondcoat. This process replaces the time consuming thermally grown oxide formation required before the YSZ deposition. In addition to the process technology, Direct Simulation Monte Carlo plume modeling and spectroscopic characterization of the PVD plumes were performed. The project consisted of five tasks. These included the

  8. High emissivity TiC coatings for a first wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groot, P.

    1991-08-01

    Part of the First Wall of the conceptual design of Next European Torus NET consist of radiation cooled carbon tiles. Tile temperature is determined by the optical properties of facing surfaces. Heat transfer to the 316 stainless steel structure can be improved by applying a high emissivity coating. For this purpose ceramic coatings can be applied. This paper deals with development and characterization of atmospheric and vacuum plasma sprayed titanium carbide as high emissivity coatings. Microstructural evaluation of these coatings includes X-ray diffraction and light microscopy of cross-sections. Total emissivities of vacuum and atmospheric plasma sprayed TiC coatings were measured at 525 K at PTB Braunschweig. Reflection measurements were performed at ECN Petten by using a YAG laser with wavelength 1.06 μm at room temperature. The effects of compositional differences on optical properties are discussed. (author). 9 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 tab

  9. Domain-wall dynamics in glass-coated magnetic microwires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varga, R.; Zhukov, A.; Usov, N.; Blanco, J.M.; Gonzalez, J.; Zhukova, V.; Vojtanik, P.

    2007-01-01

    Glass-coated magnetic microwires with positive magnetostriction show peculiar domain structure that consists mostly of one large domain with magnetization-oriented axially. It was shown that small closure domains appear at the end of the microwire in order to decrease the stray fields. As a result of such domain structure, the magnetization reversal in axial direction runs through the depinning of one of such closure domains and subsequent propagation of the corresponding domain wall. Quite unusual domain-wall (DW) dynamics of the DW propagation predicted previously from the theory has been found in such amorphous microwires. In this paper, we are dealing with the DW dynamics of glass-coated microwires with small positive magnetostriction. The DW damping coming from the structural relaxation dominates at low temperatures as a result of the decrease of the mobility of the structural atomic-level defects. Negative critical propagation field points to the possible DW propagation without applied magnetic field. Probable explanation could be in terms of the effective mass of the DW

  10. First-wall-coating candidates for ICF reactor chambers using dry-wall protection only

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sink, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty pure metals were considered as potential candidates for first-wall coatings of ICF reactor chambers. Seven were found to merit further consideration based on the results of computer-code calculations of figures-of-merit. The seven are rhenium, iridium, molybdenum, chromium, tungsten, tantalum, and niobium (listed in order of decreasing values of figures-of-merit). The calculations are based on mechanical, thermal, and vacuum vaporization engineering constraints. A number of alloys of these seven metals are suggested as additional candidates

  11. Energy efficient residential house wall system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldawi, Fayez; Date, Abhijit; Alam, Firoz; Khan, Iftekhar; Alghamdi, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    The energy consumption and greenhouse gas emission by the residential housing sector are considered to be one of the largest in economically developed countries. The larger energy consumption and greenhouse gas emission not only put additional pressure on finite fossil fuel resources but also cause global warming and climate change. Additionally, the residential housing sector will be consuming more energy as the house demand and average house floor area are progressively increasing. With currently used residential house wall systems, it is hard to reduce energy consumption for ongoing house space heating and cooling. A smart house wall envelope with optimal thermal masses and insulation materials is vital for reducing our increasing energy consumption. The major aim of this study is to investigate thermal performance and energy saving potential of a new house wall system for variable climate conditions. The thermal performance modelling was carried out using commercially developed software AccuRate ® . The findings indicate that a notable energy savings can be accomplished if a smart house wall system is used. -- Highlights: • Smart house wall system. • Thermal performance modelling and star energy rating. • Energy savings and greenhouse gas reduction

  12. INTEGRATED ENERGY EFFICIENT WINDOW-WALL SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Arney, Ph.D.

    2002-12-31

    The building industry faces the challenge of reducing energy use while simultaneously improving construction methods and marketability. This paper describes the first phase of a project to address these concerns by designing an Integrated Window Wall System (IWWS) that can be commercialized. This work builds on previous research conducted during the 1990's by Lawrence Berkeley national Laboratories (LBNL). During this phase, the objective was to identify appropriate technologies, problems and issues and develop a number of design concepts. Four design concepts were developed into prototypes and preliminary energy analyses were conducted Three of these concepts (the foam wall, steel wall, and stiffened plate designs) showed particular potential for meeting the project objectives and will be continued into a second phase where one or two of the systems will be brought closer to commercialization.

  13. Ni-coated multi-walled carbon nanotubes enhanced the magnetorheological performance of magnetorheological gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Pingan; Yu, Miao, E-mail: yumiao@cqu.edu.cn; Fu, Jie [Chongqing University, Key Lab for Optoelectronic Technology and Systems, Ministry of Education, College of Optoelectronic Engineering (China)

    2016-03-15

    As a kind of new Magnetorheological (MR) material, MR Gel (MRG) can be regarded as the analog of MR fluid (MRF), which can overcome the iron particles sedimentation and unstable application of MRF. Normally, the storage modulus of conventional MRG is relatively small, although it has a very high relative MR effect. Therefore, practical engineering application of conventional MRG has been restricted more or less. In this work, an MRG with high magneto-induced shear storage modulus and excellent relative MR effect has been fabricated by incorporating Ni-coated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (Ni-coated MWCNTs). And several polyurethane-based MRG composites with the addition of Ni-coated MWCNTs were prepared. The dynamic mechanical property of those MRG composites with applying magnetic field is researched through an advanced commercial rheometer. The experimental results indicated that the initial storage modulus and magneto-induced modulus in sample 4 (containing 6 wt% of the Ni-coated MWCNTs) were approximately 4.45 and 2.27 times than that in the sample 1 (without Ni-coated MWCNTs). Moreover, the relative MR effect of sample 4 can reach 3427 %. The high modulus of sample 4 can be mainly attributed to the following points. One is the Ni-coated MWCNTs can be aligned along the direction of the magnetic field within the matrix which provided a better reinforcing efficiency. The other is Ni-coated MWCNTs can be made to form a better bonding between the iron particles and the matrix. It is concluded that this study provides a meaningful way to improve the mechanical properties of MRG and expected to promote the application of MRG in practice.

  14. SIMS investigations of wall coatings for application in nuclear fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedbacher, G.; Virag, A.; Grasserbauer, M.; Esser, H.G.; Wienhold, P.

    1989-01-01

    Carbon coated metals have proven to be useful materials for limiters and the first wall in fusion reactors. In this paper SIMS investigations of a-C:B single coated and a-C:D/a-C:B double coated stainless steel samples, which have been exposed to TOKAMAK discharges in deuterium and helium, are described. (orig.)

  15. Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube-Assisted Electrodeposition of Silver Dendrite Coating as a Catalytic Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Fu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT-coated indium tin oxide (ITO slide was used as a platform for the growth of a silver dendrite (Ag-D film using cyclic voltammetry. The particular dendritic nanostructures were formed by the diffusion-limited-aggregation model due to the potential difference between the MWCNTs and the ITO surface. The Ag-D-coated ITO film was then used for the catalytic degradation of methyl orange (MO and methylene blue (MB under static aqueous conditions. The network structure of the Ag-D allows the efficient diffusion of MO and MB, and consequently enhances the catalytic performance. Since the thin film is much easier to use for the post-treatment of powder catalysts, the proposed method shows great potential in many catalytic applications.

  16. Single-walled carbon nanotubes/hydroxyapatite coatings on titanium obtained by electrochemical deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, Xibo; Zeng, Yongxiang; He, Rui; Li, Zhongjie; Tian, Lingyang; Wang, Jian; Wan, Qianbing; Li, Xiaoyu; Bao, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The incorporation of SWNTs into the HA coating leaded to the formation of homogeneous and crack-free composite coatings. • The highest bonding strength was detected for the SWNTs/HA-0.5 composite coating (25.70 MPa). • The SWNTs/HA composite coatings induced better cell proliferation, cell viability and ALP activity compared to pure HA coating and pure Ti. • The results suggested that SWNTs/HA-0.5 and SWNTs/HA-1.0 composite coating prepared in this work is acceptable in terms of mechanical property and in-vitro bioactivity. - Abstract: Single-walled carbon nanotubes/hydroxyapatite (SWNTs/HA) composite coatings were successfully fabricated by electrochemical deposition technique. Different concentrations of SWNTs were incorporated into the apatite coating by adding functionalized SWNTs into the electrolyte. Homogeneous and crack-free SWNTs/HA composite coatings were achieved and the coatings had higher crystallinity compared to pure HA coating. In addition, the highest bonding strength of the SWNTs/HA coating reached 25.7 MPa, which was nearly 70% higher than that of pure HA coating. The in-vitro cellular biocompatibility tests revealed that SWNTs/HA composite coatings exhibited higher in-vitro bioactivity than that of pure HA coating and pure titanium (Ti). It suggests that SWNTs/HA composite coating may have enormous potential applications in the field of biomaterials, especially for the metal implants

  17. Single-walled carbon nanotubes/hydroxyapatite coatings on titanium obtained by electrochemical deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, Xibo; Zeng, Yongxiang [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Department of Prosthodontics, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); He, Rui [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Department of Stomatology, the Affiliated Hospital of Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310015 (China); Li, Zhongjie; Tian, Lingyang [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Department of Prosthodontics, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Wang, Jian, E-mail: fero@scu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Department of Prosthodontics, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Wan, Qianbing, E-mail: pxb1024@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Department of Prosthodontics, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Li, Xiaoyu [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Bao, Hong [Department of Stomatology, Hospital of Chengdu Office of People' s Government of Tibetan Autonomous Region, Chengdu 610000 (China)

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The incorporation of SWNTs into the HA coating leaded to the formation of homogeneous and crack-free composite coatings. • The highest bonding strength was detected for the SWNTs/HA-0.5 composite coating (25.70 MPa). • The SWNTs/HA composite coatings induced better cell proliferation, cell viability and ALP activity compared to pure HA coating and pure Ti. • The results suggested that SWNTs/HA-0.5 and SWNTs/HA-1.0 composite coating prepared in this work is acceptable in terms of mechanical property and in-vitro bioactivity. - Abstract: Single-walled carbon nanotubes/hydroxyapatite (SWNTs/HA) composite coatings were successfully fabricated by electrochemical deposition technique. Different concentrations of SWNTs were incorporated into the apatite coating by adding functionalized SWNTs into the electrolyte. Homogeneous and crack-free SWNTs/HA composite coatings were achieved and the coatings had higher crystallinity compared to pure HA coating. In addition, the highest bonding strength of the SWNTs/HA coating reached 25.7 MPa, which was nearly 70% higher than that of pure HA coating. The in-vitro cellular biocompatibility tests revealed that SWNTs/HA composite coatings exhibited higher in-vitro bioactivity than that of pure HA coating and pure titanium (Ti). It suggests that SWNTs/HA composite coating may have enormous potential applications in the field of biomaterials, especially for the metal implants.

  18. Control over the resonance wavelength of fibre Bragg gratings using resistive coatings based on single-wall carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladush, Yu. G.; Medvedkov, O. I.; Vasil'ev, S. A.; Kopylova, D. S.; Yakovlev, V. Ya.; Nasibulin, A. G.

    2016-10-01

    We demonstrate that a thin resistive coating based on single-wall carbon nanotubes applied to the lateral surface of an optical fibre allows it to be uniformly heated up to a temperature of ∼ 400 \\circ{\\text{C}} without damage to the coating. Using a fibre Bragg grating (FBG) as an example, we assess the efficiency of resonance wavelength thermal tuning and examine frequency characteristics that can be achieved using such coating. In particular, we show that the resonance wavelength of the FBG can be tuned over 3.2 {\\text{nm}} with an efficiency of 8.7 {\\text{nm}} {\\text{W}}-1 and time constant of ∼ 0.4 {\\text{s}}.

  19. Scope of work for evaluating the mechanical performance of EPR first wall coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, W.B.; Van Den Avyle, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    An outline is presented for a proposed scope of work to evaluate the mechanical performance of candidate first wall coatings for a Tokamak-type fusion reactor. The goal of the overall program is to provide an adequate coating material and recoating process which can be manufactured by currently available vendors

  20. Rain and contamination tests on HVDC wall bushings with and without RTV coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, H.M.; Hall, J.F.; Nellis, C.L.; Low, S.S.; Lorden, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper results of tests made to determine the ability of room temperature vulcanized (RTV) silicone rubber coatings to improve the performance of HVDC wall bushings are described. The behavior of uncoated full scale ± 500 kV wall bushings is first determined in wetting conditions consisting of nonuniform rain and fog with various amounts of pre-deposited surface contamination. Parameters affecting flashover performance, such as polarity, rain conductivity, and contamination severity are discussed. Results of nonuniform rain tests on an RTV coated wall bushing are reported

  1. ELECTROPHORETIC DEPOSITION OF TIO2-MULTI-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBE COMPOSITE COATINGS: MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. MAHMOUDI JOZEE

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A homogenous TiO2 / multi-walled carbon nanotubes(MWCNTs composite film were prepared by electrophoretic co-deposition from organic suspension on a stainless steel substrate.  In this study, MWCNTs was incorporated to the coating because of their long structure and their capability to be functionalized by different inorganic groups on the surface. FTIR spectroscopy showed the existence of carboxylic groups on the modified carbon nanotubes surface. The effect of applied electrical fields, deposition time and concentration of nanoparticulates on coatings morphology were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. It was found that combination of MWCNTs within TiO2 matrix eliminating micro cracks presented on TiO2 coating. Also, by increasing the deposition voltages, micro cracks were increased. SEM observation of the coatings revealed that TiO2/multi-walled carbon nanotubes coatings produced from optimized electric field was uniform and had good adhesive to the substrate.

  2. Development of an efficient Procedure for Resist Wall Space Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Shouhei; Kumasaki, Saori; Higuchi, Sayoko; Kirihata, Kuniaki; Inoue, Yasue; Fujie, Miho; Soga, Kouichi; Wakabayashi, Kazuyuki; Hoson, Takayuki

    The Resist Wall space experiment aims to examine the role of the cortical microtubule-plasma membrane-cell wall continuum in plant resistance to the gravitational force, thereby clarifying the mechanism of gravity resistance. For this purpose, we will cultivate Arabidopsis mutants defective in organization of cortical microtubules (tua6 ) or synthesis of membrane sterols (hmg1 ) as well as the wild type under microgravity and 1 g conditions in the European Modular Cultivation System on the International Space Station up to reproductive stage, and compare phenotypes on growth and development. We will also analyze cell wall properties and gene expression levels using collected materials. However, the amounts of materials collected will be severely limited, and we should develop an efficient procedure for this space experiment. In the present study, we examined the possibility of analyzing various parameters successively using the identical material. On orbit, plant materials will be fixed with RNAlater solution, kept at 4° C for several days and then frozen in a freezer at -20° C. We first examined whether the cell wall extensibility of inflorescence stems can be measured after RNAlater fixation. The gradient of the cell wall extensibility along inflorescence stems was detected in RNAlater-fixed materials as in methanol-killed ones. The sufficient amounts of RNA to analyze the gene expression were also obtained from the materials after measurement of the cell wall extensibility. Furthermore, the levels and composition of cell wall polysaccharides could be measured using the materials after extraction of RNA. These results show that we can analyze the physical and chemical properties of the cell wall as well as gene expression using the identical material obtained in the space experiments.

  3. Gas sensors for ammonia detection based on polyaniline-coated multi-wall carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Lifang; Jia Yong; Meng Fanli; Li Minqiang; Liu Jinhuai

    2009-01-01

    Polyaniline-coated multi-wall carbon nanotubes (PANI-coated MWNTs) were prepared by in situ polymerization method. Field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis were used to characterize the as-prepared PANI-coated MWNTs. Obtained results indicated that PANI was uniformly coated on MWNTs, and the thickness of the coatings can be controlled by changing the weight ratios of aniline monomer and MWNTs in the polymerization process. Sensors were fabricated by spin-coating onto pre-patterned electrodes, and ammonia gas sensing properties of the as-prepared PANI-coated MWNTs were studied. The results showed a good response and reproducibility towards ammonia at room temperature. In addition, PANI-coated MWNTs exhibited a linear response to ammonia in the range of 0.2-15 ppm. The effects of the thickness of PANI coatings on the gas sensing properties were also investigated in detail. The results suggest a potential application of PANI-coated MWNTs in gas sensor for detecting ammonia.

  4. Optically and biologically active mussel protein-coated double-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yong Chae; Muramatsu, Hiroyuki; Fujisawa, Kazunori; Kim, Jin Hee; Hayashi, Takuya; Kim, Yoong Ahm; Endo, Morinobu; Terrones, Mauricio; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2011-12-02

    A method of dispersing strongly bundled double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs) via a homogeneous coating of mussel protein in an aqueous solution is presented. Optical activity, mechanical strength, as well as electrical conductivity coming from the nanotubes and the versatile biological activity from the mussel protein make mussel-coated DWNTs promising as a multifunctional scaffold and for anti-fouling materials. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Adhesion mechanism of salmon to polymer-coated can walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dommershuijzen, H.; Hviid, L.; Hartog, den H.; Vereijken, J.

    2005-01-01

    Minimization of the amount of salmon adhering to the can wall after emptying is one of the convenience requirements of consumers of canned salmon. In order to achieve this, the mechanism by which salmon adheres to cans needs to be understood. The aim of this study was to provide such knowledge for

  6. Improving the efficiency of photovoltaic (PV) panels by oil coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd-Elhady, M.S.; Fouad, M.M.; Khalil, T.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • It is possible to improve the efficiency of PV panels by increasing the amount of light transmitted to the panel. • Coating PV panels by a fine layer of Labovac oil increases the amount of sun light transmitted to the panel. • Coating PV panels by a fine layer of Labovac oil increases the power output of the panel. • Coating PV panels with a layer of Labovac oil has to be applied in cold countries and not in hot regions. - Abstract: The objective of this research is to develop a new technique for improving the efficiency of Photovoltaic (PV) panels. This technique is done by coating the front surface of the PV panel by a fine layer of oil in order to increase the amount of light transmitted to the panel, and consequently its efficiency. Different types of oils are examined, including both mineral oils and natural oils. In case of mineral oils; vacuum pump oil (Labovac oil), engine oil (Mobil oil) and brake oil (Abro oil) are examined, while in case of natural oils; olive and sunflower oils are examined. An experimental setup has been developed to examine the performance of the PV panels as a function of oil coatings. The experimental setup consists of an artificial sun, the PV panel under investigation, a cooling system and a measuring system to measure the performance of the panel. It has been found that coating the PV panel with a fine layer of Labovac oil, ∼1 mm thick, improves the efficiency of the PV panel by more than 20%, and this is due to the high transmissivity of the Labovac oil compared to other oils. However, the Labovac oil has a drawback which is overheating of the panel due to its high transmissivity. Coating of PV panels with a fine layer of Labovac oil should be done only in cold regions, in order to avoid the heating effect that can decrease the power output of PV panels.

  7. Domain-walls motion in glass-coated CoFeSiB amorphous microwires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonov, A.S. E-mail: as.antonov@mtu-net.ru; Buznikov, N.A.; Granovsky, A.B.; Joura, A.V.; Rakhmanov, A.L.; Yakunin, A.M

    2002-08-01

    A method for observation of domain-walls motion in amorphous microwires with circular magnetic anisotropy is proposed. Using the method, the magnetization reversal of glass-coated Co-based microwires induced by current pulses of high amplitude is studied. The magnetization reversal is shown to occur due to the nucleation of the domain walls at the sample ends and their subsequent motion along the microwire. The dependencies of the domain-wall velocity on the current pulse amplitude and a longitudinal DC magnetic field are measured. A model describing main features of experimental data is presented.

  8. Domain-walls motion in glass-coated CoFeSiB amorphous microwires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonov, A.S.; Buznikov, N.A.; Granovsky, A.B.; Joura, A.V.; Rakhmanov, A.L.; Yakunin, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    A method for observation of domain-walls motion in amorphous microwires with circular magnetic anisotropy is proposed. Using the method, the magnetization reversal of glass-coated Co-based microwires induced by current pulses of high amplitude is studied. The magnetization reversal is shown to occur due to the nucleation of the domain walls at the sample ends and their subsequent motion along the microwire. The dependencies of the domain-wall velocity on the current pulse amplitude and a longitudinal DC magnetic field are measured. A model describing main features of experimental data is presented

  9. On-Chip Manipulation of Protein-Coated Magnetic Beads via Domain-Wall Conduits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donolato, Marco; Vavassori, Paolo; Gobbi, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Geometrically constrained magnetic domain walls (DWs) in magnetic nanowires can be manipulated at the nanometer scale. The inhomogeneous magnetic stray field generated by a DW can capture a magnetic nanoparticle in solution. On-chip nanomanipulation of individual magnetic beads coated with proteins...

  10. Testing of beryllium marker coatings in PISCES-B for the JET ITER-like wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widdowson, A.; Baldwin, M.J.; Coad, J.P.; Doerner, R.P.; Hanna, J.; Hole, D.E.; Matthews, G.F.; Rubel, M.; Seraydarian, R.; Xu, H.

    2009-01-01

    Beryllium has been chosen as the first wall material for ITER. In order to understand the issues of material migration and tritium retention associated with the use of beryllium, a largely beryllium first wall will be installed in JET. As part of the JET ITER-like wall, beryllium tiles with marker coatings are proposed as a diagnostic tool for studying the erosion and deposition of beryllium around the vessel. The nominal structure for these coatings is a ∼10 μm beryllium surface layer separated from the beryllium tile by a 2-3 μm metallic inter-layer. Two types of coatings are tested here; one with a nickel inter-layer and one with a copper/beryllium mixed inter-layer. The coating samples were deposited by DC magnetron sputtering at General Atomics and were exposed to deuterium plasma in PISCES-B. The results of this testing show that the beryllium/nickel marker coating would be suitable for installation in JET.

  11. Development of TiC coated wall materials for JT-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, T.; Murakami, Y.; Obara, K.; Hiroki, S.; Nakamura, K.; Inagawa, K.

    1985-01-01

    Development of titanium carbide (TiC, 20 μm thick) coated wall materials has been carried out for JT-60. Application of TiC coatings onto molybdenum and Inconel 625 substrates requires a deposition temperature below 950 0 C and 600 0 C respectively, because recrystallization of molybdenum and age hardening of Inconel 625 occur above these temperatures. Through this process of coating we develop a new type plasma CVD(TP-CVD method) for molybdenum and a new type PVD(HCD-ARE method) for Inconel 625 which could successfully reduce the deposition temperature to 900 0 C and 500 0 C, respectively. The TiC coated wall samples were characterized by AES, ESCA, X-ray diffractometer, EPMA, SEM, metalography, tensile tests, thermal shock tests, and other techniques. As a result of the above measurements, it was demonstrated that the characteristics of those TiC coated walls satisfy the requirements arising from JT-60 operation conditions. (orig.)

  12. An efficient biomimetic coating methodology for a prosthetic alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adawy, Alaa; Abdel-Fattah, Wafa I.

    2013-01-01

    The combination of the load-bearing metallic implants with the bioactive materials in the design of synthetic implants is an important aspect in the biomaterials research. Biomimetic coating of bioinert alloys with calcium phosphate phases provides a good alternative to the prerequisite for the continual replacement of implants because of the failure of bone-implant integration. We attempted to accelerate the biomimetic coating process of stainless steel alloy (316L) with biomimetic apatite. In addition, we investigated the incorporation of functioning minerals such as strontianite and smithsonite into the deposited layer. In order to develop a highly mature apatite coating, our method requires soaking of the pre-treated alloy in highly concentrated synthetic body fluid for only few hours. Surface characterizations were performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFTS). Also, the deposited apatitic layers were analysed by powder diffraction X-ray analysis (XRD). 316L surface showed the growth of highly crystalline, low carbonated hydroxyapatite, after only 6 h of the whole soaking process. Highlights: ► The manuscript describes a fast and efficient biomimetic coating methodology. ► This methodology can be used for metallic implants. ► 316L was coated with crystalline hydroxyapatite. ► Addition of strontium and zinc lead to the deposition of brushite. ► Coating of all synthetic solutions is highly crystalline

  13. Fiber-optic anemometer based on single-walled carbon nanotube coated tilted fiber Bragg grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Wang, Fang; Liu, Zigeng; Duan, Zhihui; Cui, Wenli; Han, Jie; Gu, Yiying; Wu, Zhenlin; Jing, Zhenguo; Sun, Changsen; Peng, Wei

    2017-10-02

    In this work, a novel and simple optical fiber hot-wire anemometer based on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) coated tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) is proposed and demonstrated. For the hot-wire wind speed sensor design, TFBG is an ideal in-fiber sensing structure due to its unique features. It is utilized as both light coupling and temperature sensing element without using any geometry-modified or uncommon fiber, which simplifies the sensor structure. To further enhance the thermal conversion capability, SWCNTs are coated on the surface of the TFBG instead of traditional metallic materials, which have excellent thermal characteristics. When a laser light is pumped into the sensor, the pump light propagating in the core will be easily coupled into cladding of the fiber via the TFBG and strongly absorbed by the SWCNTs thin film. This absorption acts like a hot-wire raising the local temperature of the fiber, which is accurately detected by the TFBG resonance shift. In the experiments, the sensor's performances were investigated and controlled by adjusting the inherent angle of the TFBG, the thickness of SWCNTs film, and the input power of the pump laser. It was demonstrated that the developed anemometer exhibited significant light absorption efficiency up to 93%, and the maximum temperature of the local area on the fiber was heated up to 146.1°C under the relatively low pump power of 97.76 mW. The sensitivity of -0.3667 nm/(m/s) at wind speed of 1.0 m/s was measured with the selected 12° TFBG and 1.6 μm film.

  14. Bioactivity and electrochemical behavior of hydroxyapatite-silicon-multi walled carbon nano-tubes composite coatings synthesized by EPD on NiTi alloys in simulated body fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalili, V., E-mail: V_khalili@sut.ac.ir [Department of Materials Engineering, Engineering Faculty, University of Bonab, Bonab (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khalil-Allafi, J. [Research Center for Advanced Materials and Mineral Processing, Faculty of Materials Engineering, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Frenzel, J.; Eggeler, G. [Institute for Materials, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Ruhr-University Bochum, 44801 Bochum (Germany)

    2017-02-01

    In order to improve the surface bioactivity of NiTi bone implant and corrosion resistance, hydroxyapatite coating with addition of 20 wt% silicon, 1 wt% multi walled carbon nano-tubes and both of them were deposited on a NiTi substrate using a cathodic electrophoretic method. The apatite formation ability was estimated using immersion test in the simulated body fluid for 10 days. The SEM images of the surface of coatings after immersion in simulated body fluid show that the presence of silicon in the hydroxyapatite coatings accelerates in vitro growth of apatite layer on the coatings. The Open-circuit potential and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were measured to evaluate the electrochemical behavior of the coatings in the simulated body fluid at 37 °C. The results indicate that the compact structure of hydroxyapatite-20 wt% silicon and hydroxyapatite-20 wt% silicon-1 wt% multi walled carbon nano-tubes coatings could efficiently increase the corrosion resistance of NiTi substrate. - Highlights: • The composite coatings of HA, Si and MWCNTs was prepared using electrophoretic deposition. • The presence of 1 wt.% MWCNTs in the HA coating provides more nucleation cites of apatite crystallites in SBF. • The presence of Si in HA coating increases the growth rate of apatite crystallites with the Ca/P atomic ratio of 1.67. • The EIS indicate the compact HA-20%Si and HA-20%Si-1%MWCNTs coatings efficiently increase corrosion resistance of NiTi. • The porous HA and HA-1%MWCNTs do not increase significantly corrosion resistance due to the easy diffusion path.

  15. Si-coated single-walled carbon nanotubes under axial loads: An atomistic simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Haiyang; Zha Xinwei

    2007-01-01

    The mechanical properties of the Si-coated imperfect (5, 5) single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT), the imperfect (5, 5) SWCNT and several perfect armchair SWCNTs under axial loads were investigated using molecular dynamics simulation. The interactions between atoms were modeled using the empirical Tersoff potential and the Tersoff-Brenner potential coupled with the Lennard-Jones potential. We get Young's modulus of the defective (5, 5) nanotube with and without the Si coating under axial tension 1107.92 and 1076.02 GPa, respectively. The results also show that the structure failure of the Si-coated imperfect (5, 5) SWCNT under axial compression occurs at a slightly higher strain than for the perfect (5, 5) SWCNT. Therefore, we can confirm the protective effect of Si as a coating material for defective SWCNTs. We also obtain the critical buckling strains of perfect SWCNTs

  16. A novel radial anode layer ion source for inner wall pipe coating and materials modification--hydrogenated diamond-like carbon coatings from butane gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murmu, Peter P; Markwitz, Andreas; Suschke, Konrad; Futter, John

    2014-08-01

    We report a new ion source development for inner wall pipe coating and materials modification. The ion source deposits coatings simultaneously in a 360° radial geometry and can be used to coat inner walls of pipelines by simply moving the ion source in the pipe. Rotating parts are not required, making the source ideal for rough environments and minimizing maintenance and replacements of parts. First results are reported for diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings on Si and stainless steel substrates deposited using a novel 360° ion source design. The ion source operates with permanent magnets and uses a single power supply for the anode voltage and ion acceleration up to 10 kV. Butane (C4H10) gas is used to coat the inner wall of pipes with smooth and homogeneous DLC coatings with thicknesses up to 5 μm in a short time using a deposition rate of 70 ± 10 nm min(-1). Rutherford backscattering spectrometry results showed that DLC coatings contain hydrogen up to 30 ± 3% indicating deposition of hydrogenated DLC (a-C:H) coatings. Coatings with good adhesion are achieved when using a multiple energy implantation regime. Raman spectroscopy results suggest slightly larger disordered DLC layers when using low ion energy, indicating higher sp(3) bonds in DLC coatings. The results show that commercially interesting coatings can be achieved in short time.

  17. Operation of ASDEX Upgrade with tungsten coated walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohde, V.

    2002-01-01

    An alternative for low-Z materials in the main chamber of a future fusion device are high-Z materials, but the maximal tolerable concentration in the plasma core is restricted. A step by step approach to employ tungsten at the central column of ASDEX Upgrade was started in 1999. Meanwhile almost the whole central column is covered with tiles, which were coated by PVD with tungsten. Up to now 9000 s of plasma discharge covering all relevant scenarios were performed. Routine operation of ASDEX Upgrade was not affected by the tungsten. Typical concentrations below 10 -5 were found. The tungsten concentration is mostly connected to the transport into the core plasma, not to the tungsten erosion. It can be demonstrated, that additional central heating can eliminate the tungsten accumulation. These experiments demonstrate the compatibility of fusion plasmas with W plasma facing components under reactor relevant conditions. The erosion pattern found by post mortem analysis indicates that the main effect is ion sputtering. The main erosion of tungsten seems to occur during plasma ramp-up and ramp-down. (author)

  18. Low-Z coating as a first wall of nuclear fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikama, Tatsuo; Okada, Masatoshi

    1984-01-01

    The tokamak nuclear fusion devices of the largest scale in the world, TFTR in USA and JET in Europe, started the operation from the end of 1982 to 1983. Also in Japan, the tokamak JT-60 is scheduled to begin the operation in 1985. One of the technological obstacles is the problem of first walls facing directly to plasma and subjected to high particle loading and thermal loading. Moreover, first walls achieve the active role of controlling impurities in plasma and recycling hydrogen isotopes. It is impossible to find a single material which satisfies all these requirements. The compounding of materials can create a material having new function, but also has the meaning of expanding the range of material selection. One of the material compounding methods is surface coating. In this paper, as the materials for first walls, the characteristics of low Z materials are discussed from the design examples of actual takamak nuclear fusion devices. The outline of first walls is explained. High priority is given to the impurity control in plasma, and in view of plasma energy emissivity and the rate of self sputtering, low Z material coating seems to be the solution. The merits and the problems of such low Z material coating are discussed. (Kako, I.)

  19. Neutral particle balance in GDT with fast titanium coating of the first wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagryansky, P.A.; Bender, E.D.; Ivanov, A.A.; Krahl, S.; Noack, K.; Karpushov, A.N.; Murakhtin, S.V.; Shikhovtsev, I.V.

    1995-01-01

    The GDT is an axisymmetric open trap with a high mirror ratio for confinement of a collisional plasma. The experimental program of the GDT was focused on the generation of plasma physics database necessary for a GDT-based neutron source. A distinct feature of both GDT and the GDT-based neutron source is that the Larmor radius of the fast sloshing ions is comparable to plasma radius. In this case, the sloshing ions can not be well shielded by the plasma halo from penetration of the neutral gas from periphery that results in high charge exchange losses. The plasma parameters are then very sensitive to gas pressure near the plasma boundary. To reduce the gas pressure to desured value during the beam heating, the authors have used arc-type evaporators developed at the Budker INP for fast titanium coating of the GDT first wall. If needed, the coating can be done a few seconds before each shot. They investigated the neutral particle balance in presence of NB-heating. The inverted magnetron gauges were used to study the temporal dependence of gas pressure inside the central cell. Pyroelectric bolometers were employed to measure the flux of charge exchange neutrals. Neutral particle balance has also been studied numerically by using a gas-transport code. The results of the investigations are the following: (1) sloshing ion lifetime was increased about 10 times compared to that without the coating of the first wall; and (2) wall recycling coefficient of the Ti-coated wall does not exceed 1 for 8 keV mean energy of the neutral hydrogen atoms striking the wall

  20. Quantification of Horseradish Peroxidase Delivery into the Arterial Wall In Vivo as a Model of Local Drug Treatment: Comparison Between a Porous and a Gel-Coated Balloon Catheter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dick, Armin; Kromen, Wolfgang; Juengling, Eberhard; Grosskortenhaus, Stephanie; Kammermeier, Helmut; Vorwerk, Dierk; Guenther, Rolf W.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify horseradish peroxidase (HRP) delivery into the arterial wall, as a model of local drug delivery, and to compare two different percutaneous delivery balloons. Methods: Perforated and hydrophilic hydrogel-coated balloon catheters were used to deliver HRP in aqueous solution into the wall of porcine iliac arteries in vivo. HRP solutions of 1 mg/ml were used together with both perforated and hydrophilic hydrogel-coated balloon catheters and 40 mg/ml HRP solutions were used with the hydrogel-coated balloon only. The amount of HRP deposited in the arterial wall was then determined photospectrometrically. Results: Using the 1 mg/ml HRP solution, the hydrogel-coated balloon absorbed 0.047 mg HRP into the coating. Treatment with this balloon resulted in a mean vessel wall concentration of 7.4 μg HRP/g tissue ± 93% (standard deviation) (n 7). Treatment with the hydrogel-coated balloon that had absorbed 1.88 mg HRP into the coating (using the 40 mg/ml HRP solution) led to a mean vessel wall concentration of 69.5 μg HRP/g tissue ± 74% (n = 7). Treatment with the perforated balloon using 1 mg/ml aqueous HRP solution led to a mean vessel wall concentration of 174 μg/g ± 81% (n = 7). Differences between the hydrogel-coated and perforated balloons (1 mg/g solutions of HRP) and between hydrogel-coated balloons (0.047 mg vs 1.88 mg absorbed into the balloon coating) were significant (p < 0.05; two-sided Wilcoxon test). Conclusions: The use of a perforated balloon catheter allowed the delivery of a higher total amount of HRP compared with the hydrogel-coated balloon, but at the cost of a higher systemic HRP application. To deliver 174 μg HRP per gram of vessel wall with the perforated balloon, 6.5 ± 1.5 mg HRP were lost into the arterial blood (delivery efficiency range = 0.2%-0.3%). With 0.047 mg HRP loaded into the coating of the hydrogel balloon, 7.4 μg HRP could be applied to 1 g of vessel wall (delivery efficiency 1.7%), and with 1.88 mg HRP loaded

  1. Highly efficient catalytic systems based on Pd-coated microbeads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jin Hyun; Cho, Ahyoung; Lee, Seung Hwan; Park, Bumkyo; Kang, Dong Woo; Koo, Chong Min; Yu, Taekyung; Park, Bum Jun

    2018-01-01

    The efficiency of two prototype catalysis systems using palladium (Pd)-coated microparticles was investigated with regard to the recovery and recyclability of the catalytic particles. One such system was the interface-adsorption method, in which polymer particles coated with Pd nanoparticles strongly and irreversibly attach to the oil-water interface. Due to the irreversible adsorption of the catalytic particles to the interface, particle loss was completely prevented while mixing the aqueous solution and while collecting the products. The other system was based on the magnetic field-associated particle recovery method. The use of polymeric microparticles containing Pd nanoparticles and magnetite nanoparticles accelerated the sedimentation of the particles in the aqueous phase by applying a strong magnetic field, consequently suppressing drainage of the particles from the reactor along the product stream. Upon multiple runs of the catalytic reactions, it was found that conversion does not change significantly, demonstrating the excellent recyclability and performance efficiency in the catalytic processes.

  2. Unidirectional effect in domain wall propagation observed in bistable glass-coated microwire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onufer, J., E-mail: jozef.onufer@tuke.sk; Ziman, J., E-mail: jan.ziman@tuke.sk; Kladivová, M., E-mail: maria.kladivova@tuke.sk

    2015-12-15

    Systematic study of domain wall velocity versus applied magnetic field dependences in glass-coated amorphous Fe{sub 77.5}Si{sub 7.5}B{sub 15} wire was carried out, revealing the existence of a very interesting phenomenon. Domain wall mobility can be significantly different in cases when magnetization reversal caused by domain wall motion results in different orientation of magnetization. The magnitude and sign of this so-called unidirectional effect can change along the wire. There are also samples with weak unidirectional effect in which it is possible, in regions of higher values of applied magnetic field, to observe the highest wall velocities. It is very probable that damping of domain wall motion is responsible for this effect. As a hypothesis a mechanism based on eddy current damping of domain wall motion was proposed for interpretation of this effect. In the framework of this mechanism asymmetric and non-linear volt-ampere characteristics of the metal–glass interface might be responsible for the unidirectional effect. - Highlights: • Unidirectional effect in domain wall propagation was observed. • The magnitude and sign of the unidirectional effect can change along the wire. • A hypothesis for interpretation of the unidirectional effect is proposed.

  3. Single-Wall Carbon Nanotube-Coated Cotton Yarn for Electrocardiography Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliang Zhao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We fabricated a type of conductive fabric, specifically single-wall carbon nanotube-coated cotton yarns (SWNT-CYs, for electrocardiography (ECG signal transmission utilizing a “dipping and drying” method. The conductive cotton yarns were prepared by dipping cotton yarns in SWNTs (single-wall carbon nanotubes solutions and then drying them at room temperature—a simple process that shows consistency in successfully coating cotton yarns with conductive carbon nanotubes (CNTs. The influence of fabrication conditions on the conductivity properties of SWNT-CYs was investigated. The results demonstrate that our conductive yarns can transmit weak bio-electrical (i.e., ECG signals without significant attenuation and distortion. Our conductive cotton yarns, which combine the flexibility of conventional fabrics and the good conductivity of SWNTs, are promising materials for wearable electronics and sensor applications in the future.

  4. Ferromagnetic behaviour of polyaniline-coated multi-wall carbon nanotubes containing nickel nanoparticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konyushenko, Elena; Kazantseva, N. E.; Stejskal, Jaroslav; Trchová, Miroslava; Kovářová, Jana; Sapurina, I.; Tomishko, M. M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 320, 3-4 (2008), s. 231-240 ISSN 0304-8853 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4050313; GA AV ČR IAA400500504; GA MŠk ME 847; GA ČR GA202/06/0419 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : multi-wall carbon nanotube * conducting polymer * polyaniline coating Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.283, year: 2008

  5. Multi-wall carbon nanotubes with nitrogen-containing carbon coating

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomšík, Elena; Morávková, Zuzana; Stejskal, Jaroslav; Trchová, Miroslava; Šálek, Petr; Kovářová, Jana; Zemek, Josef; Cieslar, M.; Prokeš, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 8 (2013), s. 1054-1065 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP108/11/P763; GA ČR GAP205/12/0911; GA ČR GA202/09/0428 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : polyaniline coating * carbon ization * multi-wall carbon nanotubes Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry; BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism (FZU-D) Impact factor: 1.193, year: 2013

  6. Study on the L–H transition power threshold with RF heating and lithium-wall coating on EAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Leifeng; Xu, G.S.; Nielsen, Anders Henry

    2016-01-01

    The power threshold for low (L) to high (H) confinement mode transition achieved by radio-frequency (RF) heating and lithium-wall coating is investigated experimentally on EAST for two sets of walls: an all carbon wall (C) and molybdenum chamber and a carbon divertor (Mo/C). For both sets of walls...... Ploss increases with neutral density near the lower X-point in EAST with the Mo/C wall, consistent with previous results in the C wall (Xu et al 2011 Nucl. Fusion 51 072001). These findings suggest that the edge neutral density, the ion ∇B drift as well as the divertor pumping capability play important...

  7. Energy efficiency opportunities within the powder coating industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osbeck, Sofie; Bergek, Charlotte; Klaessbo, Anders (Swerea IVF AB, Moelndal (Sweden)), e-mail: anders.klassbo@swerea.se; Thollander, Patrik; Rohdin, Patrik (Dept. of Management and Engineering, Linkoeping Univeristy, Linkoeping (Sweden)); Harvey, Simon (Dept. of Energy and Environment, Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2011-06-15

    A new challenge to reduce energy usage has emerged in Swedish industry because of increasing energy costs. Energy usage in the Swedish powder coating industry is about 525 GWh annually. This industry has a long and successful record of working towards reduced environmental impact. However, they have not given priority to energy saving investments. Electricity and LPG, for which end-user prices are predicted to increase by as much as 50 - 60% by 2020, are the main energy carriers used in the plants. This paper presents the results of two detailed industrial energy audits conducted with the aim of quantifying the energy efficiency potential for the Swedish powder coating industry. Energy auditing and pinch analysis methods were used to identify possible energy housekeeping measures and heat exchanging opportunities. The biggest users of energy within the plants are the cure oven, drying oven and pre-treatment units. The energy use reduction by the housekeeping measures is 8 - 19% and by thermal heat recovery an additional 8 - 13%. These measures result in an average energy cost saving of 25% and reduction of carbon dioxide emissions of 30%. The results indicate that the powder coating industry has a total energy efficiency potential of at least 20%

  8. High efficiency graphene coated copper based thermocells connected in series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindhuja, Mani; Indubala, Emayavaramban; Sudha, Venkatachalam; Harinipriya, Seshadri

    2018-04-01

    Conversion of low-grade waste heat into electricity had been studied employing single thermocell or flowcells so far. Graphene coated copper electrodes based thermocells connected in series displayed relatively high efficiency of thermal energy harvesting. The maximum power output of 49.2W/m2 for normalized cross sectional electrode area is obtained at 60ºC of inter electrode temperature difference. The relative carnot efficiency of 20.2% is obtained from the device. The importance of reducing the mass transfer and ion transfer resistance to improve the efficiency of the device is demonstrated. Degradation studies confirmed mild oxidation of copper foil due to corrosion caused by the electrolyte.

  9. High Efficiency Graphene Coated Copper Based Thermocells Connected in Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mani Sindhuja

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Conversion of low-grade waste heat into electricity had been studied employing single thermocell or flowcells so far. Graphene coated copper electrodes based thermocells connected in series displayed relatively high efficiency of thermal energy harvesting. The maximum power output of 49.2 W/m2 for normalized cross sectional electrode area is obtained at 60°C of inter electrode temperature difference. The relative carnot efficiency of 20.2% is obtained from the device. The importance of reducing the mass transfer and ion transfer resistance to improve the efficiency of the device is demonstrated. Degradation studies confirmed mild oxidation of copper foil due to corrosion caused by the electrolyte.

  10. The defects influence on domain wall propagation in bistable glass-coated microwires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodionova, V.; Zhukova, V.; Ilyn, M.; Ipatov, M.; Perov, N.; Zhukov, A.

    2012-01-01

    We studied the domain wall (DW) dynamics of magnetically bistable amorphous glass-coated Fe 74 B 13 Si 11 C 2 microwires. In according to our experimental results magnetic field dependences of DW velocity of studied microwires can be divided into two groups: with uniform or uniformly accelerated DW propagation along the microwire. Strong correlation between the type of the magnetic field dependence of domain wall velocity, v(H), and the distribution of the local nucleation fields has been observed. Moreover, we observed abrupt increasing of DW velocity (jump) on the magnetic field dependences of the domain wall velocity, v(H), for the both types of the v(H) dependences. At the same time usual linear increasing of the domain wall velocity with magnetic field persists below these jumps. It was found that the jump height correlates with the location of nucleation place of the new domain wall. We have measured local nucleation field distribution in all the microwires. From local nucleation field distribution we have obtained the DW nucleation locations and estimated the jump height

  11. The defects influence on domain wall propagation in bistable glass-coated microwires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodionova, V. [Magnetism Division, Faculty of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Kaliningrad 236041 (Russian Federation); Dpto. Fisica de Materiales, Fac. Quimicas, UPV/EHU, San Sebastian 20018 (Spain); Zhukova, V., E-mail: valentina.zhukova@ehu.es [Dpto. Fisica de Materiales, Fac. Quimicas, UPV/EHU, San Sebastian 20018 (Spain); Ilyn, M.; Ipatov, M. [Dpto. Fisica de Materiales, Fac. Quimicas, UPV/EHU, San Sebastian 20018 (Spain); Perov, N. [Magnetism Division, Faculty of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Zhukov, A. [Dpto. Fisica de Materiales, Fac. Quimicas, UPV/EHU, San Sebastian 20018 (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, Bilbao 48011 (Spain)

    2012-05-01

    We studied the domain wall (DW) dynamics of magnetically bistable amorphous glass-coated Fe{sub 74}B{sub 13}Si{sub 11}C{sub 2} microwires. In according to our experimental results magnetic field dependences of DW velocity of studied microwires can be divided into two groups: with uniform or uniformly accelerated DW propagation along the microwire. Strong correlation between the type of the magnetic field dependence of domain wall velocity, v(H), and the distribution of the local nucleation fields has been observed. Moreover, we observed abrupt increasing of DW velocity (jump) on the magnetic field dependences of the domain wall velocity, v(H), for the both types of the v(H) dependences. At the same time usual linear increasing of the domain wall velocity with magnetic field persists below these jumps. It was found that the jump height correlates with the location of nucleation place of the new domain wall. We have measured local nucleation field distribution in all the microwires. From local nucleation field distribution we have obtained the DW nucleation locations and estimated the jump height.

  12. Laser induced release of gases from first wall coatings for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.W.; Haasz, A.A.; Stangeby, P.C.

    1985-09-01

    Wall coatings which have been produced for potential use in the JET project (Si, TiC, SiC, TiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 and MgAl 2 O 4 on Inconel 600) have been exposed to laser radiation pulses (Laser Release Analysis) in order to determine (i) the concentration of absorbed or adsorbed gases in the near surface region as a function of bakeout history, and (ii) the relative trapping behaviour of sub-eV atoms, when compared with 50-1000 eV ions. Following normal system bakeout at 500 K for 24 hours, the major species released were found to be H 2 and CO, with levels up to ∼7x10 16 H/cm 2 and ∼4x10 16 CO/cm 2 . A similar concentration of argon was found for only the TiC coating produced by sputter ion plating. A further 1-hour heating of the samples at 800-900 K resulted in a reduction of hydrogen and CO release levels by about an order of magnitude. After such preparation procedures the samples were exposed to sub-eV D 0 atoms to fluences of ∼2x10 19 D 0 /cm 2 , and deuterium retention levels were measured to be of the order of 10 14 -10 16 D/cm 2 for the various coatings. Implications of these results for JET's first-wall tritium inventory are discussed. 14 refs

  13. Inviscid Wall-Modeled Large Eddy Simulations for Improved Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikens, Kurt; Craft, Kyle; Redman, Andrew

    2015-11-01

    The accuracy of an inviscid flow assumption for wall-modeled large eddy simulations (LES) is examined because of its ability to reduce simulation costs. This assumption is not generally applicable for wall-bounded flows due to the high velocity gradients found near walls. In wall-modeled LES, however, neither the viscous near-wall region or the viscous length scales in the outer flow are resolved. Therefore, the viscous terms in the Navier-Stokes equations have little impact on the resolved flowfield. Zero pressure gradient flat plate boundary layer results are presented for both viscous and inviscid simulations using a wall model developed previously. The results are very similar and compare favorably to those from another wall model methodology and experimental data. Furthermore, the inviscid assumption reduces simulation costs by about 25% and 39% for supersonic and subsonic flows, respectively. Future research directions are discussed as are preliminary efforts to extend the wall model to include the effects of unresolved wall roughness. This work used the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE), which is supported by National Science Foundation grant number ACI-1053575. Computational resources on TACC Stampede were provided under XSEDE allocation ENG150001.

  14. Demonstration and Validation of Reactive Vitreous Coatings to Prevent Corrosion of Steel Fixtures Attached to Masonry Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    these ties degrades bonding between the mortar and the steel, , and this can cause the loss of structural continuity within the wall . Failures in...for replacement on these buildings displayed visible evidence of failure in the form of cracking, bro- ken bricks, displaced mortar, and wall ties... retained a contractor to refurbish the failing brick veneers. This contractor was also responsible for providing the enamel-coated wall ties. All

  15. TiO{sub 2} coated multi-wall carbon nanotube as a corrosion inhibitor for improving the corrosion resistance of BTESPT coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuping; Zhu, Hongzheng; Zhuang, Chen [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Songling Road 238, Qingdao, 266100 (China); Chen, Shougang, E-mail: sgchen@ouc.edu.cn [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Songling Road 238, Qingdao, 266100 (China); Wang, Longqiang [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Songling Road 238, Qingdao, 266100 (China); Dong, Lihua [Institute of Ocean Materials and Engineering, Shanghai Maritime University, Shanghai, 200135 (China); Yin, Yansheng, E-mail: ysyin@shmtu.edu.cn [Institute of Ocean Materials and Engineering, Shanghai Maritime University, Shanghai, 200135 (China)

    2016-08-15

    The composite coatings of TiO{sub 2} coated multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNTs)/bis-[triethoxysilylpropyl]tetrasulfide (BTESPT) with different components were prepared on AA 2024 by the cathodic electrophoretic deposition technique and the experimental conditions were optimized to attain the appropriate volume ratio. The modified MWCNTs obviously improved the corrosion resistance of BTESPT and BTESPT/TiO{sub 2} coatings, especially for the long-term corrosion resistance ability because of the good dispersion of MWCNTs. The geometry of composite coatings were explored by scanning electron microscopy, fourier transform infrared spectra and the surface coverage rate (θ), the results indicate that the composite coatings produce good cross-linked structure at the interfacial layer, the coating compactness increases gradually with the addition of TiO{sub 2} and/or MWCNTs, and the composite coating effectively postpones the production of cracks with the addition of MWCNTs. - Highlights: • The composite coatings with different components were prepared on AA 2024 by the cathodic electrophoretic deposition technology. • The formation of composite coating on AA 2024 surface considerably improved the corrosion resistance ability. • The composite coating with a TiO{sub 2} to MWCNTs volume ratio of 4/1 shows the best corrosion resistance. • The kinetic evaluation of inhibitive behavior for different coatings against immersion time was explored.

  16. Anodic stripping voltammetric determination of mercury using multi-walled carbon nanotubes film coated glassy carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Hongchao [Department of Environmental Engineering, Hubei Agriculture College, 434103, Jingzhou (China)

    2003-10-01

    An electrochemical method for the determination of trace levels of mercury based on a multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) film coated glassy carbon electrode (GCE) is described. In 0.1 mol L{sup -1} HCl solution containing 0.02 mol L{sup -1} KI, Hg{sup 2+} was firstly preconcentrated at the MWNT film and then reduced at -0.60 V. During the anodic potential sweep, reduced mercury was oxidized, and then a sensitive and well-defined stripping peak at about -0.20 V appeared. Under identical conditions, a MWNT film coated GCE greatly enhances the stripping peak current of mercury in contrast to a bare GCE. Low concentrations of I{sup -} remarkably improve the determining sensitivity, since this increases the accumulation efficiency of Hg{sup 2+} at the MWNT film coated GCE. The stripping peak current is proportional to the concentration of Hg{sup 2+} over the range 8 x 10{sup -10}-5 x 10{sup -7} mol L{sup -1}. The lowest detectable concentration of Hg{sup 2+} is 2 x 10{sup -10} mol L{sup -1} at 5 min accumulation. The relative standard deviation (RSD) at 1 x 10{sup -8} mol L{sup -1} Hg{sup 2+} was about 6% (n=10). By using this proposed method, Hg{sup 2+} in some water samples was determined, and the results were compared with those obtained by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The two results are similar, suggesting that the MWNT-film coated GCE has great potential in practical analysis. (orig.)

  17. Effects of Two Purification Pretreatments on Electroless Copper Coating over Single-Walled Carbon Nano tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Z.; Li, L.; Dong, Sh.; Li, Sh.; Xiao, A.; Sun, Sh.

    2014-01-01

    To achieve the reinforcement of copper matrix composite by single-walled carbon nano tubes, a three-step-refluxing purification of carbon nano tubes sample with HNO 3 -NaOH-HCl was proposed and demonstrated. A previously reported purification process using an electromagnetic stirring with H 2 O 2 /HCl mixture was also repeated. Then, the purified carbon nano tubes were coated with copper by the same electroless plating process. At the end, the effects of the method on carbon nano tubes themselves and on copper coating were determined by transmission electron microscope spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry, thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, and energy dispersive spectrometry. It was clearly confirmed that both of the two processes could remove most of iron catalyst particles and carbonaceous impurities without significant damage to carbon nano tubes. The thermal stability of the sample purified by H 2 O 2 /HCl treatment was slightly higher than that purified by HNO 3 -NaOH-HCl treatment. Nevertheless, the purification by HNO 3 -NaOH-HCl treatment was more effective for carboxyl functionalization on nano tubes than that by H 2 O 2 /HCl treatment. The Cu-coating on carbon nano tubes purified by both purification processes was complete, homogenous, and continuous. However, the Cu-coating on carbon nano tubes purified by H 2 O 2 /HCl was oxidized more seriously than those on carbon nano tubes purified by HNO 3 -NaOH-HCl treatment.

  18. Evaluation of Coating Removal and Aggressive Surface Removal Surface Technologies Applied to Concrete Walls, Brick Walls, and Concrete Ceilings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebadian, M.A.; Lagos, L.E.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to test and evaluate innovative and commercially available technologies for the surface decontamination of walls and ceilings. This investigation supports the DOE's objectives of reducing risks to human health and the environment through its restoration projects at FEMP and MEMP. This project was performed at the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University (FIU), where one innovative and four commercially available decontamination technologies were evaluated under standard, non-nuclear testing conditions. The performance data generated by this project will assist DOE site managers in the selection of the safest, most efficient, and most cost-effective decontamination technologies to accomplish their remediation objectives

  19. Efficiency analysis and assessment of interlocking PVC sheet piling walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emam, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    The use of PVC sheet piling in marine environments offers a number of unique advantages that include weight saving, corrosion resistance and environmentally safe material. In this study, one of the widely used classical methods as well as a finite element analysis are used to analyze such sheet piling walls. The analysis focuses on the effect of some important parameters on the wall global behavior, bending moments, stresses and deflections. The parameters include wall cross-section, wall height, embedment depth, number and spacing of anchor rods, and type of soil and loading conditions. Furthermore, the effect of the shape of the wall cross-section and the location of the interlocking joints has been studied by using plane frame and arch-like models. Results indicate that the finite element modeling is an effective tool for numerical approximation of soil-structure interaction problems. The required theoretical embedment depth is nearly 30 % of the clear wall height. Also, the modulus of subgrade reaction has a minor effect on both cantilever wall and one anchor sheet-pile wall. Finally, lateral (horizontal) action shows that deep sections tend to behave like an arch under radial loading which might increase normal stresses at some critical sections

  20. Accurate measurements of infinite dilution activity coefficients using gas chromatography with static-wall-coated open-tubular columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qianqian; Su, Baogen; Luo, Xinyi; Xing, Huabin; Bao, Zongbi; Yang, Qiwei; Yang, Yiwen; Ren, Qilong

    2012-11-06

    Wall-coated open-tubular (WCOT) columns provide higher column efficiency and lower solute interfacial adsorption effect than packed columns. However, previous efforts used to measure the infinite dilution activity coefficient (γ(∞)) via a chromatographic technique have used packed columns, because the low carrier gas flow rate (U) and the small stationary phase amount (n(2)) in WCOT columns raise large errors. By rationally revising the γ(∞)-calculation equation for static-wall-coated open-tubular column, we observed that U and n(2) are not necessarily needed and the resulting error could be reduced, and WCOT column gas chromatography subsequently became a superior method for the accurate γ(∞) determination. In this study, we validate our revised γ(∞)-calculation equation by measuring γ(∞) in an ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate system, in which 55 organic compounds covering a wide range of functional groups were used as probe solutes and their γ(∞) values in the ionic liquid were determined at 40.0, 50.0, and 60.0 °C. Experimental error analysis shows that our revised equation remarkably reduces the error compared to the common γ(∞)-calculation equation. Our data is consistent with previously reported values obtained via other techniques, which further proves the credibility of our revised equation. The accurately determined γ(∞) values can be directly used to calculate the partial molar excess enthalpy, selectivity, and capacity, which will benefit for the rapid screening of solvents (especially ionic liquids) in separation approaches.

  1. Microbiological quality control of single-walled carbon-nanotubes-coated surfaces experimentally contaminated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natalizi, T.; Frioni, A.; Passeri, D.; Pantanella, F.

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of new nanotechnologies involves the spreading of nanoparticles in various fields of human life. Nanoparticles in general and, more specifically, carbon nanotubes have been adopted for many practical approaches i.e.: coatings for medical devices, food process industry and drug delivery. Humans will be increasingly exposed to nanoparticles but the susceptibility of nanostructured materials to microbial colonization in process of manufacturing and storage has not been thoroughly considered. Therefore, the microbiological quality control of nanoparticles plays a pivotal role. Different analytical methods have been attempted for detecting bacterial population contaminating a surface, but no one can be considered fully appropriate. Here, BioTimer Assay (BTA) and conventional sonication followed by colony forming units method (S-CFU) were applied for microbiological quality control of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs)-coated surfaces experimentally contaminated with Streptococcus mutans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Our results demonstrated that S-CFU is unreliable to actually determine the number of bacteria, contaminating abiotic surfaces, as it does not detach all adherent bacteria and kills part of the bacterial population. Instead, BTA is a reliable method to enumerate bacteria colonizing SWCNTs-coated surfaces and can be considered a useful tool for microbiological quality control of nanomaterials for human use.

  2. Evaluation of Coating Removal and Aggressive Surface Removal Surface Technologies Applied to Concrete Walls, Brick Walls, and Concrete Ceilings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagos, L.E.; Ebadian, M.A.

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to test and evaluate innovative and commercially available technologies for the surface decontamination of walls and ceilings. This investigation supports the DOE's objectives of reducing risks to human health and the environment through its restoration projects at FEMP and MEMP. This project was performed at the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University (FIU), where one innovative and four commercially available decontamination technologies were evaluated under standard, non-nuclear testing conditions. The performance data generated by this project will assist DOE site managers in the selection of the safest, most efficient, and most cost-effective decontamination technologies to accomplish their remediation objectives.

  3. Development of a new solvent-free flow efficiency coating for natural gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogg, Graham A.; Morse, Jennifer [Bredero Shaw, Houston, TX (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Pipeline design engineers have traditionally considered external anti-corrosion coatings for the protection of gas transmission pipelines, with less consideration given to the benefits of internal flow efficiency coatings. This paper reviews the benefits of using a traditional solvent-based flow efficiency coating, and the relationship between the internal surface roughness of a pipe, the pressure drop across the pipeline, and the maximum flow rate of gas through the pipeline. To improve upon existing solvent-based flow efficiency coatings, a research program was undertaken to develop a solvent-free coating. The stages in the development of this coating are discussed, resulting in the plant application of the coating and final qualification to API RP 5L2. (author)

  4. Study on the efficiency of ceramic coating for avoiding oxidation in carbon refractories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, I.M.G.; Cruz Junior, F.; Paskocimas, C.A.; Leite, E.R.; Longo, Elson; Varela, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    A ceramic coating made of sodium phosphossilicate and clay was developed to the protection of refractories against carbon oxidation during the pre-heating of siderurgical equipment. This search has the objective of comparing the refractory behaviour with and without coating, according to temperature, time and atmosphere. The results show that the coating is more efficient at higher temperatures. An important point is that the efficiency is smaller after long thermal is that the efficiency is smaller after long thermal treatments and at very aggressive conditions. In spite of this the oxidation is still smaller than in refractory without coating. (author)

  5. Measurements of wall-shear-stress distribution on an NACA0018 airfoil by liquid-crystal coating and near-wall particle image velocimetry (PIV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisawa, N; Oguma, Y; Nakano, T

    2009-01-01

    Measurements of wall-shear-stress distributions along curved surfaces are carried out using non-intrusive experimental methods, such as liquid-crystal coating and near-wall particle image velocimetry (PIV). The former method relies on the color change of the liquid-crystal coating sensitive to the wall shear stress, while the latter is based on the direct evaluation of shear stresses through the near-wall PIV measurement in combination with the image deformation technique. These experimental methods are applied to the measurement of wall-shear-stress distributions of air flow at a free-stream velocity of 15 m s −1 on a flat plate and an NACA0018 airfoil. The experiments are carried out at zero angle of attack for the flat plate and at 0° and ±6° angles of attack for the airfoil, and then the variations of shear-stress distribution along these surfaces are studied. These measurements in wall shear stresses agree with each other within their experimental uncertainties, suggesting the validity of experimental methods for non-intrusive shear-stress measurements. It is found that the wall-shear-stress distribution shows a small negative value upstream of the reattachment point on the NACA0018 airfoil, which is followed by an increase in shear stresses downstream due to laminar–turbulent transition of boundary layers. Such behavior of wall-shear-stress distribution is well correlated with the mean flow and turbulence characteristics along the airfoil surfaces, which are measured by PIV

  6. Lignin-Modified Carbon Nanotube/Graphene Hybrid Coating as Efficient Flame Retardant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunlin Song

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available To reduce fire hazards and expand high-value applications of lignocellulosic materials, thin films comprising graphene nanoplatelets (GnPs and multi-wall carbon nanotubes (CNTs pre-adsorbed with alkali lignin were deposited by a Meyer rod process. Lightweight and highly flexible papers with increased gas impermeability were obtained by coating a protective layer of carbon nanomaterials in a randomly oriented and overlapped network structure. Assessment of the thermal and flammability properties of papers containing as low as 4 wt % carbon nanomaterials exhibited self-extinguishing behavior and yielded up to 83.5% and 87.7% reduction in weight loss and burning area, respectively, compared to the blank papers. The maximum burning temperature as measured by infrared pyrometry also decreased from 834 °C to 705 °C with the presence of flame retardants. Furthermore, papers coated with composites of GnPs and CNTs pre-adsorbed with lignin showed enhanced thermal stability and superior fire resistance than samples treated with either component alone. These outstanding flame-retardant properties can be attributed to the synergistic effects between GnPs, CNTs and lignin, enhancing physical barrier characteristics, formation of char and thermal management of the material. These results provide great opportunities for the development of efficient, cost-effective and environmentally sustainable flame retardants.

  7. Experimental Study on the Hygrothermal Behavior of a Coated Sprayed Hemp Concrete Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Magueresse

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemp concrete is a sustainable lightweight concrete that became popular in the field of building construction because of its thermal and environmental properties. However; available experimental data on its hygrothermal behavior are rather scarce in the literature. This paper describes the design of a large-scale experiment developed to investigate the hygrothermal behavior of hemp concrete cast around a timber frame through a spraying process; and then coated with lime-based plaster. The equipment is composed of two climatic chambers surrounding the tested wall. The experiment consists of maintaining the indoor climate at constant values and applying incremental steps of temperature; relative humidity or vapor pressure in the outdoor chamber. Temperature and relative humidity of the room air and on various depths inside the wall are continuously registered during the experiments and evaporation phenomena are observed. The influence of the plaster on the hygrothermal behavior of hemp concrete is investigated. Moreover; a comparison of experimental temperatures with numerical results obtained from a purely conductive thermal model is proposed. Comparing the model with the measured data gave satisfactory agreement.

  8. Sticking to cellulose: exploiting Arabidopsis seed coat mucilage to understand cellulose biosynthesis and cell wall polysaccharide interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Jonathan S; North, Helen M

    2017-05-01

    The cell wall defines the shape of cells and ultimately plant architecture. It provides mechanical resistance to osmotic pressure while still being malleable and allowing cells to grow and divide. These properties are determined by the different components of the wall and the interactions between them. The major components of the cell wall are the polysaccharides cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin. Cellulose biosynthesis has been extensively studied in Arabidopsis hypocotyls, and more recently in the mucilage-producing epidermal cells of the seed coat. The latter has emerged as an excellent system to study cellulose biosynthesis and the interactions between cellulose and other cell wall polymers. Here we review some of the major advances in our understanding of cellulose biosynthesis in the seed coat, and how mucilage has aided our understanding of the interactions between cellulose and other cell wall components required for wall cohesion. Recently, 10 genes involved in cellulose or hemicellulose biosynthesis in mucilage have been identified. These discoveries have helped to demonstrate that xylan side-chains on rhamnogalacturonan I act to link this pectin directly to cellulose. We also examine other factors that, either directly or indirectly, influence cellulose organization or crystallization in mucilage. © 2017 INRA. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Coating on Alkali Treated TiO2 Nanotubes Surface for Improvement of Biocompatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Eun Park

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to enhance the bioactivity of pure titanium using multiple surface treatments for the application of the implant. To form the biofunctional multilayer coating on pure titanium, anodization was conducted to make titanium dioxide nanotubes, then multi-walled carbon nanotubes were coated using a dipping method after an alkali treatment. The surface characteristics at each step were analyzed using a field emission scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffractometer. The effect of the multilayer coating on the biocompatibility was identified using immersion and cytotoxicity tests. Better hydroxyapatite formation was observed on the surface of multilayer-coated pure titanium compared to non-treated pure titanium after immersion in the simulated body fluid. Improvement of biocompatibility by multiple surface treatments was identified through various cytotoxicity tests using osteoblast cells.

  10. Efficient spray-coated colloidal quantum dot solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Kramer, Illan J.; Minor, James C.; Moreno-Bautista, Gabriel; Rollny, Lisa R.; Kanjanaboos, Pongsakorn; Kopilovic, Damir; Thon, Susanna; Carey, Graham H.; Chou, Kang Wei; Zhitomirsky, David; Amassian, Aram; Sargent, E. H.

    2014-01-01

    (Figure Presented). A colloidal quantum dot solar cell is fabricated by spray-coating under ambient conditions. By developing a room-temperature spray-coating technique and implementing a fully automated process with near monolayer control - an approach termed as sprayLD - an electronic defect is eliminated resulting in solar cell performance and statistical distribution superior to prior batch-processed methods along with a hero performance of 8.1%.

  11. Efficient spray-coated colloidal quantum dot solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Kramer, Illan J.

    2014-11-10

    (Figure Presented). A colloidal quantum dot solar cell is fabricated by spray-coating under ambient conditions. By developing a room-temperature spray-coating technique and implementing a fully automated process with near monolayer control - an approach termed as sprayLD - an electronic defect is eliminated resulting in solar cell performance and statistical distribution superior to prior batch-processed methods along with a hero performance of 8.1%.

  12. Study on Seismic Behavior of Recycled Concrete Energy-efficient Homes Structure Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Lan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main point is to study the seismic behavior of the lattice type recycled concrete energy saving wall under low-cyclic loading,to provide the basis for the seismic performance of application of recycled concrete lattice wall in energy-saving residential structure. Design two walls with the same structure measures, include Lattice type recycled concrete wall and natural concrete wall, they are tested under low-cycle repetitive loading, compared failure mode and seismic performance in different reinforcement conditions of side column. The bearing capacity and ductility of recycled aggregate concrete are better than natural aggregate concrete, The stiffness degradation curves and the skeleton curves of the walls are basically the same, both of them have better seismic energy dissipation capacity. Lattice type concrete wall is good at seismic performance, recycled aggregate concrete is good at plastic deformation ability, it is advantageous to seismic energy dissipation of wall, it can be applied in energy efficient residential structure wall.

  13. SYNTHESIS AND STUDY OF CORROSION PERFORMANCE OF EPOXY COATING CONTAINING MULTI-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBE/ POLY ORTHO AMINOPHENOL NANOCOMPOSITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bahrami Panah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The epoxy coatings containing multi-walled carbon nanotube/ poly ortho aminophenol nanocomposite were prepared and used as anticorrosive coatings. The nanocomposites with different contents of carbon nanotube were synthesized in a solution of sodium dodecyl sulfate and ammonium peroxy disulfate as a surfactant and an oxidant, respectively. The morphology and structural properties were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy methods. The mean size of nanocomposite particles was 20-35 nm determined by scanning electron microscopy. The epoxy coatings containing the nanocomposites were applied over mild steel panels and their corrosion performance was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization measurements in a 3.5 % sodium chloride solution. The results showed that epoxy coatings consisting of nanocomposite with 1 wt.% multi-walled carbon nanotube exhibited higher anticorrosive properties than other prepared coatings of different carbon nanotube contents, which could be due to the strong interaction between the mild steel surface and the conjugated nanocomposite.

