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Sample records for efficiency testing technical

  1. Technical efficiency, efficiency change, technical progress and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In May 2006, the Ministers of Health of all the countries on the African continent, at a special session of the African Union, undertook to institutionalise efficiency monitoring within their respective national health information management systems. The specific objectives of this study were: (i) to assess the technical efficiency of ...

  2. High SO{sub 2} removal efficiency testing. Technical progress report, [October 1--December 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blythe, G.

    1993-01-20

    Baseline testing at the ``base`` site. Tampa Electric Company`s (TECo`s) Big Bend Station, commenced on September 28 and was completed on October 2. Initial results from this testing were presented in the previous Technical Progress Report, but a more complete discussion is provided in this report. Parametric testing was conducted at the Big Bend site during this quarter to evaluate the effects of dibasic acid (DBA) addition on system SO{sub 2} removal performance. The parametric tests were conducted from November 2 through 19. A DBA consumption rate test was also conducted, after the parametric tests were completed. The DBA consumption test was conducted from November 21 through 25. Options I and II to the base program were exercised by DOE/PETC at the end of the previous quarter. These options involve testing at Hoosier Energy Rural Electric Cooperative Inc.`s Merom Station and Southwestern Electric Power Company`s Pirkey Station, respectively. Testing was conducted at Merom Station during November. Previously, Radian Corporation was the test contractor for EPRI-funded performance additive testing at this site. This EPRI-funded testing involved the equivalent of baseline testing, parametric testing with both DBA and sodium formate performance additives, and an additive consumption test with the DBA additive. The results of the prior testing will be available to support the objectives of this DOE project Consequently, the only testing required at the Merom site was to conduct consumption tests with the sodium formate additive. After a brief baseline repeat test, two sodium formate consumption tests were conducted during the time period from November 11 through 23. Results from the consumption tests are presented and discussed in this report.

  3. Technical efficiency among the food crop farmers in Rivers State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The generalized likelihood test indicated that, the food crop farmers were not fully technically efficient in resource use. The determinants of technical inefficiency among the food crop farmers were extension contact and cooperative membership. There is 27 percent allowance to increase technical efficiency by implementing ...

  4. Development and testing of a high efficiency advanced coal combustor: Phase 3 industrial boiler retrofit. Quarterly technical progress report No. 11, April 1, 1994--June 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, R.; Borio, R. [ABB Combustion Engineering, Windsor, CT (United States). Power Plant Labs.; Scaroni, A.W.; Miller, B.G. [Pennsylvania State Univ., (United States); McGowan, J.G. [Univ. of Massachusetts (United States)

    1994-09-23

    The objective of this project is to retrofit the previously developed High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor (HEACC) to a standard gas/oil designed industrial boiler to assess the technical and economic viability of displacing premium fuels with microfine coal. This report documents the technical aspects of this project during the tenth quarter of the program. The four hundred hours ``Proof-of-Concept System Test`` under Task 3 was completed during this quarter. The primary objectives were to obtain steady state operation consistently on coal only and increase carbon conversion efficiency from {approximately}95% to the project goal of 98%. This was to be obtained without increasing NO{sub x} emission above the project goal level of 0.6 lbs/MBtu ({approximately}425 ppM). The testing was also designed to show that consistent, reliable operation could be achieved as another prerequisite to the demonstration. The data were gathered and analyzed for both economic and technical analysis prior to committing to the long term demonstration. The Economic Evaluation was completed and work started on commercialization plan. During this reporting period, activities included sample analysis, data reduction and interpretation from all the testing during March and April. Following preliminary conclusions are drawn based on results evaluated: coal handling/preparation system can be designed to meet technical requirements for retrofitting microfine coal combustion; boiler thermal performance met requirement; NO{sub x} Emission can meet target of 0.6 lb/MBtu; combustion efficiencies of 95% could be met on a daily average basis, somewhat below target of 98%; economic playback very sensitive to fuel differential cost, unit size, and annual operating hours; and continuous long term demonstration needed to quantify ash effect and how to best handle.

  5. Technical efficiency of irrigated vegetable production among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data collected were subjected to analysis using descriptive statistics, stochastic frontier model, gross margin and net farm income. The study revealed that farm size, labour and fertilizer positively affect the technical efficiency of the farmers. The mean technical efficiency was 68.5 and vegetable farmers were not operating at ...

  6. Development and testing of a high efficiency advanced coal combustor: Phase 3, industrial boiler retrofit. Quarterly technical progress report number 12, July 1, 1994--September 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, R.L.; Borio, R. [ABB/Combustion Engineering, Windsor, CT (United States). Power Plant Labs.; Scaroni, A.W.; Miller, B.G. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); McGowan, J.G. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    1994-11-18

    The objective of this project is to retrofit the previously developed High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor (HEACC) to a standard gas/oil designed industrial boiler to assess the technical and economic viability of displacing premium fuels with microfine coal. During this reporting period, data reduction/evaluation and interpretation from the long term four hundred hours Proof-of-Concept System Test under Task 3 were completed. Cumulatively, a total of approximately 563 hours of coal testing was performed with 160 hrs on 100% coal and over 400 hours with co-firing coal and gas. The primary objectives of this testing were to: (1) obtain steady state operation consistently on 100% coal; (2) increase carbon conversion efficiency from 95% to the project goal of 98%; and (3) maintain NOx emissions at or below 0.6 lbs/MBtu. The following specific conclusions are based on results of coal-fired testing at Penn State and the initial economic evaluation of the HEACC system: a coal handling/preparation system can be designed to meet the technical requirements for retrofitting microfine coal combustion to a gas/oil-designed boiler; the boiler thermal performance requirements were met; the NOx emission target of was met; combustion efficiencies of 95% could be met on a daily average basis, somewhat below the target of 98%; the economic playback is very sensitive to fuel differential cost, unit size, and annual operating hours; continuous long term demonstration is needed to quantify ash effects and how to best handle ashes. The following modifications are recommended prior to the 1,000 hour demonstration phase testing: (1) coal feeding improvements--improved raw coal/storage and transport, installation of gravimetric feeder, and redesign/installation of surge bin bottom; (2) burner modification--minor modification to the tip of the existing HEACC burner to prevent change of flame shapes for no apparent reason.

  7. Development and testing of a high efficiency advanced coal combustor phase III industrial boiler retrofit. Quarterly technical progress report No. 9, 1 October 1993--31 December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, P.; Borio, R. [ABB/Combustion Engineering, Windsor, CT (United States); Scaroni, A.W.; Miller, B.G. [Penn State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); McGowan, J.G. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    1994-03-01

    This report documents the technical aspects of this project during the ninth quarter of the program. During this quarter, the natural gas baseline testing at the Penn State demonstration boiler was completed, results were analyzed and are presented here. The burner operates in a stable manner over an 8/1 turndown, however due to baghouse temperature limitations (300{degrees}F for acid dewpoint), the burner is not operated for long periods of time below 75% load. Boiler efficiency averaged 83.1% at the 100 percent load rate while increasing to 83.7% at 75% load. NO{sub x} emissions ranged from a low of 0.17 Lbs/MBtu to a high of 0.24 Lbs/MBtu. After the baseline natural gas testing was completed, work continued on hardware optimization and testing with the goal of increasing carbon conversion efficiency on 100% coal firing from {approx}95% to 98%. Several coal handling and feeding problems were encountered during this quarter and no long term testing was conducted. While resolving these problems several shorter term (less than 6 hour) tests were conducted. These included, 100% coal firing tests, 100% natural gas firing tests, testing of air sparges on coal to simulate more primary air and a series of cofiring tests. For 100% coal firing, the carbon conversion efficiency (CCE) obtained this quarter did not exceed the 95-96% barrier previously reached. NO{sub x} emissions on coal only ranged from {approx} 0.42 to {approx} 0.78 Lbs/MBtu. The burner has not been optimized for low NO{sub x} yet, however, due to the short furnace residence time, meeting the goals of 98% CCE and <0.6 Lbs/MBtu NO{sub x} simultaneously will be difficult. Testing on 100% natural gas in the boiler after coal firing indicated no changes in efficiency due to firing in a `dirty` boiler. The co-firing tests showed that increased levels of natural gas firing proportionately decreased NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, and CO.

  8. Has competition increased hospital technical efficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keon-Hyung; Park, Jungwon; Lim, Seunghoo; Park, Sang-Chul

    2015-01-01

    Hospital competition and managed care have affected the hospital industry in various ways including technical efficiency. Hospital efficiency has become an important topic, and it is important to properly measure hospital efficiency in order to evaluate the impact of policies on the hospital industry. The primary independent variable is hospital competition. By using the 2001-2004 inpatient discharge data from Florida, we calculate the degree of hospital competition in Florida for 4 years. Hospital efficiency scores are developed using the Data Envelopment Analysis and by using the selected input and output variables from the American Hospital Association's Annual Survey of Hospitals for those acute care general hospitals in Florida. By using the hospital efficiency score as a dependent variable, we analyze the effects of hospital competition on hospital efficiency from 2001 to 2004 and find that when a hospital was located in a less competitive market in 2003, its technical efficiency score was lower than those in a more competitive market.

  9. Technical Efficiency of Wet Season Melon Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananti Yekti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Melon is one of high-value horticulture commodity which is cultivated widely in Kulon Progo regency. The nature of agricultural products is heavily dependent on the season, so it causes the prices of agricultural products always fluctuated every time. In wet season the price of agricultural products tends to be more expensive. Melon cultivation in wet season provide an opportunity to earn higher profits than in the dry season. The price of agricultural products tends to be more expensive in wet season, thus melon cultivation in wet season prospectively generate high profits. In order to achieve high profitability, melon farming has to be done efficiently. Objective of this study was to 1 determined the factors that influence melon production in wet season 2 measured technical efficiency of melon farming and 3 identified the factors that influanced technical efficiency. Data collected during April – June 2014. Location determined by multistage cluster sampling. 45 samples of farmers who cultivated melon during wet season obtained based on quota sampling technique. Technical efficiency was measured using Cobb-Douglas Stochastic Frontier. The result reveals that 1 land use, quantity of seed, K fertilizer contributed significantly increasing melon production, while N fertilizer decreased melon production significantly 2 technical efficiency indeces ranged from 0.40 to 0.99, with a mean of  0.77; 3 farmer’s experience gave significant influence to technical efficiency of melon farming in wet season.

  10. Estimating the technical efficiency of Cutflower farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Joyce P. Betonio

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to estimate the technical efficiency of cutflower farms and determine the sources of inefficiency among the farmers. In order to do so, the study had two phases: Phase 1 measured the technical efficiency scores of cutflower farms using data envelopment analysis (DEA. Phase 2 determined the causes of technical inefficiency using Tobit regression analysis. A total of 120 cutflower farms located in in Brgy. Kapatagan, Digos City, Philippines was considered as the decision-making units (DMUs of the study. Only two varieties were considered in the analysis because the 120 farmers have only planted chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora and baby’s breath (Gypsophila paniculata. Results revealed that there are four farms that are fully-efficient as they exhibited 1.00 technical efficiency scores in both CRS and VRS assumptions: Farm 95, Farm 118, Farm 119 and Farm 120. Of the four, Farm 120 is benchmarked the most, with 82 peers. Tobit model estimation revealed five significant determinants (and considered as sources of technical inefficiency of cutflower farms of Brgy. Kapatagan, Digos City: years of experience in farming, number of relevant seminars and trainings, distance of farm to central market (bagsakan, membership to cooperative, and access to credit.

  11. Technical Efficiency of Hausa Potato ( Solesnostemon rotundifolius ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Education, years of experience and marketing cost were found to be positively and significantly related to technical efficiency while lack of capital, inadequate planting material, lack of knowledge in cultural management practices and poor storage facilities were found to be major constraints in the production of the crop in ...

  12. Comparative analysis of technical efficiencies between compound ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to compare the level of technical efficiency in the compound and non compound farms in Imo state. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 120 food crop farmers from two out of the three agricultural zones in Imo state. Using the Chow (1960) analysis of covariance technique ...

  13. Efficient Vocabulary Testing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Mykhailiuk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of teaching vocabulary. Different aspects of vocabulary (pronunciation, spelling, grammar, collocation, meaning, word formation are considered alongside with efficient vocabulary testing techniques.

  14. Analysis of farm household technical efficiency in small-scale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our empirical results indicate that CIP participants and improved farmers (using using both traditional and modern hives) had the highest average levels of technical efficiencies. CIP participants had average technical efficiencies of 0.56, which is higher than non-participants, who achieved average technical efficiencies of

  15. Technical Efficiency of Small-Holder Cocoyam Farmers in Anambra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    %. The study found education and farming experience to be positively and significantly related to technical efficiency at 1% while practice index, fertilizer use and membership of cooperative societies also had a direct relationship with technical ...

  16. Technical Efficiency Of Small-Holder Cocoyam Farmers In Anambra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result of the analysis shows that individual farm level technical efficiency was about 93%. The study found farm size, use of fertilizer and membership of farmers' association/cooperative societies to be positively and significantly related to technical efficiency at 5% while no significant relationship was found between ...

  17. Analysis of factors affecting the technical efficiency of cocoa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study estimated the technical efficiency of cocoa producers and the socioeconomic factors influencing technical efficiency and identified the constraints to cocoa production. A multi-stage random sampling method was used to select 180 cocoa farmers who were interviewed for the study. Data on the inputs used and ...

  18. Technical efficiency in some privatised enterprises in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aside from theoretical predictions, not much is known about the process and outcome of privatization exercises in Africa. This study evaluates technical efficiency in four privatized enterprises in Nigeria. The methodology adopted is Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The technical efficiency scores are presented both for the ...

  19. Multidirectional analysis of technical efficiency for pig production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labajavo, Katarina; Hansson, Helena; Asmild, Mette

    2016-01-01

    Declining profitability and ongoing structural changes in the pig sector require thorough efficiency analysis of individual production factors. In this study we calculated technical efficiency indices for each input and output using multidirectional efficiency analysis and examined the relationship...... between ‘farm-specific characteristics’ and input and output technical efficiencies by production type (piglet, growing-finishing, finish-to-farrow). The results indicated that advisory services and farm location were not significantly correlated with technical efficiency. Similar results were obtained...... for ‘housing practices’, with the exception of the latest technology such as heated floors in relation to input labour technical efficiency for growing-finishing and finish-to-farrow productions. Use of written instructions for feeding for growing-finishing and finish-to-farrow production and written...

  20. Technical efficiency of selected hospitals in Eastern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Murad; Debela, Megersa; Bamud, Tewfik

    2017-12-01

    This study examines the relative technical efficiency of 12 hospitals in Eastern Ethiopia. Using six-year-round panel data for the period between 2007/08 and 2012/13, this study examines the technical efficiency, total factor productivity, and determinants of the technical inefficiency of hospitals. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) and DEA- based Malmquist productivity index used to estimate relative technical efficiency, scale efficiency, and total factor productivity index of hospitals. Tobit model used to examine the determinants of the technical inefficiency of hospitals. The DEA Variable Returns to Scale (VRS) estimate indicated that 6 (50%), 5 (42%), 3 (25%), 3 (25%), 4 (33%), and 3 (25%) of the hospitals were technically inefficient while 9 (75%), 9 (75%), 7 (58%), 7 (58%), 7 (58%) and 8 (67%) of hospitals were scale inefficient between 2007/08 and 2012/13, respectively. On average, Malmquist Total Factor Productivity (MTFP) of the hospitals decreased by 3.6% over the panel period. The Tobit model shows that teaching hospital is less efficiency than other hospitals. The Tobit regression model further shows that medical doctor to total staff ratio, the proportion of outpatient visit to inpatient days, and the proportion of inpatients treated per medical doctor were negatively related with technical inefficiency of hospitals. Hence, policy interventions that help utilize excess capacity of hospitals, increase doctor to other staff ratio, and standardize number of inpatients treated per doctor would contribute to the improvement of the technical efficiency of hospitals.

  1. Efficiency and technical change in the Western Australian wheatbelt

    OpenAIRE

    Cattle, Nathan; White, Benedict

    2007-01-01

    The production performance of wheatbelt farms in Western Australia is analysed to determine whether potential to exploit scale economies and improve technical efficiency has driven the trend towards increased farm size. An input-orientated stochastic frontier model is used to estimate technical efficiency and scale economies using an unbalanced panel dataset provided by BankWest for the period 1995/1996 to 2005/2006. Differences in the relative efficiency of farms are explored by the simultan...

  2. Innovation and technical efficiency in Malaysian family manufacturing industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susila Munisamy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the technical efficiency for each industry in the Malaysian manufacturing sector is estimated by using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA. In order to pursue a balance of innovation between long-term and short-term performance strategy, we integrate the Balance Scorecard (BSC approach with DEA. Furthermore, this paper looks at the determinants of efficiency using the Tobit regression model. In measuring the level of firms’ efficiency and innovation, the wood and wood based products industry is emphasized due to its importance in the economic growth of manufacturing sector. In the wood and wood based products industry, the highest level of technical efficiency was achieved by two sub-sectors i.e. veneer sheets and plywood and laminboard, particle board and other panels board, with the mean value of technical efficiency of 1.081 and 1.097 respectively. Generally, the majority of the manufacturing firms are operating technical inefficiently. The distribution of DEA and DEA-BCS technical efficiency in Malaysian Manufacturing Industries show that most of the industries have the average technical efficiency scores greater than 1.05 with only 7 industries (13.21% in DEA-BSC model operating at or near to the most optimal productions.

  3. Determinants of Technical Efficiency of Smallholders Dairy Farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is based on a study conducted in nine dairy cattle keeping villages of Njombe district in Tanzania with the overall objective of estimating Technical Efficiency (TE) and analyzing factors influencing Technical Inefficiency (TI) of smallholder dairy farmers. Cobb-Douglas stochastic frontier production function in which ...

  4. Analysis of Technical Efficiency of Small Holder Maize Growing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to examine the level of technical efficiency of smallholder maize producers and identify its determinants in Horo Guduru Wollega zone of Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. A Cobb-Douglass stochastic production function model was used for the analysis. To specify technical inefficiency effects ...

  5. Measuring technical efficiency of urban farms in Uyo metropolis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. No abstract. Keywords: urban farming; technical efficiency; stochastic frontier; population pressure. Global Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol. 4(1) 2005: 91-95. Global Journal of Agricultural Sciences. ISSN: 1596-2903.

  6. HEALTH, TECHNICAL EFFICIENCY, AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION IN INDIAN DISTRICTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataramani, Atheendar S; Shanmugam, K R; Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2010-12-01

    We investigate whether better population health may impact economic performance through improvements in technical efficiency in agricultural production. Using district-level data from India, we employ a random-coefficients approach to estimate a Cobb-Douglas production function, computing overall and input-specific technical efficiencies for each district. We then model health (district infant mortality rate) as a determinant of (in)efficiency in a second stage, controlling for a range of other socioeconomic variables. In the preferred specifications, we find that decreases in the infant mortality rate are associated with substantively and statistically significant increases in overall technical efficiency, and that a good portion of this association is likely due to improvements in the efficiency of labor use.

  7. Technical Efficiency of Sugar Cane ( Saccharum officinarum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum) is grown by thousands of local farmers in Nigeria, yet the level of production has not kept pace with the level of consumption. This study was therefore carried out to examine the efficiency of sugar cane production in Niger State, Nigeria. The study sample comprised of 105 sugar cane ...

  8. Estimating Production Technical Efficiency of Irvingia Seed (Ogbono ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study estimated the production technical efficiency of irvingia seed (Ogbono) farmers in Nsukka agricultural zone in Enugu State, Nigeria. This is against the backdrop of the importance of efficiency as a factor of productivity in a growing economy like Nigeria where resources are scarce and opportunities for new ...

  9. Technical Efficiency and Productivity for Higher Education Institutions in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, C.; Antelius, J.; Månsson, J.; Sund, K.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates technical efficiency and productivity for Swedish higher education institutions (HEIs). One identified problem in previous research concerns adjusting efficiency scores for input quality. This problem is avoided using grades from upper-secondary schools. A second problem concerns heterogeneity with respect to subjects and…

  10. 2011 Residential Energy Efficiency Technical Update Meeting Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-11-01

    This report provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy Building America program's Summer 2011 Residential Energy Efficiency Technical Update Meeting. This meeting was held on August 9-11, 2011, in Denver, Colorado, and brought together more than 290 professionals representing organizations with a vested interest in energy efficiency improvements in residential buildings.

  11. 46 CFR 160.066-13 - Technical tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Technical tests. 160.066-13 Section 160.066-13 Shipping....066-13 Technical tests. (a) The following conditions apply to technical tests as described in this... signals are protected by sealed packaging, then the conditioning for the technical tests must be conducted...

  12. Testing the performance of technical trading rules in the Chinese markets based on superior predictive test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shan; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Li, Sai-Ping; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2015-12-01

    Technical trading rules have a long history of being used by practitioners in financial markets. The profitable ability and efficiency of technical trading rules are yet controversial. In this paper, we test the performance of more than seven thousand traditional technical trading rules on the Shanghai Securities Composite Index (SSCI) from May 21, 1992 through June 30, 2013 and China Securities Index 300 (CSI 300) from April 8, 2005 through June 30, 2013 to check whether an effective trading strategy could be found by using the performance measurements based on the return and Sharpe ratio. To correct for the influence of the data-snooping effect, we adopt the Superior Predictive Ability test to evaluate if there exists a trading rule that can significantly outperform the benchmark. The result shows that for SSCI, technical trading rules offer significant profitability, while for CSI 300, this ability is lost. We further partition the SSCI into two sub-series and find that the efficiency of technical trading in sub-series, which have exactly the same spanning period as that of CSI 300, is severely weakened. By testing the trading rules on both indexes with a five-year moving window, we find that during the financial bubble from 2005 to 2007, the effectiveness of technical trading rules is greatly improved. This is consistent with the predictive ability of technical trading rules which appears when the market is less efficient.

  13. From technical and cost efficiency to exporting: firm level data from Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenja Pušnik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the influence of technical and allocative efficiency on export performance of Slovenian individual firms. The main contribution of the paper to the literature is the test on whether technical and allocative efficiencies, measured by data envelopment analysis (DEA and stochastic frontier function (SFA, significantly influence the export orientation of individual firms. Our evidence suggests that firms which are more efficient than their competitors in industry are more export oriented and that technical efficiency is more significant for firms’ export orientation than allocative efficiency. The evidence also suggests that along efficiency export activity of individual firms is significantly influenced by size, capital intensity, profitability, wages and export orientation of the firms a year prior to investigation.

  14. Technical Review Board Chairperson Guidelines for Conducting Technical Review Boards for Rocket Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    Drawing SRB – Safety Review Board TOP – Test Operating Procedure TRB – Technical Review Board TQM – Total Quality Management VPP – Voluntary...including Total Quality Management ( TQM ). The final section is on meeting management, and was included to find more efficient and effective ways to...includes a review of quality process with an emphasis on total quality management ( TQM ). Total Quality Management ( TQM ) is a quality assurance

  15. Cost and technical efficiency of German hospitals: does ownership matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, Annika

    2008-09-01

    This paper is the first to investigate both the technical and cost efficiency of more than 1500 German general hospitals. More specifically, it deals with the question how hospital efficiency varies with ownership, patient structure, and other exogenous factors, which are neither inputs to nor outputs of the production process. The empirical results for the years from 2001 to 2003 indicate that private and non-profit hospitals are on average less cost efficient and less technically efficient than publicly owned hospitals. The hospital rankings based on estimated efficiency scores turn out to be negatively correlated with average length of stay, which is highest in private hospitals. The results are derived by conducting a Stochastic Frontier Analysis assuming both Cobb-Douglas and translog production technologies and using a newly available and multifaceted administrative German data set.

  16. Modeling technical efficiency of inshore fishery using data envelopment analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Rahayu; Zahid, Zalina; Khairi, Siti Shaliza Mohd; Hussin, Siti Aida Sheikh

    2016-10-01

    Fishery industry contributes significantly to the economy of Malaysia. This study utilized Data Envelopment Analysis application in estimating the technical efficiency of fishery in Terengganu, a state on the eastern coast of Peninsular Malaysia, based on multiple output, i.e. total fish landing and income of fishermen with six inputs, i.e. engine power, vessel size, number of trips, number of workers, cost and operation distance. The data were collected by survey conducted between November and December 2014. The decision making units (DMUs) involved 100 fishermen from 10 fishery areas. The result showed that the technical efficiency in Season I (dry season) and Season II (rainy season) were 90.2% and 66.7% respectively. About 27% of the fishermen were rated to be efficient during Season I, meanwhile only 13% of the fishermen achieved full efficiency 100% during Season II. The results also found out that there was a significance difference in the efficiency performance between the fishery areas.

  17. Technical Efficiency of Thai Manufacturing SMEs: A Stochastic Frontier Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teerawat Charoenrat

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractA major motivation of this study is to examine the factors that are the most important in contributing to the relatively poor efficiency performance of Thai manufacturing small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs. The results obtained will be significant in devising effective policies aimed at tackling this poor performance.This paper uses data on manufacturing SMEs in the North-eastern region of Thailand in 2007 as a case study, by applying a stochastic frontier analysis (SFA and a technical inefficiency effects model. The empirical results obtained indicate that the mean technical efficiency of all categories of manufacturing SMEs in theNorth-eastern region is 43%, implying that manufacturing SMEs have high levels of technical inefficiency in their production processes.Manufacturing SMEs in the North-eastern region are particularly labour-intensive. The empirical results of the technical inefficiency effects model suggest that skilled labour, the municipal area and ownership characteristics are important firm-specific factors affecting technical efficiency. The paper argues that the government should play a more substantial role in developing manufacturing SMEs in the North-eastern provinces through: providing training programs for employees and employers; encouraging a greater usage of capital and technology in the production process of SMEs; enhancing the efficiency of state-ownedenterprises; encouraging a wide range of ownership forms; and improving information and communications infrastructure.

  18. Technical Efficiency and Its Determinants of Rice Production in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokvibol Kea

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to measure the technical efficiency and establish core factors affecting rice production in Cambodia. A four‐year dataset generated from the central government document “Profile on Economics and Social” of 25 entire provinces between 2012 and 2015 and the stochastic production frontier model (SFA was applied. The results indicated that the level of output (quantity of Cambodian rice production varied according to the different level of capital investment in agricultural machineries, total rice actual harvested area, and technical fertilizer application within provinces. Furthermore, evidence revealed that the overall mean efficiency of rice production is 78.4%, which implies that there is still room to further improve technical efficiency given the same level of inputs and technology. More importantly, the findings revealed that irrigation, production techniques and amount of agricultural supporting staff are the most important influencing factors of rice production’s technical efficiency in Cambodia. In conclusion, the present study strongly recommends the development of irrigation systems and good water management practices to be considered and bring about more effective actions by the central government as well as related agencies for improving rice production in Cambodia in addition to capital investment and improving technical skills of supporting staff and rural farmers.

  19. Analysis of Technical Efficiency among Swamp Rice Farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the Technical efficiency among swamp rice farmers in Niger State, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 159 swamp rice farmers. The data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics, and the stochastic frontier production function. The results showed ...

  20. Comparative analysis of technical efficiency between traditional and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined technical efficiency differentials between farmers planning traditional rice varieties and those planning improved varieties in Nigeria. The study employed a multistage random sampling procedure for the selection of 302 respondents across four major rice producing states in the country. The main ...

  1. Determinants of factors influencing technical efficiency of cocoa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mean technical efficiency rate attained was at 0.9869 and the elasticity of cocoa production is 1.2134 which indicated that a 1% increase input use will lead to more than one percent proportion change in the output of cocoa. This implies an increasing return to scale in variable inputs use among the farmers.

  2. Determinants of technical efficiency by gender among cocoyam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to investigate the determinants of technical efficiency in cocoyam production across gender in Anambra State, Nigeria. The study presents the results of analysis of data collected on 160 male and female cocoyam farmers across two Agricultural zones. A multi-stage randomized sampling technique ...

  3. Technical efficiency in pig production in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to measure the level of technical efficiency and its determinants in pig production in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria using a stochastic frontier production function. Multistage random sampling technique was used to select 60 pig farms from which input-output data were collected in 2004. The estimated ...

  4. Technical Efficiency Among Women Farmers in Kwara State: Data ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study explored the potential for improving food productivity through Technical Efficiency (TE) of Women Food Crops Farmers in Kwara State. ... Therefore, education and awareness (extension and farmers associations) are the vital variables to be considered by the policy makers to increase food productivity in Kwara ...

  5. Assessment of the Technical Efficiency of Gari Processing in Kwara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to carry out an analysis of the technical efficiency of gari processing in Kwara State, Nigeria. A three-stage random sampling technique was used to select a total of 120 gari processors used for the study. Stochastic Frontier Model (SFM) was used to analyse the data. Results of the SFM revealed that ...

  6. Measurement of technical efficiency and its determinants in crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to measure technical efficiency and identify its determinants in crop production in Lafia Local government Area of Nasarawa State of Nigeria using a stochastic frontier production model. Double stage random sampling technique was used to select 100 crop farmers from which input-output data ...

  7. Endogeneity Corrected Stochastic Production Frontier and Technical Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shee, A.; Stefanou, S.E.

    2015-01-01

    A major econometric issue in estimating production parameters and technical efficiency is the possibility that some forces influencing production are only observed by the firm and not by the econometrician. Not only can this misspecification lead to a biased inference on the output elasticity of

  8. Technical Efficiency Of Rice Farmers In Ebonyi State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Credit, education, farming experience, farm size, membership of farmer\\'s associations/cooperative society, use of improved rice varieties, extension contact, system of production, and timeliness of farm operations were found to be positively and significantly related to technical efficiency. The study found no relationship ...

  9. Gender factors influencing technical efficiency of cassava farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    input (such as herbicides, poultry manure, depreciated cost of fixed farming equipment such as hoe, knife etc.) had positive and significant effects on that of the females. Membership of cooperative, extension contact, age, and farm size significantly influenced the technical efficiency of the male farmers while land ownership, ...

  10. The analysis of technical and cost efficiency of cultured fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 63 respondents were drawn from a sampling frame of 121 registered cultured fish farmers through random sampling technique. Analytical tools used for the study was Stochastic Frontier Model (SFM). The findings of the study revealed that cultured fish farms in Kwara States operated with mean Technical Efficiency ...

  11. Analysis of the Factors Influencing the Technical Efficiency of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study analyzed the relationship between technical efficiency of women rubber tappers in Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria, Benin City. A total of 60 women were selected through purposive and random sampling techniques and served with a structured interview schedule. Data collected were subjected to ...

  12. Analysis of technical and economic efficiencies of Fadama and non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fadama arable crop farmers in Imo state, Nigeria, with focus was on the estimation and comparison of their levels of technical and economic efficiencies. A multi stage sampling technique was employed in the selection of both the study location ...

  13. Analysis of Technical efficiency of National Fadama II Facility on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study measured the level of technical efficiency and its determinants in Fadama II Arable Crops farmers in Imo State, Nigeria using a stochastic Frontier Production Function. Multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 120 arable crop farmers from which input-output data were collected. Instrument of ...

  14. technical efficiency and its determinants at different levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2012-03-30

    Mar 30, 2012 ... Keywords: Crop production intensification, technical efficiency and maize-based farming ... energy, climate change, trade, and new market demands from .... statistical noise). The two components v and u are also assumed to be independent of each other. Thus, to estimate a Cobb-Douglas production.

  15. Technical efficiency and profitability of backyard poultry farming in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Technical efficiency and profitability of backyard poultry farming in Ika South Local Government Area, Delta State, Nigeria. ... The study revealed that the sum of N57,897 was realized by the average backyard poultry farmer. Further investigation revealed that return on investment was N1.39. This implies that for every one ...

  16. Economic Analysis of Factors Affecting Technical Efficiency of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... was used to estimate the technical efficiency of producing maize, and to determine the factors behind inefficiency such as age, educational level, marital status, family size, main occupation, type of seeds, and extension services. Also, descriptive statistics were used to analyze the socio-economic characteristics of farmers.

  17. Technical efficiency of watermelon ( Citrullus lanatus ) production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to measure the level of technical efficiency, its determinants in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) production and the constraints in the production system in Yewa North Local Government of Ogun State using a stochastic frontier production function. A combination of purposive and random sampling ...

  18. Technical efficiency of small-scale fishing households in Tanzanian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Technical efficiency of small-scale fishing households in Tanzanian coastal villages: an empirical analysis. ... problems should be considered. Keywords: coastal areas, fisheries development, policy development, socio-economic factors, stochastic production frontier. African Journal of Aquatic Science 2007, 32(1): 51–61 ...

  19. An analysis of the productivity and technical efficiency of smallholder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study used the stochastic frontier production function to analyse the productivity and technical efficiency of 4 different agricultural production systems in Ethiopia; namely, irrigated seasonal farms on traditional irrigation systems, irrigated seasonal farms on modern communal irrigation systems, rainfed seasonal farms for ...

  20. Selection of technical risk responses for efficient contingencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kujawski, Edouard

    2002-02-28

    The primary goal of good project risk management should be to successfully deliver projects for the lowest cost at an acceptable level of risk. This requires the systematic development and implementation of a set of Risk Response Actions (RRA) that achieves the lowest total project cost for a given probability of success while meeting technical performance and schedule. We refer to this set as the ''efficient RRA set''. This work presents a practical and mathematically sound approach for determining the efficient RRA set. It builds on some of Markowitz's portfolio selection principles and introduces several conceptual and modeling differences to properly treat project technical risks. The set of RRAs is treated as whole and not just individual risks. The efficient RRA set is determined based on ''Outcome Cost Vs Probability of Success''. The risks and RRAs are characterized using scenarios, decision trees, and cumulative probability distributions. The analysis provides information that enables decision-makers to select the efficient RRA set that explicitly takes their attitude toward project risk into account. Decision-makers should find it both useful and practical for sound decision-making under uncertainty/risk and efficiently optimizing project success. The computations are readily performed using commercially available Monte Carlo simulation tools. The approach is detailed using a realistic but simplified case of a project with two technical risks.

  1. Technical Efficiency of Automotive Industry Cluster in Chennai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskaran, E.

    2012-07-01

    Chennai is also called as Detroit of India due to its automotive industry presence producing over 40 % of the India's vehicle and components. During 2001-2002, diagnostic study was conducted on the Automotive Component Industries (ACI) in Ambattur Industrial Estate, Chennai and in SWOT analysis it was found that it had faced problems on infrastructure, technology, procurement, production and marketing. In the year 2004-2005 under the cluster development approach (CDA), they formed Chennai auto cluster, under public private partnership concept, received grant from Government of India, Government of Tamil Nadu, Ambattur Municipality, bank loans and stake holders. This results development in infrastructure, technology, procurement, production and marketing interrelationships among ACI. The objective is to determine the correlation coefficient, regression equation, technical efficiency, peer weights, slack variables and return to scale of cluster before and after the CDA. The methodology adopted is collection of primary data from ACI and analyzing using data envelopment analysis (DEA) of input oriented Banker-Charnes-Cooper model. There is significant increase in correlation coefficient and the regression analysis reveals that for one percent increase in employment and net worth, the gross output increases significantly after the CDA. The DEA solver gives the technical efficiency of ACI by taking shift, employment, net worth as input data and quality, gross output and export ratio as output data. From the technical score and ranking of ACI, it is found that there is significant increase in technical efficiency of ACI when compared to CDA. The slack variables obtained clearly reveals the excess employment and net worth and no shortage of gross output. To conclude there is increase in technical efficiency of not only Chennai auto cluster in general but also Chennai auto components industries in particular.

  2. Technical Quality of Complete Dentures: Influence on Masticatory Efficiency and Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tôrres, Ana Clara Soares Paiva; Maciel, Amanda de Queiroz; de Farias, Danielle Bezerra; de Medeiros, Annie Karoline Bezerra; Vieira, Flávia Patrícia Tavares Veras; Carreiro, Adriana da Fonte Porto

    2017-11-09

    To evaluate the effect of the technical quality of conventional complete dentures (CD) on masticatory efficiency and quality of life (QoL) of denture wearers during a 1-year follow-up. A prospective clinical trial with 32 edentulous patients (mean age of 60.2 years) wearing mandibular and maxillary dentures was conducted. All patients were evaluated wearing their preexisting dentures and after 3, 6, and 12 months postinsertion of new dentures. A reproducible method for objective evaluation of the technical quality of CDs was employed. Masticatory efficiency was evaluated by the colorimetric method using beads as artificial testing food. The oral health impact on patient QoL was measured using the OHIP-EDENT (Oral Health Impact Profile in Edentulous Adults) questionnaire. The nonparametric Wilcoxon test was applied to reveal any differences in technical quality between the preexisting and new dentures. The Friedman test was used to detect differences in masticatory efficiency and oral health impact on QoL. Spearman's correlation was applied to reveal correlation between the variables. Comparing preexisting and new dentures, significant improvement was found in technical quality between the dentures (p technical quality and OHIP in the new denture wearers (p = 0.011). According to the results of this study, denture quality significantly improved patients' oral health-related QoL; however, insertion of new dentures did not influence masticatory efficiency. © 2017 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  3. Technical Evaluation of Oak Ridge Filter Test Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Kriskovich, J R

    2002-01-01

    Two evaluations of the Oak Ridge Department of Energy (DOE) Filter Test Facility (FTF) were performed on December 11 and 12, 2001, and consisted of a quality assurance and a technical evaluation. This report documents results of the technical evaluation.

  4. Testing the Weak Form Efficiency of Karachi Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Arshad Haroon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In an efficient market, share prices reflect all available information. The study of efficient market hypothesis helps to take right decisions related to investments. In this research,weak form efficiency has been tested of Karachi Stock Exchange—KSE covering the period of 2nd November 1991 to 2nd November 2011. Descriptive statistics indicated the absence of weak form efficiency while results of non-parametric tests, showed consistency as well. We employed non-parametric tests were KS Goodness-of-Fit test,run test and autocorrelation test to find out serial independency of the data. Results prove that KSE is not weak-form-efficient. This happens because KSE is an emerging market and there, it has been observed that information take time to be processed. Thus it can besaid that technical analysis may be applied to gain abnormal returns.

  5. Research on the technical requirements standards of high efficiency precipitator in power industries for assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Huang; Ling, Lin; Jun, Guo; Jianguo, Li; Yongzhong, Wang

    2017-11-01

    Facing the increasingly severe situation of air pollution, China are now positively promoting the evaluation of high efficiency air pollution control equipments and the research of the relative national standards. This paper showed the significance and the effect of formulating the technical requirements of high efficiency precipitator equipments for assessment national standards in power industries as well as the research thoughts and principle of these standards. It introduce the qualitative and quantitative evaluation requirements of high efficiency precipitators using in power industries and the core technical content such as testing, calculating, evaluation methods and so on. The implementation of a series of national standards is in order to lead and promote the production and application of high efficiency precipitator equipments in the field of the prevention of air pollution in national power industries.

  6. Green and technical efficient growth in Danish fresh water aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    growth can be achieved by introducing new environmentally friendly water purification systems in Danish fresh water aquaculture. Data Envelopment Analysis is used to investigate whether different water purification systems and farm size influence technical efficiency. The empirical results indicate...... that different water purification systems have no significant influence, although it increases with farm size. The policy implications are that green growth is possible by implementing the new water purification systems, but farmers have no incentive to adopt the new systems under the present regulation...

  7. Trial for Enhancing Technical Writing Skills to Improve Training Efficiency in Writing Technical Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uneda, Michio; Ishikawa, Ken-Ichi

    One of the important undertakings of student in laboratory education practiced in higher educational institutions, such as universities, is the development of technical communication skills based on training in technical writing for preparing not only bachelor‧s and master‧s theses but also papers to be submitted to society journals. However, technical writing is difficult for students who are not trained in writing papers, and it might become a burden for the teaching staff. Considering this situation, we have examined methods that may enhance the technical writing skills of students and also improve the training efficiency of the teaching staff. Specifically, the methods include distributing checklists to students, providing as few corrections as possible using underlines and adding comments when correcting students‧ writings, and instructing students to exchange their writings to check each other‧s work. In this paper, we summarize and analyze the effects of practicing the above methods on the basis of the answers to a questionnaire provided by students.

  8. On the Use of Student Data in Efficiency Analysis--Technical Efficiency in Swedish Upper Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldo, Staffan

    2007-01-01

    While individual data form the base for much empirical analysis in education, this is not the case for analysis of technical efficiency. In this paper, efficiency is estimated using individual data which is then aggregated to larger groups of students. Using an individual approach to technical efficiency makes it possible to carry out studies on a…

  9. Assessment of Technical Efficiency of Public Sector Banks in India Using Data Envelopment Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna BHATIA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the paper is to analyze technical efficiency of Public Sector Banks (PSBs in India during the period 1990-91 to 2011-12. The paper also examines whether there is statistically significant difference in efficiency of PSBs in the reformatory era (1990-91 to 2000-01 as compared to the post reformatory era (2001-02 to 2011-12. Using CAMEL framework, the paper also investigates the determinants of efficiency of PSBs. The results show that PSBs exhibit higher mean of the efficiency parameters in post reformatory era (2001-02 to 2011-12 than in the reformatory era (1990-91 to 2000-01. PSBs inefficiency is attributed to Pure Technical Inefficiency in reformatory era whereas the same is accredited to scale inefficiency in the post reformatory era. Paired t test shows that there is significant difference in performance of Public Sector Banks in reformatory era and post reformatory in all the Efficiency parameters. The results of Panel Data TOBIT regression suggest that various CAMEL parameters have significant impact on the technical efficiency of PSBs.

  10. Estimation of Energy Efficiency of Means of Transport According to the Results of Technical Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalkov, Anton; Mamaeva, Mariya

    2017-11-01

    The article considers the questions of application of nondestructive methods control of reducers of conveyor belts as a means of transport. Particular attention is paid to such types of diagnostics of technical condition as thermal control and analysis of the state of lubricants. The urgency of carrying out types of nondestructive testing presented in the article is determined by the increase of energy efficiency of transport systems of coal and mining enterprises, in particular, reducers of belt conveyors. Periodic in-depth spectral-emission diagnostics and monitoring of a temperature mode of operation oil in the operation of the control equipment and its technical condition and prevent the MTBF allows the monitoring of the actual technical condition of the gearbox of a belt conveyor. In turn, the thermal imaging diagnostics reveals defects at the earliest stage of their formation and development, which allows planning the volumes and terms of equipment repair. Presents diagnostics of the technical condition will allow monitoring in time the technical condition of the equipment and avoiding its premature failure. Thereby it will increase the energy efficiency of both the transport system and the enterprise as a whole, and also avoid unreasonable increases in operating and maintenance costs.

  11. Estimation of Energy Efficiency of Means of Transport According to the Results of Technical Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalkov Anton

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the questions of application of nondestructive methods control of reducers of conveyor belts as a means of transport. Particular attention is paid to such types of diagnostics of technical condition as thermal control and analysis of the state of lubricants. The urgency of carrying out types of nondestructive testing presented in the article is determined by the increase of energy efficiency of transport systems of coal and mining enterprises, in particular, reducers of belt conveyors. Periodic in-depth spectral-emission diagnostics and monitoring of a temperature mode of operation oil in the operation of the control equipment and its technical condition and prevent the MTBF allows the monitoring of the actual technical condition of the gearbox of a belt conveyor. In turn, the thermal imaging diagnostics reveals defects at the earliest stage of their formation and development, which allows planning the volumes and terms of equipment repair. Presents diagnostics of the technical condition will allow monitoring in time the technical condition of the equipment and avoiding its premature failure. Thereby it will increase the energy efficiency of both the transport system and the enterprise as a whole, and also avoid unreasonable increases in operating and maintenance costs.

  12. Technology Adoption and Technical Efficiency: Organic and Conventional Dairy Farms in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos D. Mayen; Joseph V. Balagtas; Corinne E. Alexander

    2010-01-01

    We compare productivity and technical efficiency of organic and conventional dairy farms in the United States. We address self-selection into organic farming by using propensity score matching and explicitly test the hypothesis that organic and conventional farms employ a single, homogeneous technology. Utilizing the 2005 Agricultural Resource Management Survey on Dairy Costs and Returns Report (ARMS) data, we reject the homogeneous technology hypothesis and find that the organic dairy techno...

  13. The Technical Efficiency of Specialised Milk Farms: A Regional View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jindřich Špička

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to evaluate production efficiency and its determinants of specialised dairy farming among the EU regions. In the most of European regions, there is a relatively high significance of small specialised farms including dairy farms. The DEAVRS method (data envelopment analysis with variable returns to scale reveals efficient and inefficient regions including the scale efficiency. In the next step, the two-sample t-test determines differences of economic and structural indicators between efficient and inefficient regions. The research reveals that substitution of labour by capital/contract work explains the variability of the farm net value added per AWU (annual work unit income indicator by more than 30%. The significant economic determinants of production efficiency in specialised dairy farming are farm size, herd size, crop output per hectare, productivity of energy, and capital (at α=0.01. Specialised dairy farms in efficient regions have significantly higher farm net value added per AWU than inefficient regions. Agricultural enterprises in inefficient regions have a more extensive structure and produce more noncommodity output (public goods. Specialised dairy farms in efficient regions have a slightly higher milk yield, specific livestock costs of feed, bedding, and veterinary services per livestock unit.

  14. The technical efficiency of specialised milk farms: a regional view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spička, Jindřich; Smutka, Luboš

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the article is to evaluate production efficiency and its determinants of specialised dairy farming among the EU regions. In the most of European regions, there is a relatively high significance of small specialised farms including dairy farms. The DEAVRS method (data envelopment analysis with variable returns to scale) reveals efficient and inefficient regions including the scale efficiency. In the next step, the two-sample t-test determines differences of economic and structural indicators between efficient and inefficient regions. The research reveals that substitution of labour by capital/contract work explains the variability of the farm net value added per AWU (annual work unit) income indicator by more than 30%. The significant economic determinants of production efficiency in specialised dairy farming are farm size, herd size, crop output per hectare, productivity of energy, and capital (at α = 0.01). Specialised dairy farms in efficient regions have significantly higher farm net value added per AWU than inefficient regions. Agricultural enterprises in inefficient regions have a more extensive structure and produce more noncommodity output (public goods). Specialised dairy farms in efficient regions have a slightly higher milk yield, specific livestock costs of feed, bedding, and veterinary services per livestock unit.

  15. Determinants of technical efficiency among dairy farms in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, V E; Solís, D; del Corral, J

    2010-01-01

    The US dairy sector is facing structural changes including a geographical shift in dairy production and a tendency toward the implementation of more intensive production systems. These changes might significantly affect farm efficiency, profitability, and the long-term economic sustainability of the dairy sector, especially in more traditional dairy production areas. Consequently, the goal of this study was to examine the effect of practices commonly used by dairy farmers and the effect of intensification on the performance of the farms. We used a sample of 273 Wisconsin dairy farms to estimate a stochastic production frontier simultaneously with a technical inefficiency model. The empirical analysis showed that at a commercial level the administration of bovine somatotropin hormone to lactating cows increased milk production. In addition, we found that production exhibits constant returns to scale and that farm efficiency is positively related to farm intensification, the level of contribution of family labor in the farm activities, the use of a total mixed ration feeding system, and milking frequency. Copyright 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Measurement of Technical Efficiency and Effective Factors in Cucumber Greenhouse (Case Study: Eastern Azarbayjan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Abdollahi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to estimate technical efficiency of cucumber greenhouses in Eastern Azarbayjan. In economic literature, it means the ratio of maximum output to the inputs. The objective of this research was to determinate the effective factors influencing it's inefficiency. The method of determination of deterministic and stochastic technical efficiency is corrected ordinary least squares (COLS and maximum likelihood (ML respectively. The average of technical efficiency in province’s cucumber greenhouse is approximately about 57 and 93 percent for deterministic and stochastic frontier method respectively. Production types had positive influence on technical inefficiency whereas experience of manager have negative influence on technical inefficiency.

  17. Method for efficient establishment of technical biodosimetry competence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stricklin, D. [FOI, Swedish Defence Research Agency, NBC Defense, SE-90182 UmeA (Sweden)], E-mail: daniela.stricklin@foi.se; Jaworska, Alicja [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, N-1332 Osteras (Norway); Arvidsson, E. [FOI, Swedish Defence Research Agency, NBC Defense, SE-90182 Umea (Sweden)

    2007-07-15

    The current gold standard in biodosimetry, the dicentric assay, requires documented technical competence. Expertise is developed over time by evaluation of thousands of metaphases. Competence is documented through establishment of a dose-response curve, required by any service laboratory performing biodosimetry. Consistent and reliable evaluations must be established for new observers that might contribute to analyses for biological dose assessments. Discrepancies in evaluations jeopardize the reliability of assessments. The Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI) together with the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA) conducted an inter-calibration exercise for the purpose of establishing comparable scoring criteria for evaluation of aberrations in metaphases. The exercise revealed specific aberrations that were difficult to identify and were consistent sources of uncertainty. Subsequently, a report detailing the FOI's scoring criteria was developed with visual examples and a strategy for establishing technical competence in metaphase scoring in an efficient manner evolved. Key components of the strategy are the review of guidance for biodosimetry, performance of inter-calibration exercises with previously established data sets, review of incongruous evaluations with a well-established observer, follow-up exercises depending on the initial outcome, and inter-comparisons to document agreement. Methods suggested here could be applied in training of new personnel. Documentation of methods in other laboratories could facilitate more consistent scoring criteria among the biodosimetry community, a problem observed in previous international inter-comparisons. Improved consistency among biodosimetry laboratories could facilitate reliably sharing the work load among different members of the biodosimetry community in the event of a mass casualty accident.

  18. Technical efficiency and its determinants in the spanish construction sector pre- and post-financial crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kapelko, Magdalena; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper estimates technical efficiency in the Spanish construction sector before and after the start of the current financial crisis, and examines the impact of socio-economic factors on technical efficiency. Bias-corrected efficiency measures are obtained using Data Envelopment Analysis with

  19. AHMCT Intelligent Roadway Information System (IRIS) technical support and testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-31

    This report documents the research project AHMCT IRIS Technical Support and Testing, : performed under contract 65A0275, Task ID 1777. It presents an overview of the Intelligent : Roadway Information System (IRIS), and its design and function. ...

  20. The Impact of Innovation, Firm Growth and Perceptions on Technical and Scale Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmer, J.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses a two-stage approach to analyse efficiency and productivity of Dutch glasshouse firms over the period 1991-1998. The first stages uses DEA to determine productivity growth and technical and scale efficiency; the second stage applies a TOBIT model to explain technical and scale

  1. The relationship between technical efficiency and industial concentration: Evidnce from the Indonesian food and beverages industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setiawan, M.; Emvalomatis, G.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between technical efficiency and industrial concentration in the Indonesian food and beverages sector. Firm-level data obtained from the Indonesian Bureau of Central Statistics (BPS) are used to estimate technical efficiency scores and calculate measures of

  2. A GMM Test for SSD Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.T. Post (Thierry); P.J.P.M. Versijp (Philippe)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWe develop an empirical test for Second-order Stochastic Dominance (SSD) efficiency of a given investment portfolio relative to all possible portfolios formed from a set of assets. Contrary to the Linear Programming test of Post, Thierry, 2003, Empirical tests for stochastic dominance

  3. Efficient separations and processing crosscutting program 1996 technical exchange meeting. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    This document contains summaries of technology development presented at the 1996 Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program Technical Exchange Meeting. This meeting is held annually to promote a free exchange of ideas among technology developers, potential users and other interested parties within the EM community. During this meeting the following many separation processes technologies were discussed such as ion exchange, membrane separation, vacuum distillation, selective sorption, and solvent extraction. Other topics discussed include: waste forms; testing or inorganic sorbents for radionuclide and heavy metal removal; selective crystallization; and electrochemical treatment of liquid wastes. This is the leading abstract, individual papers have been indexed separately for the databases.

  4. Efficiency Of Technical And Tactical Approach To Teaching Minihandball Game Skills In Different Age Categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priklerová Silvia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to verify the efficiency of a traditional (technical approach and a tactical game based approach to teaching minihandball game skills the first- to fourth-grade elementary school pupils. The experimental design was two parallel-group trials. Experimental groups (EG were taught by the tactical approach where modified and small-sided games comprised 80 % and drill-exercises 20 % of all the units. Control groups (CG were taught by the technical approach where drill exercises comprised 70 % and modified and small-sided games 30 % of all the units. Two groups of first- and second-graders (EG n=16, CG n=17 and two groups of third- and fourth-graders (both EG and CG n=12 attending extracurricular activities oriented to minihandball participated in the study. The technique of offensive game skills (overarm pass, dribbling and shot was evaluated by 1 to 5 scoring system. For statistical analysis, Wilcoxon’s T-test and Man-Whitney’s U-test were used and the level of significance was set to 5 %. Based on the results it can be stated that the tactical approach is as efficient as a technical approach on game skills’ technique acquirement. Results showed significant changes in the technique of game skills in both age categories (p<0.01. No significant differences between age categories were confirmed in game skill tests besides the dribbling test where the older experimental group (third- and fourth-graders achieved better performance than the younger experimental group (first- and second-graders.

  5. Development and testing of a high efficiency advanced coal combustor phase III industrial boiler retrofit. Technical progress report No. 17, 18 and 19, September 30, 1991--December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borio, R.W.; Patel, R.L.; Thornock, D.E. [and others

    1996-07-29

    The objective of this project is to retrofit a burner, capable of firing microfine coal, to a standard gas/oil designed industrial boiler to assess the technical and economic viability of displacing premium fuels with microfine coal. This report documents the technical aspects of this project during the last three quarters [seventeenth (October `95 through December `95), eighteenth (January `96 through March `96), and nineteenth (April `96 through June `96)] of the program.

  6. International Technical Working Group Round Robin Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudder, Gordon B.; Hanlen, Richard C.; Herbillion, Georges M.

    2003-02-01

    The goal of nuclear forensics is to develop a preferred approach to support illicit trafficking investigations. This approach must be widely understood and accepted as credible. The principal objectives of the Round Robin Tests are to prioritize forensic techniques and methods, evaluate attribution capabilities, and examine the utility of database. The HEU (Highly Enriched Uranium) Round Robin, and previous Plutonium Round Robin, have made tremendous contributions to fulfilling these goals through a collaborative learning experience that resulted from the outstanding efforts of the nine participating internal laboratories. A prioritized list of techniques and methods has been developed based on this exercise. Current work is focused on the extent to which the techniques and methods can be generalized. The HEU Round Robin demonstrated a rather high level of capability to determine the important characteristics of the materials and processes using analytical methods. When this capability is combined with the appropriate knowledge/database, it results in a significant capability to attribute the source of the materials to a specific process or facility. A number of shortfalls were also identified in the current capabilities including procedures for non-nuclear forensics and the lack of a comprehensive network of data/knowledge bases. The results of the Round Robin will be used to develop guidelines or a ''recommended protocol'' to be made available to the interested authorities and countries to use in real cases.

  7. Technical efficiency analysis for oilseed sunflower farms: a case study in Erzurum, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Külekçi, Murat

    2010-07-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the technical efficiency of farms producing sunflower in Erzurum, Turkey and to identify factors that might be causing inefficiency. Stochastic frontier analysis was used to measure technical efficiency. One hundred and seventeen randomly selected farms were interviewed for farm-level data in the 2004-2005 production period. Results revealed that the mean technical efficiency for the sunflower farms, estimated by the stochastic production frontier, is 64%. At full technical efficiency, on average, the farmers could reduce their inputs by around 56% without reducing their sunflower production, simply by improving technical efficiency. In the inefficiency model the parameter estimates showed that older farmers, higher level of farmer's education, more experienced farmers, larger farm size and higher information score resulted in lower technical inefficiency, while bigger family size and more credit usage resulted in higher technical inefficiency. This study proposes strategies such as providing better extension services and farmer-training programmes, including more educated people in sunflower farming and also expanding the sunflower-growing area through provision of adequate facilities in order to increase technical efficiency.

  8. Technical efficiency and productivity of Chinese county hospitals: an exploratory study in Henan province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhaohui; Tao, Hongbing; Cai, Miao; Lin, Haifeng; Lin, Xiaojun; Shu, Qin; Zhang, Ru-Ning

    2015-09-09

    Chinese county hospitals have been excessively enlarging their scale during the healthcare reform since 2009. The purpose of this paper is to examine the technical efficiency and productivity of county hospitals during the reform process, and to determine whether, and how, efficiency is affected by various factors. 114 sample county hospitals were selected from Henan province, China, from 2010 to 2012. Data envelopment analysis was employed to estimate the technical and scale efficiency of sample hospitals. The Malmquist index was used to calculate productivity changes over time. Tobit regression was used to regress against 4 environmental factors and 5 institutional factors that affected the technical efficiency. (1) 112 (98.2%), 112 (98.2%) and 104 (91.2%) of the 114 sample hospitals ran inefficiently in 2010, 2011 and 2012, with average technical efficiency of 0.697, 0.748 and 0.790, respectively. (2) On average, during 2010-2012, productivity of sample county hospitals increased by 7.8%, which was produced by the progress in technical efficiency changes and technological changes of 0.9% and 6.8%, respectively. (3) Tobit regression analysis indicated that government subsidy, hospital size with above 618 beds and average length of stay assumed a negative sign with technical efficiency; bed occupancy rate, ratio of beds to nurses and ratio of nurses to physicians assumed a positive sign with technical efficiency. There was considerable space for technical efficiency improvement in Henan county hospitals. During 2010-2012, sample hospitals experienced productivity progress; however, the adverse change in pure technical efficiency should be emphasised. Moreover, according to the Tobit results, policy interventions that strictly supervise hospital bed scale, shorten the average length of stay and coordinate the proportion among physicians, nurses and beds, would benefit hospital efficiency. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where

  9. Technical efficiency and productivity of Chinese county hospitals: an exploratory study in Henan province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhaohui; Tao, Hongbing; Cai, Miao; Lin, Haifeng; Lin, Xiaojun; Shu, Qin; Zhang, Ru-ning

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Chinese county hospitals have been excessively enlarging their scale during the healthcare reform since 2009. The purpose of this paper is to examine the technical efficiency and productivity of county hospitals during the reform process, and to determine whether, and how, efficiency is affected by various factors. Setting and participants 114 sample county hospitals were selected from Henan province, China, from 2010 to 2012. Outcome measures Data envelopment analysis was employed to estimate the technical and scale efficiency of sample hospitals. The Malmquist index was used to calculate productivity changes over time. Tobit regression was used to regress against 4 environmental factors and 5 institutional factors that affected the technical efficiency. Results (1) 112 (98.2%), 112 (98.2%) and 104 (91.2%) of the 114 sample hospitals ran inefficiently in 2010, 2011 and 2012, with average technical efficiency of 0.697, 0.748 and 0.790, respectively. (2) On average, during 2010–2012, productivity of sample county hospitals increased by 7.8%, which was produced by the progress in technical efficiency changes and technological changes of 0.9% and 6.8%, respectively. (3) Tobit regression analysis indicated that government subsidy, hospital size with above 618 beds and average length of stay assumed a negative sign with technical efficiency; bed occupancy rate, ratio of beds to nurses and ratio of nurses to physicians assumed a positive sign with technical efficiency. Conclusions There was considerable space for technical efficiency improvement in Henan county hospitals. During 2010–2012, sample hospitals experienced productivity progress; however, the adverse change in pure technical efficiency should be emphasised. Moreover, according to the Tobit results, policy interventions that strictly supervise hospital bed scale, shorten the average length of stay and coordinate the proportion among physicians, nurses and beds, would benefit hospital efficiency

  10. DOES SIZE MATTER?: Technical Efficiency and Industry Size in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard V. Richard V. Llewelyn

    2013-12-01

    creating a stable environment for business, which promotes growth of efficient businesses, either large or small. Specific policies and intervention for small business development are not necessary, given the relative efficiency of small firms in Indonesia.

  11. Grain intermodal terminals: evaluation of pure technical efficiency by Data Envelopment Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gabriela Mendonça Peixoto

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper aimed to verify if terminals with productive efficiency also have pure technical efficiency, using DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis technique. The research approach was the qualitative-quantitative or mixed, with exploratory purpose; the research method defined was the case study (multicases; data were collected through interviews using a structured questionnaire and non-probability for convenience sampling. While the application of Charnes, Cooper and Rhodes (CCR model observed that only three (4, 7 and 11, of the twelve analyzed Decision Making Units (DMUs have total technical efficiency, through Banker, Charnes and Cooper (BCC model, it was possible to observe that these terminals were the only ones with pure technical efficiency. The three inefficient DMUs (1, 2 and 12 showed pure technical efficiency, suggesting that these terminals might present probable scale operations’ inefficiency, aspect not addressed in this paper.

  12. The impact of non-discretionary factors on DEA and SFA technical efficiency differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontodimopoulos, Nick; Papathanasiou, Nikolaos D; Flokou, Angeliki; Tountas, Yannis; Niakas, Dimitris

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if factors of the external operating environment can explain differences in technical efficiency derived from Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA). In a sample of 124 dialysis facilities, technical efficiency was compared according to ownership, region, years in operation and size. With second-stage Tobit regression, DEA and SFA efficiency was regressed against these environmental factors to determine their potential for predicting technical efficiency, as well as the efficiency differences between the two frontier methods. DEA expectedly generated lower mean efficiency scores than SFA (68.2% vs. 79.4%, P DEA-SFA efficiency differences was explained by environmental factors. This suggests that in addition to market instabilities, luck, and other related phenomena, decision-makers in their effort to determine optimal resource allocation, should point their attention to the potentially useful insight provided by environmental factors.

  13. Technical Efficiency and its Determinants at Different Levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Descriptive analysis, crop intensity index and the stochastic frontier production function methodology was used to achieve the research objectives. The study concludes that maize-based households can be grouped into high and low intensity farming households and are technically inefficient. The high intensity farming ...

  14. Technical efficiency and primary education in South Africa: Evidence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A conceptual framework is proposed to show the underlying mechanisms by which these technical inefficiencies can adversely affect education outcomes. The analysis is based on two micro-level surveys that were applied at 175 public primary schools and 13 district education offices (DEOs) in two provinces in South ...

  15. An Empirical Assessment of the Technical Efficiency in some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, it became the benchmark for the “emulation culture” by the technically inefficient hospitals in the sample. In short, results showed prevalence of scale inefficiency which was attributed to technological inefficiency. It is therefore recommended that serious effort should be made by health policy makers and managers in ...

  16. Efficiency Tests in Foreign Exchange Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Hsien Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the paper is applying filter rules to examine the efficiency of foreign exchange. This paper uses three strategies of filter rules (buy long, sell short, buy long and sell short strategies to test the performance of the transaction for EUR, JPY, GBP. The findings show that people will obtain more return by taking buy long/ sell short strategies of filter rules without considering transaction cost. However, the transaction of these three foreign exchange rate (EUR, JPY, GBP will be more efficient by considering transaction cost. The results imply the foreign exchange market is efficient for the EUR, JPY and GBP.

  17. An algorithm for testing the efficient market hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boboc, Ioana-Andreea; Dinică, Mihai-Cristian

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research is to examine the efficiency of EUR/USD market through the application of a trading system. The system uses a genetic algorithm based on technical analysis indicators such as Exponential Moving Average (EMA), Moving Average Convergence Divergence (MACD), Relative Strength Index (RSI) and Filter that gives buying and selling recommendations to investors. The algorithm optimizes the strategies by dynamically searching for parameters that improve profitability in the training period. The best sets of rules are then applied on the testing period. The results show inconsistency in finding a set of trading rules that performs well in both periods. Strategies that achieve very good returns in the training period show difficulty in returning positive results in the testing period, this being consistent with the efficient market hypothesis (EMH).

  18. An algorithm for testing the efficient market hypothesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana-Andreea Boboc

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to examine the efficiency of EUR/USD market through the application of a trading system. The system uses a genetic algorithm based on technical analysis indicators such as Exponential Moving Average (EMA, Moving Average Convergence Divergence (MACD, Relative Strength Index (RSI and Filter that gives buying and selling recommendations to investors. The algorithm optimizes the strategies by dynamically searching for parameters that improve profitability in the training period. The best sets of rules are then applied on the testing period. The results show inconsistency in finding a set of trading rules that performs well in both periods. Strategies that achieve very good returns in the training period show difficulty in returning positive results in the testing period, this being consistent with the efficient market hypothesis (EMH.

  19. [Efficient packaging retrovirus and construction of transgenic chicken technical platform].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Chaolai; Zhang, Qing; Chen, Yan; Zhu, Dahai

    2007-10-01

    Transgenic chicken and oviduct bioreactor are growing to be one of the hotspot of scientific study in the field of biology. The most successful method of producing transgenic chicken is pseudotyped retrovirus vector system, but no one has reported the production of transgenic chicken by retrovirus system recently in our country. In order to accelerate our study in this field, we introduced the relevant technical methods such as packaging retrovirus and vesicular stomatitis virus G glycoprotein (VSV-G) pseudotyped retrovirus, optimizing the conditions of packaging retrovirus, concentrating VSV-G pseudotyped retrovirus, helper virus assays, and microinjection of retrovirus. Furthermore, we successfully conducted in vivo study for detecting the marker gene EGFP of chicken embryo as well as in vitro study for detecting that gene of chicken embryo myoblast (CFM), thus we have provided an applied technical platform for studies of transgenic chicken in the future.

  20. A study on technical efficiency of a DMU (review of literature)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswarlu, B.; Mahaboob, B.; Subbarami Reddy, C.; Sankar, J. Ravi

    2017-11-01

    In this research paper the concept of technical efficiency (due to Farell) [1] of a decision making unit (DMU) has been introduced and the measure of technical and cost efficiencies are derived. Timmer’s [2] deterministic approach to estimate the Cobb-Douglas production frontier has been proposed. The idea of extension of Timmer’s [2] method to any production frontier which is linear in parameters has been presented here. The estimation of parameters of Cobb-Douglas production frontier by linear programming approach has been discussed in this paper. Mark et al. [3] proposed a non-parametric method to assess efficiency. Nuti et al. [4] investigated the relationships among technical efficiency scores, weighted per capita cost and overall performance Gahe Zing Samuel Yank et al. [5] used Data envelopment analysis to assess technical assessment in banking sectors.

  1. Can Chinese Cities Achieve Higher Technical Efficiency after Hosting Mega Events?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chun Kwok Lei

    2013-01-01

      This study applies the stochastic frontier approach to estimate the technical efficiency of a group of Chinese cities which have hosted mega events such as the Olympic Games and Asian Games, etc. since 2000s...

  2. Technical Efficiency of Indonesian Commercial Banks: An Application of Two-Stage DEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa Vanina Soetanto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses data envelopment analysis (DEA to investigate the technical efficiency of the Indonesian commercial banks over the period 2004-2009 using intermediation approach. The analysis is conducted based on common frontier of duration of study and ownership of the banks, namely state-owned banks and private banks. Then Tobit regression model is used to examine the influence of internal factors as bank characteristics to efficiency scores. The results of DEA show that Indonesian commercial banks could improve their technical efficiency by 10.5% on average and the scale inefficiency is dominating over pure technical inefficiency. The commercial state-owned banks are showing perfect efficiency during the period of study, and proven to be more efficient compared to the commercial private banks. Finally Tobit regression is revealing that higher asset scale and liquidity risk increase the efficiency of the bank, while the profitability is on the contrary.

  3. Essays on Estimation of Technical Efficiency and on Choice Under Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharyya, Aditi

    2009-01-01

    In the first two essays of this dissertation, I construct a dynamic stochastic production frontier incorporating the sluggish adjustment of inputs, measure the speed of adjustment of output in the short-run, and compare the technical efficiency estimates from such a dynamic model to those from a conventional static model that is based on the assumption that inputs are instantaneously adjustable in a production system. I provide estimation methods for technical efficiency of production units a...

  4. Technical efficiency of Shiraz school of medicine in research and education domains: a data envelopment analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    DELAVARI, SOMAYEH; REZAEE, RITA; HATAM, NAHID; DELAVARI, SAJAD

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Efficiency evaluation of universities and faculties is one of the tools that help managers to identify the departments’ strengths and weakness. The main objective of the present research was to measure and compare the technical efficiency of Shiraz school of medicine departments using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) technique. Methods This cross-sectional and retrospective study was performed on clinical and non-clinical departments in research and education domains over the period of 2006 to 2011. Different inputs and outputs were considered for research and educational domain separately. Efficiency was measured based on the observed optimal performance. Results Findings showed that pathology and anatomy departments achieved the score of 100 in technical efficiency in education during 2006 to 2011. During this period, parasitology, psychiatric and pediatrics department’s achieved the score of 100 for technical efficiency in research domain. The lowest mean of relative educational efficiency belonged to orthopedic department; as to relative research efficiency, the lowest mean was shown in orthopedics and genetics departments. The mean technical efficiency of non-medical departments in education and research domain was 91.93 and 76.08, respectively, while the mean technical efficiency of the clinical department in educational and research fields was 91.02 and 82.23, respectively. Conclusion Using multiple input and output in DEA technique provided a comprehensive evaluation of efficiency in Shiraz school of medicine departments. The DEA could successfully estimate the technical efficiency of the departments in research and educational fields. Moreover, the deficiency in each department was found; this could help them to plan for improvement. PMID:26793721

  5. Technical efficiency of Shiraz school of medicine in research and education domains: a data envelopment analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delavari, Somayeh; Rezaee, Rita; Hatam, Nahid; Delavari, Sajad

    2016-01-01

    Efficiency evaluation of universities and faculties is one of the tools that help managers to identify the departments' strengths and weakness. The main objective of the present research was to measure and compare the technical efficiency of Shiraz school of medicine departments using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) technique. This cross-sectional and retrospective study was performed on clinical and non-clinical departments in research and education domains over the period of 2006 to 2011. Different inputs and outputs were considered for research and educational domain separately. Efficiency was measured based on the observed optimal performance. Findings showed that pathology and anatomy departments achieved the score of 100 in technical efficiency in education during 2006 to 2011. During this period, parasitology, psychiatric and pediatrics department's achieved the score of 100 for technical efficiency in research domain. The lowest mean of relative educational efficiency belonged to orthopedic department; as to relative research efficiency, the lowest mean was shown in orthopedics and genetics departments. The mean technical efficiency of non-medical departments in education and research domain was 91.93 and 76.08, respectively, while the mean technical efficiency of the clinical department in educational and research fields was 91.02 and 82.23, respectively. Using multiple input and output in DEA technique provided a comprehensive evaluation of efficiency in Shiraz school of medicine departments. The DEA could successfully estimate the technical efficiency of the departments in research and educational fields. Moreover, the deficiency in each department was found; this could help them to plan for improvement.

  6. Technical and scale efficiency in public and private Irish nursing homes - a bootstrap DEA approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni Luasa, Shiovan; Dineen, Declan; Zieba, Marta

    2016-10-27

    This article provides methodological and empirical insights into the estimation of technical efficiency in the nursing home sector. Focusing on long-stay care and using primary data, we examine technical and scale efficiency in 39 public and 73 private Irish nursing homes by applying an input-oriented data envelopment analysis (DEA). We employ robust bootstrap methods to validate our nonparametric DEA scores and to integrate the effects of potential determinants in estimating the efficiencies. Both the homogenous and two-stage double bootstrap procedures are used to obtain confidence intervals for the bias-corrected DEA scores. Importantly, the application of the double bootstrap approach affords true DEA technical efficiency scores after adjusting for the effects of ownership, size, case-mix, and other determinants such as location, and quality. Based on our DEA results for variable returns to scale technology, the average technical efficiency score is 62 %, and the mean scale efficiency is 88 %, with nearly all units operating on the increasing returns to scale part of the production frontier. Moreover, based on the double bootstrap results, Irish nursing homes are less technically efficient, and more scale efficient than the conventional DEA estimates suggest. Regarding the efficiency determinants, in terms of ownership, we find that private facilities are less efficient than the public units. Furthermore, the size of the nursing home has a positive effect, and this reinforces our finding that Irish homes produce at increasing returns to scale. Also, notably, we find that a tendency towards quality improvements can lead to poorer technical efficiency performance.

  7. Technical efficiency of nursing homes: do five-star quality ratings matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulal, Rajendra

    2017-02-28

    This study investigates associations between five-star quality ratings and technical efficiency of nursing homes. The sample consists of a balanced panel of 338 nursing homes in California from 2009 through 2013 and uses two-stage data envelopment (DEA) analysis. The first-stage applies an input oriented variable returns to scale DEA analysis. The second-stage uses a left censored random-effect Tobit regression model. The five-star quality ratings i.e., health inspections, quality measures, staffing available on the Nursing Home Compare website are divided into two categories: outcome and structure form of quality. Results show that quality measures ratings and health inspection ratings, used as outcome form of quality, are not associated with mean technical efficiency. These quality ratings, however, do affect the technical efficiency of a particular nursing home and hence alter the ranking of nursing homes based on efficiency scores. Staffing rating, categorized as a structural form of quality, is negatively associated with mean technical efficiency. These findings show that quality dimensions are associated with technical efficiency in different ways, suggesting that multiple dimensions of quality should be included in the efficiency analysis of nursing homes. They also suggest that patient care can be enhanced through investing more in improving care delivery rather than simply raising the number of staff per resident.

  8. Kyiv institutional buildings sector energy efficiency program: Technical assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secrest, T.J.; Freeman, S.L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Popelka, A. [Tysak Engineering, Acton, MA (United States); Shestopal, P.A.; Gagurin, E.V. [Agency for Rational Energy Use and Ecology, Kyiv (Ukraine)

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of this assessment is to characterize the economic energy efficiency potential and investment requirements for space heating and hot water provided by district heat in the stock of state and municipal institutional buildings in the city of Kyiv. The assessment involves three activities. The first is a survey of state and municipal institutions to characterize the stock of institutional buildings. The second is to develop an estimate of the cost-effective efficiency potential. The third is to estimate the investment requirements to acquire the efficiency resource. Institutional buildings are defined as nonresidential buildings owned and occupied by state and municipal organizations. General categories of institutional buildings are education, healthcare, and cultural. The characterization activity provides information about the number of buildings, building floorspace, and consumption of space heating and hot water energy provided by the district system.

  9. The effect of environmental factors on technical and scale efficiency of primary health care providers in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aletras Vassilis H

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to compare technical and scale efficiency of primary care centers from the two largest Greek providers, the National Health System (NHS and the Social Security Foundation (IKA and to determine if, and how, efficiency is affected by various exogenous factors such as catchment population and location. Methods The sample comprised of 194 units (103 NHS and 91 IKA. Efficiency was measured with Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA using three inputs, -medical staff, nursing/paramedical staff, administrative/other staff- and two outputs, which were the aggregated numbers of scheduled/emergency patient visits and imaging/laboratory diagnostic tests. Facilities were categorized as small, medium and large (30,000 respectively to reflect catchment population and as urban/semi-urban or remote/island to reflect location. In a second stage analysis, technical and scale efficiency scores were regressed against facility type (NHS or IKA, size and location using multivariate Tobit regression. Results Regarding technical efficiency, IKA performed better than the NHS (84.9% vs. 70.1%, Mann-Whitney P P P = 0.103. As for scale efficiency, IKA again outperformed the NHS (89.7% vs. 85.9%, Mann-Whitney P = 0.080, but results were reversed in respect to facility size and location. Specifically, larger units performed better (96.3% vs. 90.9% vs. 75.9%, Kruskal-Wallis P P Conclusion Variations appeared to exist in the productive performance of the NHS and IKA as the two main primary care providers in Greece. These variations reflect differences in primary care organization, economical incentives, financial constraints, sociodemographic and local peculiarities. In all technical efficiency comparisons, IKA facilities appeared to outperform NHS ones irrespective of facility size or location. In respect to scale efficiency, the results were to some extent inconclusive and observed differences were mostly insignificant, although

  10. Computational model for simulation small testing launcher, technical solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chelaru, Teodor-Viorel, E-mail: teodor.chelaru@upb.ro [University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest - Research Center for Aeronautics and Space, Str. Ghe Polizu, nr. 1, Bucharest, Sector 1 (Romania); Cristian, Barbu, E-mail: barbucr@mta.ro [Military Technical Academy, Romania, B-dul. George Coşbuc, nr. 81-83, Bucharest, Sector 5 (Romania); Chelaru, Adrian, E-mail: achelaru@incas.ro [INCAS -National Institute for Aerospace Research Elie Carafoli, B-dul Iuliu Maniu 220, 061126, Bucharest, Sector 6 (Romania)

    2014-12-10

    The purpose of this paper is to present some aspects regarding the computational model and technical solutions for multistage suborbital launcher for testing (SLT) used to test spatial equipment and scientific measurements. The computational model consists in numerical simulation of SLT evolution for different start conditions. The launcher model presented will be with six degrees of freedom (6DOF) and variable mass. The results analysed will be the flight parameters and ballistic performances. The discussions area will focus around the technical possibility to realize a small multi-stage launcher, by recycling military rocket motors. From technical point of view, the paper is focused on national project 'Suborbital Launcher for Testing' (SLT), which is based on hybrid propulsion and control systems, obtained through an original design. Therefore, while classical suborbital sounding rockets are unguided and they use as propulsion solid fuel motor having an uncontrolled ballistic flight, SLT project is introducing a different approach, by proposing the creation of a guided suborbital launcher, which is basically a satellite launcher at a smaller scale, containing its main subsystems. This is why the project itself can be considered an intermediary step in the development of a wider range of launching systems based on hybrid propulsion technology, which may have a major impact in the future European launchers programs. SLT project, as it is shown in the title, has two major objectives: first, a short term objective, which consists in obtaining a suborbital launching system which will be able to go into service in a predictable period of time, and a long term objective that consists in the development and testing of some unconventional sub-systems which will be integrated later in the satellite launcher as a part of the European space program. This is why the technical content of the project must be carried out beyond the range of the existing suborbital

  11. Technical Efficiency of Small- and Medium- Scale Enterprises ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The significance of small- and medium-scale enterprises (SMEs) is acknowledged worldwide. SMEs form the vanguard of the modern enterprise sector and present the propelling force of economic modernization and growth in developing economies. But it is imperative to examine their efficiency levels in order to formulate ...

  12. Sources of Technical Efficiency Among Smallholders Maize Farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maize yield in Tanzania has been decreasing in the past few years. The decline has been attributed to many factors. This paper assesses production efficiency and its determinants among maize farmers in Babati district. The paper uses data collected from 122 maize farmers residing in six villages in the study district.

  13. Dutch, Hungarian and German dairy farms technical efficiency comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovacs, K.; Emvalomatis, G.

    2011-01-01

    The abolishment of the dairy quota system in the EU is expected to increase competition across dairy farms in Europe. Assuming a common price for milk in the EU, only the most efficient farms will survive in the new environment. The main objective of the paper is to compare dairy farms in Germany,

  14. The Impact of Drought on Technical Efficiency of Smallholder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    on food demand. For example, in Zimbabwe imports of maize have become persistent over the past decade in spite of a growing population of farmers in the rural areas due to unemployment. (Masunda and Chiweshe, 2015 and Anseeuw et al., 2012). This suggests that improving efficiency of smallholder farmers should be ...

  15. Technical efficiency of upland and lowland rice production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examined the efficiency of upland and lowland rice production systems in a prominent rice producing State (Niger State) in Nigeria using descriptive statistics, stochastic production frontier model as well as inefficiency model. The data used were generated from a farm survey involving 240 rice farmers' randomly ...

  16. Efficiency Test Method for Electric Vehicle Chargers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kieldsen, Andreas; Thingvad, Andreas; Martinenas, Sergejus

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates different methods for measuring the charger efficiency of mass produced electric vehicles (EVs), in order to compare the different models. The consumers have low attention to the loss in the charger though the impact on the driving cost is high. It is not a high priority...... different vehicles. A unified method for testing the efficiency of the charger in EVs, without direct access to the component, is presented. The method is validated through extensive tests of the models Renault Zoe, Nissan LEAF and Peugeot iOn. The results show a loss between 15 % and 40 %, which is far...... above the state of the art power converters. This is an unnecessary high consumption of electrical energy during charging, which not only affects the consumer financially, but also creates unnecessary load on the grid....

  17. Impacts of Rural Labor Resource Change on the Technical Efficiency of Crop Production in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Yin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper probes effects of the evolvement of labor resources on technical efficiency in crop production in rural China. Based on twelve years of data on crop production of 30 provinces in China, a stochastic frontier production function model is used to measure crop production efficiency in three crop-functional areas—the production area, the consumption area, and the balanced area. Then effects of both quantity and quality change in labor force on technical efficiency in different regions of China are analyzed. Results show that rural China generally has an increasing number of employees shifted to non-agricultural sectors and a decreasing trend of the stock of human capital. However, both these two changes in rural labor force have significantly positive effects on improving crop production efficiency. In addition, China’s technical inefficiency is at an average of 22.2%. Dynamically, the technical efficiencies show a tendency to rise steadily throughout China and in three areas, while the consumption area possesses the highest technical efficiency. Those results may lend some experience for other countries that are currently experiencing rural labor force and economic transition.

  18. 76 FR 28022 - Increasing Market and Planning Efficiency Through Improved Software; Notice of Technical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Increasing Market and Planning Efficiency Through Improved Software; Notice of Technical Conference: Increasing Real-Time and Day- Ahead Market Efficiency Through Improved...:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., to discuss opportunities for increasing real-time and day-ahead market...

  19. Farmers' Knowledge Attributes Contribute to Attaining Higher Farm Technical Efficiency: A Transition Economy Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manevska-Tasevska, Gordana

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study sought to explore how farmers' knowledge attributes influence the technical efficiency of their farms. In addition, farm efficiency was compared to the actual Macedonian Rural Development Programme (RDP) (2007-2013) and instruments considered to improve Macedonian education potential were evaluated. Design/methodology/approach:…

  20. 2011 Residential Energy Efficiency Technical Update Meeting Summary Report: Denver, Colorado - August 9-11, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-11-01

    This report provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy Building America program's Summer 2011 Residential Energy Efficiency Technical Update Meeting. This meeting was held on August 9-11, 2011, in Denver, Colorado, and brought together more than 290 professionals representing organizations with a vested interest in energy efficiency improvements in residential buildings.

  1. Investment utilisation, adjustment costs, and technical efficiency in Danish pig farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jakob Vesterlund; Henningsen, Arne

    function as a stochastic frontier model and explain the estimated technical inefficiencies with lagged investments, farm size and age of the farmer. We allow for interaction effects between these variables and derive the formula for calculating the marginal effects on technical efficiency. The results show...... that investments have a negative effect on farm efficiency in the year of the investment and the year after accruing from adjustment costs. There is a large positive effect on efficiency two and three years after the investment. The farmer’s age and the farm size significantly influence technical efficiency......In this paper, we present a theoretical model for adjustment costs and investment utilisation that illustrates their causes and types and shows in which phases of an investment they occur. Furthermore, we develop an empirical framework for analysing the size and the timing of adjustment costs...

  2. Technical Issues Related to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garwin, Richard L.

    2003-04-01

    The National Academy of Sciences recently published a detailed study of technical factors related to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), with emphasis on those issues that arose when the Senate declined to ratify the Treaty in 1999. The study considered (1) the capacity of the United States to maintain confidence in the safety and reliability of its nuclear weapons without nuclear testing; (2) the capabilities of the international nuclear-test monitoring system; and (3) the advances in nuclear weapons capabilities that other countries might make through low-yield testing that might escape detection. Excluding political factors, the committee considered three possible future worlds: (1) a world without a CTBT; (2) a world in which the signatories comply with a CTBT; and (3) a world in the signatories evade its strictures within the limits set by the detection system. The talk and ensuing discussion will elaborate on the study. The principal conclusion of the report, based solely on technical reasons, is that the national security of the United States is better served with a CTBT in force than without it, whether or not other signatories conduct low level but undetected tests in violation of the treaty. Moreover, the study finds that nuclear testing would not add substantially to the US Stockpile Stewardship Program in allowing the United States to maintain confidence in the assessment of its existing nuclear weapons.

  3. Technical assistance for Meharry Medical College Energy Efficiency Project. Final project status and technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-08

    This report presents the results of a program to provide technical assistance to Meharry Medical College. The purpose of the program is to facilitate Meharry`s effort to finance a campus-wide facility retrofit. The US Department of Energy (USDOE) funded the program through a grant to the Tennessee Department of Economic and Community Development (TECD). The University of Memphis-Technology and Energy Services (UM-TES), under contract to TECD, performed program services. The report has three sections: (1) introduction; (2) project definition, financing, and participants; and (3) opportunities for federal participation.

  4. NEAT: an efficient network enrichment analysis test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorelli, Mirko; Vinciotti, Veronica; Wit, Ernst C

    2016-09-05

    Network enrichment analysis is a powerful method, which allows to integrate gene enrichment analysis with the information on relationships between genes that is provided by gene networks. Existing tests for network enrichment analysis deal only with undirected networks, they can be computationally slow and are based on normality assumptions. We propose NEAT, a test for network enrichment analysis. The test is based on the hypergeometric distribution, which naturally arises as the null distribution in this context. NEAT can be applied not only to undirected, but to directed and partially directed networks as well. Our simulations indicate that NEAT is considerably faster than alternative resampling-based methods, and that its capacity to detect enrichments is at least as good as the one of alternative tests. We discuss applications of NEAT to network analyses in yeast by testing for enrichment of the Environmental Stress Response target gene set with GO Slim and KEGG functional gene sets, and also by inspecting associations between functional sets themselves. NEAT is a flexible and efficient test for network enrichment analysis that aims to overcome some limitations of existing resampling-based tests. The method is implemented in the R package neat, which can be freely downloaded from CRAN ( https://cran.r-project.org/package=neat ).

  5. Agricultural microcredit and technical efficiency: The case of smallholder rice farmers in Northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Tetteh Anang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, we compared technical efficiency of smallholder rice farmers with and without credit in northern Ghana using data from a farm household survey. We fitted a stochastic frontier production function to input and output data to measure technical efficiency. We addressed self-selection into credit participation using propensity score matching and found that the mean efficiency did not differ between credit users and non-users. Credit-participating households had an efficiency of 63.0 percent compared to 61.7 percent for non-participants. The results indicate significant inefficiencies in production and thus a high scope for improving farmers’ technical efficiency through better use of available resources at the current level of technology. Apart from labour and capital, all the conventional farm inputs had a significant effect on rice production. The determinants of efficiency included the respondent’s age, sex, educational status, distance to the nearest market, herd ownership, access to irrigation and specialisation in rice production. From a policy perspective, we recommend that the credit should be channelled to farmers who demonstrate the need for it and show the commitment to improve their production through external financing. Such a screening mechanism will ensure that the credit goes to the right farmers who need it to improve their technical efficiency.

  6. A stochastic frontier analysis of technical efficiency of fish cage culture in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Gazi Md Nurul; Tai, Shzee Yew; Kusairi, Mohd Noh

    2016-01-01

    Cage culture plays an important role in achieving higher output and generating more export earnings in Malaysia. However, the cost of fingerlings, feed and labour have increased substantially for cage culture in the coastal areas in Peninsular Malaysia. This paper uses farm level data gathered from Manjung, Perak and Kota Tinggi, Johor to investigate the technical efficiency of brackish water fish cage culture using the stochastic frontier approach. The technical efficiency was estimated and specifically the factors affecting technical inefficiencies of fish cage culture system in Malaysia was investigated. On average, 37 percent of the sampled fish cage farms are technically efficient. The results suggest very high degrees of technical inefficiency exist among the cage culturists. This implies that great potential exists to increase fish production through improved efficiency in cage culture management in Peninsular Malaysia. The results indicate that farmers obtained grouper fingerlings from other neighboring countries due to scarcity of fingerlings from wild sources. The cost of feeding for grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) requires relatively higher costs compared to seabass (Lates calcarifer) production in cage farms in the study areas. Initiatives to undertake extension programmes at the farm level are needed to help cage culturists in utilizing their resources more efficiently in order to substantially enhance their fish production.

  7. Efficiency improvements in pipeline transportation systems. Technical report, Task 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W. F.; Horton, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    This report identifies those potential energy-conservative pipeline innovations that are most energy- and cost-effective, and formulates recommendations for the R, D, and D programs needed to exploit those opportunities. From a candidate field of over twenty classes of efficiency improvements, eight systems are recommended for pursuit. Most of these possess two highly important attributes: large potential energy savings and broad applicability outside the pipeline industry. The R, D, and D program for each improvement and the recommended immediate next step are described. The eight programs recommended for pursuit are: gas-fired combined-cycle compressor station; internally cooled internal combustion engine; methanol-coal slurry pipeline; methanol-coal slurry-fired and coal-fired engines; indirect-fired coal-burning combined-cycle pump station; fuel-cycle pump station; internal coatings in pipelines; and drag-reducing additives in liquid pipelines.

  8. Evaluating Technical Efficiency of Nursing Care Using Data Envelopment Analysis and Multilevel Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Ari; Park, Chang Gi; Scott, Linda D

    2016-05-23

    Data envelopment analysis (DEA) is an advantageous non-parametric technique for evaluating relative efficiency of performance. This article describes use of DEA to estimate technical efficiency of nursing care and demonstrates the benefits of using multilevel modeling to identify characteristics of efficient facilities in the second stage of analysis. Data were drawn from LTCFocUS.org, a secondary database including nursing home data from the Online Survey Certification and Reporting System and Minimum Data Set. In this example, 2,267 non-hospital-based nursing homes were evaluated. Use of DEA with nurse staffing levels as inputs and quality of care as outputs allowed estimation of the relative technical efficiency of nursing care in these facilities. In the second stage, multilevel modeling was applied to identify organizational factors contributing to technical efficiency. Use of multilevel modeling avoided biased estimation of findings for nested data and provided comprehensive information on differences in technical efficiency among counties and states. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. ANALYZING THE TECHNICAL EFFICIENCY OF RICE FARMS IN THE RIO GRANDE DO SUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Mussi Alvim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the technical efficiency in rice farms in Rio Grande do Sul (RS. For this, we use the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA and the Tobit regression model. The study use the variables available in the Census of the Institute of Irrigated Rice of RS (IRGA, 2006. The study shows that most of the rice farmers are technically inefficient on local terms, and only 5.7% are efficient. In addition, it is possible to observe that the main variables, which increase the level of efficiency in different regions of the state, are technical assistance, education level and growing system. The results show that there are important differences between the rice farms, which depends of the region of RS and of the producer condition (owner or tenant.

  10. Technical Efficiency and Organ Transplant Performance: A Mixed-Method Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-Pablos-Heredero, Carmen; Fernández-Renedo, Carlos; Medina-Merodio, Jose-Amelio

    2015-01-01

    Mixed methods research is interesting to understand complex processes. Organ transplants are complex processes in need of improved final performance in times of budgetary restrictions. As the main objective a mixed method approach is used in this article to quantify the technical efficiency and the excellence achieved in organ transplant systems and to prove the influence of organizational structures and internal processes in the observed technical efficiency. The results show that it is possible to implement mechanisms for the measurement of the different components by making use of quantitative and qualitative methodologies. The analysis show a positive relationship between the levels related to the Baldrige indicators and the observed technical efficiency in the donation and transplant units of the 11 analyzed hospitals. Therefore it is possible to conclude that high levels in the Baldrige indexes are a necessary condition to reach an increased level of the service offered. PMID:25950653

  11. Ownership and technical efficiency of hospitals: evidence from Ghana using data envelopment analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehu-Appiah, Caroline; Sekidde, Serufusa; Adjuik, Martin; Akazili, James; Almeida, Selassi D; Nyonator, Frank; Baltussen, Rob; Asbu, Eyob Zere; Kirigia, Joses Muthuri

    2014-04-08

    In order to measure and analyse the technical efficiency of district hospitals in Ghana, the specific objectives of this study were to (a) estimate the relative technical and scale efficiency of government, mission, private and quasi-government district hospitals in Ghana in 2005; (b) estimate the magnitudes of output increases and/or input reductions that would have been required to make relatively inefficient hospitals more efficient; and (c) use Tobit regression analysis to estimate the impact of ownership on hospital efficiency. In the first stage, we used data envelopment analysis (DEA) to estimate the efficiency of 128 hospitals comprising of 73 government hospitals, 42 mission hospitals, 7 quasi-government hospitals and 6 private hospitals. In the second stage, the estimated DEA efficiency scores are regressed against hospital ownership variable using a Tobit model. This was a retrospective study. In our DEA analysis, using the variable returns to scale model, out of 128 district hospitals, 31 (24.0%) were 100% efficient, 25 (19.5%) were very close to being efficient with efficiency scores ranging from 70% to 99.9% and 71 (56.2%) had efficiency scores below 50%. The lowest-performing hospitals had efficiency scores ranging from 21% to 30%.Quasi-government hospitals had the highest mean efficiency score (83.9%) followed by public hospitals (70.4%), mission hospitals (68.6%) and private hospitals (55.8%). However, public hospitals also got the lowest mean technical efficiency scores (27.4%), implying they have some of the most inefficient hospitals.Regarding regional performance, Northern region hospitals had the highest mean efficiency score (83.0%) and Volta Region hospitals had the lowest mean score (43.0%).From our Tobit regression, we found out that while quasi-government ownership is positively associated with hospital technical efficiency, private ownership negatively affects hospital efficiency. It would be prudent for policy-makers to examine the

  12. Ownership and technical efficiency of hospitals: evidence from Ghana using data envelopment analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background In order to measure and analyse the technical efficiency of district hospitals in Ghana, the specific objectives of this study were to (a) estimate the relative technical and scale efficiency of government, mission, private and quasi-government district hospitals in Ghana in 2005; (b) estimate the magnitudes of output increases and/or input reductions that would have been required to make relatively inefficient hospitals more efficient; and (c) use Tobit regression analysis to estimate the impact of ownership on hospital efficiency. Methods In the first stage, we used data envelopment analysis (DEA) to estimate the efficiency of 128 hospitals comprising of 73 government hospitals, 42 mission hospitals, 7 quasi-government hospitals and 6 private hospitals. In the second stage, the estimated DEA efficiency scores are regressed against hospital ownership variable using a Tobit model. This was a retrospective study. Results In our DEA analysis, using the variable returns to scale model, out of 128 district hospitals, 31 (24.0%) were 100% efficient, 25 (19.5%) were very close to being efficient with efficiency scores ranging from 70% to 99.9% and 71 (56.2%) had efficiency scores below 50%. The lowest-performing hospitals had efficiency scores ranging from 21% to 30%. Quasi-government hospitals had the highest mean efficiency score (83.9%) followed by public hospitals (70.4%), mission hospitals (68.6%) and private hospitals (55.8%). However, public hospitals also got the lowest mean technical efficiency scores (27.4%), implying they have some of the most inefficient hospitals. Regarding regional performance, Northern region hospitals had the highest mean efficiency score (83.0%) and Volta Region hospitals had the lowest mean score (43.0%). From our Tobit regression, we found out that while quasi-government ownership is positively associated with hospital technical efficiency, private ownership negatively affects hospital efficiency. Conclusions It would be

  13. Technical analysis of the Slosson Written Expression Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erford, Bradley T; Hofler, Donald B

    2004-06-01

    The Slosson Written Expression Test was designed to assess students ages 8-17 years at risk for difficulties in written expression. Scores from three independent samples were used to evaluate the test's reliability and validity for measuring students' written expression. Test-retest reliability of the SWET subscales ranged from .80 to .94 (n = 151), and .95 for the Written Expression Total Standard Scores. The median alternate-form reliability for students' Written Expression Total Standard Scores was .81 across the three forms. Scores on the Slosson test yielded concurrent validity coefficients (n = 143) of .60 with scores from the Woodcock-Johnson: Tests of Achievement-Third Edition Broad Written Language Domain and .49 with scores on the Test of Written Language-Third Edition Spontaneous Writing Quotient. Exploratory factor analytic procedures suggested the Slosson test is comprised of two dimensions, Writing Mechanics and Writing Maturity (47.1% and 20.1% variance accounted for, respectively). In general, the Slosson Written Expression Test presents with sufficient technical characteristics to be considered a useful written expression screening test.

  14. EVALUATING THE OVERALL TECHNICAL EFFICIENCY OF ISLAMIC BANKS OPERATING IN THE MENA REGION DURING THE FINANCIAL CRISIS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Said

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present paper measured overall technical efficiency of Islamic banks operating in the MENA region during the financial crisis of 2007-2009 to address the question what are the levels of overall, pure technical and scale efficiency of Islamic banks operating in the MENA region and how they evolved during the financial crisis. This paper addresses this question technical, pure technical, and scale efficiency measures are analyzed by employing on-parametric technique, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA. The study results suggested that Islamic banks in other MENA countries and North Africa on an average are relatively technically inefficient. This might be due to the underdeveloped banking system in those countries. In addition, the decomposition of technical efficiency into pure technical and scale efficiency shows that on average, the Islamic banks in North Africa counties and other MENA counties are having problems in the allocation of resources between their inputs and outputs mix compare to Islamic banks in GCC.

  15. Technical efficiency and technology adoption: a study of organic farming in the French dairy sector

    OpenAIRE

    Latruffe, Laure; Nauges, Celine; Desjeux, Yann

    2014-01-01

    AgriBio3 PEPP « Rôle de la Performance Economique des exploitations et des filières, et des Politiques Publiques, dans le développement de l’AB »; Using original survey data from France we study the importance of technical efficiency as a potential determinant of farm conversion to organic farming in the dairy sector. We run a two-stage analysis. In the first stage we calculate technical efficiency of farms when they were conventional (including organic farms before they convert) as well as t...

  16. Chloroplast Dynamics and Photosynthetic Efficiency: Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, Maureen [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2016-11-03

    This project investigated the mechanism by which chloroplasts position themselves to maximize solar energy utilization, to enhance gas exchange, to minimize environmental stress, and to promote efficient exchange of metabolites with other compartments within the plant cell. Chloroplasts move within leaf cells to optimize light levels, moving toward levels of light useful for photosynthesis while moving away from excess light. Plastids sometimes extend their reach by sending out projections (stromules) that can connect anchor chloroplasts in position within the cell or provide close contacts with plasma membrane, mitochondria, peroxisomes, endoplasmic reticulum, and the nucleus. The intracellular location of chloroplasts in relation to other organelles with which they share biosynthetic pathways, such as peroxisomes and mitochondria in photorespiration, affects metabolite flow. This work contributed to the knowledge of the mechanisms of organelle movement and anchoring in specific locations in plant cells and how proteins traffic within the cell. We identified two domains on 12 of the 13 Arabidopsis myosins that were similar to the vacuole-binding (V) domain characterized in yeast and to the DIL domain characterized in yeast and mouse as required for secretory vesicle or melanosome movement, respectively. Because all of the Arabidopsis regions with homology to the V domain contain the amino acid sequence PAL, we refer to this region as the Arabidopsis PAL domain. We have used the yeast Myo2p tail structural information to model the 12 myosin XI tail domains containing the homologous PAL and DIL domains. Eight YFP::DIL domain fusions labeled peroxisomes; none labeled mitochondria or chloroplasts. Six myosin XI Vacuole domains labeled mitochondria and seven labeled Golgi bodies. The Arabidopsis myosin XI-F PAL domain and the homologous myosin XI-F PAL domain from N. benthamiana labels chloroplasts and stromules in N. benthamiana leaves. Using an Arabidopsis line

  17. TECHNICAL EFFICIENCY OF TECHNOLOGY ADOPTION BY MAIZE FARMERS IN THREE AGRO-ECOLOGICAL ZONES OF GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor OWUSU

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Using a farm household data from 3 agroecological zones of Ghana, this paper investigates the causal relationship between the adoption of improved maize variety and technical efficiency or productivity. The empirical results show a positive relationship between the adoption of improved maize variety and technical efficiency or productivity of farmers in the Semi-deciduous forest and Guinea Savannah zones. Generally, adopters of improved maize variety are about 6% to 8% more efficient than non-adopters. The estimated percentage increase in productivity due to the adoption of improved maize variety is about 53%. In the Semi-deciduous forest agroecological zone, adopters of improved maize variety are about 25% to 36% more efficient than non-adopters whilst in the Guinea Savannah agroecological zone, adopters of improved maize variety are about 15% to 26% more efficient than non-adopters. The estimated percentage increase in productivity due to adoption of the improved maize variety is about 8% in the Semi-deciduous forest zone and about 11% in the Guinea Savannah zone. The impact of adoption on technical efficiency in the Transitional zone is however negative. Adopters of improved maize variety are 7% to 8% less efficient than non-adopters and the estimated percentage decrease in productivity due to adoption of the improved maize variety is about 15%. Food safety net policies should pay attention to increased development and dissemination of improved crop varieties suitable to different agroecological zones.

  18. Recovery Efficiency Test Project: Phase 1, Activity report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Carden, R.S.; Kirr, J.N.

    1987-04-01

    The recovery Efficiency Test well project addressed a number of technical issues. The primary objective was to determine the increased efficiency gas recovery of a long horizontal wellbore over that of a vertical wellbore and, more specifically, what improvements can be expected from inducing multiple hydraulic fractures from such a wellbore. BDM corporation located, planned, and drilled a long radius turn horizontal well in the Devonian shale Lower Huron section in Wayne County, West Virginia, demonstrating that state-of-the-art technology is capable of drilling such wells. BDM successfully tested drilling, coring, and logging in a horizontal well using air as the circulating medium; conducted reservoir modeling studies to protect flow rates and reserves in advance of drilling operations; observed two phase flow conditions in the wellbore not observed previously; cored a fracture zone which produced gas; observed that fractures in the core and the wellbore were not systematically spaced (varied from 5 to 68 feet in different parts of the wellbore); observed that highest gas show rates reported by the mud logger corresponded to zone with lowest fracture spacing (five feet) or high fracture frequency. Four and one-half inch casting was successfully installed in the borehole and was equipped to isolate the horizontal section into eight (8) zones for future testing and stimulation operations. 6 refs., 48 figs., 10 tabs.

  19. EFFICIENT HYDROLOGICAL TRACER-TEST DESIGN (EHTD ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrological tracer testing is the most reliable diagnostic technique available for establishing flow trajectories and hydrologic connections and for determining basic hydraulic and geometric parameters necessary for establishing operative solute-transport processes. Tracer-test design can be difficult because of a lack of prior knowledge of the basic hydraulic and geometric parameters desired and the appropriate tracer mass to release. A new efficient hydrologic tracer-test design (EHTD) methodology has been developed that combines basic measured field parameters (e.g., discharge, distance, cross-sectional area) in functional relationships that describe solute-transport processes related to flow velocity and time of travel. The new method applies these initial estimates for time of travel and velocity to a hypothetical continuously stirred tank reactor as an analog for the hydrologic flow system to develop initial estimates for tracer concentration and axial dispersion, based on a preset average tracer concentration. Root determination of the one-dimensional advection-dispersion equation (ADE) using the preset average tracer concentration then provides a theoretical basis for an estimate of necessary tracer mass.Application of the predicted tracer mass with the hydraulic and geometric parameters in the ADE allows for an approximation of initial sample-collection time and subsequent sample-collection frequency where a maximum of 65 samples were determined to

  20. Morphological Structures of Elite Karateka and Their Impact on Technical and Fighting Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Katić, Ratko; Blažević, Stipe; Krstulović, Saša; Mulić, Rosanda

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the morphological structures that determine achievement of top results in karate. The study included a sample of 85 karateka competing as senior category athletes within the Croatian Karate Society, aged 18–29 years. Sixteen morphological parameters were used; technical efficiency was assessed using 8 variables, i.e. evaluation of particular karate techniques, whereas fighting efficiency was estimated on the basis of results achieved at a number of contest...

  1. Estimate of Technical Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letschert, Virginie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Desroches, Louis-Benoit [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ke, Jing [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McNeil, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    As part of the ongoing effort to estimate the foreseeable impacts of aggressive minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) programs in the world’s major economies, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has developed a scenario to analyze the technical potential of MEPS in 13 major economies around the world1 . The “best available technology” (BAT) scenario seeks to determine the maximum potential savings that would result from diffusion of the most efficient available technologies in these major economies.

  2. Contribution of Co-Skewness and Co-Kurtosis of the Higher Moment CAPM for Finding the Technical Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Zobaer Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present the technical efficiency of individual companies and their respective groups of Bangladesh stock market (i.e., Dhaka Stock Exchange, DSE by using two risk factors (co-skewness and co-kurtosis as the additional input variables in the Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA. The co-skewness and co-kurtosis are derived from the Higher Moment Capital Asset Pricing Model (H-CAPM. To investigate the contribution of these two factors, two types of technical efficiency are derived: (1 technical efficiency with considering co-skewness and co-kurtosis (WSK and (2 technical efficiency without considering co-skewness and co-kurtosis (WOSK. By comparing these two types of technical efficiency, it is noticed that the technical efficiency of WSK is higher than the technical efficiency of WOSK for the individual companies and their respective groups. As per available literature in the context Bangladesh stock market, no study has been conducted thus far to measure technical efficiency of companies and their respective groups by using the risk factors which are derived from the H-CAPM. In this research, the link between H-CAPM and SFA is established for measuring technical efficiency and it is believed that the findings of this study may be applied to other emerging stock markets.

  3. Productivity and technical efficiency of suckler beef production systems: trends for the period 1990 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veysset, P; Lherm, M; Roulenc, M; Troquier, C; Bébin, D

    2015-12-01

    Over the past 23 years (1990 to 2012), French beef cattle farms have expanded in size and increased labour productivity by over 60%, chiefly, though not exclusively, through capital intensification (labour-capital substitution) and simplifying herd feeding practices (more concentrates used). The technical efficiency of beef sector production systems, as measured by the ratio of the volume value (in constant euros) of farm output excluding aids to volume of intermediate consumption, has fallen by nearly 20% while income per worker has held stable thanks to subsidies and the labour productivity gains made. This aggregate technical efficiency of beef cattle systems is positively correlated to feed self-sufficiency, which is in turn negatively correlated to farm and herd size. While volume of farm output per hectare of agricultural area has not changed, forage feed self-sufficiency decreased by 6 percentage points. The continual increase in farm size and labour productivity has come at a cost of lower production-system efficiency - a loss of technical efficiency that 20 years of genetic, technical, technological and knowledge-driven progress has barely managed to offset.

  4. Gender discrimination and its impact on income, productivity, and technical efficiency: evidence from Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kinkingninhoun-Mêdagbé, F.M.; Diagne, A.; Simtowe, F.; Agboh-Noameshie, A.R.; Adegbola, P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the occurrence and impact of gender discrimination in access to production resources on the income, productivity, and technical efficiency of farmers. Through an empirical investigation of farmers from Koussin-Le´le´, a semi-collective irrigated rice scheme in central Benin, we

  5. An Efficient and Flexible Technical Approach to Develop and Deliver Online Peer Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miao, Yongwu; Koper, Rob

    2006-01-01

    Miao, Y., & Koper, R. (2007). An Efficient and Flexible Technical Approach to Develop and Deliver Online Peer Assessment. In C. A. Chinn, G. Erkens & S. Puntambekar (Eds.), Proceedings of the 7th Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL 2007) conference 'Mice, Minds, and Society' (pp.

  6. Technical Efficiency of Small-Scale Rabbit Production in South-West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines technical efficiency of rabbit rearing in South-west Nigeria. Data were collected from 150 rabbit farmsteads across states in the South-West Nigeria. The Cobb-Douglas Stochastic Production Frontier Functions were used to analyse the study data. Stochastic Production Frontier Function estimates ...

  7. Assessing the technical efficiency of energy use in different barberry production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mousavi-Avval, Seyed Hashem; Mohammadi, Ali; Rafiee, Shahin; Tabatabaeefar, Ahmad

    The main objectives of this study were to analyze the technical and scale efficiencies of farmers and to identify the wasteful uses of energy in different farm sizes of barberry production in Iran. For these purposes the data envelopment analysis approach was applied to the data of energy use for

  8. Examining the relation between intangible assets and technical efficiency in the international textile and clothing industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kapelko, M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The resource-based view of the firm suggests that intangible assets have a positive impact on firm performance. This study examined the relation between intangible assets and technical efficiency of textile and clothing firms. A double bootstrap data envelopment analysis approach was used to measure

  9. Technical efficiency of women's health prevention programs in Bucaramanga, Colombia: a four-stage analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Rodriguez, Myriam; Rodriguez-Villamizar, Laura A; Heredia-Pi, Ileana

    2016-10-13

    Primary Health Care (PHC) is an efficient strategy to improve health outcomes in populations. Nevertheless, studies of technical efficiency in health care have focused on hospitals, with very little on primary health care centers. The objective of the present study was to use the Data Envelopment Analysis to estimate the technical efficiency of three women's health promotion and disease prevention programs offered by primary care centers in Bucaramanga, Colombia. Efficiency was measured using a four-stage data envelopment analysis with a series of Tobit regressions to account for the effect of quality outcomes and context variables. Input/output information was collected from the institutions' records, chart reviews and personal interviews. Information about contextual variables was obtained from databases from the primary health program in the municipality. A jackknife analysis was used to assess the robustness of the results. The analysis was based on data from 21 public primary health care centers. The average efficiency scores, after adjusting for quality and context, were 92.4 %, 97.5 % and 86.2 % for the antenatal care (ANC), early detection of cervical cancer (EDCC) and family planning (FP) programs, respectively. On each program, 12 of the 21 (57.1 %) health centers were found to be technically efficient; having had the best-practice frontiers. Adjusting for context variables changed the scores and reference rankings of the three programs offered by the health centers. The performance of the women's health prevention programs offered by the centers was found to be heterogeneous. Adjusting for context and health care quality variables had a significant effect on the technical efficiency scores and ranking. The results can serve as a guide to strengthen management and organizational and planning processes related to local primary care services operating within a market-based model such as the one in Colombia.