  14. Photocatalysis-assisted water filtration: Using TiO2-coated vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotube array for removal of Escherichia coli O157:H7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oza, Goldie; Pandey, Sunil; Gupta, Arvind; Shinde, Sachin; Mewada, Ashmi; Jagadale, Pravin; Sharon, Maheshwar; Sharon, Madhuri

    2013-01-01

    A porous ceramic was coated with vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) by spray pyrolysis. Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanoparticles were then coated onto this densely aligned MWCNT. The presence of TiO 2 /MWCNT interfacial arrays was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope–energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (SEM–EDAX) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). This is a novel report in which water loaded with a most dreadful enterohemorrhagic pathogenic strain of Escherichia coli O157:H7 was filtered through TiO 2 /MWCNT coated porous ceramic filter and then analysed. Bacterial removal performance was found to be significantly lower in control i.e. plain porous ceramic (P < 0.05) as compared to TiO 2 /MWCNT coated ceramic. The photocatalytic killing rate constant for TiO 2 -ceramic and MWCNT/TiO 2 -ceramic under fluorescent light was found be 1.45 × 10 −2 min −1 and 2.23 × 10 −2 min −1 respectively. Further, when I–V characteristics were performed for TiO 2 /MWCNT composite, it was corroborated that the current under light irradiation is comparatively higher than that in dark, thus proving it to be photocatalytically efficient system. The enhanced photocatalysis may be a contribution of increased surface area and charge transfer rate as a consequence of aligned MWCNT network. - Highlights: • Coating of vertically aligned MWCNT on ceramic candle filter • Surface orchestration of TiO 2 on MWCNT arrays • I–V characteristic studies are performed under dark and illumination. • Photocatalytic efficiency of TiO 2 /MWCNT arrays is determined using E. coli O157:H7. • Proposed a mechanism of bacterial killing due to free radical formation

  15. Fabrication and characterization of ZnO-coated multi-walled carbon nanotubes with enhanced photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Linqin; Gao Lian

    2005-01-01

    Through noncovalent modification of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) with the dispersant of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), ZnO nanocrystals-coated MWNTs composite was fabricated. The electrostatic interaction mechanism is used to illustrate the formation of ZnO/MWNTs nanocomposite. The ZnO-coated MWNTs composite shows a small blue-shift absorption compared with pure ZnO nanomaterial and preserves the electronic energy states of MWNTs. The photocatalytic experiments exhibit that this composite has a higher photocatalytic activity than ZnO bulk material or the mechanical mixture of MWNTs and ZnO

  16. Synthesis of ZnO coated multi-walled carbon nanotubes and their antibacterial activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sui, Minghao, E-mail: suiminghao.sui@gmail.com; Zhang, Lingdian, E-mail: 970864427@qq.com; Sheng, Li, E-mail: shengli1971@gmail.com; Huang, Shuhang, E-mail: hsh880813@qq.com; She, Lei, E-mail: selery1989@163.com

    2013-05-01

    ZnO coated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (ZnO/MWCNTs) were prepared and evaluated for their application potentials as an antimicrobial material for simultaneous concentrating and inactivating pathogenic bacteria. X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) were used to characterize the ZnO/MWCNTs. Escherichia coli (E. coli) was employed as the target bacterium. Comparing with the raw and the purified MWCNTs (r-MWCNTs and p-MWCNTs), which have been reported to possess antibacterial activity towards E. coli, ZnO/MWCNTs exhibited stronger antibacterial ability. The deposited ZnO was suggested to play an important role in the bactericidal action of ZnO/MWCNTs, while, the r-MWCNTs and p-MWCNTs served as more like adsorbing materials for E. coli. - Highlights: ► ZnO/MWCNTs were prepared and characterized. ► ZnO/MWCNTs were evaluated for the application potential as disinfection material. ► ZnO/MWCNTs exhibited strong antibacterial ability towards E. coli. ► ZnO seems to play an important role in the bactericidal action of ZnO/MWCNTs. ► MWCNTs served as more like adsorbing materials for E. coli.

  17. Dividing wall column: Improving thermal efficiency, energy savings and economic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurangzeb, Md; Jana, Amiya K.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A rigorous model is developed for a dividing wall column. • Heat transfer model for metal wall is proposed. • Performance improvement is quantified for a ternary system. • Thermal efficiency, energy savings and cost are three used indices. - Abstract: This work aims at investigating the performance improvement of a dividing wall column (DWC) for the separation of a ternary system. It is true that for fractionating a ternary mixture, at least a sequence of two conventional distillation columns is required. To improve energetic and economic potential, and reduce space requirement, two columns are proposed to merge into one shell with a dividing wall. For developing the mathematical model of a distillation column, we consider the effect of heat transfer through the metal wall placed at an intermediated position inside the cylindrical column. The simulated DWC model is verified using the Aspen Plus flowsheet simulator with a wide variety of phase equilibrium models. The superiority of this proposed heat integrated configuration is shown for a ternary hydrocarbon system over a conventional distillation sequence (CDS) in terms of mainly three performance indexes, namely thermal efficiency, energy savings and total annual cost (TAC). It is investigated that the dividing wall distillation scheme can secure a 37.5% energy efficiency, and a 22.6% savings in energy consumption and 23.23% in TAC. The promising performance can also be quantified in terms of a reasonably low payback period of 2.11 years.

  18. Fuel efficiency and fouling control coatings in maritime transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholdt, Asger

    . As a result, it was determined that other methods must be explored in order to accurately measure the long-term drag performance of FCCs in conditions that mimic those encountered by ships’ hulls during actual voyages. In an experimental study, five commercial FCC systems were applied to smooth disks......, compared to the two SPC coatings. Furthermore, the drag performances of two different FCC systems with varying substrate roughness values (i.e., the roughness below the coating system) were measured in the newly applied condition.An increase in the substrate roughness led to increased drag for both FCC......’s hull, and a second, laboratory part measured the torque (drag) of coated cylinders in a rotary setup. Four commercial FCCs were exposed for 53 weeks in Roskilde Fjord, Denmark, i.e., in relatively cold seawater (salinity of 1.2 wt%), from the spring of 2013 to the autumn of 2014. The in situ immersion...

  19. Efficient dual layer interconnect coating for high temperature electrochemical devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palcut, Marián; Mikkelsen, Lars; Neufeld, Kai

    2012-01-01

    Effects of novel dual layer coatings Co3O4/La0.85Sr0.15MnO3−δ on high temperature oxidation behaviour of candidate steels for interconnects are studied at 1123 K in flowing simulated ambient air (air + 1% H2O) and oxygen. Four alloys are investigated: Crofer 22 APU, Crofer 22 H, E-Brite and AL 29...... that the oxidation reaction is limited by outward Cr3+ diffusion in the chromia scale. The coating effectively reduces the oxidation rate. Reactions and cation inter-diffusion between the coating and the oxide scale are observed. Long term effects of these interactions are discussed and practical implications...

  20. Effects of coating on the optical trapping efficiency of microspheres via geometrical optics approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bum Jun; Furst, Eric M

    2014-09-23

    We present the optical trapping forces that are generated when a single laser beam strongly focuses on a coated dielectric microsphere. On the basis of geometrical optics approximation (GOA), in which a particle intercepts all of the rays that make up a single laser beam, we calculate the trapping forces with varying coating thickness and refractive index values. To increase the optical trapping efficiency, the refractive index (n(b)) of the coating is selected such that n(a) < n(b) < n(c), where na and nc are the refractive indices of the medium and the core material, respectively. The thickness of the coating also increases trapping efficiency. Importantly, we find that trapping forces for the coated particles are predominantly determined by two rays: the incident ray and the first refracted ray to the medium.

  1. UV-LED Curing Efficiency of Wood Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronic Landry

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV-LEDs have attracted great interest in recent years. They can be used to polymerize coatings, such as those used for prefinished wood flooring. In this project, two lamps were compared for their suitability to be used on a wood flooring finishing line: a UV-microwave and a UV-LED lamp. Low heat emission was found for the UV-LED lamp compared to the UV-microwave one. This study also reveals that the 4 W/cm2 UV-LED lamp used is not powerful enough to cure UV high solids acrylate coatings while satisfactory results can be obtained for UV water-based formulations. In fact, conversion percentages were found to be low for the high solids coatings, leaving the coatings tacky. Higher conversion percentages were obtained for the UV water-based formulations. As a result, mass loss, hardness, and scratch resistance found for the samples cured by UV-LED were closed to the ones found for the samples cured using the UV microwave lamp.

  2. Kinetics of carbide formation in the molybdenum-tungsten coatings used in the ITER-like Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, H.; Rasinski, M.; von Toussaint, U.; Greuner, H.; Böswirth, B.; Balden, M.; Elgeti, S.; Ruset, C.; Matthews, G. F.

    2016-02-01

    The kinetics of tungsten carbide formation was investigated for tungsten coatings on carbon fibre composite with a molybdenum interlayer as they are used in the ITER-like Wall in JET. The coatings were produced by combined magnetron sputtering and ion implantation. The investigation was performed by preparing focused ion beam cross sections from samples after heat treatment in argon atmosphere. Baking of the samples was done at temperatures of 1100 °C, 1200 °C, and 1350 °C for hold times between 30 min and 20 h. It was found that the data can be well described by a diffusional random walk with a thermally activated diffusion process. The activation energy was determined to be (3.34 ± 0.11) eV. Predictions for the isothermal lifetime of this coating system were computed from this information.

  3. Mechanical properties of nickel-coated single-walled carbon nanotubes and their embedded gold matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Haiyang; Zha Xinwei

    2010-01-01

    The effects of nickel coating on the mechanical behaviors of armchair single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and their embedded gold matrix composites under axial tension are investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulation method. The results show that the Young's moduli and tensile strength of SWCNTs obviously decrease after nickel coating. For armchair SWCNTs, the decreased ratio of the Young's moduli of SWCNTs with smaller radius is larger than that of SWCNTs with larger radius. A comparison is made between the response to Young's modulus of a composite with parallel embedded nanotube and the response of a composite with vertically embedded nanotube. The results show that the uncoated SWCNT can enhance the Young's modulus of composite under the condition of parallel embedment, but such improvement disappears under the condition of vertical embedment because the interaction between SWCNT and gold matrix is too weak for effective load transfer. However, the nickel-coated SWCNT can indeed significantly improve the composite behavior.

  4. Deposition characteristics of titanium coating deposited on SiC fiber by cold-wall chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Xian, E-mail: luo_shenfan@hotmail.com; Wu, Shuai; Yang, Yan-qing; Jin, Na; Liu, Shuai; Huang, Bin

    2016-12-01

    The deposition characteristics of titanium coating on SiC fiber using TiCl{sub 4}-H{sub 2}-Ar gas mixture in a cold-wall chemical vapor deposition were studied by the combination of thermodynamic analysis and experimental studies. The thermodynamic analysis of the reactions in the TiCl{sub 4}-H{sub 2}-Ar system indicates that TiCl{sub 4} transforms to titanium as the following paths: TiCl{sub 4} → TiCl{sub 3} → Ti, or TiCl{sub 4} → TiCl{sub 3} → TiCl{sub 2} → Ti. The experimental results show that typical deposited coating contains two distinct layers: a TiC reaction layer close to SiC fiber and titanium coating which has an atomic percentage of titanium more than 70% and that of carbon lower than 30%. The results illustrate that a carbon diffusion barrier coating needs to be deposited if pure titanium is to be prepared. The deposition rate increases with the increase of temperature, but higher temperature has a negative effect on the surface uniformity of titanium coating. In addition, appropriate argon gas flow rate has a positive effect on smoothing the surface morphology of the coating. - Highlights: • Both thermodynamic analysis and experimental studies were adopted in this work. • The transformation paths of TiCl{sub 4} to Ti is: TiCl{sub 4} → TiCl{sub 3} → Ti, or TiCl{sub 4} → TiCl{sub 3} → TiCl{sub 2} → Ti. • Typical deposited Ti coating on SiC fiber contained two distinct layers. • Deposition temperature is important on deposition rate and morphologies. • Appropriate argon gas flow rate has a positive effect on smoothing of the coating.

  5. Uptake of gaseous formaldehyde onto soil surfaces: a coated-wall flow tube study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guo; Su, Hang; Li, Xin; Meusel, Hannah; Kuhn, Uwe; Pöschl, Ulrich; Shao, Min; Cheng, Yafang

    2015-04-01

    Gaseous formaldehyde (HCHO) is an important intermediate molecule and source of HO2 radicals. However, discrepancies exist between model simulated and observed HCHO concentrations, suggesting missing sources or sinks in the HCHO budget. Multiphase processes on the surface of soil and airborne soil-derived particles have been suggested as an important mechanism for the production/removal of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. In this work, the uptake of gaseous HCHO on soil surfaces were investigated through coated-wall flow tube experiments with HCHO concentration ranging from 10 to 40 ppbv. The results show that the adsorption of HCHO occurred on soil surfaces, and the uptake coefficient dropped gradually (i.e., by a factor of 5 after 1 hour) as the reactive surface sites were consumed. The HCHO uptake coefficient was found to be affected by the relative humidity (RH), decreasing from (2.4 ± 0.5) × 10-4 at 0% RH to (3.0 ± 0.08) × 10-5 at 70% RH, due to competition of water molecule absorption on the soil surface. A release of HCHO from reacted soil was also detected by applying zero air, suggesting the nature of reversible physical absorption and the existence of an equilibrium at the soil-gas interface. It implies that soil could be either a source or a sink for HCHO, depending on the ambient HCHO concentration. We also develop a Matlab program to calculate the uptake coefficient under laminar flow conditions based on the Cooney-Kim-Davis method.

  6. Characterization of mechanical properties of hydroxyapatite-silicon-multi walled carbon nano tubes composite coatings synthesized by EPD on NiTi alloys for biomedical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, Vida; Khalil-Allafi, Jafar; Sengstock, Christina; Motemani, Yahya; Paulsen, Alexander; Frenzel, Jan; Eggeler, Gunther; Köller, Manfred

    2016-06-01

    Release of Ni(1+) ions from NiTi alloy into tissue environment, biological response on the surface of NiTi and the allergic reaction of atopic people towards Ni are challengeable issues for biomedical application. In this study, composite coatings of hydroxyapatite-silicon multi walled carbon nano-tubes with 20wt% Silicon and 1wt% multi walled carbon nano-tubes of HA were deposited on a NiTi substrate using electrophoretic methods. The SEM images of coated samples exhibit a continuous and compact morphology for hydroxyapatite-silicon and hydroxyapatite-silicon-multi walled carbon nano-tubes coatings. Nano-indentation analysis on different locations of coatings represents the highest elastic modulus (45.8GPa) for HA-Si-MWCNTs which is between the elastic modulus of NiTi substrate (66.5GPa) and bone tissue (≈30GPa). This results in decrease of stress gradient on coating-substrate-bone interfaces during performance. The results of nano-scratch analysis show the highest critical distance of delamination (2.5mm) and normal load before failure (837mN) as well as highest critical contact pressure for hydroxyapatite-silicon-multi walled carbon nano-tubes coating. The cell culture results show that human mesenchymal stem cells are able to adhere and proliferate on the pure hydroxyapatite and composite coatings. The presence of both silicon and multi walled carbon nano-tubes (CS3) in the hydroxyapatite coating induce more adherence of viable human mesenchymal stem cells in contrast to the HA coated samples with only silicon (CS2). These results make hydroxyapatite-silicon-multi walled carbon nano-tubes a promising composite coating for future bone implant application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Stability of cell wall composition and saccharification efficiency in Miscanthus across diverse environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijde, van der Tim; Dolstra, Oene; Visser, Richard G.F.; Trindade, Luisa M.

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the potential effects of differences between growth locations on the cell wall composition and saccharification efficiency of the bioenergy crop miscanthus, a diverse set of 15 accessions were evaluated in six locations across Europe for the first 3 years following establishment.

  8. Measurements of emissivities on JT-60 first wall materials (inconel 625, Mo, TiC-coated Mo)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Hiroo; Shimizu, Masatsugu; Makino, Toshiro; Kunitomo, Takeshi.

    1985-02-01

    To evaluate heat removal performance of JT-60 first wall, emissivities and reflectivities on Inconel 625, Mo, TiC coated Mo with optically smooth surface and actual surface are measured at temperature from a room temperature to 1300 K. Spectra are measured in the rnage of wave lengthes from 0.34 μm to 20 μm. Actual surfaces are machined/pickled surfaces for Inconel 625, electro-polished surfaces for molybdenum, and as-coated surfaces for TiC-coated molybdenum. Results of Inconel 625 and molybdenum with oplically smooth surfaces are examined by a two-electrons-type dispersion model of optical constants. Electronic constants of the equation are given and formulated in order to correlates the macroscopic properties of the radiative heat transfer. Total emissivities, obtained from the spectral emissivities of optically smooth surface, are 0.13(RT) -- 0.21(1300 K) for Inconel 625, 0.035(RT) -- 0.18(1300 K) for Mo, and 0.053(RT) for TiC-coated Mo. Moreover, total emissivities of the actual surface at a room temperature are 0.35(Inconel 625), 0.124(Mo), and 0.073(TiC-coated Mo). Large dependence of the emissivities on temperature and wave length shows that the model including these dependences is necessary for an accurate evaluation of the radiative heat transfer. (author)

  9. Evaluation of coat uniformity and taste-masking efficiency of irregular-shaped drug particles coated in a modified tangential spray fluidized bed processor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Min; Heng, Paul Wan Sia; Liew, Celine Valeria

    2015-01-01

    To explore the feasibility of coating irregular-shaped drug particles in a modified tangential spray fluidized bed processor (FS processor) and evaluate the coated particles for their coat uniformity and taste-masking efficiency. Paracetamol particles were coated to 20%, w/w weight gain using a taste-masking polymer insoluble in neutral and basic pH but soluble in acidic pH. In-process samples (5, 10 and 15%, w/w coat) and the resultant coated particles (20%, w/w coat) were collected to monitor the changes in their physicochemical attributes. After coating to 20%, w/w coat weight gain, the usable yield was 81% with minimal agglomeration (coat compared with the uncoated particles. A 15%, w/w coat was optimal for inhibiting drug release in salivary pH with subsequent fast dissolution in simulated gastric pH. The FS processor shows promise for direct coating of irregular-shaped drug particles with wide size distribution. The coated particles with 15% coat were sufficiently taste masked and could be useful for further application in orally disintegrating tablet platforms.

  10. Selectively coated high efficiency glazing for solar-thermal flat-plate collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrmann, N.; Reineke-Koch, R.

    2012-01-01

    In order to increase the efficiency of solar-thermal flat-plate collectors at temperatures above 100 °C or with low solar irradiation, we implement a double glazing with a low-emitting (low-e) coating on the inner pane to improve the insulation of the transparent cover. Since commercially available low-e glazing provides only insufficient solar transmittance for the application in thermal flat-plate collectors we are developing a sputter-deposited low e-coating system based on transparent conductive oxides which provides a high solar transmittance of 85% due to additional antireflective coatings and the use of low-iron glass substrates. Durability tests of the developed coating system show that our low e-coating system is well suitable even at high temperatures, humidity and condensation.

  11. Extinction efficiencies of coated absorbing aerosols measured by cavity ring down aerosol spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Segre

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we measure the extinction efficiency at 532 nm of absorbing aerosol particles coated with a non-absorbing solid and liquid organic shell with coating thickness varying between 5 and 100 nm using cavity ring down aerosol spectrometry. For this purpose, we use nigrosin, an organic black dye, as a model absorbing core and two non-absorbing organic substances as shells, glutaric acid (GA and Di-Ethyl-Hexyl-Sebacate (DEHS. The measured behavior of the coated particles is consistent with Mie calculations of core-shell particles. Errors between measured and calculated values for nigrosin coated with GA and DEHS are between 0.5% and 10.5% and between 0.5% and 9%, respectively. However, it is evident that the calculations are in better agreement with the measured results for thinner coatings. Possible reasons for these discrepancies are discussed.

  12. Extraction of ochratoxin A in red wine with dopamine-coated magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Hong; Zhang, Bo; Bai, Xiao-Lin; Zhao, Yan; Xiao, Meng-Wei; Liao, Xun

    2017-10-01

    A new, rapid, green, and cost-effective magnetic solid-phase extraction of ochratoxin A from red wine samples was developed using polydopamine-coated magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes as the absorbent. The polydopamine-coated magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes were fabricated with magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes and dopamine by an in situ oxidative self-polymerization approach. Transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry were used to characterize the absorbents. Ochratoxin A was quantified with high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection, with excitation and emission wavelengths of 338 and 455 nm, respectively. The conditions affecting the magnetic solid-phase extraction procedure, such as pH, extraction solution, extraction time, absorbent amount, desorption solution and desorption time were investigated to obtain the optimal extraction conditions. Under the optimized conditions, the extraction recovery was 91.8-104.5% for ochratoxin A. A linear calibration curve was obtained in the range of 0.1-2.0 ng/mL. The limit of detection was 0.07 ng/mL, and the limit of quantitation was 0.21 ng/mL. The recoveries of ochratoxin A for spiked red wine sample ranged from 95.65 to 100.65% with relative standard deviation less than 8%. The polydopamine-coated magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes showed a high affinity toward ochratoxin A, allowing selective extraction and quantification of ochratoxin A from complex sample matrixes. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. UV-LED Curing Efficiency of Wood Coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Véronic Landry; Pierre Blanchet; Gabrielle Boivin; Jean-François Bouffard; Mirela Vlad

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) have attracted great interest in recent years. They can be used to polymerize coatings, such as those used for prefinished wood flooring. In this project, two lamps were compared for their suitability to be used on a wood flooring finishing line: a UV-microwave and a UV-LED lamp. Low heat emission was found for the UV-LED lamp compared to the UV-microwave one. This study also reveals that the 4 W/cm2 UV-LED lamp used is not powerf...

  14. Correcting and coating thin walled X-ray Optics via a combination of controlled film deposition and magnetic smart materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, Melville

    The project goal is to demonstrate that thin walled (price. Since the desired surface area for the next generation X-ray telescope is >10x that of Chandra, the >10x requirement is then for >200 m^2 of surface area with a surface finish of better than 0.5 nm. Therefore, replication of some sort is called for. Because no replication technology has been shown to achieve ≤1" angular resolution, post fabrication figure corrections are likely going to be necessary. Some have proposed to do this in orbit and others prelaunch including us. Our prelaunch approach is to apply in-plane stresses to the thin walled mirror shells via a magnetic field. The field will be held in by some magnetically hard material such as NiCo. By use of a so called magnetic smart material (MSM) such as Terfenol-D, we already shown that strong enough stresses can be generated. Preliminary work has also shown that the magnetic field can be held in well enough to apply the figure correcting stresses pre-launch. What we call "set-it and forget-it." However, what is unique about our approach is that at the cost of complexity and some areal coverage, our concept will also accommodate in-orbit adjustments. Furthermore, to the best of our knowledge ours is one of two known stress modification processes that are bi-axial. Our plan is first to validate set-it and forget-it first on cantilevers and then to expand this to working on 5 cm x 5 cm pieces. We will work both with NiCo and glass or Si coated with Terfenol-D. Except for the NiCo, substrates we will also coat the samples with NiCo in order to have a film that will hold in the magnetic field. As part of the coating process, we will control the stress of the film by varying the voltage bias while coating. The bias stress control can be used to apply films with minimal stress such as Terfenol-D and X-ray reflecting coatings such as Ir. Ir is a highly desirable coating for soft X-ray astronomy mirrors that can have significant built in stress unless

  15. New configuration for efficient and durable copper coating on the outer surface of a tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Ahmad

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A well-adhered copper coating on stainless steel power coupler parts is required in superconducting radio frequency (SRF accelerators. Radio frequency power coupler parts are complex, tubelike stainless steel structures, which require copper coating on their outer and inner surfaces. Conventional copper electroplating sometimes produces films with inadequate adhesion strength for SRF applications. Electroplating also requires a thin nickel strike layer under the copper coating, whose magnetic properties can be detrimental to SRF applications. Coaxial energetic deposition (CED and sputtering methods have demonstrated efficient conformal coating on the inner surfaces of tubes but coating the outer surface of a tube is challenging because these coating methods are line of sight. When the substrate is off axis and the plasma source is on axis, only a small section of the substrate’s outer surface is exposed to the source cathode. The conventional approach is to rotate the tube to achieve uniformity across the outer surface. This method results in poor film thickness uniformity and wastes most of the source plasma. Alameda Applied Sciences Corporation (AASC has developed a novel configuration called hollow external cathode CED (HEC-CED to overcome these issues. HEC-CED produces a film with uniform thickness and efficiently uses all eroded source material. The Cu film deposited on the outside of a stainless steel tube using the new HEC-CED configuration survived a high pressure water rinse adhesion test. HEC-CED can be used to coat the outside of any cylindrical structure.

  16. Plasma sprayed TiC coatings for first wall protection in fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groot, P.; Laan, J.G. van der; Laas, L.; Mack, M.; Dvorak, M.

    1989-01-01

    For protection of plasma facing components in nuclear fusion devices thick titanium carbide coatings are being developed. Coatings have been produced by plasma spraying at atmospheric pressure (APS) and low pressure (LPPS) and analyzed with respect to microstructure and chemical composition. Thermo-mechanical evaluation has been performed by applying short pulse laser heat flux tests. The influence of coating thickness and porosity on the resistance to spalling by thermal shocks appears to be more important than aspects of chemical composition. (author)

  17. Beeswax–chitosan emulsion coated paper with enhanced water vapor barrier efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Xiao, Huining; Qian, Liying

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The water vapor barrier efficiency of paper was enhanced via green-based emulsion coating. • Extremely high lipid content in the emulsion coating layer was firstly utilized to reduce WVTR in emulsion-based film. • A controlled WVTR of beeswax–chitosan emulsion coating could be obtained by dying at specific temperature. - Abstract: For lipid–hydrocolloid emulsion based film, the increase of lipid amount would improve its water vapor barrier property, but also reduce the mechanical strength of the film in the meantime thus leading to a compromised lipid content in the film. However, when the emulsion is coated on paper surface, more lipid could be used for emulsion preparation to enhance the moisture resistance without considering the weakened strength of the film induced by lipid, because the mechanical properties of emulsion coated paper is mainly governed by the strength of base paper instead of the coating layer. In this study, beeswax–chitosan emulsion was first prepared and then coated on paper surface to improve paper's water vapor barrier and water resistance properties. The range and variance analysis of orthogonal test design showed that the order of priorities of the factors accordingly was beeswax solid content, drying temperature and chitosan concentration. The effect of drying temperature on water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) and water contact angle of coated paper was further investigated using 1.2 wt% chitosan and 96% beeswax solid content in the coating layer. The results indicated that water vapor barrier property was in accordance with the density of the coating layer. Atomic force microscope (AFM) was also used to characterize the surface morphology and explain the hydrophobicity of beeswax–chitosan coated paper. It was found that surface beeswax particles melted to wrinkle at high drying temperatures, while roughness values maintained at micro-scale over the temperature range investigated

  18. A Computationally-Efficient Numerical Model to Characterize the Noise Behavior of Metal-Framed Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Arjunan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Architects, designers, and engineers are making great efforts to design acoustically-efficient metal-framed walls, minimizing acoustic bridging. Therefore, efficient simulation models to predict the acoustic insulation complying with ISO 10140 are needed at a design stage. In order to achieve this, a numerical model consisting of two fluid-filled reverberation chambers, partitioned using a metal-framed wall, is to be simulated at one-third-octaves. This produces a large simulation model consisting of several millions of nodes and elements. Therefore, efficient meshing procedures are necessary to obtain better solution times and to effectively utilise computational resources. Such models should also demonstrate effective Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI along with acoustic-fluid coupling to simulate a realistic scenario. In this contribution, the development of a finite element frequency-dependent mesh model that can characterize the sound insulation of metal-framed walls is presented. Preliminary results on the application of the proposed model to study the geometric contribution of stud frames on the overall acoustic performance of metal-framed walls are also presented. It is considered that the presented numerical model can be used to effectively visualize the noise behaviour of advanced materials and multi-material structures.

  19. High efficient vacuum arc plant for coating deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksenov, I.I.; Belous, V.A.

    2008-01-01

    A number of progressive technical solutions are used in the 'Bulat-9' machine designed for vacuum arc coating deposition. The features of the machine are: a dome shaped working chamber that allows to 'wash' its inner surfaces with hot nitrogen or argon gas; a system of automatic loading/unloading of articles to be treated into the chamber through its bottom; shielding of the inner surfaces of the chamber by heated panels; improved vacuum arc plasma sources including filtered one; four ported power supply for the vacuum arc discharges; LC oscillatory circuits suppressing microarcs on the substrate; the system of automatic control of a working process. The said technical features cause the apparatus originality and novelty preserved up to-day

  20. A simple and efficient levitation technique for noncontact coating of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A simple and very efficient gas jet levitation technique for levitating inertial ... Inertial confinement fusion targets; low Reynolds number levitation; fluid dynamics. ... any mechanical handling of these specified targets can cause damage beyond ...

  1. High quality ceramic coatings sprayed by high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Sheng; Xu Binshi; Yao JiuKun

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduced the structure of the high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying gun and the effects of hypersonic plasma jet on the sprayed particles. The optimised spraying process parameters for several ceramic powders such as Al 2 O 3 , Cr 2 O 3 , ZrO 2 , Cr 3 C 2 and Co-WC were listed. The properties and microstructure of the sprayed ceramic coatings were investigated. Nano Al 2 O 3 -TiO 2 ceramic coating sprayed by using the high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying was also studied. Compared with the conventional air plasma spraying, high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying improves greatly the ceramic coatings quality but at low cost. (orig.)

  2. Thick boron carbide coatings for protection of tokamak first wall and divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzhinskij, O.I.; Semenets, Yu.M.

    1999-01-01

    A review of characteristics of various types of boron carbide coatings considered as candidate materials for protection of tokamak inner surfaces against high energy heat fluxes is presented. Such coatings are produced by various methods: chemical vapor deposition by means of chloride and fluoride techniques, gas conversion, plasma spray and reaction-sintering. Contrary to pure carbon materials, B 4 C has much lower chemical and high-temperature sputtering, is capable to oxygen gettering and lower hydrogen recycling. In contrast to thin boronization films, the thick coatings can resist high heat fluxes such as in tokamak divertors. Comparative analysis shows that coatings produced by the diffusion methods, such as fluoride CVD and gas conversion, are more resistent to heat loads, and one of the most promising candidates are the fluoride CVD coatings. (orig.)

  3. The effect of organic coating on the heterogeneous ice nucleation efficiency of mineral dust aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moehler, O; Benz, S; Saathoff, H; Schnaiter, M; Wagner, R [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institute for Meteorology and Climate Research, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Schneider, J; Walter, S [Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Ebert, V; Wagner, S [University of Heidelberg, Institute for Physical Chemistry, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: Ottmar.Moehler@imk.fzk.de

    2008-04-15

    The effect of organic coating on the heterogeneous ice nucleation (IN) efficiency of dust particles was investigated at simulated cirrus cloud conditions in the AIDA cloud chamber of Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. Arizona test dust (ATD) and the clay mineral illite were used as surrogates for atmospheric dust aerosols. The dry dust samples were dispersed into a 3.7 m{sup 3} aerosol vessel and either directly transferred into the 84 m{sup 3} cloud simulation chamber or coated before with the semi-volatile products from the reaction of {alpha}-pinene with ozone in order to mimic the coating of atmospheric dust particles with secondary organic aerosol (SOA) substances. The ice-active fraction was measured in AIDA expansion cooling experiments as a function of the relative humidity with respect to ice, RHi, in the temperature range from 205 to 210 K. Almost all uncoated dust particles with diameters between 0.1 and 1.0 {mu}m acted as efficient deposition mode ice nuclei at RHi between 105 and 120%. This high ice nucleation efficiency was markedly suppressed by coating with SOA. About 20% of the ATD particles coated with a SOA mass fraction of 17 wt% were ice-active at RHi between 115 and 130%, and only 10% of the illite particles coated with an SOA mass fraction of 41 wt% were ice-active at RHi between 160 and 170%. Only a minor fraction of pure SOA particles were ice-active at RHi between 150 and 190%. Strong IN activation of SOA particles was observed only at RHi above 200%, which is clearly above water saturation at the given temperature. The IN suppression and the shift of the heterogeneous IN onset to higher RHi seem to depend on the coating thickness or the fractional surface coverage of the mineral particles. The results indicate that the heterogeneous ice nucleation potential of atmospheric mineral particles may also be suppressed if they are coated with secondary organics.

  4. The effect of organic coating on the heterogeneous ice nucleation efficiency of mineral dust aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moehler, O; Benz, S; Saathoff, H; Schnaiter, M; Wagner, R; Schneider, J; Walter, S; Ebert, V; Wagner, S

    2008-01-01

    The effect of organic coating on the heterogeneous ice nucleation (IN) efficiency of dust particles was investigated at simulated cirrus cloud conditions in the AIDA cloud chamber of Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. Arizona test dust (ATD) and the clay mineral illite were used as surrogates for atmospheric dust aerosols. The dry dust samples were dispersed into a 3.7 m 3 aerosol vessel and either directly transferred into the 84 m 3 cloud simulation chamber or coated before with the semi-volatile products from the reaction of α-pinene with ozone in order to mimic the coating of atmospheric dust particles with secondary organic aerosol (SOA) substances. The ice-active fraction was measured in AIDA expansion cooling experiments as a function of the relative humidity with respect to ice, RHi, in the temperature range from 205 to 210 K. Almost all uncoated dust particles with diameters between 0.1 and 1.0 μm acted as efficient deposition mode ice nuclei at RHi between 105 and 120%. This high ice nucleation efficiency was markedly suppressed by coating with SOA. About 20% of the ATD particles coated with a SOA mass fraction of 17 wt% were ice-active at RHi between 115 and 130%, and only 10% of the illite particles coated with an SOA mass fraction of 41 wt% were ice-active at RHi between 160 and 170%. Only a minor fraction of pure SOA particles were ice-active at RHi between 150 and 190%. Strong IN activation of SOA particles was observed only at RHi above 200%, which is clearly above water saturation at the given temperature. The IN suppression and the shift of the heterogeneous IN onset to higher RHi seem to depend on the coating thickness or the fractional surface coverage of the mineral particles. The results indicate that the heterogeneous ice nucleation potential of atmospheric mineral particles may also be suppressed if they are coated with secondary organics

  5. Quantum efficiency of silica-coated rare-earth doped yttrium silicate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervantes-Vásquez, D.; Contreras, O.E.; Hirata, G.A.

    2013-01-01

    The photoluminescent properties of rare earth-activated white-emitting Y 2 SiO 5 :Ce,Tb nanocrystalline phosphor prepared by two different methods, pressure-assisted combustion synthesis and sol–gel, were studied. The synthesized phosphor samples were post-annealed at 1373 K and 1623 K in order to obtain the X1-Y 2 SiO 5 and X2-Y 2 SiO 5 phases, respectively, which were confirmed by X-ray diffraction measurements. Photoluminescence analysis showed the contribution of two blue-emission bands within the 380–450 nm region originating from 5d–4f transitions in Ce 3+ ions and a well-defined green emission of Tb 3+ ions located at 545 nm corresponding to 5 D 4 → 7 F 5 electronic transitions. Thereafter, Y 2 SiO 5 :Ce,Tb powders were coated with colloidal silica in order to investigate the effect of silica coatings on their luminescent properties. Absolute fluorescence quantum efficiency measurements were carefully performed, which revealed an increase of 12% of efficiency in coated compared with bare-Y 2 SiO 5 :Ce,Tb phosphor. -- Highlights: • Y 2 SiO 5 :Ce,Tb phosphor powders were successfully coated with colloidal silica. • Post-annealing treatments improved the quantum efficiency of silica-coated Y 2 SiO 5 :Ce,Tb phosphors. • Absolute fluorescence quantum efficiency measurements showed an increase of 12%

  6. Residual stress in the first wall coating materials of TiC and TiN for fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Shaoyu

    1997-01-01

    Residual stresses measurement in the first wall coating of a fusion reactor of TiC and TiN films by X-ray diffraction 'sin 2 ψ methods' were described. The authors have studied on the effect of conditions of specimen preparation (such as coating method, substrate materials, film thickness and deposition temperature) on the residual stress of TiC and TiN films coated onto Mo, 316LSS and Pocographite by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and physical vapor deposition (PVD) method. All films prepared in this study were found to have a compressive stresses and the CVD method gave lower residual stress than PVD method. TiC film coated on Mo substrate at 1100 degree C by CVD method showed that residual stress as the film thickness was raised from 14 μm to 60 μm, on the other hand, residual stress by PVD method exhibited a high compressive stresses, this kind of stress was principally the intrinsic stress, and a marked decrease in the residual with raising the deposition temperature (200 degree C∼650 degree C) was demonstrated. Origins of the residual stress were discussed by correlation with differences between thermal expansion coefficients, and also with fabrication methods

  7. Tin-oxide-coated single-walled carbon nanotube bundles supporting platinum electrocatalysts for direct ethanol fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Ryan S; Higgins, Drew; Chen Zhongwei

    2010-01-01

    Novel tin-oxide (SnO 2 )-coated single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) bundles supporting platinum (Pt) electrocatalysts for ethanol oxidation were developed for direct ethanol fuel cells. SnO 2 -coated SWNT (SnO 2 -SWNT) bundles were synthesized by a simple chemical-solution route. SnO 2 -SWNT bundles supporting Pt (Pt/SnO 2 -SWNTs) electrocatalysts and SWNT-supported Pt (Pt/SWNT) electrocatalysts were prepared by an ethylene glycol reduction method. The catalysts were physically characterized using TGA, XRD and TEM and electrochemically evaluated through cyclic voltammetry experiments. The Pt/SnO 2 -SWNTs showed greatly enhanced electrocatalytic activity for ethanol oxidation in acid medium, compared to the Pt/SWNT. The optimal SnO 2 loading of Pt/SnO 2 -SWNT catalysts with respect to specific catalytic activity for ethanol oxidation was also investigated.

  8. Tin-oxide-coated single-walled carbon nanotube bundles supporting platinum electrocatalysts for direct ethanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ryan S; Higgins, Drew; Chen, Zhongwei

    2010-04-23

    Novel tin-oxide (SnO(2))-coated single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) bundles supporting platinum (Pt) electrocatalysts for ethanol oxidation were developed for direct ethanol fuel cells. SnO(2)-coated SWNT (SnO(2)-SWNT) bundles were synthesized by a simple chemical-solution route. SnO(2)-SWNT bundles supporting Pt (Pt/SnO(2)-SWNTs) electrocatalysts and SWNT-supported Pt (Pt/SWNT) electrocatalysts were prepared by an ethylene glycol reduction method. The catalysts were physically characterized using TGA, XRD and TEM and electrochemically evaluated through cyclic voltammetry experiments. The Pt/SnO(2)-SWNTs showed greatly enhanced electrocatalytic activity for ethanol oxidation in acid medium, compared to the Pt/SWNT. The optimal SnO(2) loading of Pt/SnO(2)-SWNT catalysts with respect to specific catalytic activity for ethanol oxidation was also investigated.

  9. SUBSTANTIATION OF DESIGN MEASURES TO INCREASE ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF EXTERIOR WALLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musorina Tat'yana Aleksandrovna

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject: multi-layer building envelope is the subject of the paper. Recently, in the context of energy conservation policies, the heat engineering requirements for enveloping structures of buildings and structures have significantly increased. At the same time, their moisture condition has a significant impact on the operational properties of materials of structures and on microclimate of rooms constrained by these structures. Research objectives: emphasize importance of the task of predicting the temperature and moisture condition of the walling at the stage of design and construction of building envelopes. In this paper, the temperature distributions in layered walls are analyzed. Materials and methods: to achieve the objectives, computational and experimental studies are conducted. By alternating (rearranging layers and preserving the thermal resistance of the wall on the whole, we find the optimal alternation of layers that minimizes deviation of the maximum wall temperature from the average temperature. Results: for the optimal location of layers in the wall’s structure, the moisture penetration into the wall is minimal or absent altogether. This is possible if the heat-insulating layer is mounted on the outer surface of the structure. Conclusions: the obtained results of computational and experimental studies allow us to verify appropriateness of accounting for alternation of layers in multilayer structures. These calculations proved that the higher the average temperature level, the more energy-efficient the structure will be.

  10. A SRF niobium cylindrical cavity with a large silicon nitride niobium-coated membrane as one end-wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Luis; Castelli, Alessandro; Pate, Jacob; Thompson, Johnathon; Delmas, William; Sharping, Jay; Chiao, Raymond; Chiao Team; Sharping Team

    The development of large silicon nitride membranes and niobium film deposition techniques motivate new architectures in opto-mechanics and microwave devices that can exploit the extremely high Q's obtainable with superconducting radio frequency (SRF) niobium cavities. We present a X-band SRF cylindrical cavity-membrane system in which one end-wall of the cavity is replaced by a niobium coated centimeter-sized silicon nitride membrane. We report moderately high Q factors above 10 million. Experimental results characterizing the system and potential future applications for such schemes in microwave devices and optomechanics are discussed.

  11. Efficiency of surface modified Ti coated with copper nanoparticles to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    environment which in turn affects the efficiency of the metal. To reduce the ... The microbial adhesion on the surface of Ti, TiO2-NTs and NT-CuNP coupons were ... applications from water and air purification to tissue engi- neering and ...

  12. Wall-plug efficiency analysis of semi-active piezoelectric shunt damping systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Václavík, Jan; Kodejška, M.; Mokrý, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 20, September (2014), 1077546314548910 ISSN 1077-5463 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1206; GA ČR GA13-10365S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Piezoelectric shunt damping * vibration isolation * negative capacitor * wall-plug efficiency * mechanical power measurement * power supply optimization Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 4.355, year: 2013 http://jvc.sagepub.com/content/early/2014/09/17/1077546314548910

  13. Wall-plug efficiency analysis of semi-active piezoelectric shunt damping systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Václavík, Jan; Kodejška, M.; Mokrý, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 11 (2016), s. 2582-2590 ISSN 1077-5463 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1206; GA ČR GA13-10365S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Piezoelectric shunt damping * vibration isolation * negative capacitor * wall-plug efficiency * mechanical power measurement * power supply optimization Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 2.101, year: 2016 http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1077546314548910

  14. Advances in microreaction technology for portable fuel cell applications: Wall coating of thin catalytic films in microreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo Bersano, Jaime Cristian

    This research has focused on the need to coat microreactor systems composed of channels in the micron size range of 100 to 1000 mum. The experimental procedures and learning are outlined in terms of slurry and surface preparation requirements which are detailed in the experimental section. This system is motivated and applied to micro methanol steam reformers. Thus, a detailed discussion on the driving motivation is given in the introduction. The low temperatures required for steam-reforming of methanol ˜ 493°K (220°C) make it possible to utilize the reformate as a feed to the fuel cell anode. The group of catalysts that shows the highest activity for methanol steam reforming (SR) at low temperature has composition of CuO/ZnO/Al 2O3, which is also the catalyst used for methanol synthesis. Steam reforming of methanol is a highly endothermic process. Conventional reactor configurations, such as a packed bed reactor, operate in a heat transfer limited mode for this reaction. Using catalyst in packed bed form for portable devices is also not convenient due to high pressure drop and possible channeling of gases in addition to poor heat transfer. A wall-coated catalyst represents a superior geometry since it provides lower pressure drop and ease of manufacturing. Due to their small size, microreactors are especially suited for endothermic reactions whose reactivity depends on the rate of heat input. A brief review on microreaction technology is given with a comprehensive survey for catalyst integration into microreactors for catalytic heterogeneous gas phase reactions. The strength of this research is the model that was developed to coat the interior of micron sized capillaries with coats of CuO/ZnO/Al2O 3 slurries as thick as 25 mum in the dry state. The details of the model are given in terms Taylor's theory and Rayleigh's theory. A model is presented that can predict the coat thickness based on experimental conditions The model combines Taylor's experimental work

  15. A microstructure study of C + SiC coating materials for first wall of fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Ying; Gao Dihua; Lu Huaichang; Yao Yiming

    1995-03-01

    By means of OM, SEM, XRD, WDS and EDAX, a microstructure study has been made of: (1) the dependence of microstructure and crystal structure of C + SiC coating and content and distribution of SiC in it on technological process, the coating was deposited on graphite substrate by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) with C 3 H 6 , CH 3 SiCl 3 and Ar mixture gases; (2) the influence of chemical sputtering by hydrogen ions and thermal shock by electron beams with high energy on microstructure and performance of the coating. The results show that the C + SiC coating deposited at 1600 degree C has good adherence and is resistant to damage from chemical sputtering by hydrogen ions and resistant to thermal shock by electron beams. (9 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.)

  16. Decontamination efficiency of a sheet of vinyl wall paper as a surface material in radioisotope laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Kazuhiko; Funadera, Kanako

    1989-01-01

    It has long been desired to prevent surface materials from cracking in a radioisotope laboratory. We applied a sheet of nonflammable wall paper, vinyl cloth, as a surface material to cover concrete wall. It was sufficiently resistant to the reinforced concrete wall cracking. The efficiency of the decontamination of the vinyl cloth was compared with those of stainless steel, iron and painted plates. The contamination and decontamination indices were determined in these surface materials after contamination with [ 32 P]orthophosphate (pH 3, 7 and 11) for 0 to 48 h. Both of the indices of the vinyl cloth were higher than those of the other materials. Further, it was confirmed that the vinyl cloth was resistant to acid and alkaline conditions and radioisotopes could not be permeable. The wipe off efficiency was also investigated in these materials by use of several decontamination detergents. In any reagents tested, the wipe of efficiency of the vinyl cloth was more than 80%. Thus, the vinyl cloth could be used for the surface material and is one of good surface materials in a radioisotope laboratory. (author)

  17. Evaluation of transpiration properties of wall greening using evaporation efficiency rate as an index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, H.; Misaka, I.; Tashiro, Y.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the evaporation efficiency, which is a heat balance parameter necessary for numerical simulation of greening effects, was derived in order quantitatively to evaluate the effects of wall greening panels on improving the thermal environment. The efficiency was determined by monitoring the amount of evapotranspiration from wall greening panels on which either Hedera helix or Euonymus fortunei was planted, calculating the sensible heat-flux from SAT measurements, and determining the convective heat transfer rate, material transfer rate and the difference between the measured and calculated amounts of evapotranspiration. The results showed that: 1) both the convection heat transfer rate and material transfer rate were highly correlated to wind speed, and the derived equations for calculating the rates were functions of wind speed, 2) the mean evaporation efficiency for the monitoring period was 0.25 for Hedera helix and 0.26 for Euonymus fortunei, and 3) the amounts of evaporation from the wall greening panels tested were 4 to 5 mm for both plant species and showed correlations to daily cumulative irradiation

  18. Efficient TEA CO2 laser based coating removal system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Prinsloo, FJ

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Prinsloo_2007.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 11617 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Prinsloo_2007.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Efficient TEA CO2 laser based... by keeping energy density below the damage threshold. The advantage of a pulsed TEA CO2 laser system is that a laser frequency and temporal profile can be chosen to maximize paint removal and concurrently minimize substrate damage. To achieve...

  19. Silica-coated multi-walled carbon nanotubes impregnated with polyethyleneimine for carbon dioxide capture under the flue gas condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Min-Sang; Park, Soo-Jin, E-mail: sjpark@inha.ac.kr

    2015-03-15

    In this study, silica-coated multi-walled carbon nanotubes impregnated with polyethyleneimine (PEI) were prepared via a two-step process: (i) hydrolysis of tetraethylorthosilicate onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and (ii) impregnation of PEI. The adsorption properties of CO{sub 2} were investigated using CO{sub 2} adsorption–desorption isotherms at 298 K and thermogravimetric analysis under the flue gas condition (15% CO{sub 2}/85% N{sub 2}). The results obtained in this study indicate that CO{sub 2} adsorption increases after impregnation of PEI. The increase in CO{sub 2} capture was attributed to the affinity between CO{sub 2} and the amine groups. CO{sub 2} adsorption–desorption experiments, which were repeated five times, also showed that the prepared adsorbents have excellent regeneration properties. - Graphical abstract: Fabrication and CO{sub 2} adsorption process of the S-MWCNTs impregnated with PEI. - Highlights: • Silica coated-MWCNT impregnated with PEI was synthesized. • Amine groups of PEI gave CO{sub 2} affinity sites on MWCNT surfaces. • The S-MWCNT/PEI(50) exhibited the highest CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity.

  20. The impact of lithium wall coatings on NSTX discharges and the engineering of the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majeski, R.; Kugel, H.; Kaita, R.; Avasarala, S.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Berzak, L.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Gerhardt, S.P.; Gransted, E.; Gray, T.; Jacobson, C.; Kallman, J.; Kaye, S.; Kozub, T.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Lepson, J.; Lundberg, D.P.; Maingi, R.; Mansfield, D.; Paul, S.F.; Pereverzev, G.V.; Schneider, H.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Strickler, T.; Stotler, D.; Timberlake, J.; Zakharov, L.E.

    2010-01-01

    Recent experiments on the National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX) have shown the benefits of solid lithium coatings on carbon PFC's to diverted plasma performance, in both L- and H-mode confinement regimes. Better particle control, with decreased inductive flux consumption, and increased electron temperature, ion temperature, energy confinement time, and DD neutron rate were observed. Successive increases in lithium coverage resulted in the complete suppression of ELM activity in H-mode discharges. A liquid lithium divertor (LLD), which will employ the porous molybdenum surface developed for the LTX shell, is being installed on NSTX for the 2010 run period, and will provide comparisons between liquid walls in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX) and liquid divertor targets in NSTX. LTX, which recently began operations at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, is the world's first confinement experiment with full liquid metal plasma-facing components (PFCs). All materials and construction techniques in LTX are compatible with liquid lithium. LTX employs an inner, heated, stainless steel-faced liner or shell, which will be lithium-coated. In order to ensure that lithium adheres to the shell, it is designed to operate at up to 500-600 degrees C to promote wetting of the stainless by the lithium, providing the first hot wall in a tokamak to Operate at reactor-relevant temperatures. The engineering of LTX will be discussed.

  1. Hierarchical Nickel Sulfide Coated Halloysite Nanotubes For Efficient Energy Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yanan; Zhou, Jie; Liu, Yun; Tang, Jian; Tang, Weihua

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •An integration strategy was presented to construct Ni 3 S 2 based hierarchical composite. •Nanowhisker Ni 3 S 2 were densely integrated onto halloysite nanotubes. •The well-designed electrode exhibits remarkable capacitance and cycling stability. •This strategy provides good reference to electrode materials design for energy storage -- Abstract: Cost-effective and robust energy storage systems have attracted great attention for portable electronic devices. Three-dimensional electrodes can effectively enhance the charge transfer, increase the mechanical stability and thus improve the electrochemical performance upon continuous charge-discharge. The earth abundant halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) have shown immense potential in constructing nanoarchitectural composites. Here, we first demonstrate the development of hybrid composite of nickel sulfide (Ni 3 S 2 ) and HNTs with glucose as binders for efficient energy storage in supercapacitor. The surface sulfhydrylation of HNTs and glucose-assisted hydrothermal reaction are crucial for the preparation of well-structured composite. Due to the synergistic effect between components, the Ni 3 S 2 /HNTs@HS composite electrode delivers a capacity of 450.4C g −1 and high retention of 82.6% over 2000 cycles in three-electrode supercapacitors. Moreover, the Ni 3 S 2 /HNTs@HS//Whatman paper//Ni 3 S 2 /HNTs@HS two-electrode symmetric supercapacitor exhibits a maximum potential window of 1.3 V, with a capacity of 250C g −1 and performance loss of only 18.2% over 2000 cycling at 1 A g −1 . A maximum energy density of 79.6 Wh kg −1 is achieved at a power density of 1.03 kW kg −1 . Such excellent energy storage performance suggests the great potential of Ni 3 S 2 /HNTs@HS for high-efficiency energy storage systems.

  2. Poly(methyl methacrylate) and thiophene-coated single-walled carbon nanotubes for volatile organic compound discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muangrat, Worawut; Chodjarusawad, Thanawee; Maolanon, Rungroj; Pratontep, Sirapat; Porntheeraphat, Supanit; Wongwiriyapan, Winadda

    2016-02-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and thiophene-coated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were fabricated for use in volatile organic compound (VOC) detection. Pristine SWNTs were separately coated with PMMA (PMMA/SWNTs) and thiophene (thiophene/SWNTs) by spin-coating. Pristine SWNTs showed the highest response to methanol, while PMMA/SWNTs enabled 5.4-fold improved dichloromethane detection and thiophene/SWNTs enabled 1.4-fold improved acetone detection compared with pristine SWNTs. The sensor response of PMMA/SWNTs to dichloromethane and that of thiophene/SWNTs to acetone can be attributed to the Hildebrand solubility parameter (HSP). The more similar the HSP, the higher the sensor response. The sensor response of pristine SWNTs to methanol is related to the diffusion coefficient and molecular size. The relationships between the vapor concentration and sensor response of PMMA/SWNTs to dichloromethane and thiophene/SWNTs to acetone are based on Henry’s adsorption isotherm, while that of pristine SWNTs to methanol is based on the Henry-clustering model. Principal component analysis (PCA) results show that dichloromethane, acetone, and methanol were successfully discriminated.

  3. Steel Plate Shear Walls: Efficient Structural Solution for Slender High-Rise in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathias, Neville; Long, Eric; Sarkisian, Mark; Huang Zhihui

    2008-01-01

    The 329.6 meter tall 74-story Jinta Tower in Tianjin, China, is expected, when complete, to be the tallest building in the world with slender steel plate shear walls used as the primary lateral load resisting system. The tower has an overall aspect ratio close to 1:8, and the main design challenge was to develop an efficient lateral system capable of resisting significant wind and seismic lateral loads, while simultaneously keeping wind induced oscillations under acceptable perception limits. This paper describes the process of selection of steel plate shear walls as the structural system, and presents the design philosophy, criteria and procedures that were arrived at by integrating the relevant requirements and recommendations of US and Chinese codes and standards, and current on-going research

  4. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes/graphene oxide hybrid and nanohydroxyapatite composite: A novel coating to prevent dentin erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahorny, Sídnei; Zanin, Hudson; Christino, Vinie Abreu; Marciano, Fernanda Roberta; Lobo, Anderson Oliveira; Soares, Luís Eduardo Silva

    2017-10-01

    To date is emergent the development of novel coatings to protect erosion, especially to preventive dentistry and restorative dentistry. Here, for the first time we report the effectiveness of multi-walled carbon nanotube/graphene oxide hybrid carbon-base material (MWCNTO-GO) combined with nanohydroxyapatite (nHAp) as a protective coating for dentin erosion. Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy (FT-Raman), scanning electron (SEM), and transmission electron (TEM) microscopy were used to investigated the coatings and the effect of acidulated phosphate fluoride gel (APF) treatment on bovine teeth root dentin before and after erosion. The electrochemical corrosion performance of the coating was evaluated. Raman spectra identified that: (i) the phosphate (ν 1 PO 4 3- ) content of dentin was not significantly affected by the treatments and (ii) the carbonate (ν 1 CO 3 2- ) content in dentin increased when nHAp was used. However, the nHAp/MWCNTO-GO composite exposited lower levels of organic matrix (CH bonds) after erosion compared to other treatments. Interesting, SEM micrographs identified that the nHAp/MWCNTO-GO formed layers after erosive cycling when associate with APF treatment, indicating a possible chemical bond among them. Treatments of root dentin with nHAp, MWCNTO-GO, APF_MWCNTO-GO, and APF_nHAp/MWCNTO-GO increased the carbonate content, carbonate/phosphate ratio, and organic matrix band area after erosion. The potentiodynamic polarization curves and Nyquist plot showed that nHAp, MWCNT-GO and nHAp/MWCNT-GO composites acted as protective agents against corrosion process. Clearly, the nHAp/MWCNTO-GO composite was stable after erosive cycling and a thin and acid-resistant film was formed when associated to APF treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Multi-walled carbon nanotube-coated cotton fabric for possible ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    For such a sample, the resistance decreased significantly to 1.5 k cm−2, whereas it is 2.0 and ... areas such as antibacterial properties, water repellence, soil resistance .... we plan to take up detailed electrical studies of MWCNT-coated fabrics.

  6. Study on the first wall TiC coated materials for fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yungui; Zou Congpei

    1994-08-01

    The chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process of TiC coating, electron beam thermal shock and thermal fatigue testing of TiC coated materials are described. The dense and fine coating is deposited at 1100 degree, CH 4 flux of 0.36 L/min and H 2 flux of 1.16 L/min, and the deposition rate reaches 0.7 μm/min. The correlation between coating thickness and process parameters is given. Pulsed by electron beams with high power density up to 226 MW/m 2 for 0.6 s, the TiC layers of TiC/graphite, TiC/molybdenum and TiC/316L SS spall from substrates, and 316L SS is molten. A lot of TiC layer spall from 316L SS after 2 hear cycles between 900 degree C and -246 degree C, net-cracks are formed on the surface of TiC/graphite during the fatigue testing, but no exfoliation of TiC layer is observed up to the maximum heat cycles 200. Neither cracks nor exfoliation of TiC layer on molybdenum are found after 200 heat cycles

  7. Contributing to Net Zero Building: High Energy Efficient EIFS Wall Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbary, Lawrence D. [Dow Corning Corporation; Perkins, Laura L. [Dow Corning Corporation; Serino, Roland [Dryvit Systems, Inc; Preston, Bill [Dryvit Systems, Inc; Kosny, Jan [Fraunhofer USA, Inc. CSE

    2014-01-29

    The team led by Dow Corning collaborated to increase the thermal performance of exterior insulation and finishing systems (EIFS) to reach R-40 performance meeting the needs for high efficiency insulated walls. Additionally, the project helped remove barriers to using EIFS on retrofit commercial buildings desiring high insulated walls. The three wall systems developed within the scope of this project provide the thermal performance of R-24 to R-40 by incorporating vacuum insulation panels (VIPs) into an expanded polystyrene (EPS) encapsulated vacuum insulated sandwich element (VISE). The VISE was incorporated into an EIFS as pre-engineered insulation boards. The VISE is installed using typical EIFS details and network of trained installers. These three wall systems were tested and engineered to be fully code compliant as an EIFS and meet all of the International Building Code structural, durability and fire test requirements for a code compliant exterior wall cladding system. This system is being commercialized under the trade name Dryvit® Outsulation® HE system. Full details, specifications, and application guidelines have been developed for the system. The system has been modeled both thermally and hygrothermally to predict condensation potential. Based on weather models for Baltimore, MD; Boston, MA; Miami, FL; Minneapolis, MN; Phoenix, AZ; and Seattle, WA; condensation and water build up in the wall system is not a concern. Finally, the team conducted a field trial of the system on a building at the former Brunswick Naval Air Station which is being redeveloped by the Midcoast Regional Redevelopment Authority (Brunswick, Maine). The field trial provided a retrofit R-30 wall onto a wood frame construction, slab on grade, 1800 ft2 building, that was monitored over the course of a year. Simultaneous with the façade retrofit, the building’s windows were upgraded at no charge to this program. The retrofit building used 49% less natural gas during the winter of

  8. Quantum efficiency of silica-coated rare-earth doped yttrium silicate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervantes-Vásquez, D., E-mail: dcervant@cnyn.unam.mx [Centro de Investigación Científica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada, Carretera Ensenada-Tijuana No. 3918, Zona Playitas, C.P. 22860 Ensenada, B.C., México (Mexico); Contreras, O.E.; Hirata, G.A. [Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Km. 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, C.P. 22800 Ensenada, B.C., México (Mexico)

    2013-11-15

    The photoluminescent properties of rare earth-activated white-emitting Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce,Tb nanocrystalline phosphor prepared by two different methods, pressure-assisted combustion synthesis and sol–gel, were studied. The synthesized phosphor samples were post-annealed at 1373 K and 1623 K in order to obtain the X1-Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} and X2-Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} phases, respectively, which were confirmed by X-ray diffraction measurements. Photoluminescence analysis showed the contribution of two blue-emission bands within the 380–450 nm region originating from 5d–4f transitions in Ce{sup 3+} ions and a well-defined green emission of Tb{sup 3+} ions located at 545 nm corresponding to {sup 5}D{sub 4}→{sup 7}F{sub 5} electronic transitions. Thereafter, Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce,Tb powders were coated with colloidal silica in order to investigate the effect of silica coatings on their luminescent properties. Absolute fluorescence quantum efficiency measurements were carefully performed, which revealed an increase of 12% of efficiency in coated compared with bare-Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce,Tb phosphor. -- Highlights: • Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce,Tb phosphor powders were successfully coated with colloidal silica. • Post-annealing treatments improved the quantum efficiency of silica-coated Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce,Tb phosphors. • Absolute fluorescence quantum efficiency measurements showed an increase of 12%.

  9. Technical note: Influence of surface roughness and local turbulence on coated-wall flow tube experiments for gas uptake and kinetic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Coated-wall flow tube reactors are frequently used to investigate gas uptake and heterogeneous or multiphase reaction kinetics under laminar flow conditions. Coating surface roughness may potentially distort the laminar flow pattern, induce turbulence and introduce uncertainties in the calculated uptake coefficient based on molecular diffusion assumptions (e.g., Brown/Cooney–Kim–Davis (CKD/Knopf–Pöschl–Shiraiwa (KPS methods, which has not been fully resolved in earlier studies. Here, we investigate the influence of surface roughness and local turbulence on coated-wall flow tube experiments for gas uptake and kinetic studies. According to laminar boundary theory and considering the specific flow conditions in a coated-wall flow tube, we derive and propose a critical height δc to evaluate turbulence effects in the design and analysis of coated-wall flow tube experiments. If a geometric coating thickness δg is larger than δc, the roughness elements of the coating may cause local turbulence and result in overestimation of the real uptake coefficient (γ. We further develop modified CKD/KPS methods (i.e., CKD-LT/KPS-LT to account for roughness-induced local turbulence effects. By combination of the original methods and their modified versions, the maximum error range of γCKD (derived with the CKD method or γKPS (derived with the KPS method can be quantified and finally γ can be constrained. When turbulence is generated, γCKD or γKPS can bear large difference compared to γ. Their difference becomes smaller for gas reactants with lower uptake (i.e., smaller γ and/or for a smaller ratio of the geometric coating thickness to the flow tube radius (δg ∕ R0. On the other hand, the critical height δc can also be adjusted by optimizing flow tube configurations and operating conditions (i.e., tube diameter, length, and flow velocity, to ensure not only unaffected laminar flow patterns but also other specific requirements for an

  10. Highly efficient polymer solar cells with printed photoactive layer: rational process transfer from spin-coating

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Kui

    2016-09-05

    Scalable and continuous roll-to-roll manufacturing is at the heart of the promise of low-cost and high throughput manufacturing of solution-processed photovoltaics. Yet, to date the vast majority of champion organic solar cells reported in the literature rely on spin-coating of the photoactive bulk heterojunction (BHJ) layer, with the performance of printed solar cells lagging behind in most instances. Here, we investigate the performance gap between polymer solar cells prepared by spin-coating and blade-coating the BHJ layer for the important class of modern polymers exhibiting no long range crystalline order. We find that thickness parity does not always yield performance parity even when using identical formulations. Significant differences in the drying kinetics between the processes are found to be responsible for BHJ nanomorphology differences. We propose an approach which benchmarks the film drying kinetics and associated BHJ nanomorphology development against those of the champion laboratory devices prepared by spin-coating the BHJ layer by adjusting the process temperature. If the optimization requires the solution concentration to be changed, then it is crucial to maintain the additive-to-solute volume ratio. Emulating the drying kinetics of spin-coating is also shown to help achieve morphological and performance parities. We put this approach to the test and demonstrate printed PTB7:PC71BM polymer solar cells with efficiency of 9% and 6.5% PCEs on glass and flexible PET substrates, respectively. We further demonstrate performance parity for two other popular donor polymer systems exhibiting rigid backbones and absence of a long range crystalline order, achieving a PCE of 9.7%, the highest efficiency reported to date for a blade coated organic solar cell. The rational process transfer illustrated in this study should help the broader and successful adoption of scalable printing methods for these material systems.

  11. Anti-corrosive Effects of Multi-Walled Carbon Nano Tube and Zinc Particle Shapes on Zinc Ethyl Silicate Coated Carbon Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, JiMan; Shon, MinYoung; Kwak, SamTak [Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    Zinc ethyl silicate coatings containing multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were prepared, to which we added spherical and flake shaped zinc particles. The anti-corrosive effects of MWCNTs and zinc shapes on the zinc ethyl silicate coated carbon steel was examined, using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and corrosion potential measurement. The results of EIS and corrosion potential measurement showed that the zinc ethyl silicate coated with flake shaped zinc particles and MWCNT showed lesser protection to corrosion. These outcomes were in agreement with previous results of corrosion potential and corrosion occurrence.

  12. Large-area fluidic assembly of single-walled carbon nanotubes through dip-coating and directional evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pilnam; Kang, Tae June

    2017-12-01

    We present a simple and scalable fluidic-assembly approach, in which bundles of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are selectively aligned and deposited by directionally controlled dip-coating and solvent evaporation processes. The patterned surface with alternating regions of hydrophobic polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) (height 100 nm) strips and hydrophilic SiO2 substrate was withdrawn vertically at a constant speed ( 3 mm/min) from a solution bath containing SWCNTs ( 0.1 mg/ml), allowing for directional evaporation and subsequent selective deposition of nanotube bundles along the edges of horizontally aligned PDMS strips. In addition, the fluidic assembly was applied to fabricate a field effect transistor (FET) with highly oriented SWCNTs, which demonstrate significantly higher current density as well as high turn-off ratio (T/O ratio 100) as compared to that with randomly distributed carbon nanotube bundles (T/O ratio <10).

  13. Simple down conversion nano-crystal coatings for enhancing Silicon-solar cells efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gur Mittelman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Utilizing self-assembled nano-structured coatings on top of existing solar cells has thepotential to increase the total quantum efficiency of the cell using a simple and cheap process. In ourwork we have exploited the controlled absorption of nano-crystal with different band gaps to realizedown conversion artificial antennas that self-assembled on the device surface. The UV sun light isconverted to the visible light enhancing the solar cell performance in two complementary routes; a.protecting the solar cell and coatings from the UV illumination and therefore reducing the UVradiation damage. b. enhancing the total external quantum efficiency of the cell by one percent. Thisis achieved using a simple cheap process that can be adjusted to many different solar cells.

  14. Efficient eucalypt cell wall deconstruction and conversion for sustainable lignocellulosic biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam L. Healey

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to meet the world’s growing energy demand and reduce the impact of greenhouse gas emissions resulting from fossil fuel combustion, renewable plant-based feedstocks for biofuel production must be considered. First generation biofuels, derived from starches of edible feedstocks such as corn, creates competition between food and fuel resources, both for the crop itself and the land on which it is grown. As such, biofuel synthesized from non-edible plant biomass (lignocellulose generated on marginal agricultural land, will help to alleviate this competition. Eucalypts, the broadly defined taxa encompassing over 900 species of Eucalyptus, Corymbia and Angophora, are the most widely planted hardwood tree in the world, harvested mainly for timber, pulp and paper, and biomaterial products. More recently, due to their exceptional growth rate and amenability to grow under a wide range of environmental conditions, eucalypts are a leading option for the development of a sustainable lignocellulosic biofuels. However, efficient conversion of woody biomass into fermentable monomeric sugars is largely dependent on pretreatment of the cell wall, whose formation and complexity lends itself towards natural recalcitrance against its efficient deconstruction. A greater understanding of this complexity within the context of various pretreatments will allow the design of new and effective deconstruction processes for bioenergy production. In this review, we present the various pretreatment options for eucalypts, including research into understanding structure and formation of the eucalypt cell wall.

  15. Efficient Eucalypt Cell Wall Deconstruction and Conversion for Sustainable Lignocellulosic Biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Adam L; Lee, David J; Furtado, Agnelo; Simmons, Blake A; Henry, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    In order to meet the world's growing energy demand and reduce the impact of greenhouse gas emissions resulting from fossil fuel combustion, renewable plant-based feedstocks for biofuel production must be considered. The first-generation biofuels, derived from starches of edible feedstocks, such as corn, create competition between food and fuel resources, both for the crop itself and the land on which it is grown. As such, biofuel synthesized from non-edible plant biomass (lignocellulose) generated on marginal agricultural land will help to alleviate this competition. Eucalypts, the broadly defined taxa encompassing over 900 species of Eucalyptus, Corymbia, and Angophora are the most widely planted hardwood tree in the world, harvested mainly for timber, pulp and paper, and biomaterial products. More recently, due to their exceptional growth rate and amenability to grow under a wide range of environmental conditions, eucalypts are a leading option for the development of a sustainable lignocellulosic biofuels. However, efficient conversion of woody biomass into fermentable monomeric sugars is largely dependent on pretreatment of the cell wall, whose formation and complexity lend itself toward natural recalcitrance against its efficient deconstruction. A greater understanding of this complexity within the context of various pretreatments will allow the design of new and effective deconstruction processes for bioenergy production. In this review, we present the various pretreatment options for eucalypts, including research into understanding structure and formation of the eucalypt cell wall.