  10. Technical efficiency of public district hospitals and health centres in Ghana: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirigia Joses M

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Government of Ghana has been implementing various health sector reforms (e.g. user fees in public health facilities, decentralization, sector-wide approaches to donor coordination in a bid to improve efficiency in health care. However, to date, except for the pilot study reported in this paper, no attempt has been made to make an estimate of the efficiency of hospitals and/or health centres in Ghana. The objectives of this study, based on data collected in 2000, were: (i to estimate the relative technical efficiency (TE and scale efficiency (SE of a sample of public hospitals and health centres in Ghana; and (ii to demonstrate policy implications for health sector policy-makers. Methods The Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA approach was used to estimate the efficiency of 17 district hospitals and 17 health centres. This was an exploratory study. Results Eight (47% hospitals were technically inefficient, with an average TE score of 61% and a standard deviation (STD of 12%. Ten (59% hospitals were scale inefficient, manifesting an average SE of 81% (STD = 25%. Out of the 17 health centres, 3 (18% were technically inefficient, with a mean TE score of 49% (STD = 27%. Eight health centres (47% were scale inefficient, with an average SE score of 84% (STD = 16%. Conclusion This pilot study demonstrated to policy-makers the versatility of DEA in measuring inefficiencies among individual facilities and inputs. There is a need for the Planning and Budgeting Unit of the Ghana Health Services to continually monitor the productivity growth, allocative efficiency and technical efficiency of all its health facilities (hospitals and health centres in the course of the implementation of health sector reforms.

  11. Estimating the Technical Improvement of Energy Efficiency in the Automotive Industry—Stochastic and Deterministic Frontier Benchmarking Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seog-Chan Oh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The car manufacturing industry, one of the largest energy consuming industries, has been making a considerable effort to improve its energy intensity by implementing energy efficiency programs, in many cases supported by government research or financial programs. While many car manufacturers claim that they have made substantial progress in energy efficiency improvement over the past years through their energy efficiency programs, the objective measurement of energy efficiency improvement has not been studied due to the lack of suitable quantitative methods. This paper proposes stochastic and deterministic frontier benchmarking models such as the stochastic frontier analysis (SFA model and the data envelopment analysis (DEA model to measure the effectiveness of energy saving initiatives in terms of the technical improvement of energy efficiency for the automotive industry, particularly vehicle assembly plants. Illustrative examples of the application of the proposed models are presented and demonstrate the overall benchmarking process to determine best practice frontier lines and to measure technical improvement based on the magnitude of frontier line shifts over time. Log likelihood ratio and Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient tests are conducted to determine the significance of the SFA model and its consistency with the DEA model. ENERGY STAR® EPI (Energy Performance Index are also calculated.

  12. Biomechanical validation of rotator cuff repair techniques and considerations for a "technical efficiency ratio".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Maxwell C

    2013-07-01

    Biomechanical studies are commonly used to validate new or modified rotator cuff repair techniques. Additional knots, more tendon suture passes, and obligatory suture management requirements are often the "cost" for improved biomechanical results. This cost can amount to increased technical difficulty and surgical times. However, technical ease or difficulty as a measurable variable has not been quantified. A basic measure for technical ease would allow surgeons the ability to objectively assess and compare rotator cuff repair practicality and potentially help in the design of future studies to standardize repair techniques alongside biomechanical measures. A proposed rotator cuff repair "technical efficiency ratio" is defined as follows: (No. of knots + No. of tendon suture passes + No. of suture limbs)/No. of pilot holes created. This can give a measure of "work" or utility achieved per fixation point created for a particular type of repair (e.g., single or double row), with a smaller number representing relatively more efficiency per anchor or fixation point used. If repairs validated in the laboratory are too cumbersome to perform in vivo from a practical standpoint, technical ease should be a prerequisite measure, and the success of a repair technique should not necessarily be based on biomechanics alone. Copyright © 2013 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Analysis of the technical efficiency of hospitals in the Spanish National Health Service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Romero, Carmen; Ortega-Díaz, M Isabel; Ocaña-Riola, Ricardo; Martín-Martín, José Jesús

    To analyse the technical efficiency and productivity of general hospitals in the Spanish National Health Service (NHS) (2010-2012) and identify explanatory hospital and regional variables. 230 NHS hospitals were analysed by data envelopment analysis for overall, technical and scale efficiency, and Malmquist index. The robustness of the analysis is contrasted with alternative input-output models. A fixed effects multilevel cross-sectional linear model was used to analyse the explanatory efficiency variables. The average rate of overall technical efficiency (OTE) was 0.736 in 2012; there was considerable variability by region. Malmquist index (2010-2012) is 1.013. A 23% variability in OTE is attributable to the region in question. Statistically significant exogenous variables (residents per 100 physicians, aging index, average annual income per household, essential public service expenditure and public health expenditure per capita) explain 42% of the OTE variability between hospitals and 64% between regions. The number of residents showed a statistically significant relationship. As regards regions, there is a statistically significant direct linear association between OTE and annual income per capita and essential public service expenditure, and an indirect association with the aging index and annual public health expenditure per capita. The significant room for improvement in the efficiency of hospitals is conditioned by region-specific characteristics, specifically aging, wealth and the public expenditure policies of each one. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Technical Diagnostics of Ventilation Units for Energy Efficiency and Safety of Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzin, Evgeny; Shahmanov, Vitality; Dubinkin, Dmitriy

    2017-11-01

    The article considers the questions of application of technical diagnostics fan installations methods for providing safe operation, the system of the technical maintenance improvement and repair. Due to the feet that one of the most important aspects in fan operation in mining is energy efficiency and energy saving, the lack of the data in the control of the level in vibration of stationary sensors is shown. The necessity of taking into account the geometric parameters of the intake channel has been shown, and also the necessity of creation of the reference masks for the assessment of technical condition and energy efficiency when operating fan installations in mining. The results of technical diagnostics of the main fans using the methods of vibration diagnostics are provided. Aspects of vibration at characteristic points are shown. The necessity for further accumulation of data characterizing vibration for adjustment of the reference masks and more accurate detection of defects and deviations from the energy-efficient mode of operation of the fan installations is given.

  15. [Technical efficiency of traditional hospitals and public enterprises in Andalusia (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero Tabanera, Luis; Martín Martín, José Jesús; López del Amo González, Ma del Puerto

    2015-01-01

    To assess the technical efficiency of traditional public hospitals without their own legal identity and subject to administrative law, and that of public enterprise hospitals, with their own legal identities and partly governed by private law, all of them belonging to the taxypayer-funded health system of Andalusia during the period 2005 -2008. The study included the 32 publicly-owned hospitals in Andalusia during the period 2005-2008. The method consisted of two stages. In the first stage, the indices of technical efficiency of the hospitals were calculated using Data Envelopment Analysis, and the change in total factor productivity was estimated using the Malmquist index. The results were compared according to perceived quality, and a sensitivity analysis was conducted through an auxiliary model and bootstrapping. In the second stage, a bivariate analysis was performed between hospital efficiency and organization type. Public enterprises were more efficient than traditional hospitals (on average by over 10%) in each of the study years. Nevertheless, a process of convergence was observed between the two types of organizations because, while the efficiency of traditional hospitals increased slightly (by 0.50%) over the study period, the performance of public enterprises declined by over 2%. The possible reasons for the greater efficiency of public enterprises include their greater budgetary and employment flexibility. However, the convergence process observed points to a process of mutual learning that is not necessarily efficient. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Study on the Technical Efficiency of Creative Human Capital in China by Three-Stage Data Envelopment Analysis Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous researches have proved the positive effect of creative human capital and its development on the development of economy. Yet, the technical efficiency of creative human capital and its effects are still under research. The authors are trying to estimate the technical efficiency value in Chinese context, which is adjusted by the environmental variables and statistical noises, by establishing a three-stage data envelopment analysis model, using data from 2003 to 2010. The research results indicate that, in this period, the entirety of creative human capital in China and the technical efficiency value in different regions and different provinces is still in the low level and could be promoted. Otherwise, technical non-efficiency is mostly derived from the scale nonefficiency and rarely affected by pure technical efficiency. The research also examines environmental variables’ marked effects on the technical efficiency, and it shows that different environmental variables differ in the aspect of their own effects. The expansion of the scale of education, development of healthy environment, growth of GDP, development of skill training, and population migration could reduce the input of creative human capital and promote the technical efficiency, while development of trade and institutional change, on the contrary, would block the input of creative human capital and the promotion the technical efficiency.

  17. A data envelope analysis to assess factors affecting technical and economic efficiency of individual broiler breeder hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, L F; Zuidhof, M J; Jeffrey, S R; Naeima, A; Renema, R A; Robinson, F E

    2010-08-01

    This study evaluated the effect of feed allocation and energetic efficiency on technical and economic efficiency of broiler breeder hens using the data envelope analysis methodology and quantified the effect of variables affecting technical efficiency. A total of 288 Ross 708 pullets were placed in individual cages at 16 wk of age and assigned to 1 of 4 feed allocation groups. Three of them had feed allocated on a group basis with divergent BW targets: standard, high (standard x 1.1), and low (standard x 0.9). The fourth group had feed allocated on an individual bird basis following the standard BW target. Birds were classified in 3 energetic efficiency categories: low, average, and high, based on estimated maintenance requirements. Technical efficiency considered saleable chicks as output and cumulative ME intake and time as inputs. Economic efficiency of feed allocation treatments was analyzed under different cost scenarios. Birds with low feed allocation exhibited a lower technical efficiency (69.4%) than standard (72.1%), which reflected a reduced egg production rate. Feed allocation of the high treatment could have been reduced by 10% with the same chick production as the standard treatment. The low treatment exhibited reduced economic efficiency at greater capital costs, whereas high had reduced economic efficiency at greater feed costs. The average energetic efficiency hens had a lower technical efficiency in the low compared with the standard feed allocation. A 1% increment in estimated maintenance requirement changed technical efficiency by -0.23%, whereas a 1% increment in ME intake had a -0.47% effect. The negative relationship between technical efficiency and ME intake was counterbalanced by a positive correlation of ME intake and egg production. The negative relationship of technical efficiency and maintenance requirements was synergized by a negative correlation of hen maintenance and egg production. Economic efficiency methodologies are effective

  18. Technical Efficiency of Beef Cattle Breeding Business in East Java Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Kalangi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to compare technical efficiency of beef cattle business operating in lowland and upland areas of East Java and to identify and analyze factors affecting the technical efficiency as well as inefficiency of that business. A survey was conducted to 89 farmers in the lowland area of Probolinggo District and 97 farmers in the upland areas of Malang Districts during the period of February-March 2013. Results of stochastic frontier production function with MLE method showed that the average technical efficiency in lowland area was higher (80% compared to that in upland area (64%. The results indicated that beef cattle production was highly significant and positively influenced by total of grasses and forages, rice straw, feed supplements, stock of cattle, labor time allocation and service per conception. However, location of the business, whether in lowland and upland areas was a significant factor that could increase the efficiency. Some factors that could significantly reduce the technical inefficiency of beef cattle business were: labor force in family, education level, proportion of beef cattle income to total household income, age of cattle sold, cattle health examination, ownership status of the cattle, and gender. Therefore, (1 the existing farmers group should be improved their role to facilitate trading of cattle feed, and (2 the government should facilitate the farmers in the provision of funding tu buy beef cattle with a subsidized interest rate, so the farmers will be more enthusiast in taking care of their cattle, thus could improve their production efficiency.

  19. Technical Efficiency Analysis of Mini Purse Seine Fishing Unit in Sumenep District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ibrahim Fatoni

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The nature of competition in each purse seine fishing unit leads to excess fishing capacity utilization. This study aimed to analyze factors affecting fishing capacity in the short term, knowing the level of efficiency at each purse seine fishing unit, and to analyze factors affecting technical inefficiency. This study was conducted in Sumenep, East Java. The method used was parametric inferential statistics. The method of nalysis in this study was SFA (Stochastic Frontier Analysis and tobit model. The research results show that number of trip, amount of FADs used, and the number of crew operator operating purse seine are significant factors affecting fishing capacity, average level of technical efficiency’s of fishing unit is 36%, and the factors that negatively influence the technical inefficiency is experience of captain and the status of ownership of the vessel while the the factors that positively influence is age of captain.

  20. Recovery efficiency test project, Phase 2 activity report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.

    1989-02-01

    The Recovery Efficiency Test well project addressed a number of technical issues. The primary objective was to determine the increased efficiency of gas recovery of a long horizontal wellbore over that of a vertical wellbore and, more specifically, what improvements can be expected from inducing multiple hydraulic fractures from such a wellbore. This volume contains appendices for: (1) supporting material and procedures for data frac'' stimulation of zone 6 using nitrogen and nitrogen foam; (2) supporting material and procedures for stimulation no. 1 nitrogen gas frac on zone no. 1; (3) supporting material and procedures for stimulation no. 2 in zone no. 1 using liquid CO{sub 2}; (4) supporting material and procedures for frac no. 3 on zone no.1 using nitrogen foam and proppant; (5) supporting material and procedures for stimulation no. 4 in zones 2--3 and 4 using nitrogen foam and proppant; (6) supporting materials and procedures for stimulation no. 5 in zones 5 and 8; and (7) fracture diagnostics reports and supporting materials.

  1. Technical Efficiency Analysis of Container Terminals in the Middle Eastern Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Sharaf Almawsheki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite an increasing number of studies on the efficiency of container terminals, their focus has mostly been on advanced and emerging markets. There are limited studies on container terminals in developing countries such as those of the Middle Eastern region, which are located in a critical geographic position in the international maritime route between the East and the West. Information on their potential for development relative to other terminals worldwide is thus not readily available. This study aims to evaluate the technical efficiency of 19 container terminals in the Middle Eastern region. The DEA approach is used to measure technical efficiency, and slack variable analysis identifies potential areas of improvement for inefficient terminals. The results show that the Jebel Ali, Salalah and Beirut container terminals are the most efficient terminals in the region, and that the least efficient is the terminal in Aden. The results provide valuable information for terminal managers, helping to develop resource utilisation for steady development in operational efficiency.

  2. The efficiency of detecting the failures and troubleshooting while applying technical diagnostics for multi-computer systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Kyaw Zaw

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents techniques which base on the concept of flows thinning together with the identification techniques. These methods are proposed to determine the expected number of failures to assess the efficiency of technical diagnostics of instruments. Additionally, this research focuses on the improvement of multi-machine troubleshooting systems, based on the ‘AND-OR’ graphs. Respective algorithms are presented. The majority principle uses the input information to check the correctness of the decision regarding identification of faulty machines. In this paper we base on the complete testing algorithm for elements of multi-computer complexes searching by criteria of failed element.

  3. TECHNICAL EFFICIENCY OF PARTICIPATORY AND NON PARTICIPATORY CROP PRODUCERS: AN EVALUATION OF ICM PROJECT

    OpenAIRE

    Sumy, M C; Rashid, M H A; Miah, T H

    2004-01-01

    This study examines technical efficiency of participatory and non-participatory resource-poor farmers of integrated crops management (ICM) project in the north-west region of Bangladesh. Sixty farmers of which 30 from participatory and another 30 from non-participatory group were randomly selected from six purposively selected villages of Kurigram Sadar Upazila of Kurigram district. ICM project participatory farmers received higher net returns than the non-participatory farmers from selected ...

  4. Technical Efficiency and Port Competition: Revisiting the Bohai Economic Rim, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Wang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Bohai Economic Rim plays an important role in supporting China’s economic growth. For this research, we selected nine main ports in the region to study whether intra-port competition or corporatization would improve efficiency. Using a panel fixed effect model and stochastic frontier model, we found that the technical efficiency of selected ports is significantly influenced by the time of the initial public offering than by regional competition. The results are supportive and encouraging for policy makers to move toward the decentralized port governance in China.

  5. Confronting Regulatory Cost and Quality Expectations. An Exploration of Technical Change in Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Margaret [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Spurlock, C. Anna [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yang, Hung-Chia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-09-21

    The dual purpose of this project was to contribute to basic knowledge about the interaction between regulation and innovation and to inform the cost and benefit expectations related to technical change which are embedded in the rulemaking process of an important area of national regulation. The area of regulation focused on here is minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) for appliances and other energy-using products. Relevant both to U.S. climate policy and energy policy for buildings, MEPS remove certain product models from the market that do not meet specified efficiency thresholds.

  6. EVALUATING THE TECHNICAL EFFICIENCY OF SMALLHOLDER VEGETABLE FARMS IN DIVERSE AGROECOLOGICAL REGIONS OF NEPAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudra Bahadur Shrestha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing the efficiency of vegetable farms is crucial to increase the vegetable outputs for meeting the demand for growing population. This study evaluated the technical efficiency and explored factors determining the efficiencies of smallholder vegetable farms in diversified agro-ecological regions using Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA with cross-section data collected in 2013. The results revealed that average technical efficiency was found to be 0.77 and the variance parameters were highly significant indicating that the inefficiency existed in vegetable farms. The inefficiency gap could improve by operating the farms at the frontier level. The input variables consisting of land, labor, animal power, fertilizer, compost, pesticide, and capital were proved to be the important factors in determining the level of outputs. Meanwhile, the major sources of the inefficiencies identified were: age of farmer, training to the farmers, and infrastructure development. The efficiency in vegetable production can be improved by allocating input resources at the optimum levels, encouraging younger farmers in vegetable production, increasing training and extension activities, enhancing market access to the farmers, and developing infrastructures with regard to vegetable production.

  7. Efficient tests development inspired by mathematical structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encheva, Sylvia

    2017-07-01

    Developing short tests for knowledge and skills evaluation is definitely easier and faster than developing larger ones. Larger tests however provide much more information than the short ones. In the era of global digitalization the question of effective test construction arises quite naturally. Reuse of short tests for constructing larger ones is one way to find an optimal solution to the problems related to tests development.

  8. Technical safety appraisal of the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-12-01

    This report presents the results of one of a series of Technical Safety Appraisals (TSAs) being conducted of Department of Energy (DOE) operations (nuclear and non-nuclear) by the Assistant Secretary of Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H), Office of Safety Appraisals. These TSAs are one of the initiatives announced by the Secretary of Energy on September 18, 1985, to enhance the DOE`s environment, safety, and health program. This TSA report focuses on the safety and health operations of the Nevada Operations Office (NV) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which was conducted concurrently, with and supporting a Tiger Team Assessment. The total effort of all the Tiger Team assessment, including environmental and manager evaluations, is reported in the Tiger Team Report, issued January 1990. The assessment of the NTS began November 5, 1989 with the briefing of the Tiger Team in Las Vegas at the Nevada Operations Office. The TSA team evaluation was conducted November 6--17, and November 26--December 1, 1989 at the NTS.

  9. Morphological structures of elite Karateka and their impact on technical and fighting efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katić, Ratko; Blazević, Stipe; Krstulović, Sasa; Mulić, Rosanda

    2005-06-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the morphological structures that determine achievement of top results in karate. The study included a sample of 85 karateka competing as senior category athletes within the Croatian Karate Society, aged 18-29 years. Sixteen morphological parameters were used; technical efficiency was assessed using 8 variables, i.e. evaluation of particular karate techniques, whereas fighting efficiency was estimated on the basis of results achieved at a number of contests. Factorial analysis of morphological space revealed the presence of four major factors: factor of muscle mass, followed by skeleton transverse dimensionality, factor of skeleton longitudinal dimensionality, factor of subcutaneous adipose tissue, and factor of shoulder width determining optimal trunk proportions (athlete type) in karateka. Regression analysis showed the isolated group of morphological factors to significantly determine both technical and fighting efficiency of karate athletes. Generally, skeleton longitudinality and muscle mass, followed by skeleton transverse dimensionality were found to exert favorable effects, and adipose tissue unfavorable effects according to both criteria. Also, each individual morphological factor influenced the performance of every karate technique applied. Adipose tissue had greatest unfavorable impact, whereas shoulder width and muscle mass had favorable impact on the performance of arm techniques (kicking). Considering performance of leg techniques, skeleton longitudinality had highest favorable impact, and adipose tissue greatest unfavorable impact. Of the techniques applied, combined karate kicks, i.e. jaku zuki-mawashi geri and kizame zuki-jaku zuki were found to be the best predictors of fighting efficiency.

  10. AN ESTIMATION OF TECHNICAL EFFICIENCY OF GARLIC PRODUCTION IN KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabeel Hussain

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to estimate the technical efficiency of farmers in garlic production in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, Pakistan. Data was randomly collected from 110 farmers using multistage sampling technique. Maximum likelihood estimation technique was used to estimate Cob-Douglas frontier production function. The analysis revealed that the estimated mean technical efficiency was 77 percent indicating that total output can be further increased with efficient use of resources and technology. The estimated gamma value was found to be 0.93 which shows 93% variation in garlic output due to inefficiency factors. The analysis further revealed that seed rate, tractor hours, fertilizer, FYM and weedicides were positive and statistically significant production factors. The results also show that age and education were statistically significant inefficiency factors, age having positive and education having negative relationship with the output of garlic. This study suggests that in order to increase the production of garlic by taking advantage of their high efficiency level, the government should invest in the research and development aspects for introducing good quality seeds to increase garlic productivity and should organize training programs to educate farmers about garlic production.

  11. Technical and scale efficiency of public community hospitals in Eritrea: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirigia, Joses M; Asbu, Eyob Z

    2013-03-16

    Eritrean gross national income of Int$610 per capita is lower than the average for Africa (Int$1620) and considerably lower than the global average (Int$6977). It is therefore imperative that the country's resources, including those specifically allocated to the health sector, are put to optimal use. The objectives of this study were (a) to estimate the relative technical and scale efficiency of public secondary level community hospitals in Eritrea, based on data generated in 2007, (b) to estimate the magnitudes of output increases and/or input reductions that would have been required to make relatively inefficient hospitals more efficient, and (c) to estimate using Tobit regression analysis the impact of institutional and contextual/environmental variables on hospital inefficiencies. A two-stage Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method is used to estimate efficiency of hospitals and to explain the inefficiencies. In the first stage, the efficient frontier and the hospital-level efficiency scores are first estimated using DEA. In the second stage, the estimated DEA efficiency scores are regressed on some institutional and contextual/environmental variables using a Tobit model. In 2007 there were a total of 20 secondary public community hospitals in Eritrea, nineteen of which generated data that could be included in the study. The input and output data were obtained from the Ministry of Health (MOH) annual health service activity report of 2007. Since our study employs data that are five years old, the results are not meant to uncritically inform current decision-making processes, but rather to illustrate the potential value of such efficiency analyses. The key findings were as follows: (i) the average constant returns to scale technical efficiency score was 90.3%; (ii) the average variable returns to scale technical efficiency score was 96.9%; and (iii) the average scale efficiency score was 93.3%. In 2007, the inefficient hospitals could have become more efficient

  12. Sustaining Gains in Health Programs: Technical Efficiency and its Determinants in Malaria Programs in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atake, Esso-Hanam

    2017-04-01

    Since the year 2000, Africa has made significant progress in the fight against malaria. Between 2000 and 2015, the incidence and death from malaria fell by 42 and 66%, respectively. However, the African region still accounts for most global cases of malaria. In 2015, the region was home to 89% of malaria cases and 91% of malaria death. This study aimed to evaluate efficiency of policies against malaria in 30 malaria-endemic Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries, from the perspective of sustaining gains. The data came from World Malaria Report 2013. Data were analyzed using the double bootstrap method. We first estimated bootstrapped efficiency scores. Then, bootstrapped truncated regression was used to determine factors associated with malaria program efficiency. This study showed that most malaria programs in SSA are technically inefficient. We also found that aid from international institutions and public expenditures on malaria programs do not significantly affect the efficiency of malaria programs. However, in an enhanced governance context, international aid and public expenditure impact positively on the efficiency of malaria programs. Moreover, intermittent preventive treatment for pregnant women is associated with a positive effect on the efficiency. Surprisingly, the free care policies-artemisinin-based combinations for under five-year-old children in the public facilities, rapid diagnostic tests, and distribution of insecticide-treated bed nets and long-lasting insecticide-impregnated nets-does not significantly affect the efficiency of malaria programs. Financing alone does not ensure efficiency of malaria programs. Good governance and the targeting of the most vulnerable segments of the population are necessary to reduce malaria deaths and improve efficiency of malaria programs in SSA.

  13. Technical- and environmental-efficiency analysis of irrigated cotton-cropping systems in Punjab, Pakistan using data envelopment analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Asmat; Perret, Sylvain R

    2014-08-01

    Cotton cropping in Pakistan uses substantial quantities of resources and adversely affects the environment with pollutants from the inputs, particularly pesticides. A question remains regarding to what extent the reduction of such environmental impact is possible without compromising the farmers' income. This paper investigates the environmental, technical, and economic performances of selected irrigated cotton-cropping systems in Punjab to quantify the sustainability of cotton farming and reveal options for improvement. Using mostly primary data, our study quantifies the technical, cost, and environmental efficiencies of different farm sizes. A set of indicators has been computed to reflect these three domains of efficiency using the data envelopment analysis technique. The results indicate that farmers are broadly environmentally inefficient; which primarily results from poor technical inefficiency. Based on an improved input mix, the average potential environmental impact reduction for small, medium, and large farms is 9, 13, and 11 %, respectively, without compromising the economic return. Moreover, the differences in technical, cost, and environmental efficiencies between small and medium and small and large farm sizes were statistically significant. The second-stage regression analysis identifies that the entire farm size significantly affects the efficiencies, whereas exposure to extension and training has positive effects, and the sowing methods significantly affect the technical and environmental efficiencies. Paradoxically, the formal education level is determined to affect the efficiencies negatively. This paper discusses policy interventions that can improve the technical efficiency to ultimately increase the environmental efficiency and reduce the farmers' operating costs.

  14. The Technical Efficiency of Earthquake Medical Rapid Response Teams Following Disasters: The Case of the 2010 Yushu Earthquake in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Tang, Bihan; Yang, Hongyang; Liu, Yuan; Xue, Chen; Zhang, Lulu

    2015-12-04

    Performance assessments of earthquake medical rapid response teams (EMRRTs), particularly the first responders deployed to the hardest hit areas following major earthquakes, should consider efficient and effective use of resources. This study assesses the daily technical efficiency of EMRRTs in the emergency period immediately following the 2010 Yushu earthquake in China. Data on EMRRTs were obtained from official daily reports of the general headquarters for Yushu earthquake relief, the emergency office of the National Ministry of Health, and the Health Department of Qinghai Province, for a sample of data on 15 EMRRTs over 62 days. Data envelopment analysis was used to examine the technical efficiency in a constant returns to scale model, a variable returns to scale model, and the scale efficiency of EMRRTs. Tobit regression was applied to analyze the effects of corresponding influencing factors. The average technical efficiency scores under constant returns to scale, variable returns to scale, and the scale efficiency scores of the 62 units of analysis were 77.95%, 89.00%, and 87.47%, respectively. The staff-to-bed ratio was significantly related to global technical efficiency. The date of rescue was significantly related to pure technical efficiency. The type of institution to which an EMRRT belonged and the staff-to-bed ratio were significantly related to scale efficiency. This study provides evidence that supports improvements to EMRRT efficiency and serves as a reference for earthquake emergency medical rapid assistance leaders and teams.

  15. The Technical Efficiency of Earthquake Medical Rapid Response Teams Following Disasters: The Case of the 2010 Yushu Earthquake in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Performance assessments of earthquake medical rapid response teams (EMRRTs, particularly the first responders deployed to the hardest hit areas following major earthquakes, should consider efficient and effective use of resources. This study assesses the daily technical efficiency of EMRRTs in the emergency period immediately following the 2010 Yushu earthquake in China. Methods: Data on EMRRTs were obtained from official daily reports of the general headquarters for Yushu earthquake relief, the emergency office of the National Ministry of Health, and the Health Department of Qinghai Province, for a sample of data on 15 EMRRTs over 62 days. Data envelopment analysis was used to examine the technical efficiency in a constant returns to scale model, a variable returns to scale model, and the scale efficiency of EMRRTs. Tobit regression was applied to analyze the effects of corresponding influencing factors. Results: The average technical efficiency scores under constant returns to scale, variable returns to scale, and the scale efficiency scores of the 62 units of analysis were 77.95%, 89.00%, and 87.47%, respectively. The staff-to-bed ratio was significantly related to global technical efficiency. The date of rescue was significantly related to pure technical efficiency. The type of institution to which an EMRRT belonged and the staff-to-bed ratio were significantly related to scale efficiency. Conclusions: This study provides evidence that supports improvements to EMRRT efficiency and serves as a reference for earthquake emergency medical rapid assistance leaders and teams.

  16. TECHNICAL MAINTENANCE EFFICIENCY OF THE AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE-FREE ON-BOARD SYSTEM BETWEEN SCHEDULED MAINTENANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Bronnikov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The avionics concept of the maintenance-free on-board equipment implies the absence of necessity to maintain onboard systems between scheduled maintenance, preserving the required operational and technical characteristics; it should be achieved by automatic diagnosis of the technical condition and the application of active means of ensuring a failsafe design, allowing to change the structure of the system to maintain its functions in case of failure. It is supposed that such equipment will reduce substantially and in the limit eliminate traditional maintenance of aircraft between scheduled maintenance, ensuring maximum readiness for use, along with improving safety. The paper proposes a methodology for evaluating the efficiency of maintenance-free between scheduled maintenance aircraft system with homogeneous redundancy. The excessive redundant elements allow the system to accumulate failures which are repaired during the routine maintenance. If the number of failures of any reserve is approaching a critical value, the recovery of the on-board system (elimination of all failures is carried out between scheduled maintenance by conducting rescue and recovery operations. It is believed that service work leads to the elimination of all failures and completely updates the on-board system. The process of system operational status changes is described with the discrete-continuous model in the flight time. The average losses in the sorties and the average cost of operation are used as integrated efficiency indicators of system operation. For example, the evaluation of the operation efficiency of formalized on-board system with homogeneous redundancy demonstrates the efficiency of the proposed methodology and the possibility of its use while analyzing the efficiency of the maintenance-free operation equipment between scheduled periods. As well as a comparative analysis of maintenance-free operation efficiency of the on-board system with excessive

  17. The impact of agricultural extension on farmers’ technical efficiencies in Ethiopia: A stochastic production frontier approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kidanemariam G. Gebrehiwot

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: To address the structural food deficit and top down extension system that persisted for decades, the government of Ethiopia has introduced a new extension system, called Participatory Demonstration and Training Extension Systems, which serves more than 80% of the total population. As the program was streamlined to fit the different agro-climatic condition of the country, the extension approach practiced in the Tigray region (research area was called Integrated Household Extension Program. Aim: This article reports on research aimed at measuring the technical efficiency levels of extension participants and non-participants; measuring the impact extension service on technical efficiency. Setting: The research was conducted in the northern part of the country, where agriculture is the main sources of livelihoods. Moisture is the most critical factor in the production system. The land holding size averages 0.5 ha per household compared to above three ha 30 years ago; indicating the high population pressure in the area. Methods: A sample of 362 agricultural extension service participants and 369 non-participant farm households from the northern part of Ethiopia, participated in the study. The stochastic production frontier technique was used to analyse the survey data and to compute farm-level technical efficiency. Results: The results showed an average level of technical efficiency of 48%. It is suggested that substantial gains in output and/or decrease in cost can be attained with the existing technology. All the variables included in the model to explain efficiency were found significant and with the expected sign, except education and number of dependants. Conclusion: The research tried to assess the impact of a new extension service (participatory in nature on farmers’ productivity in a semi-arid zone, as compared with the conventional extension service and found in the literature areas with relatively better climatic

  18. A socio-technical approach to improving retail energy efficiency behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christina, Sian; Waterson, Patrick; Dainty, Andrew; Daniels, Kevin

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, the UK retail sector has made a significant contribution to societal responses on carbon reduction. We provide a novel and timely examination of environmental sustainability from a systems perspective, exploring how energy-related technologies and strategies are incorporated into organisational life. We use a longitudinal case study approach, looking at behavioural energy efficiency from within one of the UK's leading retailers. Our data covers a two-year period, with qualitative data from a total of 131 participants gathered using phased interviews and focus groups. We introduce an adapted socio-technical framework approach in order to describe an existing organisational behavioural strategy to support retail energy efficiency. Our findings point to crucial socio-technical and goal-setting factors which both impede and/or enable energy efficient behaviours, these include: tensions linked to store level perception of energy management goals; an emphasis on the importance of technology for underpinning change processes; and, the need for feedback and incentives to support the completion of energy-related tasks. We also describe the evolution of a practical operational intervention designed to address issues raised in our findings. Our study provides fresh insights into how sustainable workplace behaviours can be achieved and sustained over time. Secondly, we discuss in detail a set of issues arising from goal conflict in the workplace; these include the development of a practical energy management strategy to facilitate secondary organisational goals through job redesign. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Fundamental Aeronautics Program: Overview of Propulsion Work in the Supersonic Cruise Efficiency Technical Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castner, Ray

    2012-01-01

    The Supersonics Project, part of NASA's Fundamental Aeronautics Program, contains a number of technical challenge areas which include sonic boom community response, airport noise, high altitude emissions, cruise efficiency, light weight durable engines/airframes, and integrated multi-discipline system design. This presentation provides an overview of the current (2012) activities in the supersonic cruise efficiency technical challenge, and is focused specifically on propulsion technologies. The intent is to develop and validate high-performance supersonic inlet and nozzle technologies. Additional work is planned for design and analysis tools for highly-integrated low-noise, low-boom applications. If successful, the payoffs include improved technologies and tools for optimized propulsion systems, propulsion technologies for a minimized sonic boom signature, and a balanced approach to meeting efficiency and community noise goals. In this propulsion area, the work is divided into advanced supersonic inlet concepts, advanced supersonic nozzle concepts, low fidelity computational tool development, high fidelity computational tools, and improved sensors and measurement capability. The current work in each area is summarized.

  20. FDI Spill‑Overs, Absorptive Capacity and Domestic Firms’ Technical Efficiency in Vietnamese Wearing Apparel Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang Duong Vu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study empirically examines relationship between FDI spill-overs and technical efficiency of domestic firms and role of the absorptive capacity of domestic firms. Data on Vietnamese Annual Enterprises Survey are exploited to build a firm-level panel data on the Vietnamese wearing apparel industry from 2009 to 2013. By applying stochastic production frontier model, this paper shows that there are positive vertical spill-over effects but no horizontal effects. Moreover, this study finds the negative impact of the absorptive capacity of domestic firms on benefits reaped from FDI externalities.

  1. INCREASING THE EFFICIENCY OF ENTERPRISES' MATERIAL AND TECHNICAL EQUIPMENT (in Russian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor NORDIN

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article pointed out the desirability of use of the “process approach” to material and technical equipment of enterprise, which will link its processes and develop an effective management system. It is proposed a form of table (matrix to enter data into an electronic database. In addition, it is proposed to create a unified management system and a set of information about procurement activities with the efficiency assessment of the resource purchasing processes and their quality through comprehensive quality indicators.

  2. The impact of energy efficiency on choosing the strategy of technical policy development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleshin Andrey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses two variants of the strategy for the development of technical policy. These variants depend on the energy efficiency requirements of the materials and building structures. Strategy 1 is Economy variant and Strategy 2 is Pragmatic variant. To analyze the feasibility of the proposed types of strategies at the initial stage, we chose 10 most common types of apartment buildings in the Samara region. All other criteria were secondary: building height and, as a consequence, an elevator (elevators available, total area, material and engineering aspects of the roof, foundation and engineering systems.

  3. NEAT : an efficient network enrichment analysis test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Signorelli, Mirko; Vinciotti, Veronica; Wit, Ernst C

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Network enrichment analysis is a powerful method, which allows to integrate gene enrichment analysis with the information on relationships between genes that is provided by gene networks. Existing tests for network enrichment analysis deal only with undirected networks, they can be

  4. Pragmatic Software Testing Becoming an Effective and Efficient Test Professional

    CERN Document Server

    Black, Rex

    2011-01-01

    A hands-on guide to testing techniques that deliver reliable software and systemsTesting even a simple system can quickly turn into a potentially infinite task. Faced with tight costs and schedules, testers need to have a toolkit of practical techniques combined with hands-on experience and the right strategies in order to complete a successful project. World-renowned testing expert Rex Black provides you with the proven methods and concepts that test professionals must know. He presents you with the fundamental techniques for testing and clearly shows you how to select and apply successful st

  5. Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope: Overview of scientific and technical program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, R.B.; Collett, T.S.; Boswell, R.; Anderson, B.J.; Digert, S.A.; Pospisil, G.; Baker, R.; Weeks, M.

    2011-01-01

    scientific research programs can be safely, effectively, and efficiently conducted within ANS infrastructure. The program success resulted in a technical team recommendation to project management to drill and complete a long-term production test within the area of existing ANS infrastructure. If approved by stakeholders, this long-term test would build on prior arctic research efforts to better constrain the potential gas rates and volumes that could be produced from gas hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Confidence intervals for test information and relative efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterloo, Sebe J.

    1984-01-01

    In latent theory the measurement properties of a mental test can be expressed in the test information function. The relative merits of two tests for the same latent trait can be described by the relative efficiency function, i.e. the ratio of the test information functions. It is argued that these

  7. Technical Efficiency of Teaching Hospitals in Iran: The Use of Stochastic Frontier Analysis, 1999–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Goudarzi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Hospitals are highly resource-dependent settings, which spend a large proportion of healthcare financial resources. The analysis of hospital efficiency can provide insight into how scarce resources are used to create health values. This study examines the Technical Efficiency (TE of 12 teaching hospitals affiliated with Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS between 1999 and 2011. Methods The Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA method was applied to estimate the efficiency of TUMS hospitals. A best function, referred to as output and input parameters, was calculated for the hospitals. Number of medical doctors, nurses, and other personnel, active beds, and outpatient admissions were considered as the input variables and number of inpatient admissions as an output variable. Results The mean level of TE was 59% (ranging from 22 to 81%. During the study period the efficiency increased from 61 to 71%. Outpatient admission, other personnel and medical doctors significantly and positively affected the production (P< 0.05. Concerning the Constant Return to Scale (CRS, an optimal production scale was found, implying that the productions of the hospitals were approximately constant. Conclusion Findings of this study show a remarkable waste of resources in the TUMS hospital during the decade considered. This warrants policy-makers and top management in TUMS to consider steps to improve the financial management of the university hospitals.

  8. Technical justifications for the tests and criteria in the waste form technical position appendix on cement stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siskind, B.; Cowgill, M.G.

    1992-01-01

    As part of its technical assistance to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) developed a background document for the cement stabilization appendix, Appendix A, to Rev. 1 of the Technical Position on Waste Form (TP). Here we present an overview of this background document, which provides technical justification for the stability tests to be performed on cement-stabilized waste forms and for the criteria posed in each test, especially for those tests which have been changed from their counterparts in the May 1983 Rev. 0 TP. We address guidelines for procedures from Appendix A which are considered in less detail or not at all in the Rev. 0 of the TP, namely, qualification specimen preparation (mixing, curing, storage), statistical sampling and analysis, process control program specimen preparation and examination, and surveillance specimens. For each waste form qualification test, criterion or procedural guidelines, we consider the reason for its inclusion in Appendix A, the changes from Rev. 0 of the TP (if applicable), and a discussion of the justification or rationale for these changes.

  9. Technical justifications for the tests and criteria in the waste form technical position appendix on cement stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siskind, B.; Cowgill, M.G.

    1992-04-01

    As part of its technical assistance to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) developed a background document for the cement stabilization appendix, Appendix A, to Rev. 1 of the Technical Position on Waste Form (TP). Here we present an overview of this background document, which provides technical justification for the stability tests to be performed on cement-stabilized waste forms and for the criteria posed in each test, especially for those tests which have been changed from their counterparts in the May 1983 Rev. 0 TP. We address guidelines for procedures from Appendix A which are considered in less detail or not at all in the Rev. 0 of the TP, namely, qualification specimen preparation (mixing, curing, storage), statistical sampling and analysis, process control program specimen preparation and examination, and surveillance specimens. For each waste form qualification test, criterion or procedural guidelines, we consider the reason for its inclusion in Appendix A, the changes from Rev. 0 of the TP (if applicable), and a discussion of the justification or rationale for these changes.

  10. SEE Action Guide for States: Guidance on Establishing and Maintaining Technical Reference Manuals for Energy Efficiency Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-06-01

    The goal of this guide is to support the development, maintenance, and use of accurate and reliable Technical Reference Manuals (TRMs). TRMs provide information primarily used for estimating the energy and demand savings of end-use energy efficiency measures associated with utility customer-funded efficiency programs.

  11. Sequential hypothesis testing with Bayes factors: Efficiently testing mean differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönbrodt, Felix D; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan; Zehetleitner, Michael; Perugini, Marco

    2017-06-01

    Unplanned optional stopping rules have been criticized for inflating Type I error rates under the null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) paradigm. Despite these criticisms, this research practice is not uncommon, probably because it appeals to researcher's intuition to collect more data to push an indecisive result into a decisive region. In this contribution, we investigate the properties of a procedure for Bayesian hypothesis testing that allows optional stopping with unlimited multiple testing, even after each participant. In this procedure, which we call Sequential Bayes Factors (SBFs), Bayes factors are computed until an a priori defined level of evidence is reached. This allows flexible sampling plans and is not dependent upon correct effect size guesses in an a priori power analysis. We investigated the long-term rate of misleading evidence, the average expected sample sizes, and the biasedness of effect size estimates when an SBF design is applied to a test of mean differences between 2 groups. Compared with optimal NHST, the SBF design typically needs 50% to 70% smaller samples to reach a conclusion about the presence of an effect, while having the same or lower long-term rate of wrong inference. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Assessing cost and technical efficiency of HIV prevention interventions in sub-Saharan Africa: the ORPHEA study design and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio; Sosa-Rubí, Sandra G; Opuni, Marjorie; Kwan, Ada; Chaumont, Claire; Coetzee, Jenny; Condo, Jeanine; Dzekedzeke, Kumbutso; Galárraga, Omar; Martinson, Neil; Masiye, Felix; Nsanzimana, Sabin; Wamai, Richard; Wang'ombe, Joseph

    2014-11-29

    Scaling up services to achieve HIV targets will require that countries optimize the use of available funding. Robust unit cost estimates are essential for the better use of resources, and information on the heterogeneity in the unit cost of delivering HIV services across facilities - both within and across countries - is critical to identifying and addressing inefficiencies. There is limited information on the unit cost of HIV prevention services in sub-Saharan Africa and information on the heterogeneity within and across countries and determinants of this variation is even more scarce. The "Optimizing the Response in Prevention: HIV Efficiency in Africa" (ORPHEA) study aims to add to the empirical body of knowledge on the cost and technical efficiency of HIV prevention services that decision makers can use to inform policy and planning. ORPHEA is a cross-sectional observational study conducted in 304 service delivery sites in Kenya, Rwanda, South Africa, and Zambia to assess the cost, cost structure, cost variability, and the determinants of efficiency for four HIV interventions: HIV testing and counselling (HTC), prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT), voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC), and HIV prevention for sex workers. ORPHEA collected information at three levels (district, facility, and individual) on inputs to HIV prevention service production and their prices, outputs produced along the cascade of services, facility-level characteristics and contextual factors, district-level factors likely to influence the performance of facilities as well as the demand for HIV prevention services, and information on process quality for HTC, PMTCT, and VMMC services. ORPHEA is one of the most comprehensive studies on the cost and technical efficiency of HIV prevention interventions to date. The study applied a robust methodological design to collect comparable information to estimate the cost of HTC, PMTCT, VMMC, and sex worker prevention services in

  13. Nearly Efficient Likelihood Ratio Tests of the Unit Root Hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansson, Michael; Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard

    Seemingly absent from the arsenal of currently available "nearly efficient" testing procedures for the unit root hypothesis, i.e. tests whose local asymptotic power functions are indistinguishable from the Gaussian power envelope, is a test admitting a (quasi-)likelihood ratio interpretation. We...

  14. Impact of technical and technological changes on energy efficiency of production company - case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwedzka, K.; Gruszka, J.; Szafer, P.

    2016-08-01

    Improving energy efficiency is one of the strategic objectives of the European Union for rational energy economy. To make efforts to improve energy efficiency have been obliged both small and large end-users. This article aims to show the possibilities of improving energy efficiency by introducing technical and technological process changes of pine lumber drying. The object of the research is process of drying lumber implemented in a production company, which is a key supplier of large furniture manufacturer. Pine lumber drying chamber consume about 45% of total electricity in sawmill. According to various sources, drying of 1m3 of lumber uses about 3060kWh and is dependent of inter alia: the drying process itself, the factors affecting the processing time and the desired output moisture content of the timber. The article proposals for changes in the process of drying lumber pine have been positively validated in the company, and as a result their energy consumption per 1 m3 of product declined by 18%.

  15. MODEL TESTING OF LOW PRESSURE HYDRAULIC TURBINE WITH HIGHER EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Nedbalsky

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A design of low pressure turbine has been developed and it is covered by an invention patent and a useful model patent. Testing of the hydraulic turbine model has been carried out when it was installed on a vertical shaft. The efficiency was equal to 76–78 % that exceeds efficiency of the known low pressure blade turbines. 

  16. Sectoral Variations on Technical Efficiency and Return to Scale in the Indonesian Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muchdie Muchdie

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses on sectoral variations of technical effciency and return to scale in the Indonesian economy. Employing regression analysis of Cobb-Douglas production function, thesecoefficientswere calculated. Nine economic sectors in the Indonesian economy: Agriculture, Mining and Quarying, Manufacturing, Electricity,Gas and Drinking Water, Construction, Trade, Hotel and Restaurant, Transportation and Communication, Finance, Rental and Corporate Services, and Services, were exercised to study the variation of those coefficiens. Sectoral data on gross domestic product, capital stock and employment are those from the years 1967 to 2007 collected from many documents available at the National Statistics Agency. The result shows that the coeffiecients of technical efficiency do vary among sectors. Those sectors in which the coefficients were above that at the national level, experienced decreasing return to scale. On the contrary, those sectors in which the coeffiecients were below that at national level, experienced increasing return to scale. DOI: 10.15408/sjie.v5i2.3400

  17. Integrated corridor management initiative : demonstration phase evaluation - Dallas technical capability analysis test plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report presents the test plan for conducting the Technical Capability Analysis for the United States : Department of Transportation (U.S. DOT) evaluation of the Dallas U.S. 75 Integrated Corridor : Management (ICM) Initiative Demonstration. The ...

  18. Integrated corridor management initiative : demonstration phase evaluation, San Diego technical capability analysis test plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    This report presents the test plan for conducting the Technical Capability Analysis for the United States Department of Transportation (U.S. DOT) evaluation of the San Diego Integrated Corridor Management (ICM) Initiative Demonstration. The ICM proje...

  19. Incremental Validity of New Computerized Aptitude Tests for Predicting Training Performance in Nine Navy Technical Schools

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wolfe, John H; Larson, Gerald E; Alderton, David L

    2006-01-01

    During their second week of basic training, 4,989 Navy recruits assigned to one of nine technical training schools were administered a battery of six experimental computerized aptitude tests measuring four constructs...

  20. Technical efficiency and economic viability of different cattle identification methods allowed by the Brazilian traceability system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Aurelio Lopes

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate the technical efficiency and economic viability of the implementation and use of four cattle identification methods allowed by the Brazilian traceability system. The study was conducted in a beef cattle production system located in the State of Mato Grosso, from January to June 2012. Four identification methods (treatments were compared: T1: ear tag in one ear and ear button in the other ear (eabu; T2: ear tag and iron brand on the right leg (eaib; T3: ear tag in one ear and tattoo on the other ear (eata; and T4: ear tag in one ear and electronic ear tag (eael on the other. Each treatment was applied to 60 Nelore animals, totaling 240 animals, divided equally into three life stages (calves, young cattle, adult cattle. The study had two phases: implementation (phase 1 and reading and transfer of identification numbers to an electronic database (phase 2. All operating expenses related to the two phases of the study were determined. The database was constructed, and the statistical analyses were performed using SPSS® 17.0 software. Regarding the time spent on implementation (phase 1, conventional ear tags and electronic ear tags produced similar results, which were lower than those of hot iron and tattoo methods, which differed from each other. Regarding the time required for reading the numbers on animals and their transcription into a database (phase 2, electronic ear-tagging was the fastest method, followed by conventional ear tag, hot iron and tattoo. Among the methods analyzed, the electronic ear tag had the highest technical efficiency because it required less time to implement identifiers and to complete the process of reading and transcription to an electronic database and because it did not exhibit any errors. However, the cost of using the electronic ear-tagging method was higher primarily due to the cost of the device.

  1. Joint ACE ground penetrating radar antenna test facility at the Technical University of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenler-Eriksen, Hans-Rudolph; Meincke, Peter; Sarri, A.

    2005-01-01

    A ground penetrating radar (GPR) antenna test facility, established within the ACE network at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU), is described. Examples of results from the facility obtained from measurements of eight different GPR antennas are presented.......A ground penetrating radar (GPR) antenna test facility, established within the ACE network at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU), is described. Examples of results from the facility obtained from measurements of eight different GPR antennas are presented....

  2. High SO[sub 2] removal efficiency testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blythe, G.

    1993-01-20

    Baseline testing at the base'' site. Tampa Electric Company's (TECo's) Big Bend Station, commenced on September 28 and was completed on October 2. Initial results from this testing were presented in the previous Technical Progress Report, but a more complete discussion is provided in this report. Parametric testing was conducted at the Big Bend site during this quarter to evaluate the effects of dibasic acid (DBA) addition on system SQ removal performance. The parametric tests were conducted from November 2 through 19. A DBA consumption rate test was also conducted, after the parametric tests were completed. The DBA consumption test was conducted from November 21 through 25. Options I and II to the base program were exercised by DOE/PETC at the end of the previous quarter. These options involve testing at Hoosier Energy Rural Electric Cooperative Inc.'s Merom Station and Southwestern Electric Power Company's Pirkey Station, respectively. Testing was conducted at Merom Station during November. Previously, Radian Corporation was the test contractor for EPRI-funded performance additive testing at this site. This EPRI-funded testing involved the equivalent of baseline testing, parametric testing with both DBA and sodium formate performance additives, and an additive consumption test with the DBA additive. The results of the prior testing will be available to support the objectives of this DOE project Consequently, the only testing required at the Merom site was to conduct consumption tests with the sodium formate additive. After a brief baseline repeat test, two sodium formate consumption tests were conducted during the time period from November 11 through 23. Results from the consumption tests are presented and discussed in this report.

  3. Uncertainty Analysis of Resistance Tests in Ata Nutku Ship Model Testing Laboratory of Istanbul Technical University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihad DELEN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, some systematical resistance tests, where were performed in Ata Nutku Ship Model Testing Laboratory of Istanbul Technical University (ITU, have been included in order to determine the uncertainties. Experiments which are conducted in the framework of mathematical and physical rules for the solution of engineering problems, measurements, calculations include uncertainty. To question the reliability of the obtained values, the existing uncertainties should be expressed as quantities. The uncertainty of a measurement system is not known if the results do not carry a universal value. On the other hand, resistance is one of the most important parameters that should be considered in the process of ship design. Ship resistance during the design phase of a ship cannot be determined precisely and reliably due to the uncertainty resources in determining the resistance value that are taken into account. This case may cause negative effects to provide the required specifications in the latter design steps. The uncertainty arising from the resistance test has been estimated and compared for a displacement type ship and high speed marine vehicles according to ITTC 2002 and ITTC 2014 regulations which are related to the uncertainty analysis methods. Also, the advantages and disadvantages of both ITTC uncertainty analysis methods have been discussed.

  4. Evaluation of Test Method for Solar Collector Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    on these efficiencies, an efficiency equation is determined by regression analysis. In the test method, there are no requirements on the ambient air temperature and the sky temperature. The paper will present an evaluation of the test method for a 12.5 m² flat plate solar collector panel from Arcon Solvarme A....../S. The solar collector panel investigated has 16 parallel connected horizontal absorber fins. CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulations, calculations with a solar collector simulation program SOLEFF (Rasmussen and Svendsen, 1996) and thermal experiments are carried out in the investigation......The test method of the standard EN12975-2 (European Committee for Standardization, 2004) is used by European test laboratories to determine the efficiency of solar collectors. In the test methods the mean solar collector fluid temperature in the solar collector, Tm is determined by the approximated...

  5. Efficiency Determination Tests for the Biocidal Products for Quality Control

    OpenAIRE

    Çelik, İrem; Akça, Gülin; Ceylan, Erdem

    2015-01-01

    Biocidal (bactericidal and fungicidal) products produced in the pharmaceutical industry should be tested according to EN 1276 (Evaluation of chemical disinfectants and antiseptics/bactericidal activities), TS EN 1275 (Chemical disinfectants and antiseptics/Basic Fungicidal Activity), TS EN 1040 (Chemical disinfectants and antiseptics/Basic bactericidal activity) standards. Efficiency determination tests are required to determine the quality control of the biocidal products microbiologically. ...

  6. Corrosion performance tests for reinforcing steel in concrete : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    The existing test method used to assess the corrosion performance of reinforcing steel embedded in : concrete, mainly ASTM G 109, is labor intensive, time consuming, slow to provide comparative results, : and can be expensive. However, with corrosion...

  7. Intelligent cruise control field operational test. Volume I, Technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    This document reports on a cooperative agreement between NHTSA and UMTRI entitled Intelligent Cruise Control (ICC) Field Operational Test (FOT). The main goal of the work is to characterize safety and comfort issues that are fundamental to human inte...

  8. The Productivity and Technical Efficiency of Textile Industry Clusters in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskaran, E.

    2013-09-01

    The Indian textile industry is one the largest and oldest sectors in the country and among the most important in the economy in terms of output, investment and employment (E). The sector employs nearly 35 million people and after agriculture, is the second-highest employer in the country. Its importance is underlined by the fact that it accounts for around 4 % of Gross Domestic Product, 14 % of industrial production, 9 % of excise collections, 18 % of E in the industrial sector, and 16 % of the country's total exports (Ex) earnings. For inclusive growth and sustainable development most of the Textile Manufacturers has adopted the Cluster Development Approach. The objective is to study the physical and financial performance, correlation, regression and Data Envelopment Analysis by measuring technical efficiency (Ø), peer weights (λi), input slacks (S-), output slacks (S+) and return to scale of four textile clusters (TCs) namely IchalKaranji Textile Cluster, Maharashtra; Ludhiana Textile Cluster, Punjab; Tirupur Textile Cluster, Tamilnadu and Panipat Textile Cluster, Haryana in India. The methodology adopted is using Data Envelopment Analysis of Output Oriented Banker Charnes Cooper Model by taking number of units (U) and number of E as inputs and sales (S) and Ex in crores as an outputs. The non-zero λi's represents the weights for efficient clusters. The S > 0 obtained for one TC reveals the excess U (S-) and E (S-) and shortage in sales (S+) and Ex (S+). To conclude, for inclusive growth and sustainable development, the inefficient TC should increase their S/turnover and Ex, as decrease in number of enterprises and E is practically not possible. Moreover for sustainable development, the TC should strengthen infrastructure interrelationships, technology interrelationships, procurement interrelationships, production interrelationships and marketing interrelationships to decrease cost, increase productivity and efficiency to compete in the world market.