  16. STRAIN CONCENTRATION IN APICES OF RADIAL CRACKS IN A THIN COATED PIPE WALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Payzulaev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The well-known discontinuous solution method, used in the study of infinite and semi-infinite domains, is generalised during the construction of solutions in Fourier series. This makes it possible to reduce the problem of the mechanics of a deformable solid for a limited region containing cuts or inclusions to the solution of an integral equation (or system with respect to discontinuities of the functions being defined.Methods. The method was implemented through the application to the solution of the theoretical elasticity problem for a pipe section (plane deformation weakened by an internal radial crack. The pipe was loaded with hydrostatic pressure and a thin coating is applied on its inner surface, improving its physical and mechanical properties. The applied method, combined with the conventional integral transformation, can be effectively used in the construction of discontinuous solutions of three-dimensional problems of the theory of elasticity.Results. Specially formulated boundary conditions were used as a coating model. In order to verify the adequacy of the adopted model, a series of numerical experiments was carried out. In some cases, calculations were carried out for the cross-section of a coated pipe in finite-element ANSYS and COMSOL software packages. In others, benefiting from the extensive capabilities of the FlexPDE software package, an uncoated pipe model was constructed, although using special boundary conditions. Comparison of the results obtained made it possible to ascertain the adequacy of the models constructed across a certain range of geometric and physical parameters.Conclusion. The problem is reduced to the solution of a singular integral equation with a Cauchy kernel with respect to the derivative of the jump in the tangential component of the displacement vector on the crack edges. Its solution is determined by the collocation method with a pre-selected feature. The ultimate goal of the study is to

  17. Efficient and Stable Carbon-coated Nickel Foam Cathodes for the Electro-Fenton Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Shuqin; Wu, Mingmei; Liu, Yuhui; Zhu, Qiping; Tsiakaras, Panagiotis; Wang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Carbon-coated nickel foam (C@NF) was prepared by cycle coating carbon process. • Ni leaching can be effectively controlled at C@NF4 (4 cycle coating times) cathode. • C@NF4 exhibits excellent electro-Fenton performance with desirable stability. • C@NF4 exhibits low energy consumption for DMP degradation. - Abstract: Carbon-coated nickel foam (C@NF) electrodes are prepared via a simple and effective method, hydrothermal-carbonization cycle coating process, characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and employed as the electro-Fenton (E-Fenton) cathode for degrading dimethyl phthalate (DMP) in aqueous solution. For the sake of comparison, nickel foam (NF) electrode and the conventional E-Fenton cathode (graphite gas diffusion electrode (GDE)) are also tested and compared. Experimental results indicate that nickel leaching can be effectively controlled at C@NF4 cathode (4 times cycle coating process), having great significance for promoting the application of NF in E-Fenton system. Moreover, C@NF4 cathode still presents excellent and effective performance on DMP degradation. DMP can be completely degraded within 2 h at −0.5 V and the total organic carbon (TOC) removal reaches as high as 82.1 %, which is almost 3 times as high as that at graphite GDE. Futhermore, the current efficiency for H 2 O 2 generation at C@NF4 is enhanced by 12 times compared to that at NF, and consequently the energy consumption during DMP degradation at C@NF4 is obvious lower than that at both NF cathode and graphite GDE. From the obtained results it can be deduced that C@NF4 is promising to be an attractive alternative E-Fenton cathode for removing organic pollutants in wastewater

  18. Immobilization of ruthenium phthalocyanine on silica-coated multi-wall partially oriented carbon nanotubes: Electrochemical detection of fenitrothion pesticide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canevari, Thiago C., E-mail: tccanevari@gmail.com [Engineering School, Mackenzie Presbyterian University, 01302-907 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Prado, Thiago M.; Cincotto, Fernando H.; Machado, Sergio A.S. [Institute of Chemistry, State University of São Paulo, P.O. Box 780, 13560-970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Hybrid material, SiO{sub 2}/MWCNTs containing ruthenium phthalocyanine (RuPc) synthesized in situ. • Silica containing multi-walled carbon nanotube partially oriented. • Determination of pesticide fenitrothion in orange juice. - Abstract: This paper reports on the determination of the pesticide fenitrothion using a glassy carbon electrode modified with silica-coated, multi-walled, partially oriented carbon nanotubes, SiO{sub 2}/MWCNTs, containing ruthenium phthalocyanine (RuPc) synthesized in situ. The hybrid SiO{sub 2}/MWCNTs/RuPc material was characterized by UV–vis absorption spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and differential pulse voltammetry. The modified electrode showed well-defined peaks in the presence of fenitrothion in acetate buffer, pH 4.5, with a sensitivity of 0.0822 μA μM{sup −1} mm{sup −2} and a detection limit of 0.45 ppm. Notably, the modified SiO{sub 2}/MWCNTs/RuPc electrodes with did not suffer from significant influences in the presence of other organophosphorus pesticides during the determination of the fenitrothion pesticide. Moreover, this modified electrode showed excellent performance in the determination of fenitrothion in orange juice.

  19. Trombe wall and glazings facades: Energy efficiency for different Portuguese Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacht, H. M.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available High performance glass and Trombe walls in the façade was studied in this research. The paper reports results of an ongoing investigation on a new façade system concept, designed as: “Façade Modules for Eco-Efficient Refurbishment of Buildings”, especially on energy efficiency of Trombe wall and glazing modules arrangement. Computational simulation was carried out by using the software DesignBuilder. Two double glazing types and Trombe walls were considered for three different climates in Portugal and four solar orientations. Results obtained for heating energy needs were compared to all façade configurations. The use of Trombe wall and the double self-cleaning glass in the façade point towards a significant decrease of heating energy needs. The great majority of the façades combinations presented energy needs lower than the maximum allowed by the Portuguese regulation (RCCTE.Esta investigación aborda el estudio de fachadas con cristales de altas prestaciones y muros Trombe. El artículo presenta los resultados de la investigación en curso sobre un nuevo concepto en sistemas de fachada, denominado "Módulos de fachada para el acondicionamiento ecoeficiente de edificios", especialmente enfocado a la eficiencia energética de muros Trombe y módulos con doble acristalamiento. Haciendo uso del software DesignBuilder se realizaron simulaciones de una estancia, analizando distintos conjuntos de fachadas modulares. Para la realización de las simulaciones se consideraron dos tipos de módulos de doble acristalamiento, dos configuraciones de muros Trombe, tres climas diferentes en Portugal y cuatro orientaciones solares. Se compararon los requerimientos de calefacción de cada una de las configuraciones, observándose que tanto los muros Trombe como los módulos de doble acristalamiento presentaron disminuciones significativas en cuanto a requerimientos de calefacción. De las configuraciones analizadas, la mayoría presentó demandas energ

  20. Homogeneous PCBM layers fabricated by horizontal-dip coating for efficient bilayer heterojunction organic photovoltaic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Yoon Ho; Bae, In-Gon; Jeon, Hong Goo; Park, Byoungchoo

    2016-10-31

    We herein report a homogeneous [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) layer, produced by a solution process of horizontal-dipping (H-dipping) to improve the photovoltaic (PV) effects of bilayer heterojunction organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) based on a bi-stacked poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) electron donor layer and a PCBM electron acceptor layer (P3HT/PCBM). It was shown that a homogeneous and uniform coating of PCBM layers in the P3HT/PCBM bilayer OPVs resulted in reliable and reproducible device performance. We recorded a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 2.89%, which is higher than that (2.00%) of bilayer OPVs with a spin-coated PCBM layer. Moreover, introducing surfactant additives of poly(oxyethylene tridecyl ether) (PTE) into the homogeneous P3HT/PCBM PV layers resulted in the bilayer OPVs showing a PCE value of 3.95%, which is comparable to those of conventional bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) OPVs (3.57-4.13%) fabricated by conventional spin-coating. This improved device performance may be attributed to the selective collection of charge carriers at the interfaces among the active layers and electrodes due to the PTE additives as well as the homogeneous formation of the functional PCBM layer on the P3HT layer. Furthermore, H-dip-coated PCBM layers were deposited onto aligned P3HT layers by a rubbing technique, and the rubbed bilayer OPV exhibited improved in-plane anisotropic PV effects with PCE anisotropy as high as 1.81, which is also higher than that (1.54) of conventional rubbed BHJ OPVs. Our results suggest that the use of the H-dip-coating process in the fabrication of PCBM layers with the PTE interface-engineering additive could be of considerable interest to those seeking to improve PCBM-based opto-electrical organic thin-film devices.

  1. Catalysis in flow microreactors with wall coatings of acidic polymer brushes and dendrimer-encapsulated nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ricciardi, R.

    2015-01-01

    Continuous-flow microreactors are an invaluable tool to carry out organic reactions owing to their numerous advantages with respect to batch scale synthesis. In particular, supported catalysts enable heterogeneous catalysis to be conducted in an efficient way. In this thesis, the development and

  2. X-ray conversion efficiency of high-Z hohlraum wall materials for indirect drive ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewald, E. L.; Rosen, M.; Glenzer, S. H.; Suter, L. J.; Neumayer, P.; Landen, O. L.; Girard, F.; Jadaud, J. P.; Wagon, F.; Huser, G.; Schein, J.; Constantin, C.

    2008-01-01

    The conversion efficiency of 351 nm laser light to soft x rays (0.1-5 keV) was measured for Au, U, and high Z mixture ''cocktails'' used as hohlraum wall materials in indirect drive fusion experiments. For the spherical targets in a direct drive geometry, flattop laser pulses and laser smoothing with phase plates are employed to achieve constant and uniform laser intensities of 10 14 and 10 15 W/cm 2 over the target surface that are relevant for the future ignition experiments at the National Ignition Facility [G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, Nucl. Fusion 44, 228 (2004)]. The absolute time and spectrally resolved radiation flux is measured with a multichannel soft x-ray power diagnostic. The conversion efficiency is then calculated by dividing the measured x-ray power by the incident laser power from which the measured laser backscattering losses are subtracted. After ∼0.5 ns, the time resolved x-ray conversion efficiency reaches a slowly increasing plateau of 95% at 10 14 W/cm 2 laser intensity and of 80% at 10 15 W/cm 2 . The M-band flux (2-5 keV) is negligible at 10 14 W/cm 2 reaching ∼1% of the total x-ray flux for all target materials. In contrast, the M-band flux is significant and depends on the target material at 10 15 W/cm 2 laser intensity, reaching values between 10% of the total flux for U and 27% for Au. LASNEX simulations [G. B. Zimmerman and W. L. Kruer, Comm. Plasma Phys. Contr. Fusion 2, 51 (1975)] show good agreement in conversion efficiency and radiated spectra with data when using XSN atomic physics model and a flux limiter of 0.15, but they underestimate the generated M-band flux.

  3. X-ray Conversion Efficiency of high-Z hohlraum wall materials for indirect drive ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewald, E.; Rosen, M.; Glenzer, S.H.; Suter, L.J.; Girard, F.; Jadaud, J.P.; Schein, J.; Constantin, C.G.; Neumayer, P.; Landen, O.

    2008-01-01

    We measure the conversion efficiency of 351 nm laser light to soft x-rays (0.1-5 keV) for Au, U and high Z mixtures 'cocktails' used for hohlraum wall materials in indirect drive ICF. We use spherical targets in a direct drive geometry, flattop laser pulses and laser smoothing with phase plates to achieve constant and uniform laser intensities of 10 14 and 10 15 W/cm 2 over the target surface that are relevant for the future ignition experiments on NIF. The absolute time and spectrally-resolved radiation flux is measured with a multichannel soft x-ray power diagnostic. The conversion efficiency is then calculated by dividing the measured x-ray power by the incident laser power from which the measured laser backscattering losses is subtracted. After ∼0.5 ns, the time resolved x-ray conversion efficiency reaches a slowly increasing plateau of 95% at 10 14 W/cm 2 laser intensity and of 80% at 10 15 W/cm 2 . The M-band flux (2-5 keV) is negligible at 10 14 W/cm 2 reaching ∼1% of the total x-ray flux for all target materials. In contrast, the M-band flux is significant and depends on the target material at 10 15 W/cm 2 laser intensity, reaching values between 10% of the total flux for U and 27% for Au. Our LASNEX simulations show good agreement in conversion efficiency and radiated spectra with data when using XSN atomic physics model and a flux limiter of 0.15, but they underestimate the generated M-band flux

  4. Synthesis of Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes Coated with Thiol-reactive Gel via Emulsion Polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Yukiko; Tsutsumi, Yusuke; Nakashima, Naotoshi; Fujigaya, Tsuyohiko

    2018-06-15

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) have unique near-infrared absorption and photoemission properties that are attractive for in vivo biological applications such as photothermal cancer treatment and bioimaging. Therefore, a smart functionalization strategy for SWNTs to create biocompatible surfaces and introduce various ligands to target active cancer cells without losing the unique optical properties of the SWNTs is strongly desired. This paper reports the de-sign and synthesis of a SWNT/gel hybrid containing maleimide groups, which react with various thiol compounds through Michael addition reactions. In this hybrid, the method called carbon nanotube micelle polymerization was used to non-covalently modify the surface of SWNTs with a cross-linked polymer gel layer. This method can form an extremely stable gel layer on SWNTs; such stability is essential for in vivo biological applications. The monomer used to form the gel layer contained a maleimide group, which was protected with furan in endo-form. The resulting hybrid was treated in water to induce deprotection via retro Diels-Alder reaction and then functionalized with thiol com-pounds through Michael addition. The functionalization of the hybrid was explored using a thiol-containing fluores-cent dye as a model thiol and the formation of the SWNT-dye conjugate was confirmed by energy transfer from the dye to SWNTs. Our strategy offers a promising SWNT-based platform for biological functionalization for cancer targeting, imaging, and treatment.

  5. Electrochemical Oxidation of Sulfamethazine on Multi-Walled Nanotube Film Coated Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Fotouhi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical oxidation of sulfamethazine (SMZ has been studied at a multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified glassy carbon electrode (MWCNT-GCE by cyclic voltammetry. This modified electrode (MWCNT-GCE exhibited excellent electrocatalytic behavior toward the oxidation of SMZ as evidenced by the enhancement of the oxidation peak current and the shift in the anodic potential to less positive values (170 mV in comparison with the bare GCE. The formal potential, E0', of SMZ is pH dependent with a slope of 54 mV per unit of pH, close to the anticipated Nerstian value of 59 mV for a 2-electron and 2-proton oxidation process. A detailed analysis of cyclic voltammograms gave fundamental electrochemical parameters including the electroactive surface coverage (Г, the transfer coefficient (a, the heterogeneous rate constant (ks. Under the selected conditions, the peak current shows two dynamic linear ranges of 10-200 mM and 300-3000 mM with the detection limit of 6.1 mM. The method was successfully applied to analyze SMZ in serum sample

  6. Development of Efficient UV-LED Phosphor Coatings for Energy Saving Solid State Lighting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uwe Happek

    2006-01-01

    The University of Georgia, in collaboration with GE Global Research, has investigated the relevant quenching mechanism of phosphor coatings used in white light devices based on UV LEDs. The final goal of the project was the design and fabrication of a high-efficacy white light UV-LED device through improved geometry and optimized phosphor coatings. At the end of the research period, which was extended to seamlessly carry over the research to a follow-up program, we have demonstrated a two-fold improvement in the conversion efficiency of a white light LED device, where the increase efficacy is due to both improved phosphor quantum efficiency and lamp geometry. Working prototypes have been displayed at DOE sponsored meetings and during the final presentation at the DOE Headquarters in Washington, DC. During the first phase of the project, a fundamental understanding of quenching processes in UV-LEDs was obtained, and the relationships that describe the performance of the phosphor as a function of photon flux, temperature, and phosphor composition were established. In the second phase of the project, these findings were then implemented to design the improved UV-LED lamp. In addition, our research provides a road map for the design of efficient white light LEDs, which will be an important asset during a follow-up project led by GE

  7. Design of coated standing nanowire array solar cell performing beyond the planar efficiency limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Yang; Ye, Qinghao; Shen, Wenzhong, E-mail: wzshen@sjtu.edu.cn [Institute of Solar Energy, and Key Laboratory of Artificial Structures and Quantum Control (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2016-05-28

    The single standing nanowire (SNW) solar cells have been proven to perform beyond the planar efficiency limits in both open-circuit voltage and internal quantum efficiency due to the built-in concentration and the shifting of the absorption front. However, the expandability of these nano-scale units to a macro-scale photovoltaic device remains unsolved. The main difficulty lies in the simultaneous preservation of an effective built-in concentration in each unit cell and a broadband high absorption capability of their array. Here, we have provided a detailed theoretical guideline for realizing a macro-scale solar cell that performs furthest beyond the planar limits. The key lies in a complementary design between the light-trapping of the single SNWs and that of the photonic crystal slab formed by the array. By tuning the hybrid HE modes of the SNWs through the thickness of a coaxial dielectric coating, the optimized coated SNW array can sustain an absorption rate over 97.5% for a period as large as 425 nm, which, together with the inherited carrier extraction advantage, leads to a cell efficiency increment of 30% over the planar limit. This work has demonstrated the viability of a large-size solar cell that performs beyond the planar limits.

  8. Cell wall composition contributes to the control of transpiration efficiency in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yun-Kuan; Xie, Xiaodong; Lindsay, Shona E; Wang, Yi Bing; Masle, Josette; Williamson, Lisa; Leyser, Ottoline; Hetherington, Alistair M

    2010-11-01

    To identify loci in Arabidopsis involved in the control of transpirational water loss and transpiration efficiency (TE) we carried out an infrared thermal imaging-based screen. We report the identification of a new allele of the Arabidopsis CesA7 cellulose synthase locus designated AtCesA7(irx3-5) involved in the control of TE. Leaves of the AtCesA7(irx3-5) mutant are warmer than the wild type (WT). This is due to reduced stomatal pore widths brought about by guard cells that are significantly smaller than the WT. The xylem of the AtCesA7(irx3-5) mutant is also partially collapsed, and we suggest that the small guard cells in the mutant result from decreased water supply to the developing leaf. We used carbon isotope discrimination to show that TE is increased in AtCesA7(irx3-5) when compared with the WT. Our work identifies a new class of genes that affects TE and raises the possibility that other genes involved in cell wall biosynthesis will have an impact on water use efficiency. © 2010 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Photocatalysis-assisted water filtration: Using TiO{sub 2}-coated vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotube array for removal of Escherichia coli O157:H7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oza, Goldie; Pandey, Sunil; Gupta, Arvind; Shinde, Sachin; Mewada, Ashmi [N.S. N. Research Centre for Nanotechnology and Bionanotechnology, Jambhul Phata, Kalyan-Badlapur Road, Ambernath (W) 421505, Maharashtra (India); Jagadale, Pravin [DISAT — Department of Applied Science and Technology, Carbon group, Politecnico di Torino (Italy); Sharon, Maheshwar [N.S. N. Research Centre for Nanotechnology and Bionanotechnology, Jambhul Phata, Kalyan-Badlapur Road, Ambernath (W) 421505, Maharashtra (India); Sharon, Madhuri, E-mail: sharonmadhuri@gmail.com [N.S. N. Research Centre for Nanotechnology and Bionanotechnology, Jambhul Phata, Kalyan-Badlapur Road, Ambernath (W) 421505, Maharashtra (India)

    2013-10-01

    A porous ceramic was coated with vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) by spray pyrolysis. Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles were then coated onto this densely aligned MWCNT. The presence of TiO{sub 2}/MWCNT interfacial arrays was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope–energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (SEM–EDAX) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). This is a novel report in which water loaded with a most dreadful enterohemorrhagic pathogenic strain of Escherichia coli O157:H7 was filtered through TiO{sub 2}/MWCNT coated porous ceramic filter and then analysed. Bacterial removal performance was found to be significantly lower in control i.e. plain porous ceramic (P < 0.05) as compared to TiO{sub 2}/MWCNT coated ceramic. The photocatalytic killing rate constant for TiO{sub 2}-ceramic and MWCNT/TiO{sub 2}-ceramic under fluorescent light was found be 1.45 × 10{sup −2} min{sup −1} and 2.23 × 10{sup −2} min{sup −1} respectively. Further, when I–V characteristics were performed for TiO{sub 2}/MWCNT composite, it was corroborated that the current under light irradiation is comparatively higher than that in dark, thus proving it to be photocatalytically efficient system. The enhanced photocatalysis may be a contribution of increased surface area and charge transfer rate as a consequence of aligned MWCNT network. - Highlights: • Coating of vertically aligned MWCNT on ceramic candle filter • Surface orchestration of TiO{sub 2} on MWCNT arrays • I–V characteristic studies are performed under dark and illumination. • Photocatalytic efficiency of TiO{sub 2}/MWCNT arrays is determined using E. coli O157:H7. • Proposed a mechanism of bacterial killing due to free radical formation.

  10. Calculated efficiencies of three-material low stress coatings for diffractive x-ray transmission optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubec, Adam; Braun, Stefan; Gawlitza, Peter; Menzel, Maik; Leson, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Diffractive X-ray optical elements made by thin film coating techniques such as multilayer Laue lenses (MLL) and multilayer zone plates (MZP) are promising approaches to achieve resolutions in hard X-ray microscopy applications of less than 10 nm. The challenge is to make a lens with a large numerical aperture on the one hand and a decent working distance on the other hand. One of the limiting factors with the coated structures is the internal stress in the films, which can lead to significant bending of the substrate and various types of unwanted diffraction effects. Several approaches have been discussed to overcome this challenge. One of these is a three-material combination such as Mo/MoSi_2/Si, where four single layers per period are deposited. Mo and Si represent the absorber and spacer in this case while MoSi_2 forms a diffusion barrier; in addition the thicknesses of absorber and spacer are chosen to minimize residual stress of the overall coating. Here the diffraction efficiency as well as the profile of the beam in the focal plane are discussed in order to find a tradeoff between lowest residual stress and best diffraction properties.

  11. Thiol-modified gold-coated glass as an efficient hydrophobic substrate for drop coating deposition Raman (DCDR) technique

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kočišová, E.; Procházka, M.; Šípová, Hana

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 11 (2016), s. 1394-1396 ISSN 0377-0486 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP205/12/G118 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : thiol-modified Au-coated glass * drop coating deposition Raman * liposome Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.969, year: 2016

  12. Effect of Nickel Coated Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes on Electrochemical Performance of Lithium-Sulfur Rechargeable Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao; Yao, Shanshan; Hou, Jinli; Jing, Maoxiang; Qian, Xinye; Shen, Xiangqian; Xiang, Jun; Xi, Xiaoming

    2017-04-01

    Conventional lithium-sulfur batteries suffer from severe capacity fade, which is induced by low electron conductivity and high dissolution of intermediated polysulfides. Recent studies have shown the metal (Pt, Au, Ni) as electrocatalyst of lithium polysulfides and improved the performance for lithium sulfur batteries. In this work, we present the nickel coated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (Ni-MWNTs) as additive materials for elemental sulfur positive electrodes for lithium-sulfur rechargeable batteries. Compared with MWNTs, the obtained Ni-MWNTs/sulfur composite cathode demonstrate a reversible specific capacity approaching 545 mAh after 200 cycles at a rate of 0.5C as well as improved cycling stability and excellent rate capacity. The improved electrochemical performance can be attributed to the fact the MWNTs shows a vital role on polysulfides adsorption and nickel has a catalytic effect on the redox reactions during charge–discharge process. Meanwhile, the Ni-MWNTs is a good electric conductor for sulfur cathode.

  13. Enhanced electrical conductivity and hardness of silver-nickel composites by silver-coated multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dongmok; Sim, Jeonghyun; Baik, Seunghyun; Kim, Wonyoung; Moon, Chuldong; Cho, Wookdong

    2015-01-01

    We investigated electrical conductivity and Vickers hardness of Ag- and Ni-based composites prepared by powder metallurgy involving spark plasma sintering. The starting composition was Ag:Ni = 61:39 vol%, which provided an electrical conductivity of 3.30 × 10"5 S cm"−"1 and a hardness of 1.27 GPa. The addition of bare multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs, 1.45 vol%) increased hardness (1.31 GPa) but decreased electrical conductivity (2.99 × 10"5 S cm"−"1) and carrier mobility (11 cm"2 V"−"1 s"−"1) due to the formation of Ni_3C in the interface between the MWNTs and Ni during spark plasma sintering. The formation of Ni_3C was prevented by coating the surface of the nanotubes with Ag (nAgMWNTs), concomitantly increasing electrical conductivity (3.43 × 10"5 S cm"−"1) and hardness (1.37 GPa) of the sintered specimen (Ag:Ni:nAgMWNTs = 59.55:39:1.45 vol%). The electrical contact switching time (133 357) was also increased by 30%, demonstrating excellent feasibility as electrical contact materials for electric power industries. (paper)

  14. Moisture Performance of Energy-Efficient and Conventional Wood-Frame Wall Assemblies in a Mixed-Humid Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel V. Glass

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Long-term moisture performance is a critical consideration for design and construction of building envelopes in energy-efficient buildings, yet field measurements of moisture characteristics for highly insulated wood-frame walls in mixed-humid climates are lacking. Temperature, relative humidity, and moisture content of wood framing and oriented strand board (OSB structural panel sheathing were measured over a period from mid-November 2011 through March 2013 in both north- and south-facing orientations in test structures near Washington, DC, USA. Wall configurations varied in exterior cladding, water-resistive barrier, level of cavity insulation, presence of exterior continuous insulation, and interior vapor retarder. The combination of high interior humidity and high vapor permeance of painted gypsum board led to significant moisture accumulation in OSB sheathing during winter in walls without a vapor retarder. In contrast, wintertime moisture accumulation was not significant with an interior kraft vapor retarder. Extruded polystyrene exterior insulation had a predictable effect on wall cavity temperature but a marginal impact on OSB moisture content in walls with vinyl siding and interior kraft vapor retarder. Hygrothermal simulations approximately captured the timing of seasonal changes in OSB moisture content, differences between north- and south-facing walls, and differences between walls with and without an interior kraft vapor retarder.

  15. Moisture Performance of Energy-Efficient and Conventional Wood-Frame Wall Assemblies in a Mixed-Humid Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel Glass; Vladimir Kochkin; S. Drumheller; Lance Barta

    2015-01-01

    Long-term moisture performance is a critical consideration for design and construction of building envelopes in energy-efficient buildings, yet field measurements of moisture characteristics for highly insulated wood-frame walls in mixed-humid climates are lacking. Temperature, relative humidity, and moisture content of wood framing and oriented strand board (OSB)...

  16. Photocatalysis-assisted water filtration: using TiO2-coated vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotube array for removal of Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oza, Goldie; Pandey, Sunil; Gupta, Arvind; Shinde, Sachin; Mewada, Ashmi; Jagadale, Pravin; Sharon, Maheshwar; Sharon, Madhuri

    2013-10-01

    A porous ceramic was coated with vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) by spray pyrolysis. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles were then coated onto this densely aligned MWCNT. The presence of TiO2/MWCNT interfacial arrays was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (SEM-EDAX) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). This is a novel report in which water loaded with a most dreadful enterohemorrhagic pathogenic strain of Escherichia coli O157:H7 was filtered through TiO2/MWCNT coated porous ceramic filter and then analysed. Bacterial removal performance was found to be significantly lower in control i.e. plain porous ceramic (Paligned MWCNT network. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Microwave pumped high-efficient thermoacoustic tumor therapy with single wall carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Liewei; Ding, Wenzheng; Yang, Sihua; Xing, Da

    2016-01-01

    The ultra-short pulse microwave could excite to the strong thermoacoustic (TA) shock wave and deeply penetrate in the biological tissues. Based on this, we developed a novel deep-seated tumor therapy modality with mitochondria-targeting single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) as microwave absorbing agents, which act efficiently to convert ultra-short microwave energy into TA shock wave and selectively destroy the targeted mitochondria, thereby inducing apoptosis in cancer cells. After the treatment of SWNTs (40 μg/mL) and ultra-short microwave (40 Hz, 1 min), 77.5% of cancer cells were killed and the vast majority were caused by apoptosis that initiates from mitochondrial damage. The orthotopic liver cancer mice were established as deep-seated tumor model to investigate the anti-tumor effect of mitochondria-targeting TA therapy. The results suggested that TA therapy could effectively inhibit the tumor growth without any observable side effects, while it was difficult to achieve with photothermal or photoacoustic therapy. These discoveries implied the potential application of TA therapy in deep-seated tumor models and should be further tested for development into a promising therapeutic modality for cancer treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Dip-coating of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) anodes for efficient polymer solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Like; Hu, Ziyang; Zhang, Ke; Chen, Peipei; Zhu, Yuejin

    2015-01-01

    The fabrication of anodes and active layers by dip-coating in indium tin oxide (ITO)-free polymer solar cells (PSCs) is investigated. A highly conductive poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)(PEDOT:PSS) layer was used as an anode while a blend film of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) was employed as an active layer. The transmittance and sheet resistance of dip-coated PEDOT:PSS layers prepared with different thickness were studied. These layers were integrated into PSCs. The PSCs with the dip-coated PEDOT:PSS and P3HT:PCBM films exhibited power conversion efficiencies of 3.21% and 3.03% on glass and polyethylene terephthalate substrates, respectively, comparable to those of conventional ITO-based cells. Our research results suggest the feasibility of fabricating PSCs without a traditional spin-coating process and the possibility to substitute the ITO electrodes for conducting polymer films using the facile dip-coating method. - Highlights: • ITO-free polymer solar cells (PSCs) were fabricated by dip coating method. • Highly conductive PEDOT:PSS films used as anode were prepared. • The ITO-free PSCs performance was comparable with that of the spin coated devices. • Our results suggest the possibility of replacing ITO with dip coated PEDOT:PSS

  19. High efficiency dry coating of non-subcoated pellets for sustained drug release formulations using amino methacrylate copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klar, Fabian; Urbanetz, Nora Anne

    2017-12-12

    Dry coating utilizing a fluidized bed was evaluated in order to produce films with sustained drug release using amino methacrylate copolymers as film former. In contrast to other dry coating procedures using amino methacrylate copolymers, the described method enables an appropriate polymer adhesion by the selection of a plasticizer additive mixture in combination with the use of a three-way nozzle for simultaneous application. Well spreading fatty acid esters were found to increase the coating efficiency from 73% to approximately 86%, when they were used in conjunction with the plasticizer. Pellets were used as drug cores without previous treatment. After a curing step at 55 °C, the pellets exhibited a prolongation of the drug release over a period of about 6 h. Mainly the three parameters, coating level, composition of the polymers in the coating mixture, and the type of plasticizer, were found to exert distinct influence on the dissolution profile. Despite the differences in the coating procedure, the dissolution profiles of the coated pellets as well as the influencing parameters were similar to those known from conventional coating techniques.

  20. Dip-coating of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) anodes for efficient polymer solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Like; Hu, Ziyang, E-mail: huziyang@nbu.edu.cn; Zhang, Ke; Chen, Peipei; Zhu, Yuejin, E-mail: zhuyuejin@nbu.edu.cn

    2015-03-02

    The fabrication of anodes and active layers by dip-coating in indium tin oxide (ITO)-free polymer solar cells (PSCs) is investigated. A highly conductive poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)(PEDOT:PSS) layer was used as an anode while a blend film of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) was employed as an active layer. The transmittance and sheet resistance of dip-coated PEDOT:PSS layers prepared with different thickness were studied. These layers were integrated into PSCs. The PSCs with the dip-coated PEDOT:PSS and P3HT:PCBM films exhibited power conversion efficiencies of 3.21% and 3.03% on glass and polyethylene terephthalate substrates, respectively, comparable to those of conventional ITO-based cells. Our research results suggest the feasibility of fabricating PSCs without a traditional spin-coating process and the possibility to substitute the ITO electrodes for conducting polymer films using the facile dip-coating method. - Highlights: • ITO-free polymer solar cells (PSCs) were fabricated by dip coating method. • Highly conductive PEDOT:PSS films used as anode were prepared. • The ITO-free PSCs performance was comparable with that of the spin coated devices. • Our results suggest the possibility of replacing ITO with dip coated PEDOT:PSS.

  1. Comfortable, high-efficiency heat pump with desiccant-coated, water-sorbing heat exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Y D; Wang, R Z; Ge, T S; Zheng, X

    2017-01-12

    Comfortable, efficient, and affordable heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems in buildings are highly desirable due to the demands of energy efficiency and environmental friendliness. Traditional vapor-compression air conditioners exhibit a lower coefficient of performance (COP) (typically 2.8-3.8) owing to the cooling-based dehumidification methods that handle both sensible and latent loads together. Temperature- and humidity-independent control or desiccant systems have been proposed to overcome these challenges; however, the COP of current desiccant systems is quite small and additional heat sources are usually needed. Here, we report on a desiccant-enhanced, direct expansion heat pump based on a water-sorbing heat exchanger with a desiccant coating that exhibits an ultrahigh COP value of more than 7 without sacrificing any comfort or compactness. The pump's efficiency is doubled compared to that of pumps currently used in conventional room air conditioners, which is a revolutionary HVAC breakthrough. Our proposed water-sorbing heat exchanger can independently handle sensible and latent loads at the same time. The desiccants adsorb moisture almost isothermally and can be regenerated by condensation heat. This new approach opens up the possibility of achieving ultrahigh efficiency for a broad range of temperature- and humidity-control applications.

  2. Enhanced photo-transfection efficiency of mammalian cells on graphene coated substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mthunzi, Patience; He, Kuang; Ngcobo, Sandile; Warner, Jamie W.

    2014-03-01

    Literature reports graphene, an atomic-thick sheet of carbon atoms as one of the promising biocompatible scaffolds that promotes cellular proliferation in human mesenchymal stem cells. On the other hand, different mammalian cell lines including the induced pluripotent stem cells exhibited an accelerated proliferation rate when cultured on graphene or graphene oxide coated substrates. These findings provide strong motivation to explore the full capability of graphene in further pluripotent stem cell research activities as there exists an urgent requirement to preserve their therapeutic potential. This therefore calls for non-invasive procedures for handling stem cells in-vitro. For example, resent literature has shown successful laser light driven transfection in both multipotent and pluripotent stem cells. In order to explore the non-invasive nature of optical transfection alongside biocompatible qualities of graphene, in this work we investigated the impact of optically transfecting mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells plated on graphene coated sample chambers. Using Chinese Hamster Ovary cells (CHO-K1), we further studied the influence of graphene on cell viability as well as cell cytotoxicity through assessing changes in levels of mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) activity and the release of cytosolic lactate dehydrogenase (LHD) respectively. Our results showed that compared to those treated on plain glass, CHO-K1 cells optically treated while plated on graphene coated substrates exhibited a higher production of ATP and a milder release of LDH. In addition there was enhanced photo-transfection efficiency in both CHO-K1 and mES cells irradiated on graphene sample chambers.

  3. Cationic polymers for DNA origami coating - examining their binding efficiency and tuning the enzymatic reaction rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiviaho, Jenny K; Linko, Veikko; Ora, Ari; Tiainen, Tony; Järvihaavisto, Erika; Mikkilä, Joona; Tenhu, Heikki; Nonappa; Kostiainen, Mauri A

    2016-06-02

    DNA origamis are fully tailored, programmable, biocompatible and readily functionalizable nanostructures that provide an excellent foundation for the development of sophisticated drug-delivery systems. However, the DNA origami objects suffer from certain drawbacks such as low cell-transfection rates and low stability. A great deal of studies on polymer-based transfection agents, mainly focusing on polyplex formation and toxicity, exists. In this study, the electrostatic binding between a brick-like DNA origami and cationic block-copolymers was explored. The effect of the polymer structure on the binding was investigated and the toxicity of the polymer-origami complexes evaluated. The study shows that all of the analyzed polymers had a suitable binding efficiency irrespective of the block structure. It was also observed that the toxicity of polymer-origami complexes was insignificant at the biologically relevant concentration levels. Besides brick-like DNA origamis, tubular origami carriers equipped with enzymes were also coated with the polymers. By adjusting the amount of cationic polymers that cover the DNA structures, we showed that it is possible to control the enzyme kinetics of the complexes. This work gives a starting point for further development of biocompatible and effective polycation-based block copolymers that can be used in coating different DNA origami nanostructures for various bioapplications.

  4. Electrically conductive poly-ɛ-caprolactone/polyethylene glycol/multi-wall carbon nanotube nanocomposite scaffolds coated with fibrin glue for myocardial tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdikhani, Mehdi; Ghaziof, Sharareh

    2018-01-01

    In this research, poly-ɛ-caprolactone (PCL), polyethylene glycol (PEG), multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), and nanocomposite scaffolds containing 0.5 and 1% (w/w) MWCNTs coated with fibrin glue (FG) were prepared via solvent casting and freeze-drying technique for cardiac tissue engineering. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction were used to characterize the samples. Furthermore, mechanical properties, electrical conductivity, degradation, contact angle, and cytotoxicity of the samples were evaluated. Results showed the uniform distribution of the MWCNTs with some aggregates in the prepared nanocomposite scaffolds. The scaffolds containing 1% (w/w) MWCNTs with and without FG coating illustrated optimum modulus of elasticity, high electrical conductivity, and wettability compared with PCL/PEG and PCL/PEG/0.5%(w/w) MWCNTs' scaffolds. FG coating enhanced electrical conductivity and cell response, and increased wettability of the constructs. The prepared scaffolds were degraded significantly after 60 days of immersion in PBS. Meanwhile, the nanocomposite containing 1% (w/w) MWCNTs with FG coating (S3) showed proper spreading and viability of the myoblasts seeded on it after 1, 4, and 7 days of culture. The scaffold containing 1% (w/w) MWCNTs with FG coating demonstrated optimal properties including acceptable mechanical properties, proper wettability, high electrical conductivity, satisfactory degradation, and excellent myoblasts response to it.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of polyamidoamine dendrimer-coated multi-walled carbon nanotubes and their application in gene delivery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Bifeng; Cui, Daxiang; Xu, Ping; Ozkan, Cengiz; Feng, Gao; Ozkan, Mihri; Huang, Tuo; Chu, Bingfeng; Li, Qing; He, Rong; Hu, Guohan

    2009-03-01

    With the aim of improving the amount and delivery efficiency of genes taken by carbon nanotubes into human cancer cells, different generations of polyamidoamine dendrimer modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (dMNTs) were fabricated, and characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis, revealing the presence of dendrimer capped on the surface of carbon nanotubes. The dMNTs fully conjugated with FITC-labeled antisense c-myc oligonucleotides (asODN), those resultant asODN-dMNTs composites were incubated with human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 cells and MDA-MB-435 cells, and liver cancer cell line HepG2 cells, and confirmed to enter into tumor cells within 15 min by laser confocal microscopy. These composites inhibited the cell growth in time- and dose-dependent means, and down-regulated the expression of the c-myc gene and C-Myc protein. Compared with the composites of CNT-NH2-asODN and dendrimer-asODN, no. 5 generation of dendrimer-modified MNT-asODN composites exhibit maximal transfection efficiencies and inhibition effects on tumor cells. The intracellular gene transport and uptake via dMNTs should be generic for the mammalian cell lines. The dMNTs have potentials in applications such as gene or drug delivery for cancer therapy and molecular imaging.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of polyamidoamine dendrimer-coated multi-walled carbon nanotubes and their application in gene delivery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan Bifeng; Cui Daxiang; Xu Ping; Feng Gao; Huang Tuo; Li Qing; He Rong [Department of Bio-Nano-Science and Engineering, National Key Laboratory of Nano/Micro Fabrication Technology, Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication of Ministry of Education, Institute of Micro-Nano Science and Technology, Shanghai JiaoTong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Ozkan, Cengiz [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of California Riverside, 900 University Avenue-Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Ozkan, Mihri [Electrical Engineering Department, University of California Riverside, 900 University Avenue, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Chu, Bingfeng [Department of Stomatology, General Hospital of PLA, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing100853 (China); Hu Guohan [Department of Neurosurgery of Changzheng Hospital, 415 Fengyang Road, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 20003 (China)], E-mail: dxcui@sjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: huguohan6504@sina.com

    2009-03-25

    With the aim of improving the amount and delivery efficiency of genes taken by carbon nanotubes into human cancer cells, different generations of polyamidoamine dendrimer modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (dMNTs) were fabricated, and characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis, revealing the presence of dendrimer capped on the surface of carbon nanotubes. The dMNTs fully conjugated with FITC-labeled antisense c-myc oligonucleotides (asODN), those resultant asODN-dMNTs composites were incubated with human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 cells and MDA-MB-435 cells, and liver cancer cell line HepG2 cells, and confirmed to enter into tumor cells within 15 min by laser confocal microscopy. These composites inhibited the cell growth in time- and dose-dependent means, and down-regulated the expression of the c-myc gene and C-Myc protein. Compared with the composites of CNT-NH{sub 2}-asODN and dendrimer-asODN, no. 5 generation of dendrimer-modified MNT-asODN composites exhibit maximal transfection efficiencies and inhibition effects on tumor cells. The intracellular gene transport and uptake via dMNTs should be generic for the mammalian cell lines. The dMNTs have potentials in applications such as gene or drug delivery for cancer therapy and molecular imaging.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of polyamidoamine dendrimer-coated multi-walled carbon nanotubes and their application in gene delivery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Bifeng; Cui Daxiang; Xu Ping; Feng Gao; Huang Tuo; Li Qing; He Rong; Ozkan, Cengiz; Ozkan, Mihri; Chu, Bingfeng; Hu Guohan

    2009-01-01

    With the aim of improving the amount and delivery efficiency of genes taken by carbon nanotubes into human cancer cells, different generations of polyamidoamine dendrimer modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (dMNTs) were fabricated, and characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis, revealing the presence of dendrimer capped on the surface of carbon nanotubes. The dMNTs fully conjugated with FITC-labeled antisense c-myc oligonucleotides (asODN), those resultant asODN-dMNTs composites were incubated with human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 cells and MDA-MB-435 cells, and liver cancer cell line HepG2 cells, and confirmed to enter into tumor cells within 15 min by laser confocal microscopy. These composites inhibited the cell growth in time- and dose-dependent means, and down-regulated the expression of the c-myc gene and C-Myc protein. Compared with the composites of CNT-NH 2 -asODN and dendrimer-asODN, no. 5 generation of dendrimer-modified MNT-asODN composites exhibit maximal transfection efficiencies and inhibition effects on tumor cells. The intracellular gene transport and uptake via dMNTs should be generic for the mammalian cell lines. The dMNTs have potentials in applications such as gene or drug delivery for cancer therapy and molecular imaging.

  8. Metal-organic framework superhydrophobic coating on Kevlar fabric with efficient drag reduction and wear resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Deke; Guo, Zhiguang

    2018-06-01

    Superhydrophobic layers are extremely essential for protecting material surface in various applications. In this study, a stable superhydrophobic mixed matrix surface with a 152.2° contact angle can be fabricated through the technology of layer-by-layer hot-pressing (HoP), and then modified by 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltriethoxysilane (PFOTES) on the ZIF-8@Kevlar fabric surface. The morphology and chemical composition were analyzed by the means of SEM, XRD and FTIR. The obtained superhydrophobic coatings showed excellent antiwear performance and drag reduction under desired working conditions. Moreover, we successfully applied superhydrophobic F-ZIF-8@Kevlar fabric in the alcohol adsorbent with high removal capacity, and it can be reused for several times without serious efficiency loss.

  9. Stress dependence of the domain wall potential in amorphous CoFeSiB glass-coated microwires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varga, R.; Zhukov, A.; Blanco, J.M.; Gonzalez, J.; Zhukova, V.; Vojtanik, P.

    2006-01-01

    We present a method to study the domain wall potential through the thermal activation of the domain wall across the energy barrier. Two contributions to the domain wall potential in amorphous microwires are recognized: magnetoelastic and relaxation. The role of each contribution is studied by measuring the switching field distribution at different frequencies and under applied stress

  10. Thermal dynamic simulation of wall for building energy efficiency under varied climate environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuejin; Zhang, Yujin; Hong, Jing

    2017-08-01

    Aiming at different kind of walls in five cities of different zoning for thermal design, using thermal instantaneous response factors method, the author develops software to calculation air conditioning cooling load temperature, thermal response factors, and periodic response factors. On the basis of the data, the author gives the net work analysis about the influence of dynamic thermal of wall on air-conditioning load and thermal environment in building of different zoning for thermal design regional, and put forward the strategy how to design thermal insulation and heat preservation wall base on dynamic thermal characteristic of wall under different zoning for thermal design regional. And then provide the theory basis and the technical references for the further study on the heat preservation with the insulation are in the service of energy saving wall design. All-year thermal dynamic load simulating and energy consumption analysis for new energy-saving building is very important in building environment. This software will provide the referable scientific foundation for all-year new thermal dynamic load simulation, energy consumption analysis, building environment systems control, carrying through farther research on thermal particularity and general particularity evaluation for new energy -saving walls building. Based on which, we will not only expediently design system of building energy, but also analyze building energy consumption and carry through scientific energy management. The study will provide the referable scientific foundation for carrying through farther research on thermal particularity and general particularity evaluation for new energy saving walls building.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of Ni-P-Ag composite coating as efficient electrocatalyst for alkaline hydrogen evolution reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elias, Liju; Hegde, A. Chitharanjan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Electrocatalytic activity of Ni-P alloy is improved by Ag nanoparticle incorporation. • Ni-P-Ag electrode is developed through sol-enhanced electrodeposition. • Ni-P-Ag composite coating shows better electrocatalytic efficiency for HER. - Abstract: The effect of addition of silver nanoparticle sol (SNS) into Ni-P plating bath was studied in terms of the variation in electrocatalytic behavior of the developed coatings in 1.0 M KOH. Ni-P-Ag composite coating was achieved through direct electrolysis by adding a known quantity of the conventionally prepared SNS into Ni-P bath. Ni-P-Ag coatings electrodeposited galvanostatically on copper under different conditions of the bath was used as electrode material for alkaline hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). The optimal concentration of the SNS required for maximum electrocatalytic activity towards HER was obtained by adding different volumes of SNS (from 0 to 50 mL L −1 ) into the bath. The HER efficiency of the test electrodes in 1.0 M KOH medium was examined using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronopotentiometry (CP) techniques. The kinetics of HER on the alloy and composite electrodes were established through Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analyses. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) was used to confirm the incorporation of Ag nanoparticles into the Ni-P alloy matrix. The microstructure and morphology of the alloy and composite coatings were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). A significant improvement in the electrocatalytic property of nano-Ag derived composite coatings was found, and was attributed to the enhanced electroactive sites of Ag particles. Deposition conditions to maximize the electrocatalytic activity of Ni-P-Ag nanocomposite coatings in relation to traditional Ni-P alloy coatings was arrived, and results are discussed.

  12. Efficient internalization of silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles of different sizes by primary human macrophages and dendritic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunzmann, Andrea; Andersson, Britta; Vogt, Carmen; Feliu, Neus; Ye Fei; Gabrielsson, Susanne; Toprak, Muhammet S.; Buerki-Thurnherr, Tina; Laurent, Sophie; Vahter, Marie; Krug, Harald; Muhammed, Mamoun; Scheynius, Annika; Fadeel, Bengt

    2011-01-01

    Engineered nanoparticles are being considered for a wide range of biomedical applications, from magnetic resonance imaging to 'smart' drug delivery systems. The development of novel nanomaterials for biomedical applications must be accompanied by careful scrutiny of their biocompatibility. In this regard, particular attention should be paid to the possible interactions between nanoparticles and cells of the immune system, our primary defense system against foreign invasion. On the other hand, labeling of immune cells serves as an ideal tool for visualization, diagnosis or treatment of inflammatory processes, which requires the efficient internalization of the nanoparticles into the cells of interest. Here, we compare novel monodispersed silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles with commercially available dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles. The silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles displayed excellent magnetic properties. Furthermore, they were non-toxic to primary human monocyte-derived macrophages at all doses tested whereas dose-dependent toxicity of the smaller silica-coated nanoparticles (30 nm and 50 nm) was observed for primary monocyte-derived dendritic cells, but not for the similarly small dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles. No macrophage or dendritic cell secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines was observed upon administration of nanoparticles. The silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles were taken up to a significantly higher degree when compared to the dextran-coated nanoparticles, irrespective of size. Cellular internalization of the silica-coated nanoparticles was through an active, actin cytoskeleton-dependent process. We conclude that these novel silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles are promising materials for medical imaging, cell tracking and other biomedical applications.

  13. Polymer functionalized single-walled carbon nanotube composites and semi-fluorinated quaternary ammonium polymer colloids and coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Abhijit

    Scope and Method of Study: Current study focused on understanding of "wetting" and "dewetting" phenomena between surfaces of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) which are lightly grafted with polymer chains by reversible-deactivation radical polymerization, when they are mixed with matrix chains of the same architecture as grafts. Effects of grafts to matrix chain lengths on SWCNT dispersion in matrix polymers were studied by measuring electrical conductivity, glass transition temperature, and storage and loss moduli of nanocomposites. Another area of work was to design semi-fluorinated copolymers with core-shell morphology by emulsion polymerization, study their catalytic activities for hydrolyses of Paraoxon, a toxic insecticide, in the forms of both colloidal dispersions and films, and to characterize the surfaces of the films by atomic force microscopy and by dynamic contact angle measurements. Findings and Conclusions: The glass transition temperature ( Tg) of polystyrene (PS) filled with SWCNT grafted with PS of different lengths increased from 99 to 109 °C at 6 wt% of SWCNT followed by a plateau. The heat capacity (DeltaCp ) at Tg continued to decrease only for the smallest chain length grafted PS nanocomposites. SWCNT/PS nanocomposites had low electrical conductivity and showed no percolation threshold due to the thick polymer coatings. A key finding was that the SWCNT surface can accommodate only a fixed numbers of styrene units. Similar results on change in Tg were obtained for SWCNT/PMMA nanocomposites when molecular weight of matrix (Mmatrix) ≥ molecular weight of grafts (Mgraft). No change in DeltaCp was observed for SWCNT/PMMA nanocomposites. "Wetting" to "dewetting" occurred Mmatrix/ Mgraft ≈ 1. For Mmatrix > Mgraft, electrical conductivity of nanocomposites reached the value of 10-9 S cm-1 at 1.0 wt% nanotube loading and had percolation threshold of electrical conductivity at ˜0.25 wt% SWCNT. Raman and UV-vis-NIR data confirmed that

  14. Cationic polymers for DNA origami coating - examining their binding efficiency and tuning the enzymatic reaction rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiviaho, Jenny K.; Linko, Veikko; Ora, Ari; Tiainen, Tony; Järvihaavisto, Erika; Mikkilä, Joona; Tenhu, Heikki; Nonappa, Affc; Kostiainen, Mauri A.

    2016-06-01

    DNA origamis are fully tailored, programmable, biocompatible and readily functionalizable nanostructures that provide an excellent foundation for the development of sophisticated drug-delivery systems. However, the DNA origami objects suffer from certain drawbacks such as low cell-transfection rates and low stability. A great deal of studies on polymer-based transfection agents, mainly focusing on polyplex formation and toxicity, exists. In this study, the electrostatic binding between a brick-like DNA origami and cationic block-copolymers was explored. The effect of the polymer structure on the binding was investigated and the toxicity of the polymer-origami complexes evaluated. The study shows that all of the analyzed polymers had a suitable binding efficiency irrespective of the block structure. It was also observed that the toxicity of polymer-origami complexes was insignificant at the biologically relevant concentration levels. Besides brick-like DNA origamis, tubular origami carriers equipped with enzymes were also coated with the polymers. By adjusting the amount of cationic polymers that cover the DNA structures, we showed that it is possible to control the enzyme kinetics of the complexes. This work gives a starting point for further development of biocompatible and effective polycation-based block copolymers that can be used in coating different DNA origami nanostructures for various bioapplications.DNA origamis are fully tailored, programmable, biocompatible and readily functionalizable nanostructures that provide an excellent foundation for the development of sophisticated drug-delivery systems. However, the DNA origami objects suffer from certain drawbacks such as low cell-transfection rates and low stability. A great deal of studies on polymer-based transfection agents, mainly focusing on polyplex formation and toxicity, exists. In this study, the electrostatic binding between a brick-like DNA origami and cationic block-copolymers was explored. The

  15. Surpassing 10% Efficiency Benchmark for Nonfullerene Organic Solar Cells by Scalable Coating in Air from Single Nonhalogenated Solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Long [Department of Physics, Organic and Carbon Electronics Lab (ORaCEL), North Carolina State University, Raleigh NC 27695 USA; Xiong, Yuan [Department of Physics, Organic and Carbon Electronics Lab (ORaCEL), North Carolina State University, Raleigh NC 27695 USA; Zhang, Qianqian [Department of Chemistry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill NC 27599 USA; Li, Sunsun [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 P. R. China; Wang, Cheng [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA 94720 USA; Jiang, Zhang [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne IL 60439 USA; Hou, Jianhui [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 P. R. China; You, Wei [Department of Chemistry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill NC 27599 USA; Ade, Harald [Department of Physics, Organic and Carbon Electronics Lab (ORaCEL), North Carolina State University, Raleigh NC 27695 USA

    2018-01-10

    The commercialization of nonfullerene organic solar cells (OSCs) relies critically on the response under typical operating conditions (for instance, temperature, humidity) and the ability of scale-up. Despite the rapid increase in power conversion efficiency (PCE) of spin-coated devices fabricated in a protective atmosphere, the device efficiencies of printed nonfullerene OSC devices by blade-coating are still lower than 6%. This slow progress significantly limits the practical printing of high-performance nonfullerene OSCs. Here, a new and stable nonfullerene combination was introduced by pairing a commercially available nonfluorinated acceptor IT-M with the polymeric donor FTAZ. Over 12%-efficiency can be achieved in spincoated FTAZ:IT-M devices using a single halogen-free solvent. More importantly, chlorinefree, in air blade-coating of FTAZ:IT-M is able to yield a PCE of nearly 11%, despite a humidity of ~50%. X-ray scattering results reveal that large π-π coherence lengths, high degree of faceon orientation with respect to the substrate, and small domain spacings of ~20 nm are closely correlated with such high device performance. Our material system and approach yields the highest reported performance for nonfullerene OSC devices by a coating technique approximating scalable fabrication methods and holds great promise for the development of low-cost, low-toxicity, and high-efficiency OSCs by high-throughput production.

  16. In-site coatings to reduce H and Tr permeation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoever, D.; Buchkremer, H.P.; Hecker, R.; Jonas, H.; Schaefer, J.; Zink, U.; Forsyth, N.; Thiele, W.

    1982-01-01

    The main goal of this project is the development of protective coatings to reduce or prevent Tr and H permeation through the heat exchanger walls of HTR components. The tasks of the project are: Measurement of the permeation inhibition efficiency of oxidic coatings on the high-temperature- resistant heat exchanger walls; establishing the parameters influencing permeation by variation of the process gas and steam parameters, temperature and mechanical stress; characterisation of coatings and correlation of coating characteristics with permeation measurements; investigation of permeation and corrosion mechanisms; quantitative description of H and Tr permeation by means of mathematical/physical models. (orig./IHOE) [de

  17. Microstructure and mechanical properties of nickel coated multi walled carbon nanotube reinforced stainless steel 316L matrix composites by laser sintering process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanthesha, P.; Mohankumar, G. C.

    2018-04-01

    Electroless Ni coated Multi-walled Carbon nanotubes reinforced with Stainless Steel 316L matrix composite was developed by Direct Metal Laser Sintering process (DMLS). Homogeneous mixture of Stainless Steel 316L powder and carbon nanotubes in different vol. % was obtained by using double cone blender machine. Characterization of electroless Ni coated carbon nanotubes was done by using X-ray diffraction, FESEM and EDS. Test samples were fabricated at different laser scan speeds. Effect of process parameters and CNT vol. % content on solidification microstructure and mechanical properties of test samples was investigated by using Optical microscopy, FESEM, and Hounsfield tensometer. Experimental results reveal DMLS process parameters affect the density and microstructure of sintered parts. Dense parts with minimum porosity when processed at low laser scan speeds and low CNT vol. %. Tensile fractured surface of test specimens evidences the survival of carbon nanotubes under high temperature processing condition.

  18. Roll-coating fabrication of flexible large area small molecule solar cells with power conversion efficiency exceeding 1%

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wenqing; Liu, Shiyong; Zawacka, Natalia Klaudia

    2014-01-01

    All solution-processed flexible large area small molecule bulk heterojunction solar cells were fabricated via roll-coating technology. Our devices were produced from slot-die coating on a lab-scale mini roll-coater under ambient conditions without the use of spin-coating or vacuum evaporation.......01%, combined with an open circuit voltage of 0.73 V, a short-circuit current density of 3.13 mA cm (2) and a fill factor of 44% were obtained for the device with SM1, which was the first example reported for efficient roll-coating fabrication of flexible large area small molecule solar cells with PCE exceeding...... methods. Four diketopyrrolopyrrole based small molecules (SMs 1-4) were utilized as electron donors with (6,6)phenyl- C61-butyric acid methyl ester as an acceptor and their photovoltaic performances based on roll-coated devices were investigated. The best power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 1...

  19. Silicon micro venturi nozzles for cost-efficient spray coating of thin organic P3HT/PCBM layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, Michael A.; Büchele, Patric; Brünnler, Manfred; Deml, Sonja; Lechner, Alfred

    2017-01-01

    Improvements on spray coating are of particular interest to different fields of technology as it is a scalable deposition method and processing from solutions offer various application possibilities outside of typical facilities. When it comes to the deposition of expensive and film-forming media such as organic semiconductors, consumption and nozzle cleaning issues are of particular importance. We demonstrate the simple steps to design and fabricate micro venturi nozzles for economical spray coating with a consumption as low as 30-50 µl · min-1. For spray coating an active area of 25 cm2 a 2.45-4.01 fold coating efficiency is observed compared to a conventional airbrush nozzle set. The electrical characterization of first diodes sprayed with an active layer thickness of ~750 nm using a single micronozzle at a coating speed of 1.7 cm2 · min-1 reveals a good external quantum efficiency of 72.9% at 532 nm and a dark current of ~7.4 · 10-5 mA · cm-2, both measured at  -2 V. Furthermore, the high resistance of the micronozzles against solvents and most acids is provided through realization in a silicon wafer with silicon dioxide encapsulation, therefore allowing easy and effective cleaning.

  20. Silicon micro venturi nozzles for cost-efficient spray coating of thin organic P3HT/PCBM layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betz, Michael A; Brünnler, Manfred; Deml, Sonja; Lechner, Alfred; Büchele, Patric

    2017-01-01

    Improvements on spray coating are of particular interest to different fields of technology as it is a scalable deposition method and processing from solutions offer various application possibilities outside of typical facilities. When it comes to the deposition of expensive and film-forming media such as organic semiconductors, consumption and nozzle cleaning issues are of particular importance. We demonstrate the simple steps to design and fabricate micro venturi nozzles for economical spray coating with a consumption as low as 30–50 µ l · min −1 . For spray coating an active area of 25 cm 2 a 2.45–4.01 fold coating efficiency is observed compared to a conventional airbrush nozzle set. The electrical characterization of first diodes sprayed with an active layer thickness of ∼750 nm using a single micronozzle at a coating speed of 1.7 cm 2 · min −1 reveals a good external quantum efficiency of 72.9% at 532 nm and a dark current of ∼7.4 · 10 −5 mA · cm −2 , both measured at  −2 V. Furthermore, the high resistance of the micronozzles against solvents and most acids is provided through realization in a silicon wafer with silicon dioxide encapsulation, therefore allowing easy and effective cleaning. (paper)

  1. Improving the Sound Pressure Level of Two-Dimensional Audio Actuators by Coating Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes on Piezoelectric Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Keehong

    2015-10-01

    As devices for amplifying or transforming electronic signals into audible signals through electromechanical operations, acoustic actuators in the form of loudspeakers are usually solid structures in three dimensional space. Recently there has been increasing demand for mobile electronic devices, such as mobile phones, to become smaller, thinner, and lighter. In contrast to a three dimensional audio system with magnets, we have invented a new type of flexible two dimensional device by utilizing the reverse piezoelectric effect in certain piezoelectric materials. Crystalline piezoelectric materials show electromechanical interaction between the mechanical state and the electrically-charged state. The piezoelectric effect is a reversible process in that materials exhibiting the direct piezoelectric effect (the internal generation of electrical charge resulting from an applied mechanical force) also exhibit the reverse piezoelectric effect (the internal generation of a mechanical strain resulting from an applied electrical field). We have adopted the plasma surface treatment in order to put coating materials on the surface of piezoelectric film. We compared two kinds of coating material, indium tin oxide and single-walled carbon nanotube, and found that single-walled carbon nanotube shows better performance. The results showed improvement of output power in a wider range of operating frequency; for the surface resistance of 0.5 kΩ/square, the single-walled CNT shows the range of operating frequency to be 0.75-17.5 kHz, but ITO shows 2.5-13.4 kHz. For the surface resistance of 1 kΩ/square, single-walled CNT shows the range of operating frequency to be 0.81-17 kHz, but ITO shows it cannot generate audible sound.

  2. Growth of uniform thin-walled carbon nanotubes with spin-coated Fe catalyst and the correlation between the pre-growth catalyst size and the nanotube diameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seah, Choon-Ming; Chai, Siang-Piao; Ichikawa, Satoshi; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

    2013-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and double-walled CNTs with a selectivity of 93 % were obtained by means of the novel homemade iron catalysts which were spin coated on silicon wafer. The average diameters of the iron particles prepared from the colloidal solutions containing 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 mmol/L of iron nitrate were 8.2, 5.1, 20.8, 32.2, and 34.7 nm, respectively, and growing thin-walled CNTs with the average diameters of 4.1, 2.2, 9.2, 11.1, and 18.1 nm, respectively. The diameters of the CNTs were correlated with the geometric sizes of the pre-growth catalyst particles. Thin-walled CNTs were found to have a catalyst mean diameter-to-CNT average diameter ratio of 2.31. Iron carbide was formed after the growth of CNTs, and it is believed that during the growth of CNTs, carbon source decomposed and deposited on the surface of catalyst, followed by the diffusion of surface carbon into the iron catalyst particles, resulting in carbon supersaturation state before the growth of CNTs.

  3. Efficient organometallic spin filter between single-wall carbon nanotube or graphene electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koleini, Mohammad; Paulsson, Magnus; Brandbyge, Mads

    2007-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of spin transport in a class of molecular systems consisting of an organometallic benzene-vanadium cluster placed in between graphene or single-wall carbon-nanotube-model contacts. Ab initio modeling is performed by combining spin density functional theory...

  4. Efficiency improvement of flexible fluorescent and phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes by inserting a spin-coating buffer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Yu-Sheng; Wang, Shun-Hsi; Chen, Shen-Yaur; Su, Shin-Yuan; Juang, Fuh-Shyang

    2009-01-01

    We dissolved hole transport materials α-NPD and NPB in THF solvent, and spin-coated the α-NPD + THF or NPB + THF solution onto ITO anode surface to improve the luminance efficiency and lifetime of flexible fluorescent and phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes. Then the BCP and TPBi were employed as hole blocking layer (HBL) of phosphorescent device and its thickness was optimized. From the experimental results, the maximum luminance efficiency is 4.4 cd/A at 9 V of fluorescent device and 24.4 cd/A of phosphorescent device, respectively. Such an improvement in the device performance was attributed to the smoother surface and good contact between the interface of spin-coated HTL/ITO, the hole were effectively injected from the anode into the organic layer. And the deposited HTL can block excitons from diffusing into the anode to quench, thus improving the luminance efficiency and lifetime greatly.

  5. Fiscal impacts of energy efficiency programmes—The example of solid wall insulation investment in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenow, Jan; Platt, Reg; Demurtas, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Programmes supporting the installation of energy efficiency measures typically incur a cost in the form of subsidies as well as lost VAT income due to reduced energy consumption. Those costs are to some extent offset by the tax receipts and other revenue streams generated as a result of the activities promoted under the programme. In this paper we analyse the budgetary effects of energy efficiency programmes focusing on the example of solid wall insulation in the UK. Three distinct subsidy options have been defined and modelled for the purpose of this research including two policies with varying degrees of direct subsidy and a low interest loan scheme. Our analysis shows that a significant amount of the cost of a scheme funding solid wall insulation would be offset by increased revenues and savings. A loan scheme, due to the high leverage, achieves not only budget neutrality but generates additional revenue for the Exchequer. - Highlights: • First assessment of fiscal effects of subsidising energy efficiency technologies in the UK. • Contribution to debate around wider benefits of funding energy efficiency. • Original economic modelling

  6. Interface and thickness tuning for blade coated small-molecule organic light-emitting diodes with high power efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Fan; Chiu, Yu-Chian; Chang, Hao-Wen; Wang, Yi-Siang; Shih, Yi-Lun; Wu, Chih-Hao; Liu, Yi-Lun; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Meng, Hsin-Fei; Chi, Yun; Huang, Heh-Lung; Tseng, Mei-Rurng; Lin, Hao-Wu; Zan, Hsiao-Wen; Horng, Sheng-Fu; Juang, Jenh-Yih

    2013-09-01

    We developed a general method based on fluorescence microscopy to characterize the interface dissolution in multi-layer organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) by blade coating. A sharp bi-layer edge was created before blade coating, with the bottom layer being insoluble and top layer soluble. After blade coating, fluorescence images showed that the edge of the top layer shifted when the layer dissolved completely, whereas the bottom layer's edge remained in place as a positioning mark. The dissolution depth was determined to be 15-20 nm when the emissive-layer host of 2,6-bis (3-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)phenyl) pyridine (26DCzPPy) was coated on the hole-transport layer of N,N'-bis(naphthalen-1-yl)-N,N'-bis(phenyl)-benzidine(NPB), which was consistent with a sudden drop in efficiency of orange OLEDs with layer thickness below 20 nm. Thus, the layer thickness of OLEDs was optimized to stay more than 20 nm for blade coating. For a two-color white OLED with the structure TCTA/26DCzPPy:PO-01-TB:FIrpic/TPBI, efficiency was 24 cd/A and 8.5 lm/W at 1000 cd/m2. For a three-color white OLED with Os(fptz)2(dhpm) added as the emitter, the efficiency was 12.3 cd/A and 3.7 lm/W at 1000 cd/m2. For a green device with the structure TCTA/26DCzPPy:Ir(mppy)3/TPBI, the efficiency was 41.9 cd/A and 23.4 lm/W at 1000 cd/m2.

  7. Polyethylenimine-coated iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles for high efficient gene delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Anh H.; Abdelrasoul, Gaser N.; Lin, Donghai; Maadi, Hamid; Tong, Junfeng; Chen, Grace; Wang, Richard; Anwar, Afreen; Shoute, Lian; Fang, Qiang; Wang, Zhixiang; Chen, Jie

    2018-04-01

    Properties of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are of notable interest in many fields of biomedical engineering, especially for gene therapy. In this paper, we report a method for synthesis and delivery of MNPs loaded with DNAs, which overcomes the drawbacks of high cost and cytotoxicity associated with current delivery techniques (chemical- and liposome-based designs). 24-nm MNPs (Fe3O4) were synthesized, functionalized and characterized by analytical techniques to understand the surface properties for DNA binding and cellular uptake. The simple surface functionalization with polyethylenimine (PEI) through glutaraldehyde linker activation gave the complex of PEI-coated MNPs, resulting in high stability with a positive surface charge of about + 31 mV. Under the guidance of an external magnetic field, the functionalized MNPs with a loaded isothiocyanate (FITC) or green fluorescent protein (GFP) will enter the cells, which can be visualized by the fluorescence of FITC or GFP. We also examined the cytotoxicity of our synthesized MNPs by MTT assay. We showed that the IC50s of these MNPs for COS-7 and CHO cells were low and at 0.2 and 0.26 mg/mL, respectively. Moreover, our synthesized MNPs that were loaded with plasmids encoding GFP showed high transfection rate, 38.3% for COS-7cells and 27.6% for CHO cells. In conclusion, we established a promising method with low cost, low toxicity, and high transfection efficiency for siRNA and gene delivery.

  8. Comparative thermal performance of static sunshade and brick cavity wall for energy efficient building envelope in composite climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charde Meghana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficient building technologies can reduce energy consumption in buildings. In present paper effect of designed static sunshade, brick cavity wall with brick projections and their combined effect on indoor air temperature has been analyzed by constructing three test rooms each of habitable dimensions (3.0 m × 4.0 m × 3.0 m and studying hourly temperatures on typical days for one month in summer and winter each. The three rooms have also been simulated using a software and the results have been compared with the experimental results. Designed static sunshade increased indoor air temperature in winter while proposed brick cavity wall with brick projections lowered it in summer. Combined effect of building elements lowered indoor air temperature in summer and increased it in winter as compared to outdoor air temperature. It is thus useful for energy conservation in buildings in composite climate.

  9. Memory effect, resolution, and efficiency measurements of an Al2O3 coated plastic scintillator used for radioxenon detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bläckberg, L.; Fritioff, T.; Mårtensson, L.; Nielsen, F.; Ringbom, A.; Sjöstrand, H.; Klintenberg, M.

    2013-01-01

    A cylindrical plastic scintillator cell, used for radioxenon monitoring within the verification regime of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, has been coated with 425 nm Al 2 O 3 using low temperature Atomic Layer Deposition, and its performance has been evaluated. The motivation is to reduce the memory effect caused by radioxenon diffusing into the plastic scintillator material during measurements, resulting in an elevated detection limit. Measurements with the coated detector show both energy resolution and efficiency comparable to uncoated detectors, and a memory effect reduction of a factor of 1000. Provided that the quality of the detector is maintained for a longer period of time, Al 2 O 3 coatings are believed to be a viable solution to the memory effect problem in question

  10. Memory effect, resolution, and efficiency measurements of an Al2O3 coated plastic scintillator used for radioxenon detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bläckberg, L.; Fritioff, T.; Mårtensson, L.; Nielsen, F.; Ringbom, A.; Sjöstrand, H.; Klintenberg, M.