  9. [Prostatic biopsies: technical modalities and conditions of the test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravery, V; Fontaine, E; Villers, A

    2000-12-01

    Histological examination of prostate biopsies is necessary for the diagnosis of prostate cancer. The technical modalities and examination conditions of prostate biopsies were evaluated in the light of a review of the literature and the conclusions are presented in the form of standards, options and recommendations. The standard or modified protocol of 6 sextant biopsies, applied as first-line investigation in all cases of stage T1c or T2 prostate cancer is a standard procedure and remains a reproducible, effective and well tolerated method for diagnosis and staging. Rectal preparation by enema and prophylactic antibiotics before the examination decrease the risk of infectious complications. In its usual modality used for the majority of patients, biopsies are performed as an outpatient procedure, with or without local anaesthesia, with ultrasound guidance via a transrectal approach using an 18 Gauge needle (pink colour code), mounted on an automatic biopsy gun and especially sampling the posterior and lateral zone. The patient must be given written information explaining the risks and management of possible complications following this examination. Local, regional or general anaesthesia may be necessary in a minority of cases, either in the context of a protocol of extensive systematized biopsies (more than 10 biopsies), or in the case of repeated examination, or when preferred by the patient. Modified extensive protocols (sextant plus posterolateral zones or sextant plus anterior zones) applied to all cases as first-line procedure is a useful option, particularly when: 1) a first series of biopsies was negative 2) PSA is sextant plus posterolateral zones) 3) the prostate is larger than 50 cm3 (sextant plus anterior zones). The transperineal approach is less reliable for detection and staging, and is used when the transrectal approach is contraindicated. When curative treatment is not considered (life expectancy first-line procedure for the diagnosis of prostate

  10. [Efficiency of color vision tests in hereditary dyschromatopsia: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Luciene Chaves; Urbano, Lúcia Carvalho de Ventura

    2008-01-01

    The authors describe two cases of hereditary dyschromatopsia and discuss the efficiency of the color vision tests. The patients were disapproved in different federal public examinations because Ishihara's test diagnosed hereditary dyschromatopsia. Ophthalmological evaluation was normal. No symptoms related to dyschromatopsia were presented. Panels D15 and Roth D 28 were normal. Desaturated D 15 showed deuteranomaly in case one. In the second case the comparative color vision tests showed nonspecific disorder. The diagnosis of dyschromatopsia is complex. The authors recommend comparative color vision tests to complement the Ishihara test for a better understanding of the color deficiency.

  11. Continuous School Improvement Questionnaire Field Test. Technical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiersma, William

    The Continuous School Improvement Questionnaire (CSIQ) is a comprehensive inventory measuring educators' perceptions of factors that affect success with school improvement. A pilot test of the CSIQ was conducted in Spring 2000, one purpose of which was to reduce the length of the CSIQ. The instrument was reduced from 147 to 72 items. The pilot…

  12. Factors That Influence Technical Efficiency of Sorghum Production: A Case of Small Holder Sorghum Producers in Lower Eastern Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaline Chepng’etich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Majority of the rural households in Kenya depend on agriculture as a source of food and livelihood. Agricultural productivity has been declining due to many factors resulting in increased food insecurity in the country. Consequently, there is a renewed interest in promoting drought-tolerant crops such as sorghum which thrives in the arid and semiarid lands of the developing world. However, performance of sorghum production among the smallholder farmers has still remained low. This study was thus carried out to identify factors that influence technical efficiency of sorghum production among smallholder farmers in Machakos and Makindu districts of the lower eastern Kenya. Collected data on farm and farmer characteristics were analysed by use of descriptive statistics and Tobit model. Result highlights show that technical efficiency was influenced positively by formal education level of the household, experience in sorghum farming, membership in farmers associations, use of hired labour, production advice, and use of manure. Surprisingly household size, meant to enhance labour, had a negative influence. To increase technical efficiency, efforts should focus on improving information flows on agronomic practices. Farmers should also be encouraged to form and actively participate in various farmers associations, which enhance learning and pooling of labour resources, hence improving technical efficiency.

  13. Efficiency of application of means of sports preparation of combat sportsmen in physical training of students of technical high school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litvinenko A.M.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The problem of efficiency of application of different volumes of trainings facilities of sporting single combats (on the example of kickboxing is considered in physical education of students. The complexity of influence of facilities of east single combats is shown on sportsmen. In an experiment took part 50 students of first-year of teaching in age 17-18 years. Tests were used: undercutting on a cross-bar, broad jumps from a place, at shuttle run of 4х9 m. Positive intercommunication of increase of volume of the training loading is shown by effectiveness of pedagogical process. It is set that increase of number of employments by students in kickboxing to three one time per a week allows for certain to improve the indexes of physical preparedness on the chosen tests. The higher level of technical preparedness of students is statistically confirmed applying the greater amount of physical exercises, sent to forming of skills of kickboxing. Distribution of students is educed on the tactical types of conduct of competition fight: 36 % is a playing manner, 44 % is a rate manner, 8 % is a manner of slog, 12 % is an universal manner. Offered to recommendation on the correction of volume of loading for the increase of didactic potential of employments on physical education.

  14. ENLUB - 12 Months Technical Report WP3: Development of simulative tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wenqi

    A draw bead test has been developed at the Department of Manufacturing Engineering, The Technical University of Denmark. The purpose of the test equipment is to simulate an actual situation in industry where draw beads are applied to constrain movement of sheet material particular in stretch...... forming operation of non-cylindrical parts....

  15. Use of "t"-Test and ANOVA in Career-Technical Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojewski, Jay W.; Lee, In Heok; Gemici, Sinan

    2012-01-01

    Use of t-tests and analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedures in published research from three scholarly journals in career and technical education (CTE) during a recent 5-year period was examined. Information on post hoc analyses, reporting of effect size, alpha adjustments to account for multiple tests, power, and examination of assumptions…

  16. SM18 Magnet Tests Overview Efficiency Analysis and Critique

    CERN Document Server

    Chohan, V

    2007-01-01

    Testing of superconducting magnets for Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is nearing completion in SM18 Test Facility. Magnet testing in SM18 is a co-operative effort of three different teams, namely the Operation Team, the Cryogenics Team, and the Industrial Consortium ICS. Within the framework of benefits as well as limitations offered by this collective effort, an appreciable throughput of 16-18 magnets per week has been achieved in SM18. In this paper, an attempt is made to analyze the efficiency of testing the majority component (dipoles), with the help of supporting statistics.

  17. Measuring and Benchmarking Technical Efficiency of Public Hospitals in Tianjin, China: A Bootstrap-Data Envelopment Analysis Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Dong, Siping

    2015-01-01

    China has long been stuck in applying traditional data envelopment analysis (DEA) models to measure technical efficiency of public hospitals without bias correction of efficiency scores. In this article, we have introduced the Bootstrap-DEA approach from the international literature to analyze the technical efficiency of public hospitals in Tianjin (China) and tried to improve the application of this method for benchmarking and inter-organizational learning. It is found that the bias corrected efficiency scores of Bootstrap-DEA differ significantly from those of the traditional Banker, Charnes, and Cooper (BCC) model, which means that Chinese researchers need to update their DEA models for more scientific calculation of hospital efficiency scores. Our research has helped shorten the gap between China and the international world in relative efficiency measurement and improvement of hospitals. It is suggested that Bootstrap-DEA be widely applied into afterward research to measure relative efficiency and productivity of Chinese hospitals so as to better serve for efficiency improvement and related decision making. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. [Human basophil degranulation test. Results of a modified technic (I)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román Pérez, F; Berlanga Cortés, J A; Urquiă, M; Guerra Pasadas, F; Peña Martínez, J

    1986-01-01

    The degranulation of human basophils towards antigenic substances, to which they must be previously sensitized as a result of the antigen-antibody union at the membrane level, is a phenomenon that has an important application complementing diagnosis of diseases mediated by the Gell and Coombs classification of Type I Hypersensitivity, on which the principle of Human Basophils Degranulation Test (HBDT) was based. An essential requirement is to be able to collect an adequate quantity of basophils, as well as the visualization by means of a technique of convenient stain. In this work, we show a modified HBDT technique for basophil granulocytes staining. A total of 33 HBDT was carried out on patients sensitive to grass pollen and/or Olea europea pollen and/or D. pteronyssinus, and as controls, HBDT was done on healthy individuals with negative clinical history. Basophil enrichemnt from the circulating blood sample was done by means of centrifugation in Percoll density gradients of 1072, 1076, 1080 and 1082, and we obtained a higher number of basophils with a density of 1080 at 400 Xg for 30 minutes. The cellular bottom was resuspended in 600 microliters of PBS. We employed lyophilized antigenic extracts from grass pollen, Olea europea and D. pteronyssinus, employing weight/volume concentration of 10(-4), 10(-5), 10(-6) and 10(-7). The optimum dilutions were 10(-5) for grass pollen and D. pteronyssinus.

  19. Regression Tests and the Efficiency of Fixed Odds Betting Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, Ruud H.

    The informational content of odds posted in sports betting market has been an ongoing topic of research. In this paper, I test whether fixed odds betting markets in soccer are informationally efficient. The contributions of the paper are threefold: first, I propose a simple yet flexible statistical

  20. Econometric estimation of investment utilization, adjustment costs, and technical efficiency in Danish pig farms using hyperbolic distance functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Arne; Fabricius, Ole; Olsen, Jakob Vesterlund

    2014-01-01

    Based on a theoretical microeconomic model, we econometrically estimate investment utilization, adjustment costs, and technical efficiency in Danish pig farms based on a large unbalanced panel dataset. As our theoretical model indicates that adjustment costs are caused both by increased inputs...... and by reduced outputs, we estimate hyperbolic distance functions that account for reduced technical efficiency both in terms of increased inputs and reduced outputs. We estimate these hyperbolic distance functions as “efficiency effect frontiers” with the Translog functional form and a dynamic specification...... of investment activities by the maximum likelihood method so that we can estimate the adjustment costs that occur in the year of the investment and the three following years. Our results show that investments are associated with significant adjustment costs, especially in the year in which the investment...

  1. Is the Mongolian Equity Market Efficient? Empirical Evidence from Tests of Weak-Form Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Lim Kai Jie, Shawn; Chadha, Pavneet; Lau, Joshua; Potdar, Nishad

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the empirical validity of the weak-form of the Efficient Market Hypothesis in the Mongolian equity market over Jan 1999 to Jul 2012. We examine the characteristics of the market by testing the fit of returns to a normal distribution using the Jarque-Bera Test, and find strong evidence against normality. The data also exhibits positive skewness and a high level of excess kurtosis. Next, we test for the presence of autocorrelation using the Ljung-Box Q Test and the non-p...

  2. Technical and scale efficiency in the delivery of child health services in Zambia: results from data envelopment analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achoki, Tom; Hovels, Anke; Masiye, Felix; Lesego, Abaleng; Leufkens, Hubert; Kinfu, Yohannes

    2017-01-05

    Despite tremendous efforts to scale up key maternal and child health interventions in Zambia, progress has not been uniform across the country. This raises fundamental health system performance questions that require further investigation. Our study investigates technical and scale efficiency (SE) in the delivery of maternal and child health services in the country. The study focused on all 72 health districts of Zambia. We compiled a district-level database comprising health outcomes (measured by the probability of survival to 5 years of age), health outputs (measured by coverage of key health interventions) and a set of health system inputs, namely, financial resources and human resources for health, for the year 2010. We used data envelopment analysis to assess the performance of subnational units across Zambia with respect to technical and SE, controlling for environmental factors that are beyond the control of health system decision makers. Nationally, average technical efficiency with respect to improving child survival was 61.5% (95% CI 58.2% to 64.8%), which suggests that there is a huge inefficiency in resource use in the country and the potential to expand services without injecting additional resources into the system. Districts that were more urbanised and had a higher proportion of educated women were more technically efficient. Improved cooking methods and donor funding had no significant effect on efficiency. With the pressing need to accelerate progress in population health, decision makers must seek efficient ways to deliver services to achieve universal health coverage. Understanding the factors that drive performance and seeking ways to enhance efficiency offer a practical pathway through which low-income countries could improve population health without necessarily seeking additional resources. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. A test to evaluate the physical impact on technical performance in soccer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Thomas; Iaia, F. Marcello; Simonsen, Dennis S.

    2008-01-01

    (-1), and 76 +/- 11 umol L(-1) at the end of the test, respectively. After the test muscle CP, glycogen and lactate was 52.9 +/- 6.6, 354 +/- 39, and 25.3 +/- 5.9 mmol kg(-1) d.w., respectively. In summary, the PT-test can be used to evaluate a soccer player's technical skills under conditions similar......The aim of the study was to develop and examine a test for evaluation of the physical and technical capacity of soccer players. Fourteen youth elite (YE) and seven sub-elite (SE) players performed a physical and technical test (PT-test) consisting of 10 long kicks interspersed with intense...... intermittent exercise. In addition, a control test (CON-test) without intense exercise was performed. In both cases, the test result was evaluated by the precision of the 10 kicks. The players also performed the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2). For the SE-players, blood samples were...

  4. Mobile Energy Laboratory energy-efficiency testing programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, G.B.; Currie, J.W.

    1991-09-01

    This report summarizes energy-efficiency testing activities applying the Mobile Energy Laboratory (MEL) testing capabilities during the first and second quarters of fiscal year (FY) 1991. The MELs, developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), are administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and the Naval Energy and Environmental Support Activity (NEESA) for energy testing and energy conservation program support functions at federal facilities. The using agencies principally fund MEL applications, while DOE/FEMP funds program administration and capability enhancement activities. This report fulfills the requirements established in Section 8 of the MEL Use Plan (PNL-6861) for semiannual reporting on energy-efficiency testing activities using the MEL capabilities. The MEL Use Committee, formally established in 1989, developed the MEL Use Plan and meets semiannually to establish priorities for energy-efficient testing applications using the MEL capabilities. The MEL Use Committee is composed of one representative each of the US Department of Energy, US Army, US Air Force, US Navy, and other federal agencies.

  5. Testing the efficiency of high-frequency foreign exchange market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Mastný

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the efficiency of the high-frequency foreign exchange market. The objective of this paper is to investigate whether standard statistical tests give the same results for time series resampled at intervals of 15.30 and 60 min. The data used for the purpose of this paper contain major currency pairs such as EUR/USD, GBP/USD and JPY/USD. The results of statistical tests indicate that the high frequency intervals (15-minute are not random and should not be considered independent. On the other hand, tests with lower frequency rates (30 and 60 min indicate rising randomness of the market.

  6. Efficiency tests on the pyrolysis gasifier stove Peko Pe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, P.S.

    1996-10-01

    This paper presents results from water boiling tests on the pyrolysis gasifier stove Peko Pe, which has been developed by the Norwegian Paal Wendelbo. The stove efficiency determined vary between 21 and 29% when burning dry Danish woodchip (10% moisture) with an estimated caloric value of 16 MJ/kg. CO-emissions have been determined with varying distance between the stove and the pot to estimate the combustion efficiency. Efficiency tests performed in Adjumani refugee camp with grass as fuel show a stove efficiency of 25-29% with a caloric value of 14 MJ/kg. It has not been possible to determine the water content in the grass. In Adjumani refugee camp it was furthermore found that the stove was able to provide sufficient energy from solid combustion, after the pyrolysis was stopped, to boil water for additional 25-30 minutes with lid. This effect was not seen in the tests on woodchips in Denmark. Advantages and disadvanges of the stove compared to three-stone stoves are discussed and perspectives are outlined for further improvements of the stove. (au)

  7. 75 FR 27341 - Increasing Market and Planning Efficiency Through Improved Software; Notice of Technical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... for the purposes of stimulating discussion and sharing of information about the technical aspects of... respect to energy, reserves, ramp rates, and network topology), flexible dispatch, settlement calculations... modeling aspects of these issues. We expect that participants with technical understanding of operations...

  8. Efficient p-value evaluation for resampling-based tests

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, K.

    2011-01-05

    The resampling-based test, which often relies on permutation or bootstrap procedures, has been widely used for statistical hypothesis testing when the asymptotic distribution of the test statistic is unavailable or unreliable. It requires repeated calculations of the test statistic on a large number of simulated data sets for its significance level assessment, and thus it could become very computationally intensive. Here, we propose an efficient p-value evaluation procedure by adapting the stochastic approximation Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm. The new procedure can be used easily for estimating the p-value for any resampling-based test. We show through numeric simulations that the proposed procedure can be 100-500 000 times as efficient (in term of computing time) as the standard resampling-based procedure when evaluating a test statistic with a small p-value (e.g. less than 10( - 6)). With its computational burden reduced by this proposed procedure, the versatile resampling-based test would become computationally feasible for a much wider range of applications. We demonstrate the application of the new method by applying it to a large-scale genetic association study of prostate cancer.

  9. The technical efficiency of Norwegian container ports: A comparison to some Nordic and UK container ports using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA)

    OpenAIRE

    Halvor Schøyen; James Odeck

    2013-01-01

    In this article we evaluate the technical efficiency of Norwegian container ports relative to a frontier composed of the best performing among themselves and other comparable Nordic and UK ports. The rationale is that a technical efficiency assessment of Norwegian container ports has not been found in the literature; therefore, it is unknown what their potential for improvement relative to other comparable international ports is. A Data Envelopment Analysis is used to derive the technical and...

  10. Voluntary medical male circumcision scale-up in Nyanza, Kenya: evaluating technical efficiency and productivity of service delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omondi Aduda, Dickens S; Ouma, Collins; Onyango, Rosebella; Onyango, Mathews; Bertrand, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) service delivery is complex and resource-intensive. In Kenya's context there is still paucity of information on resource use vis-à-vis outputs as programs scale up. Knowledge of technical efficiency, productivity and potential sources of constraints is desirable to improve decision-making. To evaluate technical efficiency and productivity of VMMC service delivery in Nyanza in 2011/2012 using data envelopment analysis. Comparative process evaluation of facilities providing VMMC in Nyanza in 2011/2012 using output orientated data envelopment analysis. Twenty one facilities were evaluated. Only 1 of 7 variables considered (total elapsed operation time) significantly improved from 32.8 minutes (SD 8.8) in 2011 to 30 minutes (SD 6.6) in 2012 (95%CI = 0.0350-5.2488; p = 0.047). Mean scale technical efficiency significantly improved from 91% (SD 19.8) in 2011 to 99% (SD 4.0) in 2012 particularly among outreach compared to fixed service delivery facilities (CI -31.47959-4.698508; p = 0.005). Increase in mean VRS technical efficiency from 84% (SD 25.3) in 2011 and 89% (SD 25.1) in 2012 was not statistically significant. Benchmark facilities were #119 and #125 in 2011 and #103 in 2012. Malmquist Productivity Index (MPI) at fixed facilities declined by 2.5% but gained by 4.9% at outreach ones by 2012. Total factor productivity improved by 83% (p = 0.032) in 2012, largely due to progress in technological efficiency by 79% (p = 0.008). Significant improvement in scale technical efficiency among outreach facilities in 2012 was attributable to accelerated activities. However, ongoing pure technical inefficiency requires concerted attention. Technological progress was the key driver of service productivity growth in Nyanza. Incorporating service-quality dimensions and using stepwise-multiple criteria in performance evaluation enhances comprehensiveness and validity. These findings highlight site-level resource use and sources of

  11. Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Scale-Up in Nyanza, Kenya: Evaluating Technical Efficiency and Productivity of Service Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omondi Aduda, Dickens S.; Ouma, Collins; Onyango, Rosebella; Onyango, Mathews; Bertrand, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Background Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) service delivery is complex and resource-intensive. In Kenya’s context there is still paucity of information on resource use vis-à-vis outputs as programs scale up. Knowledge of technical efficiency, productivity and potential sources of constraints is desirable to improve decision-making. Objective To evaluate technical efficiency and productivity of VMMC service delivery in Nyanza in 2011/2012 using data envelopment analysis. Design Comparative process evaluation of facilities providing VMMC in Nyanza in 2011/2012 using output orientated data envelopment analysis. Results Twenty one facilities were evaluated. Only 1 of 7 variables considered (total elapsed operation time) significantly improved from 32.8 minutes (SD 8.8) in 2011 to 30 minutes (SD 6.6) in 2012 (95%CI = 0.0350–5.2488; p = 0.047). Mean scale technical efficiency significantly improved from 91% (SD 19.8) in 2011 to 99% (SD 4.0) in 2012 particularly among outreach compared to fixed service delivery facilities (CI -31.47959–4.698508; p = 0.005). Increase in mean VRS technical efficiency from 84% (SD 25.3) in 2011 and 89% (SD 25.1) in 2012 was not statistically significant. Benchmark facilities were #119 and #125 in 2011 and #103 in 2012. Malmquist Productivity Index (MPI) at fixed facilities declined by 2.5% but gained by 4.9% at outreach ones by 2012. Total factor productivity improved by 83% (p = 0.032) in 2012, largely due to progress in technological efficiency by 79% (p = 0.008). Conclusions Significant improvement in scale technical efficiency among outreach facilities in 2012 was attributable to accelerated activities. However, ongoing pure technical inefficiency requires concerted attention. Technological progress was the key driver of service productivity growth in Nyanza. Incorporating service-quality dimensions and using stepwise-multiple criteria in performance evaluation enhances comprehensiveness and validity. These findings

  12. Preselection test of jury for improvement of olfactometric certification efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godke, Mariana Mota; Stuetz, Richard; Wang, Xinguang; Hoinaski, Leonardo; Guillot, Jean-Michel; de Melo Lisboa, Henrique

    2017-06-01

    To certificate an olfactometric jury, laboratories usually follow up the panelist screening methodology described in the European Standard EN 13725/2003. The procedure takes a lot of time, labour and money. In laboratory routine of LCQAr - Laboratory of Air Quality Control, of Federal University of Santa Catarina, Brazil, it was found that the efficiency of jury approvals used to be as low as around 30%. In order to improve the efficiency, a quick preselection test was proposed and tried for late certification recommended by EN 13725. The methodology to create the preselection test was based on the conceptions of the standards EN 13725 (CEN, 2003), ASTM 679 (2011) and ASTM 544 (2010). In the trial test, 31 volunteers participated and then screened according to the EN13725 standard. It was verified that the efficiency increased to 46% from about 30% after the introduction of the preselection test. The experiments were conducted at LCQAr, with the contribution of Water Research Centre of University of New South Wales, Australia.

  13. Allocative and Technical Efficiency Analysis of Cassava Farming in Bitefa Village, East Miofamo District, Middle North Timor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Wahib Muhaimin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is a food crop with great economic value since its cost is affordable and has been passed down to the generation.  People at Bitefa village are majority a farmer who depends their life on agriculture to meet the needs. Problems faced by farmers in farming cassava at Bitefa village are farming management that is not in accordance with the guidelines and the use of factors of production that is not suitable for the dose recommended. This suggests that the use of factors of production are not efficient. Research objectives are: (1 to analyze the factors that affect the production of cassava, (2 to analyze the level of allocative and technical efficiency, (3 to analyze factors that affect technical inefficiency. The efficient use of factors of production is expected to increase production and income for farmers of cassava. The result obtained using stochastic frontier production function analysis is that the influence of cassava farming real production is the production of land and seeds. Meanwhile, labor, cost factors and the use of manure have no effect on the real production of cassava. The technical efficiency level of cassava farming in the research area is the lowest by 0.80 of which amounted to 0.99. While the level of NPMxPx for land use allocative efficiency is 1 so that the allocation of land use in the area of research has not been efficient. NPMxPx for the use of seed allocation is 1 so that the use of seedlings is also not efficient. Nonformal education influence is real and marked positive effect against inefficiency. Formal education is marked negative but having a real effect against the inefficiency. Farmer's age is marked negative and not real, while the experience and the number of family members are marked positive but having no real effect on the production of cassava.

  14. FAST FLUX TEST FACILITY MONTHLY INFORMAL TECHNICAL PROGRESS REPORT: MARCH 1969

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astley, E. R.

    1969-04-07

    This report was prepared by Battelle-Northwest under Contract No. AT(4S-l)-1830 for the Atomic Energy Commission, Division of Reactor Development and Technology, to summarize technical progress made in the Fast Flux Test Facility Program during March 1969.

  15. FAST FLUX TEST FACILITY MONTHLY INFORMAL TECHNICAL PROGRESS REPORT MAY 1969

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astley, E. R.; Cabell, C. P.

    1969-06-06

    This report was prepared by Battelle-Northwest under Contract No. AT(45-1)-1830 for the Atomic Energy Commission, Division of Reactor Development and Technology, to summarize technical progress made in the Fast Flux Test Facility Program during May 1969 .

  16. FAST FLUX TEST FACILITY MONTHLY INFORMAL TECHNICAL PROGRESS REPORT SEPTEMBER 1969

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astely, E. R.; Cabell, C. P.

    1969-10-07

    This report was prepared by Battelle-Northwest under Contract No. AT(45-1)-1830 for the Atomic Energy Commission, Division of Reactor Development and Technology, to summarize technical progress made in the Fast Flux Test Facility Program during September 1969.

  17. FAST FLUX TEST FACILITY MONTHLY INFORMAL TECHNICAL PROGRESS REPORT FEBRUARY 1969

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astley, E. R.

    1969-03-07

    This report was prepared by Battelle-Northwest under Contract No. AT (45-1)-1830 for the Atomic Energy Commission, Division of Reactor Development and Technology, to summarize technical progress made in the Fast Flux Test Facility Program during February 1969.

  18. Catalysts Efficiency Evaluation by using CC Analysis Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arina Negoitescu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The study emphasizes the necessity of the catalysts efficiency testing. Diagnosis systems using lambda probes are based on the capacity of the catalyst oxygen storage. Comparing the lambda probe signals upstream and downstream of catalyst provides an indication on catalyst activity, although the correlation between oxygen storage capacity and catalyst efficiency is still difficult. Diagnosis for the 1.4 Renault Clio Symbol was accomplished in the Road Vehicles Lab at the Politehnica University of Timisoara using AVL Dicom 4000. The tests showed that the engine worked with lean mixture being necessary a fuel mixture correction calculated by the control unit ECU. A compensation of 0.14 % vol is required for the engine correct operation and emissions integration within permissible limits

  19. Testing market informational efficiency of Constanta port operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roşca, E.; Popa, M.; Ruscă, F.; Burciu, Ş.

    2015-11-01

    The Romanian capital market is still an emergent one. Following the mass- privatization process and the private investments, three of the most important handling and storage companies acting in Constantza Port (OIL Terminal, Comvex and SOCEP) are listed on Romanian Stock Exchange. The paper investigates their evolution on the market, identifying the expected rate of return and the components of the shares risk (specific and systematic). Also, the price evolution could be analyzed through the informational efficiency which instantly reflects the price relevance. The Jarque-Bera normality test regarding the shares return rate distribution and the Fama test for the informational efficiency are completed for each company. The market price model is taken into consideration for price forecasting, computing the return rate auto-correlations. The results are subject of interpretation considering additional managerial and financial information of the companies’ activity.

  20. Testing weak form efficiency on the capital markets in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kršikapa-Rašajski Jovana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Weak-form efficient market hypothesis assumes that participants on the financial markets are not able to achieve above-average returns based on historical prices. In order to establish the presence of a weak-form market efficiency in the Serbian market, the analysis incorporates daily data of the two most prominent indices on the Belgrade Stock Exchange, BELEX 15 and BELEX LINE, since their inception until 31 December 2014. Results obtained by the analysis and testing indicate that the capital market in Serbia can not be considered sufficiently efficient, more precisely it indicates that postulates assumed by the weak-form market efficiency are not fully met. Taking into account that the capital market in Serbia is still underdeveloped, primarily because of the small volumes, turnover and types of securities which are traded on the market, as well as the fact that it is not sufficiently regulated and transparent, lack of investors is noticeable. Consequently, analysis presented in this paper indicates a weak sustainability of the efficient market hypothesis in Serbia.

  1. Efficiency tests on the pyrolysis gasifier stove Peko Pe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents results from water boiling tests on the pyrolysis gasifier stove Peko Pe, which has been developed by the Norwegian Paal Wendelbo. The stove efficiency determined vary between 21 and 29% when burning dry Danish woodchips (10% moisture) with an estimated caloric value of 16 MJ...... the water content in the grass. In Adjumani refugee camp it was furthermore found that the stove was able to provide sufficient energy from solid combustion, after the pyrolysis was stopped, to boil water for additional 25-30 minutes with lid. This effect was not seen in the tests on woodchips in Denmark...

  2. Technical Advisory Team (TAT) report on the rocket sled test accident of October 9, 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stofleth, Jerome H.; Dinallo, Michael Anthony; Medina, Anthony J.

    2009-01-01

    This report summarizes probable causes and contributing factors that led to a rocket motor initiating prematurely while employees were preparing instrumentation for an AIII rocket sled test at SNL/NM, resulting in a Type-B Accident. Originally prepared by the Technical Advisory Team that provided technical assistance to the NNSA's Accident Investigation Board, the report includes analyses of several proposed causes and concludes that the most probable source of power for premature initiation of the rocket motor was the independent battery contained in the HiCap recorder package. The report includes data, evidence, and proposed scenarios to substantiate the analyses.

  3. Gas dynamic design of the pipe line compressor with 90% efficiency. Model test approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galerkin, Y.; Rekstin, A.; Soldatova, K.

    2015-08-01

    Gas dynamic design of the pipe line compressor 32 MW was made for PAO SMPO (Sumy, Ukraine). The technical specification requires compressor efficiency of 90%. The customer offered favorable scheme - single-stage design with console impeller and axial inlet. The authors used the standard optimization methodology of 2D impellers. The original methodology of internal scroll profiling was used to minimize efficiency losses. Radically improved 5th version of the Universal modeling method computer programs was used for precise calculation of expected performances. The customer fulfilled model tests in a 1:2 scale. Tests confirmed the calculated parameters at the design point (maximum efficiency of 90%) and in the whole range of flow rates. As far as the authors know none of compressors have achieved such efficiency. The principles and methods of gas-dynamic design are presented below. The data of the 32 MW compressor presented by the customer in their report at the 16th International Compressor conference (September 2014, Saint- Petersburg) and later transferred to the authors.

  4. How might shadow price restrictions reduce technical efficiency? Evidence from a restricted DEA analysis of coffee farms in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, A.; Shively, Gerald E.

    2010-01-01

    Metadata only record This article analyzes the effect of potential restrictions on the shadow prices of chemical inputs on technical efficiency among smallholder coffee farmers in Vietnam. Population growth and an increase in the amount of land being converted to coffee farms has caused rapid depletion and degradation of natural resources in many regions. In addition, high international prices for coffee and high government incentives have influenced many farmers to switch to coffee produc...

  5. A complementary emissions test for light-duty vehicles: Assessing the technical feasibility of candidate procedures

    OpenAIRE

    WEISS MARTIN; Bonnel, Pierre; HUMMEL RUDOLF; STEININGER Nikolaus

    2012-01-01

    Light-duty diesel vehicles emit on the road substantially more nitrogen oxides than permitted by regulatory emissions standards. The European Commission addresses this problem by developing a complementary emissions test procedure for the type approval and in-service conformity testing of these vehicles. To facilitate the technical development, the European Commission established in January 2011 the Real-Driving Emissions - Light-Duty Vehicles (RDE-LDV) working group that is open to all stake...

  6. Building Efficiency Technologies by Tomorrow’s Engineers and Researchers (BETTER) Capstone. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, Shannon [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2017-09-30

    BETTER Capstone supported 29 student project teams consisting of 155 students over two years in developing transformative building energy efficiency technologies through a capstone design experience. Capstone is the culmination of an undergraduate student’s engineering education. Interdisciplinary teams of students spent a semester designing and prototyping a technological solution for a variety building energy efficiency problems. During this experience students utilized the full design process, including the manufacturing and testing of a prototype solution, as well as publically demonstrating the solution at the Capstone Design Expo. As part of this project, students explored modern manufacturing techniques and gained hands-on experience with these techniques to produce their prototype technologies. This research added to the understanding of the challenges within building technology education and engagement with industry. One goal of the project was to help break the chicken-and-egg problem with getting students to engage more deeply with the building technology industry. It was learned however that this industry is less interested in trying innovative new concept but rather interested in hiring graduates for existing conventional building efforts. While none of the projects yielded commercial success, much individual student growth and learning was accomplished, which is a long-term benefit to the public at large.

  7. A cost and technical efficiency analysis of two alternative models for implementing the basic package of health services in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaakman, Aaron Philip; Salehi, Ahmad Shah; Boitard, Romain

    2014-01-01

    Since 2003, the Afghan Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) and international partners have directed a contracting-out model through which non-governmental organisations (NGOs) deliver the Basic Package of Health Services (BPHS) in 31 of the 34 Afghan provinces. The MoPH also managed health service delivery in three provinces under an alternative initiative entitled Strengthening Mechanisms (SM). In 2011, under the authority of the MoPH and Delegation of the European Union to Afghanistan, EPOS Health Management conducted a cost and technical efficiency study of the contracting-out and SM mechanisms in six provinces to examine economic trade-offs in the provision of the BPHS. The study provides analyses of all resource inputs and primary outputs of the BPHS in the six provinces during 2008 and 2009. The authors examined technical efficiency using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) at the BPHS facility level. Cost analysis results indicate that the weighted average cost per BPHS outpatient visit totalled $3.41 in the SM provinces and $5.39 in the NGO-led provinces in 2009. Furthermore, the data envelopment analyses (DEAs) indicate that facilities in the three NGO-led provinces scored 0.168 points higher on the DEA scale (0-1) than SM facilities. The authors conclude that an approximate 60% increase in costs yielded a 16.8% increase in technical efficiency in the delivery of the BPHS during 2009 in the six provinces.

  8. Recovery Act: Energy Efficiency of Data Networks through Rate Adaptation (EEDNRA) - Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew Andrews; Spyridon Antonakopoulos; Steve Fortune; Andrea Francini; Lisa Zhang

    2011-07-12

    This Concept Definition Study focused on developing a scientific understanding of methods to reduce energy consumption in data networks using rate adaptation. Rate adaptation is a collection of techniques that reduce energy consumption when traffic is light, and only require full energy when traffic is at full provisioned capacity. Rate adaptation is a very promising technique for saving energy: modern data networks are typically operated at average rates well below capacity, but network equipment has not yet been designed to incorporate rate adaptation. The Study concerns packet-switching equipment, routers and switches; such equipment forms the backbone of the modern Internet. The focus of the study is on algorithms and protocols that can be implemented in software or firmware to exploit hardware power-control mechanisms. Hardware power-control mechanisms are widely used in the computer industry, and are beginning to be available for networking equipment as well. Network equipment has different performance requirements than computer equipment because of the very fast rate of packet arrival; hence novel power-control algorithms are required for networking. This study resulted in five published papers, one internal report, and two patent applications, documented below. The specific technical accomplishments are the following: • A model for the power consumption of switching equipment used in service-provider telecommunication networks as a function of operating state, and measured power-consumption values for typical current equipment. • An algorithm for use in a router that adapts packet processing rate and hence power consumption to traffic load while maintaining performance guarantees on delay and throughput. • An algorithm that performs network-wide traffic routing with the objective of minimizing energy consumption, assuming that routers have less-than-ideal rate adaptivity. • An estimate of the potential energy savings in service-provider networks

  9. English Skills for Engineers Required by the English Technical Writing Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyouno, Noboru

    Japanese English education has focused mainly on teaching passive skills such as reading and listening, whereas actual business activities in society require active skills such as writing and speaking in addition to the passive skills. This educational situation is estimated to be a reason Japanese engineers are less confident in writing and speaking than in reading and listening. This paper focuses on details of the English Technical Writing Test provided by the Japan Society of Technical Communication and emphasizes the importance of the active skills, mainly focusing on what skills should be taught in the future and how to develop these skills. This paper also stresses the necessity of learning rhetoric-related skills, concept of information words, as well as paragraph reading and writing skills based on the concept of the 3Cs (Correct, Clear, and Concise) as a means to develop technical writing skills for engineers.

  10. Healthy Efficient New Gas Homes (HENGH) Pilot Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Wanyu R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Maddalena, Randy L [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stratton, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hotchi, Toshifumi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singer, Brett C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sherman, Max H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The Healthy Efficient New Gas Homes (HENGH) is a field study that will collect data on ventilation systems and indoor air quality (IAQ) in new California homes that were built to 2008 Title 24 standards. A pilot test was performed to help inform the most time and cost effective approaches to measuring IAQ in the 100 test homes that will be recruited for this study. Two occupied, single-family detached homes built to 2008 Title 24 participated in the pilot test. One of the test homes uses exhaust-only ventilation provided by a continuous exhaust fan in the laundry room. The other home uses supply air for ventilation. Measurements of IAQ were collected for two weeks. Time-resolved concentrations of particulate matter (PM), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and formaldehyde were measured. Measurements of IAQ also included time-integrated concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), volatile aldehydes, and NO2. Three perfluorocarbon tracers (PFTs) were used to estimate the dilution rate of an indoor emitted air contaminant in the two pilot test homes. Diagnostic tests were performed to measure envelope air leakage, duct leakage, and airflow of range hood, exhaust fans, and clothes dryer vent when accessible. Occupant activities, such as cooking, use of range hood and exhaust fans, were monitored using various data loggers. This document describes results of the pilot test.

  11. Testing the Informational Efficiency on the Romanian Financial Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Murgea

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The classical models of portfolio selection could not be applied on a market were the efficient market hypothesis is not valid (at least in a “weak” sense. The aim of this paper is to enlighten the difficulties of portfolio construction in a financial market with institutional and structural deficiencies, like the Romanian one, and to propose an alternative approach to the problem. The main features of our analysis are: 1 an empirical test for the efficient market hypothesis in the Romanian financial market case; 2 a critical distinction between the concept of “risk” and the concept of “incertitude”; 3 the use of the individual yield/risk ratio versus the market one as a selection variable; 4 the renouncement at the use in the selection procedure of an “non-risky” asset; 5 an example of the proposed selection procedure. The output of this approach could be resumed by the thesis that, even in a situation when the financial market is affected by severe disfunctions, there is a possibility to build an “optimal” portfolio based on a yield-risk arbitrage inside an efficiency frontier and to obtain a “good” schema of an financial placement, in spite of the limited possibilities for a efficient portfolio management.

  12. Testing the Informational Efficiency on the Romanian Financial Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Dima

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The classical models of portfolio selection could not be applied on a market were the efficient market hypothesis is not valid (at least in a "weak" sense. The aim of this paper is to enlighten the difficulties of portfolio construction in a financial market with institutional and structural deficiencies, like the Romanian one, and to propose an alternative approach to the problem. The main features of our analysis are: 1 an empirical test for the efficient market hypothesis in the Romanian financial market case; 2 a critical distinction between the concept of "risk" and the concept of "incertitude"; 3 the use of the individual yield/risk ratio versus the market one as a selection variable; 4 the renouncement at the use in the selection procedure of an "non-risky" asset; 5 an example of the proposed selection procedure. The output of this approach could be resumed by the thesis that, even in a situation when the financial market is affected by severe disfunctions, there is a possibility to build an "optimal" portfolio based on a yield-risk arbitrage inside an efficiency frontier and to obtain a "good" schema of an financial placement, in spite of the limited possibilities for a efficient portfolio management.

  13. In-Plant Testing of High-Efficiency Hydraulic Separators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. H. Luttrell; R. Q. Honaker; R. C. Bratton; T. C. Westerfield; J. N. Kohmuench

    2004-07-20

    The mineral processing industry has commonly utilized hydraulic separators throughout history for classification and gravity concentration of various minerals. More commonly referred to as hindered-bed or fluidized-bed separators, these units make use of differential particle settling rates to segregate particles according to shape, size, and/or density. As with any equipment, there are inefficiencies associated with its operation, which prompted an industry driven research program to further evaluate two novel high-efficiency hindered bed separators. These units, which are commercially called the CrossFlow separator and HydroFloat separator, have the potential to improve performance (separation efficiency and throughput) and reduce operating costs (power consumption, water and reagent usage). This report describes the results of Phase I activities (laboratory and pilot-scale tests) conducted with the CrossFlow and HydroFloat separators at several locations in the minerals and coal industries. Details of the testing programs (equipment setup, shakedown testing and detailed testing) associated with four coal plants and two phosphate plants are summarized in this work. In most of these applications, the high-efficiency units proved to provide a higher quality product at reduced costs when compared against the performance of conventional separators. Based on promising results obtained from Phase I, full-scale prototypes will be purchased by several mining companies for use in Phase II of this project. Two of the prototype units, which will be constructed by Eriez Manufacturing, are expected to be installed by a major U.S. phosphate producer and a large eastern U.S. coal company. Negotiations are also underway to purchase and install additional prototype units by a mineral sands producer and a second phosphate producer. The data obtained from the full-scale evaluations will be used to further promote commercialization and industrial applications of these innovative

  14. Efficient Data Generation and Publication as a Test Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Craig Jakob

    2017-01-01

    A tool to facilitate the generation and publication of test data was created to test the individual components of a command and control system designed to launch spacecraft. Specifically, this tool was built to ensure messages are properly passed between system components. The tool can also be used to test whether the appropriate groups have access (read/write privileges) to the correct messages. The messages passed between system components take the form of unique identifiers with associated values. These identifiers are alphanumeric strings that identify the type of message and the additional parameters that are contained within the message. The values that are passed with the message depend on the identifier. The data generation tool allows for the efficient creation and publication of these messages. A configuration file can be used to set the parameters of the tool and also specify which messages to pass.

  15. Short-Term Test Results. Multifamily Home Energy Efficiency Retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, James [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Multifamily deep energy retrofits (DERs) represent great potential for energy savings, while also providing valuable insights on research-generated efficiency measures, cost-effectiveness metrics, and risk factor strategies for the multifamily housing industry. This report describes the Bay Ridge project, a base scope retrofit with a goal of achieving 30% savings (relative to pre-retrofit), and a DER scope with a goal of 50% savings (relative to pre-retrofit). Findings from the short-term testing at Bay Ridge include air infiltration reductions of greater than 60% in the DER building; a hybrid heat pump system with a Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) > 1 (relative to a high efficiency furnace) which also provides the resident with added incentive for energy savings; and duct leakage reductions of > 60% using an aerosolized duct sealing approach.

  16. Testing the efficiency of the wine market using unit root tests with sharp and smooth breaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elie Bouri

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the efficient market hypothesis for the wine market using a novel unit root test while accounting for sharp shifts and smooth breaks in the monthly data. We find evidence of structural shifts and nonlinearity in the wine indices. Contrary to the results from conventional linear unit root tests, when we account for sharp shifts and smooth breaks, the unit root null for each of the wine indices has been rejected. Overall, our results suggest that the wine market is inefficient when we incorporate breaks. We provide some practical and policy implications of our findings. Keywords: Wine market, Efficiency, Sharp and smooth breaks, Unit root tests

  17. Innovative prospects evaluation as a tool of managerial efficiency increase for complicated technical systems creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorotnikov Vitalii Anatolievich

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with problems of management for the complicated technical systems creation according to the competitiveness criteria. It is proposed to form an analytical apparatus using the expert-analytical tools of project management, technological forecasting, investment planning, innovation management and marketing. The concept of using forecasting innovation component step to assess the competitiveness of the integral index is based on the fact that through the use of patent-innovative parameters can compensate for the lack of technical and economic. The approach, which allows on the basis of conceptual patents of the R&D project to generate indicators of novelty, technological level, the degree of legal protection and linking it with the degree of feasibility in the group indicator of innovative competitiveness. Methodology linking patent-innovation and technical and economic parameters requires a high correlation of their group competitiveness indicators, which in turn leads to a correlation with the integral indicator.

  18. Rethinking Effective Teaching and Learning for the Design of Efficient Curriculum for Technical Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiia Rüütmann

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Technical teachers need to possess skills in at least two distinct areas: engineering discipline and the art of teaching, balancing these two areas, knowing in-action how to do it in real-life situations and for real professional purposes. Understanding student individualities and their different learning styles is one of the midpoints of teacher training. The newly designed curriculum for technical teachers makes scientifically-founded and practice-oriented teacher training possible. The aim of the study programme described is to abolish mismatches between common learning styles and traditional teaching styles. The implementation of the designed curriculum concentrates on interactive lectures and inductive teaching model. Contemporary teaching models and strategies motivate students to learn more effectively, providing future technical teachers with teaching techniques which address all learning styles.

  19. 77 FR 19280 - Increasing Market and Planning Efficiency Through Improved Software; Notice of Technical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... stochastic unit-commitment model is used, how should day-ahead prices be calculated, given that the stochastic formulation no longer produces as part of its solution a single set of deterministic shadow prices... potentially solvable technical problem using existing computational resources if transmission operators...

  20. 78 FR 18974 - Increasing Market and Planning Efficiency Through Improved Software; Notice of Technical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... shadow prices for power at each location? How would a stochastic day-ahead unit commitment mechanism...? If a stochastic unit-commitment model is used, how should day-ahead prices be calculated, given that... potentially solvable technical problem using existing computational resources if transmission operators...

  1. Efficient technical solution for recycling textile materials by manufacturing nonwoven geotextiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, A. L.; Potop, G. L.; Hristian, L.; Manea, L. R.

    2016-08-01

    This paper aims to support the concept "circular economy" that was developed recently. It presents an efficient method for creating a closed loop in the Romanian textile industry by recycling textile materials, such as polyacrylonitrile knitted old products (collected from population) and small polyester woven patches from pre-consumer waste (garments manufacturing companies). Because of their properties, nonwoven geotextiles have many advantages in railways reinforcement, slopes stabilization, erosion control, drainage, filtration, paving roads, crops coverings, etc. The nonwoven geotextiles were obtained from three fibrous blends based on recovered fibers (PES and PAN) and fibers at first usage (PP) in different ratios. All experimental variants were processed on the same manufacturing line with the same technological parameters. There were tested the main physical and mechanical parameters and it was applied single factor ANOVA method for thickness, bulk density, air permeability and static puncture strength. The conclusion is that adding PP fibers in the blends represents a very important factor for geotextiles characteristics but it possible to decrease the ratio from economical reasons and still maintain a high quality level of nonwovens.

  2. Short-Term Test Results: Multifamily Home Energy Efficiency Retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, J.

    2013-01-01

    Multifamily deep energy retrofits (DERs) represent great potential for energy savings, while also providing valuable insights on research-generated efficiency measures, cost-effectiveness metrics, and risk factor strategies for the multifamily housing industry. The Bay Ridge project is comprised of a base scope retrofit with a goal of achieving 30% savings (relative to pre-retrofit), and a DER scope with a goal of 50% savings (relative to pre-retrofit). The base scope has been applied to the entire complex, except for one 12-unit building which underwent the DER scope. Findings from the implementation, commissioning, and short-term testing at Bay Ridge include air infiltration reductions of greater than 60% in the DER building; a hybrid heat pump system with a Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) > 1 (relative to a high efficiency furnace) which also provides the resident with added incentive for energy savings; and duct leakage reductions of > 60% using an aerosolized duct sealing approach. Despite being a moderate rehab instead of a gut rehab, the Bay Ridge DER is currently projected to achieve energy savings ≥ 50% compared to pre-retrofit, and the short-term testing supports this estimate.

  3. Spent fuel test - Climax: technical measurements. Interim report, fiscal year 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick, W.C.; Ballou, L.B.; Butkovich, T.R.

    1982-04-30

    The Spent Fuel Test-Climax (SFT-C) is located 420 m below surface in the Climax granite stock on the Nevada Test Site. Eleven canisters of spent nuclear reactor fuel were emplaced, and six electrical simulators were energized from April to May 1980, initiating the 3- to 5-year-duration test. The SFT-C operational objective of demonstrating the feasibility of packaging, transporting, storing, and retrieving highly radioactive fuel assemblies in a safe and reliable manner has been met. Technical objectives of the test led to development of a technical measurements program, which is the subject of this report. Geotechnical, seismological, and test status data have been recorded on a continuing basis for the first 1-1/2 years of the test on more than 900 channels. Much of the acquired data are now available for analysis and are presented here. Highlights of activities this year include completion of site characterization field work, major modifications to the data acquisition and the management systems, and the addition of instrument evaluation as an explicit objective of the test.

  4. Data Link Test and Analysis System/ATCRBS Transponder Test System Technical Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    This document references material for personnel using or making software changes : to the Data Link Test and Analysis System (DATAS) for Air Traffic Control Radar : Beacon System (ATCRBS) transponder testing and data collection. This is one of : a se...

  5. Journal: Efficient Hydrologic Tracer-Test Design for Tracer ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrological tracer testing is the most reliable diagnostic technique available for the determination of basic hydraulic and geometric parameters necessary for establishing operative solute-transport processes. Tracer-test design can be difficult because of a lack of prior knowledge of the basic hydraulic and geometric parameters desired and the appropriate tracer mass to release. A new efficient hydrologic tracer-test design (EHTD) methodology has been developed to facilitate the design of tracer tests by root determination of the one-dimensional advection-dispersion equation (ADE) using a preset average tracer concentration which provides a theoretical basis for an estimate of necessary tracer mass. The method uses basic measured field parameters (e.g., discharge, distance, cross-sectional area) that are combined in functional relatipnships that descrive solute-transport processes related to flow velocity and time of travel. These initial estimates for time of travel and velocity are then applied to a hypothetical continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) as an analog for the hydrological-flow system to develop initial estimates for tracer concentration, tracer mass, and axial dispersion. Application of the predicted tracer mass with the hydraulic and geometric parameters in the ADE allows for an approximation of initial sample-collection time and subsequent sample-collection frequency where a maximum of 65 samples were determined to be necessary for descri

  6. Final Technical Report on Development of an Economic and Efficient Biodiesel production Process (NC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirla, Cornelia [Univ. of North Carolina, Pembroke, NC (United States); Dooling, Thomas A. [Univ. of North Carolina, Pembroke, NC (United States); Smith, Rachel B. [Univ. of North Carolina, Pembroke, NC (United States); Shi, Xinyan [Univ. of North Carolina, Pembroke, NC (United States); Shahbazi, Abolghasem [North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State Univ., Greensboro, NC (United States)

    2014-03-19

    The Biofuels Team at The University of North Carolina at Pembroke and North Carolina A&T State University carried out a joint research project aimed at developing an efficient process to produce biodiesel. In this project, the team developed and tested various types of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts which could replace the conventionally used soluble potassium hydroxide catalyst which, traditionally, must be separated and disposed of at the end of the process. As a result of this screening, the homogeneous catalyst choline hydroxide was identified as a potential replacement for the traditional catalyst used in this process, potassium hydroxide, due to its decreased corrosiveness and toxicity. A large number of heterogeneous catalysts were produced and tested in order to determine the scaffold, ion type and ion concentration which would produce optimum yield of biodiesel. The catalyst with 12% calcium on Zeolite β was identified as being highly effective and optimal reaction conditions were identified. Furthermore, a packed bed reactor utilizing this type of catalyst was designed, constructed and tested in order to further optimize the process. An economic analysis of the viability of the project showed that the cost of an independent farmer to produce the fuelstock required to produce biodiesel exceeds the cost of petroleum diesel under current conditions and that therefore without incentives, farmers would not be able to benefit economically from producing their own fuel. An educational website on biodiesel production and analysis was produced and a laboratory experiment demonstrating the production of biodiesel was developed and implemented into the Organic Chemistry II laboratory curriculum at UNCP. Five workshops for local farmers and agricultural agents were held in order to inform the broader community about the various fuelstock available, their cultivation and the process and advantages of biodiesel use and production. This project fits both

  7. The Graduate Management Admission Test: Technical Report on Test Development and Score Interpretation for GMAT Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, William B.

    This report provides information on test development, test administration, and score interpretation for the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT). The GMAT, first administered in 1954, provides objective measures of an applicant's abilities for use in admissions decisions by graduate management schools. It is currently composed of five…

  8. Technical Report and Testing Protocol for Commercial Microbiological Amendment Testing and Evaluation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1995-01-01

    .... Given the large number of areas contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons, bioremediation would appear to be a promising cost-effective and efficient technology to use at these sites. Commercial microbial amendments typically are promoted for use at these sites, when often indigenous microorganisms are present and are capable of degrading the contaminants.

  9. Tests and analyses on the laboratory equipment in fuel-fabrication mockup test facility (Technical Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishima, T.; Gunji, Y.; Kikumo, H.; Okamoto, N.; Murakami, T.; Sato, S. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Works

    1998-11-01

    A rotary press has been manufactured for trial use of fabricating nuclear-fuel pellets, which is compact and superior in processing capacity compared to conventional reciprocating presses, and its performance tests were done. Tests include (1) finding out of problems in the equipment maintenance, (2) a comparative test of rotary and reciprocating presses in pellet fabrication, (3) an injection test of dry-recovered fuel powders, and (4) a confirmation test for process holdup of the fuel powders in the equipment. To evaluate the applicability to MOX (uranium and plutonium mixed oxide) fuel fabrication, 0 - 40 weight % of dry-recovered powders obtained from sintered uranium pellets was added to the raw materials of uranium powders to make the pellets. Some recommendations based on the present testing results in designing large scale MOX fuel fabricating machines are given. (S. Ohno)

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ARMY STATIONARY AXLE TEST STAND FOR LUBRICANT EFFICIENCY EVALUATION-PART II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-13

    EFFICIENCY TEST STAND – PART II INTERIM REPORT TFLRF No. 484 by Adam C. Brandt Edwin A. Frame U.S. Army TARDEC Fuels and Lubricants...efficiency test stand to allow for laboratory based investigation of Fuel Efficient Gear Oils (FEGO) and their impact on vehicle efficiency. Development...differentiation of efficiency between tested lubricants was achieved in the low speed/lower load operating conditions of the FTM cycle , while efficiency

  11. Tracer-Test Planning Using the Efficient Hydrologic Tracer ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrological tracer testing is the most reliable diagnostic technique available for establishing flow trajectories and hydrologic connections and for determining basic hydraulic and geometric parameters necessary for establishing operative solute-transport processes. Tracer-test design can be difficult because of a lack of prior knowledge of the basic hydraulic and geometric parameters desired and the appropriate tracer mass to release. A new efficient hydrologic tracer-test design (EHTD) methodology has been developed that combines basic measured field parameters (e.g., discharge, distance, cross-sectional area) in functional relationships that describe solute-transport processes related to flow velocity and time of travel. The new method applies these initial estimates for time of travel and velocity to a hypothetical continuously stirred tank reactor as an analog for the hydrologic flow system to develop initial estimates for tracer concentration and axial dispersion, based on a preset average tracer concentration. Root determination of the one-dimensional advection-dispersion equation (ADE) using the preset average tracer concentration then provides a theoretical basis for an estimate of necessary tracer mass.Application of the predicted tracer mass with the hydraulic and geometric parameters in the ADE allows for an approximation of initial sample-collection time and subsequent sample-collection frequency where a maximum of 65 samples were determined to be

  12. The efficient market hypothesis: problems with interpretations of empirical tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Alajbeg

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite many “refutations” in empirical tests, the efficient market hypothesis (EMH remains the central concept of financial economics. The EMH’s resistance to the results of empirical testing emerges from the fact that the EMH is not a falsifiable theory. Its axiomatic definition shows how asset prices would behave under assumed conditions. Testing for this price behavior does not make much sense as the conditions in the financial markets are much more complex than the simplified conditions of perfect competition, zero transaction costs and free information used in the formulation of the EMH. Some recent developments within the tradition of the adaptive market hypothesis are promising regarding development of a falsifiable theory of price formation in financial markets, but are far from giving assurance that we are approaching a new formulation. The most that can be done in the meantime is to be very cautious while interpreting the empirical evidence that is presented as “testing” the EMH.