    2013-06-01

    A cylindrical plastic scintillator cell, used for radioxenon monitoring within the verification regime of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, has been coated with 425 nm Al2O3 using low temperature Atomic Layer Deposition, and its performance has been evaluated. The motivation is to reduce the memory effect caused by radioxenon diffusing into the plastic scintillator material during measurements, resulting in an elevated detection limit. Measurements with the coated detector show both energy resolution and efficiency comparable to uncoated detectors, and a memory effect reduction of a factor of 1000. Provided that the quality of the detector is maintained for a longer period of time, Al2O3 coatings are believed to be a viable solution to the memory effect problem in question.

  11. Efficient Flame Detection and Early Warning Sensors on Combustible Materials Using Hierarchical Graphene Oxide/Silicone Coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qian; Gong, Li-Xiu; Li, Yang; Cao, Cheng-Fei; Tang, Long-Cheng; Wu, Lianbin; Zhao, Li; Zhang, Guo-Dong; Li, Shi-Neng; Gao, Jiefeng; Li, Yongjin; Mai, Yiu-Wing

    2018-01-23

    Design and development of smart sensors for rapid flame detection in postcombustion and early fire warning in precombustion situations are critically needed to improve the fire safety of combustible materials in many applications. Herein, we describe the fabrication of hierarchical coatings created by assembling a multilayered graphene oxide (GO)/silicone structure onto different combustible substrate materials. The resulting coatings exhibit distinct temperature-responsive electrical resistance change as efficient early warning sensors for detecting abnormal high environmental temperature, thus enabling fire prevention below the ignition temperature of combustible materials. After encountering a flame attack, we demonstrate extremely rapid flame detection response in 2-3 s and excellent flame self-extinguishing retardancy for the multilayered GO/silicone structure that can be synergistically transformed to a multiscale graphene/nanosilica protection layer. The hierarchical coatings developed are promising for fire prevention and protection applications in various critical fire risk and related perilous circumstances.

  12. Using mixed solvent and changing spin-coating parameters to increase the efficiency and lifetime of organic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yu Sheng; Chu, Wei-Ping; Tang, Rong-Ming; Juang, Fuh-Shyang; Chang, Ming-Hua; Liu, Mark O; Hsieh, Tsung-Eong

    2008-10-01

    The derivative of C60, i.e., PCBM, and P3HT (3-hexylthiophene) were dissolved in chloroform:dichlorobenzene mixed solvent, then spin-coated as the active layer for organic solar cells (OSC). The experimental parameters were studied carefully to obtain the optimum power conversion efficiency (PCE), including the solvent mixing ratio, spin-coating speed, annealing conditions for the active layer, etc. The OSC devices were packaged with glass and a newly developed UV-glue to improve the lifetime and PCE. Dichlorobenzene solvent has great effect upon the PCE. Changing the spin-coating speed and increasing the number of steps increased the PCE apparently to 1.4%.

  13. Clinical efficiency of Piezo-ICSI using micropipettes with a wall thickness of 0.625 μm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraoka, Kenichiro; Kitamura, Seiji

    2015-12-01

    The purposes of the present study are to assess the clinical efficiency of Piezo-intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and to improve the Piezo-ICSI method for human oocytes. We examined three ICSI methods to determine their clinical efficiency by comparing the survival, fertilization, good-quality day-3 embryo, pregnancy, and live birth rates. The three ICSI methods tested were conventional ICSI (CI) (using beveled spiked micropipettes with a wall thickness of 1 μm), conventional Piezo-ICSI (CPI) (using flat-tipped micropipettes with a wall thickness of 0.925 μm), and improved Piezo-ICSI (IPI) (using flat-tipped micropipettes with a wall thickness of 0.625 μm). We collectively investigated 2020 mature oocytes retrieved from 437 patients between October 2010 and January 2014. The survival rates after CI, CPI, and IPI were 90, 95, and 99 %, respectively. The fertilization rates after CI, CPI, and IPI were 68, 75, and 89 %, respectively. The good-quality day-3 embryo rates after CI, CPI, and IPI were 37, 43, and 55 %, respectively. The pregnancy rates after the transfer of good-quality day-3 embryo of CI, CPI, and IPI were 19, 21, and 31 %, respectively. The live birth rates of CI, CPI, and IPI were 15, 16, and 25 %, respectively. Significantly higher survival, fertilization, good-quality day-3 embryo, pregnancy, and live birth rates were obtained using IPI. When comparing the IPI to the CI and CPI, the results revealed that the Piezo-ICSI using flat-tipped micropipettes with a wall thickness of 0.625 μm significantly improves survival, fertilization, good-quality day-3 embryo, pregnancy, and live birth rates.

  14. Highly efficient blazed grating with multilayer coating for tender X-ray energies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Senf, F.; Bijkerk, Frederik; Eggenstein, F.; Gwalt, G.; Huang, Qiushi; van de Kruijs, Robbert Wilhelmus Elisabeth; Kutz, O.; Lemke, S.; Louis, Eric; Mertin, M.; Packe, I.; Rudolph, I.; Schafers, F.; Siewert, F.; Sokolov, A.; Sturm, Jacobus Marinus; Waberski, C.; Wang, Z.; Wolf, J.; Zeschke, T.; Erko, A.

    2016-01-01

    For photon energies of 1 – 5 keV, blazed gratings with multilayer coating are ideally suited for the suppression of stray and higher orders light in grating monochromators. We developed and characterized a blazed 2000 lines/mm grating coated with a 20 period Cr/C- multilayer. The multilayer

  15. Preparation and characterization of multi-walled carbon nanotube/hydroxyapatite nanocomposite film dip coated on Ti-6Al-4V by sol-gel method for biomedical applications: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrishamchian, Alireza; Hooshmand, Tabassom; Mohammadi, Mohammadreza; Najafi, Farhood

    2013-05-01

    In the present research, the introduction of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) into the hydroxyapatite (HA) matrix and dip coating of nanocomposite on titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) plate was conducted in order to improve the performance of the HA-coated implant via the sol-gel method. The structural characterization and electron microscopy results confirmed well crystallized HA-MWCNT coating and homogenous dispersion of carbon nanotubes in the ceramic matrix at temperatures as low as 500 °C. The evaluation of the mechanical properties of HA and HA/MWCNT composite coatings with different weight percentages of MWCNTs showed that the addition of low concentrations of MWCNTs (0.5 and 1 wt.%) had improved effect on the mechanical properties of nanocomposite coatings. Moreover, this in vitro study ascertained the biocompatibility of the prepared sol-gel-derived HA/MWCNT composite coatings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. An efficient method for the carboxylation of few-wall carbon nanotubes with little damage to their sidewalls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martín, Olga [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Chemical Engineering, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Av. Universidad 30, 28911 Leganés-Madrid (Spain); Gutierrez, Humberto R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 102 Natural Science Building, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Maroto-Valiente, Angel [Departamento de Química Inorgánica y Química Técnica, Facultad de Ciencias, UNED, C/ Senda del Rey 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Terrones, Mauricio [Research Center for Exotic Nanocarbons (JST), Shinshu University, Wakasato 4-17-1, Nagano 380-8553 (Japan); Department of Physics, Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Materials Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, 104 Davey Lab., University Park, PA 16802-6300 (United States); Blanco, Tamara [Materials and Processes Department, Airbus Operations S.L., Paseo John Lennon s/n, 28906 Getafe-Madrid (Spain); Baselga, Juan, E-mail: jbaselga@ing.uc3m.es [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Chemical Engineering, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Av. Universidad 30, 28911 Leganés-Madrid (Spain)

    2013-07-15

    We report a novel method that is able to efficiently functionalize carbon nanotubes (few-walled: from 1 to 6 layers and multiwalled) with a high yield of carboxyl groups, based on treatments with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in the presence of UV light. The amount of carboxylic groups was quantified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and back-titration, showing both measurements reasonable agreement. According to the zeta potential values and to the amount of suspended nanotubes, we demonstrate that the method is able to produce uniform and stable suspensions of carbon nanotubes in water. With the aid of scanning and transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and Raman spectroscopy, we show that the surfaces of the tubes are not damaged by the treatment and that the functionalized tubes have an enhanced reactivity toward oxygen. This route is efficient and could now be used to fabricate polymer composites using few-walled and multiwalled carbon nanotubes. - Highlights: • We report an efficient method for acid functionalization of carbon nanotubes. • The method produces uniform and stable suspensions of carbon nanotubes in water. • The surfaces of the tubes are not damaged by the treatment.

  17. Cell tagging with clinically approved iron oxides: feasibility and effect of lipofection, particle size, and surface coating on labeling efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuszewski, Lars; Persigehl, Thorsten; Wall, Alexander; Schwindt, Wolfram; Tombach, Bernd; Fobker, Manfred; Poremba, Christopher; Ebert, Wolfgang; Heindel, Walter; Bremer, Christoph

    2005-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of lipofection, particle size, and surface coating on labeling efficiency of mammalian cells with superparamagnetic iron oxides (SPIOs). Institutional Review Board approval was not required. Different human cell lines (lung and breast cancer, fibrosarcoma, leukocytes) were tagged by using carboxydextran-coated SPIOs of various hydrodynamic diameters (17-65 nm) and a dextran-coated iron oxide (150 nm). Cells were incubated with increasing concentrations of iron (0.01-1.00 mg of iron [Fe] per milliliter), including or excluding a transfection medium (TM). Cellular iron uptake was analyzed qualitatively at light and electron microscopy and was quantified at atomic emission spectroscopy. Cell visibility was assessed with gradient- and spin-echo magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Effects of iron concentration in the medium and of lipofection on cellular SPIO uptake were analyzed with analysis of variance and two-tailed Student t test, respectively. Iron oxide uptake increased in a dose-dependent manner with higher iron concentrations in the medium. The TM significantly increased the iron load of cells (up to 2.6-fold, P .05). As few as 10 000 cells could be detected with clinically available MR techniques by using this approach. Lipofection-based cell tagging is a simple method for efficient cell labeling with clinically approved iron oxide-based contrast agents. Large particle size and carboxydextran coating are preferable for cell tagging with endocytosis- and lipofection-based methods. (c) RSNA, 2005.

  18. Simulation of the electron collection efficiency of a PMT based on the MCP coated with high secondary yield material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Lin, E-mail: chenlin@opt.cn [State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi' an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics (XIOPM), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Xi' an 710119 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100049 (China); Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Extreme Optics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China); Tian, Jinshou [State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi' an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics (XIOPM), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Xi' an 710119 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Extreme Optics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China); Zhao, Tianchi [Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP) of CAS, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Chunliang [Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Liu, Hulin; Wei, Yonglin; Sai, Xiaofeng [State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi' an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics (XIOPM), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Xi' an 710119 (China); Chen, Ping [State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi' an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics (XIOPM), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Xi' an 710119 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100049 (China); Wang, Xing; Lu, Yu [State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi' an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics (XIOPM), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Xi' an 710119 (China); Hui, Dandan [State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi' an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics (XIOPM), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Xi' an 710119 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100049 (China)

    2016-11-01

    Owning to the serious loss of photoelectrons striking at the input electrode of traditional microchannel plate (MCP), photoelectron collection efficiency (CE) of photomultiplier tubes based on MCP (MCP-PMTs) fluctuates around the MCP open area fraction and cannot make a breakthrough. Depositing a thin film of high secondary electron yield material on the MCP is proposed as an effective approach to improve the CE. The available simulation and experimental data to validate it, however, is sparse. In our work, a three-dimensional small area MCP model is developed in CST Studio Suite to evaluate the collection efficiencies of PMTs based on the traditional MCP and the coated one, respectively. Results predict that CE of the PMT based on the coated MCP has a significant increase and a better uniformity, which is expected to reach 100%.

  19. Design of broadband multilayer dichroic coating for a high-efficiency solar energy harvesting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiachen, Wang; Lee, Sang Bae; Lee, Kwanil

    2015-05-20

    We report on the design and performance of a broadband dichroic coating for a solar energy conversion system. As a spectral beam splitter, the coating facilitates a hybrid system that combines a photovoltaic cell with a thermal collector. When positioned at a 45° angle with respect to incident light, the coating provides high reflectance in the 40-1100 nm and high transmission in the 1200-2000 nm ranges for a photovoltaic cell and a thermal collector, respectively. Numerical simulations show that our design leads to a sharp transition between the reflection and transmission bands, low ripples in both bands, and slight polarization dependence.

  20. Enhanced efficiency of hybrid amorphous silicon solar cells based on single-walled carbon nanotubes/polymer composite thin film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajanna, Pramod Mulbagal; Gilshteyn, Evgenia; Yagafarov, Timur; Alekseeva, Alena; Anisimov, Anton; Sergeev, Oleg; Neumueller, Alex; Bereznev, Sergei; Maricheva, Jelena; Nasibulin, Albert

    2018-01-09

    We report a simple approach to fabricate hybrid solar cells (HSCs) based on a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) film and a thin film hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). Randomly oriented high quality SWCNTs with an enhanced conductivity by means of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate are used as a window layer and a front electrode. A series of HSCs are fabricated in ambient conditions with different SWCNT film thicknesses. The polymethylmethacrylate layer drop-casted on fabricated HSCs reduces the reflection fourfold and enhances the short-circuit Jsc, open-circuit Voc, and efficiency by nearly 10%. A state-of-the-art J-V performance is shown for SWCNT/a-Si HSC with an open-circuit voltage of 900 mV and efficiency of 3.4% under simulated one-sun AM 1.5G direct illumination. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  1. Enhanced efficiency of hybrid amorphous silicon solar cells based on single-walled carbon nanotubes and polymer composite thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajanna, Pramod M.; Gilshteyn, Evgenia P.; Yagafarov, Timur; Aleekseeva, Alena K.; Anisimov, Anton S.; Neumüller, Alex; Sergeev, Oleg; Bereznev, Sergei; Maricheva, Jelena; Nasibulin, Albert G.

    2018-03-01

    We report a simple approach to fabricate hybrid solar cells (HSCs) based on a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) film and thin film hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). Randomly oriented high-quality SWCNTs with conductivity enhanced by means of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate are used as a window layer and a front electrode. A series of HSCs are fabricated in ambient conditions with varying SWCNT film thicknesses. The polymethylmethacrylate layer drop-casted on fabricated HSCs reduces the reflection fourfold and enhances the short-circuit J sc , open-circuit V oc , and efficiency by nearly 10%. A state-of-the-art J-V performance is shown for SWCNT/a-Si HSC with an open-circuit voltage of 900 mV and an efficiency of 3.4% under simulated one-sun AM 1.5 G direct illumination.

  2. Efficient light extraction from GaN LEDs using gold-coated ZnO nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Alhadidi, A.

    2015-11-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the effect of depositing gold-coated ZnO nanoparticles on the surface of GaN multi-quantum well LED structures. We show that this method can significantly increase the amount of extracted light.

  3. Anticorrosion efficiency of zinc-filled epoxy coatings containing conducting polymers and pigments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalendová, A.; Veselý, D.; Kohl, M.; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 78, January (2015), s. 1-20 ISSN 0300-9440 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : conducting polymer * zinc metal * organic coating Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 2.632, year: 2015

  4. Thidiazuron: A potent cytokinin for efficient plant regeneration in Himalayan poplar (Populus ciliata Wall. using leaf explants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Aggarwal

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Populus species are important resource for certain branches of industry and have special roles for scientific study on biological and agricultural systems. The present investigation was undertaken with an objective of enhancing the frequency of plant regeneration in Himalayan poplar (Populus ciliata Wall.. The effect of Thiadizuron (TDZ alone and in combination with adenine and α-Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA were studied on the regeneration potential of leaf explants. A high efficiency of shoot regeneration was observed in leaf (80.00% explants on MS basal medium supplemented with 0.024 mg/l TDZ and 79.7 mg/l adenine. Elongation and multiplication of shoots were obtained on Murashige and Skoog (MS basal medium, containing 0.5 mg/l 6. Benzyl aminopurine (BAP + 0.2mg/l Indole 3-acetic acid (IAA + 0.3 mg/l Gibberellic acid (GA3. High frequency root regeneration from in vitro developed shoots was observed on MS basal medium supplemented with 0.10 mg/l Indole 3-butyric acid(IBA. Maximum of the in vitro rooted plantlets were well accomplished to the mixture of sand: soil (1:1 and exhibited similar morphology with the field plants. A high efficiency plant regeneration protocol has been developedfrom leaf explants in Himalayan poplar (Populus ciliata Wall..

  5. Estimation of efficiency of hydrotransport pipelines polyurethane coating application in comparison with steel pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrov, V. I.; Vasilyeva, M. A.; Pomeranets, I. B.

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents analytical calculations of specific pressure loss in hydraulic transport of the Kachkanarsky GOK iron ore processing tailing slurry. The calculations are based on the results of the experimental studies on specific pressure loss dependence upon hydraulic roughness of pipelines internal surface lined with polyurethane coating. The experiments proved that hydraulic roughness of polyurethane coating is by the factor of four smaller than that of steel pipelines, resulting in a decrease of hydraulic resistance coefficients entered into calculating formula of specific pressure loss - the Darcy-Weisbach formula. Relative and equivalent roughness coefficients are calculated for pipelines with polyurethane coating and without it. Comparative calculations show that hydrotransport pipelines polyurethane coating application is conductive to a specific energy consumption decrease in hydraulic transport of the Kachkanarsky GOC iron ore processing tailings slurry by the factor of 1.5. The experiments were performed on a laboratory hydraulic test rig with a view to estimate the character and rate of physical roughness change in pipe samples with polyurethane coating. The experiments showed that during the following 484 hours of operation, roughness changed in all pipe samples inappreciably. As a result of processing of the experimental data by the mathematical statistics methods, an empirical formula was obtained for the calculation of operating roughness of polyurethane coating surface, depending on the pipeline operating duration with iron ore processing tailings slurry.

  6. Ordered mesoporous carbon coating on cordierite: Synthesis and application as an efficient adsorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Ying, E-mail: ywan@shnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Resource Chemistry of Ministry of Education, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Functional Materials, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234 (China); Department of Chemistry, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234 (China); Cui, Xiangting; Wen, Zhentao [Department of Chemistry, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234 (China)

    2011-12-30

    Highlight: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Surfactant self-assembly of ordered mesoporous carbon coating on honeycomb cordierite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbon coating with opened, hexagonally ordered pore arrays. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Honeycomb adsorbents for removal of p-chlorophenol. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The adsorbents exhibit large processing volume, and great advantages in reusability. - Abstract: Ordered mesoporous carbon coating on the honeycomb cordierite substrate has been prepared using low-polymerized phenolic resins as carbon sources and triblock copolymer F127 as the structure directing agent via the evaporation induced self-assembly route. The high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and nitrogen sorption techniques prove the hexagonally ordered pore arrays of carbon coating on the cordierite. The honeycomb monolith adsorbents coated by ordered mesoporous carbons are directly used without any activation, and exhibit adsorption capacities for chlorinated organic pollutants in water with 200 mg/g for p-chlorophenol and 178 mg/g for p-chloroaniline (with respect to the net carbon coating), high adsorption ratio for low-concentration pollutants, large processing volumes and reusability. More than 200 repeated times can be achieved without obvious loss in both adsorption capacity and weight.

  7. Study on the Preparation of a High-Efficiency Carbon Fiber Dissipating Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The working temperature of electronic components directly determines their service life and stability. In order to ensure normal operation of electronic components, cooling the coating is one of the best ways to solve the problem. Based on an acrylic amino-resin system, a dissipating coating was prepared with carbon fiber (CF as the main thermal conductive filler. The influence of the CF content on the thermal conductivity was determined by the single factor method. The surface structure was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The results show: With the increase of the CF mass fraction, both the heat dispersion and heat conduction coefficient of the coating tend to increase at first and then decrease, and the heat dissipation effect is optimum when the CF mass fraction is 12.3 wt %. At this point, the coating shows an excellent comprehensive performance, such as 1st level adhesion, H grade hardness, and thermal conductivity of 1.61 W/m·K. Furthermore, this paper explored the radiating mechanism of coating in which CF produces a coating which forms a heat “channel” for rapid heat conduction. When the optimal value is exceeded, the cooling effect is reduced because of the accumulation and the anisotropy of CF.

  8. Assessing the anti-fungal efficiency of filters coated with zinc oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decelis, Stephen; Sardella, Davide; Triganza, Thomas; Brincat, Jean-Pierre; Gatt, Ruben; Valdramidis, Vasilis P.

    2017-05-01

    Air filters support fungal growth, leading to generation of conidia and volatile organic compounds, causing allergies, infections and food spoilage. Filters that inhibit fungi are therefore necessary. Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles have anti-fungal properties and therefore are good candidates for inhibiting growth. Two concentrations (0.012 M and 0.12 M) were used to coat two types of filters (melt-blown and needle-punched) for three different periods (0.5, 5 and 50 min). Rhizopus stolonifer and Penicillium expansum isolated from spoiled pears were used as test organisms. Conidial suspensions of 105 to 103 spores ml-1 were prepared in Sabouraud dextrose agar at 50°C, and a modified slide-culture technique was used to test the anti-fungal properties of the filters. Penicillium expansum was the more sensitive organism, with inhibition at 0.012 M at only 0.5 min coating time on the needle-punched filter. The longer the coating time, the more effective inhibition was for both organisms. Furthermore, it was also determined that the coating process had only a slight effect on the Young's Moduli of the needle-punched filters, while the Young's Moduli of the melt-blown filters is more susceptible to the coating method. This work contributes to the assessment of the efficacy of filter coating with ZnO nanopaticles aimed at inhibiting fungal growth.

  9. New Low-Bandgap Materials with Good Stabilities and Efficiencies Comparable to P3HT in R2R-Coated Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Roar; Manceau, Matthieu; Jørgensen, Mikkel

    2012-01-01

    Roll-to-roll coated organic solar cells of two new polymers processed in ambient conditions show good photochemical stabilities, and their efficiencies are comparable to similar roll-to-roll coated P3HT cells. Optimal blend compositions are achieved by the use of differentially pumped slot die...

  10. Point-of-care Devices: Non-Newtonian Whole Blood Behavior and Capillary Flow on Reagent-coated Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean BERTHIER

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Most point-of-care (POC and patient self-testing (PST devices are based on the analysis of whole blood taken from a finger prick. Whole blood contains a bountiful of information about the donor’s health. We analyze here two particularities of microsystems for blood analysis: the blood non-Newtonian behavior, and the capillary flow in reagent-coated channels. Capillarity is the most commonly used method to move fluids in portable systems. It is shown first that the capillary flow of blood does not follow the Lucas-Washburn-Rideal law when the capillary flow velocity is small, due to its non-Newtonian rheology and to the formation of rouleaux of RBCs. In a second step, the capillary flow of blood on reagent-coated surfaces is investigated; first experimentally by observing the spreading of a droplet of blood on different reagent-coated substrates; second theoretically and numerically using the general law for spontaneous capillary flows and the Evolver numerical program.

  11. Damping Oriented Design of Thin-Walled Mechanical Components by Means of Multi-Layer Coating Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Catania

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The damping behaviour of multi-layer composite mechanical components, shown by recent research and application papers, is analyzed. A local dissipation mechanism, acting at the interface between any two different layers of the composite component, is taken into account, and a beam model, to be used for validating the known experimental results, is proposed. Multi-layer prismatic beams, consisting of a metal substrate and of some thin coated layers exhibiting variable stiffness and adherence properties, are considered in order to make it possible to study and validate this assumption. A dynamical model, based on a simple beam geometry but taking into account the previously introduced local dissipation mechanism and distributed visco-elastic constraints, is proposed. Some different application examples of specific multi-layer beams are considered, and some numerical examples concerning the beam free and forced response are described. The influence of the multilayer system parameters on the damping behaviour of the free and forced response of the composite beam is investigated by means of the definition of some damping estimators. Some effective multi-coating configurations, giving a relevant increase of the damping estimators of the coated structure with respect to the same uncoated structure, are obtained from the model simulation, and the results are critically discussed.

  12. Trial production of x-ray protective coat in clinico-orthodontics and evaluation of efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukui, H; Nezu, F; Arita, M; Numata, K; Nishioka, T [Nihon Univ., Tokyo. School of Dentistry

    1977-09-01

    The authors produced for trial an x-ray protective coat for patients which could be used for any type of dental roentogenography particularly by clinicoorthodontists and could easily exert a sufficient protective effect. The trial product is of coat type covering the front, sides, and back of the trunk and is made of vinyl sheet containing lead and rubber sheet containing lead. When patients put on the coat during cephalography, the internally absorbed dose was decreased greatly in the back corresponding to the 7th cervical vertebra and the area of thyroid and considerably in the area of right joint and the area corresponding to the center of the sternal shaft. The protective effect of the coat was also great in ortho-pantomography in regions corresponding to hemopoietic tissues abundant in bone-marrow, such as the areas of bilateral joints the back corresponding to the 7th cervical vertebra, and the area corresponding to the center of sternal shaft. Internally absorbed doses in different regions due to various types of roentgenography were tabulated. The x-ray protective coat was described to be useful not only in orthodontics but also in roentogenography in the craniocervical region.

  13. Trial production of x-ray protective coat in clinico-orthodontics and evaluation of efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Hatsuo; Nezu, Fumio; Arita, Masatoshi; Numata, Keisuke; Nishioka, Toshio

    1977-01-01

    The authors produced for trial an x-ray protective coat for patients which could be used for any type of dental roentogenography particularly by clinicoorthodontists and could easily exert a sufficient protective effect. The trial product is of coat type covering the front, sides, and back of the trunk and is made of vinyl sheet containing lead and rubber sheet containing lead. When patients put on the coat during cephalography, the internally absorbed dose was decreased greatly in the back corresponding to the 7th cervical vertebra and the area of thyroid and considerably in the area of right joint and the area corresponding to the center of the sternal shaft. The protective effect of the coat was also great in ortho-pantomography in regions corresponding to hemopoietic tissues abundant in bone-marrow, such as the areas of bilateral joints the back corresponding to the 7th cervical vertebra, and the area corresponding to the center of sternal shaft. Internally absorbed doses in different regions due to various types of roentgenography were tabulated. The x-ray protective coat was described to be useful not only in orthodontics but also in roentogenography in the craniocervical region. (Chiba, N.)

  14. Preparing hydroxyapatite-silicon composite suspensions with homogeneous distribution of multi-walled carbon nano-tubes for electrophoretic coating of NiTi bone implant and their effect on the surface morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalili, Vida; Khalil-Allafi, Jafar; Xia, Wei; Parsa, Alireza B.; Frenzel, Jan; Somsen, Christoph; Eggeler, Gunther

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The stable composite suspensions of hydroxyapatite, silicon and multi-walled carbon nano-tubes was prepared using functionalization of and multi-walled carbon nano-tubes in HNO_3 vapor and triethanolamine as dispersing agent. • The zeta potential of composite suspensions is less than that of hydroxyapatite suspension. • The silicon particles presence in suspension causes to decrease the charge carrier in suspension and current density during electrophoretic deposition. • The orientation of multi-walled carbon nano-tubes to parallel direction of the applied electric field during electrophoretic deposition can facilitate their moving towards the cathode and increase current density. • The more zeta potential of suspension, the lower roughness of coatings during electrophoretic deposition. - Abstract: Preparing a stable suspension is a main step towards the electrophoretically depositing of homogeneous and dense composite coatings on NiTi for its biomedical application. In the present study, different composite suspensions of hydroxyapatite, silicon and multi-walled carbon nano-tubes were prepared using n-butanol and triethanolamine as media and dispersing agent, respectively. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes were first functionalized in the nitric acid vapor for 15 h at 175 °C, and then mixed into suspensions. Thermal desorption spectroscopy profiles indicate the formation of functional groups on multi-walled carbon nano-tubes. An excellent suspension stability can be achieved for different amounts of triethanolamine. The amount of triethanolamine can be increased by adding a second component to a stable hydroxyapatite suspension due to an electrostatic interaction between components in suspension. The stability of composite suspension is less than that of the hydroxyapatite suspension, due to density differences, which under the gravitational force promote the demixing. The scanning electron microscopy images of the

  15. Effectiveness of triclosan-coated PDS Plus versus uncoated PDS II sutures for prevention of surgical site infection after abdominal wall closure: the randomised controlled PROUD trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diener, Markus K; Knebel, Phillip; Kieser, Meinhard; Schüler, Philipp; Schiergens, Tobias S; Atanassov, Vladimir; Neudecker, Jens; Stein, Erwin; Thielemann, Henryk; Kunz, Reiner; von Frankenberg, Moritz; Schernikau, Utz; Bunse, Jörg; Jansen-Winkeln, Boris; Partecke, Lars I; Prechtl, Gerald; Pochhammer, Julius; Bouchard, Ralf; Hodina, René; Beckurts, K Tobias E; Leißner, Lothar; Lemmens, Hans-Peter; Kallinowski, Friedrich; Thomusch, Oliver; Seehofer, Daniel; Simon, Thomas; Hyhlik-Dürr, Alexander; Seiler, Christoph M; Hackert, Thilo; Reissfelder, Christoph; Hennig, René; Doerr-Harim, Colette; Klose, Christina; Ulrich, Alexis; Büchler, Markus W

    2014-07-12

    Postoperative surgical site infections are one of the most frequent complications after open abdominal surgery, and triclosan-coated sutures were developed to reduce their occurrence. The aim of the PROUD trial was to obtain reliable data for the effectiveness of triclosan-coated PDS Plus sutures for abdominal wall closure, compared with non-coated PDS II sutures, in the prevention of surgical site infections. This multicentre, randomised controlled group-sequential superiority trial was done in 24 German hospitals. Adult patients (aged ≥18 years) who underwent elective midline abdominal laparotomy for any reason were eligible for inclusion. Exclusion criteria were impaired mental state, language problems, and participation in another intervention trial that interfered with the intervention or outcome of this trial. A central web-based randomisation tool was used to randomly assign eligible participants by permuted block randomisation with a 1:1 allocation ratio and block size 4 before mass closure to either triclosan-coated sutures (PDS Plus) or uncoated sutures (PDS II) for abdominal fascia closure. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of superficial or deep surgical site infection according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria within 30 days after the operation. Patients, surgeons, and the outcome assessors were masked to group assignment. Interim and final analyses were by modified intention to treat. This trial is registered with the German Clinical Trials Register, number DRKS00000390. Between April 7, 2010, and Oct 19, 2012, 1224 patients were randomly assigned to intervention groups (607 to PDS Plus, and 617 to PDS II), of whom 1185 (587 PDS Plus and 598 PDS II) were analysed by intention to treat. The study groups were well balanced in terms of patient and procedure characteristics. The occurrence of surgical site infections did not differ between the PDS Plus group (87 [14·8%] of 587) and the PDS II group (96 [16·1%] of 598

  16. Multi-walled carbon nanotube supported CdS-DETA nanocomposite for efficient visible light photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Jiali; Li, Dongpei [College of Physics and Electronic Information, Anhui Key Laboratory of Energetic Materials, Huaibei Normal University, Huaibei, 235000 (China); Dai, Kai, E-mail: daikai940@chnu.edu.cn [College of Physics and Electronic Information, Anhui Key Laboratory of Energetic Materials, Huaibei Normal University, Huaibei, 235000 (China); Liang, Changhao, E-mail: chliang@issp.ac.cn [College of Physics and Electronic Information, Anhui Key Laboratory of Energetic Materials, Huaibei Normal University, Huaibei, 235000 (China); Key Laboratory of Materials Physics and Anhui Key Laboratory of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, 230031 (China); Jiang, Dequan [College of Physics and Electronic Information, Anhui Key Laboratory of Energetic Materials, Huaibei Normal University, Huaibei, 235000 (China); Lu, Luhua [Faculty of Material Science and Chemical Engineering, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, 430074 (China); Zhu, Guangping [College of Physics and Electronic Information, Anhui Key Laboratory of Energetic Materials, Huaibei Normal University, Huaibei, 235000 (China)

    2017-01-15

    Designing high performance functional nanomaterials by tuning their dimension at nanoscale and constructing novel interface has been a hot topic in recent years. In this work, multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/CdS-diethylenetriamine (DETA) composite photocatalyst was synthesized via hydrothermal method. The structure, morphology, optical property and core level analysis of MWCNT/CdS-DETA nanocomposite were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy spectra (EDS), UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and X-ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS). CdS-DETA can be uniformly dispersed on the surface of MWCNT. Photocatalytic properties of as-prepared photocatalysts were investigated under 410 nm LED light irradiation for photodegradation of methylene bule (MB). The k{sub app} of MWCNT/CdS-DETA is 0.034 min{sup −1}, which is about 6 times more than pure CdS-DETA. Photostability test indicated that MWCNT/CdS-DETA hybrid can be reused for degradation of organic pollution, suggesting the possible application of MWCNT/CdS-DETA hybrid is the most promising strategy for advanced photocatalyst material design. - Highlights: • Novel MWCNT/CdS-DETA photocatalyst was prepared. • MWCNT/CdS-DETA showed high photocatalytic activity. • MWCNT/CdS-DETA showed long reusable life.

  17. An efficient route towards the covalent functionalization of single walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakade, Bhalchandra A.; Pillai, Vijayamohanan K.

    2008-01-01

    A simple and efficient method of chemical functionalization of both single and multiwalled carbon nanotubes has been discussed to give enhanced water solubility by rapidly and efficiently generating an appreciable amount of hydrophilic functional groups using microwave radiation. Surface functionalization containing more than 30 wt% of oxygen has been achieved, resulting into solubility of 2-5 mg/mL. Further covalent functionalization of such soluble SWNTs provides a remarkable degree of aniline functionalization through amidation, where the formation of polyaniline has been avoided. Functionalization of SWNTs is confirmed by techniques like electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, Raman spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy. Electrochemical analysis suggests an enhanced double layer capacitance (∼110 F/g) of nanotubes after microwave treatment. Aniline functionalization of SWNTs shows possible variations on the nanotube topography with concomitant formation of a dynamic polymer layer on the nanotube surface

  18. Appearance of a conductive carbonaceous coating in a CO2 dielectric barrier discharge and its influence on the electrical properties and the conversion efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belov, Igor; Paulussen, Sabine; Bogaerts, Annemie

    2016-01-01

    This work examines the properties of a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor, built for CO 2 decomposition, by means of electrical characterization, optical emission spectroscopy and gas chromatography. The discharge, formed in an electronegative gas (such as CO 2 , but also O 2 ), exhibits clearly different electrical characteristics, depending on the surface conductivity of the reactor walls. An asymmetric current waveform is observed in the metal-dielectric (MD) configuration, with sparse high-current pulses in the positive half-cycle (HC) and a more uniform regime in the negative HC. This indicates that the discharge is operating in two alternating regimes with rather different properties. At high CO 2 conversion regimes, a conductive coating is deposited on the dielectric. This so-called coated MD configuration yields a symmetric current waveform, with current peaks in both the positive and negative HCs. In a double-dielectric (DD) configuration, the current waveform is also symmetric, but without current peaks in both the positive and negative HC. Finally, the DD configuration with conductive coating on the inner surface of the outer dielectric, i.e. so-called coated DD, yields again an asymmetric current waveform, with current peaks in the negative HC. These different electrical characteristics are related to the presence of the conductive coating on the dielectric wall of the reactor and can be explained by an increase of the local barrier capacitance available for charge transfer. The different discharge regimes affect the CO 2 conversion, more specifically, the CO 2 conversion is lowest in the clean DD configuration. It is somewhat higher in the coated DD configuration, and still higher in the MD configuration. The clean and coated MD configuration, however, gave similar CO 2 conversion. These results indicate that the conductivity of the dielectric reactor walls can highly promote the development of the high-amplitude discharge current pulses and

  19. Efficient siRNA delivery system using carboxilated single-wall carbon nanotubes in cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neagoe, Ioana Berindan; Braicu, Cornelia; Matea, Cristian; Bele, Constantin; Florin, Graur; Gabriel, Katona; Veronica, Chedea; Irimie, Alexandru

    2012-08-01

    Several functionalized carbon nanotubes have been designed and tested for the purpose of nucleic acid delivery. In this study, the capacity of SWNTC-COOH for siRNA deliverey were investigated delivery in parallel with an efficient commercial system. Hep2G cells were reverse-transfected with 50 nM siRNA (p53 siRNA, TNF-alphasiRNA, VEGFsiRNA) using the siPORT NeoFX (Ambion) transfection agent in paralel with SWNTC-COOH, functionalised with siRNA. The highest level of gene inhibition was observed in the cases treated with p53 siRNA gene; in the case of transfection with siPort, the NeoFX value was 33.8%, while in the case of SWNTC-COOH as delivery system for p53 siRNA was 37.5%. The gene silencing capacity for VEGF was 53.7%, respectively for TNF-alpha 56.7% for siPORT NeoFX delivery systems versus 47.7% (VEGF) and 46.5% (TNF-alpha) for SWNTC-COOH delivery system. SWNTC-COOH we have been showed to have to be an efficient carrier system. The results from the inhibition of gene expresion for both transfection systems were confirmed at protein level. Overall, the lowest mRNA expression was confirmed at protein level, especially in the case of p53 siRNA and TNF-alpha siRNA transfection. Less efficient reduction protein expressions were observed in the case of VEGF siRNA, for both transfection systems at 24 h; only at 48 h, there was a statistically significant reduction of VEGF protein expression. SWCNT-COOH determined an efficient delivery of siRNA. SWNTC-COOH, combined with suitable tumor markers like p53 siRNA, TNFalpha siRNA or VEGF siRNA can be used for the efficient delivery of siRNA.

  20. Experimental Investigation of Process Parameters in Drilling LM25 Composites Coated with Multi Wall Carbon Nano Tubes Using Sonication Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeetha M.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium based metal matrix composites are widely used in automobile components such as cardan shaft of Chevrolet corvette, disc brake and engine push rod. In this experiment a Hybrid Metal Matrix Composites (HMMC are fabricated and drilled. Drilling is the process of making slots in disc brake and thread in the engine parts. The surface quality of the drilled specimen depends on the speed, feed, drill type and the thrust force. Thrust force plays the major role in drilling the specimen. In this experiment HMMCs are fabricated using two processes-called, sonication and casting. Sonication is the process of coating the carbon nanotubes over the silicon carbide particles (SiCp. Semisolid stir casting is used to reinforce the coated SiCp in the LM 25 alloy. A drilling process is performed on HMMC to analyse the extent to which the input parameters influence the thrust force and Ovality. The tools used for drilling are solid carbide tools of three different diameters. Taguchi’s experimental design is adopted for the drilling operation. A mathematical model is used to determine the influence of input parameters on the outputs thrust force and ovality. This paper proves the combination of N3, f1 and d1 of the carbide tool results in the lowest value of thrust force and ovality while drilling HMMCs. In this work the HMMC is prepared by coating the abrasive nature, silicon carbide particle and there is a good interfacial bonding between the reinforced particle and matrix and the drilling process becomes smoother. The new being of this article is the treated ceramics, SiCp with carbon nanotubes. This HMMC shows the improved mechanical properties compared to other metal matrix composites surveyed in the literatures.

  1. Increasing the luminous efficiency of an MEH-PPV based PLED using salmon DNA and single walled carbon nanotube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhwal, Devinder; Singh, Inderpreet; Kumar, Jitender; Bhatia, C.S.; Bhatnagar, P.K.; Mathur, P.C.

    2011-01-01

    The combined effect of a salmon deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-based electron blocking layer and a single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) composite-based electron transport layer on the performance of a poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV) polymer light emitting diode (PLED) has been examined. The SWCNT network in the composite layer improves electron injection from cathode and the DNA blocks these high mobility electrons at the electron blocking layer-polymer interface, leading to high luminance from the device. The luminous efficiency of the PLED is increased ∼20 times compared to that of a PLED using only MEH-PPV. - Highlights: → We report fabrication of a high luminous efficiency MEH-PPV based polymer LED. → Salmon DNA-CTMA layer is used to block injected electrons in the polymer layer. → MEH-PPV-SWCNT composite is used to transport electrons in the polymer layer. → The luminous efficiency of the polymer LED thereby improves about 20 times.

  2. Highly-reliable operation of 638-nm broad stripe laser diode with high wall-plug efficiency for display applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Tetsuya; Shimada, Naoyuki; Nishida, Takehiro; Mitsuyama, Hiroshi; Miyashita, Motoharu

    2013-03-01

    Laser based displays, as pico to cinema laser projectors have gathered much attention because of wide gamut, low power consumption, and so on. Laser light sources for the displays are operated mainly in CW, and heat management is one of the big issues. Therefore, highly efficient operation is necessitated. Also the light sources for the displays are requested to be highly reliable. 638 nm broad stripe laser diode (LD) was newly developed for high efficiency and highly reliable operation. An AlGaInP/GaAs red LD suffers from low wall plug efficiency (WPE) due to electron overflow from an active layer to a p-cladding layer. Large optical confinement factor (Γ) design with AlInP cladding layers is adopted to improve the WPE. The design has a disadvantage for reliable operation because the large Γ causes high optical density and brings a catastrophic optical degradation (COD) at a front facet. To overcome the disadvantage, a window-mirror structure is also adopted in the LD. The LD shows WPE of 35% at 25°C, highest record in the world, and highly stable operation at 35°C, 550 mW up to 8,000 hours without any catastrophic optical degradation.

  3. Single stage batch adsorber design for efficient Eosin yellow removalby polyaniline coated ligno-cellulose

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debnath, S

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyaniline-coated lignin-based adsorbent (PLC) was synthesized and used for uptake of reactive dye eosin yellow (EY) from aqueous solution. The adsorption capability of the adsorbent was found to be more effective than the unmodified adsorbent (LC...

  4. Efficiently-cooled plasmonic amorphous silicon solar cells integrated with a nano-coated heat-pipe plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yinan; Du, Yanping; Shum, Clifford; Cai, Boyuan; Le, Nam Cao Hoai; Chen, Xi; Duck, Benjamin; Fell, Christopher; Zhu, Yonggang; Gu, Min

    2016-04-01

    Solar photovoltaics (PV) are emerging as a major alternative energy source. The cost of PV electricity depends on the efficiency of conversion of light to electricity. Despite of steady growth in the efficiency for several decades, little has been achieved to reduce the impact of real-world operating temperatures on this efficiency. Here we demonstrate a highly efficient cooling solution to the recently emerging high performance plasmonic solar cell technology by integrating an advanced nano-coated heat-pipe plate. This thermal cooling technology, efficient for both summer and winter time, demonstrates the heat transportation capability up to ten times higher than those of the metal plate and the conventional wickless heat-pipe plates. The reduction in temperature rise of the plasmonic solar cells operating under one sun condition can be as high as 46%, leading to an approximate 56% recovery in efficiency, which dramatically increases the energy yield of the plasmonic solar cells. This newly-developed, thermally-managed plasmonic solar cell device significantly extends the application scope of PV for highly efficient solar energy conversion.

  5. Polyethylene oxide film coating enhances lithium cycling efficiency of an anode-free lithium-metal battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assegie, Addisu Alemayehu; Cheng, Ju-Hsiang; Kuo, Li-Ming; Su, Wei-Nien; Hwang, Bing-Joe

    2018-03-29

    The practical implementation of an anode-free lithium-metal battery with promising high capacity is hampered by dendrite formation and low coulombic efficiency. Most notably, these challenges stem from non-uniform lithium plating and unstable SEI layer formation on the bare copper electrode. Herein, we revealed the homogeneous deposition of lithium and effective suppression of dendrite formation using a copper electrode coated with a polyethylene oxide (PEO) film in an electrolyte comprising 1 M LiTFSI, DME/DOL (1/1, v/v) and 2 wt% LiNO3. More importantly, the PEO film coating promoted the formation of a thin and robust SEI layer film by hosting lithium and regulating the inevitable reaction of lithium with the electrolyte. The modified electrode exhibited stable cycling of lithium with an average coulombic efficiency of ∼100% over 200 cycles and low voltage hysteresis (∼30 mV) at a current density of 0.5 mA cm-2. Moreover, we tested the anode-free battery experimentally by integrating it with an LiFePO4 cathode into a full-cell configuration (Cu@PEO/LiFePO4). The new cell demonstrated stable cycling with an average coulombic efficiency of 98.6% and capacity retention of 30% in the 200th cycle at a rate of 0.2C. These impressive enhancements in cycle life and capacity retention result from the synergy of the PEO film coating, high electrode-electrolyte interface compatibility, stable polar oligomer formation from the reduction of 1,3-dioxolane and the generation of SEI-stabilizing nitrite and nitride upon lithium nitrate reduction. Our result opens up a new route to realize anode-free batteries by modifying the copper anode with PEO to achieve ever more demanding yet safe interfacial chemistry and control of dendrite formation.

  6. Preparation and characterization of multi-walled carbon nanotube/hydroxyapatite nanocomposite film dip coated on Ti–6Al–4V by sol–gel method for biomedical applications: An in vitro study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrishamchian, Alireza; Hooshmand, Tabassom; Mohammadi, Mohammadreza; Najafi, Farhood

    2013-01-01

    In the present research, the introduction of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) into the hydroxyapatite (HA) matrix and dip coating of nanocomposite on titanium alloy (Ti–6Al–4V) plate was conducted in order to improve the performance of the HA-coated implant via the sol–gel method. The structural characterization and electron microscopy results confirmed well crystallized HA–MWCNT coating and homogenous dispersion of carbon nanotubes in the ceramic matrix at temperatures as low as 500 °C. The evaluation of the mechanical properties of HA and HA/MWCNT composite coatings with different weight percentages of MWCNTs showed that the addition of low concentrations of MWCNTs (0.5 and 1 wt.%) had improved effect on the mechanical properties of nanocomposite coatings. Moreover, this in vitro study ascertained the biocompatibility of the prepared sol–gel-derived HA/MWCNT composite coatings. - Highlights: ► Carbon nanotube/hydroxyapatite composite was successfully dip-coated on Ti by sol–gel. ► Well-crystallized HA–MWCNT and homogenous dispersion of nanotubes were obtained. ► Low concentration of CNTs improved the mechanical properties of composite coating. ► Biocompatibility of the prepared sol–gel-derived HA/MWCNT films was ascertained

  7. Preparation and characterization of multi-walled carbon nanotube/hydroxyapatite nanocomposite film dip coated on Ti–6Al–4V by sol–gel method for biomedical applications: An in vitro study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrishamchian, Alireza [Department of Dental Biomaterials, School of Dentistry/Research Center for Science and Technology in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hooshmand, Tabassom, E-mail: hoshmand@sina.tums.ac.ir [Department of Dental Biomaterials, School of Dentistry/Research Center for Science and Technology in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadi, Mohammadreza [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Najafi, Farhood [Department of Resin and Additives, Institute for Color Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-05-01

    In the present research, the introduction of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) into the hydroxyapatite (HA) matrix and dip coating of nanocomposite on titanium alloy (Ti–6Al–4V) plate was conducted in order to improve the performance of the HA-coated implant via the sol–gel method. The structural characterization and electron microscopy results confirmed well crystallized HA–MWCNT coating and homogenous dispersion of carbon nanotubes in the ceramic matrix at temperatures as low as 500 °C. The evaluation of the mechanical properties of HA and HA/MWCNT composite coatings with different weight percentages of MWCNTs showed that the addition of low concentrations of MWCNTs (0.5 and 1 wt.%) had improved effect on the mechanical properties of nanocomposite coatings. Moreover, this in vitro study ascertained the biocompatibility of the prepared sol–gel-derived HA/MWCNT composite coatings. - Highlights: ► Carbon nanotube/hydroxyapatite composite was successfully dip-coated on Ti by sol–gel. ► Well-crystallized HA–MWCNT and homogenous dispersion of nanotubes were obtained. ► Low concentration of CNTs improved the mechanical properties of composite coating. ► Biocompatibility of the prepared sol–gel-derived HA/MWCNT films was ascertained.

  8. Conducting polymer‐coated, palladium‐functionalized multi‐walled carbon nanotubes for the electrochemical sensing of hydroxylamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eunhee; Ahmed, Mohammad Shamsuddin; You, Jung-Min; Kim, Seul Ki; Jeon, Seungwon

    2012-01-01

    Electrochemical sensors of hydroxylamine were fabricated on glassy carbon electrodes (GCEs) by the electropolymerization of 3,4‐ethylenedioxypyrrole (EDOP) and 3,4‐ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) on palladium (Pd) nanoparticles attached to thiolated multi‐walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), denoted as PEDOP/MWCNT‐Pd/GCE and PEDOT/MWCNT‐Pd/GCE. The sensors were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. They showed strong catalytic activity toward the oxidation of hydroxylamine. Cyclic voltammetry and amperometry were used to characterize the sensors' performances. The detection limits of hydroxylamine by PEDOP/MWCNT‐Pd/GCE and PEDOT/MWCNT‐Pd/GCE were 0.22 and 0.24 μM (S/N = 3), respectively. The sensors' sensitivity, selectivity, and stability were also investigated. - Highlights: ► Multi-wall carbon nanotubes-Pd nanoparticles (MWCNT-Pd) based electrodes. ► Electropolymerized electrodes by poly3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene(PEDOT). ► PEDOT/MWCNT-Pd has a low detection limit of 0.24 µM for hydroxylamine. ► PEDOT/MWCNT-Pd exhibits a wide linear range from 1 µM to 6 mM hydroxylamine. ► The resulting sensor shows fast response and good stability.

  9. Conducting polymer-coated, palladium-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes for the electrochemical sensing of hydroxylamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eunhee; Ahmed, Mohammad Shamsuddin; You, Jung-Min; Kim, Seul Ki; Jeon, Seungwon, E-mail: swjeon@chonnam.ac.kr

    2012-08-31

    Electrochemical sensors of hydroxylamine were fabricated on glassy carbon electrodes (GCEs) by the electropolymerization of 3,4-ethylenedioxypyrrole (EDOP) and 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) on palladium (Pd) nanoparticles attached to thiolated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), denoted as PEDOP/MWCNT-Pd/GCE and PEDOT/MWCNT-Pd/GCE. The sensors were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. They showed strong catalytic activity toward the oxidation of hydroxylamine. Cyclic voltammetry and amperometry were used to characterize the sensors' performances. The detection limits of hydroxylamine by PEDOP/MWCNT-Pd/GCE and PEDOT/MWCNT-Pd/GCE were 0.22 and 0.24 {mu}M (S/N = 3), respectively. The sensors' sensitivity, selectivity, and stability were also investigated. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multi-wall carbon nanotubes-Pd nanoparticles (MWCNT-Pd) based electrodes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electropolymerized electrodes by poly3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene(PEDOT). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PEDOT/MWCNT-Pd has a low detection limit of 0.24 Micro-Sign M for hydroxylamine. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PEDOT/MWCNT-Pd exhibits a wide linear range from 1 Micro-Sign M to 6 mM hydroxylamine. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The resulting sensor shows fast response and good stability.

  10. Conformal coating of Ni(OH)2 nanoflakes on carbon fibers by chemical bath deposition for efficient supercapacitor electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Alhebshi, Nuha

    2013-01-01

    A novel supercapacitor electrode structure has been developed in which a uniform and conformal coating of nanostructured Ni(OH)2 flakes on carbon microfibers is deposited in situ by a simple chemical bath deposition process at room temperature. The microfibers conformally coated with Ni(OH) 2 nanoflakes exhibit five times higher specific capacitance compared to planar (non-conformal) Ni(OH)2 nanoflake electrodes prepared by drop casting of Ni(OH)2 powder on the carbon microfibers (1416 F g-1vs. 275 F g-1). This improvement in supercapacitor performance can be ascribed to the preservation of the three-dimensional structure of the current collector, which is a fibrous carbon fabric, even after the conformal coating of Ni(OH)2 nanoflakes. The 3-D network morphology of the fibrous carbon fabric leads to more efficient electrolyte penetration into the conformal electrode, allowing the ions to have greater access to active reaction sites. Cyclic stability testing of the conformal and planar Ni(OH)2 nanoflake electrodes, respectively, reveals 34% and 62% drop in specific capacitance after 10 000 cycles. The present study demonstrates the crucial effect that electrolyte penetration plays in determining the pseudocapacitive properties of the supercapacitor electrodes. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  11. Simple and Efficient Synthesis of Iron Oxide-Coated Silica Gel Adsorbents for Arsenic Removal: Adsorption Isotherms and Kinetic Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arifin, Eric; Lee, Jiukyu [Interdisciplinary Program in Nanoscience and Technology, Virginia (United States); Cha, Jinmyung [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    Iron oxide (ferrihydrite, hematite, and magnetite) coated silica gels were prepared using a low-cost, easily-scalable and straightforward method as the adsorbent material for arsenic removal application. Adsorption of the anionic form of arsenic oxyacids, arsenite (AsO{sup 2-}) and arsenate (AsO{sub 4}{sup -3}), onto hematite coated silica gel was fitted against non-linear 3-parameter-model Sips isotherm and 2-parameter-model Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm. Adsorption kinetics of arsenic could be well described by pseudo-second-order kinetic model and value of adsorption energy derived from non-linear Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm suggests chemical adsorption. Although arsenic adsorption process was not affected by the presence of sulfate, chloride, and nitrate anions, as expected, bicarbonate and silicate gave moderate negative effects while the presence of phosphate anions significantly inhibited adsorption process of both arsenite and arsenate. When the actual efficiency to remove arsenic was tested against 1 L of artificial arsenic-contaminated groundwater (0.6 mg/L) in the presence competing anions, the reasonable amount (20 g) of hematite coated silica gel could reduce arsenic concentration to below the WHO permissible safety limit of drinking water of 10 μg/L without adjusting pH and temperature, which would be highly advantageous for practical field application.

  12. Ultrasonic Spray-Coating of Large-Scale TiO2 Compact Layer for Efficient Flexible Perovskite Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Flexible electronics have attracted great interest in applications for the wearable devices. Flexible solar cells can be integrated into the flexible electronics as the power source for the wearable devices. In this work, an ultrasonic spray-coating method was employed to deposit TiO2 nanoparticles on polymer substrates for the fabrication of flexible perovskite solar cells (PSCs. Pre-synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles were first dispersed in ethanol to prepare the precursor solutions with different concentrations (0.5 mg/mL, 1.0 mg/mL, 2.0 mg/mL and then sprayed onto the conductive substrates to produce compact TiO2 films with different thicknesses (from 30 nm to 150 nm. The effect of the different drying processes on the quality of the compact TiO2 film was studied. In order to further improve the film quality, titanium diisopropoxide bis(acetylacetonate (TAA was added into the TiO2-ethanol solution at a mole ratio of 1.0 mol % with respect to the TiO2 content. The final prepared PSC devices showed a power conversion efficiency (PCE of 14.32% based on the indium doped tin oxide coated glass (ITO-glass substrate and 10.87% on the indium doped tin oxide coated polyethylene naphthalate (ITO-PEN flexible substrate.

  13. A new and efficient Solid Phase Microextraction approach for analysis of high fat content food samples using a matrix-compatible coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Grazia, Selenia; Gionfriddo, Emanuela; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2017-05-15

    The current work presents the optimization of a protocol enabling direct extraction of avocado samples by a new Solid Phase Microextraction matrix compatible coating. In order to further extend the coating life time, pre-desorption and post-desorption washing steps were optimized for solvent type, time, and degree of agitation employed. Using optimized conditions, lifetime profiles of the coating related to extraction of a group of analytes bearing different physical-chemical properties were obtained. Over 80 successive extractions were carried out to establish coating efficiency using PDMS/DVB 65µm commercial coating in comparison with the PDMS/DVB/PDMS. The PDMS/DVB coating was more prone to irreversible matrix attachment on its surface, with consequent reduction of its extractive performance after 80 consecutive extractions. Conversely, the PDMS/DVB/PDMS coating showed enhanced inertness towards matrix fouling due to its outer smooth PDMS layer. This work represents the first step towards the development of robust SPME methods for quantification of contaminants in avocado as well as other fatty-based matrices, with minimal sample pre-treatment prior to extraction. In addition, an evaluation of matrix components attachment on the coating surface and related artifacts created by desorption of the coating at high temperatures in the GC-injector port, has been performed by GCxGC-ToF/MS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Polyaniline-coated freestanding porous carbon nanofibers as efficient hybrid electrodes for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Chau; Singhal, Richa; Lawrence, Daniel; Kalra, Vibha

    2015-10-01

    Three-dimensional, free-standing, hybrid supercapacitor electrodes combining polyaniline (PANI) and porous carbon nanofibers (P-CNFs) were fabricated with the aim to integrate the benefits of both electric double layer capacitors (high power, cyclability) and pseudocapacitors (high energy density). A systematic investigation of three different electropolymerization techniques, namely, potentiodynamic, potentiostatic, and galvanostatic, for electrodeposition of PANI on freestanding carbon nanofiber mats was conducted. It was found that the galvanostatic method, where the current density is kept constant and can be easily controlled facilitates conformal and uniform coating of PANI on three-dimensional carbon nanofiber substrates. The electrochemical tests indicated that the PANI-coated P-CNFs exhibit excellent specific capacitance of 366 F g-1 (vs. 140 F g-1 for uncoated porous carbon nanofibers), 140 F cm-3 volumetric capacitance, and up to 2.3 F cm-2 areal capacitance at 100 mV s-1 scan rate. Such excellent performance is attributed to a thin and conformal coating of PANI achieved using the galvanostatic electrodeposition technique, which not only provides pseudocapacitance with high rate capability, but also retains the double-layer capacitance of the underlying P-CNFs.

  15. External Wall Insulation (EWI: Engaging Social Tenants in Energy Efficiency Retrofitting in the North East of England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Lilley

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The question of how best to tackle the problem of energy inefficient older housing in the UK is considerable, and is further complicated by the question of tenure. Social landlords are working to update and improve their properties, which make up around 15% of the total UK housing stock (4 million properties. The success of such efficiency improvements depends in part on the cooperation of tenants, and their ability and willingness to engage with the process of change. This paper describes the experiences of eleven social housing tenant households whose properties were fitted with External Wall Insulation (EWI, based on pre- and post-installation interviews and data collection. It includes discussion of tenants’ knowledge, attitudes, and expectations prior to and following installation; household thermal comfort and energy spending before installation; tenant experiences of having EWI installed; tenant perceptions regarding the effects of EWI on thermal comfort, energy spending, and housing attractiveness; impacts of EWI on internal temperatures and heat loss (measured via thermal imaging; energy bill comparisons. Households experienced an average saving of 33% on energy bills following EWI installation, and the majority of tenants reported benefits including improved thermal comfort and related positive impacts on health and wellbeing. The paper concludes by highlighting potential learning points for engaging tenants in the process of enhancing energy efficiency in UK social rented housing.

  16. Size and Aging Effects on Antimicrobial Efficiency of Silver Nanoparticles Coated on Polyamide Fabrics Activated by Atmospheric DBD Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zille, Andrea; Fernandes, Margarida M; Francesko, Antonio; Tzanov, Tzanko; Fernandes, Marta; Oliveira, Fernando R; Almeida, Luís; Amorim, Teresa; Carneiro, Noémia; Esteves, Maria F; Souto, António P

    2015-07-01

    This work studies the surface characteristics, antimicrobial activity, and aging effect of plasma-pretreated polyamide 6,6 (PA66) fabrics coated with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), aiming to identify the optimum size of nanosilver exhibiting antibacterial properties suitable for the manufacture of hospital textiles. The release of bactericidal Ag(+) ions from a 10, 20, 40, 60, and 100 nm AgNPs-coated PA66 surface was a function of the particles' size, number, and aging. Plasma pretreatment promoted both ionic and covalent interactions between AgNPs and the formed oxygen species on the fibers, favoring the deposition of smaller-diameter AgNPs that consequently showed better immediate and durable antimicrobial effects against Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Surprisingly, after 30 days of aging, a comparable bacterial growth inhibition was achieved for all of the fibers treated with AgNPs silver. Overall, the results suggest that instead of reducing the size of the AgNPs, which is associated with higher toxicity, similar long-term effects can be achieved with larger NPs (40-60 nm), even in lower concentrations. Because the antimicrobial efficiency of AgNPs larger than 30 nm is mainly ruled by the release of Ag(+) over time and not by the size and number of the AgNPs, this parameter is crucial for the development of efficient antimicrobial coatings on plasma-treated surfaces and contributes to the safety and durability of clothing used in clinical settings.

  17. Manganese Dioxide Coated Graphene Nanoribbons Supported Palladium Nanoparticles as an Efficient Catalyst for Ethanol Electrooxidation in Alkaline Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Qi; Jiang, Kun; Fan, Jinchen; Lin, Yan; Min, Yulin; Xu, Qunjie; Cai, Wen-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Design of appropriate supporting materials is an alternative route to yield efficient Pt-free catalysts for ethanol oxidation reaction, which in practice may determine the conversion efficiency of direct alkaline ethanol fuel cells. In this work, graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) coated with MnO_2 are used as a unique supporting material for loading and dispersing Pd nanoparticles. XRD, TEM and XPS are applied to characterize the structure of as-synthesized Pd/MnO_2/GNRs nanocomposite catalyst, revealing a good dispersion as well as a modification of electronic property of Pd nanoparticles. Electrochemical measurements demonstrate that the as-synthesized nanocomposite displays largely enhanced electrocatalytic activity and durability toward ethanol oxidation in alkaline media as compared to the other tested Pd-based catalysts with various supports.

  18. Improvement of deposition efficiency and control of hardness for cold-sprayed coatings using high carbon steel/mild steel mixture powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Kazuhiro; Amao, Satoshi; Yokoyama, Nobuyuki; Ootaki, Kousuke

    2011-01-01

    In this study, in order to make high carbon steel coating by cold spray technique, spray conditions such as carrier gas temperature and pressure etc. were investigated. And also, in order to improve deposition efficiency and control coating hardness of cold-sprayed high carbon steel, high carbon and mild steel mixed powder and its mechanical milled powder were developed and were optimized. By using the cold-spray technique, particle deposition of a high carbon steel was successful. Moreover, by applying mixed and mechanical milled powders, the porosity ratio was decreased and deposition efficiency was improved. Furthermore, using these powders, it is possible to control the hardness value. Especially, when using mechanical milled powder, it is very difficult to identify the interface between the coating and the substrate. The bonding between the coating and the substrate is thus considered to be excellent. (author)

  19. Synthesis and application of ion imprinting polymer coated magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes for selective adsorption of nickel ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Junnan; Shang, Hongzhou; Zhang, Xing; Sun, Xiaoran

    2018-01-01

    A novel nickel ion imprinted polymers (IIPs) based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were synthesized inverse emulsion system, using chitosan(CS) and acrylic acid as the functional monomers, Ni (II) as the template, and N' N-methylene bis-acrylamide as the cross-linker. The chemical structure and morphological feature of the IIPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Thermogravimetry (TG), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR). The studies indicated that the gel layer was well grafted on the surface of MWCNTs. Studies on the adsorption ability of the IIPs, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, demonstrated that IIPs possessed excellent adsorption and selective ability towards Ni (II), fitting to pseudo second-order kinetic isotherms and with a maximum capacity of 19.86 mg/g, and selectivity factor of 13.09 and 4.42. The electrochemical performance of ion imprinting carbon paste electrode (CPE/IIPs) was characterized by Cyclic voltammetry (CV). Studies have shown that CPE/IIPs showed excellent electrochemical performance.

  20. Cell viability and MRI performance of highly efficient polyol-coated magnetic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arteaga-Cardona, Fernando; Gutiérrez-García, Eric; Hidalgo-Tobón, Silvia; López-Vasquez, Ciro; Brito-Barrera, Yazmín A.; Flores-Tochihuitl, Julia; Angulo-Molina, Aracely; Reyes-Leyva, Julio R.; González-Rodríguez, Roberto; Coffer, Jeffery L.; Pal, Umapada

    2016-01-01

    This work aimed at determining conditions that would allow us to control the size of the NPs and create a system with characteristics apt for biomedical applications. We describe a comprehensive study on the synthesis and physical characterization of two highly sensitive sets of triethylene glycol (TREG) and polyethylene glycol (PEG)-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) to be evaluated for use as magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agents. The ferrofluids demonstrated excellent colloidal stability in deionized water at pH 7.0 as indicated by dynamic light scattering (DLS) data. The magnetic relaxivities, r_2, were measured on a 1.5 T clinical MRI instrument. Values in the range from 205 to 257 mM"−"1 s"−"1 were obtained, varying proportionally to the SPIONs’ sizes and coating nature. Further in vitro cell viability tests and in vivo biodistribution analyses of the intravenously administered nanoparticles showed that the prepared systems have good biocompatibility and migrate to several organs, mainly the meninges, spleen, and liver. Based on these results, our findings demonstrated the potential utility of these nanosystems as clinical contrast agents for MR imaging.

  1. Cell viability and MRI performance of highly efficient polyol-coated magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arteaga-Cardona, Fernando [Universidad de las Américas de Puebla, Departamento de Ciencias Químico-Biológicas (Mexico); Gutiérrez-García, Eric [Instituto Literario, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México (Mexico); Hidalgo-Tobón, Silvia, E-mail: shid@xanum.uam.mx [Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Departamento de Física (Mexico); López-Vasquez, Ciro; Brito-Barrera, Yazmín A. [Universidad de las Américas de Puebla, Departamento de Ciencias Químico-Biológicas (Mexico); Flores-Tochihuitl, Julia [Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Facultad de Estomatología (Mexico); Angulo-Molina, Aracely [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Ciencias Químico-Biológicas (Mexico); Reyes-Leyva, Julio R. [Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Centro de Investigación Biomédica de Oriente (CIBIOR) (Mexico); González-Rodríguez, Roberto; Coffer, Jeffery L. [Texas Christian University, Department of Chemistry (United States); Pal, Umapada [Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Apdo, Instituto de Física (Mexico); and others

    2016-11-15

    This work aimed at determining conditions that would allow us to control the size of the NPs and create a system with characteristics apt for biomedical applications. We describe a comprehensive study on the synthesis and physical characterization of two highly sensitive sets of triethylene glycol (TREG) and polyethylene glycol (PEG)-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) to be evaluated for use as magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agents. The ferrofluids demonstrated excellent colloidal stability in deionized water at pH 7.0 as indicated by dynamic light scattering (DLS) data. The magnetic relaxivities, r{sub 2}, were measured on a 1.5 T clinical MRI instrument. Values in the range from 205 to 257 mM{sup −1} s{sup −1} were obtained, varying proportionally to the SPIONs’ sizes and coating nature. Further in vitro cell viability tests and in vivo biodistribution analyses of the intravenously administered nanoparticles showed that the prepared systems have good biocompatibility and migrate to several organs, mainly the meninges, spleen, and liver. Based on these results, our findings demonstrated the potential utility of these nanosystems as clinical contrast agents for MR imaging.

  2. Ultra-Lightweight High Efficiency Nanostructured Materials and Coatings for Deep Space Mission Environments, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NanoSonic has developed a nanostructured spray self-assembly manufacturing method that has resulted in ultra-lightweight ( 1000%), and multi-layer, high efficiency...

  3. Efficiency and durability of a self-cleaning coating on concrete and stones under both natural and artificial ageing trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Quiroga, P. M.; Martínez-Ramírez, S.; Viles, H. A.

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to test the performance under long-term working conditions of a commercial self-cleaning coating, a water-based TiO2 sol, on three building materials important in recent and older European heritage; Portland limestone, Woodkirk sandstone and concrete. First, the compatibility of the coating (effect on petrophysical properties) with the substrates was demonstrated by examining aesthetic properties and water vapour permeability of the building materials and secondly, the self-cleaning ability of the TiO2 nanoparticles in degrading artificial stain (rhodamine B) under UV light was evaluated. Finally, the durability (lasting performance) of photocatalytic activity was assessed during one year of outdoor exposure trial and 2000 h of accelerated ageing in a chamber with UV radiation and condensation cycles. Results showed that photocatalytic activity was unaltered on concrete, whereas on sandstone, particularly after artificial ageing, it was reduced due to the removal of nanoparticles from the surface. On limestone, a decrease of TiO2 content was observed but photodegradation efficiency (ability to perform as self-cleaner) seemed not to be affected.

  4. Efficient photoelectrochemical water splitting by a doping-controlled GaN photoanode coated with NiO cocatalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Jin-Ho; Kim, Soo Hee; Ebaid, Mohamed; Lee, June Key; Ryu, Sang-Wan

    2014-01-01

    Efficient photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting was demonstrated by a doping-controlled GaN photoanode coated with NiO cocatalyst. Highly doped n-GaN was sandwiched between undoped GaN layers to effectively collect electrons through ohmic contact. With zero external bias, the photocurrent density of the optimized doping profile was ∼3.5 times higher than that of the undoped GaN reference. However, the increased doping concentration degraded the photoanode stability, which was attributed to crystalline defects generated in the highly doped n-GaN. NiO cocatalyst improved the long-term stability of the photoanode because of GaN/NiO band alignment, enhancing hole transport into NiO and suppressing PEC corrosion mediated by hole crowding in GaN. This work established a design strategy for increasing the photocurrent as well as improving stability during water splitting with a GaN-based photoanode

  5. Enhancement of the CIGS solar cell's efficiency by anti-reflection coating with teflon AF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Hong-Sub; Kim, Chan; Rhee, Il-Su [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Hyun-Jun; Kim, Dae-Hwan [Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sung-Wook [Daegu University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    An anti-reflection (AR) layer of Teflon AF was deposited on the front surface of a Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) solar cell with a structure of grid/TCO/ZnO/CdS/Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2}/Mo/glass by using the spin coating method. This AR layer reduced the front-surface reflection, which resulted in high efficiency for the CIGS solar cell. The thickness of the Teflon AF layer was varied to determine the thickness that gave the highest transmittance of incident light into the active absorber of the CIGS solar cell. The optimum thickness of the Teflon AF layer was found to be 105 nm. CIGS solar cells with a Teflon AF layer of 105 nm were constructed, and their efficiencies were compared with those of solar cells without a Teflon AF layer. The average increase in the relative efficiency of the solar cells was 2.63% due to the inclusion of an anti-reflection layer of Teflon AF.

  6. Efficiency enhancement of perovskite solar cells by fabricating as-prepared film before sequential spin-coating procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Jiajia [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Materials and Technology for Energy Conversion, College of material science and technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 211100 (China); Tao, Hai jun, E-mail: taohaijun@nuaa.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Materials and Technology for Energy Conversion, College of material science and technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 211100 (China); Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Photovolatic Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164, Jiangsu (China); Chen, Shanlong; Tan, Bin [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Materials and Technology for Energy Conversion, College of material science and technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 211100 (China); Zhou, Ning [Shanghai Electrochemical Energy Devices Research Center, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhu, Lumin; Zhao, Yuan [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Materials and Technology for Energy Conversion, College of material science and technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 211100 (China); Wang, Yuqiao [Jiangsu Optoelectronic Functional Materials and Engineering Laboratory, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); Tao, Jie [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Materials and Technology for Energy Conversion, College of material science and technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 211100 (China)

    2016-05-15

    Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration of modified two-step spin-coating procedure for MAPbI{sub 3} perovskite thin films. - Highlights: • An as-prepared CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} and PbI{sub 2} film was introduced before the traditional two-step process. • Smooth morphology and trace amount of remaining PbI{sub 2} benefit the performance of solar cell. • The optimal as-prepared film introduced improves the efficiency of CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} solar cells from 9.11% to 11.16%. - Abstract: Sequential spin-coating procedure is a widely adopted strategy to prepare CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} on mesostructured TiO{sub 2} electrode for organolead halide perovskite-based solar cells. However, this method suffers from the rough surface and excessively residual PbI{sub 2} in the resulting perovskite film, deteriorating the device performance seriously. Herein, a facial modified sequential solution deposition method, by introducing an as-prepared CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} and PbI{sub 2} film before the traditional two-step process, was proposed to fabricate the perovskite-based solar cell with smooth morphology and trace amount of remaining PbI{sub 2}. The optimal as-prepared film introduced improves the efficiency of CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} solar cells from 9.11% to 11.16%. The enhancement of device performance can be attributed to the increased light absorption ability and decreased recombination rate of carriers in CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} absorber.

  7. Efficiency enhancement of perovskite solar cells by fabricating as-prepared film before sequential spin-coating procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Jiajia; Tao, Hai jun; Chen, Shanlong; Tan, Bin; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Lumin; Zhao, Yuan; Wang, Yuqiao; Tao, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration of modified two-step spin-coating procedure for MAPbI 3 perovskite thin films. - Highlights: • An as-prepared CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 and PbI 2 film was introduced before the traditional two-step process. • Smooth morphology and trace amount of remaining PbI 2 benefit the performance of solar cell. • The optimal as-prepared film introduced improves the efficiency of CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 solar cells from 9.11% to 11.16%. - Abstract: Sequential spin-coating procedure is a widely adopted strategy to prepare CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 on mesostructured TiO 2 electrode for organolead halide perovskite-based solar cells. However, this method suffers from the rough surface and excessively residual PbI 2 in the resulting perovskite film, deteriorating the device performance seriously. Herein, a facial modified sequential solution deposition method, by introducing an as-prepared CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 and PbI 2 film before the traditional two-step process, was proposed to fabricate the perovskite-based solar cell with smooth morphology and trace amount of remaining PbI 2 . The optimal as-prepared film introduced improves the efficiency of CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 solar cells from 9.11% to 11.16%. The enhancement of device performance can be attributed to the increased light absorption ability and decreased recombination rate of carriers in CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 absorber.

  8. Rapid and Efficient Protein Digestion using Trypsin Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles under Pressure Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byoungsoo; Lopez-Ferrer, Daniel; Kim, Byoung Chan; Na, Hyon Bin; Park, Yong Il; Weitz, Karl K.; Warner, Marvin G.; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Lee, Sang-Won; Smith, Richard D.; Kim, Jungbae

    2011-01-01

    Trypsin-coated magnetic nanoparticles (EC-TR/NPs), prepared via a simple crosslinking of the enzyme to magnetic nanoparticles, were highly stable and could be easily captured using a magnet after the digestion was complete. EC-TR/NPs showed a negligible loss of trypsin activity after multiple uses and continuous shaking, while a control sample of covalently-attached trypsin on NPs resulted in a rapid inactivation under the same conditions due to the denaturation and autolysis of trypsin. Digestions were carried out on a single model protein, a five protein mixture, and a whole mouse brain proteome, and also compared for digestion at atmospheric pressure and 37 ºC for 12 h, and in combination with pressure cycling technology (PCT) at room temperature for 1 min. In all cases, the EC-TR/NPs performed equally as well or better than free trypsin in terms of the number of peptide/protein identifications and reproducibility across technical replicates. However, the concomitant use of EC-TR/NPs and PCT resulted in very fast (~1 min) and more reproducible digestions.

  9. Single stage batch adsorber design for efficient Eosin yellow removal by polyaniline coated ligno-cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Sushanta; Ballav, Niladri; Maity, Arjun; Pillay, Kriveshini

    2015-01-01

    Polyaniline-coated lignin-based adsorbent (PLC) was synthesized and used for uptake of reactive dye eosin yellow (EY) from aqueous solution. The adsorption capability of the adsorbent was found to be more effective than the unmodified adsorbent (LC). In particular, the adsorption capability of the PLC was effective over a wider pH range. This could be owing to its higher point of zero charge, which is more favorable for the uptake of the anionic dye. Adsorption isotherm models suggested a monolayer adsorption was predominant. The mean free energy of adsorption (E(DR)) was found to have values between 8 and 16 kJ mol(-1) which suggests that an electrostatic mechanism of adsorption predominated over other underlying mechanisms. The adsorption process was also found to be spontaneous, with increasing negative free energy values observed at higher temperatures. Chemisorption process was supported by the changes in enthalpy above 40 kJ mol(-1) and by the results of desorption studies. This new adsorbent was also reusable and regenerable over four successive adsorption-desorption cycles. The single stage adsorber design revealed that PLC can be applicable as an effective biosorbent for the treatment of industrial effluents containing EY dye. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Investigation and evaluation of electron radiation damage on TiC and TiN protective coatings of Molybdenum for highly stressed first-wall components of fusion machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallura, E.; Hoven, H.; Koizlik, K.; Kny, E.

    1995-01-01

    The components of the plasma chamber of fusion reactors are subjected to the plasma wall interaction, a complex system of mechanical, thermal, and irradiation loadings. To investigate special modes of individual load processes (thermal shock, thermal fatigue, erosion) specific laboratory tests in an electron beam welding machine have been carried out. The materials Mo, Mo coated with TiC and with TiN, and bulk sintered TiC and TiN were examined in the tests. The 'post mortem' characterization of the material samples was done by secondary electron microscopy and metallography. One important aim was to determine critical loads as defined by the applied beam power density and the effective beam pulse duration, and to deduce from this load limit curves as a type of quantification of acceptable plasma wall interaction intensity. Below these load limits, Mo showed no induced material defects - neither in the uncoated nor in the coated quality. Above the critical heat load (100 MWm -2 ) severe melting occured in the surface of the uncoated as well as in the coated version - the TiC- and the TiN-coatings were completely eroded or vaporized in the molten crater. An influence of the coatings on the recrystallization of the Mo-melt was not detectable. Outside the molten area the coatings showed honeycombed cracking by thermal shock. In the case of bulk sintered TiC and TiN, marked thermal shock cracking appeared already after loadings with 10 MWm -2 and pulse duration of 0.1 sec. (author)

  11. Amine-functionalized MIL-53(Al)-coated stainless steel fiber for efficient solid-phase microextraction of synthetic musks and organochlorine pesticides in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lijun; Liu, Shuqin; Han, Zhubing; Jiang, Ruifen; Zhu, Fang; Xu, Weiqin; Su, Chengyong; Ouyang, Gangfeng

    2017-09-01

    The fiber coating is the key part of the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) technique, and it determines the sensitivity, selectivity, and repeatability of the analytical method. In this work, amine (NH 2 )-functionalized material of Institute Lavoisier (MIL)-53(Al) nanoparticles were successfully synthesized, characterized, and applied as the SPME fiber coating for efficient sample pretreatment owing to their unique structures and excellent adsorption properties. Under optimized conditions, the NH 2 -MIL-53(Al)-coated fiber showed good precision, low limits of detection (LODs) [0.025-0.83 ng L -1 for synthetic musks (SMs) and 0.051-0.97 ng L -1 for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs)], and good linearity. Experimental results showed that the NH 2 -MIL-53(Al) SPME coating was solvent resistant and thermostable. In addition, the extraction efficiencies of the NH 2 -MIL-53(Al) coating for SMs and OCPs were higher than those of commercially available SPME fiber coatings such as polydimethylsiloxane, polydimethylsiloxane-divinylbenzene, and polyacrylate. The reasons may be that the analytes are adsorbed on NH 2 -MIL-53(Al) primarily through π-π interactions, electron donor-electron acceptor interactions, and hydrogen bonds between the analytes and organic linkers of the material. Direct immersion (DI) SPME-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods based on NH 2 -MIL-53(Al) were successfully applied for the analysis of tap and river water samples. The recoveries were 80.3-115% for SMs and 77.4-117% for OCPs. These results indicate that the NH 2 -MIL-53(Al) coating may be a promising alternative to SPME coatings for the enrichment of SMs and OCPs.

  12. Lightweight concrete blocks with EVA recycled aggregate: a contribution to the thermal efficiency of building external walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Melo, A. B.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The regions with lots of shoe production suffer environmental impacts from waste generation during manufacturing of insoles and outsoles. Research conducted in Brazil has demonstrated the technical feasibility to recycle these wastes, especially Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA, as lightweight aggregate, in the production of non-structural cement blocks. This article presents an evaluation of thermal performance with measurements of temperature variation in mini walls (1 m2 built with different materials, including various kinds of EVA block and ceramic bricks. Tests have shown efficient thermal performance for masonry blocks with EVA. These results and supplementary estimates contribute to add value to the EVA block, considering that there are good expectations that the component, with the new geometry proposed, can contribute to the energy efficiency of buildings, highlighting its suitability to most Brazilian bioclimatic regions.Las regiones con una gran producción de calzado sufren impactos ambientales derivados de la generación de residuos durante la producción de plantillas y suelas. Investigaciones realizadas en Brasil han demostrado la viabilidad técnica para el reciclaje de estos residuos, especialmente el Etileno Vinil Acetato (EVA, como agregado ligero en la fabricación de bloques de hormigón no estructurales. Este trabajo presenta una evaluación del rendimiento térmico, con mediciones de la variación de la temperatura en pequeñas paredes (1 m2 construidas con diversos materiales, incluyendo algunos tipos de bloques EVA y ladrillos de cerámica. Las pruebas demostraron actuaciones térmicas eficientes para las muestras con bloques EVA. Estos resultados y cálculos adicionales contribuyen con un aporte de valor añadido al bloque EVA, considerando que existen buenas expectativas del componente, con una nueva propuesta de geometría, pudiendo contribuir a la eficiencia energética de edificios, especialmente por su adecuación a la

  13. Enhanced quantum efficiency for CsI grown on a graphite-based substrate coating

    CERN Document Server

    Friese, J; Homolka, J; Kastenmüller, A; Maier-Komor, P; Peter, M; Zeitelhack, K; Kienle, P; Körner, H J

    1999-01-01

    Quantum efficiencies (QE) in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) wavelength region have been measured for solid CsI layers on various substrates. The CsI films were deposited applying electron beam evaporation. The QE measurements were performed utilizing synchrotron radiation as well as light from a deuterium lamp. A GaAsP diode with a sensitivity calibration traceable to a primary radiation standard was used for normalization. For CsI layers grown on resin-stabilized graphite films a significant enhancement of QE was observed. Substrates suitable for gas detector applications and aging properties were investigated. The procedures to prepare and reproduce high quantum efficient CsI layers are described.

  14. Note: a novel vacuum ultraviolet light source assembly with aluminum-coated electrodes for enhancing the ionization efficiency of photoionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhixiang; Wang, Jian; Qiu, Keqing; Liu, Chengyuan; Qi, Fei; Pan, Yang

    2014-04-01

    A novel vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light source assembly (VUVLSA) for enhancing the ionization efficiency of photoionization mass spectrometer has been described. The VUVLSA composes of a Krypton lamp and a pair of disk electrodes with circular center cavities. The two interior surfaces that face the photoionization region were aluminum-coated. VUV light can be reflected back and forth in the photoionization region between the electrodes, thus the photoionization efficiency can be greatly enhanced. The performances of two different shaped electrodes, the coated double flat electrodes (DFE), and double conical electrodes, were studied. We showed that the signal amplification of coated DFE is around 4 times higher than that of uncoated electrodes without VUV light reflection. The relationship between the pressure of ionization chamber and mass signal enhancement has also been studied.

  15. Carbon nanotube and graphene nanoribbon-coated conductive Kevlar fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Changsheng; Lu, Wei; Zhu, Yu; Sun, Zhengzong; Yan, Zheng; Hwang, Chi-Chau; Tour, James M

    2012-01-01

    Conductive carbon material-coated Kevlar fibers were fabricated through layer-by-layer spray coating. Polyurethane was used as the interlayer between the Kevlar fiber and carbon materials to bind the carbon materials to the Kevlar fiber. Strongly adhering single-walled carbon nanotube coatings yielded a durable conductivity of 65 S/cm without significant mechanical degradation. In addition, the properties remained stable after bending or water washing cycles. The coated fibers were analyzed using scanning electron microcopy and a knot test. The as-produced fiber had a knot efficiency of 23%, which is more than four times higher than that of carbon fibers. The spray-coating of graphene nanoribbons onto Kevlar fibers was also investigated. These flexible coated-Kevlar fibers have the potential to be used for conductive wires in wearable electronics and battery-heated armors. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  16. Design of Polymer-Coated Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube/Carbon Black-based Fuel Cell Catalysts with High Durability and Performance Under Non-humidified Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zehui; Berber, Mohamed R.; Nakashima, Naotoshi

    2015-01-01

    To realize a high catalyst utilization, better fuel cell performance and durability as well as low production cost, an efficient design strategy of the catalyst layer that can improve both the oxygen accessibility and structure stability is highly required. Here, we describe the preparation of fuel cell electrocatalysts with an efficient fuel cell performance and better stability based on hybrids of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and carbon black (CB) which were wrapped by a proton conducting polymer, poly[2,2′-(2,6-pyridine)-5,5′-bibenzimidazole], before deposition of the platinum (Pt) metal catalyst. The catalyst mass activity after feeding only 10%-MWNTs to CB increased by 1.5 and 2 times than those of the MWNTs-based- and CB-based catalysts, respectively. The results also demonstrated that 90 wt% of the MWNTs in the catalyst layer allows it to be replaced by CB without any significant change in its durability and performance under 120 °C and non-humidified condition

  17. Magnetite nanoparticles coated with methoxy polyethylene glycol as an efficient adsorbent of diazinon pesticide from water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboubeh Saeidi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Methoxy polyethylene glycol modified magnetite nanoparticles (PEGMNs were synthesized and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM, and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The adsorption of diazinon onto PEGMNs was investigated by UV-Vis spectrophotometry at 236 nm, through batch experiments. The effects of adsorbent dosage, solution pH, contact time, solution temperature and water impurities on the adsorption of diazinon onto PEGMNs were investigated. The process of adsorption was increased rapidly in the first contact period of 10 min. The adsorption at equilibrium (qe was found to increase with increasing pH. The results of diazinon removal at various PEGMNs dosages demonstrated that the optimum dose of PEGMNs was 1mg. The amount of adsorption of diazinon at equilibrium increased with an increasing temperature from 15°C to 45°C that indicateds an endothermic process. Therefore, PEGMNs were used as an efficient absorbent for the removal of diazinon.

  18. MoS{sub 2}-coated microspheres of self-sensitized carbon nitride for efficient photocatalytic hydrogen generation under visible light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Quan [Key Laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an, 710062 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Sun, Huaming; Xie, Zunyuan; Gao, Ziwei [Key Laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an, 710062 (China); Xue, Can, E-mail: cxue@ntu.edu.sg [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Successful coating of MoS{sub 2} onto self-sensitized carbon nitride microspheres. • The carbon nitride@MoS{sub 2} core-shell structure show enhanced H{sub 2} generation in visible light. • Synergistic effect of surface dyes and MoS{sub 2} coating enhances photocatalytic activities. - Abstract: We have successfully coated the self-sensitized carbon nitride (SSCN) microspheres with a layer of MoS{sub 2} through a facile one-pot hydrothermal method by using (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}MoS{sub 4} as the precursor. The resulted MoS{sub 2}-coated SSCN photocatalyst appears as a core-shell structure and exhibits enhanced visible-light activities for photocatalytic H{sub 2} generation as compared to the un-coated SSCN and the standard g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} reference with MoS{sub 2} coating. The photocatalytic test results suggest that the oligomeric s-triazine dyes on the SSCN surface can provide additional light-harvesting capability and photogenerated charge carriers, and the coated MoS{sub 2} layer can serve as active sites for proton reduction towards H{sub 2} evolution. This synergistic effect of surface triazine dyes and MoS{sub 2} coating greatly promotes the activity of carbon nitride microspheres for vishible-light-driven H{sub 2} generation. This work provides a new way of future development of low-cost noble-metal-free photocatalysts for efficient solar-driven hydrogen production.

  19. Construction of mussel-inspired coating via the direct reaction of catechol and polyethyleneimine for efficient heparin immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yujie [School of Material Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); The Institute of Biomaterials and Surface Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Luo, Rifang, E-mail: lrifang@126.com [School of Material Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); The Institute of Biomaterials and Surface Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Shen, Fangyu; Tang, Linlin [School of Material Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); The Institute of Biomaterials and Surface Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Wang, Jin, E-mail: jinxxwang@263.net [School of Material Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); The Institute of Biomaterials and Surface Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Huang, Nan [School of Material Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); The Institute of Biomaterials and Surface Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Catechol (CA) and PEI copolymerization was a mimetic and dopamine-like coating method. • CA/PEI film provided amine groups and was effective in heparin immobilization. • CA/PEI coating could inhibit smooth muscle cell proliferation. • CA/PEI coating did not show any significant cytotoxicity to endothelial cell. - Abstract: Dopamine could self-polymerize to form the coating on various substrates and the co-existence of catechols and amines was crucial in performing such polymerization process. In this work, a mimetic approach of coating formation was carried out based on the co-polymerization of catechol (CA) and polyethyleneimine (PEI). Mussel-inspired CA/PEI coating was deposited on 316L stainless steel (SS). Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) demonstrated the successful coating formation. QCM measurement showed good affinity of heparin immobilization on CA/PEI coating surface ascribed to the amine groups. Herein, vascular cell-material interactions like endothelial cells (ECs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were also investigated. Interestingly, CA/PEI and heparin modified coatings presented no cytotoxicity to ECs, however to a certain extent, decreased SMCs proliferation. Moreover, heparin-binding surface presented significant anti-platelet adhesion and activation properties. These results effectively suggested that the mussel-inspired CA/PEI coating might be promising when served as a platform for biomolecule immobilization.

  20. Efficient intranuclear gene delivery by CdSe aqueous quantum dots electrostatically-coated with polyethyleneimine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Au, Giang H T; Shih, Wan Y; Shih, Wei-Heng

    2015-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) are semiconducting nanoparticles with photoluminescence properties that do not photobleach. Due to these advantages, using QDs for non-viral gene delivery has the additional benefit of being able to track the delivery of the genes in real time as it happens. We investigate the efficacy of mercaptopropionic acid (MPA)-capped CdSe aqueous quantum dots (AQDs) electrostatically complexed with branched polyethyleneimine (PEI) both as a non-viral gene delivery vector and as a fluorescent probe for tracking the delivery of genes into nuclei. The MPA-capped CdSe AQDs that were completely synthesized in water were the model AQDs. A nominal MPA:Cd:Se = 4:3:1 was chosen for optimal photoluminescence and zeta potential. The gene delivery study was carried out in vitro using a human colon cancer cell line, HT29 (ATCC). The model gene was a plasmid DNA (pDNA) that can express red fluorescent protein (RFP). Positively charged branched PEI was employed to provide a proton buffer to the AQDs to allow for endosomal escape. It is shown that by using a PEI-AQD complex with a PEI/AQD molar ratio of 300 and a nominal pDNA/PEI-AQD ratio of 6, we can achieve 75 ± 2.6% RFP expression efficiency with cell vitality remaining at 78 ± 4% of the control. (paper)

  1. The double-edged effects of annealing MgO underlayers on the efficient synthesis of single-wall carbon nanotube forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Takashi; Hata, Kenji; Futaba, Don N; Sakurai, Shunsuke

    2017-11-16

    Recently, the millimetre-scale, highly efficient synthesis of single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) forests from Fe catalysts has been reported through the annealing of the magnesia (MgO) underlayer. Here, we report the double-edged effects of underlayer annealing on the efficiency and structure of the SWCNT forest synthesis through a temperature-dependent examination. Our results showed that the efficiency of the SWCNT forests sharply increased with increased underlayer annealing temperatures from 600 °C up to 900 °C due to a temperature-dependent structural modification, characterized by increased grain size and reduced defects, of the MgO underlayer. Beyond this temperature, the SWCNT fraction also decreased as a result of further structural modification of the MgO underlayer. This exemplifies the double-edged effects of annealing. Specifically, for underlayer annealing below 600 °C, the catalyst subsurface diffusion was found to limit the growth efficiency, and for excessively high underlayer annealing temperatures (>900 °C), catalyst coalescence/ripening led to the formation of double-wall carbon nanotubes. As a result, three distinct regions of synthesis were observed: (i) a "low yield" region below a threshold temperature (∼600 °C); (ii) an "increased yield" region from 600 to 900 °C, and (iii) a "saturation" region above 900 °C. The efficient SWCNT forest synthesis could only occur within a specific annealing temperature window as a result of this double-edged effects of underlayer annealing.

  2. SERS efficiencies of micrometric polystyrene beads coated with gold and silver nanoparticles: the effect of nanoparticle size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mir-Simon, Bernat; Morla-Folch, Judit; Pazos-Perez, Nicolas; Xie, Hai-nan; Alvarez-Puebla, Ramon A; Guerrini, Luca; Gisbert-Quilis, Patricia; Bastús, Neus G; Puntes, Víctor

    2015-01-01

    Rapid advances in nanofabrication techniques of reproducibly manufacturing plasmonic substrates with well-defined nanometric scale features and very large electromagnetic enhancements paved the way for the final translation of the analytical potential of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) to real applications. A vast number of different SERS substrates have been reported in the literature. Among others, discrete particles consisting of an inorganic micrometric or sub-micrometric core homogeneously coated with plasmonic nanoparticles stand out for their ease of fabrication, excellent SERS enhancing properties, long-term optical stability and remarkable experimental flexibility (manipulation, storage etc). In this article, we performed a systematic experimental study of the correlation between the size of quasi-spherical gold and silver nanoparticle and the final optical property of their corresponding assembles onto micrometric polystyrene (PS) beads. The size and composition of nanoparticles play a key role in tuning the SERS efficiency of the hybrid material at a given excitation wavelength. This study provides valuable information for the selection and optimization of the appropriate PS@NPs substrates for the desired applications. (invited article)

  3. Exclusive Hydrogen Generation by Electrocatalysts Coated with an Amorphous Chromium-Based Layer Achieving Efficient Overall Water Splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Qureshi, Muhammad

    2017-08-08

    Successful conversion of renewable energy to useful chemicals requires efficient devices that can electrocatalyze or photocatalyze redox reactions, e.g., overall water splitting. Excellent electrocatalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), such as Pt, can also cause other side-reactions, including the water-forming back-reaction from H2 and O2 products. A Cr-based amorphous layer coated on catalysts can work as a successful surface modifier that avoids the back-reaction, but its capabilities and limitations toward other species have not been studied. Herein, we investigated the Cr-based layer on Pt from perspectives of both electrocatalysis and photocatalysis using redox-active molecules/ions (O2, ferricyanide, IO3–, S2O82–, H2O2, and CO gas). Our systematic study revealed that utilization of the Cr-based layer realized an exclusive cathodic reaction only to HER, even in the presence of the aforementioned reactive species, suggesting that Cr-based layers work as membranes, as well as corrosion and poison inhibition layers. However, the Cr-based layer experienced self-oxidation and dissolved into the aqueous phase when a strong oxidizing agent or low pH was present. Presented herein are fundamental and critical aspects of the Cr-based modifier, which is essential for the successful and practical development of solar fuel production systems.

  4. Exclusive Hydrogen Generation by Electrocatalysts Coated with an Amorphous Chromium-Based Layer Achieving Efficient Overall Water Splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Qureshi, Muhammad; Shinagawa, Tatsuya; Tsiapis, Nikolaos; Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Successful conversion of renewable energy to useful chemicals requires efficient devices that can electrocatalyze or photocatalyze redox reactions, e.g., overall water splitting. Excellent electrocatalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), such as Pt, can also cause other side-reactions, including the water-forming back-reaction from H2 and O2 products. A Cr-based amorphous layer coated on catalysts can work as a successful surface modifier that avoids the back-reaction, but its capabilities and limitations toward other species have not been studied. Herein, we investigated the Cr-based layer on Pt from perspectives of both electrocatalysis and photocatalysis using redox-active molecules/ions (O2, ferricyanide, IO3–, S2O82–, H2O2, and CO gas). Our systematic study revealed that utilization of the Cr-based layer realized an exclusive cathodic reaction only to HER, even in the presence of the aforementioned reactive species, suggesting that Cr-based layers work as membranes, as well as corrosion and poison inhibition layers. However, the Cr-based layer experienced self-oxidation and dissolved into the aqueous phase when a strong oxidizing agent or low pH was present. Presented herein are fundamental and critical aspects of the Cr-based modifier, which is essential for the successful and practical development of solar fuel production systems.

  5. High-resolution 3D coronary vessel wall imaging with near 100% respiratory efficiency using epicardial fat tracking: reproducibility and comparison with standard methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Andrew D; Keegan, Jennifer; Firmin, David N

    2011-01-01

    To quantitatively assess the performance and reproducibility of 3D spiral coronary artery wall imaging with beat-to-beat respiratory-motion-correction (B2B-RMC) compared to navigator gated 2D spiral and turbo-spin-echo (TSE) acquisitions. High-resolution (0.7 × 0.7 mm) cross-sectional right coronary wall acquisitions were performed in 10 subjects using four techniques (B2B-RMC 3D spiral with alternate (2RR) and single (1RR) R-wave gating, navigator-gated 2D spiral (2RR) and navigator-gated 2D TSE (2RR)) on two occasions. Wall thickness measurements were compared with repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Reproducibility was assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). In all, 91% (73/80) of acquisitions were successful (failures: four TSE, two 3D spiral (1RR) and one 3D spiral (2RR)). Respiratory efficiency of the B2B-RMC was less variable and substantially higher than for navigator gating (99.6 ± 1.2% vs. 39.0 ± 7.5%, P B2B-RMC permits coronary vessel wall assessment over multiple thin contiguous slices in a clinically feasible duration. Excellent reproducibility of the technique potentially enables studies of disease progression/regression. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Towards improving the efficiency of blowing through a permeable wall and prospects of its use for a flow control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornilov, V. I.; Boiko, A. V.

    2016-10-01

    Modern achievements, status, and prospects of studies on reducing the turbulent friction and aerodynamic drag with the help of the blowing through a permeable wall are discussed. The main focus is placed upon a physical modeling of the process of boundary layer blowing in the framework of the dimensional theory, a critical analysis of experimental and numerical results for different conditions of air blowing through a high-tech finely perforated wall including the case of external-pressure-flow air supply in wind tunnel, and elicitation of the physical mechanisms responsible for the reduction of turbulent friction at flow-exposed surfaces. It is shown that the use of air supply through the micro-perforated wall with low effective roughness, which is manufactured in compliance with the highest necessary requirements to quality and geometry of orifices, is quite a justified means for easy, affordable, and reliable control of near-wall turbulent flows in laboratory experiment and numerical simulation. This approach can provide a sustained reduction of local skin friction coefficient along flat plate, which in some cases reaches 90%. At the request of all authors of the paper and with the agreement of the Proceedings Editor, an updated version of this article was published on 26 October 2016. The original version supplied to AIP Publishing contained a misrepresentation in Figure 1. This has been corrected in the updated and republished article.

  7. Memory effect, resolution, and efficiency measurements of an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coated plastic scintillator used for radioxenon detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bläckberg, L., E-mail: lisa.blackberg@physics.uu.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Fritioff, T.; Mårtensson, L.; Nielsen, F.; Ringbom, A. [Division of Defence and Security Systems, Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), SE-17290 Stockholm (Sweden); Sjöstrand, H.; Klintenberg, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2013-06-21

    A cylindrical plastic scintillator cell, used for radioxenon monitoring within the verification regime of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, has been coated with 425 nm Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} using low temperature Atomic Layer Deposition, and its performance has been evaluated. The motivation is to reduce the memory effect caused by radioxenon diffusing into the plastic scintillator material during measurements, resulting in an elevated detection limit. Measurements with the coated detector show both energy resolution and efficiency comparable to uncoated detectors, and a memory effect reduction of a factor of 1000. Provided that the quality of the detector is maintained for a longer period of time, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coatings are believed to be a viable solution to the memory effect problem in question.

  8. Cobalt oxide nanoparticles as a novel high-efficiency fiber coating for solid phase microextraction of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene from aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gholivand, Mohammad Bagher; Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Shamizadeh, Mohammad; Moradian, Rostam; Astinchap, Bandar

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles were introduced as a novel SPME fiber coating. • The fiber was evaluated for the extraction of BTEX in combination with GC–MS. • The fiber showed extraction efficiencies better than a PDMS fiber toward BTEX. • The fiber was successfully applied to the determination of BTEX in real samples. - Abstract: In this work cobalt oxide nanoparticles were introduced for preparation of a novel solid phase microextraction (SPME) fiber coating. Chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique was used in order for synthesis and immobilization of the Co 3 O 4 nanomaterials on a Pt wire for fabrication of SPME fiber. The prepared cobalt oxide coating was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The fiber was evaluated for the extraction of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) in combination with GC–MS. A simplex optimization method was used to optimize the factors affecting the extraction efficiency. Under optimized conditions, the proposed fiber showed extraction efficiencies comparable to those of a commercial polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fiber toward the BTEX compounds. The repeatability of the fiber and its reproducibility, expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD), were lower than about 11%. No significant change was observed in the extraction efficiency of the new SPME fiber after over 50 extractions. The fiber was successfully applied to the determination of BTEX compounds in real samples. The proposed nanostructure cobalt oxide fiber is a promising alternative to the commercial fibers as it is robust, inexpensive and easily prepared

  9. Efficiency enhancement of polymer solar cells by applying poly(vinylpyrrolidone) as a cathode buffer layer via spin coating or self-assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haitao; Zhang, Wenfeng; Xu, Chenhui; Bi, Xianghong; Chen, Boxue; Yang, Shangfeng

    2013-01-01

    A non-conjugated polymer poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) was applied as a new cathode buffer layer in P3HT:PCBM bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells (BHJ-PSCs), by means of either spin coating or self-assembly, resulting in significant efficiency enhancement. For the case of incorporation of PVP by spin coating, power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM/PVP/Al BHJ-PSC device (3.90%) is enhanced by 29% under the optimum PVP spin-coating speed of 3000 rpm, which leads to the optimum thickness of PVP layer of ~3 nm. Such an efficiency enhancement is found to be primarily due to the increase of the short-circuit current (J(sc)) (31% enhancement), suggesting that the charge collection increases upon the incorporation of a PVP cathode buffer layer, which originates from the conjunct effects of the formation of a dipole layer between P3HT:PCBM active layer and Al electrodes, the chemical reactions of PVP molecules with Al atoms, and the increase of the roughness of the top Al film. Incorporation of PVP layer by doping PVP directly into the P3HT:PCBM active layer leads to an enhancement of PCE by 13% under the optimum PVP doping ratio of 3%, and this is interpreted by the migration of PVP molecules to the surface of the active layer via self-assembly, resulting in the formation of the PVP cathode buffer layer. While the formation of the PVP cathode buffer layer is fulfilled by both fabrication methods (spin coating and self-assembly), the dependence of the enhancement of the device performance on the thickness of the PVP cathode buffer layer formed by self-assembly or spin coating is different, because of the different aggregation microstructures of the PVP interlayer.

  10. Graphene deposited onto aligned zinc oxide nanorods as an efficient coating for headspace solid-phase microextraction of gasoline fractions from oil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Congying; Li, Mengmeng; Li, Wangbo; Li, Zizhou; Duan, Wei; Li, Yulong; Zhou, Jie; Li, Xiyou; Zeng, Jingbin

    2017-12-29

    The content of gasoline fraction in oil samples is not only an important indicator of oil quality, but also an indispensable fundamental data for oil refining and processing. Before its determination, efficient preconcentration and separation of gasoline fractions from complicated matrices is essential. In this work, a thin layer of graphene (G) was deposited onto oriented ZnO nanorods (ZNRs) as a SPME coating. By this approach, the surface area of G was greatly enhanced by the aligned ZNRs, and the surface polarity of ZNRs was changed from polar to less polar, which were both beneficial for the extraction of gasoline fractions. In addition, the ZNRs were well protected by the mechanically and chemically stable G, making the coating highly durable for use. With headspace SPME (HS-SPME) mode, the G/ZNRs coating can effectively extract gasoline fractions from various oil samples, whose extraction efficiency achieved 1.5-5.4 and 2.1-8.2 times higher than those of a G and commercial 7-μm PDMS coating respectively. Coupled with GC-FID, the developed method is sensitive, simple, cost effective and easily accessible for the analysis of gasoline fractions. Moreover, the method is also feasible for the detection of gasoline markers in simulated oil-polluted water, which provides an option for the monitoring of oil spill accident. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Modification of polydopamine-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles with multi-walled carbon nanotubes for magnetic-μ-dispersive solid-phase extraction of antiepileptic drugs in biological matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruiqi; Wang, Siming; Yang, Ye; Deng, Yulan; Li, Di; Su, Ping; Yang, Yi

    2018-06-01

    In this study, multi-walled carbon nanotubes were coated on the surface of magnetic nanoparticles modified by polydopamine. The synthesized composite was characterized and applied to magnetic-μ-dispersive solid-phase extraction of oxcarbazepine (OXC), phenytoin (PHT), and carbamazepine (CBZ) from human plasma, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid samples prior to analysis by a high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector. The extraction parameters were investigated and the optimum condition was obtained when the variables were set to the following: sorbent type, Fe 3 O 4 @polyDA-MWCNTs (length Graphical abstract Magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotube core-shell composites were applied as magnetic-μ-dispersive solid-phase extraction adsorbents for determination of antiepileptic drugs in biological matrices.

  12. Evaluation of the Efficiency of Different Disruption Methods on Yeast Cell Wall Preparation for β-Glucan Isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bzducha-Wróbel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Selected methods for yeast cell disruption were evaluated to establish their suitability for cell wall preparation in the process of β-glucan isolation. The effect of different disruption methods on contents of total saccharides, β-glucans and proteins in the produced cell walls preparations was analyzed. The degree of cell wall purification from intracellular components was established on the basis of the ratio of solubilised material. The investigated methods included: cell exposure to hot water (autoclaving, thermally-induced autolysis, homogenization in a bead mill, sonication and their combinations. Experimental systems were prepared in water (pH 5.0 and pH 7.0 and Tris-HCl buffer (pH 8.0. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cell wall preparations with the highest degree of cytosol component release and purification of β-glucans were produced by 30 min of cell homogenization with zirconium-glass beads (0.5 mm in diameter. This was confirmed by the highest ratio of solubilised material (approx. 64%–67%. The thus-produced preparations contained ca. 60% of total saccharides, 13%–14% of β(1,3/(1,6-glucans, and approx. 35% of crude proteins. Similar results were obtained after autolysis coupled with bead milling as well as with sonication, but the time required for these processes was more than 24 h. Homogenization in a bead mill could be valuable for general isolation procedures because allows one to eliminate the different autolytic activity of various yeast strains.

  13. Cationic lipid-coated PEI/DNA polyplexes with improved efficiency and reduced cytotoxicity for gene delivery into mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song HM

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Hongmei Song, Gang Wang, Bin He, Li Li, Caixia Li, Yusi Lai, Xianghui Xu, Zhongwei GuNational Engineering Research Center for Biomaterials, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, People's Republic of ChinaBackground: Effective gene transfection without serum deprivation is a prerequisite for successful stem cell-based gene therapy. Polyethylenimine (PEI is an efficient nonviral gene vector, but its application has been hindered by serum sensitivity and severe cytotoxicity.Methods: To solve this problem, a new family of lipopolyplexes was developed by coating PEI/DNA polyplexes with three serum-resistant cationic lipids, namely, lysinylated, histidylated, and arginylated cholesterol. The physical properties, transfection efficiency, cellular uptake, subcellular distribution, and cytotoxicity of the lipopolyplexes was investigated.Results: The outer coat composed of lysinylated or histidylated cholesterol remarkably improved the transfection efficiency of the polyplex with a low PEI/DNA ratio of 2 in the presence of serum. The resulting lysinylated and histidylated cholesterol lipopolyplexes were even more efficient than the best performing polyplex with a high PEI/DNA ratio of 10. Results from cellular uptake and subcellular distribution studies suggest that their higher transfection efficiency may result from accelerated DNA nuclear localization. The superiority of the lipopolyplexes over the best performing polyplex was also confirmed by delivering the therapeutic gene, hVEGF165. Equally importantly, the lipid coating removed the necessity of introducing excess free PEI chains into the transfection solution for higher efficiency, generating lipopolyplexes with no signs of cytotoxicity.Conclusion: Noncovalent modification of polyplexes with lysinylated and histidylated cholesterol lipids can simultaneously improve efficiency and reduce the toxicity of gene delivery under serum conditions, showing great promise for genetic modification of bone

  14. Enhancement of the efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cell with multi-wall carbon nanotubes/polypyrrole composite counter electrodes prepared by electrophoresis/electrochemical polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Jun; Niu, Hai-jun; Wen, Hai-lin; Wu, Wen-jun; Zhao, Ping; Wang, Cheng; Bai, Xu-duo; Wang, Wen

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The overall energy conversion efficiency of the DSSC employing the MWCNT/PPy CE reached 3.78%. Compared with a reference DSSC using single MWCNT film CE with efficiency of 2.68%, the energy conversion efficiency was increased by 41.04%. Highlights: ► MWCNT/PPy composite film prepared by electrodeposition layer by layer was used as counter electrode in DSSC. ► The overall energy conversion efficiency of the DSSC was 3.78% by employing the composite film. ► The energy conversion efficiency increased by 41.04% compared with efficiency of 2.68% by using the single MWCNT film. ► We analyzed the mechanism and influence factor of electron transfer in the composite electrode by EIS. - Abstract: For the purpose of replacing the precious Pt counter electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with higher energy conversion efficiency, multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/polypyrrole (PPy) double layers film counter electrode (CE) was fabricated by electrophoresis and cyclic voltammetry (CV) layer by layer. Atom force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) demonstrated the morphologies of the composite electrode and Raman spectroscopy verified the PPy had come into being. The overall energy conversion efficiency of the DSSC employing the MWCNT/PPy CE reached 3.78%. Compared with a reference DSSC using single MWCNT film CE with efficiency of 2.68%, the energy conversion efficiency was increased by 41.04%. The result of impedance showed that the charge transfer resistance R ct of the MWCNT/PPy CE had the lowest value compared to that of MWCNT or PPy electrode. These results indicate that the composite film with high conductivity, high active surface area, and good catalytic properties for I 3 − reduction can potentially be used as the CE in a high-performance DSSC

  15. Enhancement of the efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cell with multi-wall carbon nanotubes/polypyrrole composite counter electrodes prepared by electrophoresis/electrochemical polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Jun; Niu, Hai-jun; Wen, Hai-lin [Key Laboratory of Functional Inorganic Material Chemistry (Heilongjiang University), Ministry of Education, Department of Macromolecular Material and Engineering, Heilongjiang University, Harbin 150086 (China); Wu, Wen-jun; Zhao, Ping [Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials and Institute of Fine Chemicals, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Wang, Cheng; Bai, Xu-duo [Key Laboratory of Functional Inorganic Material Chemistry (Heilongjiang University), Ministry of Education, Department of Macromolecular Material and Engineering, Heilongjiang University, Harbin 150086 (China); Wang, Wen, E-mail: haijunniu@hotmail.com [School of Material Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080 (China)

    2013-03-15

    Graphical abstract: The overall energy conversion efficiency of the DSSC employing the MWCNT/PPy CE reached 3.78%. Compared with a reference DSSC using single MWCNT film CE with efficiency of 2.68%, the energy conversion efficiency was increased by 41.04%. Highlights: ► MWCNT/PPy composite film prepared by electrodeposition layer by layer was used as counter electrode in DSSC. ► The overall energy conversion efficiency of the DSSC was 3.78% by employing the composite film. ► The energy conversion efficiency increased by 41.04% compared with efficiency of 2.68% by using the single MWCNT film. ► We analyzed the mechanism and influence factor of electron transfer in the composite electrode by EIS. - Abstract: For the purpose of replacing the precious Pt counter electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with higher energy conversion efficiency, multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/polypyrrole (PPy) double layers film counter electrode (CE) was fabricated by electrophoresis and cyclic voltammetry (CV) layer by layer. Atom force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) demonstrated the morphologies of the composite electrode and Raman spectroscopy verified the PPy had come into being. The overall energy conversion efficiency of the DSSC employing the MWCNT/PPy CE reached 3.78%. Compared with a reference DSSC using single MWCNT film CE with efficiency of 2.68%, the energy conversion efficiency was increased by 41.04%. The result of impedance showed that the charge transfer resistance R{sub ct} of the MWCNT/PPy CE had the lowest value compared to that of MWCNT or PPy electrode. These results indicate that the composite film with high conductivity, high active surface area, and good catalytic properties for I{sub 3}{sup −} reduction can potentially be used as the CE in a high-performance DSSC.

  16. Application of Response Surface Methodology for Optimization of Urea Grafted Multi walled Carbon Nano tubes in Enhancing Nitrogen Use Efficiency and Nitrogen Uptake by Paddy Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatim, N. M.; Shaaban, A.; Dimin, M. F.; Yusof, F.; Abo Razak, J.

    2016-01-01

    Efficient use of urea fertilizer (UF) as important nitrogen (N) source in the world’s rice production has been a concern. Carbon-based materials developed to improve UF performance still represent a great challenge to be formulated for plant nutrition. Advanced N nano carrier is developed based on functionalized multi wall carbon nano tubes (f-MWCNTs) grafted with UF to produce urea-multi wall carbon nano tubes (UF-MWCNTs) for enhancing the nitrogen uptake (NU) and use efficiency (NUE). The grafted N can be absorbed and utilized by rice efficiently to overcome the N loss from soil-plant systems. The individual and interaction effect between the specified factors of f-MWCNTs amount (0.10-0.60 wt%) and functionalization reflux time (12-24 hrs) with the corresponding responses (NUE, NU) were structured via the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) based on five-level CCD. The UF-MWCNTs with optimized 0.5 wt% f-MWCNTs treated at 21 hrs reflux time achieve tremendous NUE up to 96% and NU at 1180 mg/pot. Significant model terms (Þ value < 0.05) for NUE and NU responses were confirmed by the ANOVA. Homogeneous dispersion of UF-MWCNTs was observed via FESEM and TEM. The chemical changes were monitored by FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy. Hence, this UF-MWCNTs’ approach provides a promising strategy in enhancing plant nutrition for rice.

  17. Fast switching and signature of efficient domain wall motion driven by spin-orbit torques in a perpendicular anisotropy magnetic insulator/Pt bilayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Can Onur; Rosenberg, Ethan; Baumgartner, Manuel; Beran, Lukáš; Quindeau, Andy; Gambardella, Pietro; Ross, Caroline A.; Beach, Geoffrey S. D.

    2017-08-01

    We report fast and efficient current-induced switching of a perpendicular anisotropy magnetic insulator thulium iron garnet by using spin-orbit torques (SOT) from the Pt overlayer. We first show that, with quasi-DC (10 ms) current pulses, SOT-induced switching can be achieved with an external field as low as 2 Oe, making TmIG an outstanding candidate to realize efficient switching in heterostructures that produce moderate stray fields without requiring an external field. We then demonstrate deterministic switching with fast current pulses (≤20 ns) with an amplitude of ˜1012 A/m2, similar to all-metallic structures. We reveal that, in the presence of an initially nucleated domain, the critical switching current is reduced by up to a factor of five with respect to the fully saturated initial state, implying efficient current-driven domain wall motion in this system. Based on measurements with 2 ns-long pulses, we estimate the domain wall velocity of the order of ˜400 m/s per j = 1012 A/m2.

  18. Synthesis and application of novel ion-imprinted polymer coated magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes for selective solid phase extraction of lead(II) ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayazi, Maryam, E-mail: maryam.fayazi@yahoo.com [Mineral Industries Research Center, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Young Researchers Society, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Taher, Mohammad Ali [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Afzali, Daryoush [Department of Environment, Institute of Science and High Technology and Environmental Sciences, Graduate University of Advanced Technology, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mostafavi, Ali [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghanei-Motlagh, Masoud, E-mail: m.ghaneimotlagh@yahoo.com [Young Researchers Society, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-03-01

    In this study, novel magnetic ion-imprinted polymer (MIIP) nanoparticles were utilized for the sensitive and selective detection of Pb(II) ions by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). The Pb(II)-imprinted polymer was synthesized by using 4-vinylpyridine (4VP) as the functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as the cross-linker, 2,3,5,6-tetra(2-pyridyl) pyrazine (TPPZ) as the chelating agent and magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MMWCNTs) as the carrier. The synthesized MIIP materials were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Various analytical parameters such as extraction and desorption time, eluent type and concentration, pH and sample volume were systematically examined. The selectivity of MIIP sorbent for Pb(II) ions in the presence of some cations was also evaluated. The limit of detection (LOD, 3S{sub b}) and the relative standard deviation (RSD, n = 8, c = 25 ng L{sup −1}) were found to be 2.4 ng L{sup −1} and 5.6%, respectively. The maximum sorption capacity of the MIIP for Pb(II) was found to be 48.1 mg g{sup −1}. Finally, the proposed analytical procedure was successfully applied to monitoring lead in human hair and water samples with satisfactory results for the spiked samples. - Highlights: • A selective and sensitive method based on MSPE-GFAAS was proposed. • The MIIP nanoparticles were characterized using FE-SEM, XRD, VSM and FT-IR techniques. • The synthesized MIIP material is efficient at extracting lead ions. • The method was applied to determine lead ions in several real samples.

  19. Efficiency calibration of the first multilayer-coated holographic ion-etched flight grating for a sounding rocket high-resolution spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, M P; Barbee, T W; Heidemann, K F; Gursky, H; Rife, J C; Hunter, W R; Fritz, G G; Cruddace, R G

    1999-11-01

    We have fabricated the four flight gratings for a sounding rocket high-resolution spectrometer using a holographic ion-etching technique. The gratings are spherical (4000-mm radius of curvature), large (160 mm x 90 mm), and have a laminar groove profile of high density (3600 grooves/mm). They have been coated with a high-reflectance multilayer of Mo/Si. Using an atomic force microscope, we examined the surface characteristics of the first grating before and after multilayer coating. The average roughness is approximately 3 A rms after coating. Using synchrotron radiation, we completed an efficiency calibration map over the wavelength range 225-245 A. At an angle of incidence of 5 degrees and a wavelength of 234 A, the average efficiency in the first inside order is 10.4 +/- 0.5%, and the derived groove efficiency is 34.8 +/- 1.6%. These values exceed all previously published results for a high-density grating.

  20. Protection by high velocity thermal spraying coatings on thick walled permanent and interim store components for the diminution of repairs, corrosion and costs 'SHARK'. Overview at the end of the project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, Sabine; Hassel, Thomas; Bach, Friedrich-Wilhelm

    2012-01-01

    The corrosion protection of the internal space of thick-walled interim and permanent storage facility components, such as Castor copyright containers, are ensured nowadays by a galvanic nickel layer. The method has proved itself and protects the base material of the containers at the underwater loading in the Nuclear power station from a corrosive attack. Although, the galvanic nickel plating is a relatively time consuming method, it lasts for several days for each container, and is with a layer thickness of 1,000 μm also expensive. To develop an alternative, faster and more economical method, a BMBF research project named - 'SHARK - protection by high velocity thermal spraying layers on thick-walled permanent and interim store components for the diminution of repairs, corrosion and costs' in cooperation between Siempelkamp Nukleartechnik GmbH and the Institute of Materials Science of the Leibniz University of Hanover was established to investigate the suitability of the high velocity oxy fuel spraying technology (HVOF) for the corrosion protective coating of thickwalled interim and permanent storage facility components. Since the permanent storage depot components are manufactured from cast iron with globular graphite, this material was exclusively used as a base material in this project. The evaluation of the economical features of the application of different nickel base spraying materials on cast iron substratum was in focus, as well as the scientific characterization of the coating systems with regard to the corrosion protective properties. Furthermore, the feasibility of the transfer of the laboratory results on a large industrial setup as well as a general suitability of the coating process for a required repair procedure was to be investigated. The preliminary examination program identified chromium containing spraying materials as successful. Results of the preliminary examination program have been used for investigations with the CASOIK demonstration

  1. Comparison of particle-wall interaction boundary conditions in the prediction of cyclone collection efficiency in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valverde Ramirez, M.; Coury, J.R.; Goncalves, J.A.S.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, many computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies have appeared attempting to predict cyclone pressure drop and collection efficiency. While these studies have been able to predict pressure drop well, they have been only moderately successful in predicting collection efficiency. Part of the reason for this failure has been attributed to the relatively simple wall boundary conditions implemented in the commercially available CFD software, which are not capable of accurately describing the complex particle-wall interaction present in a cyclone. According, researches have proposed a number of different boundary conditions in order to improve the model performance. This work implemented the critical velocity boundary condition through a user defined function (UDF) in the Fluent software and compared its predictions both with experimental data and with the predictions obtained when using Fluent's built-in boundary conditions. Experimental data was obtained from eight laboratory scale cyclones with varying geometric ratios. The CFD simulations were made using the software Fluent 6.3.26. (author)

  2. Transient heat conduction in multi-layer walls: An efficient strategy for Laplace's method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maestre, Ismael R.; Cubillas, Paloma R. [Escuela Politecnica Superior de Algeciras, University of Cadiz, Algeciras (Spain); Perez-Lombard, Luis [Escuela Superior de Ingenieros, University of Seville (Spain)

    2010-04-15

    Enhancing load calculation tools into building simulation programs requires an in-depth revision and fine tuning of the load calculation assumptions prior to the addition of the HVAC system modelling routines. It is of special interest the analysis of transient heat conduction through multi-layer walls where, in order to improve the coupling between the passive elements of the building and the HVAC systems, an improvement of the time resolution in the calculation becomes critical. Several methods have been historically used, although recently Laplace's method has been displaced by the State Space method. This paper proposes a new strategy for fine time resolution on the calculation of the response factors through Laplace's method considering a comparison with the performance of the State Space method when used to calculate conduction transfer functions. Our analysis shows that in order to achieve similar accuracy with both approaches, the State Space method requires significant additional computational time. (author)

  3. Synthesis and simulation of efficient divided wall column sequences for bioethanol recovery and purification from an actual lignocellulosic fermentation broth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres-Ortega, Carlo Edgar; Rong, Ben-Guang

    2016-01-01

    Actual lignocellulosic fermentation broth has intrinsic multiphase and multicomponent nature and calls for complex separation systems in both bioethanol recovery and purification [Torres-Ortega, C. E.; Rong, B.-G. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2016, 55, 210]. In this work, we present the synthesis...... of column sections as novel synthesis approaches to formulate hybrid units and divided wall columns. Rigorous simulation in Aspen Plus V8.0 was used to simulate the intensified separation systems. The new intensified alternatives achieved relevant savings, ranging from 17 to 23% in TAC (total annual costs......), and ranging from 18 to 28% in TEC (total energy consumption). Moreover, reduction of the number of separation units varied from the original eight units down to three units. Finally, we performed a sensitivity analysis varying the bioethanol concentration in the fermentation broth between the reference case...

  4. Synthesis and Characterization of Antireflective ZnO Nanoparticles Coatings Used for Energy Improving Efficiency of Silicone Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pîslaru-Dǎnescu, Lucian; Chitanu, Elena; El-Leathey, Lucia-Andreea; Marinescu, Virgil; Marin, Dorian; Sbârcea, Beatrice-Gabriela

    2018-03-01

    The paper proposes a new and complex process for the synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles for antireflective coating corresponding to silicone solar cells applications. The process consists of two major steps: preparation of seed layer and hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanoparticles. Due to the fact that the seed layer morphology influences the ZnO nanoparticles proprieties, the process optimization of the seed layer preparation is necessary. Following the hydrothermal growth of the ZnO nanoparticles, antireflective coating of silicone solar cells is achieved. After determining the functional parameters of the solar cells provided either with glass or with ZnO, it is concluded that all the parameters values are superior in the case of solar cells with ZnO antireflection coating and are increasing along with the solar irradiance.

  5. Pd nanoparticles immobilized on carbon nanotubes with a polyaniline coaxial coating for the Heck reaction: coating thickness as the key factor influencing the efficiency and stability of the catalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Rui; Liu, Rui; Deng, Jie; Ran, Maofei; Wang, Ning; Chu, Wei; He, Zhiwei; Du, Zheng; Jiang, Chengfa; Sun, Wenjing

    2018-01-01

    Pd nanoparticles (NPs) supported on polyaniline (PANI)-coated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were synthesized using a low-cost and simple method for application in the Heck reaction. The effects of the PANI/CNT coating weight ratio on the catalytic stability and recyclability of the composite were determined by using a combination of experimental and computational methods. The results show that through coordination of the N-species in PANI with the Pd NPs, the nitrogen-rich PANI@CNT provides a strong support for the Pd NPs. The thickness of the PANI layer is the key in determining the stability of the catalyst. PANI becomes protonated in the presence of CNTs, as electron transfer from the former to the latter creates strong interactions between the two. Thus, PANI becomes more stable in nanocomposites with a higher CNT content, e.g., PANI/CNT = 0.5 : 1. The catalyst with a PANI/CNT ratio of 0.5 : 1 exhibited the best recycling performance, and only a small loss of activity was observed after 10 cycles. However, upon increasing the PANI content (e.g., PANI/CNT = 4 : 1), the PANI units tend to form bulk structures that are less stable than those that wrap around the CNTs. Such a structure is unstable; therefore, the PANI layers can easily deform or break away from the CNT backbones. Hence, these catalysts deactivate during recycling. Thus, our study demonstrates that the assembly of noble-metal NPs on CNTs bearing a thin coaxial PANI coating is a powerful technique to prepare reusable catalysts for the Heck reaction. Coating thickness is also a key factor affecting the efficiency and stability of the catalyst.

  6. Pd nanoparticles immobilized on carbon nanotubes with a polyaniline coaxial coating for the Heck reaction: coating thickness as the key factor influencing the efficiency and stability of the catalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Rui

    2018-02-12

    Pd nanoparticles (NPs) supported on polyaniline (PANI)-coated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were synthesized using a low-cost and simple method for application in the Heck reaction. The effects of the PANI/CNT coating weight ratio on the catalytic stability and recyclability of the composite were determined by using a combination of experimental and computational methods. The results show that through coordination of the N-species in PANI with the Pd NPs, the nitrogen-rich PANI@CNT provides a strong support for the Pd NPs. The thickness of the PANI layer is the key in determining the stability of the catalyst. PANI becomes protonated in the presence of CNTs, as electron transfer from the former to the latter creates strong interactions between the two. Thus, PANI becomes more stable in nanocomposites with a higher CNT content, e.g., PANI/CNT = 0.5 : 1. The catalyst with a PANI/CNT ratio of 0.5 : 1 exhibited the best recycling performance, and only a small loss of activity was observed after 10 cycles. However, upon increasing the PANI content (e.g., PANI/CNT = 4 : 1), the PANI units tend to form bulk structures that are less stable than those that wrap around the CNTs. Such a structure is unstable; therefore, the PANI layers can easily deform or break away from the CNT backbones. Hence, these catalysts deactivate during recycling. Thus, our study demonstrates that the assembly of noble-metal NPs on CNTs bearing a thin coaxial PANI coating is a powerful technique to prepare reusable catalysts for the Heck reaction. Coating thickness is also a key factor affecting the efficiency and stability of the catalyst.

  7. Cobalt oxide nanoparticles as a novel high-efficiency fiber coating for solid phase microextraction of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene from aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gholivand, Mohammad Bagher, E-mail: MB.Gholivand@yahoo.com [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Shamizadeh, Mohammad [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moradian, Rostam; Astinchap, Bandar [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nano Technology Research Laboratory, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were introduced as a novel SPME fiber coating. • The fiber was evaluated for the extraction of BTEX in combination with GC–MS. • The fiber showed extraction efficiencies better than a PDMS fiber toward BTEX. • The fiber was successfully applied to the determination of BTEX in real samples. - Abstract: In this work cobalt oxide nanoparticles were introduced for preparation of a novel solid phase microextraction (SPME) fiber coating. Chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique was used in order for synthesis and immobilization of the Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanomaterials on a Pt wire for fabrication of SPME fiber. The prepared cobalt oxide coating was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The fiber was evaluated for the extraction of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) in combination with GC–MS. A simplex optimization method was used to optimize the factors affecting the extraction efficiency. Under optimized conditions, the proposed fiber showed extraction efficiencies comparable to those of a commercial polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fiber toward the BTEX compounds. The repeatability of the fiber and its reproducibility, expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD), were lower than about 11%. No significant change was observed in the extraction efficiency of the new SPME fiber after over 50 extractions. The fiber was successfully applied to the determination of BTEX compounds in real samples. The proposed nanostructure cobalt oxide fiber is a promising alternative to the commercial fibers as it is robust, inexpensive and easily prepared.

  8. Enhancement of the efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cell with multi-wall carbon nanotubes/polythiophene composite counter electrodes prepared by electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jun; Niu, Hai-jun; Wu, Wen-jun; Wang, Cheng; Bai, Xu-duo; Wang, Wen

    2012-01-01

    For the purpose of increasing the energy conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/polythiophene (PTh) composite film counter electrode has been fabricated by electrophoresis and cyclic voltammetry (CV) in sequence. The morphology and chemical structure have been characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and Raman spectroscopy respectively. The overall energy conversion efficiency of the DSSC employing the MWCNT/PTh composite film has reached 4.72%, which is close to that of the DSSC with a platinum (Pt) counter electrode (5.68%). Compared with a standard DSSC with MWCNT counter electrode whose efficiency is 2.68%, the energy conversion efficiency has been increased by 76.12% for the DSSC with MWCNT/PTh counter electrode. These results indicate that the composite film with high conductivity, high active surface area, and good catalytic properties for I 3- reduction can potentially be used as the counter electrode in a high-performance DSSC.

  9. DMF as an Additive in a Two-Step Spin-Coating Method for 20% Conversion Efficiency in Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jionghua; Xu, Xin; Zhao, Yanhong; Shi, Jiangjian; Xu, Yuzhuan; Luo, Yanhong; Li, Dongmei; Wu, Huijue; Meng, Qingbo

    2017-08-16

    DMF as an additive has been employed in FAI/MAI/IPA (FA= CH 2 (NH 2 ) 2 , MA = CH 3 NH 3 , IPA = isopropanol) solution for a two-step multicycle spin-coating method in order to prepare high-quality FA x MA 1-x PbI 2.55 Br 0.45 perovskite films. Further investigation reveals that the existence of DMF in the FAI/MAI/IPA solution can facilitate perovskite conversion, improve the film morphology, and reduce crystal defects, thus enhancing charge-transfer efficiency. By optimization of the DMF amount and spin-coating cycles, compact, pinhole-free perovskite films are obtained. The nucleation mechanisms of perovskite films in our multicycle spin-coating process are suggested; that is, the introduction of DMF in the spin-coating FAI/MAI/IPA solution can lead to the formation of an amorphous phase PbX 2 -AI-DMSO-DMF (X = I, Br; A = FA, MA) instead of intermediate phase (MA) 2 Pb 3 I 8 ·2DMSO. This amorphous phase, similar to that in the one-step method, can help FAI/MAI penetrate into the PbI 2 framework to completely convert into the perovskite. As high as 20.1% power conversion efficiency (PCE) has been achieved with a steady-state PCE of 19.1%. Our work offers a simple repeatable method to prepare high-quality perovskite films for high-performance PSCs and also help further understand the perovskite-crystallization process.

  10. A 3-year follow-up after anterior colporrhaphy compared with collagen-coated transvaginal mesh for anterior vaginal wall prolapse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudnicki, Martin; Laurikainen, E; Pogosean, R

    2016-01-01

    departments of obstetrics and gynaecology in Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Denmark. POPULATION: A total of 138 women, of 55 years of age or older, admitted for stage ≥2 anterior vaginal wall prolapse. METHODS: The women scheduled for primary anterior vaginal wall prolapse surgery were randomised between...... the groups was observed regarding PFIQ-7, PFDI-20, and Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire (PISQ-12) scores. The number of mesh exposures did not change during the study period and all exposures were minor. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates that although the objective outcome...

  11. Highly efficient blue organic light emitting device using indium-free transparent anode Ga:ZnO with scalability for large area coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Liang; Matson, Dean W.; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Swensen, James S.; Bonham, Charles C.; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Gaspar, Daniel J.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Berry, Joseph J.; Ginley, David S.

    2010-01-01

    Organic light emitting devices have been achieved with an indium-free transparent anode, Ga doped ZnO (GZO). A large area coating technique was used (RF magnetron sputtering) to deposit the GZO films onto glass. The respective organic light emitting devices exhibited an operational voltage of 3.7 V, an external quantum efficiency of 17%, and a power efficiency of 39 lm/W at a current density of 1 mA/cm 2 . These parameters are well within acceptable standards for blue OLEDs to generate a white light with high enough brightness for general lighting applications. It is expected that high-efficiency, long-lifetime, large area, and cost-effective white OLEDs can be made with these indium-free anode materials.

  12. Study on H-mode access at low density with lower hybrid current drive and lithium-wall coatings on the EAST superconducting tokamak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, G.S.; Wan, B.N.; Li, J.G.

    2011-01-01

    The first high-confinement mode (H-mode) with type-III edge localized modes at an H factor of HIPB98(y,2) ~ 1 has been obtained with about 1 MW lower hybrid wave power on the EAST superconducting tokamak. The first H-mode plasma appeared after wall conditioning by lithium (Li) evaporation before ...

  13. Interpopulational Variations in Sexual Chemical Signals of Iberian Wall Lizards May Allow Maximizing Signal Efficiency under Different Climatic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, José; Ortega, Jesús; López, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    Sexual signals used in intraspecific communication are expected to evolve to maximize efficacy under a given climatic condition. Thus, chemical secretions of lizards might evolve in the evolutionary time to ensure that signals are perfectly tuned to local humidity and temperature conditions affecting their volatility and therefore their persistence and transmission through the environment. We tested experimentally whether interpopulational altitudinal differences in chemical composition of femoral gland secretions of male Iberian wall lizards (Podarcis hispanicus) have evolved to maximize efficacy of chemical signals in different environmental conditions. Chemical analyses first showed that the characteristics of chemical signals of male lizards differed between two populations inhabiting environments with different climatic conditions in spite of the fact that these two populations are closely related genetically. We also examined experimentally whether the temporal attenuation of the chemical stimuli depended on simulated climatic conditions. Thus, we used tongue-flick essays to test whether female lizards were able to detect male scent marks maintained under different conditions of temperature and humidity by chemosensory cues alone. Chemosensory tests showed that chemical signals of males had a lower efficacy (i.e. detectability and persistence) when temperature and dryness increase, but that these effects were more detrimental for signals of the highest elevation population, which occupies naturally colder and more humid environments. We suggest that the abiotic environment may cause a selective pressure on the form and expression of sexual chemical signals. Therefore, interpopulational differences in chemical profiles of femoral secretions of male P. hispanicus lizards may reflect adaptation to maximize the efficacy of the chemical signal in different climates.

  14. Comprehensive protein profiling by multiplexed capillary zone electrophoresis using cross-linked polyacrylamide coated capillaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaorong; Gao, Lin; Pu, Qiaosheng; Lu, Joann J; Wang, Xingjia

    2006-02-01

    We have recently developed a new process to create cross-linked polyacrylamide (CPA) coatings on capillary walls to suppress protein-wall interactions. Here, we demonstrate CPA-coated capillaries for high-efficiency (>2 x 10(6) plates per meter) protein separations by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). Because CPA virtually eliminates electroosmotic flow, positive and negative proteins cannot be analyzed in a single run. A "one-sample-two-separation" approach is developed to achieve a comprehensive protein analysis. High throughput is achieved through a multiplexed CZE system.

  15. Highly Efficient F, Cu doped TiO2 anti-bacterial visible light active photocatalytic coatings to combat hospital-acquired infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyland, Nigel S.; Podporska-Carroll, Joanna; Browne, John; Hinder, Steven J.; Quilty, Brid; Pillai, Suresh C.

    2016-04-01

    Bacterial infections are a major threat to the health of patients in healthcare facilities including hospitals. One of the major causes of patient morbidity is infection with Staphylococcus aureus. One of the the most dominant nosocomial bacteria, Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have been reported to survive on hospital surfaces (e.g. privacy window glasses) for up to 5 months. None of the current anti-bacterial technology is efficient in eliminating Staphylococcus aureus. A novel transparent, immobilised and superhydrophilic coating of titanium dioxide, co-doped with fluorine and copper has been prepared on float glass substrates. Antibacterial activity has demonstrated (by using Staphylococcus aureus), resulting from a combination of visible light activated (VLA) photocatalysis and copper ion toxicity. Co-doping with copper and fluorine has been shown to improve the performance of the coating, relative to a purely fluorine-doped VLA photocatalyst. Reductions in bacterial population of log10 = 4.2 under visible light irradiation and log10 = 1.8 in darkness have been achieved, compared with log10 = 1.8 under visible light irradiation and no activity, for a purely fluorine-doped titania. Generation of reactive oxygen species from the photocatalytic coatings is the major factor that significantly reduces the bacterial growth on the glass surfaces.

  16. On the air cleansing efficiency of an extended green wall: a CFD analysis of mechanistic details of transport processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Saumitra V; Ghosh, Sat

    2014-11-21

    The detrimental impact of rising air pollution levels in urban landscapes has become conspicuous over the last decade, particularly in developing countries. This novel numerical study quantifies the cleansing efficiency of green façades draped with a copiously growing tropical creeper Vernonia elaeagnifolia. Turbulent transport of SO2 to the leaf boundary layer and subsequent diffusion across stomatal pores into the mesophyllic cells is modeled at the micro level, including its ionic dissociation in the leaf׳s interior. A SEM analysis indicates stomatal dimensions and density. Whilst previous studies have used either spatially averaged equations or resistance models, a spatially discretized computational approach is adopted in this study. The resulting concentration distribution is used to calculate the deposition velocity on stomatal pores, which is then extrapolated over the entire façade to yield bulk pollutant removal rates. A deposition velocity of 1.53mms(-1) and 0.72mms(-1) is obtained for open and closed pores respectively, with removal rates equal to 1.11×10(-6)s(-1) and 1.05×10(-6)s(-1) for dry and humid weather respectively. Sensitivity studies on the removal rate are carried out based on humidity, stomatal aperture and leaf temperature. The removal rate dependence on the Leaf Area Index (LAI) is also investigated. It is inferred from simulations that vegetated façades are efficient at mitigation of residual pollution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Protective Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    General Magnaplate Corporation's pharmaceutical machine is used in the industry for high speed pressing of pills and capsules. Machine is automatic system for molding glycerine suppositories. These machines are typical of many types of drug production and packaging equipment whose metal parts are treated with space spinoff coatings that promote general machine efficiency and contribute to compliance with stringent federal sanitation codes for pharmaceutical manufacture. Collectively known as "synergistic" coatings, these dry lubricants are bonded to a variety of metals to form an extremely hard slippery surface with long lasting self lubrication. The coatings offer multiple advantages; they cannot chip, peel or be rubbed off. They protect machine parts from corrosion and wear longer, lowering maintenance cost and reduce undesired heat caused by power-robbing friction.