  13. RAPID TEST METHOD FOR EVALUATION OF ANTIFREEZE ADDITIVE EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Gushchin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Usage of chemical additives while executing concrete works at negative temperatures is considered as a convenient and economical method. Range of the used antifreeze additives is rather wide. A great number of new additives are advertised but their characteristics have not been practically studied. Evaluation of the antifreeze additive efficiency is unfortunately rather long process and it does not provide comprehensive data on concrete structure formation processes. Due to this development of rapid and comprehensive methodology for construction companies is urgently required.Freezing processes of antifreeze additive aqueous solutions and hardening of cement paste with them have been investigated in the paper. The paper proposes a methodology for determination of freezing point for aqueous solutions of chemical additives of various applications. Identity of  freezing point for a chemical additive aqueous solution and cement paste with an equal concentration of the additive in the paste pore fluid has been determined while taking  calcium nitrate and sodium formate additives as an example. The paper demonstrates the possibility to evaluate efficiency of antifreeze additive action on the basis of kinetics in temperature changes of the cement paste with additives by its consecutive freezing and defrosting.  A methodology for operational evaluation in the field of chemical additive application for concreting items at negative temperatures has been offered in the paper.  The methodology does not require  deficient and expensive test-equipment. It can be applied at ordinary construction companies and it is comprehensible for personnel of low-qualification.  The paper shows the possibility to develop an original methodology for designing concrete structure which is based on operating efficiency determinations  for single and integrated antifreeze additives.

  14. Spent fuel test - Climax: technical measurements. Interim report, Fiscal Year 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick, W.C.; Butkovich, T.R.; Carlson, R.C.; Durham, W.B.; Ganow, H.C.; Hage, G.L.; Majer, E.L.; Montan, D.N.; Nyholm, R.A.; Rector, N.L.

    1984-02-01

    The Spent Fuel Test - Climax (SFT-C) is located 420 m below surface in the Climax stock granite on the Nevada Test Site. The test is being conducted as part of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations. Eleven canisters of spent nuclear reactor fuel were emplaced, and six electrical simulators were energized April-May 1980. The spent-fuel canisters were retrieved and the thermal sources were de-energized in March-April 1983 when test data indicated that test objectives were met during the 3-year storage phase. The SFT-C operational objective of demonstrating the feasibility of packaging, transporting, storing, and retrieving highly radioactive fuel assemblies in a safe and reliable manner has been met. In addition to emplacement and retrieval operations, three exchanges of spent-fuel between the SFT-C and a surface storage facility, conducted during the storage phase, furthered this demonstration. Technical objectives of the test led to development of a technical measurements program, which is the subject of this and three previous interim reports. Geotechnical, seismological, and test status data have been recorded on a continuing basis for the 3-1/2 year duration of the test on more than 900 channels. Data acquisition from the test is now limited to instrumentation calibration and evaluation activities. Data now available for analysis are presented here. Highlights of activities this year include a campaign of in situ stress measurements, mineralogical and petrological studies of pretest core samples, microfracture analyses of laboratory irradiated cores, improved calculations of near-field heat transfer and thermomechanical response during the final months of heating as well as during a six-month cool-down period, metallurgical analyses of selected test components, and further development of the data acquisition and data management systems. 27 references, 68 figures, 10 tables.

  15. Technical Efficiency and Port Competition: Revisiting the Bohai Economic Rim, China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grace Wang; Chen Gao

    2012-01-01

    The Bohai Economic Rim plays an important role in supporting China’s economic growth. For this research, we selected nine main ports in the region to study whether intra-port competition or corporatization would improve efficiency...

  16. R&D, Foreign Technology and Technical Efficiency in Developing Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barasa, L.; Kimuyu, P.; Kinyanjui, B.; Vermeulen, P.A.M.; Knoben, Joris

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between firms’ innovation activities and efficiency in manufacturing firms in developing countries. We examine whether innovation activities including internal research and development (R&D) and adoption of foreign technology have differential effects on

  17. Efficient separations and processing crosscutting program: Develop and test sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bray, L.A.

    1995-09-01

    This report summarizes work performed during FY 1995 under the task {open_quotes}Develop and Test Sorbents,{close_quotes} the purpose of which is to develop high-capacity, selective solid extractants to recover cesium, strontium, and technetium from nuclear wastes. This work is being done for the Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program (ESP), operated by the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Management`s Office of Technology Development. The task is under the direction of staff at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) with key participation from industrial and university staff at 3M, St. Paul, Minnesota; IBC Advanced Technologies, Inc., American Forks, Utah; AlliedSignal, Inc., Des Plaines, Illinois, and Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas. 3M and IBC are responsible for ligand and membrane technology development; AlliedSignal and Texas A&M are developing sodium titanate powders; and PNL is testing the materials developed by the industry/university team members. Major accomplishments for FY 1995 are summarized in this report.

  18. Energy Efficiency in Architecture – a Technical Obstacle or a Chance to Find new Forms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shchepetkov Nikolai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article exposes innovative materials and structures for improving the energy efficiency of lightning in architecture. The problem of architectural energy efficiency and its part – energy saving illumination of rooms and urban environment is very actual in developing countries. This problem can be successfully solved only by a complex of architectural, constructional, electrical and technological measures which will lead to new forms in architecture and lightning design. This article briefly reviews the benefits of light pipes technologies to enhance natural illumination of deep plan buildings.

  19. Technical-and-Economic Efficiency of Draft Enriched with Oxygen in Small-Capacity Heating Boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ratnikov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Data on complex experimental and theoretical investigations pertaining to efficiency of oxygen-enriched draft in the small-capacity heating boilers as exemplified by the plant HEIZA (HW-S-10/K have been presented in the paper. The paper provides a calculation model of heating processes in heat generator burner (as exemplified by HEIZA plant. Simulation of heating processes in the operational zone has been executed in paper. The experimental data have proved model adequacy. The calculation scheme of the plant will be used in future for determination of power and ecological efficiency of draft enrichment with oxygen.

  20. TECHNICAL APPROACH TO THE EFFICIENCY DETERMINATION OF HIGH-SPEED TRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Momot

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this article is to develop an approach and formulate arrangements concerning the definition of the economic appropriateness of high-speed movement implementation in Ukraine. Methodology. The economic feasibility for appropriateness of high-speed movement organization in Ukraine is an investment project, which involves step-by-step money investment into the construction. It will let get an annual profits from the passenger carriage. To solve such problems we use net present value, which UZ or newly created companies can get during the project realization and after its completion. Findings. Obtained studies can state the fact that the technical approach for full effectiveness definition of a construction and high-speed passenger trains service taking into account the cost of infrastructure, rolling stock, the impact of environmental factors, etc. was determined. Originality. We propose a scientific approach to determine the economic effectiveness of the construction and high-speed main lines service. It includes improved principles of defining the passenger traffic, the cost of high-speed rails construction, the number of rolling stock; optimizes income and expenditure calculations in the context of competitive advantages and the external factors impact on the company. A technical approach for the calculation of future traffic volumes along the high-speed line was improved. It differs essentially from the European one proposed by the French firm «SYSTRA», as it allows taking into account additional transit traffic through Ukraine. It helps to distribute the passengers on separate sections proportionally to the number of cities population, which are combined by high-speed main line, subject to the average population mobility, travel time and the coefficient that takes into account the frequency of additional passenger trips on a given section, depending on the purpose (business trip, transfer to a plane, recreation, etc

  1. Technical Considerations for Improvement of USAF Operational Training, Testing and Evaluation (OTT and E)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-06-30

    30 JUNE 1975 q ~TECHNICAL CONSIDERA•TIONS FOR USAF OPERATIONAL TRAIIG TESTING AND EVALUATIO (TT&EI APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE: DISTRIBUTION...of this Report) Approved for Public Release - Distribution Unlimited 17. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of the abstract entered In Block 20, If different...L LJ C9 - aCCa C= co =mp XE 0 a aLa C~= =b & -JA 0’-𔃺 z - -Lai’ = WE w.. _A oMac G = cm - cc0j -0, e 125 The total instrument error is a combination

  2. Use Of Bayesian Networks And Augmented Reality To Reliability Testing Of Complex Technical Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wójcicki Tomasz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology developed to support the tests of reliability of complex technical objects. The presented methodology covers the use of modern information technologies in the form of algorithmic models and effective visualization techniques in the form of augmented reality. The possibility of using a probabilistic Bayesian network. The method of determining the probabilities for specific nodes, and the total probability distribution of graph structures are presented. The structure of the model and its basic functions are shown. The results of the verification work for connecting data processing methods and visualization techniques based on augmented reality are presented.

  3. Technical and allocative efficiency of irrigation water use in the Guanzhong Plain, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Jianjun; Folmer, Henk; Xue, Jianhong

    2015-01-01

    Due to increasing water scarcity, accelerating industrialization and urbanization, efficiency of irrigation water use in Northern China needs urgent improvement. Based on a sample of 347 wheat growers in the Guanzhong Plain, this paper simultaneously estimates a production function, and its

  4. 10 CFR 431.16 - Test procedures for the measurement of energy efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test procedures for the measurement of energy efficiency. 431.16 Section 431.16 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR... Methods of Determining Efficiency § 431.16 Test procedures for the measurement of energy efficiency. For...

  5. Isotope Brayton ground demonstration testing and flight qualification. Volume 1. Technical program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-12-09

    A program is proposed for the ground demonstration, development, and flight qualification of a radioisotope nuclear heated dynamic power system for use on space missions beginning in the 1980's. This type of electrical power system is based upon and combines two aerospace technologies currently under intense development; namely, the MHW isotope heat source and the closed Brayton cycle gas turbine. This power system represents the next generation of reliable, efficient economic electrical power equipment for space, and will be capable of providing 0.5 to 2.0 kW of electric power to a wide variety of spacecraft for earth orbital and interplanetary missions. The immediate design will be based upon the requirements for the Air Force SURVSATCOM mission. The proposal is presented in three volumes plus an Executive Summary. This volume describes the tasks in the technical program.

  6. Efficient testing methodologies for microcameras in a gigapixel imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Seo Ho; Marks, Daniel L.; McLaughlin, Paul O.; Brady, David J.; Kim, Jungsang

    2013-04-01

    Multiscale parallel imaging--based on a monocentric optical design--promises revolutionary advances in diverse imaging applications by enabling high resolution, real-time image capture over a wide field-of-view (FOV), including sport broadcast, wide-field microscopy, astronomy, and security surveillance. Recently demonstrated AWARE-2 is a gigapixel camera consisting of an objective lens and 98 microcameras spherically arranged to capture an image over FOV of 120° by 50°, using computational image processing to form a composite image of 0.96 gigapixels. Since microcameras are capable of individually adjusting exposure, gain, and focus, true parallel imaging is achieved with a high dynamic range. From the integration perspective, manufacturing and verifying consistent quality of microcameras is a key to successful realization of AWARE cameras. We have developed an efficient testing methodology that utilizes a precisely fabricated dot grid chart as a calibration target to extract critical optical properties such as optical distortion, veiling glare index, and modulation transfer function to validate imaging performance of microcameras. This approach utilizes an AWARE objective lens simulator which mimics the actual objective lens but operates with a short object distance, suitable for a laboratory environment. Here we describe the principles of the methodologies developed for AWARE microcameras and discuss the experimental results with our prototype microcameras. Reference Brady, D. J., Gehm, M. E., Stack, R. A., Marks, D. L., Kittle, D. S., Golish, D. R., Vera, E. M., and Feller, S. D., "Multiscale gigapixel photography," Nature 486, 386--389 (2012).

  7. Final Technical Report "Study of Efficiency of Raman Backscattering Amplification in Plasma"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suckewer, Szymon

    2014-03-31

    General : Our major scientific achievements in Raman Backscattering (RBS) amplification and compression of short laser pulses in plasma. The laser system based on RBS steps in where the current technology of chirped pulse amplification (CPA) (extremely successful in developing ultra-short and ultra-intense laser pulses in last 2 decades) becomes difficult and very expensive to apply. Good base for such RBS laser was created by our recent experiments, which were supported by GPS grants. The main objective of the present grant was: improvement efficiency of energy transfer from pump to seed. The results surpassed our expectations; we improved the efficiency of energy transfer from pump to seed by a factor of 6 compared to the best of our previous results and amplified seed pulse compressed down to about 50 fsec.

  8. Analysis of Technical Efficiency of Indian Banking Sector: An Application of Data Envelopment Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipayan Roy

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The proactively evolved banking regulations in the Indian Banking sector under the authorative directive of the Reserve bank of India (RBI has often brought about a change in the business strategy, capital structure and operations of the banks in the Indian banking sector. During these events of continuous change and adoption of Basel norms, we analyse the efficiency of the Indian banking sector with using Data Envelopment Analysis across three economic eras and across  the different ownership structures. The determinants of efficiency are selected on the basis of intermediation approach. We also attempt to identify whether the inefficiency arises from managerial incompetence or improper size and resource allocation. From our analysis, we identify the main cause of inefficiency in the Indian Banking sector to be arising out of improper size allocation..

  9. Retrofitting Vegas: Implementing Energy Efficiency in Two Las Vegas Test Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puttagunta, S.

    2013-04-01

    In 2009, the state of Nevada received nearly forty million dollars in Neighborhood Stabilization Funds from the Department of Housing and Urban Development. The purpose of this funding was to stabilize communities that have suffered from foreclosures and abandonment. In an effort to provide guidance to local officials and maximize how effectively this NSP funding is utilized in retrofitting homes, CARB provided design specifications, energy modeling, and technical support for the Building America Retrofit Alliance (BARA) team and its local partners - Better Building Performance, Nevada Energy Star Partners Green Alliance, and Home Free Nevada - for two retrofit test homes. One home was to demonstrate a modest retrofit and the other a deep energy retrofit. Through this project, CARB has provided two robust solution packages for retrofitting homes built in this region between the 1980s and early 1990s without substantially inconveniencing the occupants. The two test homes, the Carmen and Sierra Hills, demonstrate how cost-effectively energy efficient upgrades can be implemented in the hot, dry climate of the Southwest. In addition, the homes were used as an educational experience for home performance professionals, building trades, remodelers, and the general public. In-field trainings on air-sealing, HVAC upgrades, and insulating were provided to local contractors during the retrofit and BARA documented these retrofits through a series of video presentations, beginning with a site survey and concluding with the finished remodel and test out.

  10. Recovery efficiency test project, Phase 2 activity report. Volume 2, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.

    1989-02-01

    The Recovery Efficiency Test well project addressed a number of technical issues. The primary objective was to determine the increased efficiency of gas recovery of a long horizontal wellbore over that of a vertical wellbore and, more specifically, what improvements can be expected from inducing multiple hydraulic fractures from such a wellbore. This volume contains appendices for: (1) supporting material and procedures for ``data frac`` stimulation of zone 6 using nitrogen and nitrogen foam; (2) supporting material and procedures for stimulation no. 1 nitrogen gas frac on zone no. 1; (3) supporting material and procedures for stimulation no. 2 in zone no. 1 using liquid CO{sub 2}; (4) supporting material and procedures for frac no. 3 on zone no.1 using nitrogen foam and proppant; (5) supporting material and procedures for stimulation no. 4 in zones 2--3 and 4 using nitrogen foam and proppant; (6) supporting materials and procedures for stimulation no. 5 in zones 5 and 8; and (7) fracture diagnostics reports and supporting materials.

  11. Do Water Rights Affect Technical Efficiency and Social Disparities of Crop Production in the Mediterranean? The Spanish Ebro Basin Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Quiroga

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The coming agenda for the European Common Agricultural Policy includes more incentives for the environmental compliance of farmer’s activities. This will be particularly important in the case of water risk management in Mediterranean countries. Among the new challenges is the need to evaluate some of the instruments necessary to comply with the Water Framework Directive requirements that emphasize the management of water demand to achieve the environmental targets. Here we analyze the implications of changing water rights as a policy response to these challenges. We analyze two important aspects of the decision: (i the effects on the crop productivity and efficiency and (ii the effects on the rural income distribution. We provide the empirical estimations for the marginal effects on the two considered aspects. First, we calculate a stochastic frontier production function for five representative crops using historical data to estimate technical efficiency. Second, we use a decomposition of the Gini coefficient to estimate the impact of irrigation rights changes on yield disparity. In our estimates, we consider both bio-physical and socio-economic aspects to conclude that there are long term implications on both efficiency and social disparities. We find disparities in the adaptation strategies depending on the crop and the region analyzed.

  12. [Expansion of HIV counseling and testing strategies: technical challenges and ethical-political tensions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora Cárdenas, Claudia Mercedes; Monteiro, Simone; Moreira, Carlos Otávio Fiúza

    2014-08-01

    Incentives to provide universal access to antiretroviral therapy in order to control the HIV/AIDS epidemic also encouraged the diversification of HIV testing strategies, as demonstrated by the simultaneous existence of Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) and Provider-Initiated HIV Testing and Counseling (PITC). This paper analyzes the concepts, principles and implementation of the VCT and PITC models regarding counseling, confidentiality and informed consent in Brazil and other countries, based on a literature review of works in the Lilacs, Medline, Sociological Abstracts and Cochrane databases published between 2000 and 2013. According to the literature, PITC increases rates of testing in comparison with VCT, but reduces sexual and reproductive rights and the autonomy of users. These findings suggest technical challenges and ethical tensions between the paradigm of exceptionalism and the normalization of HIV testing. The necessity to reconcile increased access to HIV tests with the local capacity to offer comprehensive care for people living with HIV/AIDS is highlighted. It is recommended that interdisciplinary studies about the social effects of VCT and PITC be amplified.

  13. Draft Regulatory Analysis. Technical support document No. 1: energy efficiency standards for consumer products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    A Draft Regulatory Analysis is presented that describes the analyses performed by DOE to arrive at proposed energy efficiency standards for refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes dryers, water heaters, room air conditioners, kitchen ranges and ovens, central air conditioners (cooling only), and furnaces. Standards for dishwashers, television sets, clothes washers, and humidifiers and dehumidifiders are required to be published in the Federal Register no later than December 1981. Standards for central air conditioners (heat pumps) and home heating equipment are to be published in the Federal Register no later than January 1982. Accordingly, these products are not discussed in this Draft Regulatory Analysis.

  14. Evaluating contextual factors affecting the technical efficiency of freshwater pond culture systems in Peninsular Malaysia: A two-stage DEA approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullahi Iliyasu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The demand for animal protein, especially fish, is growing fast, perhaps due to the rapid expansion of populations, increases in income and changes in eating habits and life styles. Capture fisheries, which supply over 70% of the fish for human consumption in Malaysia, are over-exploited or depleted. Their yields have become stagnant over the last few decades and in some cases have even declined. Nevertheless, aquaculture has the potential to meet these challenges if practised well. This study therefore aims to estimate the technical efficiency of pond culture systems using data envelopment analysis (DEA. In addition, it investigates the determinants of technical efficiency by employing an ordinary least squares (OLS regression model. The estimated technical efficiency of pond culture was found to be 0.86, which means that the fish farmers in our sample could reach full technical efficiency through reducing their input usage by 14% with the current level of technology to produce the same output levels. The results of the OLS regression indicate that farmers’ age, experience, extension training and water management have positive and statistically significant impacts on technical efficiency. Information on water management practices could be passed on by extension agents to inefficient farms to assist them in catching up with the farms demonstrating best practice.

  15. International comparisons of the technical efficiency of the hospital sector: panel data analysis of OECD countries using parametric and non-parametric approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varabyova, Yauheniya; Schreyögg, Jonas

    2013-09-01

    There is a growing interest in the cross-country comparisons of the performance of national health care systems. The present work provides a comparison of the technical efficiency of the hospital sector using unbalanced panel data from OECD countries over the period 2000-2009. The estimation of the technical efficiency of the hospital sector is performed using nonparametric data envelopment analysis (DEA) and parametric stochastic frontier analysis (SFA). Internal and external validity of findings is assessed by estimating the Spearman rank correlations between the results obtained in different model specifications. The panel-data analyses using two-step DEA and one-stage SFA show that countries, which have higher health care expenditure per capita, tend to have a more technically efficient hospital sector. Whether the expenditure is financed through private or public sources is not related to the technical efficiency of the hospital sector. On the other hand, the hospital sector in countries with higher income inequality and longer average hospital length of stay is less technically efficient. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Technical and natural conditions and operating efficiency of a municipal stormwater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubala, Tomasz

    2018-01-01

    A decade of observations provided grounds for assessing the operation of one of the few stormwater treatment plants in Poland (system: screens-grit chambers-settler-retention pond) which collects effluents from 471 ha of the city. Among other aspects, the following were evaluated: treatment efficiency, relationship between the quality of treated stormwater and that of waters in the receiving body (the ox-bow lake of the Vistula river), operating stability of key units, significance of the facility for nature. During the assessment, the plant had a positive effect on the quality of stormwater effluents-the content of the analysed pollutants was reduced (more than 80% average efficiency for mineral forms of nitrogen and suspension matter) and oxygen ratios improved (23% increase in the average concentration of dissolved oxygen and more than 50% decrease in 5-day biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand). Although the overall assessment of the facility's operation was good, some omissions and operating errors were noted (method of removing retained pollutants, stormwater flow control). Eliminating them is a prerequisite for maintaining the expected reliability of the system. An effect of stormwater ponds on the increase in biodiversity in the poor urbanised landscape has also been observed. The structures, forming a uniform system along with urban green areas, constitute specific enclaves which attract living organisms.

  17. Technical efficiency and its determinants in garden egg (Solanum spp production in Uyo Metropolis, Akwa Ibom State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselm A. Enete

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzed the technical efficiency and its determinants in garden egg production in Uyo metropolis using stochastic frontier analysis. A cost route approach was adopted in eliciting information from 90 garden egg farmers selected through simple random sampling technique. The results show that all the production variables analyzed were positive and statistically significant except capital. The implication is that the production function was an increasing function. The major determinants of efficiency were identified to be farm size and gender. Smaller farms were found to be more efficient than larger ones. This further supports Schultz’s (1964 hypothesis that small farms in developing countries are poor but efficient, and Mkhabela’s (2005 observation that small farmers are more efficient than large ones. In addition, men were found to be less technically efficient than women, perhaps also because women generally control smaller farm size than men. The results further revealed that the farmers were not fully technically efficient with a mean efficiency of 0.86. The mean efficiency could therefore be improved by 14% through better use of available resources. These observations suggest that providing an enabling environment for urban smallholder farmers and perhaps resource rationalization between men and women could enhance their productivity and hence help in reducing urban poverty.Cette étude analyse l’efficience technique et ses déterminants dans la production d’aubergines dans la métropole d’Uyo au moyen de l’analyse de frontière stochastique. C’est la méthode de l’enquête à visites multiples (cost-route qui a été choisie pour recueillir les informations auprès de 90 producteurs d’aubergines sélectionnés grâce à une technique d'échantillonnage aléatoire simple. Les résultats montrent que toutes les variables de production analysées sont positives et statistiquement significatives, sauf le capital

  18. Improving the reproductive efficiency by zoo-technical methods at a dairy farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, F; Gábor, G; Mézes, M; Váradi, E; Ozsvári, L; Sasser, R G; Abonyi-Tóth, Zs

    2006-04-01

    This trial was conducted on a Hungarian dairy farm between July 2001 and December 2004. The objective of this work was to improve the reproductive efficiency with relatively high milk production. At the beginning of this trial blood and fodder samples were taken for checking the metabolic status of the animals in order to determine their health condition. The nutritive value of the daily ration for all groups met with the requirements of the Hungarian National Standard and almost all serum metabolic parameters differed between the milking and pregnant animals. Early pregnancy detection (by ultrasound) and ovulation synchronizing methods were introduced to optimize reproductive performance. The oestrus cycle was also checked by ultrasound and open cows were treated by the appropriate method in order to inseminate them as soon as possible. Efficiency of artificial insemination (AI) followed by a single prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha) and Ovsynch treatment was similar (30.8% and 29%) and less effective than AI after natural heat detection (37.1%). Provsynch (Pre-synch followed by Ovsynch) was the most effective ovulation synchronization method (conception rate=42.6%; pmilk production increased between 2002 and 2004 by approximately 600 kg per cow, the calving period decreased by 20 days and the number of AIs per pregnancy was also improved (0.8 AI per conception). These findings are really beneficial economically because the decrease in the calving interval returns profit for the dairy farms; one open day costs euro2.5/cow. Economical analysis showed a high profit ratio from the reproductive 'investment' on this farm. Every invested euro yielded approximately euro10.

  19. The concurrent validity of the technical test battery as an indicator of work performance in a telecommunications company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marelize Barnard

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the concurrent validity of the Technical Test Battery (TTB in a South African telecommunications institution. The Technical Test Battery (TTB was administered to a sample of 107 technical officers. Their test scores were compared to the scores obtained from a job performance rating scale specifically designed for this position on the basis of a thorough job analysis. The TTB demonstrated high concurrent validity as an indicator of work performance for technical posts in the telecommunications environment. These results suggest that the TTB may have a high predictive validity for performance in technical positions. The findings and implications of the study are discussed. Opsomming Die doel van hierdie studie was om die samevallende geldigheid van die “Technical Test Battery (TTB�? in ’n Suid-Afrikaanse telekommunikasie instansie te bepaal. Die TTB is op ’n steekproef van 107 tegniese personeel toegepas. Die toetstellings is in verband gebring met die tellings van ’n werksprestasiemaatstaf wat spesifiek vir die pos ontwikkel is op grond van ’n deeglike posanalise. Daar is bevind dat die TTB ’n hoë samevallende geldigheid as aanduider van werksprestasie vir tegniese poste in the telekommunikasiebedryf toon. Dié resultate dui op ’n sterk moontlikheid dat die TTB ’n goeie voorspeller van werksprestasie vir tegniese beroepe kan wees. Die bevindinge en implikasies van die studie word bespreek.

  20. Plutonium immobilization project development and testing technical project office quality assurance program description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gould, T H; MacLean, L M; Ziemba, J M

    1999-07-08

    The Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP) is one of several fissile materials disposition projects managed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (OFMD). The PIP is expected to evolve from the current Development and Testing (D and T) effort, to design, to construction, and finally to operations. Overall management and technical management of the D and T effort resides at the Lead Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), through the LLNL Manager, Fissile Materials Disposition Program (FMDP). Day to day project activities are managed by the D and T Technical Project Office (TPO), which reports to the LLNL Manager, FMDP. The D and T TPO consists of the Technical Manager, the TPO Quality Assurance (QA) Program Manager, and TPO Planning and Support Staff. This Quality Assurance Program Description (QAPD) defines the QA policies and controls that will be implemented by these TPO personnel in their management of D and T activities. This QAPD is consistent with and responsive to the Department of Energy Fissile Materials Disposition Program Quality Assurance Requirements Document (FMDP QARD). As the Project and upper level requirement's documents evolve, this QAPD will be updated as necessary to accurately define and describe the QA Program and Management of the PIP. The TPO has a policy that all development and testing activities be planned, performed and assessed in accordance with its customer's requirements, needs and expectations, and with a commitment to excellence and continuous improvement. The TPO QAPD describes implementation requirements which, when completed, will ensure that the project development and testing activities conform to the appropriate QA requirements. For the program to be effective, the TPO QA Program Manager will ensure that each site participating in D and T activities has developed a QAPD, which meets the customer's requirements, and has a designated quality leader in place

  1. Testing DEA Models of Efficiency in Norwegian Psychiatric Outpatient Clinics

    OpenAIRE

    Kittelsen, Sverre A.C.; Magnussen, Jon

    2009-01-01

    While measures of output in mental health care are even harder to find than in other health care activities, some indicators are available. In modelling productive efficiency the problem is to select the output variables that best reflect the use of resources, in the sense that these variables have a significant impact on measures of efficiency. The paper analyses cross-sectional data on the psychiatric outpatient clinics of Norway using the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) non-parametric effi...

  2. Reducing externalisation: The impact of technical progress and of improved energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cueille, Jean-Philippe; Jourdain, Estelle [Instutute Francais Du Petrole, Ecole Nacionale Superieure du Petrole et des Monteurs Centre Economie et Gestion (France)

    1997-07-01

    The need for mobility of both people and goods is increasing with economic development and the satisfaction of this need is of vital importance to people in many countries. The amounts of pollutants originated for man, such as CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2} and unburned hydrocarbons, generally account for a large proportion of total emissions with local, regional and global consequences. This paper gives some ideas about the technological prospects for energy efficiency and reducing pollutant emissions in Europe. [Spanish] La necesidad para la movilidad tanto de la gente como de bienes esta aumentando con el desarrollo economico y la satisfaccion de esta necesidad es de vital importancia para le gente en muchos paises. La cantidad de contaminantes originados por el hombre tales como el CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2} e hidrocarburos sin quemar, generalmente es la responsable en una gran proporcion del total de las emisiones con consecuencias locales, regionales y globales. Este articulo da algunas ideas acerca de los prospectos tecnologicos para la eficiencia de la energia y la reduccion de las emisiones contaminantes en Europa.

  3. Does integration of HIV and sexual and reproductive health services improve technical efficiency in Kenya and Swaziland? An application of a two-stage semi parametric approach incorporating quality measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obure, Carol Dayo; Jacobs, Rowena; Guinness, Lorna; Mayhew, Susannah; Vassall, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Theoretically, integration of vertically organized services is seen as an important approach to improving the efficiency of health service delivery. However, there is a dearth of evidence on the effect of integration on the technical efficiency of health service delivery. Furthermore, where technical efficiency has been assessed, there have been few attempts to incorporate quality measures within efficiency measurement models particularly in sub-Saharan African settings. This paper investigates the technical efficiency and the determinants of technical efficiency of integrated HIV and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services using data collected from 40 health facilities in Kenya and Swaziland for 2008/2009 and 2010/2011. Incorporating a measure of quality, we estimate the technical efficiency of health facilities and explore the effect of integration and other environmental factors on technical efficiency using a two-stage semi-parametric double bootstrap approach. The empirical results reveal a high degree of inefficiency in the health facilities studied. The mean bias corrected technical efficiency scores taking quality into consideration varied between 22% and 65% depending on the data envelopment analysis (DEA) model specification. The number of additional HIV services in the maternal and child health unit, public ownership and facility type, have a positive and significant effect on technical efficiency. However, number of additional HIV and STI services provided in the same clinical room, proportion of clinical staff to overall staff, proportion of HIV services provided, and rural location had a negative and significant effect on technical efficiency. The low estimates of technical efficiency and mixed effects of the measures of integration on efficiency challenge the notion that integration of HIV and SRH services may substantially improve the technical efficiency of health facilities. The analysis of quality and efficiency as separate dimensions of

  4. Testing the BIO-SEA ballast water management system; Filter efficiency tests with high levels of zooplankton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaag, N.H.B.M.; Sneekes, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    The BIO-SEA® Ballast Water Treatment System (BWTS) was tested at the IMARES land-based test facility. General goal of the tests was to compare two different brands of filter and to test the filter efficiency of finer mesh sizes of each brand. The filters were tested in combination with a ‘one-shot

  5. 76 FR 63211 - Energy Efficiency Program: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ...-0042] RIN 1904-AC53 Energy Efficiency Program: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters, Direct... energy efficiency of electric instantaneous water heaters. c. Storage Water Heaters With Very Large... Approach to Predicting the Energy Efficiency of Residential Water Heaters-- Testing of Gas Tankless and...

  6. Coeur d’Alene Tribe Benewah Market Energy Efficiency Project Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allgood, Tiffany [Coeur d' Alene Tribe, Plummer, ID (United States). Environmental Programs Office, Natural Resources Dept.; Alexie, James [Coeur d' Alene Tribe, Plummer, ID (United States); Nomee, Alfred [Coeur d' Alene Tribe, Plummer, ID (United States)

    2017-12-27

    The Coeur d’Alene Reservation has been the home of the Coeur d’Alene Tribe since time immemorial and it is fitting that the Tribe’s name in the Coeur d’Alene language is schitsu’umsh, “the ones who were found here.” The Reservation is located in northern Idaho, is approximately 345,000 acres and is comprised of forest land, agricultural land, several streams, Coeur d’Alene Lake and the St. Joe River and a small amount of developed land. The project area was conducted within the boundaries of the Coeur d’Alene Reservation. The population of the Reservation is 6,760 (2010 Census). Currently, there are approximately 2,463 enrolled Coeur d’Alene Tribal members (Coeur d’Alene Tribe Enrollment 2016). The Benewah Market is a Tribally-owned and operated facility located at 1111 B St. Plummer, ID 83851. The Benewah Market is an approximately 23,500 square foot single-story structure. The majority of the building is occupied by a grocery store with a full meat department, deli, and bakery. Approximately 20% of the floor area at the northeast corner is occupied by an Ace Hardware retailer. The largest part of the building is approximately 17,000 square feet, is separately metered and houses the grocery store which was constructed in 1984. The market is the largest full service market serving the Coeur d’Alene Reservation and is the only full service market in a 35-mile radius. The Tribe has benefited greatly from the Benewah Market Energy Efficiency Project and will continue to do so for many years: The health and safety of the food has been improved greatly now that the refrigeration and freezer cases are at a constant and safe temperature on a monitoring and alarm system. There is no longer a thaw and freeze cycle that allows fluctuations in temperature. If the power goes out, there is an immediate alarm and contact so that time may be tracked and food kept safe during an outage. The overall annual energy use in the Benewah Market has dropped by 22

  7. The 3 vs 1 game build-up effectiveness examination in physical and technical tests of 11-year-old football players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tóth jr. Janos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: The aim of this study is to prove that young players who have been coached with the main focus on technical ability and player interaction, perform better when tested on physical and technical attributes.

  8. Nearly Efficient Likelihood Ratio Tests for Seasonal Unit Roots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansson, Michael; Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard

    In an important generalization of zero frequency autore- gressive unit root tests, Hylleberg, Engle, Granger, and Yoo (1990) developed regression-based tests for unit roots at the seasonal frequencies in quarterly time series. We develop likelihood ratio tests for seasonal unit roots and show...

  9. An efficient locally asymptotic parametric test in nonlinear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. In this paper we deal with a locally asymptotic stringent test for a general class of nonlinear time series heteroscedastic models. Based on the local asymptotic normality (LAN) property of these models, we propose a scoretyp test statistic for testing hypotheses on the parameters appearing in the mean and variance ...

  10. Spent fuel sabotage test program, characterization of aerosol dispersal : technical review and analysis supplement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durbin, Samuel G.; Lindgren, Eric Richard

    2009-07-01

    This project seeks to provide vital data required to assess the consequences of a terrorist attack on a spent fuel transportation cask. One such attack scenario involves the use of conical shaped charges (CSC), which are capable of damaging a spent fuel transportation cask. In the event of such an attack, the amount of radioactivity that may be released as respirable aerosols is not known with great certainty. Research to date has focused on measuring the aerosol release from single short surrogate fuel rodlets subjected to attack by a small CSC device in various aerosol chamber designs. The last series of three experiments tested surrogate fuel rodlets made with depleted uranium oxide ceramic pellets in a specially designed double chamber aerosol containment apparatus. This robust testing apparatus was designed to prevent any radioactive release and allow high level radioactive waste disposal of the entire apparatus following testing of actual spent fuel rodlets as proposed. DOE and Sandia reviews of the project to date identified a number of issues. The purpose of this supplemental report is to address and document the DOE review comments and to resolve the issues identified in the Sandia technical review.

  11. Biomechanical effects of a 2 suture-pass medial inter-implant mattress on transosseous-equivalent rotator cuff repair and considerations for a "technical efficiency ratio".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Maxwell C; Peterson, Alexander; Patton, John; McGarry, Michelle H; Park, Chong J; Lee, Thay Q

    2014-03-01

    Rotator cuff repair involving fewer tendon suture passes without compromising biomechanical performance would represent a technical advancement. An inter-implant "medial pulley-mattress" transosseous-equivalent (MP-TOE) repair requiring fewer tendon suture-passes was hypothesized to provide equivalent biomechanical characteristics compared to the control. In 6 human cadaveric shoulders, a transosseous-equivalent (TOE) repair (control) was performed utilizing 2 separate medial mattresses resulting in 4 tendon-bridging sutures. In 6 matched-pairs, 2 single-loaded anchors were used to create a medial inter-implant mattress construct (all sutures shuttled in 1 tendon pass per anchor)-after knot-tying, the same tendon-bridging pattern as the control was created. A materials testing machine cyclically loaded each repair from 10-180 N for 30 cycles; each repair subsequently underwent failure testing. Gap and strain were measured with a video digitizing system. A "technical efficiency ratio" (TER) was defined as: (#knots + #suture passes + #suture limbs)/#fixation points. Cyclic and failure testing demonstrated no significant differences between constructs. Gap formation at cycle 30 was 5.3 ± 0.8 mm (TOE) and 5.0 ± 0.3 mm (MP-TOE) (P = .62). Cycle 30 anterior strain values were -16.0 ± 7.3% (TOE) and -15.8 ± 6.6% (MP-TOE) (P = .99). Yield loads were 208.7 ± 2.7 N (TOE) and 204.0 ± 1.3 N (MP-TOE) (P = .17). Mode of failure demonstrated less tendon cut-out with the MP-TOE repair. The MP-TOE repair has a TER of 2.0 vs 2.5 for the control. The MP-TOE repair requiring fewer tendon suture passes, yet creating an additional inter-implant mattress configuration, is biomechanically equivalent to the original TOE technique, and may limit failure with improved medial load-sharing capacity. A TER may help quantify technical ease and help standardize comparisons between repair techniques. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. All rights

  12. Test System for Node Efficiency of Progressive Cavity Pump Based on Wireless Communication Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tingjun Yan; Haoqiang Ti; Xianmin Wu

    2013-01-01

      In order to acquire the data of the energy consumption and operation efficiency of progressive cavity pump wells, a new test system for node efficiency of progressive cavity pump based on wireless...

  13. Spent Fuel Test-Climax: technical measurements data management system description and data presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, R.C.

    1985-08-01

    The Spent Fuel Test-Climax (SFT-C) was located 420 m below surface in the Climax Stock granite on the Nevada Test Site. The test was conducted under the technical direction of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) as part of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) for the US Department of Energy. Eleven canisters of spent nuclear reactor fuel were emplaced, along with six electrical simulators, in April-May 1980. The spent fuel canisters were retrieved and the electrical simulators de-energized in March-April 1983. During the test, just over 1000 MW-hr of thermal energy was deposited in the site, causing temperature changes 100{sup 0}C near the canisters, and about 5{sup 0} in the tunnels. More than 900 channels of geotechnical, seismological, and test status data were recorded on nearly continuous basis for about 3-1/2 years, ending in September 1983. Most geotechnical instrumentation was known to be temperature sensitive, and thus would require temperature compensation before interpretation. Accordingly, a 10-in. reel of digital tape was off-loaded and shipped to Livermore every 4 to 8 weeks, where the data were verified, organized into 45 one-million-word files, and temperature corrected. The purpose of this report is to document the receipt and processing of the data by LLNL Livermore personnel, present facts about the history of the instruments which may be important to the interpretation of the data, present the data themselves in graphical form for each instrument over its operating lifetime, document the forms and locations in which the data will be archived, and offer the data to the geotechnical community for future use in understanding and predicting the effects of the storage of heat-generating waste in hard rocks such as granite.

  14. Efficiency vs. multi-photon contribution test for quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predojević, Ana; Ježek, Miroslav; Huber, Tobias; Jayakumar, Harishankar; Kauten, Thomas; Solomon, Glenn S; Filip, Radim; Weihs, Gregor

    2014-02-24

    The development of linear quantum computing within integrated circuits demands high quality semiconductor single photon sources. In particular, for a reliable single photon source it is not sufficient to have a low multi-photon component, but also to possess high efficiency. We investigate the photon statistics of the emission from a single quantum dot with a method that is able to sensitively detect the trade-off between the efficiency and the multi-photon contribution. Our measurements show, that the light emitted from the quantum dot when it is resonantly excited possess a very low multi-photon content. Additionally, we demonstrated, for the first time, the non-Gaussian nature of the quantum state emitted from a single quantum dot.

  15. Tetrazolium/Formazan Test as an Efficient Method to Determine Fungal Chitosan Antimicrobial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaaban H. Moussa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal chitosan was extracted from Aspergillus niger mycelia. The produced chitosan was characterized with deacetylation degree of 89.2%, a molecular weight of 2.4 × 104 Da, and 96.0% solubility in 1% acetic acid solution. The antibacterial activity of fungal chitosan was evaluated against two foodborne pathogens, that is, Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus, using the established antibacterial assays, for example, zone of growth inhibition and agar plat count tests, and using 2,3,5,-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC as chromogenic marker for qualitative and quantitative determining of antibacterial potentiality. The TTC (0.5% w/v was added, at concentration of 10%, to cultured broth, containing chitosan with different concentrations then the formed formazan was separated. The formation of red formazan could be considered as a qualitative indication for antibacterial activity, whereas the measurement of color intensity for the resuspended red formazan, using spectrophotometer at 480 nm, provided a quantitative evidence for the strength of the used antibacterial agent. Regarding the rapidity, technical simplicity, and cost-effectiveness, TTC assay could be recommended as an efficient alternative method for qualitative and quantitative determination of chitosan antibacterial activity and could be suggested for general evaluation of antibacterial agents.

  16. Lead Coolant Test Facility Technical and Functional Requirements, Conceptual Design, Cost and Construction Schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soli T. Khericha

    2006-09-01

    This report presents preliminary technical and functional requirements (T&FR), thermal hydraulic design and cost estimate for a lead coolant test facility. The purpose of this small scale facility is to simulate lead coolant fast reactor (LFR) coolant flow in an open lattice geometry core using seven electrical rods and liquid lead or lead-bismuth eutectic. Based on review of current world lead or lead-bismuth test facilities and research need listed in the Generation IV Roadmap, five broad areas of requirements of basis are identified: Develop and Demonstrate Prototype Lead/Lead-Bismuth Liquid Metal Flow Loop Develop and Demonstrate Feasibility of Submerged Heat Exchanger Develop and Demonstrate Open-lattice Flow in Electrically Heated Core Develop and Demonstrate Chemistry Control Demonstrate Safe Operation and Provision for Future Testing. These five broad areas are divided into twenty-one (21) specific requirements ranging from coolant temperature to design lifetime. An overview of project engineering requirements, design requirements, QA and environmental requirements are also presented. The purpose of this T&FRs is to focus the lead fast reactor community domestically on the requirements for the next unique state of the art test facility. The facility thermal hydraulic design is based on the maximum simulated core power using seven electrical heater rods of 420 kW; average linear heat generation rate of 300 W/cm. The core inlet temperature for liquid lead or Pb/Bi eutectic is 420oC. The design includes approximately seventy-five data measurements such as pressure, temperature, and flow rates. The preliminary estimated cost of construction of the facility is $3.7M. It is also estimated that the facility will require two years to be constructed and ready for operation.

  17. Technical efficiency of rural primary health care system for diabetes treatment in Iran: a stochastic frontier analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qorbani, Mostafa; Farzadfar, Farshad; Majdzadeh, Reza; Mohammad, Kazem; Motevalian, Abbas

    2017-01-01

    Our aim was to explore the technical efficiency (TE) of the Iranian rural primary healthcare (PHC) system for diabetes treatment coverage rate using the stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) as well as to examine the strength and significance of the effect of human resources density on diabetes treatment. In the SFA model diabetes treatment coverage rate, as a output, is a function of health system inputs (Behvarz worker density, physician density, and rural health center density) and non-health system inputs (urbanization rate, median age of population, and wealth index) as a set of covariates. Data about the rate of self-reported diabetes treatment coverage was obtained from the Non-Communicable Disease Surveillance Survey, data about health system inputs were collected from the health census database and data about non-health system inputs were collected from the census data and household survey. In 2008, rate of diabetes treatment coverage was 67% (95% CI: 63%-71%) nationally, and at the provincial level it varied from 44% to 81%. The TE score at the national level was 87.84%, with considerable variation across provinces (from 59.65% to 98.28%).Among health system and non-health system inputs, only the Behvarz density (per 1000 population)was significantly associated with diabetes treatment coverage (β (95%CI): 0.50 (0.29-0.70), p  < 0.001). Our findings show that although the rural PHC system can considered efficient in diabetes treatment at the national level, a wide variation exists in TE at the provincial level. Because the only variable that is predictor of TE is the Behvarz density, the PHC system may extend the diabetes treatment coverage by using this group of health care workers.

  18. Efficiency of color vision tests in hereditary dyschromatopsia: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Luciene Chaves; Urbano, Lúcia Carvalho de Ventura

    2008-01-01

    As autoras relatam dois casos de discromatopsia hereditária e discutem a eficiência dos testes cromáticos no diagnóstico de uma discromatopsia. Os pacientes foram reprovados em diferentes concursos públicos federais por apresentarem diagnóstico de discromatopsia hereditária pelo teste de Ishihara. Submeteram-se a exame oftalmológico, com resultados dentro da normalidade. Procuraram novo parecer para melhor caracterização da sua discromatopsia. Não havia sintomas relacionados à deficiência. Os...

  19. Transfer of Air Force technical procurement bid set data to small businesses, using CALS and EDI: Test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-08-15

    This report documents a test transfer of three Air Force technical procurement bid sets to one large and twelve small businesses, using the Department of Defense (DoD) Continuous Acquisition and Life-cycle Support (CALS) and ANSI ASC X12 Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) standards. The main goal of the test was to evaluate the effectiveness of using CALS technical data within the context of the DoD`s EDI-based standard approach to electronic commerce in procurement, with particular emphasis on receipt and use of the data by small contractors. Air Force procurement data was provided by the Sacramento Air Logistics Center at McClellan Air Force Base; the manufacturing participants were selected from among McClellan`s ``Blue Ribbon`` contractors, located throughout the US. The test was sponsored by the Air Force CALS Test Network, headquartered at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. The test successfully demonstrated the technical feasibility of including CALS MIL-R-28002 (Raster) engineering data in an EDI Specification/Technical Information transaction set (ANSI ASC X12 841) when issuing electronic requests for quotation to small businesses. In many cases, the data was complete enough for the contractor participant to feel comfortable generating a quote. Lessons learned from the test are being fed back to the CALS and EDI standards organizations, and to future implementors of CALS-EDI based acquisition or contracting systems, which require the transfer of technical information, such as engineering data, manufacturing process data, quality test data, and other product or process data, in the form of a CALS or other digital datafile.

  20. 10 CFR 431.444 - Test procedures for the measurement of energy efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test procedures for the measurement of energy efficiency. 431.444 Section 431.444 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR... procedures for the measurement of energy efficiency. (a) Scope. Pursuant to section 346(b)(1) of EPCA, this...

  1. PFBC HGCU Test Facility. Technical progress report No. 24, Third quarter, CY 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    This is the twenty-fourth and final Technical Progress Report submitted to the Department of Energy (DOE) in connection with the cooperative agreement between the DOE and Ohio Power Company for the Tidd PFBC Hot Gas Clean Up Test Facility. This report covers the work completed during the Third Quarter of CY 1995. All activity this quarter was directed toward the completion of the program final report. A draft copy of the final report was forwarded to DOE during this quarter, and DOE submitted their comments on the report to AEPSC. DOE requested that Westinghouse write an appendix to the report covering the performance of the fail-safe regenerator devices during Tad operation, and Westinghouse subsequently prepared the appendix. Additional DOE comments were incorporated into the report, and it will be issued in camera-ready form by the end of October, 1995, which is the program end date. Appendix 1 presents the results of filter candle posttest examination by Westinghouse performed on selected filter candles following final shutdown of the system.

  2. Performance Testing of a Lightweight, High Efficiency 95 K Cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Lou; Kittel, P.; Kashani, A.; Helvensteijn, B. P. M.; Tward, E.; Arnold, Jim A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Performance data are presented for a flight-like, lightweight, high efficiency pulse tube cryogenic cooler. The cooler has a mass of less than 4.0 kg, and an efficiency of 12 W/W, which is 18% of Carnot at 95 K, nearly double the efficiency of previous cooler designs, The mass of the cooler has been reduced by approximately a factor of three. The design point cooling power is 10 watts at 95 K at a heat rejection temperature of 300 K. The no-load temperature is 45 K. The compressor is built by Hymatic Engineering, UK, and is of a horizontally opposed piston design using flexure bearings. The vertical pulse tube is built by TRW with the heat exchanger or cold block located approximately mid-way along the tube. The final assembly and integration is also performed by TRW. The inertance tube and dead volume are contained within one of the compressor end caps. The cooler was developed by TRW under a joint NASA-DOD program, and has a goal of 10 yr operating lifetime. Potential NASA applications will focus on using coolers of this type in Zero boil off (ZBO) cryogen storage topologies for next generation launch vehicles. Zero boil off systems will feature significant reductions in tank size and Initial Mass to Low Earth Orbit (IMLEO), thereby significantly reducing the cost of access to space, and enabling future missions. The coolers can be used directly in liquid oxygen (LOx) or liquid methane ZBO systems, as shield coolers in liquid hydrogen tanks, or as first stage coolers in two-stage liquid hydrogen (LH2) ZBO cooler systems. Finally, the coolers could find applications in exploration missions where either propellants or breathable oxygen are extracted from the planetary atmosphere using a Sabatier or similar process. The gases could then be liquefied for storage either directly in return vehicle propellant tanks or on the planetary surface. Data presented were taken with the cooler operating in a vacuum of 10 (exp -5) torr, at controlled rejection temperatures from

  3. Analysis of Test Efficiency during Software Development Process

    OpenAIRE

    nair, T. R. GopalaKrishnan; Suma, V.; Tiwari, Pranesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    One of the prerequisites of any organization is an unvarying sustainability in the dynamic and competitive industrial environment. Development of high quality software is therefore an inevitable constraint of any software industry. Defect management being one of the highly influencing factors for the production of high quality software, it is obligatory for the software organizations to orient them towards effective defect management. Since, the time of software evolution, testing is deemed a...

  4. The Author’s Guide To Writing 412th Test Wing Technical Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    message. The author does not need to be overly concerned with the technical editing, grammar , and formatting. The technical editor will do the bulk...of the formatting, editing, grammar , etc. Many authors waste time focusing on font size, formatting, chart and table formats., etc, only to find...Include:  System-specific acronyms and mnemonics  Abbreviated units of measurement  Symbols in tables, figures, and equations (including Greek

  5. Efficiency of Switch-Mode Power Audio Amplifiers - Test Signals and Measurement Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Niels Elkjær; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2016-01-01

    Switch-mode technology is greatly used for audio amplification. This is mainly due to the great efficiency this technology offers. Normally the efficiency of a switch-mode audio amplifier is measured using a sine wave input. However this paper shows that sine waves represent real audio very poorly....... An alternative signal is proposed for test purposes. The efficiency of a switch-mode power audio amplifier is modelled and measured with both sine wave and the proposed test signal as inputs. The results show that the choice of switching devices with low on resistances are unfairly favored when measuring...... the efficiency with sine waves. A 10% efficiency improvement was found for low power outputs. It is therefore of great importance to use proper test signals when measuring the efficiency....

  6. Testing the efficiency market hypothesis for the Colombian stock market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Benjamín Duarte-Duarte

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los supuestos básicos de los modelos de valoración de activos (CAPM y APT, es la eficiencia de los mercados. El presente trabajo busca comprobar este requisito en su forma débil, tanto al Índice General de la Bolsa de Valores de Colombia como a las acciones más representativas del mercado colombiano. Para tal fin se comprueba por diferentes métodos estadísticos que las series bursátiles no siguen el patrón de una distribución normal. Además, al indagar sobre la eficiencia del mercado colombiano, mediante los test de Rachas, BDS, LB y Bartlett, se evidencia no aleatoriedad en los principales activos financieros con excepción de Ecopetrol, mientras que para el IGBC se observa una mejora en la eficiencia del mercado del 2008 a 2010, periodo que coincide con el inicio de la crisis económica mundial.

  7. Are European Equity Style Indexes Mean Reverting? Testing the Validity of the Efficient Market Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Berneburg, Marian

    2004-01-01

    The article tests for a random walk in European equity style indexes. After briefly introducing the efficient market hypothesis, equity styles in general and the used statistical techniques (Variance Ratio Test and modified Rescaled Range Test) it is shown that a random walk in European equity style indexes cannot be rejected. At least in the period since the mid 70s, for which this research has been conducted, the weak form efficient market hypothesis seems to hold.

  8. Predictability of Exchange Rates in Sri Lanka: A Test of the Efficient Market Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Guneratne B Wickremasinghe

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the validity of the weak and semi-strong forms of the efficient market hypothesis (EMH) for the foreign exchange market of Sri Lanka. Monthly exchange rates for four currencies during the floating exchange rate regime were used in the empirical tests. Using a battery of tests, empirical results indicate that the current values of the four exchange rates can be predicted from their past values. Further, the tests of semi-strong form efficiency indicate that exchange rate pa...

  9. Technical protocol for laboratory tests of transformation of veterinary medicinal products and biocides in liquid manures. Version 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreuzig, Robert [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie und Abfallanalytik

    2010-07-15

    The technical protocol under consideration describes a laboratory test method to evaluate the transformation of chemicals in liquid bovine and pig manures under anaerobic conditions and primarily is designed for veterinary medicinal products and biocides. The environmentally relevant entry routes into liquid manures occur via urine and feces of cattle and pigs in stable housings after excretion of veterinary medicinal products as parent compounds or metabolites and after the application of biocides in animal housings. Further entry routes such as solid dung application and direct dung pat deposition by production animals on pasture are not considered by this technical protocol. Thus, this technical protocol focused on the sampling of excrements from cattles and pigs kept in stables and fed under standard nutrition conditions. This approach additionally ensures that excrement samples are operationally free of any contamination by veterinary medicinal products and biocides. After the matrix characterization, reference-manure samples are prepared from the excrement samples by adding tap water to adjust defined dry substance contents typical for bovine or pig manures. This technical protocol comprehends a tiered experimental design in two parts: (a) Sampling of excrements and preparation of reference bovine and pig manures; (b) Testing of anaerobic transformation of chemicals in reference manures.

  10. Recovery Efficiency Test Project: Phase 1, Activity report. Volume 1: Site selection, drill plan preparation, drilling, logging, and coring operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Carden, R.S.; Kirr, J.N.

    1987-04-01

    The recovery Efficiency Test well project addressed a number of technical issues. The primary objective was to determine the increased efficiency gas recovery of a long horizontal wellbore over that of a vertical wellbore and, more specifically, what improvements can be expected from inducing multiple hydraulic fractures from such a wellbore. BDM corporation located, planned, and drilled a long radius turn horizontal well in the Devonian shale Lower Huron section in Wayne County, West Virginia, demonstrating that state-of-the-art technology is capable of drilling such wells. BDM successfully tested drilling, coring, and logging in a horizontal well using air as the circulating medium; conducted reservoir modeling studies to protect flow rates and reserves in advance of drilling operations; observed two phase flow conditions in the wellbore not observed previously; cored a fracture zone which produced gas; observed that fractures in the core and the wellbore were not systematically spaced (varied from 5 to 68 feet in different parts of the wellbore); observed that highest gas show rates reported by the mud logger corresponded to zone with lowest fracture spacing (five feet) or high fracture frequency. Four and one-half inch casting was successfully installed in the borehole and was equipped to isolate the horizontal section into eight (8) zones for future testing and stimulation operations. 6 refs., 48 figs., 10 tabs.

  11. Technical-economic study of energy efficiency in offshore industrial electrical systems; Estudio tecnico economico de eficiencia energetica en sistemas electricos industriales costa afuera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiscal Escalante, Raul [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    In this work the methodology of analysis and the results obtained are presented in an technical-economic study for the application of power efficiency measures for a marine platform. The methodology is considered in the following steps: 1) Technical evaluation of the installation 2) Technical analyses of the optimization alternatives 3) Economic evaluation of the selected optimization alternatives graphs of the thermal regime of the variation with respect to the generation, variation of the efficiency with respect to the generation, efficiency curve of the motor and the designed curve of the pump are presented. A table of general reference parameters and another one of particular reference is given. Also a table of the economic evaluation when changing the electrical motor by one more efficient is presented. It is concluded that a potential of energy saving exists in their processes, generating an opportunity to perform a technical-economic feasibility study in these facilities. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta la metodologia de analisis y los resultados obtenidos en un estudio tecnico-economico para la aplicacion de medidas de eficiencia energetica para una plataforma marina. Se plantea la metodologia en los siguientes pasos: 1) Evaluacion tecnica de la instalacion 2) Analisis tecnico de las alternativas de optimizacion 3) Evaluacion economica de las alternativas de optimizacion seleccionadas. Se muestran graficas de la variacion del regimen termico respecto a la generacion, variacion de la eficiencia respecto a la generacion, curva de eficiencia del motor y curva de diseno de la bomba. Se da una tabla de parametros de referencia generales y otra de referencia particulares. Tambien se presenta una tabla de la evaluacion economica al cambiar el motor electrico por uno mas eficiente. Se concluye que existe un potencial de ahorro de energia en sus procesos, generando una oportunidad para realizar estudios de factibilidad tecnica economica en dichas instalaciones.

  12. Is the Economic andTesting the Efficient Markets Hypothesis on the Romanian Capital Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoș Mînjină

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Informational efficiency of capital markets has been the subject of numerous empirical studies. Intensive research of the field is justified by the important implications of the knowledge of the of informational efficiency level in the financial practice. Empirical studies that have tested the efficient markets hypothesis on the Romanian capital market revealed mostly that this market is not characterised by the weak form of the efficient markets hypothesis. However, recent empirical studies have obtained results for the weak form of the efficient markets hypothesis. The present decline period of the Romanian capital market, recorded on the background of adverse economic developments internally and externally, will be an important test for the continuation of recent positive developments, manifested the level of informational efficiency too.

  13. Task Order 22 – Engineering and Technical Support, Deep Borehole Field Test. AREVA Summary Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denton, Mark A. [AREVA Federal Services, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    2016-01-19

    Under Task Order 22 of the industry Advisory and Assistance Services (A&AS) Contract to the Department of Energy (DOE) DE-NE0000291, AREVA has been tasked with providing assistance with engineering, analysis, cost estimating, and design support of a system for disposal of radioactive wastes in deep boreholes (without the use of radioactive waste). As part of this task order, AREVA was requested, through a letter of technical direction, to evaluate Sandia National Laboratory’s (SNL’s) waste package borehole emplacement system concept recommendation using input from DOE and SNL. This summary review report (SRR) documents this evaluation, with its focus on the primary input document titled: “Deep Borehole Field Test Specifications/M2FT-15SN0817091” Rev. 1 [1], hereafter referred to as the “M2 report.” The M2 report focuses on the conceptual design development for the Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT), mainly the test waste packages (WPs) and the system for demonstrating emplacement and retrieval of those packages in the Field Test Borehole (FTB). This SRR follows the same outline as the M2 report, which allows for easy correlation between AREVA’s review comments, discussion, potential proposed alternatives, and path forward with information established in the M2 report. AREVA’s assessment focused on three primary elements of the M2 report: the conceptual design of the WPs proposed for deep borehole disposal (DBD), the mode of emplacement of the WP into DBD, and the conceptual design of the DBFT. AREVA concurs with the M2 report’s selection of the wireline emplacement mode specifically over the drill-string emplacement mode and generically over alternative emplacement modes. Table 5-1 of this SRR compares the pros and cons of each emplacement mode considered viable for DBD. The primary positive characteristics of the wireline emplacement mode include: (1) considered a mature technology; (2) operations are relatively simple; (3) probability of a

  14. Efficient Testing Combing Design of Experiment and Learn-to-Fly Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Patrick C.; Brandon, Jay M.

    2017-01-01

    Rapid modeling and efficient testing methods are important in a number of aerospace applications. In this study efficient testing strategies were evaluated in a wind tunnel test environment and combined to suggest a promising approach for both ground-based and flight-based experiments. Benefits of using Design of Experiment techniques, well established in scientific, military, and manufacturing applications are evaluated in combination with newly developing methods for global nonlinear modeling. The nonlinear modeling methods, referred to as Learn-to-Fly methods, utilize fuzzy logic and multivariate orthogonal function techniques that have been successfully demonstrated in flight test. The blended approach presented has a focus on experiment design and identifies a sequential testing process with clearly defined completion metrics that produce increased testing efficiency.

  15. A testing-coverage software reliability model considering fault removal efficiency and error generation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Qiuying Li; Hoang Pham

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a software reliability model that considers not only error generation but also fault removal efficiency combined with testing coverage information based on a nonhomogeneous Poisson process (NHPP...

  16. Test methods for on site measurement of resistivity of concrete. A RILEM TC-154 Technical Recommendation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, R.B.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes methods to assess concrete resistivity on site for various purposes related to corrosion and protection of reinforcement. It is based on a first draft of a RILEM Technical Recommendation. The electrical resistivity of concrete can be related to the two processes involved in

  17. Development of a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle: Improving VHTR Efficiency and Testing Material Compatibility - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang H. Oh

    2006-06-01

    Generation IV reactors will need to be intrinsically safe, having a proliferation-resistant fuel cycle and several advantages relative to existing light water reactor (LWR). They, however, must still overcome certain technical issues and the cost barrier before it can be built in the U.S. The establishment of a nuclear power cost goal of 3.3 cents/kWh is desirable in order to compete with fossil combined-cycle, gas turbine power generation. This goal requires approximately a 30 percent reduction in power cost for stateof-the-art nuclear plants. It has been demonstrated that this large cost differential can be overcome only by technology improvements that lead to a combination of better efficiency and more compatible reactor materials. The objectives of this research are (1) to develop a supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle in the secondary power conversion side that can be applied to the Very-High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (VHTR), (2) to improve the plant net efficiency by using the carbon dioxide Brayton cycle, and (3) to test material compatibility at high temperatures and pressures. The reduced volumetric flow rate of carbon dioxide due to higher density compared to helium will reduce compression work, which eventually increase plant net efficiency.

  18. Testing for Efficiency in Selected Developing Foreign Exchange Markets: An Equilibrium-based Approach.

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolaos Giannellis; Athanasios Papadopoulos

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes an alternative way of testing FOREX efficiency for developing countries. The FOREX market will be efficient if fully reflects all available information. If this holds, the actual exchange rate will not deviate significantly from its equilibrium rate. Moreover, the spot rate should deviate from its equilibrium rate by only transitory components (i.e. it should follow a white noise process). This test is applied to three Central & Eastern European Countries – members of the ...

  19. Tracer-Test Planning Using the Efficient Hydrologic Tracer-Test Design (Ehtd) Program (2003)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrological tracer testing is the most reliable diagnostic technique available for establishing flow trajectories and hydrologic connections and for determining basic hydraulic and geometric parameters necessary for establishing operative solute-transport processes. Tracer-test ...

  20. Comparison of Test Procedures and Energy Efficiency Criteria in Selected International Standards & Labeling Programs for Copy Machines, External Power Supplies, LED Displays, Residential Gas Cooktops and Televisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Nina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-03-01

    This report presents a technical review of international minimum energy performance standards (MEPS), voluntary and mandatory energy efficiency labels and test procedures for five products being considered for new or revised MEPS in China: copy machines, external power supply, LED displays, residential gas cooktops and flat-screen televisions. For each product, an overview of the scope of existing international standards and labeling programs, energy values and energy performance metrics and description and detailed summary table of criteria and procedures in major test standards are presented.

  1. The Influence of Acceleration on the Efficiency of Sand Compaction Tests Conducted on a Vibrating Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szajna, Waldemar St.

    2017-03-01

    The paper presents a standard vibrating table for fresh concrete testing adopted for determination of maximum dry density (ρdmax) of sand. Vibration is an efficient method for coarse soil compaction therefore vibrating tables are useful for ρdmax determination. Acceleration that the soil is subject to is one of the basic parameters of efficient compaction. A vibrating table with inertial excitation was supplemented by a frequency converter and subjected to dynamic tests. The results of measurements of dynamic parameters are included. The paper presents problems connected with this method and describes the relationship between efficiency of compaction and accelerations which the soil is subjected to.

  2. Design of efficient and simple interface testing equipment for opto-electric tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiong; Deng, Chao; Tian, Jing; Mao, Yao

    2016-10-01

    Interface testing for opto-electric tracking system is one important work to assure system running performance, aiming to verify the design result of every electronic interface matching the communication protocols or not, by different levels. Opto-electric tracking system nowadays is more complicated, composed of many functional units. Usually, interface testing is executed between units manufactured completely, highly depending on unit design and manufacture progress as well as relative people. As a result, it always takes days or weeks, inefficiently. To solve the problem, this paper promotes an efficient and simple interface testing equipment for opto-electric tracking system, consisting of optional interface circuit card, processor and test program. The hardware cards provide matched hardware interface(s), easily offered from hardware engineer. Automatic code generation technique is imported, providing adaption to new communication protocols. Automatic acquiring items, automatic constructing code architecture and automatic encoding are used to form a new program quickly with adaption. After simple steps, a standard customized new interface testing equipment with matching test program and interface(s) is ready for a waiting-test system in minutes. The efficient and simple interface testing equipment for opto-electric tracking system has worked for many opto-electric tracking system to test entire or part interfaces, reducing test time from days to hours, greatly improving test efficiency, with high software quality and stability, without manual coding. Used as a common tool, the efficient and simple interface testing equipment for opto-electric tracking system promoted by this paper has changed traditional interface testing method and created much higher efficiency.

  3. Reduction and technical simplification of testing protocol for walking based on repeatability analyses: An Interreg IVa pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejc Sarabon

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to define the most appropriate gait measurement protocols to be used in our future studies in the Mobility in Ageing project. A group of young healthy volunteers took part in the study. Each subject carried out a 10-metre walking test at five different speeds (preferred, very slow, very fast, slow, and fast. Each walking speed was repeated three times, making a total of 15 trials which were carried out in a random order. Each trial was simultaneously analysed by three observers using three different technical approaches: a stop watch, photo cells and electronic kinematic dress. In analysing the repeatability of the trials, the results showed that of the five self-selected walking speeds, three of them (preferred, very fast, and very slow had a significantly higher repeatability of the average walking velocity, step length and cadence than the other two speeds. Additionally, the data showed that one of the three technical methods for gait assessment has better metric characteristics than the other two. In conclusion, based on repeatability, technical and organizational simplification, this study helped us to successfully define a simple and reliable walking test to be used in the main study of the project.

  4. Simultaneous intradermal testing with hymenoptera venoms is safe and more efficient than sequential testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmeier, B; Aberer, W; Bokanovic, D; Komericki, P; Sturm, G J

    2013-04-01

    According to current guidelines, skin testing for hymenoptera venom allergy should be performed in a stepwise manner, maintaining 15- to 20-min intervals between the injections of venom. Given the long-winded procedure of sequential skin testing, we retrospectively explored the safety of simultaneous intradermal testing. Four hundred and seventy-eight consecutive patients with a convincing history of an anaphylactic reaction after a hymenoptera sting were tested. All venom concentrations (0.02 ml of 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 μg/ml of honey bee and wasp venom) were administered simultaneously to the skin. Four hundred and seventy-two (98.7%) patients tolerated the simultaneous intradermal test without any side-effects. Only three subjects (0.6%) had a presumed allergic reaction during the test; another three reactions were considered vasovagal. Our skin test protocol with four simultaneously injected concentrations of two hymenoptera venoms is safe and permits the investigator to draw rapid conclusions about the individual's sensitization pattern. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. The improvement of technical preparation of sprinters on the initial stage of sport training

    OpenAIRE

    Maleniuk T.V.

    2010-01-01

    Directions of perfection of technical preparation of sprinters are examined on the initial stage of the sporting training. The basic elements of technique at run are certain 100 meters. The system of criteria of estimation of technical preparedness of sprinters is developed. The certain lacks of technical preparedness are exposed. The method of improvement of technical preparation is developed and its efficiency is tested. The system of criteria of estimation of technical preparedness of spri...

  6. Evaluation of economic and technical efficiency of diesel engines operation on the basis of volume combustion rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. О. Берестовой

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with a new approach to evaluation of complex efficiency of diesel engines. Traditionally, cylinder’s capacity, rotation frequency, average efficient pressure inside cylinder, piston’s stroke, average piston’s velocity, fuel specific consumption and other indices are used as generalizing criteria, characterizing diesel engine’s efficiency, but they do not reflect interrelation between engine’s complex efficiency and a set of economic, mass-dimensional, operational and ecological efficiency. The approach applied in the article makes it possible to reveal the existing and modify the existing methods of solving the problem of improving diesel engine’s efficiency with due regard to interrelation of the parameters, characterizing efficiency of their operation. Statistic analyses were carried out, on the basis of which an assumption regarding the existence of interrelation between specific fuel consumption and the analyzed engine’s parameters was made. Processing of statistical data for various analyzed functions of diesel engines helped offer a function, illustrating the link between volume combustion rate, piston’s area and nominal theoretical specific fuel consumption. Interrelation between volume combustion rate, nominal parameters of diesel operation and efficiency indices, obtained by processing statistical data of more than 500 models of diesels of different series was evaluated, the main feature of it being a mathematical trend. The analysis of the obtained function makes it possible to establish an interrelation between economic efficiency of a diesel, its main index being specific fuel consumption and volume combustion rate and design peculiarities

  7. The Dutch Technical-Tactical Tennis Test (D4T for Talent Identification and Development: Psychometric Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolman Nikki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the test-retest reliability, validity and feasibility of the newly developed Dutch Technical-Tactical Tennis Test (D4T. This new test is relevant for talent identification and development in tennis. Thirty-two youth male tennis players (age 13.4 ± 0.5 were classified as elite (n = 15 or sub-elite (n = 17 according to their position on the national youth ranking list under 15 years (cut-off rank 50 in the Netherlands. Games, rallies and different tactical situations (i.e. offensive, neutral and defensive were simulated with a ball machine. Players had to return 72 balls to predetermined target areas. Stroke quality was recorded based on ball velocity and accuracy (VA-index, as well as percentage errors. Test-retest reliability was assessed by comparing differences between the first and second test-session (n = 10. An intraclass-correlation coefficient of .78 for the VA-index was found (p < .05, indicating excellent test-retest reliability. Independent t-tests revealed that elite players outscored sub-elite players for the VA-index, ball velocity, accuracy and percentage errors (p < .05, supporting good validity. Furthermore, a high correlation was found between the VA-index and individual positions on the youth ranking list (p = -.75; p < .001. The assessment of feasibility indicated that the D4T was applicable for instructors and coaches. In conclusion, the D4T was shown to be a reliable, valid and feasible test to measure technical-tactical characteristics of tennis performance in youth players.

  8. OFSETH: optical fibre embedded into technical textile for healthcare, an efficient way to monitor patient under magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jonckheere, J; Jeanne, M; Grillet, A; Weber, S; Chaud, P; Logier, R; Weber, J L

    2007-01-01

    Healthcare monitoring is a general concern for patients requiring a continuous medical assistance and treatment. In order to increase mobility of such patients, a huge effort is pursued worldwide for the development of wearable monitoring systems able to measure vital physiological parameters such as respiratory movements, cardiac activity, pulse oximetry, temperature of the body [1]. Technical or smart textiles that incorporate different sensors play a growing role in these developments as they are well suited for wearability and can ensure comfort to the user [2, 3]. While most developments up to now have been focused on the use of electrical sensors, the aim of OFSETH [4] is to take advantage of pure optical sensing technologies for extending the capabilities of medical technical textiles for wearable health monitoring. OFSETH expects to achieve a breakthrough in healthcare monitoring applications where standard (non-optical) monitoring techniques show significant limits such as for the monitoring of anesthetized patients under Medical Resonance Imaging (MRI).

  9. The no-arbitrage efficiency test of the OMX Index option market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Ai Jun; Wiktorsson, Magnus; Zhao, RuiZhi

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we test the market efficiency of the OMXS30 Index option market. The market efficiency definition is the absence of arbitrage oppor- tunity in the market. We first check the arbitrage opportunity by examining the boundary conditions and the Put-Call-Parity that must be satisfied...... in the market. Then a variance based efficiency test is performed by establish- ing a risk neutral portfolio and re-balance the initial portfolio in different trading strategies. In order to choose the most appropriate model for option price and hedging strategies, we calibrate several most applied models, i...... that no significant abnormal returns can be obtained in the OMXS30 option market, therefore supporting the market efficiency....

  10. Testing Stock Market Efficiency Using Historical Trading Data and Machine Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Purmonen, Sami; Griffin, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Stock forecasting is a problem that is important in finance because it aids investors in financial decision making. According to the efficient market hypothesis stock markets are efficient in such a way that it's impossible to gain excess returns over the market by making decisions based on current available information. This paper evaluates the usage of machine learning algorithms and historical trading data for stock price prediction combined with investment strategies in order to test the ...

  11. Technical Road Testing of the 18,000 BTU Air Conditioners (Vibration Profile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-27

    equimped with a calibrated fifth wheel driven speedanetr. Instrumented testing was crducted on the Mzso area izproved gravel road, Belgian block, two...item, conducting the test, and acquiring and processing all test data. 1.5 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION Two 50/60 Hz, 3-2hase, 208-volt, 18,000 BTU/hr compact...operationally checked periodically and at the conclusion of the road vibration test. A limited amount of data processing was performed at the test

  12. Chimera-free, high copy number YAC libraries and efficient methods of analysis. Final technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The first experiment involved a low chimera YAC library in recombination deficient host strains. To determine if the genetic background of the yeast host strain contributes to the formation of chimeric YACs the same YAC ligation mixture was introduced into three isogenic yeast hosts differing only in their recombination abilities. To prepare YACs, human genomic DNA was partially digested with EcoR1 and then ligated to YAC vector pCGS966 arms. DNA was size fractionated before and after ligation by preparative pulsed field gel electrophoresis (CHEF), selecting for fragments greater than 400 kb, and introduced into competent spheroplasts. CHEF gel Southern blots of resulting colony-purified YACs were probed with human DNA to determine if multiple YACs or YAC fragments were present in the same cell. The frequency of chimeric YACs was measured by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of YACs to human prometaphase spreads. YACs that hybridized to more than one location were assumed to be chimeric. In the second experiment new YAC vectors featuring tags for capture of YACs and YAC inserts were constructed. Yeast Artificial Chromosomes (YACs) have been of tremendous value in the physical mapping of the human genome. Because they can carry very large inserts, YACs are likely not only to contain entire genes but also their control elements. However, the only mode of purification of YAC DNA from current commonly used YAC libraries such as the CEPH library is by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. This is an inefficient, time consuming process and due to the single copy nature of these YACs, often result in poor yields. The vector pCGS1000 was designed to test new efficient ways of YAC DNA purification.

  13. Efficiency of Software Testing Techniques: A Controlled Experiment Replication and Network Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar S. Gómez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Common approaches to software verification include static testing techniques, such as code reading, and dynamic testing techniques, such as black-box and white-box testing. Objective: With the aim of gaining a~better understanding of software testing techniques, a~controlled experiment replication and the synthesis of previous experiments which examine the efficiency of code reading, black-box and white-box testing techniques were conducted. Method: The replication reported here is composed of four experiments in which instrumented programs were used. Participants randomly applied one of the techniques to one of the instrumented programs. The outcomes were synthesized with seven experiments using the method of network meta-analysis (NMA. Results: No significant differences in the efficiency of the techniques were observed. However, it was discovered the instrumented programs had a~significant effect on the efficiency. The NMA results suggest that the black-box and white-box techniques behave alike; and the efficiency of code reading seems to be sensitive to other factors. Conclusion: Taking into account these findings, the Authors suggest that prior to carrying out software verification activities, software engineers should have a~clear understanding of the software product to be verified; they can apply either black-box or white-box testing techniques as they yield similar defect detection rates.

  14. Considerations for the selection of an applicable energy efficiency test procedure for electric motors in Malaysia: Lessons for other developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanti, P.A.A. [Petronas Carigali Sdn. Bhd. Level 18, Tower 1, Petronas Twin Towers, 50088 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)], E-mail: yanti_padli@petronas.com.my; Mahlia, T.M.I. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)], E-mail: indra@um.edu.my

    2009-09-15

    Electric motors are a major energy-consuming appliance in the industrial sector. According to a survey, electric motors account for more than 70% of the total growth from 1991 to 2004 in electricity consumption in this sector in Malaysia. To reduce electricity consumption, Malaysia should consider resetting the minimum energy efficiency standards for electric motors sometime in the coming year. The first step towards adopting energy efficiency standards is the creation of a procedure for testing and rating equipment. An energy test procedure is the technical foundation for all energy efficiency standards, energy labels and other related programs. The test conditions in the test procedure must represent the conditions of the country. This paper presents the process for the selection of an energy test procedure for electric motors in Malaysia based on the country's conditions and requirements. The adoption of test procedures for electric motors internationally by several countries is also discussed in this paper. Even though the paper only discusses the test procedure for electric motors in Malaysia, the methods can be directly applied in other countries without major modifications.

  15. Collaborative testing for key-term definitions under representative conditions: Efficiency costs and no learning benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissman, Kathryn T; Rawson, Katherine A

    2018-01-01

    Students are expected to learn key-term definitions across many different grade levels and academic disciplines. Thus, investigating ways to promote understanding of key-term definitions is of critical importance for applied purposes. A recent survey showed that learners report engaging in collaborative practice testing when learning key-term definitions, with outcomes also shedding light on the way in which learners report engaging in collaborative testing in real-world contexts (Wissman & Rawson, 2016, Memory, 24, 223-239). However, no research has directly explored the effectiveness of engaging in collaborative testing under representative conditions. Accordingly, the current research evaluates the costs (with respect to efficiency) and the benefits (with respect to learning) of collaborative testing for key-term definitions under representative conditions. In three experiments (ns = 94, 74, 95), learners individually studied key-term definitions and then completed retrieval practice, which occurred either individually or collaboratively (in dyads). Two days later, all learners completed a final individual test. Results from Experiments 1-2 showed a cost (with respect to efficiency) and no benefit (with respect to learning) of engaging in collaborative testing for key-term definitions. Experiment 3 evaluated a theoretical explanation for why collaborative benefits do not emerge under representative conditions. Collectively, outcomes indicate that collaborative testing versus individual testing is less effective and less efficient when learning key-term definitions under representative conditions.

  16. A testing-coverage software reliability model considering fault removal efficiency and error generation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuying Li

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a software reliability model that considers not only error generation but also fault removal efficiency combined with testing coverage information based on a nonhomogeneous Poisson process (NHPP. During the past four decades, many software reliability growth models (SRGMs based on NHPP have been proposed to estimate the software reliability measures, most of which have the same following agreements: 1 it is a common phenomenon that during the testing phase, the fault detection rate always changes; 2 as a result of imperfect debugging, fault removal has been related to a fault re-introduction rate. But there are few SRGMs in the literature that differentiate between fault detection and fault removal, i.e. they seldom consider the imperfect fault removal efficiency. But in practical software developing process, fault removal efficiency cannot always be perfect, i.e. the failures detected might not be removed completely and the original faults might still exist and new faults might be introduced meanwhile, which is referred to as imperfect debugging phenomenon. In this study, a model aiming to incorporate fault introduction rate, fault removal efficiency and testing coverage into software reliability evaluation is developed, using testing coverage to express the fault detection rate and using fault removal efficiency to consider the fault repair. We compare the performance of the proposed model with several existing NHPP SRGMs using three sets of real failure data based on five criteria. The results exhibit that the model can give a better fitting and predictive performance.

  17. A testing-coverage software reliability model considering fault removal efficiency and error generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiuying; Pham, Hoang

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a software reliability model that considers not only error generation but also fault removal efficiency combined with testing coverage information based on a nonhomogeneous Poisson process (NHPP). During the past four decades, many software reliability growth models (SRGMs) based on NHPP have been proposed to estimate the software reliability measures, most of which have the same following agreements: 1) it is a common phenomenon that during the testing phase, the fault detection rate always changes; 2) as a result of imperfect debugging, fault removal has been related to a fault re-introduction rate. But there are few SRGMs in the literature that differentiate between fault detection and fault removal, i.e. they seldom consider the imperfect fault removal efficiency. But in practical software developing process, fault removal efficiency cannot always be perfect, i.e. the failures detected might not be removed completely and the original faults might still exist and new faults might be introduced meanwhile, which is referred to as imperfect debugging phenomenon. In this study, a model aiming to incorporate fault introduction rate, fault removal efficiency and testing coverage into software reliability evaluation is developed, using testing coverage to express the fault detection rate and using fault removal efficiency to consider the fault repair. We compare the performance of the proposed model with several existing NHPP SRGMs using three sets of real failure data based on five criteria. The results exhibit that the model can give a better fitting and predictive performance.

  18. Modern technical solutions of gas-fired heating devices of household and communal use and analysis of their testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodzon, L.; Radwan, W. [Oil Mining and Gas Engineering Institute, Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    A review of technical solutions for gas-fired heating devices for household and communal use in Poland is presented. Based upon the analysis it is stated that the power output of Polish and foreign boilers ranges between 9 and 35 kW. The carbon monoxide content in flue gases reaches (on average) 0.005 vol.%, i.e., it is much lower than the maximum permissible level. Temperature of flue gases (excluding condensation boilers and those with air-tight combustion chamber) ranges between 150 and 200{degrees}C and their heating efficiency reaches 87-93%. The best parameters are given for condensation boilers, however they are still not widespread in Poland for the high cost of the equipment and assembling works. Among the heaters, the most safe are convection devices with closed combustion chamber; their efficiency is also the highest. Thus, it is concluded that a wide spectrum of high efficiency heating devices with good combustion parameters are available. The range of output is sufficient to meet household and communal requirement. They are however - predominantly - units manufactured abroad. It is difficult to formulate the program aimed at the improvement of the technique of heating devices made in Poland, and its implementation is uncertain because the production process is broken up into small handicraft workshops.

  19. Final Technical Resource Confirmation Testing at the Raft River Geothermal Project, Cassia County, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaspey, Douglas J.

    2008-01-30

    Incorporates the results of flow tests for geothermal production and injection wells in the Raft River geothermal field in southern Idaho. Interference testing was also accomplished across the wellfield.

  20. Summary of Technical Meeting To Compare US/French Approaches for Physical Protection Test Beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mack, Thomas Kimball [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Martinez, Ruben [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Thomas, Gerald [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States); Palut, Jean-Michel [French Alternative and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Fontenay Aux Roses (France)

    2016-01-01

    In September 2015, representatives of the US Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration, including test bed professionals from Sandia National Laboratories, and representatives of the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission participated in a one-week workshop to share best practices in design, organization, operations, utilization, improvement, and performance testing of physical protection test beds. The intended workshop outcomes were to (1) share methods of improving respective test bed methodologies and programs and (2) prepare recommendations for standards regarding creating and operating testing facilities for nations new to nuclear operations. At the workshop, the French and American subject matter experts compared best practices as developed at their respective test bed sites; discussed access delay test bed considerations; and presented the limitations/ constraints of physical protection test beds.

  1. Technical manual: operation and equipment instructions for in situ impulse test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-01

    This manual describes the test equipment and procedures for a new field test which determines the shear modulus of a soil deposit at strain levels equivalent to those experienced during actual earthquakes. Results from this test are typically used as input parameters to response analyses for evaluating local soil effects during earthquake shaking. The test employs a cross-hole wave propagation procedure with velocity transducers located in closely spaced adjacent borings. Clear, consistent, and repeatable data in all types of soil and a method of data reduction different from conventional geophysical first arrival techniques are unique aspects of this new test. In addition to describing the principles of the test and data reduction procedures, major discussions of the field procedures are also included. Detailed drilling and testing information is provided both for planning and executing a test program.

  2. An efficient ultrasonic SAFT imaging for pulse-echo immersion testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Hong Wei [Changsha University of Science and Technology, Changsha (China); Jeong, Hyun Jo [Div. of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    An ultrasonic synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) using a root mean square (RMS) velocity model is proposed for pulse-echo immersion testing to improve the computational efficiency. Considering the immersion ultrasonic testing of a steel block as an example, three kinds of imaging were studied (B-Scan, SAFT imaging based on ray tracing technology and RMS velocity). The experimental results show that two kinds of SAFT imaging have almost the same imaging performance, while the efficiency of RMS velocity SAFT imaging is almost 25 times greater than the SAFT based on Snell's law.

  3. Fireworks Assembler (Fireworks) 737.887 -- Technical Report on Standardization of the General Aptitude Test Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  4. Dentist 072.108 -- Technical Report on Standardization of the General Aptitude Test Battery. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  5. Adapting Tests for Use in Different Cultures: Technical Issues and Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambleton, Ronald K.; Bollwark, John

    The validity of results from international assessments depends on the correctness of the test translations. If the tests presented in one language are more or less difficult because of the manner in which they are translated, the validity of any interpretation of the results can be questioned. Many test translation methods exist in the literature,…

  6. Forester Aid (gov. ser.) 441.384--Technical Report on Development of USTES Aptitude Test Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  7. Development of Proposed Standards for Testing Solar Collectors and Thermal Storage Devices. NBS Technical Note 899.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, James E.; And Others

    A study has been made at the National Bureau of Standards of the different techniques that are or could be used for testing solar collectors and thermal storage devices that are used in solar heating and cooling systems. This report reviews the various testing methods and outlines a recommended test procedure, including apparatus and…

  8. Log Scaler (logging; paper & pulp; sawmill) 941.488--Technical Report on USES Aptitude Test Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  9. Steam Reforming, 6-in. Bench-Scale Design and Testing Project -- Technical and Functional Requirements Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Losinski, Sylvester John; Marshall, Douglas William

    2002-08-01

    Feasibility studies and technology development work are currently being performed on several processes to treat radioactive liquids and solids currently stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), located within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). These studies and development work will be used to select a treatment process for treatment of the radioactive liquids and solids to meet treatment milestones of the Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. One process under consideration for treating the radioactive liquids and solids, specifically Sodium-Bearing Waste (SBW) and tank heel solids, is fluid bed steam reforming (FBSR). To support both feasibility and development studies a bench-scale FBSR is being designed and constructed. This report presents the technical and functional requirements, experimental objectives, process flow sheets, and equipment specifications for the bench-scale FBSR.

  10. Low Cost Chemical Feedstocks Using an Improved and Energy Efficient Natural Gas Liquid (NGL) Removal Process, Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Howard, S.; Lu, Yingzhong

    2012-08-10

    The overall objective of this project is to develop a new low-cost and energy efficient Natural Gas Liquid (NGL) recovery process - through a combination of theoretical, bench-scale and pilot-scale testing - so that it could be offered to the natural gas industry for commercialization. The new process, known as the IROA process, is based on U.S. patent No. 6,553,784, which if commercialized, has the potential of achieving substantial energy savings compared to currently used cryogenic technology. When successfully developed, this technology will benefit the petrochemical industry, which uses NGL as feedstocks, and will also benefit other chemical industries that utilize gas-liquid separation and distillation under similar operating conditions. Specific goals and objectives of the overall program include: (i) collecting relevant physical property and Vapor Liquid Equilibrium (VLE) data for the design and evaluation of the new technology, (ii) solving critical R&D issues including the identification of suitable dehydration and NGL absorbing solvents, inhibiting corrosion, and specifying proper packing structure and materials, (iii) designing, construction and operation of bench and pilot-scale units to verify design performance, (iv) computer simulation of the process using commercial software simulation platforms such as Aspen-Plus and HYSYS, and (v) preparation of a commercialization plan and identification of industrial partners that are interested in utilizing the new technology. NGL is a collective term for C2+ hydrocarbons present in the natural gas. Historically, the commercial value of the separated NGL components has been greater than the thermal value of these liquids in the gas. The revenue derived from extracting NGLs is crucial to ensuring the overall profitability of the domestic natural gas production industry and therefore of ensuring a secure and reliable supply in the 48 contiguous states. However, rising natural gas prices have dramatically reduced

  11. Hard rock tunnel boring machine penetration test as an indicator of chipping process efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Villeneuve

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The transition from grinding to chipping can be observed in tunnel boring machine (TBM penetration test data by plotting the penetration rate (distance/revolution against the net cutter thrust (force per cutter over the full range of penetration rates in the test. Correlating penetration test data to the geological and geomechanical characteristics of rock masses through which a penetration test is conducted provides the ability to reveal the efficiency of the chipping process in response to changing geological conditions. Penetration test data can also be used to identify stress-induced tunnel face instability. This research shows that the strength of the rock is an important parameter for controlling how much net cutter thrust is required to transition from grinding to chipping. It also shows that the geological characteristics of a rock will determine how efficient chipping occurs once it has begun. In particular, geological characteristics that lead to efficient fracture propagation, such as fabric and mica contents, will lead to efficient chipping. These findings will enable a better correlation between TBM performance and geological conditions for use in TBM design, as a basis for contractual payments where penetration rate dominates the excavation cycle and in further academic investigations into the TBM excavation process.

  12. A stair-climbing test for measuring mechanical efficiency of ambulation in adults with chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Netta; Loeppky, Jack A; Shaheen, Samira; Al-Jarrah, Muhammed; Molteni, Franco; Hutzler, Yeshayahu; Bar-Haim, Simona

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical efficiency can assess motor performance in individuals with physical disabilities. The purpose was to determine the utility of predicting it from heart rate (HR) during a self-paced stair-climbing test in adults with chronic hemiparesis after stroke and to determine the minimal detectable change of net mechanical efficiency (MEnet) measured by this exercise. First, 15 subjects with chronic hemiparesis participated in a validation study (A) and then 28 took part in a repeatability study (B). In study A the MEnet was calculated from external work and oxygen uptake above rest (dVO2), as directly measured and as predicted from body weight and increase in heart rate (dHR). In study B, predicted dVO2 was used to obtain MEnet for duplicate stair-climbing tests (T1, T2) with >30 min rest between. Measured MEnet was closely related to predicted MEnet (r = 0.97, p climbing test seem sufficiently meaningful to estimate ambulatory ability and its changes with interventions or walking aids in adults with hemiparesis. Ambulatory ability can be estimated from mechanical efficiency, obtained from a 5-min stair-climbing test utilizing a 4-step stair, to measure external work, and the change in heart rate above rest to estimate the metabolic cost of the task. A change of > 0.6% in mechanical efficiency by this stair-climbing test indicates a significant change in ambulatory ability of persons with hemiparesis.

  13. CERN Technical training 2008 - Learning for the LHC: Special Workshop demonstrating reliability with accelerated testing

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Larry Edson’s workshop will show examples of quantitative reliability predictions based upon accelerated testing and demonstrate that reliability testing during the prototyping phase will help ascertain product shortcomings. When these weak points are addressed and the redesigned product is re-tested, the reliability of that product will become much higher. These methodologies successfully used in industry might be exceedingly useful also for component development in particle physics where reliability is of the utmost importance. This training will provide participants with the skills necessary to demonstrate reliability requirements using accelerated testing methods. The workshop will focus on accelerated test design that employs increased stress levels. This approach has the advantage of reducing test time, sample size and test facility resources. The methodologies taught are applicable to all types of stresses, spanning the elec...

  14. CERN Technical training 2008 - Learning for the LHC: Special workshop demonstrating reliability with accelerated testing

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Larry Edson’s workshop will show examples of quantitative reliability predictions based upon accelerated testing and demonstrate that reliability testing during the prototyping phase will help ascertain product shortcomings. When these weak points are addressed and the redesigned product is re-tested, the reliability of that product will become much higher. These methodologies successfully used in industry might be exceedingly useful also for component development in particle physics where reliability is of the utmost importance. This training will provide participants with the skills necessary to demonstrate reliability requirements using accelerated testing methods. The workshop will focus on accelerated test design that employs increased stress levels. This approach has the advantage of reducing test time, sample size and test facility resources. The methodologies taught are applicable to all types of stresses, spanning the elec...

  15. CERN Technical training 2008 - Learning for the LHC: Special Workshop demonstrating reliability with accelerated testing

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Larry Edson’s workshop will show examples of quantitative reliability predictions based upon accelerated testing and demonstrates that reliability testing during the prototyping phase will help ascertain product shortcomings. When these weak points are addressed and the redesigned product is re-tested, the reliability of that product will become much higher. These methodologies successfully used in industry might be exceedingly useful also for component development in particle physics where reliability is of utmost importance. This training will provide participants with the skills necessary to demonstrate reliability requirements using accelerated testing methods. The workshop will focus on accelerated test design that employs increased stress levels. This approach has the advantage of reducing test time, sample size and test facility resources. The methodologies taught are applicable to all types of stresses, spanning the electro...

  16. Efficient Market Hypothesis in South Africa: Evidence from Linear and Nonlinear Unit Root Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Phiri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the weak form efficient market hypothesis (EMH for five generalized stock indices in the Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE using weekly data collected from 31st January 2000 to 16th December 2014. In particular, we test for weak form market efficiency using a battery of linear and nonlinear unit root testing procedures comprising of the classical augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF tests, the two-regime threshold autoregressive (TAR unit root tests described in Enders and Granger (1998 as well as the three-regime unit root tests described in Bec, Salem, and Carrasco (2004. Based on our empirical analysis, we are able to demonstrate that whilst the linear unit root tests advocate for unit roots within the time series, the nonlinear unit root tests suggest that most stock indices are threshold stationary processes. These results bridge two opposing contentions obtained from previous studies by concluding that under a linear framework the JSE stock indices offer support in favour of weak form market efficiency whereas when nonlinearity is accounted for, a majority of the indices violate the weak form EMH.

  17. An Efficient Method for Automatic Generation of Linearly Independent Paths in White-box Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyang Wang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Testing is the one of most significant quality assurance measures for software. It has been shown that the software testing is one of the most critical and important phases in the life cycle of software engineering. In general, software testing takes around 40-60% of the effort, time and cost. Structure-oriented test methods define test cases on the basis of the internal program structures and are widely used. Path-based test is one of the important Structure-oriented test methods during software development. However, there is still lack of automatic and highly efficient tool for generating basic paths in white-box testing. In view of this, an automatic and efficient method for generating basic paths is proposed in this paper. This method firstly transforms the source-code program into corresponding control flow graph (CFG. By modifying the original CFG to a strongly connected graph, a new algorithm (ABPC is designed to automatically construct all basic paths. The ABPC algorithm has computational complexity linear to the number of total edges and nodes in the CFG. Through performance evaluation of many examples, it is shown that the proposed method is correct and scalable to very large test cases. The proposed method can be applied to basis path testing easily.

  18. Deployment Efficiency and Barrier Effectiveness Testing of a Temporary Anti-Personnel (TAP) Barrier System.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, David James [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hedrick, Charles D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Martinez, Ruben [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This report documents tests conducted by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) on behalf of the U.S. Department of State to evaluate a temporary anti-personnel (TAP) barrier system developed by Mitigation Technologies. For this, the SNL Denial and Structural Assessment department developed a test protocol for the evaluation of the TAP barrier system on the basis of deployment efficiency and barrier effectiveness against a riotous/mob attack threat. The test protocol was then executed by SNL personnel and the results of the testing are documented.

  19. Assessment of the Technical Maturity of Generation IV Concepts for Test or Demonstration Reactor Applications, Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gougar, Hans David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) commissioned a study the suitability of different advanced reactor concepts to support materials irradiations (i.e. a test reactor) or to demonstrate an advanced power plant/fuel cycle concept (demonstration reactor). As part of the study, an assessment of the technical maturity of the individual concepts was undertaken to see which, if any, can support near-term deployment. A Working Group composed of the authors of this document performed the maturity assessment using the Technical Readiness Levels as defined in DOE’s Technology Readiness Guide . One representative design was selected for assessment from of each of the six Generation-IV reactor types: gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR), lead-cooled fast reactor (LFR), molten salt reactor (MSR), supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR), sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR), and very high temperature reactor (VHTR). Background information was obtained from previous detailed evaluations such as the Generation-IV Roadmap but other technical references were also used including consultations with concept proponents and subject matter experts. Outside of Generation IV activity in which the US is a party, non-U.S. experience or data sources were generally not factored into the evaluations as one cannot assume that this data is easily available or of sufficient quality to be used for licensing a US facility. The Working Group established the scope of the assessment (which systems and subsystems needed to be considered), adapted a specific technology readiness scale, and scored each system through discussions designed to achieve internal consistency across concepts. In general, the Working Group sought to determine which of the reactor options have sufficient maturity to serve either the test or demonstration reactor missions.

  20. Examining the Islamic stock market efficiency: Evidence from nonlinear ESTAR unit root tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmat Heru Setianto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically examines the efficient market hypothesis (EMH in the Islamic stock market namely Jakarta Islamic Index by emphasizing on the random walk behavior and nonlinearity. In the first step, we employ Brock et al. (1996 test to examine the presence of nonlinear behavior in Jakarta Islamic Index. The evidence of nonlinear behavior in the indices, motivate us to use nonlinear ESTAR unit root test procedure recently developed by Kapetanios et al. (2003 and Kruse (2011. The nonlinear unit root test procedure fail to rejects the null hypothesis of unit root for the indices, suggesting that Jakarta Islamic Index characterized by random walk process supporting the theory of efficient market hypothesis. In addition, Lumsdaine and Papel (LP test identified significant structural breaks in the index series.

  1. Testing the Week Form Efficiency of Pakistani Stock Market (2000-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Haque

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This empirical paper tests out the weak form efficiency of Pakistani stock market by examining the weekly index over the period . Return series has a leptokurtic and negatively skewed distribution, which is away from normal distribution as reflected by significant Jarque-Bera statistic. Estimated results of ADF (1979, PP (1988 and KPSS (1992 tests, Ljung-Box Q-Statistic of autocorrelations and runs test of randomness reject the Random Walk Hypothesis (RWH for the returns series. Moreover the results of variance ratio test (Lo and MacKinlay (1988 also reject the RWH and prove the robustness of other estimated results. The rejection of RWH reveals that the Pakistani stock prices are not Weak Form Efficient.

  2. Comparative determination of ventilatory efficiency from constant load and incremental exercise testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algul, S; Ugur, F A; Ayar, A; Ozcelik, O

    2017-08-15

    The analysis of the relationships between minute ventilation (VE) to CO2 output (VCO2), referred to as ventilatory efficiency, in response to incremental exercise testing, is considered a useful index for assessing the presence and severity of cardiopulmonary and metabolic diseases. The effects of constant load exercise testing performed at work intensity associated with anaerobic threshold (AT) and respiratory compensation points (RCP), on the accurate measurements of ventilatory efficiency are not well known. The aim of this present study was to investigate the reliability of the VE/VCO2 ratio obtained from constant load exercise tests performed with two important metabolic rates (at the AT and RCP) and compare it to that of those of incremental exercise tests. A total of 20 young male (20.8±0.4 yr) subjects initially performed an incremental exercise test and then two constant load exercise tests, on different days. Respiratory and pulmonary gas exchange variables were used to estimate AT and RCP. A paired t-test was used to analyse data. AT and RCP (average) occurred the at 60% and at 71% of peak O2 uptake, respectively. The lowest VE/VCO2 ratio recorded within the first 2 minutes of constant load exercise tests with a work load of AT (26.4±0.3) and RCP (26.7±0.5) was not statistically different from the lowest ratio obtained from the incremental exercise tests (26.0±0.7). In the constant load exercise test, despite the different metabolic rates, the increase in ventilation corresponded closely with the increase in CO2 production, reflecting an optimal ventilation and perfusion ratio. Clinicians should consider the constant load exercise test work load associated with AT and RCP as it provides a meaningful lowest value for ventilatory efficiency.

  3. The determinants of technical efficiency of a large scale HIV prevention project: application of the DEA double bootstrap using panel data from the Indian Avahan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lépine, Aurélia; Vassall, Anna; Chandrashekar, Sudhashree

    2015-01-01

    In 2004, the largest HIV prevention project (Avahan) conducted globally was implemented in India. Avahan was implemented by NGOs supported by state lead partners in order to provide HIV prevention services to high-risk population groups. In 2007, most of the NGOs reached full coverage. Using a panel data set of the NGOs that implemented Avahan, we investigate the level of technical efficiency as well as the drivers of technical inefficiency by using the double bootstrap procedure developed by Simar & Wilson (2007). Unlike the two-stage traditional method, this method allows valid inference in the presence of measurement error and serial correlation. We find that over the 4 years, Avahan NGOs could have reduced the level of inputs by 43% given the level of outputs reached. We find that efficiency of the project has increased over time. Results indicate that main drivers of inefficiency come from the characteristics of the state lead partner, the NGOs and the catchment area. These organisational factors are important to explicitly consider and assess when designing and implementing HIV prevention programmes and in setting benchmarks in order to optimise the use and allocation of resources. C14, I1.

  4. Canada; Financial Sector Assessment Program-Stress Testing-Technical Note

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the stress testing module of the 2013 Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) update for Canada. The IMF report highlights the three major segments of the domestic financial covered during the stress tests. The bank solvency stress tests suggest that while all banks would fall below the Canadian “all-in” Common Equity Tier 1 (CET1) supervisory threshold during severe economic distress, the resulting recapitalization needs are manageable. This IMF report provides recomme...

  5. Technical Progress Report on Single Pass Flow Through Tests of Ceramic Waste Forms for Plutonium Immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, P; Roberts, S; Bourcier, W

    2000-12-01

    This report updates work on measurements of the dissolution rates of single-phase and multi-phase ceramic waste forms in flow-through reactors at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Previous results were reported in Bourcier (1999). Two types of tests are in progress: (1) tests of baseline pyrochlore-based multiphase ceramics; and (2) tests of single-phase pyrochlore, zirconolite, and brannerite (the three phases that will contain most of the actinides). Tests of the multi-phase material are all being run at 25 C. The single-phase tests are being run at 25, 50, and 75 C. All tests are being performed at ambient pressure. The as-made bulk compositions of the ceramics are given in Table 1. The single pass flow-through test procedure [Knauss, 1986 No.140] allows the powdered ceramic to react with pH buffer solutions traveling upward vertically through the powder. Gentle rocking during the course of the experiment keeps the powder suspended and avoids clumping, and allows the system to behave as a continuously stirred reactor. For each test, a cell is loaded with approximately one gram of the appropriate size fraction of powdered ceramic and reacted with a buffer solution of the desired pH. The buffer solution compositions are given in Table 2. All the ceramics tested were cold pressed and sintered at 1350 C in air, except brannerite, which was sintered at 1350 C in a CO/CO{sub 2} gas mixture. They were then crushed, sieved, rinsed repeatedly in alcohol and distilled water, and the desired particle size fraction collected for the single pass flow-through tests (SPFT). The surface area of the ceramics measured by BET ranged from 0.1-0.35 m{sup 2}/g. The measured surface area values, average particle size, and sample weights for each ceramic test are given in the Appendices.

  6. The efficiency of the crude oil markets. Evidence from variance ratio tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles, Amelie [Audencia Nantes, School of Management, 8 route de la Joneliere, 44312 Nantes (France); Darne, Olivier [LEMNA, University of Nantes, IEMN-IAE, Chemin de la Censive du Tertre, 44322 Nantes (France)

    2009-11-15

    This study examines the random walk hypothesis for the crude oil markets, using daily data over the period 1982-2008. The weak-form efficient market hypothesis for two crude oil markets (UK Brent and US West Texas Intermediate) is tested with non-parametric variance ratio tests developed by [Wright J.H., 2000. Alternative variance-ratio tests using ranks and signs. Journal of Business and Economic Statistics, 18, 1-9] and [Belaire-Franch J. and Contreras D., 2004. Ranks and signs-based multiple variance ratio tests. Working paper, Department of Economic Analysis, University of Valencia] as well as the wild-bootstrap variance ratio tests suggested by [Kim, J.H., 2006. Wild bootstrapping variance ratio tests. Economics Letters, 92, 38-43]. We find that the Brent crude oil market is weak-form efficiency while the WTI crude oil market seems to be inefficiency on the 1994-2008 sub-period, suggesting that the deregulation have not improved the efficiency on the WTI crude oil market in the sense of making returns less predictable. (author)

  7. The efficiency of the crude oil markets: Evidence from variance ratio tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles, Amelie, E-mail: acharles@audencia.co [Audencia Nantes, School of Management, 8 route de la Joneliere, 44312 Nantes (France); Darne, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.darne@univ-nantes.f [LEMNA, University of Nantes, IEMN-IAE, Chemin de la Censive du Tertre, 44322 Nantes (France)

    2009-11-15

    This study examines the random walk hypothesis for the crude oil markets, using daily data over the period 1982-2008. The weak-form efficient market hypothesis for two crude oil markets (UK Brent and US West Texas Intermediate) is tested with non-parametric variance ratio tests developed by [Wright J.H., 2000. Alternative variance-ratio tests using ranks and signs. Journal of Business and Economic Statistics, 18, 1-9] and [Belaire-Franch J. and Contreras D., 2004. Ranks and signs-based multiple variance ratio tests. Working paper, Department of Economic Analysis, University of Valencia] as well as the wild-bootstrap variance ratio tests suggested by [Kim, J.H., 2006. Wild bootstrapping variance ratio tests. Economics Letters, 92, 38-43]. We find that the Brent crude oil market is weak-form efficiency while the WTI crude oil market seems to be inefficiency on the 1994-2008 sub-period, suggesting that the deregulation have not improved the efficiency on the WTI crude oil market in the sense of making returns less predictable.

  8. Taylor-Made Education: The Influence of the Efficiency Movement on the Testing of Reading Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, JoBeth

    Much of what has developed in the testing of reading harkens back to the days of the "Cult of Efficiency" movement in education that can be largely attributed to Frederick Winslow Taylor. Taylor spent most of his productive years studying time and motion in an attempt to streamline industrial production so that people could work as…

  9. Lextale-Esp: A Test to Rapidly and Efficiently Assess the Spanish Vocabulary Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izura, Cristina; Cuetos, Fernando; Brysbaert, Marc

    2014-01-01

    The methods to measure vocabulary size vary across disciplines. This heterogeneity hinders direct comparisons between studies and slows down the understanding of research findings. A quick, free and efficient test of English language proficiency, LexTALE, was recently developed to remedy this problem. LexTALE has been validated and shown to be an…

  10. State Anxiety and Working Memory in Children: A Test of Processing Efficiency Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadwin, Julie A.; Brogan, Joanna; Stevenson, Jim

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of individual differences in state anxiety on tasks tapping the central executive, phonological, and visuo-spatial components of working memory (WM). It was designed to test Eysenck and Calvo's processing efficiency theory (PET) which suggests that the phonological and executive components of WM may be important…

  11. Technical-Environmental-Economical Evaluation of the Implementation of a Highly Efficient District Heating System in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lipeng

    Over the past 30 years, China has experienced unprecedented urbanization, modernization, and economic development. In the last two decades, China has become one of the largest DH markets in the world, with a total DH production in 2013 amounting to 3,197,032 TJ. This number is still increasing...... and transfer state-of-the-art DH technologies to China and thus improve efficiency, economic operation, and environment protection in Chinese DH systems. There were three sub- hypotheses in this research. The first two sub-hypotheses focused on SH systems to improve the efficiency of Chinese DH systems...... without TRV control. Furthermore, the use of TRV enables a constant room temperature and changes the system from constant flow to variable flow. The third hypothesis was that the efficiency of China’s district heating systems could be improved by changing the current situation with regard to domestic hot...

  12. 10 CFR 431.106 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial water heaters and hot...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... heaters). 431.106 Section 431.106 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY... of energy efficiency of commercial water heaters and hot water supply boilers (other than commercial...) Testing and Calculations. Determine the energy efficiency of each covered product by conducting the test...

  13. Fabrication, assembly, bench and drilling tests of two prototype downhole pneumatic turbine motors: Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bookwalter, R.; Duettra, P.D.; Johnson, P.; Lyons, W.C.; Miska, S.

    1987-04-01

    The first and second prototype downhole pneumatic turbine motors have been fabricated, assembled and tested. All bench tests showed that the motor will produce horsepower and bit speeds approximating the predicted values. Specifically, the downhole pneumatic turbine motor produced approximately 50 horsepower at 100 rpm, while being supplied with about 3600 SCFM of compressed air. The first prototype was used in a drilling test from a depth of 389 feet to a depth of 789 feet in the Kirtland formation. This first prototype motor drilled at a rate exceeding 180 ft/hr, utilizing only 3000 SCFM of compressed air. High temperature tests (at approximately 460/sup 0/F) were carried out on the thrust assembly and the gearboxes for the two prototypes. These components operated successfully at these temperatures. Although the bench and drilling tests were successful, the tests revealed design changes that should be made before drilling tests are carried out in geothermal boreholes at the Geysers area, near Santa Rosa, California.