  18. Optimal size for heating efficiency of superparamagnetic dextran-coated magnetite nanoparticles for application in magnetic fluid hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaterabadi, Zhila; Nabiyouni, Gholamreza; Soleymani, Meysam

    2018-06-01

    Dextran-coated magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles with average particle sizes of 4 and 19 nm were synthesized through in situ and semi-two-step co-precipitation methods, respectively. The experimental results confirm the formation of pure phase of magnetite as well as the presence of dextran layer on the surface of modified magnetite nanoparticles. The results also reveal that both samples have the superparamagnetic behavior. Furthermore, calorimetric measurements show that the dextran-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles with an average size of 4 nm cannot produce any appreciable heat under a biologically safe alternating magnetic field used in hyperthermia therapy; whereas, the larger ones (average size of 19 nm) are able to increase the temperature of their surrounding medium up to above therapeutic range. In addition, measured specific absorption rate (SAR) values confirm that magnetite nanoparticles with an average size of 19 nm are very excellent candidates for application in magnetic hyperthermia therapy.

  19. o-Vanillin functionalized mesoporous silica – coated magnetite nanoparticles for efficient removal of Pb(II) from water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culita, Daniela C.; Simonescu, Claudia Maria; Patescu, Rodica-Elena; Dragne, Mioara; Stanica, Nicolae; Oprea, Ovidiu

    2016-01-01

    o-Vanillin functionalized mesoporous silica – coated magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 @MCM-41-N-oVan) was synthesized and fully characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, N 2 adsorption–desorption technique and magnetic measurements. The capacity of Fe 3 O 4 @MCM-41-N-oVan to adsorb Pb(II) from aqueous solutions was evaluated in comparison with raw mesoporous silica – coated magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 @MCM-41) and amino – modified mesoporous silica coated magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 @MCM-41-NH 2 ). The effect of adsorption process parameters such us pH, contact time, initial Pb(II) concentration was also investigated. The adsorption data were successfully fitted with the Langmuir model, exhibiting a maximum adsorption capacity of 155.71 mg/g at pH=4.4 and T=298 K. The results revealed that the adsorption rate was very high at the beginning of the adsorption process, 80–90% of the total amount of Pb(II) being removed within the first 60 min, depending on the initial concentration. The results of the present work suggest that Fe 3 O 4 @MCM-41-N-oVan is a suitable candidate for the separation of Pb(II) from contaminated water. - Graphical abstract: A novel magnetic adsorbent based on o-vanillin functionalized mesoporous silica – coated magnetite was synthesized and fully characterized and its adsorption capacity for Pb(II) ions in aqueous solutions was evaluated. The maximum adsorption capacity for Pb(II) ions was determined to be 155.71 mg g −1 . The adsorption rate was very high at the beginning of the adsorption process, 90% of the total amount of Pb(II) being removed within the first 60 min. Display Omitted

  20. High efficiency of the spin-orbit torques induced domain wall motion in asymmetric interfacial multilayered Tb/Co wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, Do; Awano, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    We investigated current-induced DW motion in asymmetric interfacial multilayered Tb/Co wires for various thicknesses of magnetic and Pt-capping layers. It is found that the driving mechanism for the DW motion changes from interfacial to bulk effects at much thick magnetic layer (up to 19.8 nm). In thin wires, linearly depinning field dependence of critical current density and in-plane field dependence of DW velocity suggest that the extrinsic pinning governs field-induced DW motion and injecting current can be regarded as an effective field. It is expected that the high efficiency of spin-orbit torques in thick magnetic multilayers would have important implication for future spintronic devices based on in-plane current induced-DW motion or switching

  1. High efficiency of the spin-orbit torques induced domain wall motion in asymmetric interfacial multilayered Tb/Co wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Do, E-mail: bang@spin.mp.es.osaka-u.ac.jp [Toyota Technological Institute, Tempaku, Nagoya 468-8511 (Japan); Institute of Materials Science, VAST, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Awano, Hiroyuki [Toyota Technological Institute, Tempaku, Nagoya 468-8511 (Japan)

    2015-05-07

    We investigated current-induced DW motion in asymmetric interfacial multilayered Tb/Co wires for various thicknesses of magnetic and Pt-capping layers. It is found that the driving mechanism for the DW motion changes from interfacial to bulk effects at much thick magnetic layer (up to 19.8 nm). In thin wires, linearly depinning field dependence of critical current density and in-plane field dependence of DW velocity suggest that the extrinsic pinning governs field-induced DW motion and injecting current can be regarded as an effective field. It is expected that the high efficiency of spin-orbit torques in thick magnetic multilayers would have important implication for future spintronic devices based on in-plane current induced-DW motion or switching.

  2. Aluminum-coated optical fibers as efficient infrared timing fiducial photocathodes for synchronizing x-ray streak cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, J.A.; MacGowan, B.J.

    1991-01-01

    The timing fiducial system at the Nova Two-Beam Facility allows time-resolved x-ray and optical streak camera data from laser-produced plasmas to be synchronized to within 30 ps. In this system, an Al-coated optical fiber is inserted into an aperture in the cathode plate of each streak camera. The coating acts as a photocathode for a low-energy pulse of 1ω (λ = 1.054 μm) light which is synchronized to the main Nova beam. The use of the fundamental (1ω) for this fiducial pulse has been found to offer significant advantages over the use of the 2ω second harmonic (λ = 0.53 μm). These advantages include brighter signals, greater reliability, and a higher relative damage threshold, allowing routine use without fiber replacement. The operation of the system is described, and experimental data and interpretations are discussed which suggest that the electron production in the Al film is due to thermionic emission. The results of detailed numerical simulations of the relevant thermal processes, undertaken to model the response of the coated fiber to 1ω laser pulses, are also presented, which give qualitative agreement with experimental data. Quantitative discrepancies between the modeling results and the experimental data are discussed, and suggestions for further research are given

  3. o-Vanillin functionalized mesoporous silica - coated magnetite nanoparticles for efficient removal of Pb(II) from water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culita, Daniela C.; Simonescu, Claudia Maria; Patescu, Rodica-Elena; Dragne, Mioara; Stanica, Nicolae; Oprea, Ovidiu

    2016-06-01

    o-Vanillin functionalized mesoporous silica - coated magnetite (Fe3O4@MCM-41-N-oVan) was synthesized and fully characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, N2 adsorption-desorption technique and magnetic measurements. The capacity of Fe3O4@MCM-41-N-oVan to adsorb Pb(II) from aqueous solutions was evaluated in comparison with raw mesoporous silica - coated magnetite (Fe3O4@MCM-41) and amino - modified mesoporous silica coated magnetite (Fe3O4@MCM-41-NH2). The effect of adsorption process parameters such us pH, contact time, initial Pb(II) concentration was also investigated. The adsorption data were successfully fitted with the Langmuir model, exhibiting a maximum adsorption capacity of 155.71 mg/g at pH=4.4 and T=298 K. The results revealed that the adsorption rate was very high at the beginning of the adsorption process, 80-90% of the total amount of Pb(II) being removed within the first 60 min, depending on the initial concentration. The results of the present work suggest that Fe3O4@MCM-41-N-oVan is a suitable candidate for the separation of Pb(II) from contaminated water.

  4. Nickel nanoparticles-chitosan composite coated cellulose filter paper: An efficient and easily recoverable dip-catalyst for pollutants degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Tahseen; Khan, Sher Bahadar; Asiri, Abdullah M

    2016-11-01

    In this report, we used cellulose filter paper (FP) as high surface area catalyst supporting green substrate for the synthesis of nickel (Ni) nanoparticles in thin chitosan (CS) coating layer and their easy separation was demonstrated for next use. In this work, FP was coated with a 1 wt% CS solution onto cellulose FP to prepare CS-FP as an economical and environment friendly host material. CS-FP was put into 0.2 M NiCl 2 aqueous solution for the adsorption of Ni 2+ ions by CS coating layer. The Ni 2+ adsorbed CS-FP was treated with 0.1 M NaBH 4 aqueous solution to convert the ions into nanoparticles. Thus, we achieved Ni nanoparticles-CS composite through water based in-situ preparation process. Successful Ni nanoparticles formations was assessed by FESEM and EDX analyses. FTIR used to track the interactions between nanoparticles and host material. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the nanocomposite displays an excellent catalytic activity and reusability in three reduction reactions of toxic compounds i.e. conversion of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol, 2-nitrophenol to 2-aminophenol, and methyl orange dye reduction by NaBH 4 . Such a fabrication process of Ni/CS-FP may be applicable for the immobilization of other metal nanoparticles onto FP for various applications in catalysis, sensing, and environmental sciences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Simultaneous Determination of Parathion, Malathion, Diazinon, and Pirimiphos Methyl in Dried Medicinal Plants Using Solid-Phase Microextraction Fibre Coated with Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Ahmadkhaniha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A reliable and sensitive headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for simultaneous determination of different organophosphorus pesticides in dried medicinal plant samples is described. The analytes were extracted by single-walled carbon nanotubes as a new solid-phase microextraction adsorbent. The developed method showed good performance. For diazinon and pirimiphos methyl calibration, curves were linear (r2≥0.993 over the concentration ranges from 1.5 to 300 ng g−1, and the limit of detection at signal-to-noise ratio of 3 was 0.3 ng g−1. For parathion and malathion, the linear range and limit of detection were 2.5–300 (r2≥0.991 and 0.5 ng g−1, respectively. In addition, a comparative study between the single-walled carbon nanotubes and a commercial polydimethylsiloxane fibre for the determination of target analytes was carried out. Single-walled carbon nanotubes fibre showed higher extraction capacity, better thermal stability (over 350∘C, and longer lifespan (over 250 times than the commercial polydimethylsiloxane fibre. The developed method was successfully applied to determine target organophosphorus pesticides in real samples.

  6. Functional single-walled carbon nanotubes based on an integrin αvβ3 monoclonal antibody for highly efficient cancer cell targeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou Zhongmin; Wu Baoyan; Xing Da; Zhou Feifan; Wang Huiying; Tang Yonghong

    2009-01-01

    The application of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in the field of biomedicine is becoming an entirely new and exciting topic. In this study, a novel functional SWNT based on an integrin α v β 3 monoclonal antibody was developed and was used for cancer cell targeting in vitro. SWNTs were first modified by phospholipid-bearing polyethylene glycol (PL-PEG). The PL-PEG functionalized SWNTs were then conjugated with protein A. A SWNT-integrin α v β 3 monoclonal antibody system (SWNT-PEG-mAb) was thus constructed by conjugating protein A with the fluorescein labeled integrin α v β 3 monoclonal antibody. In vitro study revealed that SWNT-PEG-mAb presented a high targeting efficiency on integrin α v β 3 -positive U87MG cells with low cellular toxicity, while for integrin α v β 3 -negative MCF-7 cells, the system had a low targeting efficiency, indicating that the high targeting to U87MG cells was due to the specific integrin targeting of the monoclonal antibody. In conclusion, SWNT-PEG-mAb developed in this research is a potential candidate for cancer imaging and drug delivery in cancer targeting therapy.

  7. Surfactant Effect in Polypyrrole and Polypyrrole with Multi Wall Carbon Nanotube Counter Electrodes: Improved Power Conversion Efficiency of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuy, Chau Thi Thanh; Park, Ji Young; Lee, Seung Woo; Suresh, Thogiti; Kim, Jae Hong

    2016-05-01

    In our present study, polypyrrole-1 (PPy1), polypyrrole-2 (PPy2), and polypyrrole-2/multi wall carbon nanotube composite film (PPy2/MWCNT) were proposed as counter electrodes (CEs) in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) to replace the precious Pt CE. These films were fabricated on fluorine-doped tin oxide substrates by using a facile electrochemical polymerization route, and served as CEs in DSSCs. It is shown that the introduction of anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), enhanced the catalytic activity, thus leading to an improvement in the performance of PPy2. Further, introduction of MWCNT resulted in increase in conversion efficiency of DSSCs with PPy2/MWCNT composite film. The Tafel and electrochemical impedance analysis revealed that the PPy2 and PPy2/MWCNT CEs prepared with anionic surfactant possessed more catalytic activity and lower charge transfer resistance in comparison with PPy1 -based CE. This resulted in a better conversion efficiency of 5.88% for PPy2/MWCNT-based DSSC under 1 sun condition, reaching 86% of the DSSC based on reference Pt counter electrode (6.86%). These results indicate that the composite film with high catalytic properties for I3- reduction can potentially be used as the CE in a high-performance DSSC.

  8. Molecularly imprinted polymers coated on multi-walled carbon nanotubes through a simple indirect method for the determination of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in environmental water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weijie; Jiao, Feipeng; Zhou, Lei; Chen, Xiaoqing; Jiang, Xinyu

    2013-11-01

    A new and facile method was presented to graft molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) analysis. In brief, CNTs were firstly coated with a layer of vinyl group modified silica, followed by a common precipitation polymerization with 2,4-D as the template, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as the crosslinker and 2,2-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as the initiator. The imprinted effects obtained by using different monomers were investigated, and the results showed that acrylamide (AM) and styrene as mixed monomers was the best choice. This functionalized material was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetry (TG), which demonstrated a successful polymerization reaction on CNTs with MIPs grafting ratio of about 80%. The results of static adsorption experiments indicated the imprinted material possessed fast kinetics and good selectivity for 2,4-D molecules. A corresponding analytical method was developed and demonstrated to be applicable for the determination of 2,4-D in environmental water. The recoveries were in the range from 74.6% to 81.2% with relative standard deviation below 7.0%. To be emphasized, the method for MIPs coating proposed herein also provides a significant reference for other radical polymerization reactions based on CNTs.

  9. o-Vanillin functionalized mesoporous silica – coated magnetite nanoparticles for efficient removal of Pb(II) from water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culita, Daniela C., E-mail: danaculita@yahoo.co.uk [“Ilie Murgulescu” Institute of Physical Chemistry, Splaiul Independentei 202, Bucharest (Romania); Simonescu, Claudia Maria; Patescu, Rodica-Elena [Politehnica University, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, Bucharest (Romania); Dragne, Mioara [S.C. KEMCRISTAL S.R.L., Muncii Str., No. 51, Fundulea, Călăraşi (Romania); Stanica, Nicolae [“Ilie Murgulescu” Institute of Physical Chemistry, Splaiul Independentei 202, Bucharest (Romania); Oprea, Ovidiu [Politehnica University, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, Bucharest (Romania)

    2016-06-15

    o-Vanillin functionalized mesoporous silica – coated magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@MCM-41-N-oVan) was synthesized and fully characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption technique and magnetic measurements. The capacity of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@MCM-41-N-oVan to adsorb Pb(II) from aqueous solutions was evaluated in comparison with raw mesoporous silica – coated magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@MCM-41) and amino – modified mesoporous silica coated magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@MCM-41-NH{sub 2}). The effect of adsorption process parameters such us pH, contact time, initial Pb(II) concentration was also investigated. The adsorption data were successfully fitted with the Langmuir model, exhibiting a maximum adsorption capacity of 155.71 mg/g at pH=4.4 and T=298 K. The results revealed that the adsorption rate was very high at the beginning of the adsorption process, 80–90% of the total amount of Pb(II) being removed within the first 60 min, depending on the initial concentration. The results of the present work suggest that Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@MCM-41-N-oVan is a suitable candidate for the separation of Pb(II) from contaminated water. - Graphical abstract: A novel magnetic adsorbent based on o-vanillin functionalized mesoporous silica – coated magnetite was synthesized and fully characterized and its adsorption capacity for Pb(II) ions in aqueous solutions was evaluated. The maximum adsorption capacity for Pb(II) ions was determined to be 155.71 mg g{sup −1}. The adsorption rate was very high at the beginning of the adsorption process, 90% of the total amount of Pb(II) being removed within the first 60 min. Display Omitted.

  10. Fabrication of micro-dot arrays and micro-walls of acrylic acid/melamine resin on aluminum by AFM probe processing and electrophoretic coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurokawa, S.; Kikuchi, T.; Sakairi, M.; Takahashi, H.

    2008-01-01

    Micro-dot arrays and micro-walls of acrylic acid/melamine resin were fabricated on aluminum by anodizing, atomic force microscope (AFM) probe processing, and electrophoretic deposition. Barrier type anodic oxide films of 15 nm thickness were formed on aluminum and then the specimen was scratched with an AFM probe in a solution containing acrylic acid/melamine resin nano-particles to remove the anodic oxide film locally. After scratching, the specimen was anodically polarized to deposit acrylic acid/melamine resin electrophoretically at the film-removed area. The resin deposited on the specimen was finally cured by heating. It was found that scratching with the AFM probe on open circuit leads to the contamination of the probe with resin, due to positive shifts in the potential during scratching. Scratching of the specimen under potentiostatic conditions at -1.0 V, however, resulted in successful resin deposition at the film-removed area without probe contamination. The rate of resin deposition increased as the specimen potential becomes more positive during electrophoretic deposition. Arrays of resin dots with a few to several tens μm diameter and 100-1000 nm height, and resin walls with 100-1000 nm height and 1 μm width were obtained on specimens by successive anodizing, probe processing, and electrophoretic deposition

  11. Fabrication of micro-dot arrays and micro-walls of acrylic acid/melamine resin on aluminum by AFM probe processing and electrophoretic coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurokawa, S.; Kikuchi, T.; Sakairi, M. [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N-13, W-8, Kita-Ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Takahashi, H. [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N-13, W-8, Kita-Ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)], E-mail: takahasi@elechem1-mc.eng.hokudai.ac.jp

    2008-11-30

    Micro-dot arrays and micro-walls of acrylic acid/melamine resin were fabricated on aluminum by anodizing, atomic force microscope (AFM) probe processing, and electrophoretic deposition. Barrier type anodic oxide films of 15 nm thickness were formed on aluminum and then the specimen was scratched with an AFM probe in a solution containing acrylic acid/melamine resin nano-particles to remove the anodic oxide film locally. After scratching, the specimen was anodically polarized to deposit acrylic acid/melamine resin electrophoretically at the film-removed area. The resin deposited on the specimen was finally cured by heating. It was found that scratching with the AFM probe on open circuit leads to the contamination of the probe with resin, due to positive shifts in the potential during scratching. Scratching of the specimen under potentiostatic conditions at -1.0 V, however, resulted in successful resin deposition at the film-removed area without probe contamination. The rate of resin deposition increased as the specimen potential becomes more positive during electrophoretic deposition. Arrays of resin dots with a few to several tens {mu}m diameter and 100-1000 nm height, and resin walls with 100-1000 nm height and 1 {mu}m width were obtained on specimens by successive anodizing, probe processing, and electrophoretic deposition.

  12. Time resolved observation of the erosion of boron containing protective coatings on wall elements of TEXTOR-94 by means of colorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wienhold, P.; Esser, H.G.; Winter, J.

    1997-01-01

    The paper describes the investigation of the progressive erosion of an a-B:D coated test piece during 22 pulses in the SOL of TEXTOR-94. Time resolved observations by colorimetry reveal that the erosion proceeds in steps: during an intermediate phase the rates do not exceed ∼-1.5 nm/s. Thereafter they jump to about -6 nm/s. This is due to carbon incorporation and triggered when the concentration approaches ∼40%. The changing composition may influence the ratio of the BII/CII emission near the surface. The process ends with a carbon rich layer on the remnants of the boron film. Combination of different investigations (AES, NRA, EPMA) results in a preliminary model description. (orig.)

  13. Ultra-thin MoS2 coated Ag@Si nanosphere arrays as efficient and stable photocathode for solar-driven hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qingwei; Su, Shaoqiang; Hu, Die; Lin, Lin; Yan, Zhibo; Gao, Xingsen; Zhang, Zhang; Liu, Junming

    2018-01-02

    Solar-driven photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting has recently attracted much attention. Silicon (Si) is an ideal light absorber for solar energy conversion. However, the poor stability and inefficient surface catalysis of Si photocathode for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) have been remained as the key challenges. Alternatively, MoS2 has been reported to exhibit the excellent catalysis performance if sufficient active sites for the HER are available. Here, ultra-thin MoS2 nanoflakes are directly synthesized to coat on the arrays of Ag-core Si-shell nanospheres (Ag@Si NSs) using the chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Due to the high surface area ratio and large curvature of these NSs, the as-grown MoS2 nanoflakes can accommodate more active sites. Meanwhile, the high-quality coating of MoS2 nanoflakes on the Ag@Si NSs protects the photocathode from damage during the PEC reaction. A high efficiency with a photocurrent of 33.3 mA cm-2 at a voltage of -0.4 V vs. the reversible hydrogen electrode is obtained. The as-prepared nanostructure as hydrogen photocathode is evidenced to have high stability over 12 hour PEC performance. This work opens opportunities for composite photocathode with high activity and stability using cheap and stable co-catalysts. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  14. Rising damp in building walls: the wall base ventilation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, A.S.; Delgado, J.M.P.Q.; Freitas, V.P. de [Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Laboratorio de Fisica das Construcoes (LFC), Departamento de Engenharia Civil, Porto (Portugal)

    2012-12-15

    This work intends to validate a new system for treating rising damp in historic buildings walls. The results of laboratory experiments show that an efficient way of treating rising damp is by ventilating the wall base, using the HUMIVENT technique. The analytical model presented describes very well the observed features of rising damp in walls, verified by laboratory tests, who contributed for a simple sizing of the wall base ventilation system that will be implemented in historic buildings. (orig.)

  15. A MnO2/Graphene Oxide/Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes-Sulfur Composite with Dual-Efficient Polysulfide Adsorption for Improving Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Ye, Daixin; Liu, Wen; Shi, Bin; Guo, Rui; Zhao, Hongbin; Pei, Haijuan; Xu, Jiaqiang; Xie, Jingying

    2016-10-26

    Lithium-sulfur batteries can potentially be used as a chemical power source because of their high energy density. However, the sulfur cathode has several shortcomings, including fast capacity attenuation, poor electrochemical activity, and low Coulombic efficiency. Herein, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphene oxide (GO), and manganese dioxide are introduced to the sulfur cathode. A MnO 2 /GO/CNTs-S composite with a unique three-dimensional (3D) architecture was synthesized by a one-pot chemical method and heat treatment approach. In this structure, the innermost CNTs work as a conducting additive and backbone to form a conducting network. The MnO 2 /GO nanosheets anchored on the sidewalls of CNTs have a dual-efficient absorption capability for polysulfide intermediates as well as afford adequate space for sulfur loading. The outmost nanosized sulfur particles are well-distributed on the surface of the MnO 2 /GO nanosheets and provide a short transmission path for Li + and the electrons. The sulfur content in the MnO 2 /GO/CNTs-S composite is as high as 80 wt %, and the as-designed MnO 2 /GO/CNTs-S cathode displays excellent comprehensive performance. The initial specific capacities are up to 1500, 1300, 1150, 1048, and 960 mAh g -1 at discharging rates of 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, and 1 C, respectively. Moreover, the composite cathode shows a good cycle performance: the specific capacity remains at 963.5 mAh g -1 at 0.2 C after 100 cycles when the area density of sulfur is 2.8 mg cm -2 .

  16. Facile synthesis of palladium nanoparticles supported on multi-walled carbon nanotube for efficient hydrogenation of biomass-derived levulinic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Kai, E-mail: kyan@lakeheadu.ca; Lafleur, Todd [Lakehead University, Department of Chemistry (Canada); Liao, Jiayou [Tianjin University, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology (China)

    2013-09-15

    Different loading of palladium (Pd) nanoparticles were successfully fabricated on multi-walled carbon nanotubes using Pd acetylacetonate as the precursor via a simple liquid impregnation method. The crystal phase, morphology, textural structure and the chemical state of the resulting Pd nanoparticles (Pd/CNT) catalysts were studied and the characterization results indicated that the uniform dispersion of small Pd nanoparticles with the size range of 1.0-4.5 nm was achieved. The synthesized Pd/CNT catalysts exhibited efficient performance for the catalytic hydrogenation of biomass-derived levulinic acid into biofuel {gamma}-valerolactone. In comparison with the commercial 5 wt% Pd/C and the 5 wt% Pd/CNT catalyst prepared by Pd nitrate precursor, much higher activities were achieved, whereas the biofuel {gamma}-valerolactone was highly produced with 56.3 % yield at 57.6 % conversion of levulinic acid on the 5 wt% Pd/CNT catalyst under mild conditions. The catalyst developed in this work may be a good candidate for the wide applications in the hydrogenation.

  17. The oxygen-rich pentaerythritol modified multi-walled carbon nanotube as an efficient adsorbent for aqueous removal of alizarin yellow R and alizarin red S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jia-Ying; Jiang, Xin-Yu; Jiao, Fei-Peng; Yu, Jin-Gang

    2018-04-01

    A contrastive work on the removal of two organic dyes, alizarin yellow R (AYR) and alizarin red S (ARS), was carried out by utilizing pentaerythritol modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (ox-MWCNT-PER) as a highly efficient adsorbent. Various characterization methods such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), were applied for revealing the physical and chemical properties of the as-prepared material. In addition, the adsorption kinetics, isotherms and thermodynamic parameters were also discussed. The results showed that the time required to achieve the adsorption equilibrium for both dyes was about 30 min, and the increase in temperature was not favorable to the adsorption process. It was worth noting that the adsorption capacity of ox-MWCNT-PER towards ARS dye was more significant than that towards AYR dye. And the maximum adsorption capacities for ARS and AYR were 257.73 mg g-1 and 45.39 mg g-1, respectively. The possible adsorption mechanism was also proposed, and the synergistic effects of the hydrogen bonding and the π-π electron stacking interactions between the adsorbents and adsorbates both contributed to the adsorption. It could be proposed that the ox-MWCNT-PER nanocomposite might have some positive effects in removing organic dyes from water treatment in the future.

  18. High-Efficiency Polycrystalline CdS/CdTe Solar Cells on Buffered Commercial TCO-Coated Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colegrove, E.; Banai, R.; Blissett, C.; Buurma, C.; Ellsworth, J.; Morley, M.; Barnes, S.; Gilmore, C.; Bergeson, J. D.; Dhere, R.; Scott, M.; Gessert, T.; Sivananthan, Siva

    2012-10-01

    Multiple polycrystalline CdS/CdTe solar cells with efficiencies greater than 15% were produced on buffered, commercially available Pilkington TEC Glass at EPIR Technologies, Inc. (EPIR, Bolingbrook, IL) and verified by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). n-CdS and p-CdTe were grown by chemical bath deposition (CBD) and close space sublimation, respectively. Samples with sputter-deposited CdS were also investigated. Initial results indicate that this is a viable dry-process alternative to CBD for production-scale processing. Published results for polycrystalline CdS/CdTe solar cells with high efficiencies are typically based on cells using research-grade transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) requiring high-temperature processing inconducive to low-cost manufacturing. EPIR's results for cells on commercial glass were obtained by implementing a high-resistivity SnO2 buffer layer and by optimizing the CdS window layer thickness. The high-resistivity buffer layer prevents the formation of CdTe-TCO junctions, thereby maintaining a high open-circuit voltage and fill factor, whereas using a thin CdS layer reduces absorption losses and improves the short-circuit current density. EPIR's best device demonstrated an NREL-verified efficiency of 15.3%. The mean efficiency of hundreds of cells produced with a buffer layer between December 2010 and June 2011 is 14.4%. Quantum efficiency results are presented to demonstrate EPIR's progress toward NREL's best-published results.

  19. Amino modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes/polydimethylsiloxane coated stir bar sorptive extraction coupled to high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection for the determination of phenols in environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Cong; Chen, Beibei; He, Man; Hu, Bin

    2013-07-26

    In this work, amino modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes/polydimethylsiloxane (multi-walled carbon nanotubes-4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane/polydimethylsiloxane, MWCNTs-DDM/PDMS) was synthesized, and utilized as a novel coating for stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) of seven phenols (phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 2-nitrophenol, 4-nitrophenol, 2,4-dimethylphenol, p-choro-m-cresol and 2,4,6-trichlorphenol) in environmental water and soil samples, followed by high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV). The prepared MWCNTs-DDM/PDMS coated stir bar was characterized and good preparation reproducibility was obtained with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranging from 4.7% to 11.3% (n=9) in one batch, and from 4.8% to 13.9% (n=8) among different batches. Several parameters affecting the extraction of seven target phenols by MWCNTs-DDM/PDMS-SBSE including extraction time, stirring rate, pH, ionic strength, desorption solvent and desorption time were investigated. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the limits of detection (LODs, S/N=3) were found to be in the range of 0.14μg/L (2-nitrophenol) to 1.76μg/L (phenol) and the limits of quantification (LOQs, S/N=10) were found to be in the range of 0.46μg/L (2-nitrophenol) to 5.8μg/L (phenol). The linear range was 5-1000μg/L for phenol and 4-nitrophenol, 1-1000μg/L for 2-nitrophenol and 2-1000μg/L for other phenols, respectively. The RSDs of the developed method were in the range of 6.2-11.6% (n=8, c=10μg/L) and the enrichment factors were from 6.5 to 62.8-fold (theoretical enrichment factor was 100-fold). The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of phenols in environmental water and soil samples, and good recoveries were obtained for the spiked samples. The proposed method is simple, highly sensitive and suitable for the analysis of trace phenols in environmental samples with complex matrix. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Graphene-coated materials using silica particles as a framework for highly efficient removal of aromatic pollutants in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kaijie; Chen, Baoliang; Zhu, Lizhong

    2015-01-01

    The substantial aggregation of pristine graphene nanosheets decreases its powerful adsorption capacity and diminishes its practical applications. To overcome this shortcoming, graphene-coated materials (GCMs) were prepared by loading graphene onto silica nanoparticles (SiO2). With the support of SiO2, the stacked interlamination of graphene was held open to expose the powerful adsorption sites in the interlayers. The adsorption of phenanthrene, a model aromatic pollutant, onto the loaded graphene nanosheets increased up to 100 fold compared with pristine graphene at the same level. The adsorption of GCMs increased with the loading amount of the graphene nanosheets and dramatically decreased with the introduction of oxygen-containing groups in the graphene nanosheets. The highly hydrophobic effect and the strong π-π stacking interactions of the exposed graphene nanosheets contributed to their superior adsorption of GCMs. An unusual GCM peak adsorption coefficient (Kd) was observed with the increase in sorbate concentration. The sorbate concentration at peak Kd shifted to lower values for the reduced graphene oxide and graphene relative to the graphene oxide. Therefore, the replacement of water nanodroplets attached to the graphene nanosheets through weak non-hydrogen bonding with phenanthrene molecules via strong π-π stacking interactions is hypothesized to be an additional adsorption mechanism for GCMs. PMID:26119007

  1. Achieving more efficient operation of the nozzle vane and rotor blade rows of gas turbines through using nonaxisymmetric end wall surfaces of interblade channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inozemtsev, A. A.; Samokhvalov, N. Yu.; Tikhonov, A. S.

    2012-09-01

    Results from a numerical study of three versions of the end-wall generatrix of the interblade channel used in the second-stage nozzle vanes of a prospective engine's turbine are presented. Recommendations for designing nonaxisymmetric end-wall surfaces are suggested based on the obtained data.

  2. Efficient photocatalytic decolorization of some textile dyes using Fe ions doped polyaniline film on ITO coated glass substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haspulat, Bircan; Gülce, Ahmet; Gülce, Handan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The PANI/Fe film as photocatalyst was used for the first time. • It was possible to modify the surface roughness and wettability of the PANI films. • The photocatalytic decolorization of four dyes has been investigated. • The photocatalytical activity of the PANI matrix was increased by adding Fe ions. -- Abstract: In this study, the photocatalytic decolorization of four commercial textile dyes with different structures has been investigated using electrochemically synthesized polyaniline and Fe ions doped polyaniline on ITO coated glass substrate as photocatalyst in aqueous solution under UV irradiation for the first time. Scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, FT-IR spectra, UV–vis spectroscopy measurements were used to characterize the electrochemically synthesized polymer film photocatalyst. Film hydrophilicity was assessed from contact angle measurements. The results show that both of the polymer films exhibit good photocatalytic performance. Surprisingly, it was determined that by using Fe(II) ions during polymerization, it is possible to modify the surface roughness and wettability of the produced polyaniline films which favors their photocatalytic activity in water-based solutions. All four of the used dyes (methylene blue, malachite green, methyl orange and methyl red) were completely decolorizated in 90 min of irradiation under UV light by using Fe ions doped polyaniline at the dye concentration of 1.5 × 10 −5 M, while the decolorization of those dyes were between 43% and 83% by using polyaniline as photocatalyst. Hence, it may be a viable technique for the safe disposal of textile wastewater into waste streams

  3. Improved Efficiency of Polymer Solar Cells by means of Coating Hole Transporting Layer as Double Layer Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonsut, T.; Kayunkid, N.; Rahong, S.; Rangkasikorn, A.; Wirunchit, S.; Kaewprajak, A.; Kumnorkaew, P.; Nukeaw, J.

    2017-09-01

    Polymer solar cells is one of the promising technologies that gain tremendous attentions in the field of renewable energy. Optimization of thickness for each layer is an important factor determining the efficiency of the solar cells. In this work, the optimum thickness of Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythione): poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), a famous polymer widely used as hole transporting layer in polymer solar cells, is determined through the analyzing of device’s photovoltaic parameters, e.g. short circuit current density (Jsc), open circuit voltage (Voc), fill factor (FF) as well as power conversion efficiency (PCE). The solar cells were prepared with multilayer of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/PCDTBT:PC70BM/TiOx/Al by rapid convective deposition. In such preparation technique, the thickness of the thin film is controlled by the deposition speed. The faster deposition speed is used, the thicker film is obtained. Furthermore, double layer deposition of PEDOT:PSS was introduced as an approach to improve solar cell efficiency. The results obviously reveal that, with the increase of PEDOT:PSS thickness, the increments of Jsc and FF play the important role to improve PCE from 3.21% to 4.03%. Interestingly, using double layer deposition of PEDOT:PSS shows the ability to enhance the performance of the solar cells to 6.12% under simulated AM 1.5G illumination of 100 mW/cm2.

  4. Thermal barrier coatings application in diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbanks, J. W.

    1995-01-01

    Commercial use of thermal barrier coatings in diesel engines began in the mid 70's by Dr. Ingard Kvernes at the Central Institute for Industrial Research in Oslo, Norway. Dr. Kvernes attributed attack on diesel engine valves and piston crowns encountered in marine diesel engines in Norwegian ships as hot-corrosion attributed to a reduced quality of residual fuel. His solution was to coat these components to reduce metal temperature below the threshold of aggressive hot-corrosion and also provide protection. Roy Kamo introduced thermal barrier coatings in his 'Adiabatic Diesel Engine' in the late 70's. Kamo's concept was to eliminate the engine block water cooling system and reduce heat losses. Roy reported significant performance improvements in his thermally insulated engine at the SAE Congress in 1982. Kamo's work stimulates major programs with insulated engines, particularly in Europe. Most of the major diesel engine manufacturers conducted some level of test with insulated combustion chamber components. They initially ran into increased fuel consumption. The German engine consortium had Prof. Woschni of the Technical Institute in Munich. Woschni conducted testing with pistons with air gaps to provide the insulation effects. Woschni indicated the hot walls of the insulated engine created a major increase in heat transfer he refers to as 'convection vive.' Woschni's work was a major factor in the abrupt curtailment of insulated diesel engine work in continental Europe. Ricardo in the UK suggested that combustion should be reoptimized for the hot-wall effects of the insulated combustion chamber and showed under a narrow range of conditions fuel economy could be improved. The Department of Energy has supported thermal barrier coating development for diesel engine applications. In the Clean Diesel - 50 Percent Efficient (CD-50) engine for the year 2000, thermal barrier coatings will be used on piston crowns and possibly other components. The primary purpose of the

  5. Machinability and scratch wear resistance of carbon-coated WC inserts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazhanivel, B., E-mail: palcecri@yahoo.co.in; Kumar, T. Prem; Sozhan, G.

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Cemented WC inserts were coated with carbon by CVD. • The deposits were either loosely held MWCNTs or adherent carbides. • Co-efficient of friction (ramp load; 1–13 N); 0.2 and 0.1 μ, respectively, for the uncoated and carbide-coated inserts. • The carbide-coated insert exhibited better machinability and surface finish than a commercial TiCN-coated insert. - Abstract: In this work, cemented tungsten carbide (WC) inserts were coated with nanocarbons/carbides by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and their machinability and scratch wear resistance were investigated. The hardness and surface conditions of the WC substrate were studied before and after coating. The CVD-generated nanocarbons on the insert surfaces were examined by SEM, FE-SEM and TEM. The electron microscopic images revealed that the carbons generated were multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) or carbides depending on the experimental conditions. In both the cases, the cutting edges of the inserts had dense deposits. Scratch wear test with the coated inserts showed that the co-efficient of friction was 0.1 μ as against 0.2 μ for the uncoated inserts under a ramp load of 1–13 N. The machinability characteristics of commercially available TiCN-coated inserts and the carbon-coated WC inserts were compared by using a CNC machine and a Rapid I vision inspection system. It was found that the carbide-coated inserts exhibited machinability with better surface finish comparable to that of the TiCN-coated inserts while the MWCNT-coated inserts showed inferior adhesion properties.

  6. Chitosan-coated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid nanoparticles as an efficient delivery system for Newcastle disease virus DNA vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao K

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Kai Zhao,1,* Yang Zhang,1,2,* Xiaoyan Zhang,1,* Ci Shi,1,2 Xin Wang,1 Xiaohua Wang,1 Zheng Jin,3 Shangjin Cui2 1Laboratory of Microbiology, School of Life Science, Heilongjiang University, 2Division of Swine Infectious Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, 3Key Laboratory of Chemical Engineering Process and Technology for High-efficiency Conversion, Heilongjiang University, Harbin, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: We determined the efficacy and safety of chitosan (CS-coated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA nanoparticles (NPs as a delivery system for a vaccine to protect chickens against Newcastle disease virus (NDV. The newly constructed vaccine contained DNA (the F gene of NDV. The Newcastle disease virus (NDV F gene deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA plasmid (pFDNA-CS/PLGA-NPs were spherical (diameter =699.1±5.21 nm [mean ± ­standard deviation] and smooth, with an encapsulation efficiency of 98.1% and a Zeta potential of +6.35 mV. An in vitro release assay indicated that CS controlled the burst release of plasmid DNA, such that up to 67.4% of the entire quantity of plasmid DNA was steadily released from the pFDNA-CS/PLGA-NPs. An in vitro expression assay indicated that the expression of nanoparticles (NPs was maintained in the NPs. In an immunization test with specific pathogen-free chickens, the pFDNA-CS/PLGA-NPs induced stronger cellular, humoral, and mucosal immune responses than the plasmid DNA vaccine alone. The pFDNA-CS/PLGA-NPs did not harm 293T cells in an in vitro assay and did not harm chickens in an in vivo assay. Overall, the results indicated that CS-coated PLGA NPs can serve as an efficient and safe mucosal immune delivery system for NDV DNA vaccine.Keywords: mucosal immune delivery system, immune effect

  7. Using Spin-Coated Silver Nanoparticles/Zinc Oxide Thin Films to Improve the Efficiency of GaInP/(InGaAs/Ge Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Hsun Lei

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available We synthesized a silver nanoparticle/zinc oxide (Ag NP/ZnO thin film by using spin-coating technology. The treatment solution for Ag NP/ZnO thin film deposition contained zinc acetate (Zn(CH3COO2, sodium hydroxide (NaOH, and silver nitrate (AgNO3 aqueous solutions. The crystalline characteristics, surface morphology, content of elements, and reflectivity of the Ag NPs/ZnO thin film at various concentrations of the AgNO3 aqueous solution were investigated using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and ultraviolet–visible–near infrared spectrophotometry. The results indicated that the crystalline structure, Ag content, and reflectance of Ag NP/ZnO thin films depended on the AgNO3 concentration. Hybrid antireflection coatings (ARCs composed of SiNx and Ag NPs/ZnO thin films with various AgNO3 concentrations were deposited on GaInP/(InGaAs/Ge solar cells. We propose that the optimal ARC consists of SiNx and Ag NP/ZnO thin films prepared using a treatment solution of 0.0008 M AgNO3, 0.007 M Zn(CH3COO2, and 1 M NaOH, followed by post-annealing at 200 °C. GaInP/(AlGaAs/Ge solar cells with the optimal hybrid ARC and SiNx ARC exhibit a conversion efficiency of 34.1% and 30.2% with Voc = 2.39 and 2.4 V, Jsc = 16.63 and 15.37 mA/cm2, and fill factor = 86.1% and 78.8%.

  8. Ambiguous walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mody, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) in the built environment has encouraged myriad applications, often embedded in surfaces as an integrated part of the architecture. Thus the wall as responsive luminous skin is becoming, if not common, at least familiar. Taking into account how wall...

  9. Ambiguous walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mody, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) in the built environment has encouraged myriad applications, often embedded in surfaces as an integrated part of the architecture. Thus the wall as responsive luminous skin is becoming, if not common, at least familiar. Taking into account how walls...... have encouraged architectural thinking of enclosure, materiality, construction and inhabitation in architectural history, the paper’s aim is to define new directions for the integration of LEDs in walls, challenging the thinking of inhabitation and program. This paper introduces the notion...... of “ambiguous walls” as a more “critical” approach to design [1]. The concept of ambiguous walls refers to the diffuse status a lumious and possibly responsive wall will have. Instead of confining it can open up. Instead of having a static appearance, it becomes a context over time. Instead of being hard...

  10. Hierarchical honeycomb-like Co3O4 pores coating on CoMoO4 nanosheets as bifunctional efficient electrocatalysts for overall water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Zhihao; Xu, Li; Xu, Wei

    2018-03-01

    Efficient electrocatalytic water splitting is one of the most effective ways to solve the global energy crisis. In this paper, we report on a novel self-assembled hierarchical structure of Co3O4/CoMoO4 grown in situ on a bare nickel foam. The unique, three-dimensional honeycomb-like Co3O4 pores were constructed from one-dimensional nanowires and coated on two-dimensional CoMoO4 nanosheets structures grown on nickel foam. The synthesis involved a step-wise solvothermal method followed by an annealing treatment. Benefiting from the synergistic effect of the hierarchical nanostructures, the materials had more reaction active sites and a smaller electron transfer impedance, and they exhibited excellent electrocatalytic performances for the HER and OER of 143 and 244 mV, respectively, at 10 mA cm-2 in an alkaline solution. Furthermore, the materials remained stable during the long electrolysis period, over 10 h, presenting promising application prospects in the field of electrocatalytic water splitting.

  11. Structural dependence of the efficiency of functionalization of silica-coated FeO{sub x} magnetic nanoparticles studied by ATR-IR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, Angelo; Shnitko, Ivan [Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang Pauli Strasse 10, Hoenggerberg, HCI, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Teleki, Alexandra [Institute of Process Engineering, Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Weyeneth, Stephen [Physik-Institut der Universitaet Zuerich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zuerich (Switzerland); Pratsinis, Sotiris E. [Institute of Process Engineering, Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Baiker, Alfons, E-mail: baiker@chem.ethz.ch [Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang Pauli Strasse 10, Hoenggerberg, HCI, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2011-01-15

    The efficiency of propylamino functionalization of magnetic silica-coated FeO{sub x} nanoparticles prepared by different methods, including coprecipitation and flame aerosol synthesis, has been evaluated by attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR) combined with a specific surface reaction, thus revealing the availability of the grafted functional groups. Large differences in the population of reactive groups were observed for the investigated materials, underlining the tight relation between the structure of nanoparticles and their suitability for organic functionalization. The materials possessed different core structure, surface area, and porosity, as evidenced by transmission electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms. Grafting of aminopropyl groups using a standard procedure based on reaction with (3-aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane as source of the propylamino groups was performed, followed by classical dry analysis methods to determine the specific concentration of the organic functional groups (in mmol g{sup -1} of material). ATR-IR spectroscopy in a specially constructed reactor cell was applied as wet methodology to determine the chemically available amount of such functional groups, showing that the materials possess largely different loading capacity, with a variability of up to 70% in the chemical availability of the organic functional group. The amount of (3-aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane used for functionalization was optimized, thus reaching a saturation limit characteristic of the material.

  12. Structural dependence of the efficiency of functionalization of silica-coated FeOx magnetic nanoparticles studied by ATR-IR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, Angelo; Shnitko, Ivan; Teleki, Alexandra; Weyeneth, Stephen; Pratsinis, Sotiris E.; Baiker, Alfons

    2011-01-01

    The efficiency of propylamino functionalization of magnetic silica-coated FeO x nanoparticles prepared by different methods, including coprecipitation and flame aerosol synthesis, has been evaluated by attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR) combined with a specific surface reaction, thus revealing the availability of the grafted functional groups. Large differences in the population of reactive groups were observed for the investigated materials, underlining the tight relation between the structure of nanoparticles and their suitability for organic functionalization. The materials possessed different core structure, surface area, and porosity, as evidenced by transmission electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms. Grafting of aminopropyl groups using a standard procedure based on reaction with (3-aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane as source of the propylamino groups was performed, followed by classical dry analysis methods to determine the specific concentration of the organic functional groups (in mmol g -1 of material). ATR-IR spectroscopy in a specially constructed reactor cell was applied as wet methodology to determine the chemically available amount of such functional groups, showing that the materials possess largely different loading capacity, with a variability of up to 70% in the chemical availability of the organic functional group. The amount of (3-aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane used for functionalization was optimized, thus reaching a saturation limit characteristic of the material.

  13. Efficient one-pot sonochemical synthesis of thickness-controlled silica-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4/SiO2) nanospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Mohamed; Abdel-Hamed, M. O.; Chen, Jiangang

    2017-12-01

    A facile and eco-friendly efficient sonochemical approach was designed for the synthesis of highly crystalline Fe3O4 and Fe3O4/SiO2 core/shell nanospheres in single reaction. The generated physical properties (shock waves, microjets, and turbulent flows) from ultrasonication as a consequence of the collapse of microbubbles and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as a chemical linker were found to play a crucial role in the successful formation of the core/shell NPs within short time than the previously reported methods. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that a uniform SiO2 shell is successfully coated over Fe3O4 nanospheres, and the thickness of the silica shell could be easily controlled in the range from 5 to 15 nm by adjusting the reaction parameters. X-ray diffraction data were employed to confirm the formation of highly crystalline and pure phase of a cubic inverse spinel structure for magnetite (Fe3O4) nanospheres. The magnetic properties of the as-synthesized Fe3O4 and Fe3O4/SiO2 core/shell nanospheres were measured at room temperature using vibrating sample magnetometer, and the results demonstrated a high magnetic moment values with superparamagnetic properties.

  14. Method of constructing shielding wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagao, Tetsuya.

    1990-01-01

    For instance, surfaces of lead particles each formed into a sphere of about 0.5 to 0.3 mm grain size are coated with a coating material of a synthetic resin comprising a polymeric material such as teflon. Subsequently, the floated lead particle are kneaded with concrete materials and then poured into a molding die by way of a hose. After coagulation, the molding die is removed to complete shielding walls in which lead particles are scattered substantially at an equal distance. In this way, since the lead particles are mixed into the shielding walls, shielding effects can be improved by so much as the lead particles are mixed, thereby enabling to reduce the thickness of the shielding walls. Further, since the lead particles are coated with the coating material, the lead particles are insulated from the concrete materials, thereby enabling to prevent the corrosion of the lead particles. Furthermore, since the lead particles and the concrete materials can be transported with ease, operation labors can be reduced. (T.M.)

  15. Wall Turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanratty, Thomas J.

    1980-01-01

    This paper gives an account of research on the structure of turbulence close to a solid boundary. Included is a method to study the flow close to the wall of a pipe without interferring with it. (Author/JN)

  16. Moisture Research - Optimizing Wall Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, L.; Mantha, P.

    2013-05-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) evaluated several different configurations of wall assemblies to determine the accuracy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable, efficient assemblies. WUFI and THERM were used to model the hygrothermal and heat transfer characteristics of these walls.

  17. Turbine airfoil with outer wall thickness indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, John J; James, Allister W; Merrill, Gary B

    2013-08-06

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and including a depth indicator for determining outer wall blade thickness. The airfoil may include an outer wall having a plurality of grooves in the outer surface of the outer wall. The grooves may have a depth that represents a desired outer surface and wall thickness of the outer wall. The material forming an outer surface of the outer wall may be removed to be flush with an innermost point in each groove, thereby reducing the wall thickness and increasing efficiency. The plurality of grooves may be positioned in a radially outer region of the airfoil proximate to the tip.

  18. The design and performance of the nano-carbon based double layers flexible coating for tunable and high-efficiency microwave absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Danfeng; Hao, Zhifeng; Qian, Yannan; Zeng, Bi; Zhu, Haiping; Wu, Qibai; Yan, Chengjie; Chen, Muyu

    2018-05-01

    Nanocarbon-based materials are outstanding microwave absorbers with good dielectric properties. In this study, double-layer silicone resin flexible absorbing coatings, composed of carbon-coated nickel nanoparticles (Ni@C) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs), with low loading and a total thickness of 2 mm, were prepared. The reflection loss (RL) of the double-layer absorbing coatings has measured for frequencies between 2 and 18 GHz using the Arch reflecting testing method. The effects of the thickness and electromagnetic parameters of each layer and of the layer sequence on the absorbing properties were investigated. It is found that the measured bandwidth (RL ≤ - 10 dB) of the optimum double-layer structure in our experiment range achieves 3.70 GHz. The results indicated that the double coating structure composed of different materials has greater synergistic absorption effect on impedance matching than that of same materials with different loading. The maximum RL of S1 (5 wt% CNTs)/S3 (60 wt% Ni@C) double-layer absorbing coating composed of different materials (S1 and S3) was larger than the one achieved using either S1 or S3 alone with the same thickness. This was because double-layer coating provided a suitable matching layer and improve the interfacial impedance. It was also shown that absorbing peak value and frequency position can be adjusted by double-layer coating structure.

  19. Cu{sub 1.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4}-based ceramic spectrally selective coatings for efficient solar absorber applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Pengjun [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049 (China); Geng, Qingfen; Gao, Xianghu [Research & Development Center for Eco-material and Eco-chemistry, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, 730000 (China); Yang, Shengrong [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, 730000 (China); Liu, Gang, E-mail: gangliu@licp.cas.cn [Research & Development Center for Eco-material and Eco-chemistry, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, 730000 (China)

    2016-08-05

    Cu{sub 1.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4}-based ceramic spectrally selective (CSS) coating was deposited on aluminum substrate using a sol–gel dip-coating method. The citric acid introduced in the precursor system lowered the required calcining temperature of crystalline Cu{sub 1.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4}. X-Ray diffraction (XRD) peaks of coatings annealed above 450 °C were found to coincide exactly with that of crystalline Cu{sub 1.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} in JCPDS database. By optimizing the withdrawal rate and calcining temperature, coating with spectral selectivity as good as α{sub s} = 0.876 and ε{sub 100} = 0.057 was achieved after only one dipping/annealing cycle. Subjected to an accelerated ageing test at 259 °C, the obtained CSS coating showed an excellent thermally durability with the performance criterion (PC) values below 0.05. - Highlights: • Cu{sub 1.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4}-based CSS coating is achieved after only one dipping/annealing cycle. • Cu{sub 1.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} coating is obtained as the annealing temperature reaches to 450 °C. • Cu{sub 1.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} coating exhibits optical parameter: α{sub s} = 0.876 and ε{sub 100} = 0.057. • Cu{sub 1.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} coating shows the excellent stability in low to mid temperature region.

  20. Graphene Coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoot, Adam Carsten; Camilli, Luca; Bøggild, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Owing to its remarkable electrical and mechanical properties, graphene has been attracting tremendous interest in materials science. In particular, its chemical stability and impermeability make it a promising protective membrane. However, recent investigations reveal that single layer graphene...... cannot be used as a barrier in the long run, due to galvanic corrosion phenomena arising when oxygen or water penetrate through graphene cracks or domain boundaries. Here, we overcome this issue by using a multilayered (ML) graphene coating. Our lab- as well as industrial-scale tests demonstrate that ML...... graphene can effectively protect Ni in harsh environments, even after long term exposure. This is made possible by the presence of a high number of graphene layers, which can efficiently mask the cracks and domain boundaries defects found in individual layers of graphene. Our findings thus show...

  1. Spontaneous and controlled-diameter synthesis of single-walled and few-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Shuhei; Lojindarat, Supanat; Kawamoto, Takahiro; Matsumura, Yukihiko; Charinpanitkul, Tawatchai

    2018-05-01

    In this study, we explored the spontaneous and controlled-diameter growth of carbon nanotubes. We evaluated the effects of catalyst density, reduction time, and a number of catalyst coating on the substrate (for multi-walled carbon nanotubes) on the diameter of single-walled carbon nanotubes and the number of layers in few-walled carbon nanotubes. Increasing the catalyst density and reduction time increased the diameters of the carbon nanotubes, with the average diameter increasing from 1.05 nm to 1.86 nm for single-walled carbon nanotubes. Finally, we succeeded in synthesizing a significant double-walled carbon nanotube population of 24%.

  2. Construction of organic–inorganic hybrid nano-coatings containing α-zirconium phosphate with high efficiency for reducing fire hazards of flexible polyurethane foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Ying; Pan, Haifeng; Yuan, Bihe; Hong, Ningning; Zhan, Jing; Wang, Bibo; Song, Lei; Hu, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Nano-architecture on the flexible polyurethane foam (FPUF) was built by layer by layer (LbL) self-assembling of α-zirconium phosphate (α-ZrP) and two biopolymers. Through electrostatic attraction and hydrogen bonding between α-ZrP, chitosan and alginate, the nano-coatings were successfully deposited on the substrate. The LbL self-assembly coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV–vis absorption spectroscopy, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. This loaded nano-coating endowed FPUF with excellent flame retardancy. Compared with pure FPUF, the reduction in the peak heat release rate of the modified foam with 12.3 wt% weight gain was achieved 71%, and the melt-dripping during combustion disappeared. Meanwhile, the thermal degradation of coated FPUF under nitrogen atmosphere was obviously retarded compared with pure FPUF. Additionally, the mechanical properties of the treated FPUFs were investigated. After loaded with 12.3 wt% nano-coating, the tensile and tear strength were enhanced by 13% and 54%, respectively. These investigations indicated that the study has great potential to add new dimensions in the fire retardancy modification of FPUF. - Highlights: • The nano-coatings containing α-ZrP and two biopolymers were successfully loaded on the FPUF by LbL self-assembly method. • The hybrid nano-coatings exhibited marked reduction in the peak heat release rate of the foam. • The coating resulted in enhanced tensile and tear strength of the foam

  3. Construction of organic–inorganic hybrid nano-coatings containing α-zirconium phosphate with high efficiency for reducing fire hazards of flexible polyurethane foam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Ying [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Pan, Haifeng; Yuan, Bihe [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Suzhou Key Laboratory of Urban Public Safety, Suzhou Institute for Advanced Study, University of Science and Technology of China, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Hong, Ningning; Zhan, Jing; Wang, Bibo [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Song, Lei, E-mail: leisong@ustc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Hu, Yuan, E-mail: yuanhu@ustc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Suzhou Key Laboratory of Urban Public Safety, Suzhou Institute for Advanced Study, University of Science and Technology of China, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China)

    2015-08-01

    Nano-architecture on the flexible polyurethane foam (FPUF) was built by layer by layer (LbL) self-assembling of α-zirconium phosphate (α-ZrP) and two biopolymers. Through electrostatic attraction and hydrogen bonding between α-ZrP, chitosan and alginate, the nano-coatings were successfully deposited on the substrate. The LbL self-assembly coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV–vis absorption spectroscopy, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. This loaded nano-coating endowed FPUF with excellent flame retardancy. Compared with pure FPUF, the reduction in the peak heat release rate of the modified foam with 12.3 wt% weight gain was achieved 71%, and the melt-dripping during combustion disappeared. Meanwhile, the thermal degradation of coated FPUF under nitrogen atmosphere was obviously retarded compared with pure FPUF. Additionally, the mechanical properties of the treated FPUFs were investigated. After loaded with 12.3 wt% nano-coating, the tensile and tear strength were enhanced by 13% and 54%, respectively. These investigations indicated that the study has great potential to add new dimensions in the fire retardancy modification of FPUF. - Highlights: • The nano-coatings containing α-ZrP and two biopolymers were successfully loaded on the FPUF by LbL self-assembly method. • The hybrid nano-coatings exhibited marked reduction in the peak heat release rate of the foam. • The coating resulted in enhanced tensile and tear strength of the foam.

  4. Economics of abdominal wall reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Curtis; Roth, J Scott

    2013-10-01

    The economic aspects of abdominal wall reconstruction are frequently overlooked, although understandings of the financial implications are essential in providing cost-efficient health care. Ventral hernia repairs are frequently performed surgical procedures with significant economic ramifications for employers, insurers, providers, and patients because of the volume of procedures, complication rates, the significant rate of recurrence, and escalating costs. Because biological mesh materials add significant expense to the costs of treating complex abdominal wall hernias, the role of such costly materials needs to be better defined to ensure the most cost-efficient and effective treatments for ventral abdominal wall hernias. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Chondroitin sulfate-polyethylenimine copolymer-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as an efficient magneto-gene carrier for microRNA-encoding plasmid DNA delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yu-Lun; Chou, Han-Lin; Liao, Zi-Xian; Huang, Shih-Jer; Ke, Jyun-Han; Liu, Yu-Sheng; Chiu, Chien-Chih; Wang, Li-Fang

    2015-04-01

    MicroRNA-128 (miR-128) is an attractive therapeutic molecule with powerful glioblastoma regulation properties. However, miR-128 lacks biological stability and leads to poor delivery efficacy in clinical applications. In our previous study, we demonstrated two effective transgene carriers, including polyethylenimine (PEI)-decorated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) as well as chemically-conjugated chondroitin sulfate-PEI copolymers (CPs). In this contribution, we report optimized conditions for coating CPs onto the surfaces of SPIONs, forming CPIOs, for magneto-gene delivery systems. The optimized weight ratio of the CPs and SPIONs is 2 : 1, which resulted in the formation of a stable particle as a good transgene carrier. The hydrodynamic diameter of the CPIOs is ~136 nm. The gel electrophoresis results demonstrate that the weight ratio of CPIO/DNA required to completely encapsulate pDNA is >=3. The in vitro tests of CPIO/DNA were done in 293 T, CRL5802, and U87-MG cells in the presence and absence of an external magnetic field. The magnetofection efficiency of CPIO/DNA was measured in the three cell lines with or without fetal bovine serum (FBS). CPIO/DNA exhibited remarkably improved gene expression in the presence of the magnetic field and 10% FBS as compared with a gold non-viral standard, PEI/DNA, and a commercial magnetofection reagent, PolyMag/DNA. In addition, CPIO/DNA showed less cytotoxicity than PEI/DNA and PolyMag/DNA against the three cell lines. The transfection efficiency of the magnetoplex improved significantly with an assisted magnetic field. In miR-128 delivery, a microRNA plate array and fluorescence in situ hybridization were used to demonstrate that CPIO/pMIRNA-128 indeed expresses more miR-128 with the assisted magnetic field than without. In a biodistribution test, CPIO/Cy5-DNA showed higher accumulation at the tumor site where an external magnet is placed nearby.MicroRNA-128 (miR-128) is an attractive therapeutic molecule

  6. Abdominal wall blocks in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børglum, Jens; Gögenür, Ismail; Bendtsen, Thomas F

    2016-01-01

    been introduced with success. Future research should also investigate the effect of specific abdominal wall blocks on neuroendocrine and inflammatory stress response after surgery.  Summary USG abdominal wall blocks in adults are commonplace techniques today. Most abdominal wall blocks are assigned......Purpose of review Abdominal wall blocks in adults have evolved much during the last decade; that is, particularly with the introduction of ultrasound-guided (USG) blocks. This review highlights recent advances of block techniques within this field and proposes directions for future research.......  Recent findings Ultrasound guidance is now considered the golden standard for abdominal wall blocks in adults, even though some landmark-based blocks are still being investigated. The efficiency of USG transversus abdominis plane blocks in relation to many surgical procedures involving the abdominal wall...

  7. Thin low Z coatings for plasma devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norem, J.; Bowers, D.A.

    1978-05-01

    Coating the walls of the vacuum chamber with beryllium or some other low Z material has been proposed as a possible means of solving the problems of high Z influx into plasmas. We attempt to demonstrate that very thin, low Z coatings are compatible with the operation of plasma devices and beneficial to plasma performance. We determine that the thickness of coating material required is only about 10 monolayers. In a radiation environment, radiation-induced solute segregation should help to maintain the integrity of such thin coatings against diffusion and other processes. We discuss the properties of these thin coatings and possible means of in situ application and maintenance. Since deposition of plasma impurities on the walls will occur anyway, we discuss injection of solid pellets into the plasma as a direct way of introducing impurities which would ultimately serve as coating material

  8. Candidate Gene Identification of Feed Efficiency and Coat Color Traits in a C57BL/6J × Kunming F2 Mice Population Using Genome-Wide Association Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yuanxin; Soudy, Fathia; Xu, Zhong; Liao, Mingxing; Zhao, Shuhong; Li, Xinyun

    2017-01-01

    Feed efficiency (FE) is a very important trait in livestock industry. Identification of the candidate genes could be of benefit for the improvement of FE trait. Mouse is used as the model for many studies in mammals. In this study, the candidate genes related to FE and coat color were identified using C57BL/6J (C57) × Kunming (KM) F2 mouse population. GWAS results showed that 61 and 2 SNPs were genome-wise suggestive significantly associated with feed conversion ratio (FCR) and feed intake (FI) traits, respectively. Moreover, the Erbin, Msrb2, Ptf1a, and Fgf10 were considered as the candidate genes of FE. The Lpl was considered as the candidate gene of FI. Further, the coat color trait was studied. KM mice are white and C57 ones are black. The GWAS results showed that the most significant SNP was located at chromosome 7, and the closely linked gene was Tyr. Therefore, our study offered useful target genes related to FE in mice; these genes may play similar roles in FE of livestock. Also, we identified the major gene of coat color in mice, which would be useful for better understanding of natural mutation of the coat color in mice.

  9. Candidate Gene Identification of Feed Efficiency and Coat Color Traits in a C57BL/6J × Kunming F2 Mice Population Using Genome-Wide Association Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanxin Miao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Feed efficiency (FE is a very important trait in livestock industry. Identification of the candidate genes could be of benefit for the improvement of FE trait. Mouse is used as the model for many studies in mammals. In this study, the candidate genes related to FE and coat color were identified using C57BL/6J (C57 × Kunming (KM F2 mouse population. GWAS results showed that 61 and 2 SNPs were genome-wise suggestive significantly associated with feed conversion ratio (FCR and feed intake (FI traits, respectively. Moreover, the Erbin, Msrb2, Ptf1a, and Fgf10 were considered as the candidate genes of FE. The Lpl was considered as the candidate gene of FI. Further, the coat color trait was studied. KM mice are white and C57 ones are black. The GWAS results showed that the most significant SNP was located at chromosome 7, and the closely linked gene was Tyr. Therefore, our study offered useful target genes related to FE in mice; these genes may play similar roles in FE of livestock. Also, we identified the major gene of coat color in mice, which would be useful for better understanding of natural mutation of the coat color in mice.

  10. Characterization of Al-coated and Uncoated Steel Slags in Flow-through Experiments: An Approach to Evaluate the Potential Efficiency of P Sorption Materials in P Removal Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas, I. S. P.; Penn, C. J.; Huang, C. H.

    2017-12-01

    Excessive phosphorus (P) in surface waters is one of the key drivers of eutrophication. P removal structures are an emerging technology developed to reduce excessive dissolved P in runoff and drainage water, preventing or mitigating P delivery to water systems. One of the determining factors for the success of these structures is the type of P sorption material (PSM) being used. Steel slag, a residue of the steel industry, is an example of PSM proven to be efficient in sequestering dissolved P from water. However, its P sorption capacity can significantly vary, mostly because different steel-making processes generate this PSM. Aluminum-coating is a technology aiming to improve the P sorptive qualities of steel slag. In this study, we characterized eighteen different slag samples from different plants and steel-making processes. Safety, i.e., presence of trace metals, as well as chemical and physical properties were evaluated through digestions, metal-extractions and general chemical and physical characterization (e.g.: pH, buffer index, bulk density). We conducted flow-through experiments, a dynamic sorption approach, on coated and uncoated slag samples in order to evaluate differences in P removal efficiency and the effects of Al-coating. For the Al-coating, a solution of Al2(SO4)3 at two concentrations (94.5 or 66.2 g L-1) was used to coat the slag samples. After 48 hours in contact with the solution, flow-through experiments were performed. All samples were tested with an incoming P concentration of 0.5 mg L-1. Hydraulic residence time was regulated for each steel slag sample, alternating between 9.85 minutes or 0.28 minutes. This study will provide essential information about intrinsic differences in steel slag composition and its efficiency in sequestering P from flowing waters. Moreover, we explore the effects of the Al-coating technique, which can in turn enhance P removal structures efficacy and broaden its adoption.

  11. Activity in SRL Nagoya Coated Conductor Center for YBCO Coated Conductor by IBAD+ PLD Method -Long, high Ic conductor and a new bamboo-like nanostructure for efficient pinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Yutaka; Ibi, Akira; Fukushima, Hiroyuki; Kuriki, Reiji; Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Kobayashi, Hiroyoshi; Ishida, Satoru; Konishi, Masaya; Miyata, Seiki; Watanabe, Tomonori; Kato, Takeharu; Hirayama, Tsukasa; Shiohara, Yuh

    2006-01-01

    In SRL-Nagoya Coated Conductor Center (NCCC), long buffered substrate tapes and YBCO coated conductors have been successfully fabricated by using ion-beam assisted deposition (IBAD) and pulsed laser deposition (PLD) methods. For the buffered tape, the PLD-CeO2 method, what we call the 'Self-Epitaxial' method, realized the high degree of in-plane texturing around 4 degrees along the length of 220 m. For YBCO deposition, we have recently introduced new reel-to-reel PLD equipment with a multi-plume and multi-turn deposition system (MPMT PLD). This system succeeded in fabricating a long coated conductor with a high critical current, Ic, of 245 A and length of 212 m. Ic xL (length) reached the world record of 51940 Am. Furthermore, the introduction of artificial pinning center and RE 123 materials were also studied for improving flux pinning and enhancing Ic. A new columnar structure of the 'bamboo structure' (BaZrO3/Y123 layer-stacked structure) was found in Y123+YSZ sample. This columnar structure and the stacking faults in Gd123 were found to be effective for enhancing pinning properties. Using these techniques, we have succeeded in increasing Ic at 0 T to 480 A/cm and also enhancing Ic in a magnetic field

  12. Sensitive determination of bisphenol A and bisphenol F in canned food using a solid-phase microextraction fibre coated with single-walled carbon nanotubes before GC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastkari, N; Ahmadkhaniha, R; Yunesian, M; Baleh, L J; Mesdaghinia, A

    2010-10-01

    A reliable and sensitive method for simultaneous determination of bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol F (BPF) in canned food by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) is described after extraction and pre-concentration by a new solid-phase microextraction (SPME) adsorbent. The potential of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as SPME adsorbent for the pre-concentration of environmental contaminants has been investigated in recent years. This work was carried out to investigate the feasibility of SWCNTs as a headspace SPME adsorbent for the determination of bisphenol derivatives in canned food. Potential factors affecting the extraction efficiency, including extraction time, extraction temperature, desorption time, desorption temperature, and salinity were optimized. Calibration curves were linear (r(2)> or = 0.994) over the concentration range from 0.30 to 60 microg kg(-1). For both target analytes, the limit of detection (LOD) at signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio of 3 was 0.10 microg kg(-1). In addition, a comparative study between the SWCNT and a commercial polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) SPME fibre for the determination of bisphenol derivatives in canned food was conducted. SWCNT fibre showed higher extraction capacity, better thermal stability (over 350 degrees C) and longer life span (over 150 times) than the commercial PDMS fibre. The method was successfully applied to determine BPA in canned food samples which were purchased from local markets. BPA was found in some of the samples within the concentration range from 0.5 to 5.2 microg kg(-1).

  13. Multi-wall carbon nanotubes supported molybdenyl acetylacetonate: Efficient and highly reusable catalysts for epoxidation of alkenes with tert-butyl hydroperoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esnaashari, Fariba [Department of Chemistry, Catalysis Division, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moghadam, Majid, E-mail: moghadamm@sci.ui.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Catalysis Division, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mirkhani, Valiollah, E-mail: mirkhani@sci.ui.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Catalysis Division, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tangestaninejad, Shahram; Mohammadpoor-Baltork, Iraj; Khosropour, Ahmad Reza; Zakeri, Maryam [Department of Chemistry, Catalysis Division, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    Efficient epoxidation of olefins catalyzed by MoO{sub 2}(acac){sub 2} supported on amines functionalized MWCNTs is reported. The MWCNTs bearing carboxylic acid groups were modified with 2-aminophenol and 2-aminothiophenol. These amine-MWCNTs act as bidentate ligand for attachment of Mo catalyst. These catalysts were characterized by elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR and diffuse reflectance UV-Vis spectroscopic methods. The prepared catalysts were used for efficient epoxidation of different alkenes such as cyclic and linear ones with tert-butyl hydroperoxide in refluxing 1,2-dichloroethane. These heterogeneous catalysts can be reused several times without significant loss of their catalytic activity. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Supporting of molybdenyl acetylacetonate on amine-modified MWCNTs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heterogeneous catalysts were prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These catalysts were highly efficient in the epoxidation of alkenes with TBHP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Makes the catalysts reusable.