  14. COMPUTER SIMULATION OF THE THERMAL TESTING PROCESS FOR STUDENTS OF «NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING AND TECHNICAL DIAGNOSTICS» SPECIALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatolii H. Protasov

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the computer simulation method of thermal nondestructive testing procedure. FEMLAB is interactive software package and used for simulation. It allows forming a model of physical objects with given parameters and properties. A proposed method helps students to understand better the processes happen in solid under the action of temperature.

  15. Development of Ultra-Efficient Electric Motors Final Technical Report Covering work from April 2002 through September 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich Schiferl

    2008-05-30

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) motors offer the potential for dramatic volume and loss reduction compared to conventional, high horspower, industrial motors. This report is the final report on the results of eight research tasks that address some of the issues related to HTS motor development that affect motor efficiency, cost, and reliability.

  16. PFBC HGCU Test Facility. Fourth quarterly technical progress report, [October--December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The APF was shut down on September 23, 1993 and no operation was performed during this quarter. This report summarizes inspection, candle reinstallation, retrofit and accelerometer testing conducted during this three month outage.

  17. Implementation of ASTM C157: testing of length change of hardened concrete : technical summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The Kansas Department of Transportation (KDOT) has a history of using : tests such as concrete strength, permeability, and air void structure as design : and acceptance criteria on concrete paving and bridge deck projects. In 2012, : the KDOT Concret...

  18. Eficiencia técnica de la atención al paciente con diabetes en el primer nivel Technical efficiency in primary care for patients with diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Salinas-Martínez

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Cuantificar en un primer nivel la eficiencia técnica de la atención al paciente con diabetes y distinguir la provisión de servicios y los resultados en salud, además de reconocer las fuentes potenciales de variación. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se incluyeron insumos, actividades clínicas y resultados en salud de 47 clínicas familiares del IMSS Nuevo León. La medida de la eficiencia se realizó mediante el análisis envolvente de datos y se aplicaron modelos de regresión de Tobit. RESULTADOS: Siete clínicas fueron eficientes en cuanto a la provisión de servicios y nueve en salud; dos coincidieron en ambos aspectos. La localización metropolitana y el total de consultas favorecieron la eficiencia en relación con la provisión de servicios, cualesquiera que fueran los atributos del paciente; y la edad del médico, la eficiencia de los resultados en salud. CONCLUSIONES: El desempeño varió en una misma unidad y entre una y otra; algunas fueron eficientes para suministrar servicios y otras para mejorar la salud. Las fuentes de variación también difirieron. Se recomienda incluir ambos productos en el estudio de la eficiencia en diabetes en el primer nivel.OBJECTIVE: To quantify the technical efficiency of diabetes care in family practice settings, characterize the provision of services and health results, and recognize potential sources of variation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We used data envelopment analysis with inputs and outputs for diabetes care from 47 family units within a social security agency in Nuevo Leon. Tobit regression models were also used. RESULTS: Seven units were technically efficient in providing services and nine in achieving health goals. Only two achieved both outcomes. The metropolitan location and the total number of consultations favored efficiency in the provision of services regardless of patient attributes; and the age of the doctor, the efficiency of health results. CONCLUSIONS: Performance varied within and

  19. The Sequential Probability Ratio Test: An efficient alternative to exact binomial testing for Clean Water Act 303(d) evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Connie; Gribble, Matthew O; Bartroff, Jay; Bay, Steven M; Goldstein, Larry

    2017-05-01

    The United States's Clean Water Act stipulates in section 303(d) that states must identify impaired water bodies for which total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) of pollution inputs into water bodies are developed. Decision-making procedures about how to list, or delist, water bodies as impaired, or not, per Clean Water Act 303(d) differ across states. In states such as California, whether or not a particular monitoring sample suggests that water quality is impaired can be regarded as a binary outcome variable, and California's current regulatory framework invokes a version of the exact binomial test to consolidate evidence across samples and assess whether the overall water body complies with the Clean Water Act. Here, we contrast the performance of California's exact binomial test with one potential alternative, the Sequential Probability Ratio Test (SPRT). The SPRT uses a sequential testing framework, testing samples as they become available and evaluating evidence as it emerges, rather than measuring all the samples and calculating a test statistic at the end of the data collection process. Through simulations and theoretical derivations, we demonstrate that the SPRT on average requires fewer samples to be measured to have comparable Type I and Type II error rates as the current fixed-sample binomial test. Policymakers might consider efficient alternatives such as SPRT to current procedure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Utility advanced turbine systems (ATS) technology readiness testing. Technical progress report, January 1--March 31, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The overall objective of the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) Phase 3 Cooperative Agreement between GE and the US Department of Energy (DOE) is the development of the GE 7H and 9H combined cycle power systems. The major effort will be expended on detail design. Validation of critical components and technologies will be performed including: hot gas path component testing, sub-scale compressor testing, steam purity test trials, and rotational heat transfer confirmation testing. Processes will be developed to support the manufacture of the first system, which was to have been sited and operated in Phase 4 but will now be sited and operated commercially by GE. This change has resulted from DOE`s request to GE for deletion of Phase 4 in favor of a restructured Phase 3 (as Phase 3R) to include full speed, no load (FSNL) testing of the 7H gas turbine. Technology enhancements that are not required for the first machine design but will be critical for future ATS advances in performance, reliability, and costs will be initiated. Long-term tests of materials to confirm design life predictions will continue. This report summarizes work accomplished in 1Q98.

  1. English Language Proficiency Tests and Academic Achievement: A Study on the Malaysian University English Test as a Predictor of Technical Programme Undergraduates Academic Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhazlini Rahmat

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the Malaysian education system, English has always played an important role. In acknowledging its importance, Malaysian University English Test (MUET has been introduced to enable continued emphasis on this role.  MUET has been made compulsory for those who wish to pursue a first degree programme in local universities. This study aims to examine the relationship between English language proficiency test (as measured by MUET bands to predict the undergraduates academic achievement (as measured by Cumulative Grade Point Average score. It also aims to determine the recommended MUET band as an entry requirement for prospective technical programme undergraduates in Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM. The study was carried out among 225 final year undergraduates of five different faculties in UPM, namely Faculty of Engineering, Faculty of Forestry, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, and Faculty of Veterinary Medicine.  The data used were obtained by administering a brief questionnaire and were quantitatively analysed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS version 19.  The study revealed that there is a medium positive correlation between English language proficiency and academic achievement where students who have scored higher bands for MUET are the ones who obtained higher CGPA in their study. Based on the findings, it is recommended that UPM and other local universities make changes towards the minimum MUET entry requirement to help prospective undergraduates excel in their academic study. Keywords: English language proficiency, academic achievement, technical programme, MUET, CGPA

  2. The examination of different tests for the evaluation of the efficiency of the eggbeater kicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirn, Igor; Strmecki, Jernej; Strojnik, Vojko

    2014-06-28

    The eggbeater kick presents an important basic technical skill in water polo. The aim of this study was to examine some different tests in order to recommend the best ones for the evaluation of the eggbeater kick. Twenty eight young male water polo players performed one test (squat jump) on land and ten tests in water: tethered swimming with legs only, using alternating and simultaneous eggbeater kicks, jumps out of water from basic and vertical (arms vertically above the head) position, water start and swimming two meters and swimming horizontally with legs only five meters with a flying start. The differences between tests were checked by executing dependent t-tests, while Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated to evaluate the correlation between different parameters. Results showed that when performing alternate eggbeater kicks greater average forces were produced by the water polo players when compared to consecutive simultaneous eggbeater kicks. However, a short time maximal acceleration of the body in the vertical and horizontal plane was greater when the single simultaneous kick was performed. It was determined that horizontal swimming using legs only and a squat jump were less useful for the evaluation of the eggbeater kick. Therefore, the recommendation was to measure the average force of successive alternating eggbeater kicks, the height of the jump out of the water from the basic position and the water start and swim over a distance of 2 meters.

  3. The Examination of Different Tests for the Evaluation of the Efficiency of the Eggbeater Kicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stirn Igor

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The eggbeater kick presents an important basic technical skill in water polo. The aim of this study was to examine some different tests in order to recommend the best ones for the evaluation of the eggbeater kick. Twenty eight young male water polo players performed one test (squat jump on land and ten tests in water: tethered swimming with legs only, using alternating and simultaneous eggbeater kicks, jumps out of water from basic and vertical (arms vertically above the head position, water start and swimming two meters and swimming horizontally with legs only five meters with a flying start. The differences between tests were checked by executing dependent t-tests, while Pearson"s correlation coefficients were calculated to evaluate the correlation between different parameters. Results showed that when performing alternate eggbeater kicks greater average forces were produced by the water polo players when compared to consecutive simultaneous eggbeater kicks. However, a short time maximal acceleration of the body in the vertical and horizontal plane was greater when the single simultaneous kick was performed. It was determined that horizontal swimming using legs only and a squat jump were less useful for the evaluation of the eggbeater kick. Therefore, the recommendation was to measure the average force of successive alternating eggbeater kicks, the height of the jump out of the water from the basic position and the water start and swim over a distance of 2 meters.

  4. Fabrication, testing, and analysis of anisotropic carbon/glass hybrid composites: volume 1: technical report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzel, Kyle K. (Wetzel Engineering, Inc. Lawrence, Kansas); Hermann, Thomas M. (Wichita state University, Wichita, Kansas); Locke, James (Wichita state University, Wichita, Kansas)

    2005-11-01

    Anisotropic carbon/glass hybrid composite laminates have been fabricated, tested, and analyzed. The laminates have been fabricated using vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM). Five fiber complexes and a two-part epoxy resin system have been used in the study to fabricate panels of twenty different laminate constructions. These panels have been subjected to physical testing to measure density, fiber volume fraction, and void fraction. Coupons machined from these panels have also been subjected to mechanical testing to measure elastic properties and strength of the laminates using tensile, compressive, transverse tensile, and in-plane shear tests. Interlaminar shear strength has also been measured. Out-of-plane displacement, axial strain, transverse strain, and inplane shear strain have also been measured using photogrammetry data obtained during edgewise compression tests. The test data have been reduced to characterize the elastic properties and strength of the laminates. Constraints imposed by test fixtures might be expected to affect measurements of the moduli of anisotropic materials; classical lamination theory has been used to assess the magnitude of such effects and correct the experimental data for the same. The tensile moduli generally correlate well with experiment without correction and indicate that factors other than end constraints dominate. The results suggest that shear moduli of the anisotropic materials are affected by end constraints. Classical lamination theory has also been used to characterize the level of extension-shear coupling in the anisotropic laminates. Three factors affecting the coupling have been examined: the volume fraction of unbalanced off-axis layers, the angle of the off-axis layers, and the composition of the fibers (i.e., carbon or glass) used as the axial reinforcement. The results indicate that extension/shear coupling is maximized with the least loss in axial tensile stiffness by using carbon fibers oriented 15{sup

  5. Simple Retrofit High-Efficiency Natural Gas Water Heater Field Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenbauer, Ben [NorthernSTAR, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    2017-03-28

    High performance water heaters are typically more time consuming and costly to install in retrofit applications, making high performance water heaters difficult to justify economically. However, recent advancements in high performance water heaters have targeted the retrofit market, simplifying installations and reducing costs. Four high efficiency natural gas water heaters designed specifically for retrofit applications were installed in single-family homes along with detailed monitoring systems to characterize their savings potential, their installed efficiencies, and their ability to meet household demands. The water heaters tested for this project were designed to improve the cost-effectiveness and increase market penetration of high efficiency water heaters in the residential retrofit market. The retrofit high efficiency water heaters achieved their goal of reducing costs, maintaining savings potential and installed efficiency of other high efficiency water heaters, and meeting the necessary capacity in order to improve cost-effectiveness. However, the improvements were not sufficient to achieve simple paybacks of less than ten years for the incremental cost compared to a minimum efficiency heater. Significant changes would be necessary to reduce the simple payback to six years or less. Annual energy savings in the range of $200 would also reduce paybacks to less than six years. These energy savings would require either significantly higher fuel costs (greater than $1.50 per therm) or very high usage (around 120 gallons per day). For current incremental costs, the water heater efficiency would need to be similar to that of a heat pump water heater to deliver a six year payback.

  6. Simple Retrofit High-Efficiency Natural Gas Water Heater Field Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenbauer, Ben [NorthernSTAR, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    High-performance water heaters are typically more time consuming and costly to install in retrofit applications, making high performance water heaters difficult to justify economically. However, recent advancements in high performance water heaters have targeted the retrofit market, simplifying installations and reducing costs. Four high efficiency natural gas water heaters designed specifically for retrofit applications were installed in single-family homes along with detailed monitoring systems to characterize their savings potential, their installed efficiencies, and their ability to meet household demands. The water heaters tested for this project were designed to improve the cost-effectiveness and increase market penetration of high efficiency water heaters in the residential retrofit market. The retrofit high efficiency water heaters achieved their goal of reducing costs, maintaining savings potential and installed efficiency of other high efficiency water heaters, and meeting the necessary capacity in order to improve cost-effectiveness. However, the improvements were not sufficient to achieve simple paybacks of less than ten years for the incremental cost compared to a minimum efficiency heater. Significant changes would be necessary to reduce the simple payback to six years or less. Annual energy savings in the range of $200 would also reduce paybacks to less than six years. These energy savings would require either significantly higher fuel costs (greater than $1.50 per therm) or very high usage (around 120 gallons per day). For current incremental costs, the water heater efficiency would need to be similar to that of a heat pump water heater to deliver a six year payback.

  7. Testing of the Structure and Mechanical Properties of Technical Titanium Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogumił Wronka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was the titanium pipeline welding technology. The transformations of this material due to the influence of thermal welding were analysed. The basic purpose was to evaluate the properties of titanium joint areas. Pipe joints of various thicknesses were welded by means of TIG argon arc welding while applying the optimum and reduced gas flow intensities. The structure and mechanical properties of these joints were tested. Different test results were obtained for joints welded in these two conditions. Recommendations concerning the welding technology and the heat treatment of joints after welding were presented.

  8. The Air Force Officer Qualifying Test: Validity, Fairness, and Bias. Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardison, Chaitra M.; Sims, Carra S.; Wong, Eunice C.

    2010-01-01

    The Air Force has long recognized the importance of selecting the most qualified officers possible. For more than 60 years, it has relied on the Air Force Officer Qualifying Test (AFOQT) as one measure of those qualifications. A variety of concerns have been raised about whether the AFOQT is biased, too expensive, or even valid for predicting…

  9. SOCIO-TECHNICAL MANAGEMENT OF SOFTWARE TESTING IN INFORMATION SYSTEMS PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Gabriel Porto Bellini

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Na indústria brasileira de desenvolvimento de software para sistemas de informações, observa-se sensibilidade das empresas quanto à necessária melhoria contínua na qualidade do processo produtivo. Uma das formas de tratar a qualidade do desenvolvimento de software – na expectativa de alinhar os processos de negócio do cliente às rotinas computacionalmente programadas no sistema de informações – dá-se por meio do teste de software. O teste de software busca institucionalizar práticas de gestão de projetos e desenvolvimento de produtos de software, com o objetivo de localizar os problemas – e não garantir a sua inexistência. A partir de uma perspectiva sociotécnica e dos modelos teóricos SET (gerencial e ST-TS (processual desenvolvidos nesta pesquisa para um melhor entendimento e orientação das atividades de teste, entrevistas em profundidade com dez especialistas em qualidade e teste de software permitiram a identificação e validação de categorias analíticas que mediam a relação entre fatores desses dois modelos, disto derivando-se o modelo organizacional VAST para auxiliar gestores, desenvolvedores e clientes em projetos de software para sistemas de informações empresariais.

  10. 77 FR 2280 - Request for Information To Gather Technical Expertise Pertaining to Testing Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... the U.S. Government and will not be returned. 2. Background Educators, parents, and the public in... development been used to train school officials to help prepare students and parents for academic testing... irregularities are a result of wrongdoing, under what circumstances is it appropriate to impose strict and...

  11. Humidity Steady State Low Voltage Testing of MLCCs (Based on NESC Technical Assessment Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Mike; Brusse, Jay; Teverovsky, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Review of the low voltage reduced Insulation Resistance (IR) failure phenomenon in Multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs)and NASA approaches to contend with this risk. 1. Analyze published materials on root cause mechanisms. 2. Investigate suitability of current test methods to assess MLCC lots for susceptibility. 3. Review current NASA parts selection and application guidelines in consideration of benefits vs. disadvantages.

  12. Brine migration test report: Asse Salt Mine, Federal Republic of Germany: Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coyle, A.J.; Eckert, J.; Kalia, H.

    1987-01-01

    This report presents a summary of Brine Migration Tests which were undertaken at the Asse mine of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) under a bilateral US/FRG agreement. This experiment simulates a nuclear waste repository at the 800-m (2624-ft) level of the Asse salt mine in the Federal Republic of Germany. This report describes the Asse salt mine, the test equipment, and the pretest properties of the salt in the mine and in the vicinity of the test area. Also included are selected test data (for the first 28 months of operation) on the following: brine migration rates, thermomechaical behavior of the salt (including room closure, stress reading, and thermal profiles), borehole gas pressures, and borehole gas analyses. In addition to field data, laboratory analyses of pretest salt properties are included in this report. The operational phase of these experiments was completed on October 4, 1985, with the commencement of cooldown and the start of posttest activities. 7 refs., 68 figs., 48 tabs.

  13. Take-Off Efficiency: Transformation of Mechanical Work Into Kinetic Energy During the Bosco Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandova Sona

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the study is to present a new method for determining the efficiency of take-off during a 60-s Bosco repeated vertical jump test. Method. The study involved 15 physical education students (age: 21.5 ± 2.4 years; height: 1.81 ± 0.08 m; mass: 76 ± 9 kg. The data were collected with the use of a pedobarographical system (Pedar-x; Novel, Munich, Germany. The statistical analysis utilized a simple linear regression model. Results. Owing to possible fatigue, flight time and flight height decreased. The average flight height was 0.260 ± 0.063 m, and the average contact time equalled 0.54 ± 0.16 s. The average anaerobic power values calculated for the 60-s work period had the mean value of 21.9 ± 6.7 W · kgBW-1; there was a statistically significant (p < 0.05 decrease in anaerobic power during the 60-s Bosco test. Conclusions. The efficiency of mechanical work was highest at the beginning of the test, reaching values of up to 50%. The efficiency of mechanical work conversion into mechanical energy seems to be an appropriate determinant of rising fatigue during the 60-s Bosco jumping test.

  14. Accuracy Combination Test of Classical and Modern Technical Analysis: a Case Study in Stock of PT Wijaya Karya Tbk

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid, Agustini

    2016-01-01

    The research aimed to measure the accuracy and combination of Classic and Modern Technical Analysis. PT Wijaya Karya Tbk (WIKA)’s stock in two periods is the sample of research. Technical analysis was used to predict stock prices by observing changes in historical share price. Practically, technical analysis is divided into Classic Technical and Modern. Research was conducted by library study and using a computer software. Microsft Excel was used for the simulation and Chart Nexus for analyzi...

  15. Hot gas cleanup test facility for gasification and pressurized combustion. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1--March 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    This quarterly technical progress report summarizes work completed during the Sixth Quarter of the First Budget Period, January 1 through March 31, 1992, under the Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-90MC25140 entitled ``Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility for Gasification and Pressurized Combustion.`` The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived gas streams. The major emphasis during this reporting period was expanding the test facility to address system integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced power generation systems. The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include additional modules for the expansion of the test facility, which is referred to as the Power Systems Development Facility (PSOF). A letter agreement was negotiated between Southern Company Services (SCS) and Foster Wheeler (FW) for the conceptual design of the Advanced Pressurized Fluid-Bed Combustion (APFBC)/Topping Combustor/Gas Turbine System to be added to the facility. The expanded conceptual design also included modifications to the existing conceptual design for the Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility (HGCTF), facility layout and balance of plant design for the PSOF. Southern Research Institute (SRI) began investigating the sampling requirements for the expanded facility and assisted SCS in contacting Particulate Control Device (PCD) vendors for additional information. SCS also contacted the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and two molten carbonate fuel cell vendors for input on the fuel cell module for the PSDF.

  16. Technical performance of lactate biosensors and a test-strip device during labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luttkus, A K; Fotopoulou, C; Sehouli, J; Stupin, J; Dudenhausen, J W

    2010-04-01

    Lactate in fetal blood has a high diagnostic power to detect fetal compromise due to hypoxia, as lactate allows an estimation of duration and intensity of metabolic acidemia. Biosensor technology allows an instantaneous diagnosis of fetal compromise in the delivery room. The goal of the current investigation is to define the preanalytical and analytical biases of this technology under routine conditions in a labour ward in comparison to test-strip technology, which allows measurement of lactate alone. Three lactate biosensors (RapidLab 865, Siemens Medical Solutions Diagnostics, Bad Nauheim, Germany; Radiometer ABL625 and ABL 700, Radiometer Copenhagen, Denmark) and one test-strip device (Lactate Pro, Oxford Instruments, UK) were evaluated regarding precision in serial and repetitive measurements in over 1350 samples of fetal whole blood. The coefficient of variation (CV) and the standard deviation (SD) were calculated. The average value of all three biosensors was defined as an artificial reference value (refval). Blood tonometry was performed in order to test the quality of respiratory parameters and to simulate conditions of fetal hypoxia (pO (2): 10 and 20 mmHg). The precision of serial measurements of all biosensors indicated a coefficient of variation (CV) between 1.55 and 3.16% with an SD from 0.042 to 0.053 mmol/L. The test-strip device (Lactate Pro) mounted to 0.117 mmol/L and 3.99% (SD, CV). When compared to our reference value (refval) ABL 625 showed the closest correlation of -0.1%, while Siemens RapidLab 865 showed an overestimation of +8.9%, ABL700 an underestimation of -6.2% and Lactate Pro of -3.7%. For routine use all tested biosensors show sufficient precision. The test-strip device shows a slightly higher standard deviation. A direct comparison of measured lactate values from the various devices needs to be interpreted with caution as each method detects different lactate concentrations. Furthermore, the 40 min process of tonometry led to an

  17. The Author’s Guide to Writing Air Force Flight Test Center Technical Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    etc., was not accomplished, recommend IOT &E NOT evaluate the system until it has been qualified, or state limitations for IOT &E. The idea is that IOT ...report must be entered in all capital letters. Figure C3 shows an example of the SF 298 with appropriate portion marking for a classified report. PREFACE...paragraph. Edwards Air Force Base Air Force Flight Test Center AUGUST 2009 AUTHOR’S GUIDE C-5 Figure C3 Example SF 298 in Classified

  18. JOYO-1 Irradiation Test Campaign Technical Close-out, For Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Borges

    2006-01-31

    The JOYO-1 irradiation testing was designed to screen the irradiation performance of candidate cladding, structural and reflector materials in support of space reactor development. The JOYO-1 designation refers to the first of four planned irradiation tests in the JOYO reactor. Limited irradiated material performance data for the candidate materials exists for the expected Prometheus-1 duration, fluences and temperatures. Materials of interest include fuel element cladding and core materials (refractory metal alloys and silicon carbide (Sic)), vessel and plant structural materials (refractory metal alloys and nickel-base superalloys), and control and reflector materials (BeO). Key issues to be evaluated were long term microstructure and material property stability. The JOYO-1 test campaign was initiated to irradiate a matrix of specimens at prototypical temperatures and fluences anticipated for the Prometheus-1 reactor [Reference (1)]. Enclosures 1 through 9 describe the specimen and temperature monitors/dosimetry fabrication efforts, capsule design, disposition of structural material irradiation rigs, and plans for post-irradiation examination. These enclosures provide a detailed overview of Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) progress in specific areas; however, efforts were in various states of completion at the termination of NRPCT involvement with and restructuring of Project Prometheus.

  19. Bainbridge Energy Challenge. Energy efficiency and conservation block grant (EECBG) - Better buildings neighborhood program. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, Yvonne X.

    2014-02-14

    RePower Bainbridge and Bremerton (RePower) is a residential energy-efficiency and conservation program designed to foster a sustainable, clean, and renewable energy economy. The program was a 3.5 year effort in the cities of Bainbridge Island and Bremerton, Washington, to conserve and reduce energy use, establish a trained home performance trade ally network, and create local jobs. RePower was funded through a $4.8 million grant from the US Department of Energy, Better Buildings Program. The grant’s performance period was August 1, 2010 through March 30, 2014.

  20. Retrofitting Las Vegas. Implementing Energy Efficiency in Two Las Vegas Test Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puttagunta, S. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2013-04-01

    In 2009, the state of Nevada received nearly $40 million in Neighborhood Stabilization Funds from the Department of Housing and Urban Development to use to stabilize communities that have suffered from foreclosures and abandonment. In order to provide guidance to local officials and maximize how effectively this NSP funding is used in retrofitting homes, the CARB team provided design specifications, energy modeling, and technical support for the BARA team and its local partners—Better Building Performance, Nevada Energy Star Partners Green Alliance, and Home Free Nevada—for two retrofit test homes. One home demonstrated a modest retrofit and the other a deep energy retrofit. This report describes the retrofit packages, which were used as an educational experience for home performance professionals, building trades, remodelers, and the general public.

  1. Technical prerequisites for efficient drive systems - Fundamentals for SwissEnergy measures; Technische Grundlagen effizienter Antriebssysteme. Grundlagen fuer Aktionen (Massnahmen) von Energieschweiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnyder, G.; Ritz, Ch.

    2007-03-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on the technical prerequisites necessary for the implementation of various measures that are to be taken to promote efficient electrical drive systems. The document defines the approach taken and describes the methodologies to be used, including market analysis, the collection of basic data, the definition of measures and the acquisition of partners. The potential for making savings is estimated. Eight areas of action are defined, including the organisation of tutorials, exchange of experience, knowledge transfer, basic consulting services, the deployment of consultants, the setting-up of an Internet portal, information transfer in conferences and the optimisation of auxiliaries in domestic installations. A comprehensive annex completes the report.

  2. A SIMPLE BUT EFFICIENT SCHEME FOR COLOUR IMAGE RETRIEVAL BASED ON STATISTICAL TESTS OF HYPOTHESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Seetharaman

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a simple but efficient scheme for colour image retrieval, based on statistical tests of hypothesis, namely test for equality of variance, test for equality of mean. The test for equality of variance is performed to test the similarity of the query and target images. If the images pass the test, then the test for equality of mean is performed on the same images to examine whether the two images have the same attributes / characteristics. If the query and target images pass the tests then it is inferred that the two images belong to the same class i.e. both the images are same; otherwise, it is assumed that the images belong to different classes i.e. both the images are different. The obtained test statistic values are indexed in ascending order and the image corresponding to the least value is identified as same / similar images. The proposed system is invariant for translation, scaling, and rotation, since the proposed system adjusts itself and treats either the query image or the target image is sample of other. The proposed scheme provides cent percent accuracy if the query and target images are same, whereas there is a slight variation for similar, transformed.

  3. Investigation of concept of efficient short wavelength laser. Final technical report, April 1, 1977-July 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piper, L.G.; Krech, R.H.; Pugh, E.; Taylor, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of producing an efficient, short wavelength, storage laser for ICF driven applications by making use of certain state-specific reactions of exoergic azide compounds has been investigated. The ultraviolet (approx. 300 nm) photolysis of gaseous ClN/sub 3/ produced prompt emission in the red, which was attributed to the efficient formation of ClN(b/sup 1/..sigma../sup +/) with subsequent ClN(X reverse arrow b) fluorescence. Based on these results, a small-scale laser demonstration experiment was constructed using short duration Xe flash lamps as the photolytic source. The results of this latter experiment were negative. The most plausible explanation was that the flash lamps provided sufficient far-uv radiation to dissociate and/or ionize the ClN(b) produced in the primary photolytic step. In parallel, limited experiments were performed on the rapid pyrolysis of a solid, ionic azide, NaN/sub 3/, to produce gaseous N/sub 3/ radicals and subsequent production of triplet N/sub 2/ molecules.

  4. Parametric Meta-Technology Frameworks to Study Technical Efficiency and Macro-Economic Effects in the European Banking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilel Jarraya

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bank efficiency scores usually serve as a tool for comparing institutions with each other while allowing us to quantify sub-optimal decision-making unit choices. In the case of inter-country comparisons, such differences can also arise because of macro-economic heterogeneity between countries. Previous studies estimated a common technology limit for a sample of banking institutions in different countries. The contribution of our paper is that we employ a parametric approach to specify meta-frontiers and to study the effect of macro-economic heterogeneity on banking technology development. First, we use a parametric directional distance function to specify the appropriate technology frontier for each nation and the meta-technology frontier that includes all country-specific frontiers. Then, we define the directional technology gap ratio referring to the inefficiency scores evaluated from meta-technology and country-specific technology frontiers. The estimated parameters are more significant in our model than in the general model, also called the common frontier model. Comparing the results of our model to those of common frontiers, we find a substantial variation not only in inefficiency scores but also in countries’ rankings. While resorting to a pooled linear regression model, we demonstrate that the assessed technology gap ratio exhibits a significant association with inflation rates and per capita GDP. This result proves the influence of macro-economic heterogeneity on banks’ efficiency and technological development.

  5. Preoperative cellulose porous beads for therapeutic embolization of meningioma: provocation test and technical considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kai, Yutaka; Morioka, Motohiro; Yano, Shigetoshi; Nakamura, Hideo; Makino, Keishi; Mizuno, Takamasa; Takeshima, Hideo; Kuratsu, Jun-ichi [Kumamoto University, Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto (Japan); Hamada, Jun-ichiro [Kanazawa University, Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kanazawa (Japan)

    2007-05-15

    Cellulose porous beads (CPBs) are exceptionally uniform in size and nonabsorbable and they provide highly effective tumor devascularization. The risk of cranial nerve palsy must not be overlooked when embolization with CPBs is considered in meningioma patients. We attempted to identify patients at risk of cranial nerve palsy after meningioma embolization. Prior to preoperative superselective embolization with 200 {mu}m diameter CPBs, 141 patients with meningioma underwent provocation test with lidocaine and amytal. They were divided into two groups on the basis of whether they were or were not considered eligible for embolization. We evaluated the differences between the two groups with respect to tumor anatomy, angiographic findings, and clinical presentation and recorded complications associated with the embolization of the meningioma. Of the 141 patients, 128 underwent CPB embolization (group 2); 13 were not embolized because their provocation test results were positive (group 1, n = 11) or because they showed vasospasm (n = 2). Group 1 patients had meningioma in the cavernous sinus or petroclival region. Characteristically, the feeders were of middle meningeal artery origin and exhibited a posteromedial course toward the petrous apex or cavernous sinus. In group 2 patients the middle meningeal artery was the feeder, but it lacked branches coursing posteromedially. Three of these patients experienced complications which included intratumoral hemorrhage (n = 2) and post-embolization hearing disturbance (n = 1). Patients with meningioma whose tumor-feeding arteries run posteromedially toward the petrous apex or cavernous sinus are at increased risk of post-embolization cranial nerve palsy. Appropriate protocols, including lidocaine and amytal provocation tests, may reduce the risk of complications after CPB embolization of the external carotid territory in this group of patients. (orig.)

  6. Fatigue testing structural steel as a factor of safety of technical facilities maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Ulewicz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Guarantee of quality and safety exploitation of machines and equipment is a significant factor in the design and manufacture of these components. This paper presents an analysis of fatigue test results of samples in the bending load on the rotation in the range from 104 to 107 ,the number of cycles of applied load, with a frequency of 40 Hz. Whöler curve shows the results of the fatigue properties of steel S355J2 which is used in the construction of vehicles. There was also carried out a fractographic analysis.

  7. TECHNICAL EFFICIENCY AND IMPACT EVALUATION DIFFERENTIALS BETWEEN THE ADOPTERS AND NON-ADOPTERS OF NERICA IN THE SIX BASELINE STATES IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiodun Elijah OBAYELU

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the adoption rate of New Rice for Africa (NERICA, technical efficiency differentials of production of these varieties between adopters and non-adopters and the determinants. It further analysed the impact of adoption of NERICA on area cultivated, output, yield, expenditure and total income of rice farmers in the NERICA baseline states in Nigeria. To achieve the objectives, it employed the descriptive statistics, stochastic production frontier and counterfactual outcomes framework of modern evaluation technique (the Local Average Treatment Effect to analyse 621 rice farmers across the six NERICA baseline states in Nigeria in 2012. The findings show that NERICA adopters were more technically efficient than the non-adopters. In addition, adoption of NERICA was found to significantly increase the areas of land cultivated, output, yield, household expenditure, per capita household expenditure and total income among NERICA adopters by 1.2ha (p < 0.01, 1998.2kg (p< 0.01, 191.2kg/ha (p < 0.1, N13,222.63≈$66.4 (p < 0.05, N2,015.6≈$10.1 (p < 0.05 and N145,098.7 ≈$728.0 (p < 0.01 respectively despite their high level of inefficiency (39 percent by the adopters. The positive impact of NERICA adoption on rice yields, poverty status measured by the per capita household expenditure and total farm income of farmers is a clear indication that NERICA has the potential to increase rice productivity, reduce poverty and food insecurity. NERICA adoption rate will rise if more farmers are aware of the varieties in the study. Farmers who had adopted, and government at all levels should therefore intensify their efforts to encourage others rice farmers possibly through the extension agents on the need to grow NERICA varieties so as to increase rice production level, reduce rice importation and ensure a sustainable rice production.

  8. Global Aerodynamic Modeling for Stall/Upset Recovery Training Using Efficient Piloted Flight Test Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Eugene A.; Cunningham, Kevin; Hill, Melissa A.

    2013-01-01

    Flight test and modeling techniques were developed for efficiently identifying global aerodynamic models that can be used to accurately simulate stall, upset, and recovery on large transport airplanes. The techniques were developed and validated in a high-fidelity fixed-base flight simulator using a wind-tunnel aerodynamic database, realistic sensor characteristics, and a realistic flight deck representative of a large transport aircraft. Results demonstrated that aerodynamic models for stall, upset, and recovery can be identified rapidly and accurately using relatively simple piloted flight test maneuvers. Stall maneuver predictions and comparisons of identified aerodynamic models with data from the underlying simulation aerodynamic database were used to validate the techniques.

  9. Efficient Testing of Wireless Devices from 800 MHz to 18 GHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Scannavini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Small antennas and other modern communication applications are using increasingly higher frequencies while demanding shorter development time and very rapid testing cycles. A fast and accurate way to exhaustively determine antenna performance and/or investigate device malfunction is based on spherical near field measurement techniques combined with probe array technology. This paper describes the innovative design aspects of the StarLab portable antenna measurement system and present results from the validation campaigns including both passive and active measurements. The use of integrated diagnostic and analysis software modules for efficient antenna design and testing is also presented.

  10. Development of an Optimal Controller and Validation Test Stand for Fuel Efficient Engine Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehn, Jack G., III

    There are numerous motivations for improvements in automotive fuel efficiency. As concerns over the environment grow at a rate unmatched by hybrid and electric automotive technologies, the need for reductions in fuel consumed by current road vehicles has never been more present. Studies have shown that a major cause of poor fuel consumption in automobiles is improper driving behavior, which cannot be mitigated by purely technological means. The emergence of autonomous driving technologies has provided an opportunity to alleviate this inefficiency by removing the necessity of a driver. Before autonomous technology can be relied upon to reduce gasoline consumption on a large scale, robust programming strategies must be designed and tested. The goal of this thesis work was to design and deploy an autonomous control algorithm to navigate a four cylinder, gasoline combustion engine through a series of changing load profiles in a manner that prioritizes fuel efficiency. The experimental setup is analogous to a passenger vehicle driving over hilly terrain at highway speeds. The proposed approach accomplishes this using a model-predictive, real-time optimization algorithm that was calibrated to the engine. Performance of the optimal control algorithm was tested on the engine against contemporary cruise control. Results indicate that the "efficient'' strategy achieved one to two percent reductions in total fuel consumed for all load profiles tested. The consumption data gathered also suggests that further improvements could be realized on a different subject engine and using extended models and a slightly modified optimal control approach.

  11. A Bayesian approach to efficient differential allocation for resampling-based significance testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soi Sameer

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large-scale statistical analyses have become hallmarks of post-genomic era biological research due to advances in high-throughput assays and the integration of large biological databases. One accompanying issue is the simultaneous estimation of p-values for a large number of hypothesis tests. In many applications, a parametric assumption in the null distribution such as normality may be unreasonable, and resampling-based p-values are the preferred procedure for establishing statistical significance. Using resampling-based procedures for multiple testing is computationally intensive and typically requires large numbers of resamples. Results We present a new approach to more efficiently assign resamples (such as bootstrap samples or permutations within a nonparametric multiple testing framework. We formulated a Bayesian-inspired approach to this problem, and devised an algorithm that adapts the assignment of resamples iteratively with negligible space and running time overhead. In two experimental studies, a breast cancer microarray dataset and a genome wide association study dataset for Parkinson's disease, we demonstrated that our differential allocation procedure is substantially more accurate compared to the traditional uniform resample allocation. Conclusion Our experiments demonstrate that using a more sophisticated allocation strategy can improve our inference for hypothesis testing without a drastic increase in the amount of computation on randomized data. Moreover, we gain more improvement in efficiency when the number of tests is large. R code for our algorithm and the shortcut method are available at http://people.pcbi.upenn.edu/~lswang/pub/bmc2009/.

  12. A Bayesian approach to efficient differential allocation for resampling-based significance testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Shane T; Soi, Sameer; Wang, Li-San

    2009-06-28

    Large-scale statistical analyses have become hallmarks of post-genomic era biological research due to advances in high-throughput assays and the integration of large biological databases. One accompanying issue is the simultaneous estimation of p-values for a large number of hypothesis tests. In many applications, a parametric assumption in the null distribution such as normality may be unreasonable, and resampling-based p-values are the preferred procedure for establishing statistical significance. Using resampling-based procedures for multiple testing is computationally intensive and typically requires large numbers of resamples. We present a new approach to more efficiently assign resamples (such as bootstrap samples or permutations) within a nonparametric multiple testing framework. We formulated a Bayesian-inspired approach to this problem, and devised an algorithm that adapts the assignment of resamples iteratively with negligible space and running time overhead. In two experimental studies, a breast cancer microarray dataset and a genome wide association study dataset for Parkinson's disease, we demonstrated that our differential allocation procedure is substantially more accurate compared to the traditional uniform resample allocation. Our experiments demonstrate that using a more sophisticated allocation strategy can improve our inference for hypothesis testing without a drastic increase in the amount of computation on randomized data. Moreover, we gain more improvement in efficiency when the number of tests is large. R code for our algorithm and the shortcut method are available at http://people.pcbi.upenn.edu/~lswang/pub/bmc2009/.

  13. Development and testing of technical measures for the abatement of PM10 emissions from poultry housings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogink, N.W.M.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Mosquera, J.; Winkel, A. [Wageningen UR Livestock Research, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2010-07-01

    In order to comply with the European Union's ambient air quality standards, the Netherlands must reduce emissions of PM10. As a contributor to PM10, the poultry industry must implement mitigation measures before 2012. An extensive research and development program was launched in 2008 to provide abatement technology for broiler and layer houses. This paper presented results from studies carried out in 2008 and 2009 by Wageningen UR Livestock Research. The supply industry and poultry farmers participated in the study in which different methods and approaches were examined, including bedding material, light schedules, oil spraying systems, ionization systems, water scrubbers, combined scrubbers, electrostatic filters, and dry filters. Most methods were first tested and optimized in small units at an experimental poultry facility Lelystad. Several methods were validated in a next step on poultry farms, where PM10 emissions were measured to establish official emission factors. The oil spraying system and ionization system were tested in broiler houses and are nearing implementation. Reductions in PM10 emissions by different methods ranged from no effect to levels of 60 per cent. An outlook on adequate dust abatement measures for poultry housings was also provided.

  14. Development of ASTM Standard for SiC-SiC Joint Testing Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsen, George [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Back, Christina [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2015-10-30

    As the nuclear industry moves to advanced ceramic based materials for cladding and core structural materials for a variety of advanced reactors, new standards and test methods are required for material development and licensing purposes. For example, General Atomics (GA) is actively developing silicon carbide (SiC) based composite cladding (SiC-SiC) for its Energy Multiplier Module (EM2), a high efficiency gas cooled fast reactor. Through DOE funding via the advanced reactor concept program, GA developed a new test method for the nominal joint strength of an endplug sealed to advanced ceramic tubes, Fig. 1-1, at ambient and elevated temperatures called the endplug pushout (EPPO) test. This test utilizes widely available universal mechanical testers coupled with clam shell heaters, and specimen size is relatively small, making it a viable post irradiation test method. The culmination of this effort was a draft of an ASTM test standard that will be submitted for approval to the ASTM C28 ceramic committee. Once the standard has been vetted by the ceramics test community, an industry wide standard methodology to test joined tubular ceramic components will be available for the entire nuclear materials community.

  15. Final Technical Report. Sault Tribe Building Efficiency Audits of Tribally-Owned Governmental Buildings and Residential Tribal Housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, Jeffrey W. [Sault Sainte Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians, Marie, MI (United States)

    2015-03-27

    The Tribe is working to reduce energy consumption and expense in Tribally-owned governmental buildings and low income housing sites. In 2009, the Tribe applied to the U. S. Department of Energy for funding to conduct energy audits of Tribally-owned governmental buildings. Findings from the energy audits would define the extent and types of energy efficiency improvements needed, establish a basis for energy priorities, strategies and action plans, and provide a benchmark for measuring improvements from energy efficiency implementations. In 2010, the DOE awarded a grant in the amount of $95,238 to the Tribe to fund the energy audits of nine governmental buildings and to pay for travel expenses associated with attendance and participation at the DOE annual program reviews. In 2011, the Tribe applied for and was awarded a DOE grant in the amount of $75,509 to conduct energy audits of the remaining 30 Tribally-owned governmental buildings. Repeating mobilization steps performed during the first DOE energy audits grant, the Tribe initiated the second round of governmental building energy audits by completing energy auditor procurement. The selected energy auditor successfully passed DOE debarment and Sault Tribe background clearances. The energy audits contract was awarded to U. P. Engineers and Architects, Inc. of Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan. The Tribe continued mobilizing for the energy audits by providing the energy auditor with one year of electric, gas and water utility invoice copies per building, as well as supplemental building information, such as operating hours. The Tribe also contacted building occupants to coordinate scheduling for the on-site energy audit inspections and arranged for facilities management personnel to guide the energy auditor through the buildings and answer questions regarding building systems.

  16. Technical note: A significance test for data-sparse zones in scatter plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetrova, V. V.; Bardsley, W. E.

    2012-04-01

    Data-sparse zones in scatter plots of hydrological variables can be of interest in various contexts. For example, a well-defined data-sparse zone may indicate inhibition of one variable by another. It is of interest therefore to determine whether data-sparse regions in scatter plots are of sufficient extent to be beyond random chance. We consider the specific situation of data-sparse regions defined by a linear internal boundary within a scatter plot defined over a rectangular region. An Excel VBA macro is provided for carrying out a randomisation-based significance test of the data-sparse region, taking into account both the within-region number of data points and the extent of the region. Example applications are given with respect to a rainfall time series from Israel and also to validation scatter plots from a seasonal forecasting model for lake inflows in New Zealand.

  17. Technical note: A significance test for data-sparse zones in scatter plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Vetrova

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Data-sparse zones in scatter plots of hydrological variables can be of interest in various contexts. For example, a well-defined data-sparse zone may indicate inhibition of one variable by another. It is of interest therefore to determine whether data-sparse regions in scatter plots are of sufficient extent to be beyond random chance. We consider the specific situation of data-sparse regions defined by a linear internal boundary within a scatter plot defined over a rectangular region. An Excel VBA macro is provided for carrying out a randomisation-based significance test of the data-sparse region, taking into account both the within-region number of data points and the extent of the region. Example applications are given with respect to a rainfall time series from Israel and also to validation scatter plots from a seasonal forecasting model for lake inflows in New Zealand.

  18. TECHNICAL EVALUATION OF REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR PLUTONIUM-CONTAMINATED SOILS AT THE NEVADA TEST SITE (NTS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steve Hoeffner

    2003-12-31

    The Clemson Environmental Technologies Laboratory (CETL) was contracted by the National Energy Technology Center to evaluate technologies that might be used to reduce the volume of plutonium-contaminated soil at the Nevada Test Site. The project has been systematically approached. A thorough review and summary was completed for: (1) The NTS soil geological, geochemical and physical characteristics; (2) The characteristics and chemical form of the plutonium that is in these soils; (3) Previous volume reduction technologies that have been attempted on the NTS soils; (4) Vendors with technology that may be applicable; and (5) Related needs at other DOE sites. Soils from the Nevada Test Site were collected and delivered to the CETL. Soils were characterized for Pu-239/240, Am-241 and gross alpha. In addition, wet sieving and the subsequent characterization were performed on soils before and after attrition scrubbing to determine the particle size distribution and the distribution of Pu-239/240 and gross alpha as a function of particle size. Sequential extraction was performed on untreated soil to provide information about how tightly bound the plutonium was to the soil. Magnetic separation was performed to determine if this could be useful as part of a treatment approach. Using the information obtained from these reviews, three vendors were selected to demonstration their volume reduction technologies at the CETL. Two of the three technologies, bioremediation and soil washing, met the performance criteria. Both were able to significantly reduce the concentration plutonium in the soil from around 1100 pCi/g to 200 pCi/g or less with a volume reduction of around 95%, well over the target 70%. These results are especially encouraging because they indicate significant improvement over that obtained in these earlier pilot and field studies. Additional studies are recommended.

  19. Optimum duration of performance tests for evaluating growing pigs for growth and feed efficiency traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, P F; Barchia, I M; Giles, L R

    2008-05-01

    The optimum duration of test for the measurement of ADG, ADFI, feed:gain ratio [which is the reciprocal of the efficiency of gain (G:F) and therefore increases as the efficiency of gain decrease and vice versa], and residual feed intake was examined in growing pigs. Data from 144 hybrid (mainly Large White x Landrace) pigs involved in a longitudinal (n = 54) and serial slaughter (n = 90) experiment were used. The pigs were housed in individual pens from 70 +/- 1 d of age (mean +/- SD) and fed ad libitum a pelleted commercial diet. Feed intake and BW data on pigs that had a minimum of 10-wk records were partitioned into a 14-d adjustment and a 56-d test period. Phenotypic correlations among weekly measurements were used to examine the repeatability of each trait. Changes in phenotypic residual variance and correlation using shortened (7-, 14-, 21-, 28-, 35-, 42-, and 49-d) tests compared with the full-length 56-d test were used as criteria to assess the optimum test duration. The results of the phenotypic correlations among weekly measurements indicated that ADFI, which was characterized by moderate to high correlations (0.41 to 0.81), was more repeatable than ADG, which was characterized by low correlations (0.00 to 0.43). Mean gut fill (n = 107) was 4.2% of BW but was characterized by large variation among the pigs (SD = 1.8; CV = 42.2%). This variation in gut fill was a major contributor to the low repeatability of the measurement of ADG. These repeatability results indicated that ADG, rather than ADFI, will determine the optimum duration of test for the feed efficiency traits. The results of the shortened relative to the full-length test indicate that for growing pigs under good nutrition and ad libitum feeding, a 28-d test was adequate for the measurement of feed intake, whereas a 35-d test was required to measure ADG, feed:gain ratio, and residual feed intake without compromising the accuracy of measurement.

  20. Aiming for excellence - A simulation-based study on adapting and testing an instrument for developing non-technical skills in Norwegian student nurse anaesthetists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Fiona M; Sandaker, Kjersti; Ballangrud, Randi

    2017-01-01

    There is increasing focus on building safety into anaesthesia practice, with excellence in anaesthesia as an aspirational goal. Non-technical skills are an important factor in excellence and improved patient safety, though there have been few systematic attempts at integrating them into anaesthesia nursing education. This study aimed to test the reliability of NANTS-no, a specially adapted behavioural marker system for nurse anaesthetists in Norway, and explore the development of non-technical skills in student nurse anaesthetists. The pre-test post-test design incorporated a 10-week simulation-based programme, where non-technical skills in 14 student nurse anaesthetists were rated on three different occasions during high-fidelity simulation, before and after taking part in a training course. NANTS-no demonstrated high overall inter-rater reliability (ICC = 0.91), high test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.94) and good internal consistency (Cronbach's α of 0.85-0.92). A significant improvement was demonstrated across all categories of non-technical skills, with greatest improvements between the first and third and second and third sessions. There was also a significant improvement in two categories between the first and second sessions. NANTS-no is therefore suitable for assessing non-technical skills during simulation training in anaesthesia nursing education. More research is needed to validate its use in clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A year of anaplastic large cell kinase testing for lung carcinoma: pathological and technical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, S S; Shah, A S; Prabhash, K; Jambhekar, N A

    2013-01-01

    An in-frame fusion protein between echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4) and anaplastic large cell kinase (ALK) genes is seen in some non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). EML4-ALK demonstrates constitutive kinase activity. These ALK-positive lung carcinomas have been shown to respond to ALK kinase inhibitors. ALK gene rearrangement is commonly detected using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). To study the pathological features of ALK positive and negative NSCLC and evaluate the causes of uninterpretable FISH results. This is a retrospective, observational study. The molecular pathology records of patients on whom test for ALK had been performed in a period of 1 year (February 2012 to February 2013) were accessioned. A total 224 cases were identified. Histological features were reviewed. The in situ hybridization was performed using Vysis ALK Dual Color Break Apart Rearrangement Probe (Abbott Molecular Inc.). Signal interpretation under the fluorescent microscope was performed in accordance with College of American Pathologists guidelines. Five patients showed ALK gene rearrangement, 182 were negative and 37 cases were uninterpretable. Five patients with ALK gene rearrangement had a mean age of 48 years and the male to female ratio was 2:3. In the ALK negative cases, the mean age was 54 years and male to female ratio was 3.2:1. Histologically, amongst the rearranged cases, three showed solid pattern, one showed acinar and one showed acinar with signet ring cells on histology. The percentage of ALK gene rearrangement was 2.7% (excluding the uninterpretable cases). These ALK positive patients were relatively younger than ALK negative patients. Solid pattern on histology was associated with ALK positivity. In a quarter of the uninterpretable results, the material submitted was fixed and processed outside.

  2. Effect of Shoes on Stiffness and Energy Efficiency of Ankle-Foot Orthosis: Bench Testing Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Toshiki; Gao, Fan; LeCursi, Nicholas; Foreman, K Bo; Orendurff, Michael S

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the mechanical properties of ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs) is important to maximize their benefit for those with movement disorders during gait. Though mechanical properties such as stiffness and/or energy efficiency of AFOs have been extensively studied, it remains unknown how and to what extent shoes influence their properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of shoes on stiffness and energy efficiency of an AFO using a custom mechanical testing device. Stiffness and energy efficiency of the AFO were measured in the plantar flexion and dorsiflexion range, respectively, under AFO-alone and AFO-Shoe combination conditions. The results of this study demonstrated that the stiffness of the AFO-Shoe combination was significantly decreased compared to the AFO-alone condition, but no significant differences were found in energy efficiency. From the results, we recommend that shoes used with AFOs should be carefully selected not only based on their effect on alignment of the lower limb, but also their effects on overall mechanical properties of the AFO-Shoe combination. Further study is needed to clarify the effects of differences in shoe designs on AFO-Shoe combination mechanical properties.

  3. Testing the weak-form efficiency of the WTI crude oil futures market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Xie, Wen-Jie; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2014-07-01

    The weak-form efficiency of energy futures markets has long been studied and empirical evidence suggests controversial conclusions. In this work, nonparametric methods are adopted to estimate the Hurst indexes of the WTI crude oil futures prices (1983-2012) and a strict statistical test in the spirit of bootstrapping is put forward to verify the weak-form market efficiency hypothesis. The results show that the crude oil futures market is efficient when the whole period is considered. When the whole series is divided into three sub-series separated by the outbreaks of the Gulf War and the Iraq War, it is found that the Gulf War reduced the efficiency of the market. If the sample is split into two sub-series based on the signing date of the North American Free Trade Agreement, the market is found to be inefficient in the sub-periods during which the Gulf War broke out. The same analysis on short-time series in moving windows shows that the market is inefficient only when some turbulent events occur, such as the oil price crash in 1985, the Gulf war, and the oil price crash in 2008.

  4. The African disability scooter: efficiency testing in paediatric amputees in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckles, Verona; McCahill, Jennifer L; Stebbins, Julie; Mkandawire, Nyengo; Church, John C T; Lavy, Chris

    2016-01-01

    The African Disability Scooter (ADS) was developed for lower limb amputees, to improve mobility and provide access to different terrains. The aim of this study was to test the efficiency of the ADS in Africa over different terrains. Eight subjects with a mean age of 12 years participated. Energy expenditure and speed were calculated over different terrains using the ADS, a prosthetic limb, and crutches. Repeated testing was completed on different days to assess learning effect. Speed was significantly faster with the ADS on a level surface compared to crutch walking. This difference was maintained when using the scooter on rough terrain. Oxygen cost was halved with the scooter on level ground compared to crutch walking. There were no significant differences in oxygen consumption or heart rate. There were significant differences in oxygen cost and speed between days using the scooter over level ground, suggesting the presence of a learning effect. This study demonstrates that the ADS is faster and more energy efficient than crutch walking in young individuals with amputations, and should be considered as an alternative to a prosthesis where this is not available. The presence of a learning effect suggests supervision and training is required when the scooter is first issued. Implications for Rehabilitation The African Disability Scooter: is faster than crutch walking in amputees; is more energy efficient than walking with crutches; supervised use is needed when learning to use the device; is a good alternative/adjunct for mobility.

  5. Identification of Staphylococcus aureus: DNase and Mannitol salt agar improve the efficiency of the tube coagulase test

    OpenAIRE

    Kateete, David P; Kimani, Cyrus N; Katabazi, Fred A; Okeng, Alfred; Okee, Moses S; Nanteza, Ann; Joloba, Moses L; Najjuka, Florence C

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The ideal identification of Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates requires a battery of tests and this is costly in resource limited settings. In many developing countries, the tube coagulase test is usually confirmatory for S. aureus and is routinely done using either human or sheep plasma. This study evaluated Mannitol salt agar and the deoxyribonuclease (DNase) test for improving the efficiency of the tube coagulase test in resource limited settings. The efficiency of...