  14. Multi-wall carbon nanotubes supported molybdenyl acetylacetonate: Efficient and highly reusable catalysts for epoxidation of alkenes with tert-butyl hydroperoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esnaashari, Fariba; Moghadam, Majid; Mirkhani, Valiollah; Tangestaninejad, Shahram; Mohammadpoor-Baltork, Iraj; Khosropour, Ahmad Reza; Zakeri, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    Efficient epoxidation of olefins catalyzed by MoO 2 (acac) 2 supported on amines functionalized MWCNTs is reported. The MWCNTs bearing carboxylic acid groups were modified with 2-aminophenol and 2-aminothiophenol. These amine–MWCNTs act as bidentate ligand for attachment of Mo catalyst. These catalysts were characterized by elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR and diffuse reflectance UV–Vis spectroscopic methods. The prepared catalysts were used for efficient epoxidation of different alkenes such as cyclic and linear ones with tert-butyl hydroperoxide in refluxing 1,2-dichloroethane. These heterogeneous catalysts can be reused several times without significant loss of their catalytic activity. Highlights: ► Supporting of molybdenyl acetylacetonate on amine-modified MWCNTs. ► Heterogeneous catalysts were prepared. ► These catalysts were highly efficient in the epoxidation of alkenes with TBHP. ► Makes the catalysts reusable.

  15. Optical characterization of antirelaxation coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetkov, S.; Gateva, S.; Cartaleva, S.; Mariotti, E.; Nasyrov, K.

    2018-03-01

    Antirelaxation coatings (ARC) are used in optical cells containing alkali metal vapor to reduce the depolarization of alkali atoms after collisions with the cell walls. The long-lived ground state polarization is a basis for development of atomic clocks, magnetometers, quantum memory, slow light experiments, precision measurements of fundamental symmetries etc. In this work, a simple method for measuring the number of collisions of the alkali atoms with the cell walls without atomic spin randomization (Nasyrov et al., Proc. SPIE (2015)) was applied to characterize the AR properties of two PDMS coatings prepared from different solutions in ether (PDMS 2% and PDMS 5%). We observed influence of the light-induced atomic desorption (LIAD) on the AR properties of coatings.

  16. Up-scalable sheet-to-sheet production of high efficiency perovskite module and solar cells on 6-in. substrate using slot die coating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Giacomo, Francesco; Shanmugam, Santhosh; Fledderus, Henri; Bruijnaers, Bardo J.; Verhees, Wiljan J.H.; Dorenkamper, Maarten S.; Veenstra, Sjoerd C.; Qiu, Weiming; Gehlhaar, Robert; Merckx, Tamara; Aernouts, Tom; Andriessen, Ronn; Galagan, Yulia

    2018-01-01

    Scalable sheet-to-sheet slot die coating processes have been demonstrated for perovskite solar cells and modules. The processes have been developed on 6 in. × 6 in. glass/ITO substrates for two functional layers: the perovskite photo-active layer and the Spiro-OMeTAD hole transport layer. Perovskite

  17. Functionalization of deproteinized bovine bone with a coating-incorporated depot of BMP-2 renders the material efficiently osteoinductive and suppresses foreign-body reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gang; Hunziker, Ernst B; Zheng, Yuanna; Wismeijer, Daniel; Liu, Yuelian

    2011-12-01

    The repair of critical-sized bony defects remains a challenge in the fields of implantology, maxillofacial surgery and orthopaedics. As an alternative bone-defect filler to autologous bone grafts, deproteinized bovine bone (DBB) is highly osteoconductive and clinically now widely used. However, this product suffers from the disadvantage of not being intrinsically osteoinductive. In the present study, this property was conferred by coating DBB with a layer of calcium phosphate into which bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) was incorporated. Granules of DBB bearing a coating-incorporated depot of BMP-2--together with the appropriate controls (DBB bearing a coating but no BMP-2; uncoated DBB bearing adsorbed BMP-2; uncoated DBB bearing no BMP-2)--were implanted subcutaneously in rats. Five weeks later, the implants were withdrawn for a histomorphometric analysis of the volume densities of (i) bone, (ii) bone marrow, (iii) foreign-body giant cells and (iv) fibrous capsular tissue. Parameters (i) and (ii) were highest, whilst parameters (iii) and (iv) were lowest in association with DBB bearing a coating-incorporated depot of BMP-2. Hence, this mode of functionalization not only confers DBB with the property of osteoinductivity but also improves its biocompatibility--thus dually enhancing its clinical potential in the repair of bony defects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. White coat hypertension in pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurko, Alexander; Minarik, Milan; Jurko, Tomas; Tonhajzerova, Ingrid

    2016-01-15

    The article summarizes current information on blood pressure changes in children during clinic visit. White coat as a general dressing of physicians and health care personnel has been widely accepted at the end of the 19th century. Two problems can be associated with the use of white coat: white coat phenomenon and white coat hypertension. Children often attribute pain and other unpleasant experience to the white coat and refuse afterwards cooperation with examinations. Definition of white coat hypertension in the literature is not uniform. It has been defined as elevated blood pressure in the hospital or clinic with normal blood pressure at home measured during the day by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring system. White coat effect is defined as temporary increase in blood pressure before and during visit in the clinic, regardless what the average daily ambulatory blood pressure values are. Clinical importance of white coat hypertension is mainly because of higher risk for cardiovascular accidents that are dependent on end organ damage (heart, vessels, kidney). Current data do not allow any clear recommendations for the treatment. Pharmacological therapy is usually started in the presence of hypertrophic left ventricle, changes in intimal/medial wall thickness of carotic arteries, microalbuminuria and other cardiovascular risk factors. Nonpharmacological therapy is less controversial and certainly more appropriate. Patients have to change their life style, need to eliminate as much cardiovascular risk factors as possible and sustain a regular blood pressure monitoring.

  19. UNDERWATER COATINGS FOR CONTAMINATION CONTROL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julia L. Tripp; Kip Archibald; Ann Marie Phillips; Joseph Campbell

    2004-01-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) deactivated several aging nuclear fuel storage basins. Planners for this effort were greatly concerned that radioactive contamination present on the basin walls could become airborne as the sides of the basins became exposed during deactivation and allowed to dry after water removal. One way to control this airborne contamination was to fix the contamination in place while the pool walls were still submerged. There are many underwater coatings available on the market for marine, naval and other applications. A series of tests were run to determine whether the candidate underwater fixatives were easily applied and adhered well to the substrates (pool wall materials) found in INL fuel pools. Lab-scale experiments were conducted by applying fourteen different commercial underwater coatings to four substrate materials representative of the storage basin construction materials, and evaluating their performance. The coupons included bare concrete, epoxy painted concrete, epoxy painted carbon steel, and stainless steel. The evaluation criteria included ease of application, adherence to the four surfaces of interest, no change on water clarity or chemistry, non-hazardous in final applied form and be proven in underwater applications. A proprietary two-part, underwater epoxy owned by S. G. Pinney and Associates was selected from the underwater coatings tested for application to all four pools. Divers scrubbed loose contamination off the basin walls and floors using a ship hull scrubber and vacuumed up the sludge. The divers then applied the coating using a special powered roller with two separate heated hoses that allowed the epoxy to mix at the roller surface was used to eliminate pot time concerns. The walls were successfully coated and water was removed from the pools with no detectable airborne contamination releases

  20. Protection by high velocity thermal spraying coatings on thick walled permanent and interim store components for the diminution of repairs, corrosion and costs 'SHARK'. Overview at the end of the project; Schutz durch Hochgeschwindigkeitsflammspritzschichten auf dickwandigen End- und Zwischenlagerbauteilen zur Reduktion von Reparaturen, Korrosion und Kosten 'SHARK'. Ein Ueberblick zum Abschluss des Projektes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, Sabine; Hassel, Thomas; Bach, Friedrich-Wilhelm [Unterwassertechnikum Hannover, Garbsen (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstoffkunde; Steinwarz, Wolfgang; Dyllong, Nobert; Tragsdorf, Inga Maren [Siempelkamp Nukleartechnik GmbH, Krefeld (Germany)

    2012-04-15

    The corrosion protection of the internal space of thick-walled interim and permanent storage facility components, such as Castor {sup copyright} containers, are ensured nowadays by a galvanic nickel layer. The method has proved itself and protects the base material of the containers at the underwater loading in the Nuclear power station from a corrosive attack. Although, the galvanic nickel plating is a relatively time consuming method, it lasts for several days for each container, and is with a layer thickness of 1,000 {mu}m also expensive. To develop an alternative, faster and more economical method, a BMBF research project named - 'SHARK - protection by high velocity thermal spraying layers on thick-walled permanent and interim store components for the diminution of repairs, corrosion and costs' in cooperation between Siempelkamp Nukleartechnik GmbH and the Institute of Materials Science of the Leibniz University of Hanover was established to investigate the suitability of the high velocity oxy fuel spraying technology (HVOF) for the corrosion protective coating of thickwalled interim and permanent storage facility components. Since the permanent storage depot components are manufactured from cast iron with globular graphite, this material was exclusively used as a base material in this project. The evaluation of the economical features of the application of different nickel base spraying materials on cast iron substratum was in focus, as well as the scientific characterization of the coating systems with regard to the corrosion protective properties. Furthermore, the feasibility of the transfer of the laboratory results on a large industrial setup as well as a general suitability of the coating process for a required repair procedure was to be investigated. The preliminary examination program identified chromium containing spraying materials as successful. Results of the preliminary examination program have been used for investigations with the CASOIK

  1. Controlled motion of domain walls in submicron amorphous wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ţibu, Mihai; Lostun, Mihaela; Rotărescu, Cristian; Atiţoaie, Alexandru; Lupu, Nicoleta; Óvári, Tibor-Adrian, E-mail: taovari@phys-iasi.ro; Chiriac, Horia [Department of Magnetic Materials and Devices, National Institute of Research and Development for Technical Physics, Iaşi, 700050 (Romania); Allwood, Dan A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-15

    Results on the control of the domain wall displacement in cylindrical Fe{sub 77.5}Si{sub 7.5}B{sub 15} amorphous glass-coated submicron wires prepared by rapid quenching from the melt are reported. The control methods have relied on conical notches with various depths, up to a few tens of nm, made in the glass coating and in the metallic nucleus using a focused ion beam (FIB) system, and on the use of small nucleation coils at one of the sample ends in order to apply magnetic field pulses aimed to enhance the nucleation of reverse domains. The notch-based method is used for the first time in the case of cylindrical ultrathin wires. The results show that the most efficient technique of controlling the domain wall motion in this type of samples is the simultaneous use of notches and nucleation coils. Their effect depends on wire diameter, notch depth, its position on the wire length, and characteristics of the applied pulse.

  2. Stable Single-Mode Operation of Distributed Feedback Quantum Cascade Laser by Optimized Reflectivity Facet Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong-Bo; Zhang, Jin-Chuan; Cheng, Feng-Min; Zhao, Yue; Zhuo, Ning; Zhai, Shen-Qiang; Wang, Li-Jun; Liu, Jun-Qi; Liu, Shu-Man; Liu, Feng-Qi; Wang, Zhan-Guo

    2018-02-01

    In this work, quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) based on strain compensation combined with two-phonon resonance design are presented. Distributed feedback (DFB) laser emitting at 4.76 μm was fabricated through a standard buried first-order grating and buried heterostructure (BH) processing. Stable single-mode emission is achieved under all injection currents and temperature conditions without any mode hop by the optimized antireflection (AR) coating on the front facet. The AR coating consists of a double layer dielectric of Al2O3 and Ge. For a 2-mm laser cavity, the maximum output power of the AR-coated DFB-QCL was more than 170 mW at 20 °C with a high wall-plug efficiency (WPE) of 4.7% in a continuous-wave (CW) mode.

  3. Optical and Structural Properties of Multi-wall-carbon-nanotube-modified ZnO Synthesized at Varying Substrate Temperatures for Highly Efficient Light Sensing Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentine Saasa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Structural, optical and light detection properties on carbon-nanotube-modified ZnO thin films grown at various temperatures from room to 1173 K are investigated. The optical band gap values calculated from reflectivity data show a hump at a critical temperature range of 873-1073 K. Similar trends in surface roughness as well as crystallite size of the films are observed. These changes have been attributed to structural change from wurzite hexagonal to cubic carbon modified ZnO as also validated by x-ray diffraction, RBS and PIXE of these layers. UV and visible light detection properties show similar trends. It is demonstrated that the present films can sense both UV and visible light to a maximum response efficiency of 66 % which is much higher than the last reported efficiency 10 %. This high response is given predominantly by cubic crystallite rather than the wurzite hexagonal composites.

  4. Thickness and morphology of polyelectrolyte coatings on silica surfaces before and after protein exposure studied by atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haselberg, Rob, E-mail: r.haselberg@vu.nl [Biomolecular Analysis, Utrecht University, Universiteitsweg 99, 3584 CG Utrecht (Netherlands); AIMMS Division of BioMolecular Analysis, VU University Amsterdam, de Boelelaan 1083, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Flesch, Frits M. [Biomolecular Analysis, Utrecht University, Universiteitsweg 99, 3584 CG Utrecht (Netherlands); Boerke, Arjan [Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 2, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Somsen, Govert W. [Biomolecular Analysis, Utrecht University, Universiteitsweg 99, 3584 CG Utrecht (Netherlands); AIMMS Division of BioMolecular Analysis, VU University Amsterdam, de Boelelaan 1083, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-05-24

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Atomic force microscopy is used to characterize polyelectrolyte coatings. •Coating procedure leads to nm-thick layers on a silica surface. •Polyelectrolyte coatings effectively prevent protein adsorption. •AFM provides the high resolution to investigate these thin films. •AFM results support earlier findings obtained with capillary electrophoresis. -- Abstract: Analyte–wall interaction is a significant problem in capillary electrophoresis (CE) as it may compromise separation efficiencies and migration time repeatability. In CE, self-assembled polyelectrolyte multilayer films of Polybrene (PB) and dextran sulfate (DS) or poly(vinylsulfonic acid) (PVS) have been used to coat the capillary inner wall and thereby prevent analyte adsorption. In this study, atomic force microscopy (AFM) was employed to investigate the layer thickness and surface morphology of monolayer (PB), bilayer, (PB-DS and PB-PVS), and trilayer (PB-DS-PB and PB-PVS-PB) coatings on glass surfaces. AFM nanoshaving experiments providing height distributions demonstrated that the coating procedures led to average layer thicknesses between 1 nm (PB) and 5 nm (PB-DS-PB), suggesting the individual polyelectrolytes adhere flat on the silica surface. Investigation of the surface morphology of the different coatings by AFM revealed that the PB coating does not completely cover the silica surface, whereas full coverage was observed for the trilayer coatings. The DS-containing coatings appeared on average 1 nm thicker than the corresponding PVS-containing coatings, which could be attributed to the molecular structure of the anionic polymers applied. Upon exposure to the basic protein cytochrome c, AFM measurements showed an increase of the layer thickness for bare (3.1 nm) and PB-DS-coated (4.6 nm) silica, indicating substantial protein adsorption. In contrast, a very small or no increase of the layer thickness was observed for the PB and PB-DS-PB coatings

  5. Laser reflector with an interference coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vol'pyan, O D; Semenov, A A; Yakovlev, P P

    1998-01-01

    An analysis was made of the reflectivity of interference coatings intended for the use in optical pumping of solid-state lasers. Ruby and Nd 3+ :YAG lasers were used as models in comparative pumping efficiency measurements, carried out employing reflectors with interference and silver coatings. Estimates of the service life of reflectors with interference coatings were obtained. The power of a thermo-optical lens was reduced by the use of such coatings in cw lasers. (laser system components)

  6. Topological domain walls in helimagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenherr, P.; Müller, J.; Köhler, L.; Rosch, A.; Kanazawa, N.; Tokura, Y.; Garst, M.; Meier, D.

    2018-05-01

    Domain walls naturally arise whenever a symmetry is spontaneously broken. They interconnect regions with different realizations of the broken symmetry, promoting structure formation from cosmological length scales to the atomic level1,2. In ferroelectric and ferromagnetic materials, domain walls with unique functionalities emerge, holding great promise for nanoelectronics and spintronics applications3-5. These walls are usually of Ising, Bloch or Néel type and separate homogeneously ordered domains. Here we demonstrate that a wide variety of new domain walls occurs in the presence of spatially modulated domain states. Using magnetic force microscopy and micromagnetic simulations, we show three fundamental classes of domain walls to arise in the near-room-temperature helimagnet iron germanium. In contrast to conventional ferroics, the domain walls exhibit a well-defined inner structure, which—analogous to cholesteric liquid crystals—consists of topological disclination and dislocation defects. Similar to the magnetic skyrmions that form in the same material6,7, the domain walls can carry a finite topological charge, permitting an efficient coupling to spin currents and contributions to a topological Hall effect. Our study establishes a new family of magnetic nano-objects with non-trivial topology, opening the door to innovative device concepts based on helimagnetic domain walls.

  7. Electropolymerization of Ni–LD metallopolymers on gold nanoparticles enriched multi-walled carbon nanotubes as nano-structure electrocatalyst for efficient voltammetric sertraline detection in human serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoja, Yalda; Rafati, Amir Abbas; Ghodsi, Javad

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Electrodepositionof gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) on MWCNTs/GCE by potentiostatic double-pulse technique. • Cyclicvoltammetric method was used for electropolymerization of nano-structure Ni–LD on Au NPs/MWCNTs/GCE surface. • Synergisticeffect between Au NPs and MWCNTs in the modified GCE provided a larger surface area to allow more Ni(II)–LD complex electropolymerized onmodified electrode surface. • The modified electrode exhibited good reproducibility, sensitivity, stability, selectivity and lower limit of detection toward sertraline oxidation. - Abstract: In the following study attempts were made to present a novel and sensitive strategy for sensing and determining sertraline. To reach the goal of the study therefore, nano-structured Ni(II)–LD (LD: levodopa) film was electropolymerized on glassy carbon electrode (GCE) which was modified by gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) enriched multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in alkaline solution. Double-pulse electrochemical technique was applied for electrodeposition of Au NPs on MWCNTs which were immobilized on glassy carbon electrode surface. In the next step, the prepared Au NPs/MWCNT/GCE was modified with Ni (II)–LD film by using cyclic voltammetry technique. Structure of Ni (II)–LD/Au NPs/MWCNT/GCE was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Furthermore, the electrochemical behavior of Ni (II)–LD/Au NPs/MWCNTs composite and oxidation of sertraline in alkaline solutions was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV). It was found that the prepared Ni(II)–LD/Au NPs/MWCNTs nanocomposite, due to its unique properties, reveals high electrocatalytic activity towards oxidation of sertraline. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was used for determining sertraline in the range of 0.05–5.5 μM with a good sensitivity (16.128 μA/μM) and a low detection limit of 95 nM (for S/N = 3). Finally, the developed

  8. Tribology and coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The future use of fuel-efficient, low-emission, advanced transportation systems (for example, those using low-heat-rejection diesel engines or advanced gas turbines) presents new challenges to tribologists and materials scientists. High service temperatures, corrosive environments, and extreme contact pressures are among the concerns that make necessary new tribological designs, novel materials, and effective lubrication concepts. Argonne is working on methods to reduce friction, wear and corrosion, such as soft metal coatings on ceramics, layered compounds, diamond coatings, and hard surfaces.

  9. Underwater Coatings for Contamination Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julia L. Tripp; Kip Archibald; Ann-Marie Phillips; Joseph Campbell

    2004-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is deactivating several fuel storage basins. Airborne contamination is a concern when the sides of the basins are exposed and allowed to dry during water removal. One way of controlling this airborne contamination is to fix the contamination in place while the pool walls are still submerged. There are many underwater coatings available on the market that are used in marine, naval and other applications. A series of tests were run to determine whether the candidate underwater fixatives are easily applied and adhere well to the substrates (pool wall materials) found in INEEL fuel pools. The four pools considered included (1) Test Area North (TAN-607) with epoxy painted concrete walls; (2) Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) (CPP-603) with bare concrete walls; (3) Materials Test Reactor (MTR) Canal with stainless steel lined concrete walls; and (4) Power Burst Facility (PBF-620) with stainless steel lined concrete walls on the bottom and epoxy painted carbon steel lined walls on the upper portions. Therefore, the four materials chosen for testing included bare concrete, epoxy painted concrete, epoxy painted carbon steel, and stainless steel. The typical water temperature of the pools varies from 55 F to 80 F dependent on the pool and the season. These tests were done at room temperature. The following criteria were used during this evaluation. The underwater coating must: (1) Be easy to apply; (2) Adhere well to the four surfaces of interest; (3) Not change or have a negative impact on water chemistry or clarity; (4) Not be hazardous in final applied form; and (5) Be proven in other underwater applications. In addition, it is desirable for the coating to have a high pigment or high cross-link density to prevent radiation from penetrating. This paper will detail the testing completed and the test results. A proprietary two-part, underwater epoxy owned by S. G. Pinney and Associates

  10. Design of a high-efficiency grazing incidence monochromator with multilayer-coated laminar gratings for the 1-6 keV region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Masato; Ishino, Masahiko; Sasai, Hiroyuki

    2006-01-01

    A grazing incidence objective monochromator consisting of a spherical mirror, a varied-line-spacing plane grating with multilayered coating, a movable plane multilayered mirror, and a fixed exit slit for the 1-6 keV region has been designed. The included angle at the grating was chosen to satisfy the grating equation and extended Bragg condition simultaneously. The aberration was corrected by means of a hybrid design method. A spectral resolving power of ∼600-∼6000 and a throughput of ∼2%-∼40% is expected for the monochromator when used in an undulator beamline

  11. Inorganic/organic hybrid nanocomposite coating applications: Formulation, characterization, and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyassu, Tsehaye

    Nanotechnology applications in coatings have shown significant growth in recent years. Systematic incorporation of nano-sized inorganic materials into polymer coating enhances optical, electrical, thermal and mechanical properties significantly. The present dissertation will focus on formulation, characterization and evaluation of inorganic/organic hybrid nanocomposite coatings for heat dissipation, corrosion inhibition and ultraviolet (UV) and near infrared (NIR) cut applications. In addition, the dissertation will cover synthesis, characterization and dispersion of functional inorganic fillers. In the first project, we investigated factors that can affect the "Molecular Fan" cooling performance and efficiency. The investigated factors and conditions include types of nanomaterials, size, loading amount, coating thickness, heat sink substrate, substrate surface modification, and power input. Using the optimal factors, MF coating was formulated and applied on commercial HDUs, and cooling efficiencies up to 22% and 23% were achieved using multi-walled carbon nanotube and graphene fillers. The result suggests that molecular fan action can reduce the size and mass of heat-sink module and thus offer a low cost of LED light unit. In the second project, we report the use of thin organic/inorganic hybrid coating as a protection for corrosion and as a thermal management to dissipate heat from galvanized steel. Here, we employed the in-situ phosphatization method for corrosion inhibition and "Molecular fan" technique to dissipate heat from galvanized steel panels and sheets. Salt fog tests reveal successful completion of 72 hours corrosion protection time frame for samples coated with as low as ~0.7microm thickness. Heat dissipation measurement shows 9% and 13% temperature cooling for GI and GL panels with the same coating thickness of ~0.7microm respectively. The effect of different factors, in-situ phosphatization reagent (ISPR), cross-linkers and nanomaterial on corrosion

  12. KETERASINGAN DALAM FILM WALL-E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmadya Putra Nugraha

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern society nowadays technological advances at first create efficiency in human life. Further development of the technology thus drown human in a routine and automation of work created. The State is to be one of the causes of man separated from fellow or the outside world and eventually experiencing alienation. The movie as a mass media function to obtain the movie and entertainment can be informative or educative function is contained, even persuasive. The purpose of this research was conducted to find out the alienation in the movie Wall E. The concepts used to analyze the movie Wall E this is communication, movie, and alienation. The concept of alienation of human alienation from covering its own products of human alienation from its activities, the human alienation from nature of his humanity and human alienation from each other. Paradigm used is a critical paradigm with type a descriptive research with qualitative approach. The method used is the analysis of semiotics Roland Barthes to interpretation the scope of social alienation and fellow humans in the movie.This writing research results found that alienation of humans with other humans influenced the development of the technology and how the human it self represented of technology, not from our fellow human beings. Masyarakat modern saat ini kemajuan teknologi pada awalnya membuat efisiensi dalam kehidupan manusia. Perkembangan selanjutnya teknologi justru menenggelamkan manusia dalam suatu rutinitas dan otomatisasi kerja yang diciptakan. Keadaan itulah yang menjadi salah satu penyebab manusia terpisah dari sesama atau dunia luar dan akhirnya mengalami keterasingan. Film sebagai media massa berfungsi untuk memperoleh hiburan dan dalam film dapat terkandung fungsi informatif maupun edukatif, bahkan persuasif. Tujuan Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui Keterasingan dalam film Wall E. Konsep-konsep yang digunakan untuk menganalisis film Wall E ini adalah komunikasi, film, dan

  13. Efficient solid-phase microextraction of triazole pesticides from natural water samples using a Nafion-loaded trimethylsilane-modified mesoporous silica coating of type SBA-15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abolghasemi, Mir Mahdi; Hassani, Sona; Bamorowat, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    A mesoporous silica surface of type SBA-15 was made more hydrophobic by modification with ethoxytrimethylsilane to obtain a hybrid organic–inorganic mesoporous nanocomposite, which then was impregnated with Nafion. The resulting nanocomposite was used as a fiber coating for solid-phase microextraction (SPME). The trimethylsilyl-modified Nafion/SBA-15 nanocomposite with high surface area was characterized by SEM and FTIR. It was immobilized on a stainless steel wire in order to fabricate a fiber for SPME. This fiber was evaluated for its suitability for extracting triazolic agrochemicals from water samples before their quantification through a combination of gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Experimental conditions for fiber coating, extraction time, stirring rate, ionic strength, pH value, desorption temperature and desorption time were optimized. Under optimum conditions, the repeatability for one fiber (for n = 3) ranges from 4.3 to 5.6 % (relative standard deviation). The detection limits are between 50 and 90 pg⋅mL −1 . The method is simple, fast, low-cost (in terms of equipment), and the fiber used for SPME has high thermal stability and good recovery. (author)

  14. Ultrathin MoS2-coated Ag@Si nanosphere arrays as an efficient and stable photocathode for solar-driven hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qingwei; Su, Shaoqiang; Hu, Die; Lin, Lin; Yan, Zhibo; Gao, Xingsen; Zhang, Zhang; Liu, Jun-Ming

    2018-01-30

    Solar-driven photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting has attracted a great deal of attention recently. Silicon (Si) is an ideal light absorber for solar energy conversion. However, the poor stability and inefficient surface catalysis of Si photocathodes for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) have remained key challenges. Alternatively, MoS 2 has been reported to exhibit excellent catalysis performance if sufficient active sites for the HER are available. Here, ultrathin MoS 2 nanoflakes are directly synthesized to coat arrays of Ag-core Si-shell nanospheres (Ag@Si NSs) by using chemical vapor deposition. Due to the high surface area ratio and large curvature of these NSs, the as-grown MoS 2 nanoflakes can accommodate more active sites. In addition, the high-quality coating of MoS 2 nanoflakes on the Ag@Si NSs protects the photocathode from damage during the PEC reaction. An photocurrent density of 33.3 mA cm -2 at a voltage of -0.4 V is obtained versus the reversible hydrogen electrode. The as-prepared nanostructure as a hydrogen photocathode is evidenced to have high stability over 12 h PEC performance. This work opens up opportunities for composite photocathodes with high activity and stability using cheap and stable co-catalysts.

  15. DNA repair genes RAD52 and SRS2, a cell wall synthesis regulator gene SMI1, and the membrane sterol synthesis scaffold gene ERG28 are important in efficient Agrobacterium-mediated yeast transformation with chromosomal T-DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmine, Yuta; Satoh, Yukari; Kiyokawa, Kazuya; Yamamoto, Shinji; Moriguchi, Kazuki; Suzuki, Katsunori

    2016-04-02

    Plant pathogenic Agrobacterium strains can transfer T-DNA regions of their Ti plasmids to a broad range of eukaryotic hosts, including fungi, in vitro. In the recent decade, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used as a model host to reveal important host proteins for the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation (AMT). Further investigation is required to understand the fundamental mechanism of AMT, including interaction at the cell surface, to expand the host range, and to develop new tools. In this study, we screened a yeast mutant library for low AMT mutant strains by advantage of a chromosome type T-DNA, which transfer is efficient and independent on integration into host chromosome. By the mutant screening, we identified four mutant strains (srs2Δ, rad52Δ, smi1Δ and erg28Δ), which showed considerably low AMT efficiency. Structural analysis of T-DNA product replicons in AMT colonies of mutants lacking each of the two DNA repair genes, SRS2 and RAD52, suggested that the genes act soon after T-DNA entry for modification of the chromosomal T-DNA to stably maintain them as linear replicons and to circularize certain T-DNA simultaneously. The cell wall synthesis regulator SMI1 might have a role in the cell surface interaction between the donor and recipient cells, but the smi1Δ mutant exhibited pleiotropic effect, i.e. low effector protein transport as well as low AMT for the chromosomal T-DNA, but relatively high AMT for integrative T-DNAs. The ergosterol synthesis regulator/enzyme-scaffold gene ERG28 probably contributes by sensing a congested environment, because growth of erg28Δ strain was unaffected by the presence of donor bacterial cells, while the growth of the wild-type and other mutant yeast strains was suppressed by their presence. RAD52 and the DNA helicase/anti-recombinase gene SRS2 are necessary to form and maintain artificial chromosomes through the AMT of chromosomal T-DNA. A sterol synthesis scaffold gene ERG28 is important in the high-efficiency

  16. First wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omori, Junji.

    1991-01-01

    Graphite and C/C composite are used recently for the first wall of a thermonuclear device since materials with small atom number have great impurity allowable capacity for plasmas. Among them, those materials having high thermal conduction are generally anisotropic and have an upper limit for the thickness upon production. Then, anisotropic materials are used for a heat receiving plate, such that the surfaces of the heat receiving plate on the side of lower heat conductivity are brought into contact with each other, and the side of higher thermal conductivity is arranged in parallel with small radius direction and the toroidal direction of the thermonuclear device. As a result, the incident heat on an edge portion can be transferred rapidly to the heat receiving plate, which can suppress the temperature elevation at the surface to thereby reduce the amount of abrasion. Since the heat expansion coefficient of the anisotropic materials is great in the direction of the lower heat conductivity and small in the direction of the higher heat conductivity, the gradient of a thermal load distribution in the direction of the higher heat expansion coefficient is small, and occurrence of thermal stresses due to temperature difference is reduced, to improve the reliability. (N.H.)

  17. Falling walls

    CERN Multimedia

    It was 20 years ago this week that the Berlin wall was opened for the first time since its construction began in 1961. Although the signs of a thaw had been in the air for some time, few predicted the speed of the change that would ensue. As members of the scientific community, we can take a moment to reflect on the role our field played in bringing East and West together. CERN’s collaboration with the East, primarily through links with the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, JINR, in Dubna, Russia, is well documented. Less well known, however, is the role CERN played in bringing the scientists of East and West Germany together. As the Iron curtain was going up, particle physicists on both sides were already creating the conditions that would allow it to be torn down. Cold war historian Thomas Stange tells the story in his 2002 CERN Courier article. It was my privilege to be in Berlin on Monday, the anniversary of the wall’s opening, to take part in a conference entitled &lsquo...

  18. Self-Healing anticorrosive coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nesterova, Tatyana

    %. The number is lower than anticipated and needs to be confirmed. Finally, a 3-D model, based on Monte-Carlo simulations, has been developed for prediction of healing efficiency of a microcapsule-based anticorrosive coating. Two kinds of cracks were considered: cracks accommodated within the bulk coating...... associated with development and testing of this type of coating. A laboratory investigation, to identify the most suitable method for production of mechanically stable (filled with industrially relevant core materials) and forming a free-flowing powder upon drying microcapsules, has been performed. Four...... reduces the intensity of crack formation (both in number and length) compared to filler-containing coatings and prevents the coating from flaking upon damage. Based on specular gloss measurements, a preliminary critical pigment (microcapsule) concentration (CPVC) value was estimated to about 30 vol...

  19. Preparation of sustained release capsules by electrostatic dry powder coating, using traditional dip coating as reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan; Shen, Lian; Yuan, Feng; Fu, Hui; Shan, Weiguang

    2018-05-30

    Lately, a great deal of attention is being paid to capsule coating, since the coat protects active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) from damage, as is in the case of tablet and pellet. However, moisture and heat sensitivity of gelatin shells make it challenging to coat capsules using the conventional aqueous coating techniques. In an effort to overcome this challenge, the present study aims to coat capsules using two different coating techniques: electrostatic dry powder coating (EDPC) and dip coating (DC). Both capsule coatings and free films were prepared by these two coating techniques, and the effects of coating formulations and processing conditions on the film quality were investigated. The corresponding drug in vitro release and mechanisms were characterized and compared. The results of dissolution tests demonstrated that the drug release behavior of both EDPC and DC coated capsules could be optimized to a sustained release of 24 h, following the Fick's diffusion law. The results of this study suggest that EDPC method is better than DC method for coating capsules, with respect to the higher production efficiency and better stability, indicating that this dry coating technology has promised in gelatin capsule coating applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparative efficiencies of photothermal destruction of malignant cells using antibody-coated silica-Au nanoshells, hollow Au/Ag nanospheres and Au nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Fong-Yu; Chen, Chen-Tai; Yeh, Chen-Sheng, E-mail: csyeh@mail.ncku.edu.t [Department of Chemistry, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)

    2009-10-21

    Three Au-based nanomaterials (silica-Au nanoshells, hollow Au/Ag nanospheres and Au nanorods) were evaluated for their comparative photothermal efficiencies at killing three types of malignant cells (A549 lung cancer cells, HeLa cervix cancer cells and TCC bladder cancer cells) using a CW NIR laser. Photodestructive efficiency was evaluated as a function of the number of nanoparticles required to destroy the cancer cells under 808 nm laser wavelength at fixed laser power. Of the three nanomaterials, silica/Au nanoshells needed the minimum number of particles to produce effective photodestruction, whereas Au nanorods needed the largest number of particles. Together with the calculated photothermal conversion efficiency, the photothermal efficiency rankings are silica-Au nanoshells > hollow Au/Ag nanospheres > Au nanorods. Additionally, we found that HeLa cells seem to present better heat tolerance than the other two cancer cell lines.

  1. for zeolite coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Renato Rambo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Biotemplating is the processing of microcellular ceramics by reproduction of natural morphologies, where the microstructural features of the biotemplate are maintained in the biomorphic ceramic. Different biotemplates with distinct pore anatomies were used to produce biomorphic supports for the zeolite coating: wood, cardboard, sea-sponge and sisal. The biomorphic ceramics were produced by distinguished processing routes: Al-gas infiltration-reaction, liquid-metal infiltration, dip-coating and sol-gel synthesis, in order to produce nitrides, carbides and oxides, depending on the processing conditions. The zeolite coating was performed by hydrothermal growth of MFI-type (Silicalite-1 and ZSM-5 zeolite crystals onto the internal pore walls of the biomorphic templates. The final biomorphic ceramic-zeolite composites were physically characterized, evaluated in terms of their gas adsorption capabilities and correlated to their microstructure and specific pore anatomy. The combination of the properties of the biomorphic ceramics with the adsorption properties of zeolites results in materials with distinct properties as potential candidates for adsorption and catalytic applications due to their characteristic porosity, molecular sieving capabilities and high thermo-mechanical strength.

  2. Hard coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dan, J.P.; Boving, H.J.; Hintermann, H.E.

    1993-01-01

    Hard, wear resistant and low friction coatings are presently produced on a world-wide basis, by different processes such as electrochemical or electroless methods, spray technologies, thermochemical, CVD and PVD. Some of the most advanced processes, especially those dedicated to thin film depositions, basically belong to CVD or PVD technologies, and will be looked at in more detail. The hard coatings mainly consist of oxides, nitrides, carbides, borides or carbon. Over the years, many processes have been developed which are variations and/or combinations of the basic CVD and PVD methods. The main difference between these two families of deposition techniques is that the CVD is an elevated temperature process (≥ 700 C), while the PVD on the contrary, is rather a low temperature process (≤ 500 C); this of course influences the choice of substrates and properties of the coating/substrate systems. Fundamental aspects of the vapor phase deposition techniques and some of their influences on coating properties will be discussed, as well as the very important interactions between deposit and substrate: diffusions, internal stress, etc. Advantages and limitations of CVD and PVD respectively will briefly be reviewed and examples of applications of the layers will be given. Parallel to the development and permanent updating of surface modification technologies, an effort was made to create novel characterisation methods. A close look will be given to the coating adherence control by means of the scratch test, at the coating hardness measurement by means of nanoindentation, at the coating wear resistance by means of a pin-on-disc tribometer, and at the surface quality evaluation by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Finally, main important trends will be highlighted. (orig.)

  3. Beryllium coating on Inconel tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailescu, V.; Burcea, G.; Lungu, C.P.; Mustata, I.; Lungu, A.M.; Rubel, M.; Coad, J.P.; Matthews, G.; Pedrick, L.; Handley, R.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The Joint European Torus (JET) is a large experimental nuclear fusion device. Its aim is to confine and study the behaviour of plasma in conditions and dimensions approaching those required for a fusion reactor. The plasma is created in the toroidal shaped vacuum vessel of the machine in which it is confined by magnetic fields. In preparation for ITER a new ITER-like Wall (ILW) will be installed on Joint European Torus (JET), a wall not having any carbon facing the plasma [1]. In places Inconel tiles are to be installed, these tiles shall be coated with Beryllium. MEdC represented by the National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Magurele, Bucharest and in direct cooperation with Nuclear Fuel Plant Pitesti started to coat Inconel tiles with 8 μm of Beryllium in accordance with the requirements of technical specification and fit for installation in the JET machine. This contribution provides an overview of the principles of manufacturing processes using thermal evaporation method in vacuum and the properties of the prepared coatings. The optimization of the manufacturing process (layer thickness, structure and purity) has been carried out on Inconel substrates (polished and sand blasted) The results of the optimization process and analysis (SEM, TEM, XRD, Auger, RBS, AFM) of the coatings will be presented. Reference [1] Takeshi Hirai, H. Maier, M. Rubel, Ph. Mertens, R. Neu, O. Neubauer, E. Gauthier, J. Likonen, C. Lungu, G. Maddaluno, G. F. Matthews, R. Mitteau, G. Piazza, V. Philipps, B. Riccardi, C. Ruset, I. Uytdenhouwen, R and D on full tungsten divertor and beryllium wall for JET TIER-like Wall Project, 24. Symposium on Fusion Technology - 11-15 September 2006 -Warsaw, Poland. (authors)

  4. Assessment of total efficiency in adiabatic engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitianiec, W.

    2016-09-01

    The paper presents influence of ceramic coating in all surfaces of the combustion chamber of SI four-stroke engine on working parameters mainly on heat balance and total efficiency. Three cases of engine were considered: standard without ceramic coating, fully adiabatic combustion chamber and engine with different thickness of ceramic coating. Consideration of adiabatic or semi-adiabatic engine was connected with mathematical modelling of heat transfer from the cylinder gas to the cooling medium. This model takes into account changeable convection coefficient based on the experimental formulas of Woschni, heat conductivity of multi-layer walls and also small effect of radiation in SI engines. The simulation model was elaborated with full heat transfer to the cooling medium and unsteady gas flow in the engine intake and exhaust systems. The computer program taking into account 0D model of engine processes in the cylinder and 1D model of gas flow was elaborated for determination of many basic engine thermodynamic parameters for Suzuki DR-Z400S 400 cc SI engine. The paper presents calculation results of influence of the ceramic coating thickness on indicated pressure, specific fuel consumption, cooling and exhaust heat losses. Next it were presented comparisons of effective power, heat losses in the cooling and exhaust systems, total efficiency in function of engine rotational speed and also comparison of temperature inside the cylinder for standard, semi-adiabatic and full adiabatic engine. On the basis of the achieved results it was found higher total efficiency of adiabatic engines at 2500 rpm from 27% for standard engine to 37% for full adiabatic engine.

  5. Fabrication of silicon solar cell with >18% efficiency using spin-on-film processing for phosphorus diffusion and SiO{sub 2}/graded index TiO{sub 2} anti-reflective coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yi-Yu; Ho, Wen-Jeng, E-mail: wjho@ntut.edu.tw; Yeh, Chien-Wu

    2015-11-01

    Highlights: • Employed SOF technology for both phosphorus diffusion and multi-layer ARCs. • Optical properties of TiO{sub 2}, SiO{sub 2}, and SiO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} films are characterized. • Photovoltaic performances of the fabricated solar cells are measured and compared. • An impressive efficiency of 18.25% was obtained by using the SOF processes. - Abstract: This study employed spin-on film (SOF) technology for the fabrication of phosphorus diffusion and multi-layer anti-reflective coatings (ARCs) with a graded index on silicon (Si) wafers. Low cost and high efficiency solar cells are important issues for the operating cost of a photovoltaic system. SOF technology for the fabrication of solar cells can be for the achievement of this goal. This study succeeded in the application of SOF technology in the preparation of both phosphorus diffusion and SiO{sub 2}/graded index TiO{sub 2} ARCs for Si solar cells. Optical properties of TiO{sub 2}, SiO{sub 2}, and multi-layer SiO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} deposition by SOF are characterized. Electrical and optical characteristics of the fabricated solar cells are measured and compared. An impressive efficiency of 18.25% was obtained by using the SOF processes.

  6. Toward Tungsten Plasma-Facing Components in KSTAR: Research on Plasma-Metal Wall Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, S. H.; Kim, K. M.; Song, J. H.; Bang, E. N.; Kim, H. T.; Lee, K. S.; Litnovsky, A.; Hellwig, M.; Seo, D. C.; van den Berg, M. A.; Lee, H. H.; Kang, C. S.; Lee, H. Y.; Hong, J. H.; Bak, J. G.; Kim, H. S.; Juhn, J. W.; Son, S. H.; Kim, H. K.; Douai, D.; Grisolia, C.; Wu, J.; Luo, G. N.; Choe, W. H.; Komm, M.; De Temmerman, G.; Pitts, R.

    2015-01-01

    One of the main missions of KSTAR is to develop long-pulse operation capability relevant to the production of fusion energy. After a full metal wall configuration was decided for ITER, a major upgrade for KSTAR was planned, to a tungsten first wall similar to the JET ITER-like wall (coatings and

  7. Development and electrochemical characterization of Ni‐P coated tungsten incorporated electroless nickel coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibli, S.M.A., E-mail: smashibli@yahoo.com; Chinchu, K.S.

    2016-08-01

    Ni‐P-W alloy and composite coatings were prepared by incorporation of sodium tungstate/tungsten and Ni‐P coated tungsten into electroless nickel bath respectively. Good inter-particle interactions among the depositing elements i.e. Ni and P with the incorporating tungsten particles were achieved by means of pre-coated tungsten particle by electroless nickel covering prior to its addition into the electroless bath. The pre-coated tungsten particles got incorporated uniformly into the Ni-P matrix of the coating. The particles and the coatings were characterized at different stages by different techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). The electroless Ni-P coating incorporated with pre-coated tungsten exhibited considerably high hardness, thickness and deposition rate. The performance and corrosion resistance characteristics of the composite coating incorporated with the nickel coated tungsten were found to be superior over other conventional Ni-P-W ternary alloy coatings currently reported. - Highlights: • An amorphous Ni-P coating was effectively formed on tungsten particles. • Electroless ternary Ni-P-W composite coatings were successfully prepared. • Enhancement in the inter-particle interaction in the Ni-P composite matrix was achieved. • Efficient and uniform incorporation of the composite in the internal layer was evident. • The tungsten incorporated coating possessed effective barrier protection.

  8. Efficiency of riboflavin and ultraviolet light treatment against high levels of biofilm-derived Staphylococcus epidermidis in buffy coat platelet concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, M; Culibrk, B; Kalab, M; Schubert, P; Yi, Q-L; Goodrich, R; Ramirez-Arcos, S

    2017-07-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis forms surface-attached aggregates (biofilms) in platelet concentrates (PCs), which are linked to missed detection during PC screening. This study was aimed at evaluating the efficacy of riboflavin-UV treatment to inactivate S. epidermidis biofilms in buffy coat (BC) PCs. Biofilm and non-biofilm cells from S. epidermidis ST-10002 and S. epidermidis AZ-66 were individually inoculated into whole blood (WB) units (~10 6 colony-forming units (CFU)/ml) (N = 4-5). One spiked and three unspiked WB units were processed to produce a BC-PC pool. Riboflavin was added to the pool which was then split into two bags: one for UV treatment and the second was untreated. Bacterial counts were determined before and after treatment. In vitro PC quality was assessed by flow cytometry and dynamic light scattering. Bacterial counts were reduced during BC-PC production from ~10 6 CFU/ml in WB to 10 3 -10 4 CFU/ml in PCs (P Riboflavin-UV treatment resulted in significantly higher reduction of S. epidermidis AZ-66 than strain ST-10002 (≥3·5 log reduction and 2·6-2·8 log reduction, respectively, P 0·05). Platelet activation was enhanced in PCs produced with WB inoculated with biofilms compared to non-biofilm cells (P Riboflavin-UV treatment was similarly efficacious in PCs produced from WB inoculated with S. epidermidis biofilm or non-biofilm cells. Levels of biofilm-derived S. epidermidis ≥10 3 CFU/ml were not completely inactivated; however, further testing is necessary with lower (real-life) bacterial levels. © 2017 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  9. Facile functionalized of SBA-15 via a biomimetic coating and its application in efficient removal of uranium ions from aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Jun-Kai [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); School of Energy and Environmental Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300401 (China); Hou, Li-An; Zhang, Guang-Hui [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Gu, Ping, E-mail: guping@tju.edu.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2015-04-09

    Highlights: • Dopamine-functionalized SBA-15 (DMS) was developed via a biomimetic coating. • The modification approach was simple, facile and cost-effective. • The DMS was firstly used to remove U(VI) from aqueous solution. • Large adsorption capacity and rapid separation were obtained. - Abstract: A novel dopamine-functionalized mesoporous silica (DMS), synthesized by grafting dopamine onto a mesoporous molecular sieve (SBA-15), was developed as a sorbent to extract U(VI) from aqueous solution. The method used to modify SBA-15 was simple, facile and cost-effective. The DMS was characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD and BET, showing that the material had an ordered mesoporous structure and a large surface area. The effect of contact time, pH, ionic strength, temperature, and solid–liquid ratio on the sorption process was investigated. It was demonstrated that the adsorption of U(VI) by DMS was fast and that it can be described by the pseudo-second order-equation where the equilibrium time was 20 min. Additionally, the adsorption isotherm data were fitted well by the Langmuir model with the maximum adsorption capacity of DMS of 196 mg/g at pH 6.0. Furthermore, the influence of the K{sup +} and Na{sup +} concentrations and solid-to-liquid ratio on the sorption was very weak, and the values of the thermodynamic parameters revealed that the sorption process was exothermic and spontaneous. All the results suggested that the DMS could be used as an excellent adsorbent to remove U(VI) from aqueous solution.

  10. Humic acid coated Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles as highly efficient Fenton-like catalyst for complete mineralization of sulfathiazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu Hongyun; Zhang Di; Zhang Shengxiao; Zhang Xiaole; Meng Zhaofu; Cai Yaqi

    2011-01-01

    Humic acid coated Fe 3 O 4 magnetic nanoparticles (Fe 3 O 4 /HA) were prepared for the removal of sulfathiazole from aqueous media. Fe 3 O 4 /HA exhibited high activity to produce hydroxyl (·OH) radicals through catalytic decomposition of H 2 O 2 . The degradation of sulfathiazole was strongly temperature-dependent and favored in acidic solution. The catalytic rate was increased with Fe 3 O 4 /HA dosage and H 2 O 2 concentration. When 3 g L -1 of Fe 3 O 4 /HA and 0.39 M of H 2 O 2 were introduced to the aqueous solution, most sulfathiazole was degraded within 1 h, and >90% of total organic carbon (TOC) were removed in the reaction period (6 h). The major final products were identified as environmentally friendly ions or inorganic molecules (SO 4 2- , CO 2 , and N 2 ). The corresponding degradation rate (k) of sulfathiazole and TOC was 0.034 and 0.0048 min -1 , respectively. However, when 3 g L -1 of bare Fe 3 O 4 were used as catalyst, only 54% of TOC was eliminated, and SO 4 2- was not detected within 6 h. The corresponding degradation rate for sulfathiazole and TOC was 0.01 and 0.0016 min -1 , respectively. The high catalytic ability of Fe 3 O 4 /HA may be caused by the electron transfer among the complexed Fe(II)-HA or Fe(III)-HA, leading to rapid regeneration of Fe(II) species and production of ·OH radicals.

  11. Electroless or autocatalytic coating of microparticles for laser fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, A.; Catlett, D.S.

    1977-04-01

    Use of a novel device for applying uniform metallic coatings to spherical microparticles is described. The apparatus deposits electroless metal coatings on hollow, thin-walled metal or sensitized nonmetallic micromandrels. The apparatus and process were developed for fabrication of microsphere pressure vessels for use as targets in laser-initiated fusion research

  12. Highly Efficient F, Cu doped TiO2 anti-bacterial visible light active photocatalytic coatings to combat hospital-acquired infections

    OpenAIRE

    Nigel S. Leyland; Joanna Podporska-Carroll; John Browne; Steven J. Hinder; Brid Quilty; Suresh C. Pillai

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial infections are a major threat to the health of patients in healthcare facilities including hospitals. One of the major causes of patient morbidity is infection with Staphylococcus aureus. One of the the most dominant nosocomial bacteria, Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have been reported to survive on hospital surfaces (e.g. privacy window glasses) for up to 5 months. None of the current anti-bacterial technology is efficient in eliminating Staphylococcus aureus. ...

  13. Cold-Sprayed AZ91D Coating and SiC/AZ91D Composite Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available As an emerging coating building technique, cold spraying has many advantages to elaborate Mg alloy workpieces. In this study, AZ91D coatings and AZ91D-based composite coatings were deposited using cold spraying. Coatings were prepared using different gas temperatures to obtain the available main gas temperature. Compressed air was used as the accelerating gas, and although magnesium alloy is oxidation-sensitive, AZ91D coatings with good performance were obtained. The results show that dense coatings can be fabricated until the gas temperature is higher than 500 °C. The deposition efficiency increases greatly with the gas temperature, but it is lower than 10% for all coating specimens. To analyze the effects of compressed air on AZ91D powder particles and the effects of gas temperature on coatings, the phase composition, porosity, cross-sectional microstructure, and microhardness of coatings were characterized. X-ray diffraction and oxygen content analysis clarified that no phase transformation or oxidation occurred on AZ91D powder particles during cold spraying processes with compressed air. The porosity of AZ91D coatings remained between 3.6% and 3.9%. Impact melting was found on deformed AZ91D particles when the gas temperature increased to 550 °C. As-sprayed coatings exhibit much higher microhardness than as-casted bulk magnesium, demonstrating the dense structure of cold-sprayed coatings. To study the effects of ceramic particles on cold-sprayed AZ91D coatings, 15 vol % SiC powder particles were added into the feedstock powder. Lower SiC content in the coating than in the feedstock powder means that the deposition efficiency of the SiC powder particles is lower than the deposition efficiency of AZ91D particles. The addition of SiC particles reduces the porosity and increases the microhardness of cold-sprayed AZ91D coatings. The corrosion behavior of AZ91D coating and SiC reinforced AZ91D composite coating were examined. The Si

  14. Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of multi-walled carbon nano tubes (MWCNT) onto indium-tin-oxide (ITO) glass substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Roslie Ali; Shahrul Nizam Mohd Salleh

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Multi-Walled Carbon Nano tubes (MWCNT) were deposited onto Indium-Tin-Oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrates by introducing the use of Electrophoretic Deposition (EPD) as the method. The Multi-Walled Carbon Nano tubes (MWCNT) were dispersed ultrasonically in ethanol and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to form stable suspension. The addition of Sodium Hydroxide in ethanol can stabilize the suspension, which was very important step before the deposition take place. Two substrates of Indium-Tin-Oxide(ITO)-coated glass placed in parallel facing each other (conductive side) into the suspension. The deposition occurs at room temperature, which the distance fixed at 1 cm between both electrodes and the voltage level applied was fixed at 400 V, respectively. The deposition time also was fixed at 30 minutes. The deposited ITO-Glass with Multi-Walled Carbon Nano tubes (MWCNT) will be characterized using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), and Raman Microscope. The images of SEM shows that the Multi -Walled Carbon Nano tubes (MWCNT) were distributed uniformly onto the surface of ITO-Glass. The deposited ITO-Glass with Multi-Walled Carbon Nano tubes (MWCNT) could be the potential material in various practical applications such as field emission devices, fuel cells, and super capacitors. Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) technique was found to be an efficient technique in forming well distribution of Multi-Walled Carbon Nano tubes (MWCNT) onto ITO-Glass substrates, as proved in characterization methods, in which the optimum conditions will play the major role. (author)

  15. Continuously renewed wall for a thermonuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livshits, A.I.; Pustovojt, YU.M.; Samartsev, A.A.; Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol'zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Atomnoj Ehnergii)

    1982-01-01

    The possibility of creating a continuously renewed first wall of a thermonuclear reactor is experimentally investigated. The following variants of the wall are considered: the wall is double, its part turned to plasma is made of comparatively thin material. The external part separated from it by a small gap appears to be protected from interaction with plasma and performs structural functions. The gap contains the mixture of light helium and hydrogen and carbon-containing gas. The light gas transfers heat from internal part of the wall to the external part. Carbon-containing gas provides continuous renewal of carbon coating of the operating surface. The experiment is performed with palladium membrane 20 μm thick. Carbon is introduced into the membrane by benzol pyrolysis on one of the surfaces at the membrane temperature of 900 K. Carbon removal from the operating side of the wall due to its spraying by fast particles is modelled by chemical itching with oxygen given to the operating membrane wall. Observation of the carbon release on the operating surface is performed mass-spectrometrically according to the observation over O 2 transformation into CO and CO 2 . It is shown that in cases of benzol pressure of 5x10 -7 torr, carbon current on the opposite surface is not less than 3x10 12 atoms/sm 2 s and corresponds to the expected wall spraying rate in CF thermonuclear reactors. It is also shown that under definite conditions the formation and maintaining of a through protective carbon coating in the form of a monolayer or volumetric phase is possible

  16. Tritium decontamination of machine components and walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hircq, B.; Wong, K.Y.; Jalbert, R.A.; Shmayda, W.T.

    1991-01-01

    Tritium decontamination techniques for machine components and their application at tritium handling facilities are reviewed. These include commonly used methods such as vacuuming, purging, thermal desorption and isotopic exchange as well as less common methods such as chemical/electrochemical etching, plasma discharge cleaning, and destructive methods. Problems associated with tritium contamination of walls and use of protective coatings are reviewed. Tritium decontamination considerations at fusion facilities are discussed

  17. Electrochemically active MnO{sub 2} coated Li{sub 1.2}Ni{sub 0.18}Co{sub 0.04}Mn{sub 0.58}O{sub 2} cathode with highly improved initial coulombic efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Yanling; Xu, Youlong, E-mail: ylxu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Sun, Xiaofei; Xiong, Lilong; Mao, Shengchun

    2016-10-30

    Highlights: • MnO{sub 2} was used to coat lithium-rich layered oxide Li{sub 1.2}Ni{sub 0.18}Co{sub 0.04}Mn{sub 0.58}O{sub 2}. • MnO{sub 2} is electrochemically active and became spinel phase after cycles. • MnO{sub 2}-coated material shows noticeably improved initial coulombic efficiency. • Specific capacities and rate performances could also be enhanced by MnO{sub 2} coating. - Abstract: Lithium-rich layered oxide is known to be one of the most promising positive electrode materials for lithium ion batteries due to its large capacity and high energy density. However, low initial coulombic efficiency is currently an urgent problem hindering its practical application. In this work, electrochemically active MnO{sub 2} coating was used to improve the coulombic efficiency of Li{sub 1.2}Ni{sub 0.18}Co{sub 0.04}Mn{sub 0.58}O{sub 2}. Firstly, the pristine material was synthesized via co-precipitation following by solid-state calcination. Then MnO{sub 2}-coated Li{sub 1.2}Ni{sub 0.18}Co{sub 0.04}Mn{sub 0.58}O{sub 2} was prepared by heat treatment of the mixture of pristine powder and manganese nitrate. During first discharging, lithium ions can intercalate into not only the delithiated Li{sub 1.2}Ni{sub 0.18}Co{sub 0.04}Mn{sub 0.58}O{sub 2} but also the MnO{sub 2} coating, thus noticeably improves the coulombic efficiency and discharge capacity. The initial efficiency is enhanced from 61.2% (pristine) to 84.4%, 88.8% and 95.4%, respectively, for 10 wt.%, 15 wt.% and 20 wt.% MnO{sub 2} coated Li{sub 1.2}Ni{sub 0.18}Co{sub 0.04}Mn{sub 0.58}O{sub 2} at 20 mA g{sup −1}. Furthermore, the 15 wt.% MnO{sub 2} coated sample delivers an initial discharge capacity as high as 294.4 mAh g{sup −1}.

  18. Sol-Gel Derived Hafnia Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Jay D.; Stackpoole, Mairead; Blum, Yigal; Sacks, Michael; Ellerby, Don; Johnson, Sylvia M.; Venkatapathy, Ethiras (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Sol-gel derived hafnia coatings are being developed to provide an oxidation protection layer on ultra-high temperature ceramics for potential use in turbine engines (ultra-efficient engine technology being developed by NASA). Coatings using hafnia sol hafnia filler particles will be discussed along with sol synthesis and characterization.

  19. A facile and efficient method of enzyme immobilization on silica particles via Michael acceptor film coatings: immobilized catalase in a plug flow reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayramoglu, Gulay; Arica, M Yakup; Genc, Aysenur; Ozalp, V Cengiz; Ince, Ahmet; Bicak, Niyazi

    2016-06-01

    A novel method was developed for facile immobilization of enzymes on silica surfaces. Herein, we describe a single-step strategy for generating of reactive double bonds capable of Michael addition on the surfaces of silica particles. This method was based on reactive thin film generation on the surfaces by heating of impregnated self-curable polymer, alpha-morpholine substituted poly(vinyl methyl ketone) p(VMK). The generated double bonds were demonstrated to be an efficient way for rapid incorporation of enzymes via Michael addition. Catalase was used as model enzyme in order to test the effect of immobilization methodology by the reactive film surface through Michael addition reaction. Finally, a plug flow type immobilized enzyme reactor was employed to estimate decomposition rate of hydrogen peroxide. The highly stable enzyme reactor could operate continuously for 120 h at 30 °C with only a loss of about 36 % of its initial activity.

  20. Mixed Hemi/Ad-Micelle Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Coated Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for the Efficient Removal and Trace Determination of Rhodamine-B and Rhodamine-6G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbari, Elias; Hadjmohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Kiekens, Filip; De Wael, Karolien

    2015-08-04

    Mixed hemi/ad-micelle sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-coated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MHAMS-MIONPs) were used as an efficient adsorbent for both removal and preconcentration of two important carcinogenic xanthine dyes named rhodamine-B (RB) and rhodamine-6G (RG). To gain insight in the configuration of SDS molecules on the surface of MIONPs, zeta potential measurements were performed in different [SDS]/[MIONP] ratios. Zeta potential data indicated that mixed hemi/ad-micelle MHAM was formed in [SDS]/[MIONP] ratios over the range of 1.1 to 7.3. Parameters affecting the adsorption of dyes were optimized as removal efficiency by one variable at-a-time and response surface methodology; the obtained removal efficiencies were ∼100%. Adsorption kinetic and equilibrium studies, under the optimum condition (pH = 2; amount of MIONPs = 87.15 mg; [SDS]/[MIONP] ratio = 2.9), showed that adsorption of both dyes are based on the pseudo-second-order and the Langmuir isotherm models, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacities for RB and RG were 385 and 323 mg g(-1), respectively. MHAMS-MIONPs were also applied for extraction of RB and RG. Under optimum conditions (pH = 2; amount of damped MHAMS-MIONPs = 90 mg; eluent solvent volume = 2.6 mL of 3% acetic acid in acetonitrile), extraction recoveries for 0.5 mg L(-1) of RB and RG were 98% and 99%, with preconcentration factors of 327 and 330, respectively. Limit of detection obtained for rhodamine dyes were <0.7 ng mL(-1). Finally, MHAMS-MIONPs were successfully applied for both removal and trace determination of RB and RG in environmental and wastewater samples.

  1. Intravascular local gene transfer mediated by protein-coated metallic stent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, J; Gao, R; Shi, R; Song, L; Tang, J; Li, Y; Tang, C; Meng, L; Yuan, W; Chen, Z

    2001-10-01

    To assess the feasibility, efficiency and selectivity of adenovirus-mediated gene transfer to local arterial wall by protein-coated metallic stent. A replication-defective recombinant adenovirus carrying the Lac Z reporter gene for nuclear-specific beta-galactosidase (Ad-beta gal) was used in this study. The coating for metallic stent was made by immersing it in a gelatin solution containing crosslinker. The coated stents were mounted on a 4.0 or 3.0 mm percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) balloon and submersed into a high-titer Ad-beta gal viral stock (2 x 10(10) pfu/ml) for 3 min, and then implanted into the carotid arteries in 4 mini-swines and into the left anterior descending branch of the coronary artery in 2 mini-swines via 8F large lumen guiding catheters. The animals were sacrificed 7 (n = 4), 14 (n = 1) and 21 (n = 1) days after implantation, respectively. The beta-galactosidase expression was assessed by X-gal staining. The results showed that the expression of transgene was detected in all animal. In 1 of carotid artery with an intact intima, the beta-gal expression was limited to endothelial cells. In vessels with denuded endothelium, gene expression was found in the sub-intima, media and adventitia. The transfection efficiency of medial smooth muscle cells was 38.6%. In 2 animals sacrificed 7 days after transfection, a microscopic examination of X-gal-stained samples did not show evidence of transfection in remote organs and arterial segments adjacent to the treated arterial site. Adenovirus-mediated arterial gene transfer to endothelial, smooth muscle cells and adventitia by protein-coated metallic stent is feasible. The transfection efficiency is higher. The coated stent may act as a good carrier of adenovirus-mediated gene transfer and have a potential to prevent restenosis following PTCA.

  2. A novel in situ strategy for the preparation of a β-cyclodextrin/polydopamine-coated capillary column for capillary electrochromatography enantioseparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Heying; Niu, Xiaoying; Pan, Congjie; Yi, Tao; Chen, Hongli; Chen, Xingguo

    2017-06-01

    Inspired by the chiral recognition ability of β-cyclodextrin and the natural adhesive properties of polydopamine under alkaline conditions, in this study, a rapid and in situ modification strategy was developed to fabricate β-cyclodextrin/polydopamine composite material coated-capillary columns for open tubular capillary electrochromatography. The results of scanning electron microscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, streaming potential, and electro-osmotic flow studies indicated that β-cyclodextrin/polydopamine was successfully fixed on the inner wall of the capillary column. This coating can be achieved within 1 h affording a greatly reduced capillary preparation time. The performance of the β-cyclodextrin/polydopamine-coated capillary was validated by the analysis of seven pairs of chiral analytes, namely epinephrine, norepinephrine, isoprenaline, terbutaline, verapamil, tryptophane, carvedilol. Good enantioseparation efficiencies were achieved for all. For three consecutive runs, the relative standard deviations for the migration times of the analytes for intraday, interday, and column-to-column repeatability were in the range of 0.41-1.74, 1.03-4.18, and 1.66-8.24%, respectively. Moreover, the separation efficiency of the β-cyclodextrin/polydopamine-coated capillary column did not decrease obviously over 90 runs. The strategy should also be feasible to introduce and immobilize other chiral selectors on the inner walls surface of capillary columns. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Conceptual design review report for K Basin Dose Reduction Project clean and coat task

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburn, L.D.

    1996-01-01

    The strategy for reducing radiation dose originating from radionuclides absorbed in the concrete is to raise the pool water level to provide additional shielding. The concrete walls need to be coated to prevent future radionuclide absorption into the walls. This report documents a conceptual design review of equipment to clean and coat basin walls. The review concluded that the proposed concepts were and acceptable basis for proceeding with detailed final design

  4. Final design review report for K Basin Dose Reduction Project Clean and Coat Task

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburn, L.D.

    1996-02-01

    The strategy for reducing radiation dose originating from radionuclides absorbed in the concrete is to raise the pool water level to provide additional shielding. The concrete walls need to be coated to prevent future radionuclide absorption into the walls. This report documents a final design review of equipment to clean and coat basin walls. The review concluded that the design presented was acceptable for release for fabrication

  5. Mechanical and electromagnetic interference shielding Properties of poly(vinyl alcohol)/graphene and poly(vinyl alcohol)/multi-walled carbon nanotube composite nanofiber mats and the effect of Cu top-layer coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimori, Kazushige; Gopiraman, Mayakrishnan; Kim, Han-Ki; Kim, Byoung-Suhk; Kim, Ick-Soo

    2013-03-01

    We report the mechanical property and electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness (EMI SE) of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/graphene and PVA/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) composite nanofibers prepared by electrospinning. The metal (Cu) was deposited on the resultant PVA composite nanofibers using metal deposition technique in order to improve the mechanical properties and EMI shielding properties. The resulting PVA composite nanofibers and Cu-deposited corresponding nanofibers were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD). Tensile tests were performed on the PVA/graphene and PVA/MWCNT composite nanofibers. The tensile strength of the PVA/graphene and PVA/MWCNT composite nanofibers was found to be 19.2 +/- 0.3 MPa at graphene content - 6.0 wt% and 12.2 +/- 0.2 MPa at MWCNT content - 3.0 wt%, respectively. The EMI SE of the Cu-deposited PVA/graphene composite nanofibers was significantly improved compared to pure PVA/graphene composite nanofibers, and also depended on the thickness of Cu metal layer deposited on the PVA composite nanofibers.

  6. New coating material for producing virgin coconut oil (VCO microcapsules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin, Z.A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the microencapsulation efficiency (MEE of different grades of broken rice (RB and breadfruit (BB-based maltodextrin as a coating material, using virgin coconut oil (VCO as a model system. The VCO was generally found to be well microencapsulated using BB, RB or commercial (COM maltodextrin at a core/wall material ratio of 1:3. In comparison to a different dextrose equivalent (DE group, both RB and BB maltodextrins with DE values of 10-14 showed higher MEE values (84.81-94.39% than maltodextrins with DE value of 15-19 (78.23-79.65%. Low DE value maltodextrins were shown higher glass transition temperatures than high DE value maltodextrins under the same moisture content. Both RB and BB maltodextrins were found to be compatible with COM maltodextrin as shown in the microstructure appearance when viewed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM.

  7. R(and)D on full tungsten divertor and beryllium wall for JET ITER-like Wall Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirai, T.; Maier, H.; Rubel, M.

    2006-01-01

    The ITER-like Wall Project was initiated at JET, with the goal of testing the reference material combination chosen for ITER: beryllium (Be) in the main chamber (wall and limiters) and tungsten (W) in the divertor. The major aims are to study the tritium retention, material mixing, melt layer behavior and to optimize plasma operation scenarios with a full metal wall. The project requires major design and engineering efforts in R(and)D: (i) bulk W tile, (ii) W coatings on carbon fibre composites (CFC) (iii) Be coatings on Inconel, (iv) Be marker tiles. For the W divertor, two R(and)D tasks were initiated: (1) development of a conceptual design for a bulk W tile as the main outer divertor target plate, and (2) W coating selection from 14 different samples produced by various techniques for the other divertor plates and neutral beam shine. The bulk W tile must withstand power loads of 7 MW/m 2 for 10 s. JET divertor plates are not actively cooled, therefore, heat capacity of the tiles is an important design parameter. In addition to power handling, mechanical structural stability under electromagnetic forces and compatibility with remote handling are the key requirements in the design. The design has been completed. The test-tile survived 100 pulses at 7 MW/m 2 for 10 s in the electron beam facility, JUDITH. The W coatings with different thickness, thin ( 2 and 200 pulses at 10 MW/m 2 for 5 s. In all tested samples cracks developed perpendicularly to the fiber bundles in CFC because of contraction of the coating in the cooling phase. Coatings were also exposed to 1000 ELM-like loading pulses. The thin coatings showed fatigue leading to delamination, whereas for thick coatings better resistance in ELM-like loading. As a result of R(and)D a full W divertor was decided: bulk metal at the outer divertor and W coating at other areas. Be-related R(and)D activities are in two areas. Production of 8-9 μm layers on inner wall cladding Inconel tiles ensures the full coating of

  8. HEAT INSULATING LIME DRY MORTARS FOR FINISHING OF WALLS MADE OF FOAM CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loganina Valentina Ivanovna

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Different aerated mortars are used for pargeting of walls made of aerated concrete. Though the regulatory documents don’t specify the dependence of plaster density from the density grade of gas-concrete blocks. In case of facing of gas-concrete blocks with the grade D500 using plaster mortars with the density 1400…1600 km/m3 there occurs a dismatch in the values of thermal insulation and vapor permeability of the plaster and base. The authors suggest using dry mortars for finishing of gas-concrete block of the grades D500 и D600, which allow obtaining facing thermal insulating coatings. The efficiency of using four different high-porous additives in the lime dry mortar was compared. They were: hollow glass microspheres, aluminosilicate ash microspheres, expanded vermiculite sand, expanded pearlitic sand. The high efficiency of hollow glass microspheres in heat insulating finishing mortars compared to other fillers is proved.