  6. Puget Sound Tidal Energy In-Water Testing and Development Project Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collar, Craig W

    2012-11-16

    Tidal energy represents potential for the generation of renewable, emission free, environmentally benign, and cost effective energy from tidal flows. A successful tidal energy demonstration project in Puget Sound, Washington may enable significant commercial development resulting in important benefits for the northwest region and the nation. This project promoted the United States Department of Energy's Wind and Hydropower Technologies Program's goals of advancing the commercial viability, cost-competitiveness, and market acceptance of marine hydrokinetic systems. The objective of the Puget Sound Tidal Energy Demonstration Project is to conduct in-water testing and evaluation of tidal energy technology as a first step toward potential construction of a commercial-scale tidal energy power plant. The specific goal of the project phase covered by this award was to conduct all activities necessary to complete engineering design and obtain construction approvals for a pilot demonstration plant in the Admiralty Inlet region of the Puget Sound. Public Utility District No. 1 of Snohomish County (The District) accomplished the objectives of this award through four tasks: Detailed Admiralty Inlet Site Studies, Plant Design and Construction Planning, Environmental and Regulatory Activities, and Management and Reporting. Pre-Installation studies completed under this award provided invaluable data used for site selection, environmental evaluation and permitting, plant design, and construction planning. However, these data gathering efforts are not only important to the Admiralty Inlet pilot project. Lessons learned, in particular environmental data gathering methods, can be applied to future tidal energy projects in the United States and other parts of the world. The District collaborated extensively with project stakeholders to complete the tasks for this award. This included Federal, State, and local government agencies, tribal governments, environmental groups, and

  7. High Efficiency Triple-Junction Amorphous Silicon Alloy Photovoltaic Technology, Final Technical Report, 6 March 1998 - 15 October 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guha, S.

    2001-11-08

    This report describes the research program intended to expand, enhance, and accelerate knowledge and capabilities for developing high-performance, two-terminal multijunction amorphous silicon (a-Si) alloy cells, and modules with low manufacturing cost and high reliability. United Solar uses a spectrum-splitting, triple-junction cell structure. The top cell uses an amorphous silicon alloy of {approx}1.8-eV bandgap to absorb blue photons. The middle cell uses an amorphous silicon germanium alloy ({approx}20% germanium) of {approx}1.6-eV bandgap to capture green photons. The bottom cell has {approx}40% germanium to reduce the bandgap to {approx}1.4-eV to capture red photons. The cells are deposited on a stainless-steel substrate with a predeposited silver/zinc oxide back reflector to facilitate light-trapping. A thin layer of antireflection coating is applied to the top of the cell to reduce reflection loss. The major research activities conducted under this program were: (1) Fundamental studies to improve our understanding of materials and devices; the work included developing and analyzing a-Si alloy and a-SiGe alloy materials prepared near the threshold of amorphous-to-microcrystalline transition and studying solar cells fabricated using these materials. (2) Deposition of small-area cells using a radio-frequency technique to obtain higher deposition rates. (3) Deposition of small-area cells using a modified very high frequency technique to obtain higher deposition rates. (4) Large-area cell research to obtain the highest module efficiency. (5) Optimization of solar cells and modules fabricated using production parameters in a large-area reactor.

  8. Bacterial endotoxin testing: a report on the methods, background, data, and regulatory history of extraction recovery efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryans, Trabue D; Braithwaite, Carolyn; Broad, John; Cooper, James F; Darnell, Kimbrell R; Hitchins, Victoria M; Karren, Amy Jo; Lee, Peter S

    2004-01-01

    Since the mid-1970s the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) assay has been used to test medical devices for bacterial endotoxins. The Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI) recently published a standard designated ANSI/AAMI ST 72: 2002, Bacterial Endotoxins--Test methodologies, routine monitoring, and alternatives to batch testing, which addresses LAL testing and associated issues. In order to perform the bacterial endotoxins test (BET), the test article must be extracted in an aqueous medium, with the extract being used as the test solution. In the early years of testing, and periodically throughout LAL test history, questions have arisen about validation of the extraction efficiency of endotoxins from medical devices. The AAMI Microbiological Methods Committee appointed a Task Group to thoroughly research the issue of extraction efficiency and to recommend whether validation of extraction efficiency is necessary for LAL testing of medical devices.

  9. National Institute of Justice Center Requirements Definition, Technical Assistance, Agile Test and Evaluation and Cyber Science Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frantz, Frederick

    2003-01-01

    This task provided for assembly, definition, and completion of technical enhancements in coordination with the National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center -Northeast Region (NLECTC-NE...

  10. The Muons Registration Efficiency of the CMS ECAL Preshower in the Integrated Test

    CERN Document Server

    Avezov, D; Gramenitskii, I M; Moissenz, P V; Urkinbaev, Anarbay; Zamiatin, Nikolai

    1999-01-01

    The Muon registration efficiency of the Preshower was estimated from experimental data of the Integrated Test of the module, that is a prototype of the CMS Endcap detector. In the work it is shown that the muon registration efficiency of the preshower plane is 93% for the muon particles with the energy from 100 to 300 GeV in 3 Tesla axial magnetic field. It was mainly defined by the noise value of the electronics devices-AMPLEX SICAL chips. The muons energy loss distribution in the preshower planes was investigated. A mathematical method was proposed to describe the distribution of the energy losses taking into account the intrinsic noise of the electronics devices. A comparison of the experimental data with the simulation results was made.

  11. Self-healing mortar with pH-sensitive superabsorbent polymers: testing of the sealing efficiency by water flow tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruyaert, Elke; Debbaut, Brenda; Snoeck, Didier; Díaz, Pilar; Arizo, Alejandro; Tziviloglou, Eirini; Schlangen, Erik; De Belie, Nele

    2016-08-01

    Superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) have potential to be used as healing agent in self-healing concrete due to their property to attract moisture from the environment and their capacity to promote autogenous healing. A possible drawback, however, is their uptake of mixing water during concrete manufacturing, resulting in an increased volume of macro-pores in the hardened concrete. To limit this drawback, newly developed SAPs with a high swelling and pH-sensitiveness were developed and tested within the FP7 project HEALCON. Evaluation of their self-sealing performance occurred through a water permeability test via water flow, a test method also developed within HEALCON. Three different sizes of the newly developed SAP were compared with a commercial SAP. Swelling tests in cement filtrate solution indicated that the commercial and in-house synthesized SAPs performed quite similar, but the difference between the swelling capacity at pH 9 and pH 13 is more pronounced for the self-synthesized SAPs. Moreover, in comparison to the commercial SAPs, less macro-pores are formed in the cement matrix of mixes with self-synthesized SAPs and the effect on the mechanical properties is lower, but not negligible, when using high amounts of SAPs. Although the immediate sealing effect of cracks in mortar was the highest for the commercial SAPs, the in-house made SAPs with a particle size between 400 and 600 μm performed the best with regard to crack closure (mainly CaCO3 precipitation) and self-sealing efficiency, after exposing the specimens to 28 wet-dry cycles. Some specimens could even withstand a water pressure of 2 bar.

  12. Electric co-heating in the ASHRAE standard method of test for thermal distribution efficiency: Test results on two New York State homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, J.W.; Krajewski, R.F.; Strasser, J.J.

    1995-10-01

    Electric co-heating tests on two single-family homes with forced-air heating systems were carried out in March 1995. The goal of these tests was to evaluate procedures being considered for incorporation in a Standard Method of Test for thermal distribution system efficiency now being developed by ASHRAE. Thermal distribution systems are the ductwork, piping, or other means used to transport heat or cooling effect from the building equipment that produces this thermal energy to the spaces in which it is used. Furthering the project goal, the first objective of the tests was to evaluate electric co-heating as a means of measuring system efficiency. The second objective was to investigate procedures for obtaining the distribution efficiency, using system efficiency as a base. Distribution efficiencies of 0.63 and 0.70 were obtained for the two houses.

  13. Diagnostics of Technical Condition of Gear Units of Belt Conveyors for the Aggregate of Methods of Nondestructive Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzin, Evgeny G.; Gerike, Boris L.; Drozdenko, Yuriy V.; Lupiy, Michael G.; Grigoryeva, Natalya V.

    2017-10-01

    The article reviews the issues of complex use of methods of technical diagnostics of gearboxes for belt conveyors, with the aim of creating an effective system of maintenance. The article is showing the results of the evaluation of the technical condition of the drives of belt conveyors based on vibration monitoring and thermal parameters, and analysis of lubricating oil.

  14. Industrial Sites Work Plan for Leachfield Corrective Action Units: Nevada Test Site and Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (including Record of Technical Change Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 4)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/NV

    1998-12-18

    This Leachfield Corrective Action Units (CAUs) Work Plan has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the U.S. Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). Under the FFACO, a work plan is an optional planning document that provides information for a CAU or group of CAUs where significant commonality exists. A work plan may be developed that can be referenced by leachfield Corrective Action Investigation Plans (CAIPs) to eliminate redundant CAU documentation. This Work Plan includes FFACO-required management, technical, quality assurance (QA), health and safety, public involvement, field sampling, and waste management documentation common to several CAUs with similar site histories and characteristics, namely the leachfield systems at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and the Tonopah Test Range (TT R). For each CAU, a CAIP will be prepared to present detailed, site-specific information regarding contaminants of potential concern (COPCs), sampling locations, and investigation methods.

  15. Technical development of cost-efficient installation of power distribution cables under pavements. Haiden chichuka ni okeru doboku kensetsu gorika gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokusho, Koji; Kataoka, Tetsuyuki; Tanaka, Yasuyuki; Yoshida, Yasuo; Ikemi, Motoyoshi; Suzuki, Koichi; Kitano, Koichi; Kobayashi, Seiichi; Kanazu, Tsutomu; Komada, Hiroya.

    1987-12-01

    Various latest technical developments were surveyed for the cost-effective installation of power distribution cables under pavements, and their applicabilities were demonstrated with the evaluation of their cost-reduction effects. Cables in conventional vinyl protection tubes could be buried only 30cm under pavements, and in such case, the cost was reduced to 51% of those of conventional methods. As the results of soil tests, excavated soil over 80% was reusable through coarse screening. Underground radar technique to explore buried pipes from the surface was detectable several pipes buried 1.5-2.0m underground, although some problems in precision were found. The improvement of reinforced concrete man-hole structures to minimize the volume of excavated soil indicated the cost reduction of nearly 20%. The application of these techniques to the installation of cables was expected to ultimately halve the total civil engineering cost. 21 refs., 130 figs., 46 tabs.

  16. [Bibliographic research of efficiency tests: analysis of the validity of the meta-database].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbiati, Giancarlo; Casati, Monica

    2010-01-01

    The use of a meta-database as a first approach to bibliographic research can be just as efficient as interrogating single data-bases of the literature. The advantages and drawbacks of the two strategies are compared . A comparison of the results obtained using an identical interrogation made using the TRIP meta-database and different single databases (15 of guide-lines, 4 of systematic reviews, 3 prevalently consisting of primary studies) made it possible to analyse these methods as well as to study 4 meta-databases and identify the most efficient one. Using the same MeSH terms in both strategies, the following results were obtained: 204 publications using TRIP and 475 using different databases. Evaluation demonstrated the pertinence of 142 (69,6%) of the 204 found using TRIP compared to 185 (38,9%) of those elicited by single data-bases. The TRIP meta-database yields a lower number of documents but with a higher degree of pertinency, meaning that the researcher employs less time finding pertinent documents. With respect to the traditional approach, beginning research by testing the efficiency of the TRIP meta-database proved advantageous.

  17. Transport Modeling Analysis to Test the Efficiency of Fish Markets in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khamis S. Al-Abri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Oman’s fish exports have shown an increasing trend while supplies to the domestic market have declined, despite increased domestic demand caused by population growth and income. This study hypothesized that declining fish supplies to domestic markets were due to inefficiency of the transport function of the fish marketing system in Oman. The hypothesis was tested by comparing the observed prices of several fish species at several markets with optimal prices. The optimal prices were estimated by the dual of a fish transport cost- minimizing linear programming model. Primary data on market prices and transportation costs and quantities transported were gathered through a survey of a sample of fish transporters. The quantity demanded at market sites was estimated using secondary data. The analysis indicated that the differences between the observed prices and the estimated optimal prices were not significantly different showing that the transport function of fish markets in Oman is efficient. This implies that the increasing trend of fish exports vis-à-vis the decreasing trend of supplies to domestic markets is rational and will continue. This may not be considered to be equitable but it is efficient and may have long-term implications for national food security and have an adverse impact on the nutritional and health status of the rural poor population. Policy makers may have to recognize the trade off between the efficiency and equity implications of the fish markets in Oman and make policy decisions accordingly in order to ensure national food security.

  18. Filter Efficiency and Pressure Testing of Returned ISS Bacterial Filter Elements (BFEs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert D.; Agui, Juan H.; Berger, Gordon M.; Vijayakumar, R.; Perry, Jay L.

    2017-01-01

    The air quality control equipment aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and future deep space exploration vehicles provide the vital function of maintaining a clean cabin environment for the crew and the hardware. This becomes a serious challenge in pressurized space compartments since no outside air ventilation is possible, and a larger particulate load is imposed on the filtration system due to lack of sedimentation. The ISS Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system architecture in the U.S. Segment uses a distributed particulate filtration approach consisting of traditional High-Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters deployed at multiple locations in each U.S. Seg-ment module; these filters are referred to as Bacterial Filter Elements, or BFEs. In our previous work, we presented results of efficiency and pressure drop measurements for a sample set of two returned BFEs with a service life of 2.5 years. In this follow-on work, we present similar efficiency, pressure drop, and leak tests results for a larger sample set of six returned BFEs. The results of this work can aid the ISS Program in managing BFE logistics inventory through the stations planned lifetime as well as provide insight for managing filter element logistics for future exploration missions. These results also can provide meaningful guidance for particulate filter designs under consideration for future deep space exploration missions.

  19. Nacelle Chine Installation Based on Wind-Tunnel Test Using Efficient Global Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazaki, Masahiro; Yokokawa, Yuzuru; Murayama, Mitsuhiro; Ito, Takeshi; Jeong, Shinkyu; Yamamoto, Kazuomi

    Design exploration of a nacelle chine installation was carried out. The nacelle chine improves stall performance when deploying multi-element high-lift devices. This study proposes an efficient design process using a Kriging surrogate model to determine the nacelle chine installation point in wind-tunnel tests. The design exploration was conducted in a wind-tunnel using the JAXA high-lift aircraft model at the JAXA Large-scale Low-speed Wind Tunnel. The objective was to maximize the maximum lift. The chine installation points were designed on the engine nacelle in the axial and chord-wise direction, while the geometry of the chine was fixed. In the design process, efficient global optimization (EGO) which includes Kriging model and genetic algorithm (GA) was employed. This method makes it possible both to improve the accuracy of the response surface and to explore the global optimum efficiently. Detailed observations of flowfields using the Particle Image Velocimetry method confirmed the chine effect and design results.

  20. Can vibroacoustic stimulation improve the efficiency of a tertiary care antenatal testing unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turitz, Amy L; Bastek, Jamie A; Sammel, Mary D; Parry, Samuel; Schwartz, Nadav

    2012-12-01

    Our primary objective was to determine whether vibroacoustic stimulation (VAS) decreases time to fetal reactivity in the antenatal testing unit (ATU) of a tertiary care center. We performed a prospective, quality assurance initiative to determine whether VAS could increase the efficiency of our ATU. On pre-specified "VAS days," VAS was applied for 3 s, if the non-stress test was non-reactive in the first 10 min. Generalized estimating equations models were used to account for within subject correlation due to multiple appointments per patient. VAS use was associated with a 3.76-min reduction in time to reactivity (21.79 vs 25.55, p = 0.011) and a 56% reduction in the need for a biophysical profile (OR: 0.44, 95% CI: 0.21-0.90). Overall, however, we found no significant decrease in time spent on the monitor or in the ATU. Compliance with a strict VAS protocol may improve the efficiency of increasingly busy ATUs.

  1. Testing of Lightweight Fuel Cell Vehicles System at Low Speeds with Energy Efficiency Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustaffa, Muhammad Rizuwan B.; Mohamed, Wan Ahmad Najmi B. Wan

    2013-12-01

    A fuel cell vehicle power train mini test bench was developed which consists of a 1 kW open cathode hydrogen fuel cell, electric motor, wheel, gearing system, DC/DC converter and vehicle control system (VCS). Energy efficiency identification and energy flow evaluation is a useful tool in identifying a detail performance of each component and sub-systems in a fuel cell vehicle system configuration. Three artificial traction loads was simulated at 30 kg, 40 kg and 50 kg force on a single wheel drive configuration. The wheel speed range reported here covers from idle to 16 km/h (low speed range) as a preliminary input in the research work frame. The test result shows that the system efficiency is 84.5 percent when the energy flow is considered from the fuel cell to the wheel and 279 watts of electrical power was produced by the fuel cell during that time. Dynamic system responses was also identified as the load increases beyond the motor traction capabilities where the losses at the converter and motor controller increased significantly as it tries to meet the motor traction power demands. This work is currently being further expanded within the work frame of developing a road-worthy fuel cell vehicle.

  2. Effect of Resistance Tube Exercises on Kicking Accuracy, Vertical Jump and 40-Yard Technical Test in Competitive Football Players – An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirumala Alekhya

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Kicking, jumping and agility are important skills in football. These activities require adequate lower limb strength, which can be enhanced with resistance training. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of resistance tube exercises on kicking accuracy, vertical jump performance and 40-yard technical test results in competitive football players. Methods. The study involved 23 competitive football players (11 males, 12 females aged from 18-20 years recruited from three different universities in Belgaum, Karnataka, India. Back heel kick accuracy, vertical jump height and 40-yard technical test time were evaluated before and after a 2-week resistance tube exercise program. Results. Significant improvements in post-intervention kicking accuracy were found when males and females were treated as a single group (p = 0.01. Vertical jump height also showed a highly significant post-intervention improvement in the males and for the combined group of males and females (p = 0.001. The 40-yard technical test values significantly improved in the females and in the combined results for males and females (p = 0.001. Conclusions. The two-week resistance tube exercise program was found to have an effect on kicking accuracy, vertical jump height and 40-yard technical test performance in competitive football players. Resistance tube exercises can thus be included as a component of a regular strength training program for such athletes.

  3. An Examination of Test-Retest, Alternate Form Reliability, and Generalizability Theory Study of the easyCBM Reading Assessments: Grade 1. Technical Report #1216

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Daniel; Park, Jasmine, Bitnara; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    This technical report is one in a series of five describing the reliability (test/retest/and alternate form) and G-Theory/D-Study research on the easy CBM reading measures, grades 1-5. Data were gathered in the spring 2011 from a convenience sample of students nested within classrooms at a medium-sized school district in the Pacific Northwest. Due…

  4. Hot gas cleanup test facility for gasification and pressurized combustion. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived gas streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasification and combustion conditions. The major particulate control device issues to be addressed include the integration of the particulate control devices into coal utilization systems, on-line cleaning techniques, chemical and thermal degradation of components, fatigue or structural failures, blinding, collection efficiency as a function of particle size, and scale-up of particulate control systems to commercial size. The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include a within scope, phased expansion of the existing Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Cooperative Agreement to also address systems integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced coal-based power generation systems. This expansion included the consideration of the following modules at the test facility in addition to the existing Transport Reactor gas source and Hot Gas Cleanup Units: Carbonizer/Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed Gas Source; hot Gas Cleanup Units to mate to all gas streams; and Combustion Gas Turbine. Fuel Cell and associated gas treatment. This expansion to the Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility is herein referred to as the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF).

  5. Final technical report DOE award DE-SC0007206 Improving CESM Efficiency to Study Variable C:N:P Stoichiometry in the Oceans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Primeau, Francois William [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2016-02-11

    This report lists the accomplishments of the project, which includes: (1) analysis of inorganic nutrient concentration data as well as suspended particulate organic matter data in the ocean to demonstrate that the carbon to nitrogen to phosphorus ratios (C:N:P) of biological uptake and export vary on large spatial scales, (2) the development of a new computationally efficient method for simulating biogeochemical tracers in earth system models, (3) the application of the method to help calibrate an improved representation of dissolved organic matter in the ocean that includes variable C:N:P stoichiometry. This research is important because biological uptake of carbon and nutrients in the upper ocean and export by sinking particles and downward mixing of dissolved organic matter helps maintain a vertical gradient in the carbon dioxide concentration in the ocean. This gradient is key to understanding the partitioning of CO2 between the ocean and the atmosphere. The final report lists seven peer reviewed scientific publications, one Ph.D. thesis, one technical report and two papers in preparation.

  6. Comparison of Test Procedures and Energy Efficiency Criteria in Selected International Standards and Labeling Programs for Clothes Washers, Water Dispensers, Vending Machines and CFLs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan

    2010-06-01

    Since the late 1970s, energy labeling programs and mandatory energy performance standards have been used in many different countries to improve the efficiency levels of major residential and commercial equipment. As more countries and regions launch programs covering a greater range of products that are traded worldwide, greater attention has been given to harmonizing the specific efficiency criteria in these programs and the test methods for measurements. For example, an international compact fluorescent light (CFL) harmonization initiative was launched in 2006 to focus on collaboration between Australia, China, Europe and North America. Given the long history of standards and labeling programs, most major energy-consuming residential appliances and commercial equipment are already covered under minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) and/or energy labels. For these products, such as clothes washers and CFLs, harmonization may still be possible when national MEPS or labeling thresholds are revised. Greater opportunity for harmonization exists in newer energy-consuming products that are not commonly regulated but are under consideration for new standards and labeling programs. This may include commercial products such as water dispensers and vending machines, which are only covered by MEPS or energy labels in a few countries or regions. As China continues to expand its appliance standards and labeling programs and revise existing standards and labels, it is important to learn from recent international experiences with efficiency criteria and test procedures for the same products. Specifically, various types of standards and labeling programs already exist in North America, Europe and throughout Asia for products in China's 2010 standards and labeling programs, namely clothes washers, water dispensers, vending machines and CFLs. This report thus examines similarities and critical differences in energy efficiency values, test procedure specifications and

  7. Technical note on results of production test IP-628-AI: Crosstie flow test and flushing calibration, and the earlier production tests IP-573-AI and IP-499-AI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, S.S.

    1964-06-15

    A series of three experimental tests was conducted on the operation and adequacy of the K-Reactors` third, or last-ditch, cooling system. The first test showed considerable line corrosion the second test was performed directly after line cleaning, and the third test showed a significant amount of additional line corrosion after only nine months of service. The present cooling adequacy of this last-ditch system at the KE and KW reactors is summarized these show the power levels for which we have adequate last-ditch cooling as a function of the crosstie coolant temperature. These figures include the effects of increasing the number of pumps that remain in operation at the other K-Reactor, and various other operating or emergency conditions. These curves are for diesel pump speeds of 750 rpm which are planned for June of this year. In these figures the crosstie temperature is assumed to be a conservative 5{degrees}C above the process water inlet temperature.

  8. SRC burn test in 700-hp oil-designed boiler. Annex Volume C. Boiler emission report. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-09-01

    The Solvent-Refined Coal (SRC) test burn program was conducted at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) located in Bruceton, Pa. One of the objectives of the study was to determine the feasibility of burning SRC fuels in boilers set up for fuel oil firing and to characterize emissions. Testing was conducted on the 700-hp oil-fired boiler used for research projects. No. 6 fuel oil was used for baseline data comparison, and the following SRC fuels were tested: SRC Fuel (pulverized SRC), SRC Residual Oil, and SRC-Water Slurry. Uncontrolled particulate emission rates averaged 0.9243 lb/10/sup 6/ Btu for SRC Fuel, 0.1970 lb/10/sup 6/ Btu for SRC Residual Oil, and 0.9085 lb/10/sup 6/ Btu for SRC-Water Slurry. On a lb/10/sup 6/ Btu basis, emissions from SRC Residual Oil averaged 79 and 78%, respectively, lower than the SRC Fuel and SRC-Water Slurry. The lower SRC Residual Oil emissions were due, in part, to the lower ash content of the oil and more efficient combustion. The SRC Fuel had the highest emission rate, but only 2% higher than the SRC-Water Slurry. Each fuel type was tested under variable boiler operating parameters to determine its effect on boiler emissions. The program successfully demonstrated that the SRC fuels could be burned in fuel oil boilers modified to handle SRC fuels. This report details the particulate emission program and results from testing conducted at the boiler outlet located before the mobile precipitator take-off duct. The sampling method was EPA Method 17, which uses an in-stack filter.

  9. Testing for Productive Efficiency with Errors-in-Variables: with an application to the Dutch electricity sesctor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Kuosmanen (Timo); G.T. Post (Thierry)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractWe develop a nonparametric test of productive efficiency that accounts for the possibility of errors-in-variables. The test allows for statistical inference based on the extreme value distribution of the L?? norm. In contrast to the test proposed by Varian, H (1985): 'Nonparametric

  10. International Space Station (ISS) Bacterial Filter Elements (BFEs): Filter Efficiency and Pressure Testing of Returned Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert D.; Agui, Juan H.; Vijayakumar, R.

    2017-01-01

    The air revitalization system aboard the International Space Station (ISS) provides the vital function of maintaining a clean cabin environment for the crew and the hardware. This becomes a serious challenge in pressurized space compartments since no outside air ventilation is possible, and a larger particulate load is imposed on the filtration system due to lack of sedimentation due to the microgravity environment in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The ISS Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system architecture in the U.S. Segment uses a distributed particulate filtration approach consisting of traditional High-Efficiency Particulate Adsorption (HEPA) media filters deployed at multiple locations in each U.S. Segment module; these filters are referred to as Bacterial Filter Elements, or BFEs. These filters see a replacement interval, as part of maintenance, of 2-5 years dependent on location in the ISS. In this work, we present particulate removal efficiency, pressure drop, and leak test results for a sample set of 8 BFEs returned from the ISS after filter replacement. The results can potentially be utilized by the ISS Program to ascertain whether the present replacement interval can be maintained or extended to balance the on-ground filter inventory with extension of the lifetime of ISS beyond 2024. These results can also provide meaningful guidance for particulate filter designs under consideration for future deep space exploration missions.

  11. Scenario Content, Outcome and Process - developing and testing methodologies for goal-based socio-technical scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wangel, Josefin (KTH Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies); Gustafsson, Stina (KTH Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology)

    2011-07-01

    This report presents methodological developments and findings from the ongoing research project SitCit. SitCit is a cross-disciplinary research project in which the challenge of sustainable urban development is taken on through a futures studies approach. Rather than starting in the problematic present, SitCit takes its starting point in the desired future. Through developing scenarios of more sustainable futures and connecting these to the present, the project aims at identifying and innovating potentials for a less environmentally burdening urban life. Energy use and CO{sub 2} are the main focus, but through a complementary qualitative sustainability assessment other aspects of sustainability are also included. The scenario methodology is comprised of three separate but interconnected parts. In the Scenario Content the question what could change is at the centre, and the potential changes are sought in the physical, institutional, and socio-cultural structures of buildings, transport and citizens' everyday life. Fundamental to the Scenario Content is an iterative identification of objects and actors of change. The Scenario Outcome focuses on the question of how much energy use could be decreased through these changes. This is estimated through modelling the scenario contents in terms of energy usage systems. In the Scenario Process the question of how the changes could be achieved is explored through elaborating the identified actors into a dimension of governance in the scenarios. Figure 1 presents an overview of the methodology and its integral parts. In SitCit, the methodology is developed through three scenario studies focusing on green mobility in Bromma, ICT solutions in Soedermalm and energy efficiency through refurbishment in Rinkeby-Kista. These three Stockholm City Districts all have their specific urban morphological and demographical characteristics and are chosen for contrast. This report presents the study focusing on green mobility

  12. 10 CFR 431.107 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial heat pump water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial heat pump water heaters. 431.107 Section 431.107 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Water Heaters, Hot Water Supply Boilers and Unfire...

  13. Efficiency testing of hydraulic artificial muscles with variable recruitment using a linear dynamometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipka, Jordan B.; Meller, Michael A.; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2015-03-01

    When a task calls for consistent, large amounts of power output, hydraulic actuation is a popular choice. However, for certain systems that require short bursts of high power, followed by a period of low power, the inefficiencies of hydraulics become apparent. One system that fits this description is a legged robot. McKibben muscles prove to be a wise choice for use on legged robots due to their light weight, high force capability, and inherent compliance. Variable recruitment, another novel concept for hydraulic actuation, offers the ability to further improve efficiency for hydraulic systems. This paper will discuss the efficiency characterization of variable recruitment McKibben muscles intended for use on a bipedal robot, but will focus on the novel test apparatus to do so. This device is a hydraulic linear dynamometer that will be controlled such that the muscles experience similar force-stroke levels to what will be required on a bipedal robot. The position of the dynamometer's drive cylinder will be controlled so that the muscles experience the proper position trajectory that will be needed on the robot. The pressure of the muscles will be controlled such that the force they experience will mimic the forces that occur on the robot while walking. Hence, these dynamic tests will ensure that the muscle bundles will meet the force-stroke requirements for the given robot. Once these muscle bundles are integrated onto the walking robot, the power savings of variable recruitment McKibben muscle bundles compared to the traditional hydraulic system will be demonstrated.

  14. An accurate and efficient identification of children with psychosocial problems by means of computerized adaptive testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reijneveld Symen A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Questionnaires used by health services to identify children with psychosocial problems are often rather short. The psychometric properties of such short questionnaires are mostly less than needed for an accurate distinction between children with and without problems. We aimed to assess whether a short Computerized Adaptive Test (CAT can overcome the weaknesses of short written questionnaires when identifying children with psychosocial problems. Method We used a Dutch national data set obtained from parents of children invited for a routine health examination by Preventive Child Healthcare with 205 items on behavioral and emotional problems (n = 2,041, response 84%. In a random subsample we determined which items met the requirements of an Item Response Theory (IRT model to a sufficient degree. Using those items, item parameters necessary for a CAT were calculated and a cut-off point was defined. In the remaining subsample we determined the validity and efficiency of a Computerized Adaptive Test using simulation techniques, with current treatment status and a clinical score on the Total Problem Scale (TPS of the Child Behavior Checklist as criteria. Results Out of 205 items available 190 sufficiently met the criteria of the underlying IRT model. For 90% of the children a score above or below cut-off point could be determined with 95% accuracy. The mean number of items needed to achieve this was 12. Sensitivity and specificity with the TPS as a criterion were 0.89 and 0.91, respectively. Conclusion An IRT-based CAT is a very promising option for the identification of psychosocial problems in children, as it can lead to an efficient, yet high-quality identification. The results of our simulation study need to be replicated in a real-life administration of this CAT.

  15. Cavity Light-Emitting Diode for Durable, High-Brightness and High-Efficiency Lighting Applications: First Budget Period Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yijian Shi

    2009-09-30

    A COLED device consists of a top electrode (anode) and a bottom electrode (cathode) separated by a thin dielectric layer. In this metal/dielectric stack, numerous small wells, or cavities, are etched through the top electrode and the dielectric layer. These cavities are subsequently filled with LEP molecules. When a voltage is applied between the top and bottom electrodes, holes (from the top electrode) and electrons (from the bottom electrode) are injected into the polymer. Light emission is generated upon recombination of holes and electrons within the polymer along the perimeters of cavities. Figure 1 compares the structures of the COLED and the traditional OLED. The existing COLED fabrication process flow is illustrated in Figure 2. A COLED can potentially be 5 times more efficient and can operate at as much as 100 times higher current density with much longer lifetime than an OLED. To fully realize these potential advantages, the COLED technology must overcome the following technical barriers, which were the technical focused points for Years 1 and 2 (Phase I) of this project: (1) Construct optimum thickness dielectric layer: In the traditional OLED structure, the optimal thickness of the LEP film is approximately 80-100 nm. In a COLED device, the effective LEP thickness roughly equals the thickness of the dielectric layer. Therefore, the optimal dielectric thickness for a COLED should also be roughly equal to 80-100 nm. Generally speaking, it is technically challenging to produce a defect-free dielectric layer at this thickness with high uniformity, especially over a large area. (2) Develop low-work-function cathode: A desired cathode should have a low work function that matches the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) level of the LEP molecules. This is usually achieved by using a low-work-function metal such as calcium, barium, lithium, or magnesium as the cathode. However, these metals are very vulnerable to oxygen and water. Since the cathode of the

  16. Development and testing of a high efficiency advanced coal combustor: Phase 3 industrial boiler retrofit. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, R.L.; Thornock, D.E.; Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W.; McGowan, J.G.

    1998-03-01

    Economics and/or political intervention may one day dictate the conversion from oil or natural gas to coal in boilers that were originally designed to burn oil or gas. In recognition of this future possibility the US Department of Energy, Federal Energy Technical Center (DOE-FETC) supported a program led by ABB Power Plant Laboratories with support from the Energy and Fuels Research Center of Penn State University with the goal of demonstrating the technical and economic feasibility of retrofitting a gas/oil designed boiler to burn micronized coal. In support of the overall goal the following specific objectives were targeted: develop a coal handling/preparation system that can meet the technical and operational requirements for retrofitting microfine coal on a boiler designed for burning oil or natural gas; maintain boiler thermal performance in accordance with specifications when burning oil or natural gas; maintain NOx emissions at or below 0.6 lb NO{sub 2} per million Btu; achieve combustion efficiencies of 98% or higher; and determine economic payback periods as a function of key variables.

  17. Testing the sampling efficiency of a nuclear power station stack monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroem, L.H. [Instrumentinvest, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1997-08-01

    The test method comprises the injection of known amounts of monodisperse particles in the stack air stream, at a suitable point upstream of the sampling installation. To find a suitable injection polls, the gas flow was mapped by means of a tracer gas, released in various points in the stack base. The resulting concentration distributions at the stack sampler level were observed by means of an array of gas detectors. An injection point that produced symmetrical distribution over the stack area, and low concentrations at the stack walls was selected for the particle tests. Monodisperse particles of 6, 10, and 19 {mu}m aerodynamic diameter, tagged with dysprosium, were dispersed in the selected injection point. Particle concentration at the sampler level was measured. The losses to the stack walls were found to be less than 10 %. The particle concentrations at the four sampler inlets were calculated from the observed gas distribution. The amount calculated to be aspirated into the sampler piping was compared with the quantity collected by the sampling train ordinary filter, to obtain the sampling line transmission efficiency. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  18. Communication Support Technology Research and Network Design of Mobile Energy Efficiency Test and Energy-saving Assessment System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Ming

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the communication problems when the mobile energy efficiency and energy-saving assessment system is applied to energy monitoring, the authors introduced two schemes about building wireless network which is introduced based on the demand of the mobile energy efficiency test and energy-saving assessment system. These two schemes are based on WDS (Wireless Distribution System, WSN (Wireless Sensor Network, they effectively solved the problem that signals could not be transmitted through the net when the mobile energy efficiency test and energy-saving assessment system is used to monitor the monitoring points which are located underground or in an extensive area.

  19. National gas survey: report to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission by the Conservation-Technical Advisory Task Force on Efficiency in the Use of Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    As the available supplies of natural gas diminish, it is imperative that existing supplies of gas be utilized in the most prudent manner. The most important stimulus to promote the wise use of gas is the price of gas itself. The inevitable rising prices of natural gas will continue to enhance the cost-effectiveness of many natural gas conservation strategies. It is widely recognized that there are significant opportunities to reduce the wasteful and inefficient use of gas and that some of the most cost-effective conservation strategies are being applied only locally or regionally. This paper identifies and analyzes methods that promote the efficient use of and conservation of natural gas. To assist in the evaluation of the methods, the relative cost of implementing each strategy and the impact on gas usage were identified. The Task Force has identified 25 energy-conservation strategies that may be useful to the homeowner. Solar-assisted gas hot-water heating is reviewed. In the near future, solar hot-water heating with natural gas as a backup may prove to be economically viable. Many of the strategies that may benefit the residential sector can be directly applied to many small commercial and industrial customers. Individual metering of tenants of a commercial building makes each user cognizant of his consumption. A methodology for identifying potential energy savings in commercial buildings is presented in Appendix C. Large commercial and industrial consumers often have unique process requirements for gas and no generalized approaches are available. Moreover, most of these consumers have the in-house technical expertise to identify gas-saving measures on a case-by-case basis. Appendix D provides a guide to energy conservation for industrial consumers. Incentives for implementing energy conservation are discussed in detail. (MCW)

  20. Efficiency Test and Economic Analysis of Seeder for Papaya-sowing Tray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyapong Sriwongras

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this project was to develop the seeder for sowing tray to reduce the labor cost and the operation time for preparing sowing tray. Papaya seeds were selected for test on this machine. The sowing tray used for test has 60 cells per one tray. The dimensions of seeder developed have a width of 1,044 mm, a length of 679 mm. and a height of 1,348 mm. The important components of machine consisted of seed hopper, seed metering device, seed releasing units, soil compressing units and depth controlling units. The seed metering device was established by plastic sheet. The plastic rods cut into keyway along its axis for keeping seeds were inserted into the seed metering device in order to convey the seeds from the seed hopper to the flexible tube. The flexible tubes brought the seeds into seed releasing units located under the part of seed metering device in order to drop the seeds 1–2 seeds per cell of sowing tray. The seed metering devices were set 3 units, 1 unit for releasing seeds on 20 cells of sowing tray, on the seeder frame. Chain drive mechanism was set to drive the system for releasing seeds on sowing tray. The efficiency test of releasing seed on sowing tray of this seeder was equal to 79%. For operation time of releasing seeds on sowing tray, Comparing between this seeder and human hand found that the sowing by the seeder was 7.88 times quicker than the sowing by human hand. In parts of economic analysis of seeder, breakeven point, payback period and benefit cost ration were considered for economic analysis. Their results found that were 152,050 trays, 0.03 year and 3.05 respectively. Therefore, the seeder of papaya sowing tray developed is suitable for using in local farmers in Thailand.

  1. Season of testing and its effect on feed intake and efficiency in growing beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujibi, F D N; Moore, S S; Nkrumah, D J; Wang, Z; Basarab, J A

    2010-12-01

    This study sought to assess whether residual feed intake (RFI) calculated by regressing feed intake (DMI) on growth rate (ADG) and metabolic mid-BW in 3 different ways led to similar estimates of genetic parameters and variance components for young growing cattle tested for feed intake in fall and winter seasons. A total of 378 beef steers in 5 cohorts were fed a typical high energy feedlot diet and had free-choice access to feed and water. Feed intake data were collected in fall or winter seasons. Climate data were obtained from the University of Alberta Kinsella meteorological station and Vikings AGCM station. Individual animal RFI was obtained by either fitting a regression model to each test group separately (RFI(C)), fitting a regression model to pooled data consisting of all cohorts but including test group as a fixed effect (RFI(O)), or fitting a regression to pooled data with test group as a fixed effect but within seasonal (fall-winter or winter-spring) groups (RFI(S)). Two animal models (M1 and M2) that differed by the inclusion of fixed effects of test group or season, respectively, were used to evaluate RFI measurements. Feed intake was correlated with air temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed (-0.26, 0.23, 0.30, -0.14 for fall-winter and 0.31, -0.04, 0.14, 0.16 for winter-spring, respectively), but the nature and magnitude of the correlations were different for the 2 seasons. Single trait direct heritability, model likelihood, direct genetic variance, and EBV accuracy estimates were greatest for RFI(C) and least for RFI(O) for both M1 and M2 models. A significant genetic correlation was also observed between RFI(O) and ADG, but not for RFI(C) and RFI(S). Including a season effect (M2) in the genetic evaluation of RFI(O) resulted in the smallest heritability, model LogL, EBV accuracy, and largest residual variance estimates. These results, though not conclusive, suggest a possible effect of seasonality on feed intake and thus

  2. 76 FR 57612 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Refrigerators...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ... Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, EE-2J, 1000..., Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, EE-2J, 1000 Independence... Refrigerators, Refrigerator-Freezers, and Freezers AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy...

  3. POC-scale testing of an advanced fine coal dewatering equipment/technique. Quarterly technical progress report 6, January--March 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, D.; Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K.

    1996-05-03

    Froth flotation technique is an effective and efficient process for recovering of ultra-fine clean coal. Economical dewatering of an ultra-fine clean coal product to a 20% level moisture will be an important step in successful implementation of the advanced cleaning processes. This project is a step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal could be effectively dewatered to 20% or lower moisture using either conventional or advanced dewatering techniques. The cost-sharing contract effort is for 36 months beginning September 30, 1994. This report discusses technical progress made during the quarter from January 1- March 31, 1996.

  4. Implementation, Test and Evaluation of a Selective Dissemination System for NASA Scientific and Technical Information. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY.

    The development of a large scale selective dissemination of information program, its experimental operation, and program evaluation is reported. An IBM 7090/94 computer program compared user interest profiles with the subject indexes of reports announced in "Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports." Users were provided with selected…

  5. An Examination of Test-Retest, Alternate Form Reliability, and Generalizability Theory Study of the easyCBM Reading Assessments: Grade 2. Technical Report #1217

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Daniel; Lai, Cheg-Fei; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    This technical report is one in a series of five describing the reliability (test/retest an alternate form) and G-Theory/D-Study on the easyCBM reading measures, grades 1-5. Data were gathered in the spring of 2011 from the convenience sample of students nested within classrooms at a medium-sized school district in the Pacific Northwest. Due to…

  6. An Examination of Test-Retest, Alternate Form Reliability, and Generalizability Theory Study of the easyCBM Reading Assessments: Grade 5. Technical Report #1220

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Cheng-Fei; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Anderson, Daniel; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    This technical report is one in a series of five describing the reliability (test/retest and alternate form) and G-Theory/D-Study research on the easyCBM reading measures, grades 1-5. Data were gathered in the spring of 2011 from a convenience sample of students nested within classrooms at a medium-sized school district in the Pacific Northwest.…

  7. Non-Construction Approaches to Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions Through Energy Efficient Products and Practices - Closed Announcement FY 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Office of Atmospheric Programs is soliciting proposals to advance the energy efficiency of products through product specific technical research, test procedure development, and education that drives consumer adoption of efficient products and practices

  8. Efficiency of the aquatic macrophyte salvinia auriculata in purification of urban effluents, validated by allium test (Allium Cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila S. Gonçalves

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of the aquatic macrophytes Salvinia auriculata Aublet in purification of polluted effluents, and evaluate macroscopically the efficiency of macrophytes using the Allium cepa Linnaeus (onion test. Three collections were performed in September 2011, the first analysis was performed with water collected directly from River Santa Catarina, the second was performed seven days after the contact of the effluent with the macrophytes, and the third, fifteen days after the first analyses. The data were analyzed using Student’s t-test (p<0.05. To verify the normality of the data was used the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (p<0.05, for each sample (treatment. According to the results of the Allium test, the aquatic macrophyte S. auriculata was efficient in the removing of pollutants agents after fifteen days in contact with the effluent.

  9. Access to credit and determinants of technical inefficiency of specialized smallholder farmers in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan von Cramon-Taubadel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Access to credit and credit constraint are critical determinants of competitiveness in agriculture; they have an impact on the technical efficiency of farms. The objective of this study was to analyze how credit variables influence the technical efficiency of two groups of specialized smallholder farmers in Chile. The translog stochastic production frontier model was used to predict the level of farm technical efficiency by the maximum likelihood method. Based on 2004 data, production functions and technical inefficiency score were estimated for 109 livestock and 342 crop producers. Results showed that the mean technical efficiency was 89% and 78% for crop and livestock producers, respectively. Technical efficiency increased with the decreasing use of inputs, dependence on on-farm income, farmer education, family size, and age of the head of household. Credit volume had a significant impact by increasing and decreasing efficiency in crop and livestock production, respectively. Correspondingly, credit-constrained farmers were less efficient in crop production and more efficient in livestock production. For livestock producers, credit volume and credit constraints were found to be endogenous to technical efficiency. A possible explanation is the organization of public support for small livestock producers in Chile, which provides lenders with information about individual livestock producers. Correcting for this endogeneity did not lead to qualitatively different results, but it did influence point estimates of parameters in the production function and inefficiency models, suggesting that it is important to test for endogeneity in the variables used to model inefficiency effects.

  10. Low head drip irrigation kits and treadle pumps for smallholder farmers in Zimbabwe: a technical evaluation based on laboratory tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigerwe, Jeskia; Manjengwa, Norbert; van der Zaag, Pieter; Zhakata, W.; Rockström, Johan

    Most smallholder farmers in Southern Africa rely on rainfed agriculture and frequently face dry spells and droughts that affect agricultural productivity. Low head-low cost drip irrigation may be a viable alternative for smallholder farmers, who often lack sufficient water and energy resources to enable irrigation with more conventional irrigation technologies, as these require more water (lower efficiencies) and/or more energy inputs (e.g. sprinkler irrigation). This paper reports results from laboratory tests of four treadle pumps and eight drip kits currently available in Zimbabwe. The results show that it is viable to irrigate drip irrigation gardens up to a size of 1000 m 2, if the treadle pump and drip kit are well chosen. Such a garden will not only ensure food security of the farmers, but may also generate significant income. It is concluded that farmers can opt to invest in two distinctly different types of low-head drip systems; (i) systems with in-line emitters generating low emitter flow rates (appropriate for smallholder farmers, this study did not assess impacts on crop growth of different emitter rates and the relationship between emitter discharge and non-productive soil evaporation.

  11. The improvement of technical preparation of sprinters on the initial stage of sport training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maleniuk T.V.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Directions of perfection of technical preparation of sprinters are examined on the initial stage of the sporting training. The basic elements of technique at run are certain 100 meters. The system of criteria of estimation of technical preparedness of sprinters is developed. The certain lacks of technical preparedness are exposed. The method of improvement of technical preparation is developed and its efficiency is tested. The system of criteria of estimation of technical preparedness of sprinters is developed. A general tendency is exposed to their finding on middle, above average and to high levels.

  12. Testing the protective efficiency of personal respiratory protection devices in radiologically contaminated environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajić Dušan S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of ammunition primed with depleted uranium is one of the hallmarks of modern combat operations, resulting in environmental contamination by particles of depleted uranium and uranium oxide, scattered around in the form of submicron-scale aerosols. This paper examined the protective effectiveness of the Serbian military's M3 protective face mask in relation to the presence of airborne depleted uranium and its by-products. Sodium chloride in solid aerosol form was used as a test substance and adequate physical simulator of such radioactive aerosols because its granulometric (particle size distribution met the requirements of suitability as a simulator. Determination of aerosol concentration was carried out by flame photometry method, whilst granulometric distribution was determined by an electric particles analyzer. It was established that the total internal leakage of the M3 protective mask was as much a function of the penetration of particles through the combined M3 filter as of the leaks along the fitting line of the user's face mask and the inhalation valve. In terms of its protective effect against aerosols of depleted uranium and associated oxides, the Serbian M3 protective mask was determined to be of high efficiency and physiological suitability. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR34034

  13. METHOD IMPROVEMENT FOR DETERMINING THE TECHNICAL LEVEL OF CIVIL AIRCRAFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft are high-tech engineering products which are characterized by a wide range of properties including the two most important groups that respectively characterize the efficiency and technical level.Improving the aircraft efficiency is an essential factor for air transport development, but the efficiency can not be fully describe the technical system, especially in forecasting and new technology requirements development. Aircraft de- signer must evaluate the prospects of a technical solution, but it’s not always possible to calculate the efficiency accuratelyat the design stage. The operator should be able to choose the most technically-advanced aircraft available in the market inorder not to let it grow obsolete quickly. This determines the need for non-economic evaluation of technical systems that can be done by assessment of their technical level.The technical level is a general index that includes a set of technical perfection indicators. Technical perfection is reflected in terms of material and energy intensity, in terms of ergonomics, safety, etc. and is achieved as a result of origi- nal design solutions, the use of new high-strength low-density materials, the introduction of advanced technological pro-cesses, calculation methods, verification, testing, etc.There is a tight connection between the product properties and its weight, because weight is the material reflection of these properties. Therefore, improvement of the product properties usually leads to an intense increase of its weight. To deal with this phenomenon is only possible with widely using scientific and technical progress results. In accordance with this, the technical perfection can be interpreted as a major component of quality that is created without the weight increase. This approach requires investment in research and testing new technical solutions.The method was developed to determine the technical level of civil long-haul aircraft which has been modified to

  14. Testing the Power of Technical Analysis for Forecasting the Market Trend and Future Price in FOREX Market

    OpenAIRE

    Kermanshahi, Shahrad

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: According to the Bank for International Settlements, the preliminary global trading in foreign exchange markets averaged $5.3 trillion per day in April 2013. However, there is always volatility and uncertainty in FOREX market. In accordance with this issue, predicting the future prices and market movements are crucial for traders. In order to understand FOREX market better, the study is assisted by one of the most famous and popular methods which is technical analysis. The aim of th...

  15. Identification of Staphylococcus aureus: DNase and Mannitol salt agar improve the efficiency of the tube coagulase test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kateete, David P; Kimani, Cyrus N; Katabazi, Fred A; Okeng, Alfred; Okee, Moses S; Nanteza, Ann; Joloba, Moses L; Najjuka, Florence C

    2010-08-13

    The ideal identification of Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates requires a battery of tests and this is costly in resource limited settings. In many developing countries, the tube coagulase test is usually confirmatory for S. aureus and is routinely done using either human or sheep plasma. This study evaluated Mannitol salt agar and the deoxyribonuclease (DNase) test for improving the efficiency of the tube coagulase test in resource limited settings. The efficiency of human and sheep plasma with tube coagulase tests was also evaluated. One hundred and eighty Gram positive, Catalase positive cocci occurring in pairs, short chains or clusters were subjected to growth on Mannitol salt agar, deoxyribonuclease and tube coagulase tests. Of these, isolates that were positive for at least two of the three tests (n = 60) were used to evaluate the performance of the tube coagulase test for identification of S. aureus, using PCR-amplification of the nuc gene as a gold standard. Human plasma was more sensitive than sheep plasma for the tube coagulase test (sensitivity of 91% vs. 81% respectively), but both plasmas had very low specificity (11% and 7% respectively). The sensitivity and specificity of the tube coagulase test (human plasma) was markedly improved when Mannitol salt agar and DNase were introduced as a tri-combination test for routine identification of Staphylococcus aureus (100% specificity and 75% sensitivity). The specificity and sensitivity of Mannitol salt agar/DNase/tube coagulase (sheep plasma) combination was 100% and 67%, respectively. The efficiency of the tube coagulase test can be markedly improved by sequel testing of the isolates with Mannitol salt agar, DNase and Tube coagulase. There is no single phenotypic test (including tube coagulase) that can guarantee reliable results in the identification of Staphylococcus aureus.

  16. Identification of Staphylococcus aureus: DNase and Mannitol salt agar improve the efficiency of the tube coagulase test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateete David P

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ideal identification of Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates requires a battery of tests and this is costly in resource limited settings. In many developing countries, the tube coagulase test is usually confirmatory for S. aureus and is routinely done using either human or sheep plasma. This study evaluated Mannitol salt agar and the deoxyribonuclease (DNase test for improving the efficiency of the tube coagulase test in resource limited settings. The efficiency of human and sheep plasma with tube coagulase tests was also evaluated. Methods One hundred and eighty Gram positive, Catalase positive cocci occurring in pairs, short chains or clusters were subjected to growth on Mannitol salt agar, deoxyribonuclease and tube coagulase tests. Of these, isolates that were positive for at least two of the three tests (n = 60 were used to evaluate the performance of the tube coagulase test for identification of S. aureus, using PCR-amplification of the nuc gene as a gold standard. Results Human plasma was more sensitive than sheep plasma for the tube coagulase test (sensitivity of 91% vs. 81% respectively, but both plasmas had very low specificity (11% and 7% respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the tube coagulase test (human plasma was markedly improved when Mannitol salt agar and DNase were introduced as a tri-combination test for routine identification of Staphylococcus aureus (100% specificity and 75% sensitivity. The specificity and sensitivity of Mannitol salt agar/DNase/tube coagulase (sheep plasma combination was 100% and 67%, respectively. Conclusion The efficiency of the tube coagulase test can be markedly improved by sequel testing of the isolates with Mannitol salt agar, DNase and Tube coagulase. There is no single phenotypic test (including tube coagulase that can guarantee reliable results in the identification of Staphylococcus aureus.

  17. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    Austin Ball

    Summary of progress since last CMS week. Ten years of construction work have been completed. CMS is closed, in very close to the ideal low luminosity configuration, and performed well in the first tests with LHC beam. Behind this encouraging news is the story of a summer of intense commitment by many teams (from the collaboration and 3 CERN departments) working together, against the clock and despite many minor setbacks, to ensure that the experiment was ready to play a leading role in the excitement of September 10. Following beampipe bakeout and refill with pure neon, a magnificent effort by the ECAL group and the pt 5 technical crew made it possible to install and commission all 4 ECAL endcap Dees before the end of August. In the shadow of this activity, the barrel and forward pixel trackers and part of the beam monitoring were installed within the vac tank. The pt 5 technical teams then succeeded in safely removing the 20t installation tables and their support blocks from beneath the already installed ...

  18. An Efficient Functional Test Generation Method For Processors Using Genetic Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudec, Ján; Gramatová, Elena

    2015-07-01

    The paper presents a new functional test generation method for processors testing based on genetic algorithms and evolutionary strategies. The tests are generated over an instruction set architecture and a processor description. Such functional tests belong to the software-oriented testing. Quality of the tests is evaluated by code coverage of the processor description using simulation. The presented test generation method uses VHDL models of processors and the professional simulator ModelSim. The rules, parameters and fitness functions were defined for various genetic algorithms used in automatic test generation. Functionality and effectiveness were evaluated using the RISC type processor DP32.

  19. Electric and hybrid vehicles charge efficiency tests of ESB EV-106 lead acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlette, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    Charge efficiencies were determined by measurements made under widely differing conditions of temperature, charge procedure, and battery age. The measurements were used to optimize charge procedures and to evaluate the concept of a modified, coulometric state of charge indicator. Charge efficiency determinations were made by measuring gassing rates and oxygen fractions. A novel, positive displacement gas flow meter which proved to be both simple and highly accurate is described and illustrated.

  20. Test duration for growth, feed intake, and feed efficiency in beef cattle using the GrowSafe System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z; Nkrumah, J D; Li, C; Basarab, J A; Goonewardene, L A; Okine, E K; Crews, D H; Moore, S S

    2006-09-01

    This study was conducted to determine the optimum test duration and the effect of missing data on accuracy of measuring feed efficiency and its 4 related traits ADG, DMI, feed conversion ratio, and residual feed intake in beef cattle using data from 456 steers with 5,397 weekly averaged feed intakes and BW repeated measurements taken over 91 d. Data were collected using the GrowSafe System at the University of Alberta Kinsella Research Station. The changes and relative changes in phenotypic residual variances and correlations (Pearson and Spearman) among data from shortened test durations (7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63, 70, 77, or 84 d) and a 91-d test were used to determine the optimum test duration for the 4 traits. The traits were fitted to a mixed model with repeated measures using SAS. Test durations for ADG, DMI, feed conversion ratio, and residual feed intake could be shortened to 63, 35, 42, and 63 d, respectively, without significantly reducing the accuracy of the tests when BW was measured weekly. The accuracy of the test was not compromised when up to 30% of the records were randomly removed after the first 35 d on test. These results have valuable and practical implications for performance and feed efficiency testing in beef cattle.