  9. Silica-Coated Liposomes for Insulin Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Dwivedi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Liposomes coated with silica were explored as protein delivery vehicles for their enhanced stability and improved encapsulation efficiency. Insulin was encapsulated within the fluidic phosphatidylcholine lipid vesicles by thin film hydration at pH 2.5, and layer of silica was formed above lipid bilayer by acid catalysis. The presence of silica coating and encapsulated insulin was identified using confocal and electron microscopy. The native state of insulin present in the formulation was evident from Confocal Micro-Raman spectroscopy. Silica coat enhances the stability of insulin-loaded delivery vehicles. In vivo study shows that these silica coated formulations were biologically active in reducing glucose levels.

  10. Hygrothermal behavior for a clay brick wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, R.; Issaadi, N.; Belarbi, R.; El-Meligy, M.; Altahrany, A.

    2018-06-01

    In Egypt, the clay brick is the common building materials which are used. By studying clay brick walls behavior for the heat and moisture transfer, the efficient use of the clay brick can be reached. So, this research studies the hygrothermal transfer in this material by measuring the hygrothermal properties and performing experimental tests for a constructed clay brick wall. We present the model for the hygrothermal transfer in the clay brick which takes the temperature and the vapor pressure as driving potentials. In addition, this research compares the presented model with previous models. By constructing the clay brick wall between two climates chambers with different boundary conditions, we can validate the numerical model and analyze the hygrothermal transfer in the wall. The temperature and relative humidity profiles within the material are measured experimentally and determined numerically. The numerical and experimental results have a good convergence with 3.5% difference. The surface boundary conditions, the ground effect, the infiltration from the closed chambers and the material heterogeneity affects the results. Thermal transfer of the clay brick walls reaches the steady state very rapidly than the moisture transfer. That means the effect of using only the external brick wall in the building in hot climate without increase the thermal resistance for the wall, will add more energy losses in the clay brick walls buildings. Also, the behavior of the wall at the heat and mass transfer calls the three-dimensional analysis for the whole building to reach the real behavior.

  11. Hygrothermal behavior for a clay brick wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, R.; Issaadi, N.; Belarbi, R.; El-Meligy, M.; Altahrany, A.

    2018-01-01

    In Egypt, the clay brick is the common building materials which are used. By studying clay brick walls behavior for the heat and moisture transfer, the efficient use of the clay brick can be reached. So, this research studies the hygrothermal transfer in this material by measuring the hygrothermal properties and performing experimental tests for a constructed clay brick wall. We present the model for the hygrothermal transfer in the clay brick which takes the temperature and the vapor pressure as driving potentials. In addition, this research compares the presented model with previous models. By constructing the clay brick wall between two climates chambers with different boundary conditions, we can validate the numerical model and analyze the hygrothermal transfer in the wall. The temperature and relative humidity profiles within the material are measured experimentally and determined numerically. The numerical and experimental results have a good convergence with 3.5% difference. The surface boundary conditions, the ground effect, the infiltration from the closed chambers and the material heterogeneity affects the results. Thermal transfer of the clay brick walls reaches the steady state very rapidly than the moisture transfer. That means the effect of using only the external brick wall in the building in hot climate without increase the thermal resistance for the wall, will add more energy losses in the clay brick walls buildings. Also, the behavior of the wall at the heat and mass transfer calls the three-dimensional analysis for the whole building to reach the real behavior.

  12. Influence of particle coating and matrix constituents on the cloud point extraction efficiency of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) and application for monitoring the formation of Ag-NPs from Ag(+).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Georg; Baumgartner, Tanja; Schuster, Michael

    2014-01-07

    For the quantification of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) in environmental samples using cloud point extraction (CPE) for selective enrichment, surface modification of the Ag-NPs and matrix effects can play a key role. In this work we validate CPE with respect to the influence of different coatings and naturally occurring matrix components. The Ag-NPs tested were functionalized with inorganic and organic compounds as well as with biomolecules. Commercially available NPs and NPs synthesized according to methods published in the literature were used. We found that CPE can extract almost all Ag-NPs tested with very good efficiencies (82-105%). Only Ag-NPs functionalized with BSA (bovine serum albumin), which is a protein with the function to keep colloids in solution, cannot be extracted. No or little effect of environmentally relevant salts, organic matter, and inorganic colloids on the CPE of AgNPs was found. Additionally we used CPE to observe the in situ formation of Ag-NPs produced by the reduction of Ag(+) with natural organic matter (NOM).

  13. Doctor Blade-Coated Polymer Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Cho, Nam Chul

    2016-10-25

    In this work, we report polymer solar cells based on blade-coated P3HT:PC71BM and PBDTTT-EFT:PC71BM bulk heterojunction photoactive layers. Enhanced power conversion efficiency of 2.75 (conventional structure) and 3.03% (inverted structure) with improved reproducibility was obtained from blade-coated P3HT:PC71BM solar cells, compared to spin-coated ones. Furthermore, by demonstrating 3.10% efficiency flexible solar cells using blade-coated PBDTTT-EFT:PC71BM films on the plastic substrates, we suggest the potential applicability of blade coating technique to the high throughput roll-to-roll fabrication systems.

  14. Radiation cured coating containing glitter particles and process therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachs, P.R.; Sears, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    Radiation curable coatings for use on a variety of substrates and curable by exposure to ionizing irradiation of ultraviolet light are well known. The use of urethane type coatings cured with ultraviolet light to provide protective wear layers for wall or floor tile is for instance described in U.S. Pat. No. 4,180,615. U.S. Pat. No. 3,918,393 describes a method for obtaining a non-glossy coating on various substrates by curing radiation sensitive material with ionizing irradiation or ultraviolet light in two stages. In this process the coating is partially cured in an oxygen-containing atmosphere and the curing is completed in an inert atmosphere. U.S. Pat. No. 4,122,225 discloses a method and apparatus for coating tile which involves the application of one coat of radiation curable material to an entire substrate followed by partial curing and the subsequent application and curing of a second coat or radiation curable material only on high areas of the substrate which are subject to greater than average wear. Use of pigment in radiation cured coatings on products such as floor covering which are subject to wear during use has presented substantial difficulties. Incorporation of pigment, especially enough pigment to make the coating opaque, makes the coating hard to cure and substantially reduces the thicknesses of coating which can be cured relative to a clear coating cured under the same conditions

  15. High performance discharges in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment with liquid lithium walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, J. C.; Bell, R. E.; Boyle, D. P.; Esposti, B.; Kaita, R.; Kozub, T.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Lucia, M.; Maingi, R.; Majeski, R.; Merino, E.; Punjabi-Vinoth, S.; Tchilingurian, G.; Capece, A.; Koel, B.; Roszell, J.; Biewer, T. M.; Gray, T. K.; Kubota, S.; Beiersdorfer, P.

    2015-01-01

    The first-ever successful operation of a tokamak with a large area (40% of the total plasma surface area) liquid lithium wall has been achieved in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX). These results were obtained with a new, electron beam-based lithium evaporation system, which can deposit a lithium coating on the limiting wall of LTX in a five-minute period. Preliminary analyses of diamagnetic and other data for discharges operated with a liquid lithium wall indicate that confinement times increased by 10× compared to discharges with helium-dispersed solid lithium coatings. Ohmic energy confinement times with fresh lithium walls, solid and liquid, exceed several relevant empirical scaling expressions. Spectroscopic analysis of the discharges indicates that oxygen levels in the discharges limited on liquid lithium walls were significantly reduced compared to discharges limited on solid lithium walls. Tokamak operations with a full liquid lithium wall (85% of the total plasma surface area) have recently started

  16. High performance discharges in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment with liquid lithium walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, J. C.; Bell, R. E.; Boyle, D. P.; Esposti, B.; Kaita, R.; Kozub, T.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Lucia, M.; Maingi, R.; Majeski, R.; Merino, E.; Punjabi-Vinoth, S.; Tchilingurian, G. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Capece, A.; Koel, B.; Roszell, J. [Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Biewer, T. M.; Gray, T. K. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Kubota, S. [University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Beiersdorfer, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); and others

    2015-05-15

    The first-ever successful operation of a tokamak with a large area (40% of the total plasma surface area) liquid lithium wall has been achieved in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX). These results were obtained with a new, electron beam-based lithium evaporation system, which can deposit a lithium coating on the limiting wall of LTX in a five-minute period. Preliminary analyses of diamagnetic and other data for discharges operated with a liquid lithium wall indicate that confinement times increased by 10× compared to discharges with helium-dispersed solid lithium coatings. Ohmic energy confinement times with fresh lithium walls, solid and liquid, exceed several relevant empirical scaling expressions. Spectroscopic analysis of the discharges indicates that oxygen levels in the discharges limited on liquid lithium walls were significantly reduced compared to discharges limited on solid lithium walls. Tokamak operations with a full liquid lithium wall (85% of the total plasma surface area) have recently started.

  17. Novel coating technology for non-oriented electrical steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snell, David; Coombs, Alan

    2000-06-02

    An exciting combination of environmentally friendly UV curable coatings and print-on coating technology has been developed for application to semi-processed and fully processed non-oriented electrical steels. Properties exhibited by the coated steels, particularly punching, welding, insulation resistance and chemical resistance satisfy customer requirements. Coating and curing can be achieved in an energy efficient manner in a very short line space.

  18. Coating materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozeki, Takao; Kimura, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Juichi; Maeda, Yutaka; Nakamoto, Hideo.

    1969-01-01

    A non-solvent type coating material composition having properties as good as thermosetting acrylic or amino alkid resins is provided by employing active energy irradiation, particularly electron beams, using a radically polymerizable low molecular compound (A) (hereafter called an oligomer) containing at least two vinyl radicals in one molecule. This oligomer is produced by reacting an epoxy-containing vinyl monomer with alpha-, beta-ethylene unsaturated carboxylic acids or their anhydrides. The composition (I) contains 10% - 100% of this oligomer. In embodiments, an oligomer having a fiberous trivinyl construction is produced by reacting 180 parts by weight of glycidyl methacrylate ester with 130 parts of itaconic acid in the presence of a polymerization-inhibitor and an addition reaction catalyst at 90 0 C for 6 hours. In practice, the coating material compositions (1), consist of the whole oligomer [I-1]; (2), consist of 10-90% of (A) component and 90%-10% of vinyl monomers containing at least 30% (meth) acrylic monomer [I-2]; (3), 10%-90% of component (A) and 90%-10% of other monomers containing at least two vinyl radicals [I-3]; (4), a mixture of (I-2) and (I-3), [I-4]; and (5), consist of 50% or less unsaturated polyester of 500-5,000 molecular weight range or drying oil, or alkyd resin of 500-5,000 molecular weight range modified by drying oil, [I-5]. As a catalyst a tertiary amino vinyl compound is preferred. Five examples are given. (Iwakiri, K.)

  19. Mapping molecular adhesion sites inside SMIL coated capillaries using atomic force microscopy recognition imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitner, Michael [Institute of Biophysics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Gruberstrasse 40, 4020 Linz (Austria); Stock, Lorenz G. [Division of Chemistry and Bioanalytics, Department of Molecular Biology, University Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstrasse 34, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Innovative Tools for the Characterization of Biosimilars, University Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstrasse 34, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Traxler, Lukas [Institute of Biophysics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Gruberstrasse 40, 4020 Linz (Austria); Leclercq, Laurent [Institut des Biomolécules Max Mousseron (IBMM, UMR 5247, CNRS, Université de Montpellier, Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Montpellier), Place Eugène Bataillon, CC 1706, 34095 Montpellier (France); Bonazza, Klaus; Friedbacher, Gernot [Institute of Chemical Technologies and Analytics, Vienna University of Technology, Getreidemarkt 9/164, 1060 Vienna (Austria); Cottet, Hervé [Institut des Biomolécules Max Mousseron (IBMM, UMR 5247, CNRS, Université de Montpellier, Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Montpellier), Place Eugène Bataillon, CC 1706, 34095 Montpellier (France); Stutz, Hanno [Division of Chemistry and Bioanalytics, Department of Molecular Biology, University Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstrasse 34, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Innovative Tools for the Characterization of Biosimilars, University Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstrasse 34, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Ebner, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.ebner@jku.at [Institute of Biophysics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Gruberstrasse 40, 4020 Linz (Austria)

    2016-08-03

    Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) is a powerful analytical technique for fast and efficient separation of different analytes ranging from small inorganic ions to large proteins. However electrophoretic resolution significantly depends on the coating of the inner capillary surface. High technical efforts like Successive Multiple Ionic Polymer Layer (SMIL) generation have been taken to develop stable coatings with switchable surface charges fulfilling the requirements needed for optimal separation. Although the performance can be easily proven in normalized test runs, characterization of the coating itself remains challenging. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) allows for topographical investigation of biological and analytical relevant surfaces with nanometer resolution and yields information about the surface roughness and homogeneity. Upgrading the scanning tip to a molecular biosensor by adhesive molecules (like partly inverted charged molecules) allows for performing topography and recognition imaging (TREC). As a result, simultaneously acquired sample topography and adhesion maps can be recorded. We optimized this technique for electrophoresis capillaries and investigated the charge distribution of differently composed and treated SMIL coatings. By using the positively charged protein avidin as a single molecule sensor, we compared these SMIL coatings with respect to negative charges, resulting in adhesion maps with nanometer resolution. The capability of TREC as a functional investigation technique at the nanoscale was successfully demonstrated. - Highlights: • SMIL coating allows generation of homogeneous ultra-flat surfaces. • Molecular electrostatic adhesion forces can be determined in the inner wall of CZE capillary with picoNewton accuracy. • Topographical images and simultaneously acquired adhesion maps yield morphological and chemical information at the nanoscale.

  20. Development of new type boron-coating proportional counter and its experimental investigation and simulation calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zixia; Wei Zhiyong; Fang Meihua; Qiang Peng; Zhu Li; Chen Guoyun

    2015-01-01

    Three materials wherein suitable proportion of isotope enriched 10 B powder, 1, 2-ethylene dichloride and formvar resin were blended to make 10 B neutron sensitive coating by oneself. A new type proportional counter that coated with 10 B neutron sensitive coating was made. Furthermore, in order to increase the character and quality of the neutron detector, a set of 14 annulus epoxy sheets which were sided with 10 B film were placed in the tube. A series performance tests were done by 241 Am-Be neutron source. The tests of 3.7 × 10 9 Bq 211 Am-Be neutron source show that the plateau length of detector is 150 V from 750 V to 900 V, while the plateau slope is 8.2%/100 V. When the working voltage is 800 V, the count rate of new type boron-coating proportional counter is 50 s -1 . The level of sensitivity is 0.71 cm 2 . Compared with the detector only coated with 10 B film in the inner walls of detector, neutron sensitivity area of the new detector increases to 3.15 times. The results show that the plateau length increases from 80 V to 150 V, and the plateau slope is improved from 12.4%/100 V to 7.58%/100 V, while the neutron sensitivity increases to 2.63 times. Using Geant4 software based on Monte Carlo method, this paper presented the response and detection efficiency of new type boron-coating proportional counter, which was covered with φ55 mm × 250 mm cylinder high density polyethylene moderator material. The simulation results of Geant4 are in agreement with the results of 241 Am-Be neutron source experiment. It shows the reliability of simulation application. (authors)

  1. Coated carbon nanotube array electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng [Newton, MA; Wen, Jian [Newton, MA; Chen, Jinghua [Chestnut Hill, MA; Huang, Zhongping [Belmont, MA; Wang, Dezhi [Wellesley, MA

    2008-10-28

    The present invention provides conductive carbon nanotube (CNT) electrode materials comprising aligned CNT substrates coated with an electrically conducting polymer, and the fabrication of electrodes for use in high performance electrical energy storage devices. In particular, the present invention provides conductive CNTs electrode material whose electrical properties render them especially suitable for use in high efficiency rechargeable batteries. The present invention also provides methods for obtaining surface modified conductive CNT electrode materials comprising an array of individual linear, aligned CNTs having a uniform surface coating of an electrically conductive polymer such as polypyrrole, and their use in electrical energy storage devices.

  2. Coatings and Corrosion Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The mission of the Coatings and Corrosion Laboratory is to develop and analyze the effectiveness of innovative coatings test procedures while evaluating the...

  3. Abdominal wall fat pad biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amyloidosis - abdominal wall fat pad biopsy; Abdominal wall biopsy; Biopsy - abdominal wall fat pad ... is the most common method of taking an abdominal wall fat pad biopsy . The health care provider cleans the ...

  4. Leading edge erosion of coated wind turbine blades: Review of coating life models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, H.M.; Gelinck, E.R.M.; Rentrop, A.; van der Heide, Emile

    2015-01-01

    Erosion of the leading edge of wind turbine blades by droplet impingement wear, reduces blade aerodynamic efficiency and power output. Eventually, it compromises the integrity of blade surfaces. Elastomeric coatings are currently used for erosion resistance, yet the life of such coatings cannot be

  5. Liquid Wall Chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, W R

    2011-02-24

    The key feature of liquid wall chambers is the use of a renewable liquid layer to protect chamber structures from target emissions. Two primary options have been proposed and studied: wetted wall chambers and thick liquid wall (TLW) chambers. With wetted wall designs, a thin layer of liquid shields the structural first wall from short ranged target emissions (x-rays, ions and debris) but not neutrons. Various schemes have been proposed to establish and renew the liquid layer between shots including flow-guiding porous fabrics (e.g., Osiris, HIBALL), porous rigid structures (Prometheus) and thin film flows (KOYO). The thin liquid layer can be the tritium breeding material (e.g., flibe, PbLi, or Li) or another liquid metal such as Pb. TLWs use liquid jets injected by stationary or oscillating nozzles to form a neutronically thick layer (typically with an effective thickness of {approx}50 cm) of liquid between the target and first structural wall. In addition to absorbing short ranged emissions, the thick liquid layer degrades the neutron flux and energy reaching the first wall, typically by {approx}10 x x, so that steel walls can survive for the life of the plant ({approx}30-60 yrs). The thick liquid serves as the primary coolant and tritium breeding material (most recent designs use flibe, but the earliest concepts used Li). In essence, the TLW places the fusion blanket inside the first wall instead of behind the first wall.

  6. Coating materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozeki, Takao; Kimura, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Juichi; Maeda, Yutaka; Nakamoto, Hideo.

    1969-01-01

    A non-solvent type coating material composition is provided which can be hardened by irradiation with active energy, particularly electron beams, using a composition which contains 10%-100% of a radically polymerizable low molecular compound (A), (hereafter called an oligomer), having at least two vinyl radicals in one molecule. These compositions have a high degree of polymerization and characteristics equivalent to thermosetting acrylic or amino alkyd resin. The oligomer (A) is produced by reacting an epoxy-containing vinyl monomer with saturated polycarboxylic acids or anhydrides. In one embodiment, 146 parts by weight of adipic acid and 280 parts of glycidyl methacrylate ester undergo addition reaction in the presence of a polymerization-inhibitor and a catalyst at 90 0 C for 6 hours to produce an oligomer having a fiberous divinyl construction. The coating composition utilizes this oligomer in the forms of (I-1), a whole oligomer; (I-2), 0%-90% of this oligomer and 90%-10% of a vinyl monomer containing at least 30% of (meth) acrylic monomer; (I-3), 10%-90% of such oligomer and 90%-10% of other monomers containing at least two vinyl radicals in one molecule; (I-4), a mixture of (I-2) and (I-3) in proportion of 1/9 to 9/1, and (I-5), above four compositions each containing 50% or less unsaturated polyester or drying oil having 500-5,000 molecules or a drying oil-modified alkyd resin having 500-5,000 molecules. Four examples are given. (Iwakiri, K.)

  7. Electrocurtain coating process for coating solar mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabagambe, Benjamin; Boyd, Donald W.; Buchanan, Michael J.; Kelly, Patrick; Kutilek, Luke A.; McCamy, James W.; McPheron, Douglas A.; Orosz, Gary R.; Limbacher, Raymond D.

    2013-10-15

    An electrically conductive protective coating or film is provided over the surface of a reflective coating of a solar mirror by flowing or directing a cation containing liquid and an anion containing liquid onto the conductive surface. The cation and the anion containing liquids are spaced from, and preferably out of contact with one another on the surface of the reflective coating as an electric current is moved through the anion containing liquid, the conductive surface between the liquids and the cation containing liquid to coat the conductive surface with the electrically conductive coating.

  8. A conductive surface coating for Si-CNT radiation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentini, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.valentini@ba.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70125 Bari (Italy); Valentini, Marco [INFN, Sezione di Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Ditaranto, Nicoletta [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università degli Studi di Bari, Via Amendola 173, 70126 Bari (Italy); Melisi, Domenico [INFN, Sezione di Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Aramo, Carla, E-mail: aramo@na.infn.it [INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Via Cintia 2, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Ambrosio, Antonio [CNR-SPIN U.O.S. di Napoli and Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Università degli Studi di Napoli “Federico II”, Via Cintia 2, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Casamassima, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70125 Bari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Cilmo, Marco [INFN, Sezione di Napoli, and Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Università degli Studi di Napoli “Federico II”, Via Cintia 2, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Fiandrini, Emanuele [INFN, Sezione di Perugia, and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Perugia, Piazza Università 1, 06100 Perugia (Italy); Grossi, Valentina [INFN, Sezione di L’Aquila, and Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche e Chimiche, Università degli Studi dell’Aquila, Via Vetoio 10 Coppito, 67100 L’Aquila (Italy); and others

    2015-08-01

    Silicon–Carbon Nanotube radiation detectors need an electrically conductive coating layer to avoid the nanotube detachment from the silicon substrate and uniformly transmit the electric field to the entire nanotube active surface. Coating material must be transparent to the radiation of interest, and must provide the drain voltage necessary to collect charges generated by incident photons. For this purpose various materials have been tested and proposed in photodetector and photoconverter applications. In this article interface properties and electrical contact behavior of Indium Tin Oxide films on Carbon Nanotubes have been analyzed. Ion Beam Sputtering has been used to grow the transparent conductive layer on the nanotubes. The films were deposited at room temperature with Oxygen/Argon mixture into the sputtering beam, at fixed current and for different beam energies. Optical and electrical analyses have been performed on films. Surface chemical analysis and in depth profiling results obtained by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy of the Indium Tin Oxide layer on nanotubes have been used to obtain the interface composition. Results have been applied in photodetectors realization based on multi wall Carbon Nanotubes on silicon. - Highlights: • ITO was deposited by Ion Beam Sputtering on MWCNT. • ITO on CNT makes an inter-diffusion layer of the order of one hundred nanometers. • Improvements of quantum efficiency of photon detectors based on CNT with ITO.

  9. Flow Boiling in a Micro-Channel Coated With Carbon Nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Khanikar, Vikash; Mudawar, Issam; Fisher, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the heat transfer enhancement attributes of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) applied to the bottom wall of a shallow rectangular micro-channel. Using deionized water as working fluid, experiments were performed with both a bare copper bottom wall and a CNT-coated copper wall. Boiling curves were generated for both walls, aided by high-speed video analysis of interfacial features. CNT arrays promoted earlier, abundant and intense bubble nucleation at low mass velocities, consistent ...

  10. Low Temperature Powder Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) • Legacy primers contain hexavalent chrome • Conventional powder coatings...coatings both in laboratory and field service evaluations • LTCPC allows environmental cost reductions through VOC/HAP elimination and hexavalent ... chrome reduction. • The LTCPC process greatly shortens the coating operation (LTCPC cures much more rapidly then conventional wet coatings) resulting in

  11. Experiments with liquid metal walls: Status of the lithium tokamak experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaita, Robert, E-mail: kaita@pppl.gov [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Berzak, Laura; Boyle, Dennis; Gray, Timothy; Granstedt, Erik; Hammett, Gregory; Jacobson, Craig M.; Jones, Andrew; Kozub, Thomas; Kugel, Henry; Leblanc, Benoit; Logan, Nicholas; Lucia, Matthew; Lundberg, Daniel; Majeski, Richard; Mansfield, Dennis; Menard, Jonathan; Spaleta, Jeffrey; Strickler, Trevor; Timberlake, John [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Abstarct: Liquid metal walls have been proposed to address the first wall challenge for fusion reactors. The lithium tokamak experiment (LTX) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) is the first magnetic confinement device to have liquid metal plasma-facing components (PFC's) that encloses virtually the entire plasma. In the current drive experiment-upgrade (CDX-U), a predecessor to LTX at PPPL, the highest improvement in energy confinement ever observed in ohmically heated tokamak plasmas was achieved with a toroidal liquid lithium limiter. The LTX extends this liquid lithium PFC by using a conducting conformal shell that almost completely surrounds the plasma. By heating the shell, a lithium coating on the plasma-facing side can be kept liquefied. A consequence of the low-recycling conditions from liquid lithium walls is the need for efficient plasma fueling. For this purpose, a molecular cluster injector is being developed. Future plans include the installation of a neutral beam for core plasma fueling, and also ion temperature measurements using charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy (CHERS). Low edge recycling is also predicted to reduce temperature gradients that drive drift wave turbulence. Gyrokinetic simulations are in progress to calculate fluctuation levels and transport for LTX plasmas, and new fluctuation diagnostics are under development to test these predictions.

  12. Experiments with Liquid Metal Walls: Status of the Lithium Tokamak Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaita, Robert; Berzak, Laura; Boyle, Dennis; Gray, Timothy; Granstedt, Erik; Hammett, Gregory; Jacobson, Craig M.; Jones, Andrew; Kozub, Thomas; Kugel, Henry; Leblanc, Benoit; Logan, Nicholas; Lucia, Matthew; Lundberg, Daniel; Majeski, Richard; Mansfield, Dennis; Menard, Jonathan; Spaleta, Jeffrey; Strickler, Trevor; Timberlak, John

    2010-01-01

    Liquid metal walls have been proposed to address the first wall challenge for fusion reactors. The Lithium Tokamak Experiment (LTX) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) is the first magnetic confinement device to have liquid metal plasma-facing components (PFC's) that encloses virtually the entire plasma. In the Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade (CDX-U), a predecessor to LTX at PPPL, the highest improvement in energy confinement ever observed in Ohmically-heated tokamak plasmas was achieved with a toroidal liquid lithium limiter. The LTX extends this liquid lithium PFC by using a conducting conformal shell that almost completely surrounds the plasma. By heating the shell, a lithium coating on the plasma-facing side can be kept liquefied. A consequence of the low-recycling conditions from liquid lithium walls is the need for efficient plasma fueling. For this purpose, a molecular cluster injector is being developed. Future plans include the installation of a neutral beam for core plasma fueling, and also ion temperature measurements using charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy. Low edge recycling is also predicted to reduce temperature gradients that drive drift wave turbulence. Gyrokinetic simulations are in progress to calculate fluctuation levels and transport for LTX plasmas, and new fluctuation diagnostics are under development to test these predictions.

  13. Plasma surface engineering in first wall of tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiang; Xu Zengyu; Zhang Fu; Zhang Nianman

    2001-01-01

    The boronization, siliconization and lithium coating of the inner wall of HL-1M are introduced, the hydrogen recycling and the influence to impurities controlled and core radiation energy loss are discussed. Experiments prove that these wall treatments are very useful for the plasma confinement, a 4 s reproducible long pulse discharge is obtained for siliconized wall, but the plasma pulse length only achieves 2.1 s and its reproducibility is very poor for boronized wall. Lithium coating is the best method of the wall treatments for lowering hydrogen recycling and decreasing the impurities level. For the applications of HL-2A and the future fusion device, a series of B, Ti, Si-doped graphite and B 4 C-C/C composites have been developed, some experimental results about chemical sputtering, tritium retention and recycling, as well as high heat loads are reviewed. Meanwhile, SiC, TiC and B 4 C coating, and B 4 C-C, SiC-C, B 4 C-Cu, Mo-Cu and W-Cu functionally graded materials are also introduced

  14. Lithium adsorption by the first wall of fusion reactor-tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakunin, O.G.

    1989-01-01

    Lithium adsorption by the first wall of fusion reactor under stationary conditions and in the absence of chemical reactions is considered. Possibility of achieving 70% coating of the wall with lithium which can lead to sufficient decrease of sputtering is shown. 5 refs.; 5 figs

  15. Injection molding of micro pillars on vertical side walls using polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yang; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Sørensen, Søren

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the replication of microstructures on a vertical wall by PEEK injection molding. A 4-cavity insert was used in the injection molding. Pre-fabricated nickel plates with ø 4 μm micro holes on the surface were glued on vertical walls in the cavities. 3 cavities were coated by...

  16. Efficient use of energy in buildings - New optical coatings for transparent building elements; Rationelle Energienutzung in Gebaeuden. Neue optische Beschichtungen fuer transparente Gebaeudeteile im Hinblick auf einen verbesserten sommerlichen Waermeschutz - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oelhafen, P.; Mack, I.; Reber, G.; Romanyuk, A.; Steiner, R.

    2008-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on optical coatings for transparent building elements with respect to improving protection against overheating in summer. Newly developed multi-layer coating systems using standard materials and methods are reported on. With these multi-layer coatings, the solar radiation is said to be reduced by between 17% and 29% compared to commercially available sun-protection windows. The report reviews the new materials being looked at and describes the measurement methods used and the results obtained. The optical characteristics of the coatings are discussed in detail and the results of measurements made are presented in detail. Also, the effect of varying angles of incidence is discussed.

  17. The influence of wall orientation and exterior surface solar absorptivity on time lag and decrement factor in the Greek region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kontoleon, K.J.; Eumorfopoulou, E.A. [Department of Civil Engineering, Laboratory of Building Construction and Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (A.U.Th.), Gr-541 24 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2008-07-15

    The aim of this study is to determine how time lag and decrement factor are affected by wall orientation and exterior surface solar absorptivity, for specific climatic conditions. Their influence forms a non-sinusoidal periodical forcing function that simulates suitably the outdoor temperature fluctuations. This novel approach, allows the predictability of building's thermal response in an efficient way. The investigation is carried out for various insulated opaque wall formations comprising typical material elements, during the summer period in the mild Greek region. This study that allows proper building planning procedures, at the very early stages of the envelope design, presents great importance. The analysed configurations are assumed to have an orientation that corresponds to each compass point. In addition, the solar absorptivity of surface coatings is assumed to be varying from 0 to 1. The transient thermal analysis is obtained via a thermal circuit that models accurately the fundamental heat transfer mechanisms on both boundaries and through the multi-layered wall configurations. Moreover, the mathematical formulation and solution of this lumped model is achieved in discrete time steps by adopting the non-linear nodal method. The simulation results are focused on the single and combined effects of orientation and solar absorptivity on the dynamic thermal characteristics of various wall configurations. (author)

  18. Thermal barrier coatings - Technology for diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.H.; Lutz, J.

    1988-01-01

    Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBC) are a development of the aerospace industry primarily aimed at hot gas flow paths in turbine engines. TBC consists of zirconia ceramic coatings applied over (M)CrAlY. These coatings can provide three benefits: (1) a reduction of metal surface operating temperatures, (2) a deterrent to hot gas corrosion, and (3) improved thermal efficiencies. TBC brings these same benefits to reciprocal diesel engines but coating longevity must be demonstrated. Diesels require thicker deposits and have challenging geometries for the arc-plasma spray (APS) deposition process. Different approaches to plasma spraying TBC are required for diesels, especially where peripheral edge effects play a major role. Bondcoats and ceramic top coats are modified to provide extended life as determined by burner rig tests, using ferrous and aluminum substrates

  19. Spin coated versus dip coated electrochromic tungsten oxide films: Structure, morphology, optical and electrochemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deepa, M.; Saxena, T.K.; Singh, D.P.; Sood, K.N.; Agnihotry, S.A.

    2006-01-01

    A sol-gel derived acetylated peroxotungstic acid sol encompassing 4 wt.% of oxalic acid dihydrate (OAD) has been employed for the deposition of tungsten oxide (WO 3 ) films by spin coating and dip coating techniques, in view of smart window applications. The morphological and structural evolution of the as-deposited spin and dip coated films as a function of annealing temperature (250 and 500 o C) has been examined and compared by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). A conspicuous feature of the dip coated film (annealed at 250 o C) is that its electrochromic and electrochemical properties ameliorate with cycling without degradation in contrast to the spin coated film for which these properties deteriorate under repetitive cycling. A comparative study of spin and dip coated nanostructured thin films (annealed at 250 o C) revealed a superior performance for the cycled dip coated film in terms of higher transmission modulation and coloration efficiency in solar and photopic regions, faster switching speed, higher electrochemical activity as well as charge storage capacity. While the dip coated film could endure 2500 color-bleach cycles, the spin coated film could sustain only a 1000 cycles. The better cycling stability of the dip coated film which is a repercussion of a balance between optimal water content, porosity and grain size hints at its potential for electrochromic window applications

  20. Wall Finishes; Carpentry: 901895.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The course outline is designed to provide instruction in selecting, preparing, and installing wall finishing materials. Prerequisites for the course include mastery of building construction plans, foundations and walls, and basic mathematics. Intended for use in grades 11 and 12, the course contains five blocks of study totaling 135 hours of…

  1. Wall Construction; Carpentry: 901892.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The curriculum guide outlines a course designed to provide instruction in floor and wall layout, and in the diverse methods and construction of walls. Upon completion of this course the students should have acquired a knowledge of construction plans and structural foundations in addition to a basic knowledge of mathematics. The course consists of…

  2. International Divider Walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruis, A.; Sneller, Lineke

    2013-01-01

    The subject of this teaching case is the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system implementation at International Divider Walls, the world market leader in design, production, and sales of divider walls. The implementation in one of the divisions of this multinational company had been successful,

  3. Supersymmetric domain walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Kleinschmidt, Axel; Riccioni, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    We classify the half-supersymmetric "domain walls," i.e., branes of codimension one, in toroidally compactified IIA/IIB string theory and show to which gauged supergravity theory each of these domain walls belong. We use as input the requirement of supersymmetric Wess-Zumino terms, the properties of

  4. Antibacterial Functionalization of PVD Coatings on Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Osés

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The application of surface treatments that incorporate silver or copper as antibacterial elements has become a common practice for a wide variety of medical devices and materials because of their effective activity against nosocomial infections. Ceramic tiles are choice materials for cladding the floors and walls of operation rooms and other hospital spaces. This study is focused on the deposition of biocide physical vapor deposition (PVD coatings on glazed ceramic tiles. The objective was to provide antibacterial activity to the surfaces without worsening their mechanical properties. Silver and copper-doped chromium nitride (CrN and titanium nitride (TiN coatings were deposited on samples of tiles. A complete characterization was carried out in order to determine the composition and structure of the coatings, as well as their topographical and mechanical properties. The distribution of Ag and Cu within the coating was analyzed using glow discharge optical emission spectrometry (GD-OES and field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM. Roughness, microhardness, and scratch resistance were measured for all of the combinations of coatings and dopants, as well as their wettability. Finally, tests of antibacterial efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were carried out, showing that all of the doped coatings had pronounced biocide activity.

  5. Selective emission multilayer coatings for a molybdenum thermophotovoltaic radiator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockeram, Brian Vern

    2004-01-27

    Multilayer coating designs have been developed to provide selective emission for a molybdenum thermophotovoltaic (TPV) radiator surface. These coatings increase the surface emissivity of a molybdenum TPV radiator substrate in the wavelength range that matches the bandgap of the TPV cells to increase the power density of the TPV system. Radiator emission at wavelengths greater than the bandgap energy of the TPV cells is greatly reduced through the use of these coatings, which significantly increases the efficiency of the TPV system. The use of this coating greatly improves the performance of a TPV system, and the coating can be tailored to match the bandgap of any practical TPV system.

  6. Flow coating apparatus and method of coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanumanthu, Ramasubrahmaniam; Neyman, Patrick; MacDonald, Niles; Brophy, Brenor; Kopczynski, Kevin; Nair, Wood

    2014-03-11

    Disclosed is a flow coating apparatus, comprising a slot that can dispense a coating material in an approximately uniform manner along a distribution blade that increases uniformity by means of surface tension and transfers the uniform flow of coating material onto an inclined substrate such as for example glass, solar panels, windows or part of an electronic display. Also disclosed is a method of flow coating a substrate using the apparatus such that the substrate is positioned correctly relative to the distribution blade, a pre-wetting step is completed where both the blade and substrate are completed wetted with a pre-wet solution prior to dispensing of the coating material onto the distribution blade from the slot and hence onto the substrate. Thereafter the substrate is removed from the distribution blade and allowed to dry, thereby forming a coating.

  7. Development of insulating coatings for liquid metal blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malang, S.; Borgstedt, H.U.; Farnum, E.H.; Natesan, K.; Vitkovski, I.V.

    1994-07-01

    It is shown that self-cooled liquid metal blankets are feasible only with electrically insulating coatings at the duct walls. The requirements on the insulation properties are estimated by simple analytical models. Candidate insulator materials are selected based on insulating properties and thermodynamic consideration. Different fabrication technologies for insulating coatings are described. The status of the knowledge on the most crucial feasibility issue, the degradation of the resisivity under irradiation, is reviewed

  8. Solar Walls in tsbi3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    tsbi3 is a user-friendly and flexible computer program, which provides support to the design team in the analysis of the indoor climate and the energy performance of buildings. The solar wall module gives tsbi3 the capability of simulating solar walls and their interaction with the building....... This version, C, of tsbi3 is capable of simulating five types of solar walls say: mass-walls, Trombe-walls, double Trombe-walls, internally ventilated walls and solar walls for preheating ventilation air. The user's guide gives a description of the capabilities and how to simulate solar walls in tsbi3....

  9. Nickel and titanium nanoboride composite coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efimova, K A; Galevsky, G V; Rudneva, V V; Kozyrev, N A; Orshanskaya, E G

    2015-01-01

    Electrodeposition conditions, structural-physical and mechanical properties (microhardness, cohesion with a base, wear resistance, corrosion currents) of electroplated composite coatings on the base of nickel with nano and micro-powders of titanium boride are investigated. It has been found out that electro-crystallization of nickel with boride nanoparticles is the cause of coating formation with structural fragments of small sizes, low porosity and improved physical and mechanical properties. Titanium nano-boride is a component of composite coating, as well as an effective modifier of nickel matrix. Nano-boride of the electrolyte improves efficiency of the latter due to increased permissible upper limit of the cathodic current density. (paper)

  10. Silica-Coated Liposomes for Insulin Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Neelam Dwivedi; M. A. Arunagirinathan; Somesh Sharma; Jayesh Bellare

    2010-01-01

    Liposomes coated with silica were explored as protein delivery vehicles for their enhanced stability and improved encapsulation efficiency. Insulin was encapsulated within the fluidic phosphatidylcholine lipid vesicles by thin film hydration at pH 2.5, and layer of silica was formed above lipid bilayer by acid catalysis. The presence of silica coating and encapsulated insulin was identified using confocal and electron microscopy. The native state of insulin present in the formulation was evid...

  11. Dismantling system of concrete thermal shielding walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, Nobuhiro; Saiki, Yoshikuni; Ono, Yorimasa; Tokioka, Masatake; Ogino, Nobuyuki.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To enable safety and efficient dismantling of concrete thermal shielding walls in nuclear reactors. Method: Concrete thermal shielding walls are cut and dismantled into dismantled blocks by a plasma cutting tool while sealing the top opening of bioshielding structures. The dismantled blocks are gripped and conveyed. The cutting tool is remote-handled while monitoring on a television receiver. Slugs and dusts produced by cutting are removed to recover. Since the dismantling work is carried out while sealing the working circumstance and by the remote control of the cutting tool, the operators' safety can be secured. Further, since the thermal sealing walls are cut and dismantled into blocks, dismantling work can be done efficiently. (Moriyama, K.)

  12. FIRE-RESISTANT SHIELDING COATING BASED ON SHUNGITE-CONTAINING PAINT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BELOUSOVA Elena Sergeevna

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Today when specific shielded facilities are designed the construction materials and shields should meet a range of fire safety requirements. A composite coating on the basis of a water-based fire-resistant paint filled with shungite nanopowder can be applied onto walls, floors, ceilings and other surfaces in the shielded areas to reduce electromagnetic radiation and simultaneously to ensure fire safety. Shungit is a mineral with multilayer carbon fullerene globules which diameter is 10–30 nm. Due to the high conductivity shungite is able to weaken electromagnetic radiation. A coating made of schungite-containing paint on a cellulose substrate was subjected to the open flame under the temperature of 1700° C for 3 minutes and 40 seconds. That resulted in the formation of insulating foam layer without mechanical damage of the substrate. The XRD diffraction analysis of the powder obtained in the process of flame influence on the coating showed the formation of the such substances as orthoclase, barite, rutile, etc. Carbon contained in shungit and used as a filler for the fireproof paint wasn’t detected. This fact indicates carbon oxidation as the result of its burning out. The shielding efficiency of the composite coating after open flame exposure was measured for the frequency range 8…12 GHz with the use of the panoramic attenuation meter and voltage standing wave ratio meter YA2R-67-61 with a sweep generator and waveguides. After that the reflection and transmission coefficients were calculated. The results of measurements and calculations showed decrease of the reflection and transmission coefficients due to conductivity decrease and dielectric losses changes of the composite coating provided by silica content increase and carbon percentage decrease.

  13. Degree of coupling in high-rise mixed shear walls structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    assessment of the structural behaviour of coupled shear wall bents in mixed shear wall ... efficient lateral load resisting system against wind and earthquake effects. .... can be obtained from the second derivative of equation (11) which must be ...

  14. Plasma-wall interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrisch, Rainer

    1978-01-01

    The plasma wall interactions for two extreme cases, the 'vacuum model' and the 'cold gas blanket' are outlined. As a first step for understanding the plasma wall interactions the elementary interaction processes at the first wall are identified. These are energetic ion and neutral particle trapping and release, ion and neutral backscattering, ion sputtering, desorption by ions, photons and electrons and evaporation. These processes have only recently been started to be investigated in the parameter range of interest for fusion research. The few measured data and their extrapolation into regions not yet investigated are reviewed

  15. Evolution of the Automotive Body Coating Process—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson K. Akafuah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Automotive coatings and the processes used to coat automobile surfaces exemplify the avant-garde of technologies that are capable of producing durable surfaces, exceeding customers’ expectations of appearance, maximizing efficiency, and meeting environmental regulations. These accomplishments are rooted in 100 years of experience, trial-and-error approaches, technique and technology advancements, and theoretical assessments. Because of advancements directed at understanding the how, why, when, and where of automobile coatings, the progress in controlling droplets and their deposition attributes, and the development of new technologies and paint chemistries, a comprehensive and up-to-date review of automobile coatings and coating technologies was considered to be of value to industrial practitioners and researchers. Overall, the critical performance factors driving the development and use of advanced automotive coatings and coating technologies are (a aesthetic characteristics; (b corrosion protection; (c mass production; (d cost and environmental requirements; and (e appearance and durability. Although the relative importance of each of these factors is debatable, the perfection of any one at the expense of another would be unacceptable. Hence, new developments in automotive coatings are described and discussed in the following review, and then related to improvements in production technologies and paints. Modern automotive coating procedures are also discussed in detail. Finally, an extrapolation into the future of automotive coating is offered with a view of the developments and technologies needed for an increasingly efficient and more sustainable coatings industry.

  16. Single walled carbon nanotube network—Tetrahedral amorphous carbon composite film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyer, Ajai, E-mail: ajai.iyer@aalto.fi; Liu, Xuwen; Koskinen, Jari [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Technology, Aalto University, POB 16200, 00076 Espoo (Finland); Kaskela, Antti; Kauppinen, Esko I. [NanoMaterials Group, Department of Applied Physics, School of Science, Aalto University, POB 15100, 00076 Espoo (Finland); Johansson, Leena-Sisko [Department of Forest Products Technology, School of Chemical Technology, Aalto University, POB 16400, 00076 Espoo (Finland)

    2015-06-14

    Single walled carbon nanotube network (SWCNTN) was coated by tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) using a pulsed Filtered Cathodic Vacuum Arc system to form a SWCNTN—ta-C composite film. The effects of SWCNTN areal coverage density and ta-C coating thickness on the composite film properties were investigated. X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements prove the presence of high quality sp{sup 3} bonded ta-C coating on the SWCNTN. Raman spectroscopy suggests that the single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) forming the network survived encapsulation in the ta-C coating. Nano-mechanical testing suggests that the ta-C coated SWCNTN has superior wear performance compared to uncoated SWCNTN.

  17. The energy efficiency and environmental impacts in the ceramic industry: the case of ceramic coatings segment; A eficiencia energetica e os impactos na industria ceramica: o caso do segmento de revestimentos ceramicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berni, Mauro Donizeti [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico], email: mauro_berni@yahoo.com.br; Bajay, Sergio Valdir [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia

    2010-07-01

    The Brazilian ceramic industry has great importance for the country, with a stake of more than 1.0% of GDP, or approximately $ 6 billion. The segment of ceramic coatings due to the higher revenues, production, employment, value of manufacturing and penetration in foreign markets, has been the highlight of the ceramic sector. Besides most representative in economic terms, the ceramic coatings segment presents with the largest final energy consumption and volume of emissions. This work shows the evolution of the final energy consumption of the ceramic sector, showing that the segment of ceramic coatings can be successful harnessing of potential energy conservation with reflections on the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, the study evaluates: the process and energy sources; reducing impacts along the entire life cycle of products and the management actions providing a new corporate culture and social and environmental responsibility.

  18. Advanced walling systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Villiers, A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The question addressed by this chapter is: How should advanced walling systems be planned, designed, built, refurbished, and end their useful lives, to classify as smart, sustainable, green or eco-building environments?...

  19. Fusion: first wall problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrisch, R.

    1976-01-01

    Some of the relevant elementary atomic processes which are expected to be of significance to the first wall of a fusion reactor are reviewed. Up to the present, most investigations have been performed at relatively high ion energies, typically E greater than 5 keV, and even in this range the available data are very poor. If the plasma wall interaction takes place at energies of E greater than 1 keV the impurity introduction and first wall erosion which will take place predominantly by sputtering, will be large and may severely limit the burning time of the plasma. The wall bombardment and surface erosion will presumably not decrease substantially by introducing a divertor. The erosion can only be kept low if the energy of the bombarding ions and neutrals can be kept below the threshold for sputtering of 1 to 10 eV. 93 refs

  20. Diamond-like carbon coated ultracold neutron guides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heule, S.; Atchison, F.; Daum, M.; Foelske, A.; Henneck, R.; Kasprzak, M.; Kirch, K.; Knecht, A.; Kuzniak, M.; Lippert, T.; Meier, M.; Pichlmaier, A.; Straumann, U.

    2007-01-01

    It has been shown recently that diamond-like carbon (DLC) with a sp 3 fraction above 60% is a better wall coating material for ultracold neutron applications than beryllium. We report on results of Raman spectroscopic and XPS measurements obtained for diamond-like carbon coated neutron guides produced in a new facility, which is based on pulsed laser deposition at 193 nm. For diamond-like carbon coatings on small stainless steel substrates we find sp 3 fractions in the range from 60 to 70% and showing slightly increasing values with laser pulse energy and pulse repetition rate

  1. Low cycle fatigue behavior of titanium carbide coated molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, Hiroshi; Oku, Tatsuo; Kodaira, Tsuneo; Kikuyama, Toshihiko

    1985-09-01

    Sintered molybdenum coated by TiC is used for the first wall such as a troidal fixed limiter and a magnetic limiter plate in JT-60, that is being operated at JAERI presently. This report describes the low cycle fatigue behavior of sintered molybdenum and the influence of TiC coating on fatigue strength. The low cycle fatigue test was conducted at room temperature and 500 0 C. The test results was also analyzed by fractographic observation, metallography and element analysis using EPMA. The low cycle fatigue strength of the molybdenum coated by TiC at 500 0 C is decreased compared with the one at room temperature. (author)

  2. A Comparative Study on Graphene Oxide and Carbon Nanotube Reinforcement of PMMA-Siloxane-Silica Anticorrosive Coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harb, Samarah V; Pulcinelli, Sandra H; Santilli, Celso V; Knowles, Kevin M; Hammer, Peter

    2016-06-29

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene oxide (GO) have been used to reinforce PMMA-siloxane-silica nanocomposites considered to be promising candidates for environmentally compliant anticorrosive coatings. The organic-inorganic hybrids were prepared by benzoyl peroxide (BPO)-induced polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) covalently bonded through 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (MPTS) to silica domains formed by hydrolytic condensation of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS). Single-walled carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide nanosheets were dispersed by surfactant addition and in a water/ethanol solution, respectively. These were added to PMMA-siloxane-silica hybrids at a carbon (CNT or GO) to silicon (TEOS and MPTS) molar ratio of 0.05% in two different matrices, both prepared at BPO/MMA molar ratios of 0.01 and 0.05. Atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed very smooth, homogeneous, and defect-free surfaces of approximately 3-7 μm thick coatings deposited onto A1020 carbon steel by dip coating. Mechanical testing and thermogravimetric analysis confirmed that both additives CNT and GO improved the scratch resistance, adhesion, wear resistance, and thermal stability of PMMA-siloxane-silica coatings. Results of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in 3.5% NaCl solution, discussed in terms of equivalent circuits, showed that the reinforced hybrid coatings act as a very efficient anticorrosive barrier with an impedance modulus up to 1 GΩ cm(2), approximately 5 orders of magnitude higher than that of bare carbon steel. In the case of GO addition, the high corrosion resistance was maintained for more than 6 months in saline medium. These results suggest that both carbon nanostructures can be used as structural reinforcement agents, improving the thermal and mechanical resistance of high performance anticorrosive PMMA-siloxane-silica coatings and thus extending their application range to abrasive environments.

  3. Combined effects of thermal barrier coating and blending with diesel fuel on usability of vegetable oils in diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydin, Hüseyin

    2013-01-01

    The possibility of using pure vegetable oils in a thermally insulated diesel engine has been experimentally investigated. Initially, the standard diesel fuel was tested in the engine, as base experiment for comparison. Then the engine was thermally insulated by coating some parts of it, such as piston, exhaust and intake valves surfaces with zirconium oxide (ZrO 2 ). The main purpose of engine coating was to reduce heat rejection from the walls of combustion chamber and to increase thermal efficiency and thus to increase performance of the engine that using vegetable oil blends. Another aim of the study was to improve the usability of pure vegetable oils in diesel engines without performing any fuel treatments such as pyrolysis, emulsification and transesterification. Pure inedible cottonseed oil and sunflower oil were blended with diesel fuel. Blends and diesel fuel were then tested in the coated diesel engine. Experimental results proved that the main purpose of this study was achieved as the engine performance parameters such as power and torque were increased with simultaneous decrease in fuel consumption (bsfc). Furthermore, exhaust emission parameters such as CO, HC, and Smoke opacity were decreased. Also, sunflower oil blends presented better performance and emission parameters than cottonseed oil blends. -- Highlights: ► Usability of two different vegetable oils in a coated diesel engine was experimentally investigated. ► A diesel engine was coated with ZrO 2 layer to make the combustion chamber insulated. ► Test results showed significant improvements in performance parameters. ► While only minor reductions were observed in emissions with coated engine operation

  4. Plasma-wall interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichle, R.

    2004-01-01

    This document gathers the 43 slides presented in the framework of the week long lecture 'hot plasmas 2004' and dedicated to plasma-wall interaction in a tokamak. This document is divided into 4 parts: 1) thermal load on the wall, power extraction and particle recovery, 2) basic edge plasma physics, 3) processes that drive the plasma-solid interaction, and 4) material conditioning (surface treatment...) for ITER

  5. Dynamic wall demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakatsui, L.; Mayhew, W.

    1990-12-01

    The dynamic wall concept is a ventilation strategy that can be applied to a single family dwelling. With suitable construction, outside air can be admitted through the exterior walls of the house to the interior space to function as ventilation air. The construction and performance monitoring of a demonstration house built to test the dynamic wall concept in Sherwood Park, Alberta, is described. The project had the objectives of demonstrating and assessing the construction methods; determining the cost-effectiveness of the concept in Alberta; analyzing the operation of the dynamic wall system; and determining how other components and systems in the house interact with the dynamic wall. The exterior wall construction consisted of vinyl siding, spun-bonded polyolefin-backed (SBPO) rigid fiberglass sheathing, 38 mm by 89 mm framing, fiberglass batt insulation and 12.7 mm drywall. The mechanical system was designed to operate in the dynamic (negative pressure) mode, however flexibility was provided to allow operation in the static (balanced pressure) mode to permit monitoring of the walls as if they were in a conventional house. The house was monitored by an extensive computerized monitoring system. Dynamic wall operation was dependent on pressure and temperature differentials between indoor and outdoor as well as wind speed and direction. The degree of heat gain was found to be ca 74% of the indoor-outdoor temperature differential. Temperature of incoming dynamic air was significantly affected by solar radiation and measurement of indoor air pollutants found no significant levels. 4 refs., 34 figs., 11 tabs.

  6. European coatings conference - Marine coatings. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This volume contains 13 lectures (manuscripts or powerpoint foils) with the following topics: 1. Impact of containerization on polyurethane and polyurea in marine and protective coatings (Malte Homann); 2. The application of combinatorial/high-throughput methods to the development of marine coatings (Bret Chisholm); 3. Progress and perspectives in the AMBIO (advanced nanostructured surfaces for the control of biofouling) Project (James Callow); 4. Release behaviour due to shear and pull-off of silicone coatings with a thickness gradient (James G. Kohl); 5. New liquid rheology additives for high build marine coatings (Andreas Freytag); 6. Effective corrosion protection with polyaniline, polpyrrole and polythiophene as anticorrosice additives for marine paints (Carlos Aleman); 7. Potential applications of sol gel technology for marine applications (Robert Akid); 8: Performance of biocide-free Antifouling Coatings for leisure boats (Bernd Daehne); 9. Novel biocidefree nanostructured antifouling coatings - can nano do the job? (Corne Rentrop); 10. One component high solids, VOC compliant high durability finish technology (Adrian Andrews); 11. High solid coatings - the hybrid solution (Luca Prezzi); 12. Unique organofunctional silicone resins for environmentally friendly high-performance coatings (Dieter Heldmann); 13. Silicone-alkyd paints for marine applications: from battleship-grey to green (Thomas Easton).

  7. Studies on first wall and plasma wall interaction in JT-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Hiroo

    1988-12-01

    This paper describes studies on first wall and plasma wall interaction in JT-60. Main results are as follows; (1) To select JT-60 first wall material, various RandD were done in FY1975 ∼ 1976. Mo was selected as first wall materials of limiters and divertor plates because of its reliability under a high heat flux condition. (2) Development of low-Z material has been done to reduce impurity problem of Mo first wall. As a result, titanium carbide (TiC) was selected as a coating material on the Mo. High heat load testing has been done for TiC coated Mo limiter same as JT-60. This material can survive under the condition of 1 kW/cm 2 x 10 s, expected in JT-60 limiter design. (3) To reduce high heat load on the divertor plate, separatrix swing is proposed. Optimum frequency of the sweeping is evaluated to be 2 Hz in JT-60. For a discharge with heating power of 30 MW and duration time of 10 s, in addition to the separatrix swing, remote radiative cooling in the divertor region is necessary. Moreover, calculations of erosion thickness have been done for stainless steel, Mo, graphite, TiC and silicon caibide under high heat flux during plasma disruption. (4) In divertor experiments in JT-60, divertor functions on particle, heat load and impurity controls have been demonstrated. In elctron density of 6 x 10 19 m -3 , particle fueling rate of 20 MW NB heating (3 Pa m 3 /s) can be exhausted by divertor pumping system. Effectiveness of remote radiative cooling is demonstrated under the condition of 20 MW NB heating power. Also, separatrix swing is demonstrated to reduce heat load on the divertor plate. Total radiation in main plasma is 5 ∼ 10% of total absorbed power. (author) 120 refs

  8. Characterization of coatings and the low cycle fatigue behaviour of 316L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groot, P.; Horsten, M.G.; Tjoa, G.L.

    1993-03-01

    In the framework of the European Fusion Technology Programme ECN participates in a NET task PSM-8 'Coatings and Surface Effects on Stainless Steel 316L'. High emissivity coatings were developed for enhanced heat transfer from graphite tiles to a Stainless Steel First Wall. Four candidate materials, Cr 2 O 3 , Black Cr, Al 2 O 3 /TiO 2 and TiC were tested as candidate high emissivity coatings. These coatings were manufactured by atmospheric and vacuum plasma spraying technique and the Black Chromium coatings were manufactured by a galvanic coating technique. The tests included total emissivity measurements and Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF) experiments. The total emissivity of two TiC coatings at 525 K appeared to be 0.62 and 0.64. The total emissivity of the TiC and 5 wt% TiO 2 /Al 2 O 3 coating was about 0.7. (orig.)

  9. Orbital wall fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iinuma, Toshitaka; Ishio, Ken-ichirou; Yoshinami, Hiroyoshi; Kuriyama, Jun-ichi; Hirota, Yoshiharu.

    1993-01-01

    A total of 59 cases of mild facial fractures (simple orbital wall fractures, 34 cases, other facial fractures, 25 cases) with the clinical suspects of orbital wall fractures were evaluated both by conventional views (Waters' and Caldwell views) and coronal CT scans. Conventional views were obtained, as an average, after 4 days and CT after 7 days of injuries. Both the medial wall and the floor were evaluated at two sites, i.e., anterior and posterior. The ethmoid-maxillary plate was also included in the study. The degree of fractures was classified as, no fractures, fractures of discontinuity, dislocation and fragmentation. The coronal CT images in bone window condition was used as reference and the findings were compared between conventional views and CT. The correct diagnosis was obtained as follows: orbital floor (anterior, 78%, posterior, 73%), medial orbital wall (anterior, 72%, posterior, 72%) and ethmoid-maxillary plate (64%). The false positive diagnosis was as follows: orbital floor (anterior only, 13%), medial orbital wall (anterior only, 7%) and ethmoid-maxillary plate (11%). The false negative diagnosis was as follows: orbital floor (anterior, 9%, posterior, 10%), medial orbital wall (anterior, 21%, posterior, 28%) and ethmoid-maxillary plate (21%). The results were compared with those of others in the past. (author)

  10. Radon prevention coating in hot and humid environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yushan; Dong Faqin; Deng Yuequan; Qu Ruixue

    2013-01-01

    The radon prevention performance of a new self-made radon prevention coating was researched in the radon contamination provided by the releasing radon modules. With coating thickness of 0.8 mm, the radon mitigation efficiency in 1 # radon module concentration is optimal when the addition of defoaming agent is 0.3% (mass fraction). The radon mitigation efficiency increases with the coating thickness when the defoaming agent of 0.3% is added, but the radon mitigation efficiency tends to be stable as the coating thickness is more than 2.0 mm. The radon mitigation efficiency of radon prevention coating appended precipitated barium sulphate decreases obviously, and the addition of ash calcium, white cement and gesso don't decrease radon mitigation efficiency. The addition of white cement and gesso addition affects the radon prevention stability, while radon mitigation efficiency of radon prevention coating with ash calcium keeps a good performance. Under the hot and humid environment, the radon prevention coating still has good radon mitigation efficiency in 2 # radon module concentration. (authors)

  11. Characterization of multilayer anti-fog coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevallier, Pascale; Turgeon, Stéphane; Sarra-Bournet, Christian; Turcotte, Raphaël; Laroche, Gaétan

    2011-03-01

    Fog formation on transparent substrates constitutes a major challenge in several optical applications requiring excellent light transmission characteristics. Anti-fog coatings are hydrophilic, enabling water to spread uniformly on the surface rather than form dispersed droplets. Despite the development of several anti-fog coating strategies, the long-term stability, adherence to the underlying substrate, and resistance to cleaning procedures are not yet optimal. We report on a polymer-based anti-fog coating covalently grafted onto glass surfaces by means of a multistep process. Glass substrates were first activated by plasma functionalization to provide amino groups on the surface, resulting in the subsequent covalent bonding of the polymeric layers. The anti-fog coating was then created by the successive spin coating of (poly(ethylene-maleic anhydride) (PEMA) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) layers. PEMA acted as an interface by covalently reacting with both the glass surface amino functionalities and the PVA hydroxyl groups, while PVA added the necessary surface hydrophilicity to provide anti-fog properties. Each step of the procedure was monitored by XPS, which confirmed the successful grafting of the coating. Coating thickness was evaluated by profilometry, nanoindentation, and UV visible light transmission. The hydrophilic nature of the anti-fog coating was assessed by water contact angle (CA), and its anti-fog efficiency was determined visually and tested quantitatively for the first time using an ASTM standard protocol. Results show that the PEMA/PVA coating not only delayed the initial period required for fog formation but also decreased the rate of light transmission decay. Finally, following a 24 hour immersion in water, these PEMA/PVA coatings remained stable and preserved their anti-fog properties.

  12. PIT Coating Requirements Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MINTEER, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    This study identifies the applicable requirements for procurement and installation of a coating intended for tank farm valve and pump pit interior surfaces. These requirements are intended to be incorporated into project specification documents and design media. This study also evaluates previously recommended coatings and identifies requirement-compliant coating products

  13. PIT Coating Requirements Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MINTEER, D.J.

    2000-10-20

    This study identifies the applicable requirements for procurement and installation of a coating intended for tank farm valve and pump pit interior surfaces. These requirements are intended to be incorporated into project specification documents and design media. This study also evaluates previously recommended coatings and identifies requirement-compliant coating products.

  14. Coatings for laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowdermilk, W.H.

    1981-01-01

    Optical coatings are used in lasers systems for fusion research to control beam propagation and reduce surface reflection losses. The performance of coatings is important in the design, reliability, energy output, and cost of the laser systems. Significant developments in coating technology are required for future lasers for fusion research and eventual power reactors

  15. Fuel particle coating data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollabaugh, C.M.; Wagner, P.; Wahman, L.A.; White, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    Development of coating on nuclear fuel particles for the High-Temperature Fuels Technology program at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory included process studies for low-density porous and high-density isotropic carbon coats, and for ZrC and ''alloy'' C/ZrC coats. This report documents the data generated by these studies

  16. Insoluble Coatings for Stirling Engine Heat Pipe Condenser Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussinger, Peter M.; Lindemuth, James E.

    1997-01-01

    The principal objective of this Phase 2 SBIR program was to develop and demonstrate a practically insoluble coating for nickel-based superalloys for Stirling engine heat pipe applications. Specific technical objectives of the program were: (1) Determine the solubility corrosion rates for Nickel 200, Inconel 718, and Udimet 72OLI in a simulated Stirling engine heat pipe environment, (2) Develop coating processes and techniques for capillary groove and screen wick structures, (3) Evaluate the durability and solubility corrosion rates for capillary groove and screen wick structures coated with an insoluble coating in cylindrical heat pipes operating under Stirling engine conditions, and (4) Design and fabricate a coated full-scale, partial segment of the current Stirling engine heat pipe for the Stirling Space Power Convertor program. The work effort successfully demonstrated a two-step nickel aluminide coating process for groove wick structures and interior wall surfaces in contact with liquid metals; demonstrated a one-step nickel aluminide coating process for nickel screen wick structures; and developed and demonstrated a two-step aluminum-to-nickel aluminide coating process for nickel screen wick structures. In addition, the full-scale, partial segment was fabricated and the interior surfaces and wick structures were coated. The heat pipe was charged with sodium, processed, and scheduled to be life tested for up to ten years as a Phase 3 effort.

  17. Nanoscale Reinforced, Polymer Derived Ceramic Matrix Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajendra Bordia

    2009-07-31

    The goal of this project was to explore and develop a novel class of nanoscale reinforced ceramic coatings for high temperature (600-1000 C) corrosion protection of metallic components in a coal-fired environment. It was focused on developing coatings that are easy to process and low cost. The approach was to use high-yield preceramic polymers loaded with nano-size fillers. The complex interplay of the particles in the polymer, their role in controlling shrinkage and phase evolution during thermal treatment, resulting densification and microstructural evolution, mechanical properties and effectiveness as corrosion protection coatings were investigated. Fe-and Ni-based alloys currently used in coal-fired environments do not possess the requisite corrosion and oxidation resistance for next generation of advanced power systems. One example of this is the power plants that use ultra supercritical steam as the working fluid. The increase in thermal efficiency of the plant and decrease in pollutant emissions are only possible by changing the properties of steam from supercritical to ultra supercritical. However, the conditions, 650 C and 34.5 MPa, are too severe and result in higher rate of corrosion due to higher metal temperatures. Coating the metallic components with ceramics that are resistant to corrosion, oxidation and erosion, is an economical and immediate solution to this problem. Good high temperature corrosion protection ceramic coatings for metallic structures must have a set of properties that are difficult to achieve using established processing techniques. The required properties include ease of coating complex shapes, low processing temperatures, thermal expansion match with metallic structures and good mechanical and chemical properties. Nanoscale reinforced composite coatings in which the matrix is derived from preceramic polymers have the potential to meet these requirements. The research was focused on developing suitable material systems and

  18. Cell wall as a target for bacteria inactivation by pulsed electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillet, Flavien; Formosa-Dague, Cécile; Baaziz, Houda; Dague, Etienne; Rols, Marie-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The integrity and morphology of bacteria is sustained by the cell wall, the target of the main microbial inactivation processes. One promising approach to inactivation is based on the use of pulsed electric fields (PEF). The current dogma is that irreversible cell membrane electro-permeabilisation causes the death of the bacteria. However, the actual effect on the cell-wall architecture has been poorly explored. Here we combine atomic force microscopy and electron microscopy to study the cell-wall organization of living Bacillus pumilus bacteria at the nanoscale. For vegetative bacteria, exposure to PEF led to structural disorganization correlated with morphological and mechanical alterations of the cell wall. For spores, PEF exposure led to the partial destruction of coat protein nanostructures, associated with internal alterations of cortex and core. Our findings reveal for the first time that the cell wall and coat architecture are directly involved in the electro-eradication of bacteria. PMID:26830154

  19. Coatings for reducing plasma contamination and power loss in fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dua, A.K.; Agarwala, R.P.

    1997-01-01

    It has been brought out that the use of suitable low atomic number refractory material coatings, on different components (such as first wall, limiter, armours etc.) of 'Tokomak' fusion reactor, offers the desired, degree of design flexibility. Coating characteristics of interest, their preparation and characterization have been discussed. Status of the developmental work has been reviewed. Work on various aspects of the different coating-substrate combinations have been analysed singling out the systems which presently appear more appropriate. (orig.)

  20. Effects of carbon nanotube coating on flow boiling in a micro-channel

    OpenAIRE

    Khanikar, Vikash; Mudawar, Issam; Fisher, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    Experiments were performed to assess the heat transfer enhancement benefits of coating the bottom wall of a shallow rectangular micro-channel with carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Using water as working fluid, tests were performed with a bare copper surface and three separate, yet identical CNT-coated surfaces. Each of the CNT-coated surfaces was tested repeatedly at the same mass velocity to explore any time dependence of heat transfer performance parameters, especially critical heat flux (CHIF). Ap...

  1. ATHENA optimized coating design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Desiree Della Monica; Christensen, Finn Erland; Jakobsen, Anders Clemen

    2012-01-01

    The optimization of coating design for the ATHENA mission si described and the possibility of increasing the telescope effective area in the range between 0.1 and 10 keV is investigated. An independent computation of the on-axis effective area based on the mirror design of ATHENA is performed...... in order to review the current coating baseline. The performance of several material combinations, considering a simple bi-layer, simple multilayer and linear graded multilayer coatings are tested and simulation of the mirror performance considering both the optimized coating design and the coating...

  2. Metallic coating of microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, S.F.

    1980-01-01

    Extremely smooth, uniform metal coatings of micrometer thicknesses on microscopic glass spheres (microspheres) are often needed as targets for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. The first part of this paper reviews those methods used successfully to provide metal coated microspheres for ICF targets, including magnetron sputtering, electro- and electroless plating, and chemical vapor pyrolysis. The second part of this paper discusses some of the critical aspects of magnetron sputter coating of microspheres, including substrate requirements, the sticking of microspheres during coating (preventing a uniform coating), and the difficulties in growing the desired dense, smooth, uniform microstructure on continuously moving spherical substrates

  3. Antibacterial polymer coatings.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Mollye C.; Allen, Ashley N.; Barnhart, Meghan; Tucker, Mark David; Hibbs, Michael R.

    2009-09-01

    A series of poly(sulfone)s with quaternary ammonium groups and another series with aldehyde groups are synthesized and tested for biocidal activity against vegetative bacteria and spores, respectively. The polymers are sprayed onto substrates as coatings which are then exposed to aqueous suspensions of organisms. The coatings are inherently biocidal and do not release any agents into the environment. The coatings adhere well to both glass and CARC-coated coupons and they exhibit significant biotoxicity. The most effective quaternary ammonium polymers kills 99.9% of both gram negative and gram positive bacteria and the best aldehyde coating kills 81% of the spores on its surface.

  4. Target activation and radiological response of ARIES-IFE dry wall chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Guebaly, L.A.; Henderson, D.L.; Wilson, P.P.H.; Abdou, A.E.

    2002-01-01

    The choice of target coating and hohlraum wall materials is among the most critical decisions to be made for inertial fusion energy (IFE) designs. Gold and gold/gadolinium have long been considered to be the coating and hohlraum wall materials of choice for direct drive (DD) and indirect drive (ID) targets, respectively, offering high target performance and low beam energy losses. More recently, a variety of other materials have been considered, including W, Pb, Pt, Pd, and Ag for the